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Sample records for background constitutive expression

  1. The Constitution. GEMS: Greenfield Express Management System. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Marianne

    Developed for eighth grade students reading on or above grade level, this self-correcting unit covers the background of the Constitution, the Preamble, the seven articles, and the amendments. Material is divided into two sections. The teacher section outlines activities, materials, evaluation options, and follow-up activities. A crossword puzzle…

  2. TLR4 is constitutively expressed in chick thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Bo; Xiang, Quan-Hang; Wu, Hui; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Wen, Le; Ge, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Ji-Xiang; Peng, Ke-Mei; Liu, Hua-Zhen

    2014-04-15

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been suggested to play a regulatory role in immune cell development; however, studies regarding the role of TLR4 in the development of the chick thymus are scarce. In this study, we investigated the distribution and expression pattern of TLR4 in normal chick thymi at different stages of development, in order to better understand the role of TLR4 in chick thymus development. We studied the thymi from 15 chicks, collected at days 7, 21 and 35 of age. The relative change in TLR4 mRNA expression in the chick thymus at different ages was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and changes in protein expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Furthermore, the distribution of TLR4 in the chick thymus was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and compared with the distribution of TLR4 expression in juvenile female pigs (gilts). Our results indicated that TLR4 was constitutively expressed in the chick thymus. TLR4 was primarily expressed in the thymic cortico-medullary junction and the medulla, particularly in the epithelial cells of Hassall's corpuscles. The mRNA and protein expression level of TLR4 increased in the thymus with increasing age (p<0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that TLR4 is constitutively expressed by epithelial cells in the chick thymus, suggesting it may participate in thymic development by inducing factors affecting its development. PMID:24507560

  3. Constitutive and functional expression of YB-1 in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Keilhoff, G; Titze, M; Esser, T; Langnaese, K; Ebmeyer, U

    2015-08-20

    Y-box-binding protein (YB-1) is a member of the cold-shock protein family and participates in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent cellular processes including DNA repair, transcription, mRNA splicing, packaging, and translation. At the cellular level, YB-1 is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, stress responses, and malignant cell transformation. A general role for YB-1 during inflammation has also been well described; however, there are minimal data concerning YB-1 expression in microglia, which are the immune cells of the brain. Therefore, we studied the expression of YB-1 in a clinically relevant global ischemia model for neurological injury following cardiac arrest. This model is characterized by massive neurodegeneration of the hippocampal CA1 region and the subsequent long-lasting activation of microglia. In addition, we studied YB-1 expression in BV-2 cells, which are an accepted microglia culture model. BV-2 cells were stressed by oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD), OGD-relevant mediators, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and phagocytosis-inducing cell debris and nanoparticles. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we show constitutive expression of YB-1 transcripts in unstressed BV-2 cells. The functional upregulation of the YB-1 protein was demonstrated in microglia in vivo and in BV-2 cells in vitro. All stressors except for LPS were potent enhancers of the level of YB-1 protein, which appears to be regulated primarily by proteasomal degradation and, to a lesser extent, by the activation (phosphorylation) of the translation initiation factor eIF4E. The proteasome of BV-2 cells is impaired by OGD, which results in decreased protein degradation and therefore increased levels of YB-1 protein. LPS induces proteasome activity, which enables the level of YB-1 protein to remain at control levels despite enhanced protein ubiquitination. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 was able to increase YB-1 protein levels in control and LPS-treated cultures. YB-1 upregulation was not accompanied by its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. YB-1 induction appeared to be related to microglial proliferation because it was partially co-regulated with Ki67. In addition, YB-1 protein levels correlated with microglia phagocytic activity because its upregulation could also be induced by inert NPs. PMID:26102006

  4. Distinct expression and ligand-binding profiles of two constitutively active GPR17 splice variants

    PubMed Central

    Benned-Jensen, T; Rosenkilde, MM

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: In humans and non-human primates, the 7TM receptor GPR17 exists in two isoforms differing only by the length of the N-terminus. Of these, only the short isoform has previously been characterized. Hence, we investigated gene expression and ligand-binding profiles of both splice variants and furthermore uncovered and characterized constitutive activity of both isoforms. Experimental approach: Expression levels of the hGPR17 isoforms were determined in several brain regions as well as heart and kidney using quantitative RT-PCR. A CREB reporter assay and [35S]-GTP?S binding were employed to assess the constitutive activity and the activation by UDP, UDP-glucose and -galactose and the cysteinyl leukotrienes LTC4 and LTD4. Leukotriene binding and induction of internalization were furthermore tested using homologous competition binding and antibody-feeding experiments respectively. Key results: The short isoform (hGPR17-S) was expressed more abundantly (eight- to 23-fold) in the brain than the long isoform (hGPR17-L), whereas the opposite was observed in heart and kidney. As previously reported, the uracil nucleotides activated hGPR17-S with micromolar potencies. However, much lower potencies were observed for hGPR17-L with a 50- to 170-fold increase in EC50. Furthermore, contrary to previous reports, neither of the isoforms was activated or bound by the cysteinyl leukotrienes. Finally, both receptors were demonstrated to be constitutively active through G?i. Conclusions and implications: We present the first isoform-specific characterization of GPR17 and show that differences exist between the isoforms, in both expression pattern and pharmacological profile. In turn, our results indicate that the two human isoforms might serve tissue-specific functions. PMID:20148890

  5. Constitutive expression of a celery mannitol dehydrogenase in tobacco enhances resistance to the mannitol-secreting

    E-print Network

    Daub, Margaret

    Constitutive expression of a celery mannitol dehydrogenase in tobacco enhances resistance, transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing a celery Mtd cDNA were pro- duced and evaluated of plants (such as celery, parsley, snap- dragon, etc.) the sugar-alcohol mannitol serves as a carbon

  6. Lentiviral vector system for coordinated constitutive and drug controlled tetracycline-regulated gene co-expression.

    PubMed

    Stahlhut, Maike; Schwarzer, Adrian; Eder, Matthias; Yang, Min; Li, Zhixiong; Morgan, Michael; Schambach, Axel; Kustikova, Olga S

    2015-09-01

    Constitutive co-expression of cooperating transgenes using retroviral integrating vectors is frequently used for genetic modification of different cell types to establish therapeutic or cancer models. However, such approaches are unable to dissect the influence of dose, order and reversibility of transgene expression on the fate of newly developed therapeutic/malignant phenotypes. We present a modular lentiviral vector system, which provides expression of constitutive and inducible components. To demonstrate its functionality, we constitutively expressed the well-described transcription factor Meis1 followed by inducible co-expression of collaborating partner Hoxa9 under the control of tetracycline responsive promoters in murine fibroblasts and primary hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Fluorescent markers to track transgene co-expression revealed tightly controlled, efficiently inducible and reversible but cell type dependent gene transfer over time. We demonstrated dose-dependent blockade of myeloid differentiation when both Meis1/Hoxa9 were concomitantly overexpressed in primary HPCs in vitro, but the absence of the transformed phenotype in non-induced samples or when Hoxa9 expression was down-regulated. This system combines the advantages of lentiviral gene transfer and the opportunity for drug-controlled co-expression of multiple transgenes to dissect, among others, gene networks governing complex cell behavior, such as proto-oncogene dose-dependent leukemogenic pathways or collaborating mechanisms of genes enhancing competitive fitness of hematopoietic cells. PMID:26113075

  7. Constitutive Expresser of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1 Is Required for Pavement Cell Morphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Chen, Liang; Wang, Jing; Wu, Zhongliang; Yan, Longfeng; Hou, Suiwen

    2015-01-01

    For over 50 years, researchers have focused on the mechanisms underlying the important roles of the cytoskeleton in controlling the cell growth direction and cell expansion. In our study, we performed ethyl methane sulfonate mutagenesis on Col-0 background and identified two new CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED GENES 1 (CPR1) alleles with pavement cell (PC) morphogenetic defects. Morphological characterizations showed that polar growth initiation and expansion of PCs are seriously suppressed in cpr1. Closer cytoskeleton investigation showed that the directional arrangement of microtubules (MTs) during PC development is defective and the cortical fine actin filaments cannot be aggregated effectively to form actin cable networks in cpr1 mutants. These results suggest that the abnormal PC morphogenesis in cpr1 is accompanying with the aberrant arrangement of cytoskeleton. Site-directed mutagenesis and knockout within the F-box-associated (FBA) domain, which is reported to be a motif for recognizing particular substrates of CPR1, proved that the FBA domain is indispensable for normal CPR1 regulation of the PC morphogenesis. Further genetic analysis indicated that the defects on PC morphogenesis of cpr1 depend on two lipase-like proteins, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4. Our results provide further insights into the relationship between the cytoskeleton and PC morphogenesis, and suggest that the cytoskeleton-mediated PC morphogenesis control might be tightly linked to plant defense responses. PMID:26193674

  8. Constitutive Expresser of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1 Is Required for Pavement Cell Morphogenesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Chen, Liang; Wang, Jing; Wu, Zhongliang; Yan, Longfeng; Hou, Suiwen

    2015-01-01

    For over 50 years, researchers have focused on the mechanisms underlying the important roles of the cytoskeleton in controlling the cell growth direction and cell expansion. In our study, we performed ethyl methane sulfonate mutagenesis on Col-0 background and identified two new CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED GENES 1 (CPR1) alleles with pavement cell (PC) morphogenetic defects. Morphological characterizations showed that polar growth initiation and expansion of PCs are seriously suppressed in cpr1. Closer cytoskeleton investigation showed that the directional arrangement of microtubules (MTs) during PC development is defective and the cortical fine actin filaments cannot be aggregated effectively to form actin cable networks in cpr1 mutants. These results suggest that the abnormal PC morphogenesis in cpr1 is accompanying with the aberrant arrangement of cytoskeleton. Site-directed mutagenesis and knockout within the F-box-associated (FBA) domain, which is reported to be a motif for recognizing particular substrates of CPR1, proved that the FBA domain is indispensable for normal CPR1 regulation of the PC morphogenesis. Further genetic analysis indicated that the defects on PC morphogenesis of cpr1 depend on two lipase-like proteins, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4. Our results provide further insights into the relationship between the cytoskeleton and PC morphogenesis, and suggest that the cytoskeleton-mediated PC morphogenesis control might be tightly linked to plant defense responses. PMID:26193674

  9. Constitutive homologous expression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase increases the metabolic flux of Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fusarium oxysporum is among the few filamentous fungi that have been reported of being able to directly ferment biomass to ethanol in a consolidated bioprocess. Understanding its metabolic pathways and their limitations can provide some insights on the genetic modifications required to enhance its growth and subsequent fermentation capability. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis reported previously that phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase are metabolic bottlenecks in the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway of the F. oxysporum metabolism. Results Both enzymes were homologously overexpressed in F. oxysporum F3 using the gpdA promoter of Aspergillus nidulans for constitutive expression. Transformants were screened for their phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase genes expression levels with northern blot. The selected transformant exhibited high mRNA levels for both genes, as well as higher specific activities of the corresponding enzymes, compared to the wild type. It also displayed more than 20 and 15% higher specific growth rate upon aerobic growth on glucose and xylose, respectively, as carbon sources and 30% higher biomass to xylose yield. The determination of the relative intracellular amino and non-amino organic acid concentrations at the end of growth on glucose revealed higher abundance of most determined metabolites between 1.5- and 3-times in the recombinant strain compared to the wild type. Lower abundance of the determined metabolites of the Krebs cycle and an 68-fold more glutamate were observed at the end of the cultivation, when xylose was used as carbon source. Conclusions Homologous overexpression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase in F. oxysporum was shown to enhance the growth characteristics of the strain in both xylose and glucose in aerobic conditions. The intracellular metabolites profile indicated how the changes in the metabolome could have resulted in the observed growth characteristics. PMID:24649884

  10. In vivo circular RNA production using a constitutive promoter for high-level expression.

    PubMed

    Umekage, So; Kikuchi, Yo

    2009-10-01

    The permuted intron-exon (PIE) method based on group I intron self-splicing is the only methodology currently available for production of circular RNA in vivo. Here, we report improvement of the circular RNA expression method based on an induction-free vector system utilizing the highly efficient constitutive lpp promoter. PMID:19716528

  11. MosSCI and Gateway Compatible Plasmid Toolkit for Constitutive and Inducible Expression of Transgenes in

    E-print Network

    Ahringe, Julie

    MosSCI and Gateway Compatible Plasmid Toolkit for Constitutive and Inducible Expression Ahringer1 * 1 The Gurdon Institute and Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United using Mos1-mediated single copy insertion (MosSCI) transformation. We have generated promoter and 39UTR

  12. Epigenetic Modulators Enhance Constitutive and Liver-Specific Reporter Expression in Murine Liver Progenitor Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Diepeveen, Luke Aris; Watson, Michel Elyse; McSpadden, Sarah Beth; Strauss, Robyn Patricia; Callus, Bernard Andrew; Yeoh, George Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Stem cells expressing reporter constructs are extremely useful for their tracking in vivo or for determining cell lineage fate in vivo and in vitro. We generated liver progenitor cell (LPC) lines from actin-EGFP and TAT-GRE-lacZ mice. LPCs from the actin-EGFP mouse facilitate cell tracing following transplant as the reporter is constitutively expressed. LPCs from the TAT-GRE-lacZ mouse express ?-galactosidase under the control of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) promoter and are only active in mature hepatocytes. We found that the utility of such LPC lines becomes severely limited by downregulation of transgene expression following extended culture. We show that epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for suppressing expression of both transgenes. Enhancement of transgene expression in both LPC lines was achieved by treating the cell lines with either the histone acetylating agent sodium butyrate or the DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine. PMID:25997084

  13. Methods to detect cell surface expression and constitutive activity of GPR6

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Balakrishna M.; Hollins, Bettye; Lambert, Nevin A.

    2014-01-01

    GPR6 is a constitutively active Gs-coupled receptor that can signal from intracellular compartments. We present different methods used to study cell surface expression of receptors and other membrane proteins. A comparison of these methods shows that methods based on susceptibility to proteolytic enzymes are more efficient at providing estimates of cell surface expression than the commonly used cell-surface biotinylation method. We also present different methods that can be used to detect constitutive activity of Gs-coupled receptors. Imaging based assays to detect intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation are well suited to study signaling at a single cell level. These assays are particularly useful when the cells of interest form a small fraction of the culture such as primary cultures with low transfection efficiency. PMID:21036233

  14. A constitutive promoter directs expression of the nerve growth factor receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sehgal, A.; Patil, N.; Chao, M.

    1988-08-01

    Expression of nerve growth factor receptor is normally restricted to cells derived from the neural crest in a developmentally regulated manner. The authors analyzed promoter sequences for the human nerve growth factor receptor gene and found that the receptor promoter resembles others which are associated with constitutively expressed genes that have housekeeping and growth-related functions. Unlike these other genes, the initiation of transcription occurred at one major site rather than at multiple sites. The constitutive nature of the nerve growth factor receptor promoter may account for the ability of this gene to be transcribed in a diverse number of heterologous cells after gene transfer. The intron-exon structure of the receptor gene indicated that structural features are precisely divided into discrete domains.

  15. Constitutive expression of recombinant proteins in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha using the PMA1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Cox, H; Mead, D; Sudbery, P; Eland, R M; Mannazzu, I; Evans, L

    2000-09-30

    The methylotrophic yeast H. polymorpha is a popular system for the expression of recombinant proteins using the strong and regulatable methanol oxidase (MOX) promoter. Here we show that the constitutive PMA1 promoter can programme the expression of two heterologous proteins, glucose oxidase and human serum albumin. A constitutive promoter provides a useful additional facility to the H. polymorpha expression system because it allows a simplified fermentation regime, avoids the use of methanol, which is both toxic and an explosive hazard, and allows more flexibility for ectopic gene expression during the course of academic studies. A fragment previously isolated in a promoter screen, using glucose oxidase (GOD) as a reporter gene, was shown to consist of the promoter region and the first 659 bp of the H. polymorpha PMA1 gene, encoding the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. When the PMA1 promoter was optimally aligned with the GOD coding region, it produced 185 mg/l glucose oxidase in high cell density fed batch fermentations, whereas in previous experiments using the MOX promoter, a yield of 500 mg/l was recovered. The PMA1 promoter was also used to express recombinant human serum albumin (rHA) in H. polymorpha. In high cell density fermentations the PMA1 promoter produced 460 mg/l rHA, whereas 280 mg/l rHA was obtained using the MOX promoter. Taken together, these experiments show that the HpPMA1 programmes the constitutive expression of recombinant proteins and provides a yield comparable to that from the MOX promoter. PMID:10992283

  16. CT-2576, an inhibitor of phospholipid signaling, suppresses constitutive and induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, D W; Peterson, P K; Weeks, R; Gekker, G; Chao, C C; Kaplan, A H; Balantac, N; Tompkins, C; Underiner, G E; Bursten, S

    1995-01-01

    Viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) require cellular activation for expression. Cellular activation in lymphoid cells is associated with augmented accumulation of certain phosphatidic acid (PA) species derived from the hydrolysis of glycan phosphatidylinositol (GPI). This suggests that activation of a phospholipid pathway may play a role in initiation of viral replication. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of tat gene expression on the production of cellular PA species, as the Tat protein is essential for HIV expression and has been implicated in activating the expression of multiple host cellular genes. Expression of tat increased the expression of PA. We then tested whether synthetic inhibitors of PA metabolism would inhibit activation of the HIV long terminal repeat by Tat and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). CT-2576 suppressed both PA generation induced by Tat and HIV long terminal repeat-directed gene expression in response to Tat or TNF-alpha at a posttranscriptional step. CT-2576 also inhibited constitutive as well as TNF-alpha- and interleukin 6-induced expression of HIV p24 antigen in chronically infected U1 cells and in peripheral blood lymphocytes acutely infected with a clinical isolate of HIV. Pharmacological inhibition of synthesis of selected PA species may therefore provide a therapeutic approach to suppression of HIV replication. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:7761405

  17. Evolutionary change from induced to constitutive expression of an indirect plant resistance.

    PubMed

    Heil, Martin; Greiner, Sabine; Meimberg, Harald; Krüger, Ralf; Noyer, Jean-Louis; Heubl, Günther; Linsenmair, K Eduard; Boland, Wilhelm

    2004-07-01

    Induced plant resistance traits are expressed in response to attack and occur throughout the plant kingdom. Despite their general occurrence, the evolution of such resistances has rarely been investigated. Here we report that extrafloral nectar, a usually inducible trait, is constitutively secreted by Central American Acacia species that are obligately inhabited by ants. Extrafloral nectar is secreted as an indirect resistance, attracting ants that defend plants against herbivores. Leaf damage induces extrafloral nectar secretion in several plant species; among these are various Acacia species and other Fabaceae investigated here. In contrast, Acacia species obligately inhabited by symbiotic ants nourish these ants by secreting extrafloral nectar constitutively at high rates that are not affected by leaf damage. The phylogeny of the genus Acacia and closely related genera indicate that the inducibility of extrafloral nectar is the plesiomorphic or 'original' state, whereas the constitutive extrafloral nectar flow is derived within Acacia. A constitutive resistance trait has evolved from an inducible one, obviously in response to particular functional demands. PMID:15241414

  18. Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding derivatives of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide BP100: impact on rice host plant fitness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Biopeptide BP100 is a synthetic and strongly cationic ?-helical undecapeptide with high, specific antibacterial activity against economically important plant-pathogenic bacteria, and very low toxicity. It was selected from a library of synthetic peptides, along with other peptides with activities against relevant bacterial and fungal species. Expression of the BP100 series of peptides in plants is of major interest to establish disease-resistant plants and facilitate molecular farming. Specific challenges were the small length, peptide degradation by plant proteases and toxicity to the host plant. Here we approached the expression of the BP100 peptide series in plants using BP100 as a proof-of-concept. Results Our design considered up to three tandemly arranged BP100 units and peptide accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), analyzing five BP100 derivatives. The ER retention sequence did not reduce the antimicrobial activity of chemically synthesized BP100 derivatives, making this strategy possible. Transformation with sequences encoding BP100 derivatives (bp100der) was over ten-fold less efficient than that of the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII) transgene. The BP100 direct tandems did not show higher antimicrobial activity than BP100, and genetically modified (GM) plants constitutively expressing them were not viable. In contrast, inverted repeats of BP100, whether or not elongated with a portion of a natural antimicrobial peptide (AMP), had higher antimicrobial activity, and fertile GM rice lines constitutively expressing bp100der were produced. These GM lines had increased resistance to the pathogens Dickeya chrysanthemi and Fusarium verticillioides, and tolerance to oxidative stress, with agronomic performance comparable to untransformed lines. Conclusions Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding short cationic ?-helical synthetic peptides can have a strong negative impact on rice fitness. However, GM plants expressing, for example, BP100 based on inverted repeats, have adequate agronomic performance and resistant phenotypes as a result of a complex equilibrium between bp100der toxicity to plant cells, antimicrobial activity and transgene-derived plant stress response. It is likely that these results can be extended to other peptides with similar characteristics. PMID:22947243

  19. Isolation of cyanophycin from tobacco and potato plants with constitutive plastidic cphATe gene expression.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Katja; Hühns, Maja; Hausmann, Tina; Klemke, Friederike; Lockau, Wolfgang; Kahmann, Uwe; Pistorius, Elfriede K; Kragl, Udo; Broer, Inge

    2012-03-31

    A chimeric cyanophycin synthetase gene composed of the cphATe coding region from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1, the constitutive 35S promoter and the plastid targeting sequence of the integral photosystem II protein PsbY was transferred to the tobacco variety Petit Havanna SRI and the commercial potato starch production variety Albatros. The resulting constitutive expression of cyanophycin synthetase leads to polymer contents in potato leaf chloroplasts of up to 35 mg/g dry weight and in tuber amyloplasts of up to 9 mg/g dry weight. Both transgenic tobacco and potato were used for the development of isolation methods applicable for large-scale extraction of the polymer. Two different procedures were developed which yielded polymer samples of 80 and 90% purity, respectively. PMID:22244982

  20. Conditional expression of constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} in chondrocytes impairs longitudinal bone growth in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Tsukui, Tohru; Imazawa, Yukiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Inoue, Satoshi; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo; Department of Anti-Aging Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional transgenic mice expressing constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} (caER{alpha}) in chondrocytes were developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of caER{alpha} in chondrocytes impaired longitudinal bone growth in mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer caER{alpha} affects chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This mouse model is useful for understanding the physiological role of ER{alpha}in vivo. -- Abstract: Estrogen plays important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, which are essential steps for longitudinal bone growth; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action on chondrocytes have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we generated conditional transgenic mice, designated as caER{alpha}{sup ColII}, expressing constitutively active mutant estrogen receptor (ER) {alpha} in chondrocytes, using the chondrocyte-specific type II collagen promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice. caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice showed retardation in longitudinal growth, with short bone lengths. BrdU labeling showed reduced proliferation of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferating layer of the growth plate of tibia in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. In situ hybridization analysis of type X collagen revealed that the maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes was impaired in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. These results suggest that ER{alpha} is a critical regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during skeletal development, mediating longitudinal bone growth in vivo.

  1. A minimal regulatory region maintains constitutive expression of the max gene.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, M A; Sollenberger, K G; Kao, T L; Taparowsky, E J

    1997-01-01

    Max is a basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper protein that forms heterodimers with the Myc family of proteins to promote cell growth and with the Mad/Mxi1 family of proteins to inhibit cell growth. The role of Max as the obligate binding partner for these two protein families necessitates the observed constitutive expression and relatively long half-life of the max mRNA under a variety of growth conditions. In this study, we have used the chicken max gene to map DNA elements maintaining max gene expression in vertebrate cells. We have identified a minimal regulatory region (MRR) that resides within 115 bp of the max translation initiation site and that possesses an overall structure typical of TATA-less promoters. Within the MRR are two consensus binding sites for Sp1, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that plays a role in the expression of many constitutive genes. Interestingly, we show that direct binding by Sp1 to these sites is not required for MRR-mediated transcription. Instead, the integrity of a 20-bp DNA element in the MRR is required for transcriptional activity, as is the interaction of this DNA element with a 90-kDa cellular protein. Our data suggest that it is the persistence of this 90-kDa protein in vertebrate cells which drives max gene expression, insulates the max promoter from the dramatic changes in transcription that accompany cell growth and development, and ensures that adequate levels of Max will be available to facilitate the function of the Myc, Mad, and Mxi1 families of proteins. PMID:9032230

  2. Constitutive expression of CYP3A mRNA in Bama miniature pig tissues.

    PubMed

    Shang, Haitao; Guo, Kenan; Liu, Yu; Yang, Jiada; Wei, Hong

    2013-07-25

    The pig, particularly the miniature pig (minipig), is becoming an important animal model due to its physiological and anatomical similarities to humans. Bama minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica), a Chinese natural minipig breed, are a promising animal model. The pig is a useful model for drug metabolism and pharmacological studies due to the similar properties of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A between pigs and humans. However, a detailed investigation regarding the abundance and expression of CYP3A in porcine tissues, particularly in minipig tissues, has not been performed. The present study investigated constitutive expression of CYP3A mRNA in Bama minipig tissues using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the expression of CYP3A mRNAs relative to the endogenous control, ?-actin (ACTB), was lower than when compared to the expression of the endogenous control, TATA-binding protein (TBP), except for the expression of CYP3A29 mRNA in the spleen, adrenal gland, testis, and epididymis, and CYP3A46 in the spleen. Expression levels of all three CYP3As were highest in the liver amongst all the tissues tested, and the order of relative mRNA expression level of the three CYP3As was different between other tissues. We also analyzed the relative expression of the three CYP3A mRNAs in each tissue. CYP3A46 had the highest expression in all extrahepatic tissues, whereas CYP3A22 had the highest expression in the liver, and CYP3A29 had the lowest expression in all tissues except in the duodenum, where it had higher expression than CYP3A22. Because CYP3A22 and CYP3A46 were the most highly expressed isoforms, it could follow that they are probably important functional CYP3A genes for Bama miniature pig. Our present work will broaden the understanding of the physiological functions of CYP3As in the Bama minipig and promote its application in drug metabolism and pharmacological studies. Our results also indicate that the breed, age, and castration status of the pig should be considered when using the pig as an animal model in pharmacological applications. PMID:23618816

  3. A new method to customize protein expression vectors for fast, efficient and background free parallel cloning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Expression and purification of correctly folded proteins typically require screening of different parameters such as protein variants, solubility enhancing tags or expression hosts. Parallel vector series that cover all variations are available, but not without compromise. We have established a fast, efficient and absolutely background free cloning approach that can be applied to any selected vector. Results Here we describe a method to tailor selected expression vectors for parallel Sequence and Ligation Independent Cloning. SLIC cloning enables precise and sequence independent engineering and is based on joining vector and insert with 15–25 bp homologies on both DNA ends by homologous recombination. We modified expression vectors based on pET, pFastBac and pTT backbones for parallel PCR-based cloning and screening in E.coli, insect cells and HEK293E cells, respectively. We introduced the toxic ccdB gene under control of a strong constitutive promoter for counterselection of insert less vector. In contrast to DpnI treatment commonly used to reduce vector background, ccdB used in our vector series is 100% efficient in killing parental vector carrying cells and reduces vector background to zero. In addition, the 3’ end of ccdB functions as a primer binding site common to all vectors. The second shared primer binding site is provided by a HRV 3C protease cleavage site located downstream of purification and solubility enhancing tags for tag removal. We have so far generated more than 30 different parallel expression vectors, and successfully cloned and expressed more than 250 genes with this vector series. There is no size restriction for gene insertion, clone efficiency is > 95% with clone numbers up to 200. The procedure is simple, fast, efficient and cost-effective. All expression vectors showed efficient expression of eGFP and different target proteins requested to be produced and purified at our Core Facility services. Conclusion This new expression vector series allows efficient and cost-effective parallel cloning and thus screening of different protein constructs, tags and expression hosts. PMID:23410102

  4. A Constitutive Expression System for Cellulase Secretion in Escherichia coli and Its Use in Bioethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Munjal, Neha; Jawed, Kamran; Wajid, Saima; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2015-01-01

    The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass appears to be attractive and viable due to the abundance and availability of this biomass. The hydrolysis of this biomass, however, is challenging because of the complex lignocellulosic structure. The ability to produce hydrolytic cellulase enzymes in a cost-effective manner will certainly accelerate the process of making lignocellulosic ethanol production a commercial reality. These cellulases may need to be produced aerobically to generate large amounts of protein in a short time or anaerobically to produce biofuels from cellulose via consolidated bioprocessing. Therefore, it is important to identify a promoter that can constitutively drive the expression of cellulases under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions without the need for an inducer. Using lacZ as reporter gene, we analyzed the strength of the promoters of four genes, namely lacZ, gapA, ldhA and pflB, and found that the gapA promoter yielded the maximum expression of the ?-galactosidase enzyme under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We further cloned the genes for two cellulolytic enzymes, ?-1,4-endoglucanase and ?-1,4-glucosidase, under the control of the gapA promoter, and we expressed these genes in Escherichia coli, which secreted the products into the extracellular medium. An ethanologenic E. colistrain transformed with the secretory ?-glucosidase gene construct fermented cellobiose in both defined and complex medium. This recombinant strain also fermented wheat straw hydrolysate containing glucose, xylose and cellobiose into ethanol with an 85% efficiency of biotransformation. An ethanologenic strain that constitutively secretes a cellulolytic enzyme is a promising platform for producing lignocellulosic ethanol. PMID:25768292

  5. Enhancement of endothelial cell migration by constitutively active LPA{sub 1}-expressing tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kitayoshi, Misaho; Kato, Kohei; Tanabe, Eriko; Yoshikawa, Kyohei; Fukui, Rie; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutated LPA{sub 1} stimulates cell migration of endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF expressions are increased by mutated LPA{sub 1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPA signaling via mutated LPA{sub 1} is involved in angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutated LPA{sub 1} promotes cancer cell progression. -- Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors belong to G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors (LPA receptors; LPA{sub 1} to LPA{sub 6}). They indicate a variety of cellular response by the interaction with LPA, including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Recently, we have reported that constitutive active mutated LPA{sub 1} induced the strong biological effects of rat neuroblastoma B103 cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of mutated LPA{sub 1} on the interaction between B103 cells and endothelial F-2 cells. Each LPA receptor expressing B103 cells were maintained in serum-free DMEM and cell motility assay was performed with a Cell Culture Insert. When F-2 cells were cultured with conditioned medium from Lpar1 and Lpar3-expressing cells, the cell motility of F-2 cells was significantly higher than control cells. Interestingly, the motile activity of F-2 cells was strongly induced by mutated LPA{sub 1} than other cells, correlating with the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf)-A and Vegf-C. Pretreatment of LPA signaling inhibitors inhibited F-2 cell motility stimulated by mutated LPA{sub 1}. These results suggest that activation of LPA signaling via mutated LPA{sub 1} may play an important role in the promotion of angiogenesis in rat neuroblastoma cells.

  6. Constitutive expression, purification and characterization of bovine prochymosin in Pichia pastoris GS115.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X P; Yin, M L; Chen, P; Yang, Q

    2012-05-01

    Chymosin can specifically break down the Phe105-Met106 peptide bond of milk ?-casein to form insoluble para-?-casein, resulting in milk coagulation, a process that is used in making cheese. In this study, in order to obtain an alternative milk coagulant which is safe and efficient, and simultaneously can produce cheese with a good taste, bovine prochymosin B was chosen and constitutively expressed to a high level in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant chymosin was expressed mainly as a secretory form, and it exhibited milk-clotting activity. It was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, anion exchange, followed by cation exchange chromatography. A final yield of 24.2% was obtained for the purified enzyme, which appeared as a single band in SDS-PAGE having a molecular mass of approximate 36 kDa. Proteolysis assay showed that it specifically hydrolyzed ?-casein. It was stable at 25-50°C and had optimal activity at 37°C and pH 4.0. The activity of the recombinant chymosin was activated by cations such as Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+) and Na(+), but inhibited by K(+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), and to a lesser extent by Cu(2+). These results suggested that recombinant bovine chymosin is an acid milk coagulant, and it could be considered as a safe and efficient enzyme suitable for use in cheese production. PMID:22806030

  7. Constitutive expression of a grapevine polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein affects gene expression and cell wall properties in uninfected tobacco

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) directly limit the effective ingress of fungal pathogens by inhibiting cell wall-degrading endopolygalacturonases (ePGs). Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Vvpgip1 have previously been shown to be resistant to Botrytis infection. In this study we characterized two of these PGIP over-expressing lines with known resistance phenotypes by gene expression and hormone profiling in the absence of pathogen infection. Results Global gene expression was performed by a cross-species microarray approach using a potato cDNA microarray. The degree of potential cross-hybridization between probes was modeled by a novel computational workflow designed in-house. Probe annotations were updated by predicting probe-to-transcript hybridizations and combining information derived from other plant species. Comparing uninfected Vvpgip1-overexpressing lines to wild-type (WT), 318 probes showed significant change in expression. Functional groups of genes involved in metabolism and associated to the cell wall were identified and consequent cell wall analysis revealed increased lignin-levels in the transgenic lines, but no major differences in cell wall-derived polysaccharides. GO enrichment analysis also identified genes responsive to auxin, which was supported by elevated indole-acetic acid (IAA) levels in the transgenic lines. Finally, a down-regulation of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs), which are important in cell wall remodeling, was linked to a decrease in total XTH activity. Conclusions This evaluation of PGIP over-expressing plants performed under pathogen-free conditions to exclude the classical PGIP-ePG inhibition interaction indicates additional roles for PGIPs beyond the inhibition of ePGs. PMID:22078230

  8. Prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase-2 expression in human thyroid epithelium. Evidence for constitutive expression in vivo and in cultured KAT-50 cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Jennings, T A; Sciaky, D; Cao, H J

    1999-05-28

    Prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase (PGHS) (EC 1.14.99.1) expression was examined in human thyroid tissue and in KAT-50, a well differentiated human thyroid epithelial cell line. PGHS-1 is found constitutively expressed in most healthy tissues, whereas PGHS-2 is highly inducible and currently thought to be expressed, with few exceptions, only in diseased tissues. Surprisingly, PGHS-2 mRNA and protein were easily detected in normal thyroid tissue. KAT-50 cells express high levels of constitutive PGHS-2 mRNA and protein under basal culture conditions. Compounds usually associated with PGHS-2 induction, including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and serum transiently down-regulated PGHS-2 expression. Human PGHS-2 promoter constructs (-1840/+123 and -831/+123) fused to a luciferase reporter and transfected into untreated KAT-50 cells exhibited substantial activity. NS-398, a highly selective inhibitor of PGHS-2 could inhibit substantial basal prostaglandin E2 production. Exogenous IL-1 receptor antagonist or IL-1alpha neutralizing antibodies could attenuate constitutive PGHS-2 expression in KAT-50 cells, suggesting that endogenous IL-1alpha synthesis was driving PGHS-2 expression. Our findings suggest that normal thyroid epithelium expresses high constitutive levels of PGHS-2 in situ and in vitro and this enzyme is active in the generation of prostaglandin E2. Thus, unprovoked PGHS-2 expression might be considerably more widespread in healthy tissues than is currently believed. PMID:10336459

  9. Biologic and immunohistochemical analysis of interleukin-6 expression in vivo. Constitutive and induced expression in murine polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Terebuh, P. D.; Otterness, I. G.; Strieter, R. M.; Lincoln, P. M.; Danforth, J. M.; Kunkel, S. L.; Chensue, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered an important multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular responses, including the induction of acute-phase protein synthesis, lymphocyte activation, and hematopoiesis. In vitro studies have identified many cells that can produce IL-6, but the cellular sources under physiologic conditions have yet to be identified. Using immunoaffinity purified goat anti-murine IL-6, the authors performed immunohistochemical studies to localize cells expressing IL-6 in selected organs of normal and endotoxin challenged NIH-Swiss outbred mice. In the blood, findings were correlated with cell-associated bioactivity using the standard B9 cell proliferation assay. In normal mice, constitutive expression was seen in granulocytes, monocytes and their precursors as well as in bone marrow and splenic stromal macrophages. Hepatic macrophages were negative, as were lymphocytes, megakaryocytes, erythroid precursors, and endothelial cells. In the absence of significant serum levels of IL-6, cell-associated IL-6 bioactivity was detected in circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not lymphocytes. After endotoxin challenge, there was a threefold increase in PMN IL-6 content from 1 to 3 hours followed by almost complete depletion at 6 hours. This correlated well with a threefold increase of IL-6 mRNA in the bone marrow followed by a decrease at 6 hours. This pattern also correlated with serum levels of IL-6, which peaked at 3 hours and dropped significantly by 6 hours. By 24 hours, cell-associated IL-6 showed recovery with no increase in serum levels. In vivo findings showing IL-6 expression in bone marrow macrophages support in vitro studies suggesting a role for IL-6 in hematopoiesis. Furthermore, PMNs as well as macrophages are likely important sources of IL-6 during inflammatory and septic states. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:1372159

  10. Identification of chemical modulators of the constitutive activated receptor (CAR) in a gene expression compendium

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Keiyu; Vasani, Naresh; Jones, Carlton; Moore, Tanya; Hester, Susan; Nesnow, Stephen; Auerbach, Scott; Geter, David R.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Thomas, Russell S.; Applegate, Dawn; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Corton, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor family member constitutive activated receptor (CAR) is activated by structurally diverse drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals leading to transcriptional regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. Chronic activation of CAR increases liver cancer incidence in rodents, whereas suppression of CAR can lead to steatosis and insulin insensitivity. Here, analytical methods were developed to screen for chemical treatments in a gene expression compendium that lead to alteration of CAR activity. A gene expression biomarker signature of 83 CAR-dependent genes was identified using microarray profiles from the livers of wild-type and CAR-null mice after exposure to three structurally-diverse CAR activators (CITCO, phenobarbital, TCPOBOP). A rank-based algorithm (Running Fisher’s algorithm (p-value ? 10-4)) was used to evaluate the similarity between the CAR biomarker signature and a test set of 28 and 32 comparisons positive or negative, respectively, for CAR activation; the test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 97%. The biomarker signature was used to identify chemicals that activate or suppress CAR in an annotated mouse liver/primary hepatocyte gene expression database of ~1850 comparisons. CAR was activated by 1) activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in wild-type but not AhR-null mice, 2) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activators in wild-type and to lesser extents in PXR-null mice, and 3) activators of PPAR? in wild-type and PPAR?-null mice. CAR was consistently activated by five conazole fungicides and four perfluorinated compounds. Comparison of effects in wild-type and CAR-null mice showed that the fungicide propiconazole increased liver weight and hepatocyte proliferation in a CAR-dependent manner, whereas the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased these endpoints in a CAR-independent manner. A number of compounds suppressed CAR coincident with increases in markers of inflammation including acetaminophen, concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide, and 300 nm silica particles. In conclusion, we have shown that a CAR biomarker signature coupled with a rank-based similarity method accurately predicts CAR activation. This analytical approach, when applied to a gene expression compendium, increased the universe of known chemicals that directly or indirectly activate CAR, highlighting the promiscuous nature of CAR activation and signaling through activation of other xenobiotic-activated receptors. PMID:25949234

  11. Effects of constitutive expression of somatolactin alpha on skin pigmentation in medaka.

    PubMed

    Fukamachi, Shoji; Yada, Takashi; Meyer, Axel; Kinoshita, Masato

    2009-08-01

    Somatolactin alpha (SLa) is a fish-specific peptide hormone secreted from the pituitary. Its functions have been investigated for the last decade but are still under debate. We previously reported a frame-shift mutation on SLa in a medaka mutant, color interfere (ci), which shows defects in body-color regulation, lipid storage, and cortisol secretion. In this study, we examined the effects of introducing a DNA fragment which constitutively expresses wild-type SLa under regulation of the beta-actin (Actb) promoter into the ci genome. We successfully visualized the transgene expression by taking advantage of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The transgenic medaka, Actb-SLa:GFP, exhibited a reversed body-color phenotype of ci; more orange xanthophores and less white leucophores. We also detected more black melanophores and less silver iridophores, which indicates SLa's comprehensive role in regulating all types of pigment cells in the skin. Unexpectedly, the defects in lipid/cortisol contents remained in Actb-SLa:GFP. Therefore, the causal relationship between SLa and lipid/cortisol metabolisms relapses to an open question which needs to be reassessed by other types of experiments. Both the Actb-SLa:GFP and ci fish grow and mature similar to wild type, indicating SLa contributes little to growth regulation in spite of the fact that it binds to a teleost-specific paralog of growth-hormone receptor in vitro. The present study provides definitive evidence for SLa's principal and indispensable role in body-color regulation in medaka. PMID:19393303

  12. Estrogen upregulates endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase expression in human osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Armour, K E; Ralston, S H

    1998-02-01

    The protective effects of estrogen on the cardiovascular system are thought to be mediated, in part, by nitric oxide (NO). Estrogen also has protective effects on bone although the mechanisms of action have not been fully established. Since nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors have been found to abrogate the protective effect of estrogen on bone in ovariectomised rats, we studied the effects of 17beta-estradiol on NOS activity and NOS mRNA levels in cultured human osteoblast-like cells. 17beta-Estradiol stimulated NOS activity by approximately 2.0 fold and this effect was reversed by the calcium chelator, EGTA, and the NOS inhibitor, L-NMMA, implicating activation of a constitutive, calcium-dependent isoform. Further studies using RT/PCR indicated that only the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) isoform was expressed and RNase protection assays showed that 17beta-Estradiol treatment resulted in a 2.2 fold increase in ecNOS mRNA levels. These findings suggest that estrogen stimulates NOS activity in osteoblastic cells by activation of the ecNOS pathway, and taken together with previous data, is consistent with the possibility that NO may act as a mediator of estrogen actions on bone. PMID:9449657

  13. Cell, Vol. 93, 12071217, June 26, 1998, Copyright 1998 by Cell Press Constitutive Expression of the CIRCADIAN CLOCK

    E-print Network

    Tobin, Elaine

    of the CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) Gene Disrupts Circadian Rhythms and Suppresses Its Own Expression in the phytochrome induction of a light-harvesting a circadian rhythm. These include movement of organs chlorophyll a with a circadian rhythm. Constitutive ex- processes such as respiration and photosynthesis, and pression of CCA1

  14. Trade-off between constitutive and inducible resistance against herbivores is only partially explained by gene expression and glucosinolate production.

    PubMed

    Rasmann, Sergio; Chassin, Estelle; Bilat, Julia; Glauser, Gaétan; Reymond, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    The hypothesis that constitutive and inducible plant resistance against herbivores should trade-off because they use the same resources and impose costs to plant fitness has been postulated for a long time. Negative correlations between modes of deployment of resistance and defences have been observed across and within species in common garden experiments. It was therefore tested whether that pattern of resistance across genotypes follows a similar variation in patterns of gene expression and chemical defence production. Using the genetically tractable model Arabidopsis thaliana and different modes of induction, including the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis, the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae, and jasmonate application, constitutive and inducibility of resistance was measured across seven A. thaliana accessions that were previously selected based on constitutive levels of defence gene expression. According to theory, it was found that modes of resistance traded-off among accessions, particularly against S. littoralis, in which accessions investing in high constitutive resistance did not increase it substantially after attack and vice-versa. Accordingly, the average expression of eight genes involved in glucosinolate production negatively predicted larval growth across the seven accessions. Glucosinolate production and genes related to defence induction on healthy and herbivore-damaged plants were measured next. Surprisingly, only a partial correlation between glucosinolate production, gene expression, and the herbivore resistance results was found. These results suggest that the defence outcome of plants against herbivores goes beyond individual molecules or genes but stands on a complex network of interactions. PMID:25716695

  15. Constitutive and Inducible Expression of Invasion-related Factors in PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Young Sun; Lindholm, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tumor growth and invasion are interconnected with the tumor microenvironment. Overexpression of genes that regulate cancer cell invasion by growth factors, cytokines, and lipid factors can affect cancer aggressiveness. A comparative gene expression analysis between highly invasive and low invasive cells revealed that various genes are differentially expressed in association with invasive potential. In this study, we selected variant PC-3 prostate cancer cell sublines and discovered critical molecules that contributed to their invasive potential. Methods: The high invasive and low invasive variant PC-3 cell sublines were obtained by serial selection following Matrigel-coated Transwell invasion and were characterized by Transwell invasion, luciferase reporter assay, and Rhotekin pull-down assay. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was added to the cultures to observe the response to this extracellular stimulus. The essential molecules related with cancer invasiveness were detected with Northern blotting, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and cDNA microarray. Results: Highly invasive PC-3 cells showed higher nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), activator protein 1 (AP-1) and RhoA activities than of low invasive PC-3 cells. LPA promoted cancer invasion through NF-?B, AP-1, and RhoA activities. Thrombospondin-1, interleukin-8, kallikrein 6, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and tissue factor were overexpressed in the highly invasive PC-3 variant cells and further upregulated by LPA stimulation. Conclusions: The results suggest that the target molecules are involved in invasiveness of prostate cancer. These molecules may have clinical value for anti-invasion therapy by serving as biomarkers for the prediction of aggressive cancers and the detection of pharmacological inhibitors. PMID:26151045

  16. Constitutive gene expression and the specification of tissue identity in adult planarian biology

    E-print Network

    Reddien, Peter

    Planarians are flatworms that constitutively maintain adult tissues through cell turnover and can regenerate entire organisms from tiny body fragments. In addition to requiring new cells (from neoblasts), these feats require ...

  17. UCMAA Constitution 1 Constitution

    E-print Network

    Oviedo, Néstor J.

    UCMAA Constitution 1 The Constitution of the University of California, Merced Alumni Association of Directors. #12;UCMAA Constitution 2 The actual number of elected members of the board shall be set of the Constitution, which are subject to approval by the Board of Directors. Section 2 ­ By-Law Changes #12;UCMAA

  18. New Vectors for Chromosomal Integration Enable High-Level Constitutive or Inducible Magnetosome Expression of Fusion Proteins in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Sarah; Hofmann, Julia; Pollithy, Anna; Lang, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense biomineralizes magnetosomes, which consist of monocrystalline magnetite cores enveloped by a phospholipid bilayer containing specific proteins. Magnetosomes represent magnetic nanoparticles with unprecedented magnetic and physicochemical characteristics. These make them potentially useful in a number of biotechnological and biomedical applications. Further functionalization can be achieved by expression of foreign proteins via genetic fusion to magnetosome anchor peptides. However, the available genetic tool set for strong and controlled protein expression in magnetotactic bacteria is very limited. Here, we describe versatile vectors for either inducible or high-level constitutive expression of proteins in M. gryphiswaldense. The combination of an engineered native PmamDC promoter with a codon-optimized egfp gene (Mag-egfp) resulted in an 8-fold increase in constitutive expression and in brighter fluorescence. We further demonstrate that the widely used Ptet promoter is functional and tunable in M. gryphiswaldense. Stable and uniform expression of the EGFP and ?-glucuronidase (GusA) reporters was achieved by single-copy chromosomal insertion via Tn5-mediated transposition. In addition, gene duplication by Mag-EGFP–EGFP fusions to MamC resulted in further increased magnetosome expression and fluorescence. Between 80 and 210 (for single MamC–Mag-EGFP) and 200 and 520 (for MamC–Mag-EGFP–EGFP) GFP copies were estimated to be expressed per individual magnetosome particle. PMID:24532068

  19. Hypoxia reduces constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human proximal renal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xuan; Kimura, Hideki . E-mail: hkimura@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Hirota, Kiichi; Sugimoto, Hidehiro; Yoshida, Haruyoshi

    2005-10-07

    Chronic hypoxia has been reported to be associated with macrophage infiltration in progressive forms of kidney disease. Here, we investigated the regulatory effects of hypoxia on constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-stimulated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in cultured human proximal renal tubular cells (HPTECs). Hypoxia reduced constitutive MCP-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent fashion for up to 48 h. Hypoxia also inhibited MCP-1 up-regulation by TNF-{alpha}. Treatment with actinomycin D showed that hypoxic down-regulation of MCP-1 expression resulted mainly from a decrease in the transcription but not the mRNA stability. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that treatment with hypoxia or an iron chelator, desferrioxamine, induced nuclear accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in HPTECs. Desferrioxamine mimicked hypoxia in the reduction of MCP-1 expression. However, overexpression of a dominant negative form of HIF-1{alpha} did not abolish the hypoxia-induced reduction of MCP-1 expression in HPTECs. These results suggest that hypoxia is an important negative regulator of monocyte chemotaxis to the renal inflamed interstitium, by reducing MCP-1 expression partly via hypoxia-activated signals other than the HIF-1 pathway.

  20. Field tolerance to fungal pathogens of Brassica napus constitutively expressing a chimeric chitinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Grison, R.; Grezes-Besset, B.; Lucante, N.

    1996-05-01

    Constitutive overexpression of a protein involved in plant defense mechanisms to disease is one of the strategies proposed to increase plant tolerance to fungal pathogens. A hybrid endochitinase gene under a constitutive promoter was introduced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into a winter-type oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera) inbred line. Progeny from transformed plants was challenged using three different fungal pathogens (Cylindrosporium concentricum, Phoma lingam, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in field trials at two different geographical locations. These plants exhibited an increased tolerance to disease as compared with the nontransgenic parental plants. 31 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. PU.1 and ICSBP control constitutive and IFN-gamma-regulated Tlr9 gene expression in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Kate; Lichtinger, Monika; Irvine, Katharine M; Brion, Kristian; Trieu, Angela; Ross, Ian L; Ravasi, Timothy; Stacey, Katryn J; Rehli, Michael; Hume, David A; Sweet, Matthew J

    2007-06-01

    Macrophages are activated by unmethylated CpG-containing DNA (CpG DNA) via TLR9. IFN-gamma and LPS can synergize with CpG DNA to enhance proinflammatory responses in murine macrophages. Here, we show that LPS and IFN-gamma up-regulated Tlr9 mRNA in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM). The ability of LPS and IFN-gamma to induce Tlr9 mRNA expression in BMM was dependent on the presence of the growth factor, CSF-1, which is constitutively present in vivo. However, there were clear differences in mechanisms of Tlr9 mRNA induction. LPS stimulation rapidly removed the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) from the cell surface, thereby blocking CSF-1-mediated transcriptional repression and indirectly inducing Tlr9 mRNA expression. By contrast, IFN-gamma activated the Tlr9 promoter directly and only marginally affected cell surface CSF-1R expression. An approximately 100-bp proximal promoter of the murine Tlr9 gene was sufficient to confer basal and IFN-gamma-inducible expression in RAW264.7 cells. A composite IFN regulatory factor (IRF)/PU.1 site upon the major transcription start site was identified. Mutation of the binding sites for PU.1 or IRF impaired basal promoter activity, but only the IRF-binding site was required for IFN-gamma induction. The mRNA expression of the IRF family member IFN consensus-binding protein [(ICSBP)/IRF8] was coregulated with Tlr9 in macrophages, and constitutive and IFN-gamma-inducible Tlr9 mRNA expression was reduced in ICSBP-deficient BMM. This study therefore characterizes the regulation of mouse Tlr9 expression and defines a molecular mechanism by which IFN-gamma amplifies mouse macrophage responses to CpG DNA. PMID:17360957

  2. Regulation of beta-glucuronidase synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12: constitutive mutants specifically derepressed for uidA expression.

    PubMed Central

    Novel, M; Novel, G

    1976-01-01

    All methyl-beta-D-galacturonide-positive mutants isolated from Escherichia coli K-12 carry constitutive mutations for beta-glucuronidase (UID) synthesis. Most of these mutants are specific for UID synthesis and are distributed in three classes according to the derepression level of UID. Each specific mutant carries a mutation(s) near uidA, the structural gene for UID, at min 30.5 of the E. coli K-12 linkage map. The expression of UID synthesis in F-merodiploid strains carrying these mutations permits discrimination between dominant and recessive constitutivity over the wild-type allele. The first kind of mutation (dominant) should affect the operator site uidO of the structural gene uidA; the second type of mutation (recessive) should affect a regulatory gene, uidR, operating through a negative control. The isolation of mutants bearing at this locus superrepressed mutations, which can revert to produce a constitutive phenotype, confirms the occurrence of such a regulatory gene. The partially derepressed uidR mutants of the first class are normally inducible and remain constitutive at low temperature; their UID has the same thermal sensitivity as in the wild-type strains. The occurrence of similar regulatory gene mutants has been recently described in the lactose system (Shineberg, 1974). PMID:776933

  3. IFN-? Is Constitutively Expressed in the Human Thymus, but Not in Peripheral Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Colantonio, Arnaud D.; Epeldegui, Marta; Jesiak, Maria; Jachimowski, Loes; Blom, Bianca; Uittenbogaart, Christel H.

    2011-01-01

    Type I interferons have been typically studied for their effects in the context of bacterial or viral infections. However in this report, we provide evidence that Interferon-alpha (IFN-?) expressing cells are present in the thymus in the absence of infection. We show that pDC express the highest level of IFN-? and that MxA, which is exclusively expressed after engagement of the type I IFN receptor by IFN-?/?, is expressed in normal fetal and post-natal thymus, but not in the periphery. The highest level of MxA is expressed in mature thymocytes and pDC located in the medulla and at the cortico-medullary junction. The anti-microbial peptide LL-37, which is expressed in the thymus, when complexed with eukaryotic nucleic acids, induces the secretion of IFN-? by thymic pDC. This results in the upregulation of MxA expression in responsive thymocytes. We propose that the secretion of IFN-? in the thymus may function to regulate the rate of T cell development and modulate the requirements for the selection of developing T cells. PMID:21904619

  4. Rhizoremediation of Trichloroethylene by a Recombinant, Root-Colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain Expressing Toluene ortho-Monooxygenase Constitutively

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Dennis C.; Maynard, Jennifer A.; Wood, Thomas K.

    1998-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) was removed from soils by using a wheat rhizosphere established by coating seeds with a recombinant, TCE-degrading Pseudomonas fluorescens strain that expresses the tomA+ (toluene o-monooxygenase) genes from Burkholderia cepacia PR123(TOM23C). A transposon integration vector was used to insert tomA+ into the chromosome of P. fluorescens 2-79, producing a stable strain that expressed constitutively the monooxygenase at a level of 1.1 nmol/min · mg of protein (initial TCE concentration, 10 ?M, assuming that all of the TCE was in the liquid) for more than 280 cell generations (36 days). We also constructed a salicylate-inducible P. fluorescens strain that degraded TCE at an initial rate of 2.6 nmol/min · mg of protein in the presence of 10 ?M TCE [cf. B. cepacia G4 PR123(TOM23C), which degraded TCE at an initial rate of 2.5 nmol/min · mg of protein]. A constitutive strain, P. fluorescens 2-79TOM, grew (maximum specific growth rate, 0.78 h?1) and colonized wheat (3 × 106 CFU/cm of root) as well as wild-type P. fluorescens 2-79 (maximum specific growth rate, 0.77 h?1; level of colonization, 4 × 106 CFU/cm of root). Rhizoremediation of TCE was demonstrated by using microcosms containing the constitutive monooxygenase-expressing microorganism, soil, and wheat. These closed microcosms degraded an average of 63% of the initial TCE in 4 days (20.6 nmol of TCE/day · plant), compared to the 9% of the initial TCE removed by negative controls consisting of microcosms containing wild-type P. fluorescens 2-79-inoculated wheat, uninoculated wheat, or sterile soil. PMID:9435067

  5. Establishment of Sf9 transformants constitutively expressing PBAN receptor variants: application to functional evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To facilitate further evaluation of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor (PBANR) functionality and regulation, we generated cultured insect cell lines stably expressing a number of fluorescent Bombyx mori PBANR (BommoPBANR) and Pseudaletia separata PBANR (PsesePBANR) variants incl...

  6. Constitutive Expression of Yes-Associated Protein (Yap) in Adult Skeletal Muscle Fibres Induces Muscle Atrophy and Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Robert N.; Gray, Stuart R.; Walker, Claire; Carroll, Andrew M.; Itzstein, Cecile; Lionikas, Arimantas; Zammit, Peter S.; De Bari, Cosimo; Wackerhage, Henning

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the function of the Hippo pathway member Yes-associated protein (Yap, gene name Yap1) in skeletal muscle fibres in vivo. Specifically we bred an inducible, skeletal muscle fibre-specific knock-in mouse model (MCK-tTA-hYAP1 S127A) to test whether the over expression of constitutively active Yap (hYAP1 S127A) is sufficient to drive muscle hypertrophy or stimulate changes in fibre type composition. Unexpectedly, after 5–7 weeks of constitutive hYAP1 S127A over expression, mice suddenly and rapidly lost 20–25% body weight and suffered from gait impairments and kyphosis. Skeletal muscles atrophied by 34–40% and the muscle fibre cross sectional area decreased by ?40% when compared to control mice. Histological analysis revealed evidence of skeletal muscle degeneration and regeneration, necrotic fibres and a NADH-TR staining resembling centronuclear myopathy. In agreement with the histology, mRNA expression of markers of regenerative myogenesis (embryonic myosin heavy chain, Myf5, myogenin, Pax7) and muscle protein degradation (atrogin-1, MuRF1) were significantly elevated in muscles from transgenic mice versus control. No significant changes in fibre type composition were detected using ATPase staining. The phenotype was largely reversible, as a cessation of hYAP1 S127A expression rescued body and muscle weight, restored muscle morphology and prevented further pathological progression. To conclude, high Yap activity in muscle fibres does not induce fibre hypertrophy nor fibre type changes but instead results in a reversible atrophy and deterioration. PMID:23544078

  7. Evaluation of constitutive iron reductase (AtFRO2) expression on mineral accumulation and distribution in soybean (Glycine max. L)

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Marta W.; Clemente, Thomas E.; Grusak, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an important micronutrient in human and plant nutrition. Adequate iron nutrition during crop production is central for assuring appropriate iron concentrations in the harvestable organs, for human food or animal feed. The whole-plant movement of iron involves several processes, including the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron at several locations throughout the plant, prior to transmembrane trafficking of ferrous iron. In this study, soybean plants that constitutively expressed the AtFRO2 iron reductase gene were analyzed for leaf iron reductase activity, as well as the effect of this transgene’s expression on root, leaf, pod wall, and seed mineral concentrations. High Fe supply, in combination with the constitutive expression of AtFRO2, resulted in significantly higher concentrations of different minerals in roots (K, P, Zn, Ca, Ni, Mg, and Mo), pod walls (Fe, K, P, Cu, and Ni), leaves (Fe, P, Cu, Ca, Ni, and Mg) and seeds (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ni). Leaf and pod wall iron concentrations increased as much as 500% in transgenic plants, while seed iron concentrations only increased by 10%, suggesting that factors other than leaf and pod wall reductase activity were limiting the translocation of iron to seeds. Protoplasts isolated from transgenic leaves had three-fold higher reductase activity than controls. Expression levels of the iron storage protein, ferritin, were higher in the transgenic leaves than in wild-type, suggesting that the excess iron may be stored as ferritin in the leaves and therefore unavailable for phloem loading and delivery to the seeds. Also, citrate and malate levels in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type, suggesting that organic acid production could be related to the increased accumulation of minerals in roots, leaves, and pod walls, but not in the seeds. All together, these results suggest a more ubiquitous role for the iron reductase in whole-plant mineral accumulation and distribution. PMID:24765096

  8. Constitutive Nuclear Expression of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 Fails to Rescue the Dmp1-null Phenotype*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuxian; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Zhengguo; Lu, Yongbo; Zhang, Hua; Yan, Kevin; Liu, Ying; McKee, Marc D.; Qin, Chunlin; Chen, Zhi; Feng, Jian Q.

    2014-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) plays multiple roles in bone, tooth, phosphate homeostasis, kidney, salivary gland, reproductive cycles, and the development of cancer. In vitro studies have indicated two different biological mechanisms: 1) as a matrix protein, DMP1 interacts with ?v?3 integrin and activates MAP kinase signaling; and 2) DMP1 serves as a transcription co-factor. In vivo studies have demonstrated its key role in osteocytes. This study attempted to determine whether DMP1 functions as a transcription co-factor and regulates osteoblast functions. For gene expression comparisons using adenovirus constructs, we targeted the expression of DMP1 either to the nucleus only by replacing the endogenous signal peptide with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence (referred to as NLSDMP1) or to the extracellular matrix as the WT type (referred to as SPDMP1) in MC3T3 osteoblasts. High levels of DMP1 in either form greatly increased osteogenic gene expression in an identical manner. However, the targeted NLSDMP1 transgene driven by a 3.6-kb rat Col 1?1 promoter in the nucleus of osteoblasts and osteocytes failed to rescue the phenotyope of Dmp1-null mice, whereas the SPDMP1 transgene rescued the rickets defect. These studies support the notion that DMP1 functions as an extracellular matrix protein, rather than as a transcription co-factor in vivo. We also show that DMP1 continues its expression in osteoblasts during postnatal development and that the deletion of Dmp1 leads to an increase in osteoblast proliferation. However, poor mineralization in the metaphysis indicates a critical role for DMP1 in both osteoblasts and osteocytes. PMID:24917674

  9. Constitutive and xenobiotics-induced expression of a novel CYP3A gene from zebrafish larva

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, H.-P.; Hseu, Tzong-Hsiung; Buhler, Donald R.; Wang, W.-D.; Hu, C.-H. . E-mail: chhu@mail.ntou.edu.tw

    2005-06-15

    In mammals, CYP3A isozymes collectively comprise the largest portion of the liver and small intestinal CYP protein. They are involved in the metabolism of an extensive range of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics and make a significant contribution to the termination of the action of steroid hormones. A full-length cDNA of CYP3A gene, named CYP3A65, was cloned from zebrafish by RT-PCR. The CYP3A65 mRNA was initially transcribed only in the liver and intestine upon hatching of the zebrafish embryos. Like the human CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription in the foregut region was enhanced by treatment of the zebrafish larvae with the steroid dexamethasone and the macrocyclic antibiotic rifampicin. Differing from mammalian CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription was also elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during early larval stages. Repression of AHR2 translation by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides abrogated both of constitutive and TCDD-stimulated CYP3A65 transcription in larval intestine. These findings suggested that the AHR2 signaling pathway plays an essential role in CYP3A65 transcription.

  10. Selective lignin downregulation leads to constitutive defense response expression in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    • Downregulation of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) reduces lignin levels and improves forage quality and saccharification efficiency for bioethanol production. However, the plants have reduced stature. It was previously reported that HCT-down-regulated Arabidopsis have impaired auxin transport, but this has recently been disproved. • To address the basis for the phenotypes of lignin-modified alfalfa, we measured auxin transport, profiled a range of metabolites including flavonoids and hormones, and performed in depth transcriptome analyses. • Auxin transport is unaffected in HCT antisense alfalfa despite increased flavonoid biosynthesis. The plants show increased cytokinin and reduced auxin levels, and gibberellin levels and sensitivity are both reduced. Levels of salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids are elevated, associated with massive upregulation of pathogenesis and abiotic stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to fungal infection and drought. • We suggest that HCT downregulated alfalfa plants exhibit constitutive activation of defense responses, triggered by release of bioactive cell wall fragments and production of hydrogen peroxide as a result of impaired secondary cell wall integrity. PMID:21251001

  11. Constitutive Expression of Human Telomerase Enhances the Proliferation Potential of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, David S.; Makhijani, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are highly desirable cells for bone engineering due to the inherent multipotent nature of the cells. Unfortunately, there is a high degree of variability, as primary hMSC cultures quickly undergo replicative senescence with loss of proliferative potential as they are continually propagated in cell culture. We sought to reduce the variability of these cells by insertion and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) to immortalize the cell line. hMSCs were transduced with a lentivirus containing the human TERT gene. The resulting cell line has been propagated through more than 70 population-doubling level (PDL) to date and continues to grow exhibiting the characteristic fibroblastic hMSC phenotype. Expression of TERT mRNA and protein activity was confirmed in the TERT-transduced cells. Mock-transduced hMSCs had almost undetectable levels of TERT mRNA and protein activity and lost proliferation potential at PDL 14. The enhanced growth capacity of the hMSC TERT cells was due to increased cell proliferation and reduced cellular senescence rather than due to inhibition of apoptosis. The multipotent nature of the TERT cells was confirmed by differentiation toward the osteoblastic and adipogenic lineages in vitro. Osteoblastic differentiation was confirmed by both expression of alkaline phosphate and mineral deposition visualized by Alizarin Red staining. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed by production of lipid droplets, which were detected by Oil Red-O staining. In summary, we have generated a stable hMSC line that can be continually propagated and retains both osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation potential. PMID:23515239

  12. Constitutively active Akt1 expression in mouse pancreas requires S6 kinase 1 for insulinoma formation

    PubMed Central

    Alliouachene, Samira; Tuttle, Robyn L.; Boumard, Stephanie; Lapointe, Thomas; Berissi, Sophie; Germain, Stephane; Jaubert, Francis; Tosh, David; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Pende, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Factors that promote pancreatic ? cell growth and function are potential therapeutic targets for diabetes mellitus. In mice, genetic experiments suggest that signaling cascades initiated by insulin and IGFs positively regulate ? cell mass and insulin secretion. Akt and S6 kinase (S6K) family members are activated as part of these signaling cascades, but how the interplay between these proteins controls ? cell growth and function has not been determined. Here, we found that although transgenic mice overexpressing the constitutively active form of Akt1 under the rat insulin promoter (RIP-MyrAkt1 mice) had enlarged ? cells and high plasma insulin levels, leading to improved glucose tolerance, a substantial proportion of the mice developed insulinomas later in life, which caused decreased viability. This oncogenic transformation tightly correlated with nuclear exclusion of the tumor suppressor PTEN. To address the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate S6K1 in the MyrAkt1-mediated phenotype, we crossed RIP-MyrAkt1 and S6K1-deficient mice. The resulting mice displayed reduced insulinemia and glycemia compared with RIP-MyrAkt1 mice due to a combined effect of improved insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, although the increase in ? cell size in RIP-MyrAkt1 mice was not affected by S6K1 deficiency, the hyperplastic transformation required S6K1. Our results therefore identify S6K1 as a critical element for MyrAkt1-induced tumor formation and suggest that it may represent a useful target for anticancer therapy downstream of mTOR. PMID:18846252

  13. Constitutive expression of tenascin in T-dependent zones of human lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Chilosi, M.; Lestani, M.; Benedetti, A.; Montagna, L.; Pedron, S.; Scarpa, A.; Menestrina, F.; Hirohashi, S.; Pizzolo, G.; Semenzato, G.

    1993-01-01

    Tenascin is a major extracellular matrix glycoprotein that can interfere with the action of fibronectin by inhibiting cell adhesion and spreading. Although tenascin is able to exert important immunomodulatory activities on T and B cells and macrophages, little is known about its distribution in different lymphohemopoietic tissues. In this study we have analyzed tenascin immunoreactivity on cryostat and paraffin sections of normal and pathological lymphoid tissues using two different monoclonal antibodies. We demonstrated strong tenascin expression in all peripheral lymphoid tissues, whereas it was barely detectable in the thymus and in bone marrow. In reactive lymph nodes, tenascin was mainly found in T-dependent zones, forming a variably close-woven reticular network corresponding to fibroblastic reticulum cells and blood vessels basal laminae, showing a partial co-localization with fibronectin. In B-dependent zones, tenascin was restricted to blood vessels. Using double-marker analysis, we performed a thorough study comparing tenascin expression in different compartments of lymphoid microenvironments. Tenascin network appeared much thicker in chronically stimulated tissues, where CD4+ lymphocytes with "memory" phenotype (CD45RO+/CD45RA-) were predominant, and at sites of ongoing inflammation. In particular, a striking increase of tenascin was observed in sarcoid lymph node, as well as in myasthenic hyperplastic thymuses. In addition, tenascin can be abnormally synthesized in tissue involved by various types of lymphomas, including Hodgkin's disease and hairy cell leukemia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7694469

  14. Decreased accumulation of glutelin types in rice grains constitutively expressing a sunflower seed albumin gene.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nazrul; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Campbell, Peter M; Akhurst, Ray; Hagan, Nick; Higgins, Thomas J V

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown differential accumulation of sulfur rich glutelins and sulfur poor prolamins in transgenic rice seeds expressing a sunflower seed albumin gene [Hagan, N.D., Upadhyaya, N., Tabe, L.M., Higgins, T.J., 2003. The redistribution of protein sulfur in transgenic rice expressing a gene for a foreign, sulfur-rich protein. Plant J 34, 1-11]. Here, we show, by two-dimensional electrophoresis, differential accumulation of three classes of glutelin proteins - type I, II and III - and a globulin, not previously resolved, in transgenic seeds grown under low and high sulfur nutrition. Several glutelin polypeptides were resolved and four identified as a type I glutelin, two type II glutelins and a type III glutelin. Although sulfur nutrition did not affect the accumulation of sunflower seed albumin, the levels of all four identified glutelins and the globulin were lower in mature seeds derived from transgenic plants grown under sulfur-optimum or sulfur limited conditions compared to non-transgenic rice seeds. The reduction of all four glutelin polypeptides and the globulin varied from 21% to 68%. The re-allocation of sulfur reserves from endogenous proteins to the sulfur sink in transgenic grain is suggestive of a transcriptional control of sulfur mobilization in plants. PMID:16242165

  15. Honokiol Inhibits Constitutive and Inducible STAT3 Signaling via PU.1-Induced SHP1 Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Bi, Laixi; Yu, Zhijie; Wu, Jianbo; Yu, Kang; Hong, Guangliang; Lu, Zhongqiu; Gao, Shenmeng

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive and inducible activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling facilitates the carcinogenesis in most human cancers including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Negative regulators, such as protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP1, inhibit the activated STAT3 signaling. In this study, we investigated the effect of honokiol (HNK), a constituent of Magnolia officinalis, on the STAT3 signaling. STAT3 signaling and SHP1 expression were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting in leukemic cell lines and primary AML blasts treated with HNK. HNK decreased the phosphorylated STAT3 but not the total STAT3 through increasing the expression of SHP1. In addition, HNK inhibited transcription activity of STAT3, reduced nuclear translocation of STAT3, and decreased the expression of STAT3 target genes. Knockdown of SHP1 by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or treatment with vanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatases inhibitor, abolished HNK-induced STAT3 inhibition, suggesting that SHP1 plays an important role in the inhibition of STAT3 signaling by HNK. Further, HNK increased the expression of transcript factor PU.1, which had been reported to activate the expression of SHP1 via binding SHP1 promoter region. Knockdown of PU.1 reversed HNK-induced upregulation of SHP1 and inactivation of STAT3 signaling. Finally, HNK increased the expression of PU.1 and SHP1 in hematopoietic progenitors isolated from patients with AML. In conclusion, our data have shown a regulatory mechanism underlying the inhibition of STAT3 signaling by HNK. Therefore, as a relative non-toxic compound, HNK may offer a therapeutic advantage in the clinical treatment for AML. PMID:26466521

  16. Plenary Perspective: The complexity of constitutive and inducible gene expression in mononuclear phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hume, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages differentiate from progenitor cells under the influence of colony-stimulating factors. Genome-scale data have enabled the identification of the set of genes that distinguishes macrophages from other cell types and the ways in which thousands of genes are regulated in response to pathogen challenge. Although there has been a focus on a small subset of lineage-enriched transcription factors, such as PU.1, more than one-half of the transcription factors in the genome can be expressed in macrophage lineage cells under some state of activation, and they interact in a complex network. The network architecture is conserved across species, but many of the target genes evolve rapidly and differ between mouse and human. The data and publication deluge related to macrophage biology require the development of new analytical tools and ways of presenting information in an accessible form. The website www.macrophages.com is a community website that partly fills this niche. PMID:22773680

  17. Elevated cholecystokininergic tone constitutes an important molecular/neuronal mechanism for the expression of anxiety in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Nakajima, Akira; Meacham, Corbin; Tang, Ya-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the brain, plays an important role in anxiogenesis through the activation of CCK receptor-2 (CCKR-2). Accumulating evidence, however, has suggested this role depends on endogenous CCKergic “tone,” which is largely determined by the expression level of the CCKR-2. Using the tTA/tetO-inducible transgenic (tg) approach, we show here that overexpression of the CCKR-2 in neurons of the forebrain significantly increases CCKR-2 binding capacity in tg mice compared with their littermate controls. Interestingly, these tg mice consistently exhibit increased fear responses, which are generally interpreted as anxiety-like behaviors in the rodent, in a battery of behavioral tests, which represented conflict situations or delivered stress to the subjects. The inhibition of transgene expression with doxycycline treatment completely diminished both increased receptor-binding activity and all behavioral phenotypes. Furthermore, treatment of tg mice with diazepam significantly attenuated these anxiety-like behaviors. Our results directly demonstrate that the elevated CCKergic tone via overexpression of the CCKR-2 in the brain may constitute an underlying molecular/neuronal mechanism for the expression of anxiety. In addition, our study has validated a robust genetic anxiety model in the mouse in terms of their face, constructive, and predictive validity. PMID:16537459

  18. Constitutive expression of CCR7 directs effector CD8 T cells into the splenic white pulp and impairs functional activity.

    PubMed

    Unsoeld, Heike; Voehringer, David; Krautwald, Stefan; Pircher, Hanspeter

    2004-09-01

    Antigenic stimulation down-regulates CCR7 on effector T cells. To analyze the importance of CCR7 down-regulation, transgenic (tg) mice constitutively expressing CCR7 were generated. CD8 T cells with defined Ag specificity were obtained by breeding CCR7-tg mice with P14 TCR-tg mice specific for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Transgenic CCR7 expression did not impair proliferation of P14.CCR7 T cells induced by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, but prevented CCR7 down-regulation. Compared with wild-type P14 effector cells, P14.CCR7 effector cells, expressing the CCR7 transgene, were increased in the spleen, but decreased in blood and peripheral tissues. Moreover, P14.CCR7 effector cells localized almost exclusively in the splenic white pulp, whereas P14 effector cells were excluded from splenic white pulp cords and were found preferentially in the red pulp. Functional experiments further revealed that P14.CCR7 effector cells were impaired in rapid viral clearance and in inducing Ag-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Thus, the present study demonstrates that down-regulation of CCR7 during CD8 T cell activation is important to release effector cells from the white pulp of the spleen, and highlights the importance of effector cell localization in providing rapid immunity. PMID:15322160

  19. Identification of centrarchid hepcidins and evidence that 17?-estradiol disrupts constitutive expression of hepcidin-1 and inducible expression of hepcidin-2 in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, L.S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Marranca, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hepcidin is a highly conserved antimicrobial peptide and iron-regulatory hormone. Here, we identify two hepcidin genes (hep-1 and hep-2) in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Hepcidin-1 contains a putative ATCUN metal-binding site in the amino-terminus that is missing in hepcidin-2, suggesting that hepcidin-1 may function as an iron-regulatory hormone. Both hepcidins are predominately expressed in the liver of largemouth bass, similar to other fish and mammals. Experimental exposure of pond-raised largemouth bass to 17?-estradiol and/or the bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri led to distinct changes in expression of hep-1 and hep-2. Estradiol reduced the constitutive expression of hep-1 in the liver. Bacterial exposure induced expression of hep-2, suggesting that hepcidin-2 may have an antimicrobial function, and this induction was abolished by estradiol. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the regulation of hepcidin expression by estradiol in either fish or mammals.

  20. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Induces Hypersensitivity to Radiation Therapy in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Cells Expressing Constitutively Active FLT3 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xufeng; Radany, Eric H.; Wong, Patty; Ma, Shenglin; Wu, Kan; Wang, Bing; Wong, Jeffrey Y. C.

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) have shown promise as candidate radiosensitizer for many types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action are not well understood, and whether they could have clinical impact on radiotherapy for leukemia is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) can increase radiosensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through posttranslational modification of Rad51 protein responses and selective inhibition of the homology-directed repair (HDR) pathway. Our data also showed that AML cells with mutant, constitutively active FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) were more radiation sensitive, caused by compromised non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair. Furthermore, SAHA-induced radiosensitization were enhanced in AML cells with expression of these FLT3 mutants. The results of this study suggest that SAHA, a recently approved HDI in clinical trials, may act as a candidate component for novel conditioning regimens to improve efficacy for AML patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy. PMID:24367670

  1. Metformin represses drug-induced expression of CYP2B6 by modulating the constitutive androstane receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Garzel, Brandy; Heyward, Scott; Moeller, Timothy; Shapiro, Paul; Wang, Hongbing

    2014-02-01

    Metformin is currently the most widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Mechanistically, metformin interacts with many protein kinases and transcription factors that alter the expression of numerous downstream target genes governing lipid metabolism, cell proliferation, and drug metabolism. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1i3), a known xenobiotic sensor, has recently been recognized as a novel signaling molecule, in that its activation could be regulated by protein kinases in addition to the traditional ligand binding. We show that metformin could suppress drug-induced expression of CYP2B6 (a typical target gene of CAR) by modulating the phosphorylation status of CAR. In human hepatocytes, metformin robustly suppressed the expression of CYP2B6 induced by both indirect (phenobarbital) and direct CITCO [6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b]1,3thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime] activators of human CAR. Mechanistic investigation revealed that metformin specifically enhanced the phosphorylation of threonine-38 of CAR, which blocks CAR nuclear translocation and activation. Moreover, we showed that phosphorylation of CAR by metformin was primarily an AMP-activated protein kinase- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent event. Additional two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that metformin could also disrupt CITCO-mediated interaction between CAR and the steroid receptor coactivator 1 or the glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1. Our results suggest that metformin is a potent repressor of drug-induced CYP2B6 expression through specific inhibition of human CAR activation. Thus, metformin may affect the metabolism and clearance of drugs that are CYP2B6 substrates. PMID:24252946

  2. The constitutive expression of Arabidopsis plasmodesmal-associated class 1 reversibly glycosylated polypeptide impairs plant development and virus spread

    PubMed Central

    Zavaliev, Raul; Sagi, Guy; Gera, Abed; Epel, Bernard L.

    2010-01-01

    Arabidopsis class 1 reversibly glycosylated polypeptides (C1RGPs) were shown to be plasmodesmal-associated proteins. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants constitutively expressing GFP tagged AtRGP2 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter are stunted, have a rosette-like growth pattern, and in source leaves exhibit strong chlorosis, increased photoassimilate retention and starch accumulation that results in elevated leaf specific fresh and dry weights. Basal callose levels around plasmodesmata (Pd) of leaf epidermal cells in transgenic plants are higher than in WT. Such a phenotype is characteristic of virus-infected plants and some transgenic plants expressing Pd-associated viral movement proteins (MP). The local spread of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is inhibited in AtRGP2:GFP transgenics compared to WT. Taken together these observations suggest that overexpression of the AtRGP2:GFP leads to a reduction in Pd permeability to photoassimilate, thus lowering the normal rate of translocation from source leaves to sink organs. Such a reduction may also inhibit the local cell-to-cell spread of viruses in transgenic plants. The observed reduction in Pd permeability could be due to a partial Pd occlusion caused either by the accumulation of AtRGP2:GFP fusion in Pd, and/or by constriction of Pd by the excessive callose accumulation. PMID:19887501

  3. Site-specific integration and constitutive expression of key genes into Escherichia coli chromosome increases shikimic acid yields.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglei; Lin, Jun; Hu, Haifeng; Zhou, Bin; Zhu, Baoquan

    2016-01-01

    As the key starting material for the chemical synthesis of Oseltamivir, shikimic acid (SA) has captured worldwide attention. Many researchers have tried to improve SA production by metabolic engineering, yet expression plasmids were used generally. In recent years, site-specific integration of key genes into chromosome to increase the yield of metabolites showed considerable advantages. The genes could maintain stably and express constitutively without induction. Herein, crucial genes aroG, aroB, tktA, aroE (encoding 3-deoxy-d-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase, dehydroquinate synthase, transketolase and shikimate dehydrogenase, respectively) of SA pathway and glk, galP (encoding glucokinase and galactose permease) were integrated into the locus of ptsHIcrr (phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system operon) in a shikimate kinase genetic defect strain Escherichia coli BW25113 (?aroL/aroK, DE3). Furthermore, another key gene ppsA (encoding phosphoenolpyruvate synthase) was integrated into tyrR (encoding Tyr regulator protein). As a result, SA production of the recombinant (SA5/pGBAE) reached to 4.14g/L in shake flask and 27.41g/L in a 5-L bioreactor. These data suggested that integration of key genes increased SA yields effectively. This strategy is environmentally friendly for no antibiotic is added, simple to handle without induction, and suitable for industrial production. PMID:26672454

  4. Yeast Fex1p Is a Constitutively Expressed Fluoride Channel with Functional Asymmetry of Its Two Homologous Domains.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathryn D; Gordon, Patricia B; Rivetta, Alberto; Allen, Kenneth E; Berbasova, Tetyana; Slayman, Clifford; Strobel, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous environmental toxin with which all biological species must cope. A recently discovered family of fluoride export (FEX) proteins protects organisms from fluoride toxicity by removing it from the cell. We show here that FEX proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function as ion channels that are selective for fluoride over chloride and that these proteins are constitutively expressed at the yeast plasma membrane. Continuous expression is in contrast to many other toxin exporters in yeast, and this, along with the fact that two nearly duplicate proteins are encoded in the yeast genome, suggests that the threat posed by fluoride ions is frequent and detrimental. Structurally, eukaryotic FEX proteins consist of two homologous four-transmembrane helix domains folded into an antiparallel dimer, where the orientation of the two domains is fixed by a single transmembrane linker helix. Using phylogenetic sequence conservation as a guide, we have identified several functionally important residues. There is substantial functional asymmetry in the effect of mutation at corresponding sites in the two domains. Specifically, mutations to residues in the C-terminal domain proved significantly more detrimental to function than did similar mutations in the N-terminal domain. Our data suggest particular residues that may be important to anion specificity, most notably the necessity of a positive charge near the end of TMH1 in the C-terminal domain. It is possible that a cationic charge at this location may create an electrostatic well for fluoride ions entering the channel from the cytoplasm. PMID:26055717

  5. Relationship between mucin expression of gastric intramucosal signet ring cell carcinoma and its background mucosa.

    PubMed

    Seki, Takayuki; Ito, Tateki; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Sekine, Masaki; Funata, Nobuaki; Takizawa, Touichiro

    2009-03-01

    The intramucosal lesion of gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (SIG) is known to form a layered structure (LS) that simulates mucin expression in ordinary gastric mucosa. In this study, we suspected the influence of background mucosa on the formation of LS and performed histopathological analysis. We examined 35 cases of intramucosal SIG with a maximum diameter of 30 mm or less. The LS patterns were classified into those with a layer of MUC6-positive cells (complete pattern, CP) and those lacking this layer (incomplete pattern, ICP). The relationship between LS patterns and the characteristics of the background mucosa, the expression of MUC2 (intestinal-type mucin antigen), MUC5AC (foveolar-type mucin antigen), and Ki-67 (the marker of cell proliferation activity) was examined by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Intestinal metaplasia in the background mucosa and MUC2 expression were frequently observed in cases with ICP. Ki-67-positive cells were much more and they were distributed more widely in the lesion of cases with ICP alone than in the other cases. Mucin expression and LS formation of gastric SIG are strongly influenced by its background mucosa. The cases completely lacking MUC6 expression may have higher malignant potential. PMID:19697516

  6. Ortho-Aminoazotoluene activates mouse Constitutive Androstane Receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes

    PubMed Central

    Smetanina, Mariya A.; Pakharukova, Mariya Y.; Kurinna, Svitlana M.; Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P.; Moore, David D.; Merkulova, Tatyana I.

    2011-01-01

    2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car?/?) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car?/? livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor. PMID:21672546

  7. Ortho-aminoazotoluene activates mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes

    SciTech Connect

    Smetanina, Mariya A.; Pakharukova, Mariya Y.; Kurinna, Svitlana M.; Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P.; Moore, David D.; Merkulova, Tatyana I.

    2011-08-15

    2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car{sup -/-}) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car{sup -/-} livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor. - Highlights: > The azo dye and mouse carcinogen OAT is a very effective mCAR activator. > OAT increases mCAR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. > OAT CAR-dependently increases the expression of a specific subset of CAR target genes. > OAT induces an unexpectedly deferred, but CAR-dependent hepatocyte proliferation.

  8. A novel meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine with constitutive expression of FetA: A phase I clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Marsay, L.; Dold, C.; Green, C.A.; Rollier, C.S.; Norheim, G.; Sadarangani, M.; Shanyinde, M.; Brehony, C.; Thompson, A.J.; Sanders, H.; Chan, H.; Haworth, K.; Derrick, J.P.; Feavers, I.M.; Maiden, M.C.; Pollard, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines are used against outbreaks of capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) caused by strains expressing particular PorA outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Ferric enterobactin receptor (FetA) is another variable OMP that induces type-specific bactericidal antibodies, and the combination of judiciously chosen PorA and FetA variants in vaccine formulations is a potential approach to broaden protection of such vaccines. Methods The OMV vaccine MenPF-1 was generated by genetically modifying N. meningitidis strain 44/76 to constitutively express FetA. Three doses of 25 ?g or 50 ?g of MenPF-1 were delivered intra-muscularly to 52 healthy adults. Results MenPF-1 was safe and well tolerated. Immunogenicity was measured by serum bactericidal assay (SBA) against wild-type and isogenic mutant strains. After 3 doses, the proportion of volunteers with SBA titres ?1:4 (the putative protective titre) was 98% for the wild-type strain, and 77% for the strain 44/76 FetAonPorAoff compared to 51% in the strain 44/76 FetAoffPorAoff, demonstrating that vaccination with MenPF-1 simultaneously induced FetA and PorA bactericidal antibodies. Conclusion This study provides a proof-of-concept for generating bactericidal antibodies against FetA after OMV vaccination in humans. Prevalence-based choice of PorA and FetA types can be used to formulate a vaccine for broad protection against MenB disease. PMID:25982025

  9. Constitutive Expression of the Maize Genes B1 and C1 in Transgenic Hi II Maize Results in Differential Tissue Pigmentation and Generates Resistance to Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanin biosynthesis in maize protects tissues from biotic and abiotic stresses. Constitutive expression of the maize B1 and C1 genes, which induces anthocyanin biosynthesis, resulted in transgenic plants with varied phenotypes. Some colored leaves were substantially resistant to thrips damage...

  10. Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study

    PubMed Central

    Woloszyn, Michael R.; Ewert, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were recalled as sad when sad music was previously heard, and that sad faces were recalled as happy when happy music was previously heard. Overall, the results indicated that when recalling a scene, the emotional tone is set by an integration of stimulus features from several modalities. PMID:22956988

  11. Constitutive high-level expression of a codon-optimized ?-fructosidase gene from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Carmen; Martínez, Duniesky; Trujillo, Luis E; Mazola, Yuliet; González, Ernesto; Pérez, Enrique R; Hernández, Lázaro

    2013-02-01

    Enzymes for use in the sugar industry are preferred to be thermotolerant. In this study, a synthetic codon-optimized gene encoding a highly thermostable ?-fructosidase (BfrA, EC 3.2.1.26) from the bacterium Thermotoga maritima was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The gradual increase of the transgene dosage from one to four copies under the control of the constitutive glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter had an additive effect on BfrA yield without causing cell toxicity. Maximal values of cell biomass (115 g/l, dry weight) and overall invertase activity (241 U/ml) were reached at 72 h in fed-batch fermentations using cane sugar as the main carbon source for growth. Secretion driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-factor signal peptide resulted in periplasmic retention (44 %) and extracellular release (56 %) of BfrA. The presence of N-linked oligosaccharides did not influence the optimal activity, thermal stability, kinetic properties, substrate specificity, and exo-type action mode of the yeast-secreted BfrA in comparison to the native unglycosylated enzyme. Complete inversion of cane sugar at initial concentration of 60 % (w/v) was achieved by periplasmic BfrA in undisrupted cells reacting at pH 5.5 and 70 °C, with average productivity of 4.4 g of substrate hydrolyzed per grams of biomass (wet weight) per hour. The high yield of fully active glycosylated BfrA here attained by recombinant P. pastoris in a low-cost fermentation process appears to be attractive for the large-scale production of this thermostable enzyme useful for the manufacture of inverted sugar syrup. PMID:22821437

  12. Up-regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in tobacco cells constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP(3). The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP(3) compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP(3) in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP(3) levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP(3) signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP(2)), the lipid precursor of InsP(3), was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP(2) metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP(2)-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of (32)P into PtdInsP(2) in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP(2) synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP(2) synthesis as a regulatory step in this system.

  13. Impairments in cognition and neural precursor cell proliferation in mice expressing constitutively active glycogen synthase kinase-3

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Marta; King, Margaret K.; Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Martinez, Ana; Beurel, Eleonore; Jope, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Brain glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is hyperactive in several neurological conditions that involve impairments in both cognition and neurogenesis. This raises the hypotheses that hyperactive GSK3 may directly contribute to impaired cognition, and that this may be related to deficiencies in neural precursor cells (NPC). To study the effects of hyperactive GSK3 in the absence of disease influences, we compared adult hippocampal NPC proliferation and performance in three cognitive tasks in male and female wild-type (WT) mice and GSK3 knockin mice, which express constitutively active GSK3. NPC proliferation was ~40% deficient in both male and female GSK3 knockin mice compared with WT mice. Environmental enrichment (EE) increased NPC proliferation in male, but not female, GSK3 knockin mice and WT mice. Male and female GSK3 knockin mice exhibited impairments in novel object recognition, temporal order memory, and coordinate spatial processing compared with gender-matched WT mice. EE restored impaired novel object recognition and temporal ordering in both sexes of GSK3 knockin mice, indicating that this repair was not dependent on NPC proliferation, which was not increased by EE in female GSK3 knockin mice. Acute 1 h pretreatment with the GSK3 inhibitor TDZD-8 also improved novel object recognition and temporal ordering in male and female GSK3 knockin mice. These findings demonstrate that hyperactive GSK3 is sufficient to impair adult hippocampal NPC proliferation and to impair performance in three cognitive tasks in both male and female mice, but these changes in NPC proliferation do not directly regulate novel object recognition and temporal ordering tasks. PMID:25788881

  14. Up-Regulation of Phosphoinositide Metabolism in Tobacco Cells Constitutively Expressing the Human Type I Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase1

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP3. The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP3 compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP3 in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP3 levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP3 signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP2), the lipid precursor of InsP3, was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP2 metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP2-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of 32P into PtdInsP2 in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP2 synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP2 synthesis as a regulatory step in this system. PMID:12177493

  15. Constitutive expression of Campylobacter jejuni truncated hemoglobin CtrHb improves the growth of Escherichia coli cell under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiang-Ke; Xiong, Wei; Xu, Li; Li, Jia; Zhao, Xiu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria hemoglobin could bind to the oxygen, transfer it from the intracellular microenvironment to the respiration process and sustain the energy for the metabolism and reproduction of cells. Heterologous expression of bacteria hemoglobin gene could improve the capacity of the host on oxygen-capturing and allow it to grow even under microaerophilic condition. To develop a system based on hemoglobin to help bacteria cells overcome the oxygen shortage in fermentation, in this study, Campylobacter jejuni truncated hemoglobin (CtrHb) gene was synthesized and expressed under the control of constitutive expression promoters P2 and P(SPO1-II) in Escherichia coli. As showed by the growth curves of the two recombinants P2-CtrHb and P(SPO1-II)-CtrHb, constitutive expression of CtrHb improved cell growth under aerobic shaking-flasks, anaerobic capped-bottles and bioreactor conditions. According to the NMR analysis, this improvement might come from the expression of hemoglobin which could boost the metabolism of cells by supplying more oxygen to the respiratory chain processes. Through semi-quantitative RT-PCR and CO differential spectrum assays, we further discussed the connection between the growth patterns of the recombinants, the expression level of CtrHb and oxygen binding capacity of CtrHb in cells. Based on the growth patterns of these recombinants in bioreactor, a possible choice on different type of recombinants under specific fermentation conditions was also suggested in this study. PMID:26047918

  16. Genetic Background Modulates Gene Expression Profile Induced by Skin Irradiation in Ptch1 Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Galvan, Antonella; Noci, Sara; Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna; Dragani, Tommaso A.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: Ptch1 germ-line mutations in mice predispose to radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma of the skin, with tumor incidence modulated by the genetic background. Here, we examined the possible mechanisms underlying skin response to radiation in F1 progeny of Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice crossed with either skin tumor-susceptible (Car-S) or -resistant (Car-R) mice and X-irradiated (3 Gy) at 2 days of age or left untreated. Methods and Materials: We conducted a gene expression profile analysis in mRNA samples extracted from the skin of irradiated or control mice, using Affymetrix whole mouse genome expression array. Confirmation of the results was done using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Analysis of the gene expression profile of normal skin of F1 mice at 4 weeks of age revealed a similar basal profile in the nonirradiated mice, but alterations in levels of 71 transcripts in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-R cross and modulation of only eight genes in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-S cross. Conclusions: These results indicate that neonatal irradiation causes a persistent change in the gene expression profile of the skin. The tendency of mice genetically resistant to skin tumorigenesis to show a more complex pattern of transcriptional response to radiation than do genetically susceptible mice suggests a role for this response in genetic resistance to basal cell tumorigenesis.

  17. Non-competitive antagonism of ?2-agonist-mediated cyclic AMP accumulation by ICI 118551 in BC3H1 cells endogenously expressing constitutively active ?2-adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Hopkinson, H E; Latif, M L; Hill, S J

    2000-01-01

    Constitutive activity of the ?2-adrenoceptor, which is sensitive to inhibition by an inverse agonist such as ICI?118551, has been readily demonstrated in recombinant systems expressing constitutively-active mutant receptors or over-expressing the wild-type ?2-adrenoceptor. Here we demonstrate the presence of constitutive ?2-adrenoceptor activity in BC3H1 cells which endogenously express this receptor. In BC3H1 cells, only ICI?118551 behaved as an inverse agonist at ?2-adrenoceptors, while propranolol, ICI?118551, atenolol and, to a lesser extent, alprenolol exhibited inverse agonism in CHO-?24 cells transfected with cDNA for the human ?2-adrenoceptor (310?fmol.mg protein?1). The level of expression of ?2-adrenoceptors in BC3H1 cells was not high (78 fmol.mg protein?1) and the efficiency of receptor–effector coupling in this cell line was much lower than in the recombinant CHO-?24 cells (as judged by the partial agonist nature of both salbutamol and clenbuterol). ICI?118551 (log KD?9.73±0.07) and propranolol (log KD?9.25±0.12) both behaved as conventional competitive antagonists of isoprenaline-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in high expressing CHO-?24 cells. In contrast, ICI 118551 appeared to act as a non-competitive antagonist in BC3H1 cells and in low expressing CHO-?26 cells (50?fmol.mg protein?1). This non-competitive effect of ICI 118551 in BC3H1 cells was also observed when either salbutamol was used as agonist, or the incubation period with isoprenaline was extended to 30?min. The possibility that these effects of ICI 118551 are due to an interaction with different affinity states (R, R* and R?) of the receptor is discussed. PMID:10960078

  18. Constitutive expression of the embryonic stem cell marker OCT4 in bovine somatic donor cells influences blastocysts rate and quality after nucleus transfer.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alvarez, Lleretny; Manriquez, Jose; Velasquez, Alejandra; Castro, Fidel Ovidio

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear transfer (NT) is associated with epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells. Expression of certain genes in these cells might facilitate their expression in the NT embryo. This research was aimed to investigate the effect of constitutive expression of OCT4 in bovine somatic cells used for NT on the developmental potential of derived cloned embryos as well as in the expression of pluripotency markers in the Day-7 resulting embryos. Cloned blastocysts were generated from five cell lines that expressed OCT4. Pools of blastocysts were screened to detect OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG by qPCR. In vitro-fertilized time-matched blastocysts were used as controls. The development potential was assessed on the basis of blastocysts rate; grading and total cell counts at Day 7. OCT4 expression in the cell lines positively correlates with blastocysts rate (r = 0.92; p = 0.02), number of grade I blastocysts (r = 0.96; p = 0.01), and total cell number (r = 0.98; p = 0.002). The high expression of OCT4 in the cell line did not improve the final outcome of cloning. Somatic expression of OCT4 lead to increased expression of OCT4 and SOX2 in cloned grade I blastocysts; however, there was a bigger variability in OCT4 and SOX2 (p = 0.03; p = 0.02) expression in the embryos generated from cells expressing highest levels of OCT4. Probably the higher variability in OCT4 expression in cloned embryos is due to incorrect reprogramming and incapability of the oocyte to correct for higher OCT4 levels. For that reason, we concluded that OCT4 expression in somatic cells is not a good prognosis marker for selecting cell lines. PMID:23846396

  19. Molecular identication of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase as a substrate of a specic constitutively active Arabidopsis CDPK expressed

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    Molecular identi¢cation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase as a substrate of a speci¢c constitutively ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a key enzyme in pathogen defence, stress response and secondary metabolism rights reserved. Key words: Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; Protein kinase; Calmodulin-like domain protein

  20. Long noncoding RNA expression profiles in gut tissues constitute molecular signatures that reflect the types of microbes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lunxi; Ai, Luoyan; Qian, Jin; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is commonly referred to as a hidden organ due to its pivotal effects on host physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immunity. The gut microbes may be shaped by environmental and host genetic factors, and previous studies have focused on the roles of protein-coding genes. Here we show a link between long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression and gut microbes. By repurposing exon microarrays and comparing the lncRNA expression profiles between germ-free, conventional and different gnotobiotic mice, we revealed subgroups of lncRNAs that were specifically enriched in each condition. A nearest shrunken centroid methodology was applied to obtain lncRNA-based signatures to identify mice in different conditions. The lncRNA-based prediction model successfully identified different gnotobiotic mice from conventional and germ-free mice, and also discriminated mice harboring transplanted microbes from fecal samples of mice or zebra fishes. To achieve optimal prediction accuracy, fewer lncRNAs were required in the prediction model than protein-coding genes. Taken together, our study demonstrated the effecacy of lncRNA expression profiles in discriminating the types of microbes in the gut. These results also provide a resource of gut microbe-associated lncRNAs for the development of lncRNA biomarkers and the identification of functional lncRNAs in host-microbes interactions. PMID:26123364

  1. Constitutive Smad signaling and Smad-dependent collagen gene expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Asish K Wei, Jun; Wu, Minghua; Varga, John

    2008-09-19

    Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}), a potent inducer of collagen synthesis, is implicated in pathological fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates adipogenesis and numerous other biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that collagen gene expression was markedly elevated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking PPAR-{gamma} compared to heterozygous control MEFs. Treatment with the PPAR-{gamma} ligand 15d-PGJ{sub 2} failed to down-regulate collagen gene expression in PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs, whereas reconstitution of these cells with ectopic PPAR-{gamma} resulted in their normalization. Compared to control MEFs, PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs displayed elevated levels of the Type I TGF-{beta} receptor (T{beta}RI), and secreted more TGF-{beta}1 into the media. Furthermore, PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs showed constitutive phosphorylation of cellular Smad2 and Smad3, even in the absence of exogenous TGF-{beta}, which was abrogated by the ALK5 inhibitor SB431542. Constitutive Smad2/3 phosphorylation in PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs was associated with Smad3 binding to its cognate DNA recognition sequences, and interaction with coactivator p300 previously implicated in TGF-{beta} responses. Taken together, these results indicate that loss of PPAR-{gamma} in MEFs is associated with upregulation of collagen synthesis, and activation of intracellular Smad signal transduction, due, at least in part, to autocrine TGF-{beta} stimulation.

  2. Constitutive Expression of OsIAA9 Affects Starch Granules Accumulation and Root Gravitropic Response in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Sha; Li, Qianqian; Liu, Shanda; Pinas, Nicholaas M.; Tian, Hainan; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) genes are early auxin response genes ecoding short-lived transcriptional repressors, which regulate auxin signaling in plants by interplay with Auxin Response Factors (ARFs). Most of the Aux/IAA proteins contain four different domains, namely Domain I, Domain II, Domain III, and Domain IV. So far all Aux/IAA mutants with auxin-related phenotypes identified in both Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) are dominant gain-of-function mutants with mutations in Domain II of the corresponding Aux/IAA proteins, suggest that Aux/IAA proteins in both Arabidopsis and rice are largely functional redundantly, and they may have conserved functions. We report here the functional characterization of a rice Aux/IAA gene, OsIAA9. RT-PCR results showed that expression of OsIAA9 was induced by exogenously applied auxin, suggesting that OsIAA9 is an auxin response gene. Bioinformatic analysis showed that OsIAA9 has a repressor motif in Domain I, a degron in Domain II, and the conserved amino acid signatures for protein-protein interactions in Domain III and Domain IV. By generating transgenic plants expressing GFP-OsIAA9 and examining florescence in the transgenic plants, we found that OsIAA9 is localized in the nucleus. When transfected into protoplasts isolated from rosette leaves of Arabidopsis, OsIAA9 repressed reporter gene expression, and the repression was partially released by exogenously IAA. These results suggest that OsIAA9 is a canonical Aux/IAA protein. Protoplast transfection assays showed that OsIAA9 interacted ARF5, but not ARF6, 7, 8 and 19. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing OsIAA9 have increased number of lateral roots, and reduced gravitropic response. Further analysis showed that OsIAA9 transgenic Arabidopsis plants accumulated fewer granules in their root tips and the distribution of granules was also affected. Taken together, our study showed that OsIAA9 is a transcriptional repressor, and it regulates gravitropic response when expressed in Arabidopsis by regulating granules accumulation and distribution in root tips.

  3. Constitutional Conservatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    After their dismal performance in election 2008, conservatives are taking stock. As they examine the causes that have driven them into the political wilderness and as they explore paths out, they should also take heart. After all, election 2008 shows that America's constitutional order is working as designed. Indeed, while sorting out their errors…

  4. Constitutional Artillery 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    Although no guarantee exists in the Constitution to a right to privacy, it is now generally accepted that individuals have a right to be "let alone.'' In this thesis, I will propose an alternative formulation of the right to privacy, using insights...

  5. Mitochondria of a human multidrug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell line constitutively express inducible nitric oxide synthase in the inner membrane.

    PubMed

    Fantappiè, Ornella; Sassoli, Chiara; Tani, Alessia; Nosi, Daniele; Marchetti, Serena; Formigli, Lucia; Mazzanti, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria play a crucial role in pathways of stress conditions. They can be transported from one cell to another, bringing their features to the cell where they are transported. It has been shown in cancer cells overexpressing multidrug resistance (MDR) that mitochondria express proteins involved in drug resistance such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistant protein and multiple resistance protein-1. The MDR phenotype is associated with the constitutive expression of COX-2 and iNOS, whereas celecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2 activity, reverses drug resistance of MDR cells by releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria. It is possible that COX-2 and iNOS are also expressed in mitochondria of cancer cells overexpressing the MDR phenotype. This study involved experiments using the human HCC PLC/PRF/5 cell line with and without MDR phenotype and melanoma A375 cells that do not express the MDR1 phenotype but they do iNOS. Western blot analysis, confocal immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy showed that iNOS is localized in mitochondria of MDR1-positive cells, whereas COX-2 is not. Low and moderate concentrations of celecoxib modulate the expression of iNOS and P-gp in mitochondria of MDR cancer cells independently from inhibition of COX-2 activity. However, A375 cells that express iNOS also in mitochondria, were not MDR1 positive. In conclusion, iNOS can be localized in mitochondria of HCC cells overexpressing MDR1 phenotype, however this phenomenon appears independent from the MDR1 phenotype occurrence. The presence of iNOS in mitochondria of human HCC cells phenotype probably concurs to a more aggressive behaviour of cancer cells. PMID:25691007

  6. Increased Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger Expression/Activity Constitutes a Point of Inflection in the Progression to Heart Failure of Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jesica S.; Velez Rueda, J. Omar; Salas, Margarita; Becerra, Romina; Di Carlo, Mariano N.; Said, Matilde; Vittone, Leticia; Rinaldi, Gustavo; Portiansky, Enrique L.; Mundiña-Weilenmann, Cecilia; Palomeque, Julieta; Mattiazzi, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) constitutes a genetic model widely used to study the natural evolution of hypertensive heart disease. Ca2+-handling alterations are known to occur in SHR. However, the putative modifications of Ca2+-handling proteins during the progression to heart failure (HF) are not well established. Moreover, the role of apoptosis in SHR is controversial. We investigated intracellular Ca2+, Ca2+-handling proteins and apoptosis in SHR vs. control Wistar rats (W) from 3 to 15 months (mo). Changes associated with the transition to HF (i.e. lung edema and decrease in midwall fractional shortening), occurred at 15 mo in 38% of SHR (SHRF). In SHRF, twitch and caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients, significantly decreased relative to 6/9 mo and 15 mo without HF signs. This decrease occurred in association with a decrease in the time constant of caffeine-Ca2+ transient decay and an increase in Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) abundance (p<0.05) with no changes in SERCA2a expression/activity. An increased Ca2+-calmodulin-kinase II activity, associated with an enhancement of apoptosis (TUNEL and Bax/Bcl2) was observed in SHR relative to W from 3 to 15 mo. Conclusions: 1. Apoptosis is an early and persistent event that may contribute to hypertrophic remodeling but would not participate in the contractile impairment of SHRF. 2. The increase in NCX expression/activity, associated with an increase in Ca2+ efflux from the cell, constitutes a primary alteration of Ca2+-handling proteins in the evolution to HF. 3. No changes in SERCA2a expression/activity are observed when HF signs become evident. PMID:24781001

  7. Genome-wide expression analysis upon constitutive activation of the HacA bZIP transcription factor in Aspergillus niger reveals a coordinated cellular response to counteract ER stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background HacA/Xbp1 is a conserved bZIP transcription factor in eukaryotic cells which regulates gene expression in response to various forms of secretion stress and as part of secretory cell differentiation. In the present study, we replaced the endogenous hacA gene of an Aspergillus niger strain with a gene encoding a constitutively active form of the HacA transcription factor (HacACA). The impact of constitutive HacA activity during exponential growth was explored in bioreactor controlled cultures using transcriptomic analysis to identify affected genes and processes. Results Transcription profiles for the wild-type strain (HacAWT) and the HacACA strain were obtained using Affymetrix GeneChip analysis of three replicate batch cultures of each strain. In addition to the well known HacA targets such as the ER resident foldases and chaperones, GO enrichment analysis revealed up-regulation of genes involved in protein glycosylation, phospholipid biosynthesis, intracellular protein transport, exocytosis and protein complex assembly in the HacACA mutant. Biological processes over-represented in the down-regulated genes include those belonging to central metabolic pathways, translation and transcription. A remarkable transcriptional response in the HacACA strain was the down-regulation of the AmyR transcription factor and its target genes. Conclusions The results indicate that the constitutive activation of the HacA leads to a coordinated regulation of the folding and secretion capacity of the cell, but with consequences on growth and fungal physiology to reduce secretion stress. PMID:22846479

  8. Yeast GMP kinase mutants constitutively express AMP biosynthesis genes by phenocopying a hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase defect.

    PubMed Central

    Lecoq, K; Konrad, M; Daignan-Fornier, B

    2000-01-01

    We have characterized a new locus, BRA3, leading to deregulation of the yeast purine synthesis genes (ADE genes). We show that bra3 mutations are alleles of the GUK1 gene, which encodes GMP kinase. The bra3 mutants have a low GMP kinase activity, excrete purines in the medium, and show vegetative growth defects and resistance to purine base analogs. The bra3 locus also corresponds to the previously described pur5 locus. Several lines of evidence indicate that the decrease in GMP kinase activity in the bra3 mutants results in GMP accumulation and feedback inhibition of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT), encoded by the HPT1 gene. First, guk1 and hpt1 mutants share several phenotypes, such as adenine derepression, purine excretion, and 8-azaguanine resistance. Second, overexpression of HPT1 allows suppression of the deregulated phenotype of the guk1 mutants. Third, we show that purified yeast HGPRT is inhibited by GMP in vitro. Finally, incorporation of hypoxanthine into nucleotides is similarly diminished in hpt1 and guk1 mutants in vivo. We conclude that the decrease in GMP kinase activity in the guk1 mutants results in deregulation of the ADE gene expression by phenocopying a defect in HGPRT. The possible occurrence of a similar phenomenon in humans is discussed. PMID:11063676

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of PtrLAR3, a gene encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase from Populus trichocarpa, and its constitutive expression enhances fungal resistance in transgenic plants

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Li; Wang, Lijun; Han, Zujing; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Zhao, Lili; Liu, Hong; Yang, Li; Luo, Keming

    2012-01-01

    The flavonoid-derived proanthocyanidins (PAs) are one class of the major defence phenolics in poplar leaves. Transcriptional activation of PA biosynthetic genes, resulting in PA accumulation in leaves, was detected following infection by the fungal Marssonina brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi using digital gene expression analysis. In order to study PA biosynthesis and its induction by fungi, a putative leucoanthocyanidin reductase gene, PtrLAR3, was isolated from Populus trichocarpa. Sequence comparison of PtrLAR3 with other known leucoanthocyanidin reductase proteins revealed high amino acid sequence similarity. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription (RT) PCR and quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that PtrLAR3 was expressed in various tissues and the highest level of expression was observed in roots. Overexpression of PtrLAR3 in Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.) led to a significant plant-wide increase in PA levels. In vitro assays showed that crude leaf extracts from 35S:PtrLAR3 transformants were able to inhibit significantly the hyphal growth of M. brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi compared to the extracts from control plants. The transgenic 35S:PtrLAR3 poplar plants displayed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in their disease symptoms compared with the control. RT-PCR analysis showed that PtrLAR3 expression was up-regulated in all transformants. These results suggested that constitutive expression of endogenous PtrLAR3 could be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogens in poplar. PMID:22268151

  10. Selection for low or high primary dormancy in Lolium rigidum Gaud seeds results in constitutive differences in stress protein expression and peroxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, Danica E.; Powles, Stephen B.; Steadman, Kathryn J.

    2011-01-01

    Seed dormancy in wild Lolium rigidum Gaud (annual ryegrass) populations is highly variable and not well characterized at the biochemical level. To identify some of the determinants of dormancy level in these seeds, the proteomes of subpopulations selected for low and high levels of primary dormancy were compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts from mature, dry seeds. High-dormancy seeds showed higher expression of small heat shock proteins, enolase, and glyoxalase I than the low-dormancy seeds. The functional relevance of these differences in protein expression was confirmed by the fact that high-dormancy seeds were more tolerant to high temperatures imposed at imbibition and had consistently higher glyoxalase I activity over 0–42?d dark stratification. Higher expression of a putative glutathione peroxidase in low-dormancy seeds was not accompanied by higher activity, but these seeds had a slightly more oxidized glutathione pool and higher total peroxidase activity. Overall, these biochemical and physiological differences suggest that L. rigidum seeds selected for low dormancy are more prepared for rapid germination via peroxidase-mediated cell wall weakening, whilst seeds selected for high dormancy are constitutively prepared to survive environmental stresses, even in the absence of stress during seed development. PMID:20974739

  11. Cytoplasmic prostaglandin E2 synthase is dominantly expressed in cultured KAT-50 thyrocytes, cells that express constitutive prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase-2. Basis for low protaglandin E2 production.

    PubMed

    Han, Rui; Smith, Terry J

    2002-09-27

    The recent identification and cloning of two glutathione-dependent prostaglandin E(2) synthase (PGES) genes has yielded important insights into the terminal step of PGE(2) synthesis. These enzymes form efficient functional pairs with specific members of the prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase (PGHS) family. Microsomal PGES (mPGES) is inducible and works more efficiently with PGHS-2, the inflammatory cyclooxygenase, while the cytoplasmic isoform (cPGES) pairs functionally with PGHS-1, the cyclooxygenase that ordinarily exhibits constitutive expression. KAT-50, a well differentiated thyroid epithelial cell line, expresses high levels of PGHS-2 but surprisingly low levels of PGE(2) when compared with human orbital fibroblasts. Moreover, PGHS-1 protein cannot be detected in KAT-50. We report here that KAT-50 cells express high basal levels of cPGES but mPGES mRNA and protein are undetectable. Thus, KAT-50 cells express the inefficient PGHS-2/cPGES pair, and this results in modest PGE(2) production. The high levels of cPGES and the absence of mPGES expression result from dramatic differences in the activities of their respective gene promoters. When mPGES is expressed in KAT-50 by transiently transfecting the cells, PGE(2) production is up-regulated substantially. These observations indicate that naturally occurring cells can express a suboptimal profile of PGHS and PGES isoforms, resulting in diminished levels of PGE(2) generation. PMID:12145315

  12. Archetype JC Virus Efficiently Replicates in COS-7 Cells, Simian Cells Constitutively Expressing Simian Virus 40 T Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Kazuya; Sugimoto, Chie; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Aoki, Naoto; Taguchi, Fumiaki; Yogo, Yoshiaki

    1998-01-01

    JC polyomavirus (JCV), the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), is ubiquitous in humans, infecting children asymptomatically and then persisting in the kidney. Renal JCV is not latent but replicates to excrete progeny in the urine. The renal-urinary JCV DNAs carry the archetype regulatory region that generates various rearranged regulatory regions occurring in JCVs derived from the brains of PML patients. Tissue cultures that support the efficient growth of archetype JCV have not been reported. We studied whether archetype JCV could replicate in COS-7 cells, simian cells transformed with an origin-defective mutant of simian virus 40 (SV40). Efficient JCV replication, as detected by a hemagglutination assay, was observed in cultures transfected with five of the six archetype DNAs. The progeny JCVs could be passaged to fresh COS-7 cells. However, when the parental cells of COS-7 not expressing T antigen were transfected with archetype JCV DNAs, no viral replication was detected, indicating that SV40 T antigen is essential for the growth of JCV in COS-7 cells. The archetype regulatory region was conserved during viral growth in COS-7 cells, although a small proportion of JCV DNAs underwent rearrangements outside the regulatory region. We then attempted to recover archetype JCV from urine by viral culture in COS-7 cells. Efficient JCV production was observed in COS-7 cells infected with five of the six JCV-positive urine samples examined. Thus, COS-7 cells should be of use not only for the production of archetype JCV on a large scale but also for the isolation of archetype JCV from urine. PMID:9620986

  13. AID, p53 and MLH1 expression in early gastric neoplasms and the correlation with the background mucosa

    PubMed Central

    KAWATA, SOICHIRO; YASHIMA, KAZUO; YAMAMOTO, SOHEI; SASAKI, SHUJI; TAKEDA, YOHEI; HAYASHI, AKIHIRO; MATSUMOTO, KAZUYA; KAWAGUCHI, KOICHIRO; HARADA, KENICHI; MURAWAKI, YOSHIKAZU

    2015-01-01

    A number of tumor-associated genes have been associated with gastric cancer development. The present study evaluated differences in tumor-associated protein expression and phenotype among early gastric neoplasms, and correlated these data with those of the background mucosa. The expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), p53 and MLH1 in 151 early gastric neoplasms [22 gastric adenomas, 92 intramucosal carcinomas (MCs), and 37 submucosal carcinomas (SMCs)] was examined immunohistochemically and compared with that of the corresponding background mucosal condition. The cellular phenotypes of the neoplasms and the corresponding background intestinal metaplasia were also determined. Aberrant AID, p53 and MLH1 expression was detected in 36.4, 0 and 0% of the adenomas, in 35.9, 32.6 and 16.3% of the MCs, and in 56.8, 62.2 and 21.6% of the SMCs, respectively. The frequency of aberrant AID and p53 expression in the SMCs was significantly increased compared with that in the MCs (AID, P<0.05; p53, P<0.01). Aberrant AID expression was significantly associated with p53 overexpression in the SMCs (P<0.01), but not in the adenomas or MCs. In addition, AID expression was associated with the severity of mononuclear cell activity in the non-cancerous mucosa adjacent to the tumor (P<0.05), particularly in the SMC cases. The percentage of MCs (34.8%) and SMCs (24.3%) that were of the gastric phenotype was higher compared with the percentage of adenomas (18.2%). These results indicated that p53 and MLH1 expression and a gastric phenotype may be important for carcinogenesis, and that chronic inflammation and AID and p53 expression are associated with submucosal progression. PMID:26622562

  14. Constitutive expression of Gs?R201C in mice produces a heritable, direct replica of human fibrous dysplasia bone pathology and demonstrates its natural history

    PubMed Central

    Saggio, Isabella; Remoli, Cristina; Spica, Emanuela; Cersosimo, Stefania; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Robey, Pamela G.; Holmbeck, Kenn; Cumano, Ana; Boyde, Alan; Bianco, Paolo; Riminucci, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD) is a crippling skeletal disease associated with post zygotic mutations (R201C, R201H) of the gene encoding the ? subunit of the stimulatory G protein, Gs. By causing a characteristic structural subversion of bone and bone marrow, the disease results in deformity, hypomineralization, and fracture of the affected bones, with severe morbidity arising in childhood or adolescence. Lack of inheritance of the disease in humans is thought to reflect embryonic lethality of germline-transmitted activating Gs? mutations, which would only survive through somatic mosaicism. We have generated multiple lines of mice that express Gs?R201C constitutively and develop an inherited, histopathologically exact replica of human FD. Robust transgene expression in neonatal and embryonic tissues, and embryonic stem (ES) cells was associated with normal development of skeletal tissues and differentiation of skeletal cells. As in humans, FD lesions in mice developed only in the postnatal life; a defined spatial and temporal pattern characterized the onset and progression of lesions across the skeleton. In individual bones, lesions developed through a sequence of three distinct histopathological stages: a primary modeling phase defined by endosteal/medullary excess bone formation, and normal resorption; a secondary phase, with excess, inappropriate remodeling; and a tertiary fibrous dysplastic phase, which reproduced a full-blown replica of the human bone pathology in mice of age ?1 year. Gs? mutations are sufficient to cause FD, and are per se compatible with germline transmission and normal embryonic development in mice. Our novel murine lines constitute the first model of FD. PMID:24764158

  15. Loss of aquaporin 3 protein expression constitutes an independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival: an immunohistochemical study on stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with stage pT1 urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) continues to be a challenge due to its unpredictable clinical course. Reliable molecular markers that help to determine appropriate individual treatment are still lacking. Loss of aquaporin (AQP) 3 protein expression has previously been shown in muscle-invasive UBC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of AQP3 protein expression with regard to the prognosis of stage pT1 UBC. Method AQP 3 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in specimens of 87 stage T1 UBC patients, who were diagnosed by transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) and subsequent second resection at a high-volume urological centre between 2002 and 2009. Patients underwent adjuvant instillation therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Loss of AQP3 protein expression was defined as complete absence of the protein within the whole tumour. Expression status was correlated retrospectively with clinicopathological and follow-up data (median: 31 months). Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess the value of AQP3 tumour expression with regard to recurrence-free (RFS), progression-free (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). RFS, PFS and CSS were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Log rank test. Results 59% of patients were shown to exhibit AQP3-positive tumours, whereas 41% of tumours did not express the marker. Loss of AQP3 protein expression was associated with a statistically significantly worse PFS (20% vs. 72%, p=0.020). This finding was confirmed by multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR 7.58, CI 1.29 – 44.68; p=0.025). Conclusions Loss of AQP3 protein expression in pT1 UBC appears to play a key role in disease progression and is associated with worse PFS. Considering its potential prognostic value, assessment of AQP3 protein expression could be used to help stratify the behavior of patients with pT1 UBC. PMID:23043286

  16. Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shengchang; Bangar, Hansraj; Saldanha, Roland; Pemberton, Adin; Aronow, Bruce; Dean, Gary E; Lamkin, Thomas J; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Here, we constructed stable, chromosomal, constitutively expressed, green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and RFP) as reporters in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using bioinformatic approaches and other experimental analyses, we identified P0253 and P1 as potent promoters that drive the optimal expression of fluorescent reporters in single copy in B. anthracis and Burkholderia spp. as well as their surrogate strains, respectively. In comparison, Y. pestis and its surrogate strain need two chromosomal copies of cysZK promoter (P2cysZK) for optimal fluorescence. The P0253-, P2cysZK-, and P1-driven GFP and RFP fusions were first cloned into the vectors pRP1028, pUC18R6KT-mini-Tn7T-Km, pmini-Tn7-gat, or their derivatives. The resultant constructs were delivered into the respective surrogates and subsequently into the select agent strains. The chromosomal GFP- and RFP-tagged strains exhibited bright fluorescence at an exposure time of less than 200 msec and displayed the same virulence traits as their wild-type parental strains. The utility of the tagged strains was proven by the macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages. PMID:25044501

  17. Constitutive or Inducible Protective Mechanisms against UV-B Radiation in the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus? A Study of Gene Expression and Phlorotannin Content Responses

    PubMed Central

    Creis, Emeline; Delage, Ludovic; Charton, Sophie; Goulitquer, Sophie; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe; Ar Gall, Erwan

    2015-01-01

    A role as UV sunscreens has been suggested for phlorotannins, the phenolic compounds that accumulate in brown algae in response to a number of external stimuli and take part in cell wall structure. After exposure of the intertidal brown alga Fucus vesiculosus to artificial UV-B radiation, we examined its physiological responses by following the transcript level of the pksIII gene encoding a phloroglucinol synthase, likely to be involved in the first step of phlorotannins biosynthesis. We also monitored the expression of three targeted genes, encoding a heat shock protein (hsp70), which is involved in global stress responses, an aryl sulfotransferase (ast), which could be involved in the sulfation of phlorotannins, and a vanadium bromoperoxidase (vbpo), which can potentially participate in the scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the cross-linking and condensation of phlorotannins. We investigated whether transcriptional regulation of these genes is correlated with an induction of phlorotannin accumulation by establishing metabolite profiling of purified fractions of low molecular weight phlorotannins. Our findings demonstrated that a high dose of UV-B radiation induced a significant overexpression of hsp70 after 12 and 24 hours following the exposure to the UV-B treatment, compared to control treatment. The physiological performance of algae quantified by the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was slightly reduced. However UV-B treatment did not induce the accumulation of soluble phlorotannins in F. vesiculosus during the kinetics of four weeks, a result that may be related to the lack of induction of the pksIII gene expression. Taken together these results suggest a constitutive accumulation of phlorotannins occurring during the development of F.vesiculosus, rather than inducible processes. Gene expression studies and phlorotannin profiling provide here complementary approaches to global quantifications currently used in studies of phenolic compounds in brown algae. PMID:26030665

  18. Constitutive or Inducible Protective Mechanisms against UV-B Radiation in the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus? A Study of Gene Expression and Phlorotannin Content Responses.

    PubMed

    Creis, Emeline; Delage, Ludovic; Charton, Sophie; Goulitquer, Sophie; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe; Ar Gall, Erwan

    2015-01-01

    A role as UV sunscreens has been suggested for phlorotannins, the phenolic compounds that accumulate in brown algae in response to a number of external stimuli and take part in cell wall structure. After exposure of the intertidal brown alga Fucus vesiculosus to artificial UV-B radiation, we examined its physiological responses by following the transcript level of the pksIII gene encoding a phloroglucinol synthase, likely to be involved in the first step of phlorotannins biosynthesis. We also monitored the expression of three targeted genes, encoding a heat shock protein (hsp70), which is involved in global stress responses, an aryl sulfotransferase (ast), which could be involved in the sulfation of phlorotannins, and a vanadium bromoperoxidase (vbpo), which can potentially participate in the scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the cross-linking and condensation of phlorotannins. We investigated whether transcriptional regulation of these genes is correlated with an induction of phlorotannin accumulation by establishing metabolite profiling of purified fractions of low molecular weight phlorotannins. Our findings demonstrated that a high dose of UV-B radiation induced a significant overexpression of hsp70 after 12 and 24 hours following the exposure to the UV-B treatment, compared to control treatment. The physiological performance of algae quantified by the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was slightly reduced. However UV-B treatment did not induce the accumulation of soluble phlorotannins in F. vesiculosus during the kinetics of four weeks, a result that may be related to the lack of induction of the pksIII gene expression. Taken together these results suggest a constitutive accumulation of phlorotannins occurring during the development of F.vesiculosus, rather than inducible processes. Gene expression studies and phlorotannin profiling provide here complementary approaches to global quantifications currently used in studies of phenolic compounds in brown algae. PMID:26030665

  19. A set of fluorescent protein-based markers expressed from constitutive and arbuscular mycorrhiza-inducible promoters to label organelles, membranes and cytoskeletal elements in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Sergey; Harrison, Maria J

    2014-12-01

    Medicago truncatula is widely used for analyses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and nodulation. To complement the genetic and genomic resources that exist for this species, we generated fluorescent protein fusions that label the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network, plasma membrane, apoplast, late endosome/multivesicular bodies (MVB), transitory late endosome/ tonoplast, tonoplast, plastids, mitochondria, peroxisomes, autophagosomes, plasmodesmata, actin, microtubules, periarbuscular membrane (PAM) and periarbuscular apoplastic space (PAS) and expressed them from the constitutive AtUBQ10 promoter and the AM symbiosis-specific MtBCP1 promoter. All marker constructs showed the expected expression patterns and sub-cellular locations in M. truncatula root cells. As a demonstration of their utility, we used several markers to investigate AM symbiosis where root cells undergo major cellular alterations to accommodate their fungal endosymbiont. We demonstrate that changes in the position and size of the nuclei occur prior to hyphal entry into the cortical cells and do not require DELLA signaling. Changes in the cytoskeleton, tonoplast and plastids also occur in the colonized cells and in contrast to previous studies, we show that stromulated plastids are abundant in cells with developing and mature arbuscules, while lens-shaped plastids occur in cells with degenerating arbuscules. Arbuscule development and secretion of the PAM creates a periarbuscular apoplastic compartment which has been assumed to be continuous with apoplast of the cell. However, fluorescent markers secreted to the periarbuscular apoplast challenge this assumption. This marker resource will facilitate cell biology studies of AM symbiosis, as well as other aspects of legume biology. PMID:25329881

  20. Cloning and expression of the human gene for transaldolase. A novel highly repetitive element constitutes an integral part of the coding sequence.

    PubMed

    Banki, K; Halladay, D; Perl, A

    1994-01-28

    A novel highly repetitive retrotransposable element was cloned based on a limited sequence homology to the human T-cell leukemia virus and a related endogenous retroviral sequence, HRES-1. This repetitive element was found to constitute an integral part of the coding sequence of the human gene for transaldolase. In comparison with the intronless yeast gene, structural analysis of the human transaldolase genomic locus revealed that the human gene is comprised of five exons, second and third of which uniquely developed by insertion of a retrotransposable element. The 1329-base pair full-length cDNA, clone 4/2-4/1, contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 336 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 38 kDa. This protein shows a 58% overall sequence homology with the 37-kDa yeast transaldolase. Antibodies raised against a 22-kDa recombinant polypeptide expressed from a 474-base pair 5' fragment of clone 4/2-4/1, containing repetitive exons 2 and 3, cross-reacted with yeast transaldolase and recognized the 38-kDa native human protein. Detection of a retrotransposon in the coding sequence of the human transaldolase gene demonstrates the importance of these repetitive elements in evolution of the eukaryotic genome. PMID:8300619

  1. Constitutive expression of the DUR1,2 gene in an industrial yeast strain to minimize ethyl carbamate production during Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dianhui; Li, Xiaomin; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Liang; Xie, Guangfa

    2016-01-01

    Urea and ethanol are the main precursors of ethyl carbamate (EC) in Chinese rice wine. During fermentation, urea is generated from arginine by arginase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and subsequently cleaved by urea amidolyase or directly transported out of the cell into the fermentation liquor, where it reacts with ethanol to form EC. To reduce the amount of EC in Chinese rice wine, we metabolically engineered two yeast strains, N85(DUR1,2) and N85(DUR1,2)-c, from the wild-type Chinese rice wine yeast strain N85. Both new strains were capable of constitutively expressing DUR1,2 (encodes urea amidolyase) and thus enhancing urea degradation. The use of N85(DUR1,2) and N85(DUR1,2)-c reduced the concentration of EC in Chinese rice wine fermented on a small-scale by 49.1% and 55.3%, respectively, relative to fermentation with the parental strain. All of the engineered strains showed good genetic stability and minimized the production of urea during fermentation, with no exogenous genes introduced during genetic manipulation, and were therefore suitable for commercialization to increase the safety of Chinese rice wine. PMID:26538578

  2. Constitutive Activation of the G-Protein Subunit G[alpha]s within Forebrain Neurons Causes PKA-Dependent Alterations in Fear Conditioning and Cortical "Arc" mRNA Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michele P.; Cheung, York-Fong; Favilla, Christopher; Siegel, Steven J.; Kanes, Stephen J.; Houslay, Miles D.; Abel, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Memory formation requires cAMP signaling; thus, this cascade has been of great interest in the search for cognitive enhancers. Given that medications are administered long-term, we determined the effects of chronically increasing cAMP synthesis in the brain by expressing a constitutively active isoform of the G-protein subunit G[alpha]s…

  3. FetA Antibodies Induced by an Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Derived from a Serogroup B Meningococcal Isolate with Constitutive FetA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Holly; Norheim, Gunnstein; Chan, Hannah; Dold, Christina; Vipond, Caroline; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Feavers, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease causes over 3500 cases each year in Europe, with particularly high incidence among young children. Among serogroup B meningococci, which cause most of the cases, high diversity in the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) is observed in endemic situations; however, comprehensive molecular epidemiological data are available for the diversity and distribution of the OMPs PorA and FetA and these can be used to rationally design a vaccine with high coverage of the case isolates. The aim of this study was to determine whether outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from an isolate with constitutive FetA expression (MenPF-1 vaccine) could be used to induce antibodies against both the PorA and FetA antigens. The immunogenicity of various dose levels and number of doses was evaluated in mice and rabbits, and IgG antibody responses tested against OMVs and recombinant PorA and FetA proteins. A panel of four isogenic mutants was generated and used to evaluate the relative ability of the vaccine to induce serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against FetA and PorA. Sera from mice were tested in SBA against the four target strains. Results demonstrated that the MenPF-1 OMVs were immunogenic against PorA and FetA in both animal models. Furthermore, the murine antibodies induced were bactericidal against isogenic mutant strains, suggesting that antibodies to both PorA and FetA were functional. The data presented indicate that the MenPF-1 vaccine is a suitable formulation for presenting PorA and FetA OMPs in order to induce bactericidal antibodies, and that proceeding to a Phase I clinical trial with this vaccine candidate is justified. PMID:26466091

  4. Constitutive expression of a salinity-induced wheat WRKY transcription factor enhances salinity and ionic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Yuxiang; Tian, Yanchen; Han, Lu; Yang, Xinchao

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •A class II WRKY transcription factor, TaWRKY79 was isolated and characterized. •TaWRKY79 was induced by NaCl or abscisic acid. •843 bp regulatory segment was sufficient to respond to ABA or NaCl treatment. •TaWRKY79 enhanced salinity and ionic tolerance while reduced sensitivity to ABA. •TaWRKY79 increased salinity and ionic tolerance in an ABA-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: The isolation and characterization of TaWRKY79, a wheat class II WRKY transcription factor, is described. Its 1297 bp coding region includes a 987 bp long open reading frame. TaWRKY79 was induced by stressing seedlings with either NaCl or abscisic acid (ABA). When a fusion between an 843 bp segment upstream of the TaWRKY79 coding sequence and GUS was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana, GUS staining indicated that this upstream segment captured the sequence(s) required to respond to ABA or NaCl treatment. When TaWRKY79 was constitutively expressed as a transgene in A. thaliana, the transgenic plants showed an improved capacity to extend their primary root in the presence of either 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM LiCl or 2 ?M ABA. The inference was that TaWRKY79 enhanced the level of tolerance to both salinity and ionic stress, while reducing the level of sensitivity to ABA. The ABA-related genes ABA1, ABA2 ABI1 and ABI5 were all up-regulated in the TaWRKY79 transgenic plants, suggesting that the transcription factor operates in an ABA-dependent pathway.

  5. An OMV Vaccine Derived from a Capsular Group B Meningococcus with Constitutive FetA Expression: Preclinical Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Norheim, Gunnstein; Sanders, Holly; Mellesdal, Jardar W.; Sundfør, Idunn; Chan, Hannah; Brehony, Carina; Vipond, Caroline; Dold, Chris; Care, Rory; Saleem, Muhammad; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Feavers, Ian; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Following the introduction of effective protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against capsular group C meningococcal disease in Europe, meningococci of capsular group B remain a major cause of death and can result in debilitating sequelae. The outer membrane proteins PorA and FetA have previously been shown to induce bactericidal antibodies in humans. Despite considerable antigenic variation among PorA and FetA OMPs in meningococci, systematic molecular epidemiological studies revealed this variation is highly structured so that a limited repertoire of antigenic types is congruent with the hyperinvasive meningococcal lineages that have caused most of the meningococcal disease in Europe in recent decades. Here we describe the development of a prototype vaccine against capsular group B meningococcal infection based on a N. meningitidis isolate genetically engineered to have constitutive expression of the outer membrane protein FetA. Deoxycholate outer membrane vesicles (dOMVs) extracted from cells cultivated in modified Frantz medium contained 21.8% PorA protein, 7.7% FetA protein and 0.03 ?g LPS per ?g protein (3%). The antibody response to the vaccine was tested in three mouse strains and the toxicological profile of the vaccine was tested in New Zealand white rabbits. Administration of the vaccine, MenPF-1, when given by intramuscular injection on 4 occasions over a 9 week period, was well tolerated in rabbits up to 50 ?g/dose, with no evidence of systemic toxicity. These data indicated that the MenPF-1 vaccine had a toxicological profile suitable for testing in a phase I clinical trial. PMID:26390123

  6. Behavior of a cloned murine interferon alpha/beta receptor expressed in homospecific or heterospecific background.

    PubMed Central

    Uzé, G; Lutfalla, G; Bandu, M T; Proudhon, D; Mogensen, K E

    1992-01-01

    A murine interferon (IFN) alpha/beta receptor was cloned from the IFN-sensitive L1210 cell line on the basis of its homology with the human receptor. A combination of methods that includes the screening of random-primed and oligo(dT)-primed cDNA libraries and polymerase chain reactions with a single-side specificity was used. At the amino acid level, the murine IFN-alpha/beta shows 46% identity with its human counterpart. Both human WISH cells presenting a low sensitivity to mouse IFN and a murine L1210 mutant subline that does not express the receptor have been stably transfected with the murine IFN-alpha/beta receptor. Whereas transfected human cells became sensitive to a limited number of mouse IFN-alpha/beta subtypes, the transfected murine L1210 mutant was found to be fully complemented and became sensitive to all mouse IFN-alpha/beta subtypes tested, including those that were not active on transfected human cells. These results strongly suggest that the receptor described here is implicated in the mediation of the activities of all murine IFN-alpha/beta subtypes. Images PMID:1533935

  7. Transcript Expression Patterns Illuminate the Mechanistic Background of Hormesis in Caenorhabditis Elegans Maupas

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Christian E.W.; Pietsch, Kerstin; Saul, Nadine; Menzel, Stefanie; Swain, Suresh C.; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R.; Menzel, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    The animal model Caenorhabditis elegans was employed to study polyphenol- and humic substances-induced hormetic changes in lifespan. A detailed insight into the underlying mechanism of hormesis was uncovered by applying whole genome DNA microarray experimentation over a range of quercetin (Q), tannic acid (TA), and humic substances (HuminFeed®, HF) concentrations. The transcriptional response to all exposures followed a non-linear mode which highlighted differential signaling and metabolic pathways. While low Q concentrations regulated processes improving the health of the nematodes, higher concentrations extended lifespan and modulated substantially the global transcriptional response. Over-represented transcripts were notably part of the biotransformation process: enhanced catabolism of toxic intermediates possibly contributes to the lifespan extension. The regulation of transcription, Dauer entry, and nucleosome suggests the presence of distinct exposure dependent differences in transcription and signaling pathways. TA- and HF-mediated transcript expression patterns were overall similar to each other, but changed across the concentration range indicating that their transcriptional dynamics are complex and cannot be attributed to a simple adaptive response. In contrast, Q-mediated hormesis was well aligned to fit the definition of an adaptive response. Simple molecules are more likely to induce an adaptive response than more complex molecules.

  8. Symptoms induced by transgenic expression of p23 from Citrus tristeza virus in phloem-associated cells of Mexican lime mimic virus infection without the aberrations accompanying constitutive expression.

    PubMed

    Soler, Nuria; Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro

    2015-05-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is phloem restricted in natural citrus hosts. The 23-kDa protein (p23) encoded by the virus is an RNA silencing suppressor and a pathogenicity determinant. The expression of p23, or its N-terminal 157-amino-acid fragment comprising the zinc finger and flanking basic motifs, driven by the constitutive 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus, induces CTV-like symptoms and other aberrations in transgenic citrus. To better define the role of p23 in CTV pathogenesis, we compared the phenotypes of Mexican lime transformed with p23-derived transgenes from the severe T36 and mild T317 CTV isolates under the control of the phloem-specific promoter from Commelina yellow mottle virus (CoYMV) or the 35S promoter. Expression of the constructs restricted to the phloem induced a phenotype resembling CTV-specific symptoms (vein clearing and necrosis, and stem pitting), but not the non-specific aberrations (such as mature leaf epinasty and yellow pinpoints, growth cessation and apical necrosis) observed when p23 was ectopically expressed. Furthermore, vein necrosis and stem pitting in Mexican lime appeared to be specifically associated with p23 from T36. Phloem-specific accumulation of the p23?158-209(T36) fragment was sufficient to induce the same anomalies, indicating that the region comprising the N-terminal 157 amino acids of p23 is responsible (at least in part) for the vein clearing, stem pitting and, possibly, vein corking in this host. PMID:25171669

  9. Constitutive expression of p50 homodimer in freshly isolated human monocytes decreases with in vitro and in vivo differentiation: a possible mechanism influencing human immunodeficiency virus replication in monocytes and mature macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, S R; Lambert, P; Deacon, N J; Mills, J; Crowe, S M

    1997-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replicates more efficiently in vitro in differentiated macrophages than in freshly isolated monocytes. We investigated whether this may be partly explained by changes in expression of NF-kappaB with monocyte differentiation. We demonstrated that constitutive expression of NF-kappaB in primary human monocytes changed significantly with differentiation in vitro to monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and differentiation in vivo to alveolar macrophages (AMs). Freshly isolated monocytes constitutively expressed high levels of transcriptionally inactive p50 homodimer which decreased with time in culture in favor of the transcriptionally active p50/p65 and p50/RelB heterodimers. As in MDMs, AMs constitutively expressed p50/p65 and p50/RelB although at lower levels. HIV infection of fresh monocytes failed to induce p50/p65 as seen in MDMs. The replacement of p50 homodimers with transcriptionally active heterodimers following time in culture may partially explain the progressive increase in susceptibility of monocytes to HIV infection during in vitro culture. The change in NF-kappaB components with monocyte differentiation in vivo may also explain the different transcriptional activities of these cell populations in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:9032344

  10. SURVIVAL AND DEGRADATIVE CAPACITY OF PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA INDUCED OR CONSTITUTIVELY EXPRESSING PLASMID-MEDIATED DEGRADATION OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETATE (TFD) IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survival of genetically altered Pseudonomas putida strains harboring an inducible plasmid, pRO101, or a constitutive plasmid, pRO103, was compared. hese plasmids encoded for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (TFD) to 2-chloromaleylacetate, and the maintenance of eithe...

  11. SURVIVAL AND DEGRADATIVE CAPACITY OF PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA INDUCED OR CONSTITUTIVELY EXPRESSING PLASMA-MEDIATED DEGRADATION OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETATE (TFD) IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of genetically altered Pseudomonas putida strains harboring an inducible plasmid, PRO101, or a constitutive plasmid, PRO103, was compared. hese plasmids encode for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (TFD) to 2-chloromaleylacetate, and the maintenance of ei...

  12. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  13. Historiography: Reclaiming Constitutional History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachau, Mary K. Bonsteel

    1988-01-01

    Recommends Paul L. Murphy's 25-year-old article "Time to Reclaim: The Current Challenge of American Constitutional History" as a starting place for teachers interested in teaching about the history of the U.S. Constitution. Includes a three-page annotated bibliography of books on constitutional history. (BSR)

  14. ALTERED SENSITIVITY OF THE MOUSE FETUS TO IMPAIRED PROSTATIC BUD FORMATION BY DIOXIN: INFLUENCE OF GENETIC BACKGROUND AND NULL EXPRESSION OF TGF-ALFA AND EGF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Altered sensitivity of the mouse fetus to impaired prostatic bud formation by dioxin: Influence of genetic background and null expression of TGF and EGF.
    Rasmussen, N.T., Lin T-M., Fenton, S.E., Abbott, B.D. and R.E. Peterson.
    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)...

  15. Constitution of the Union of Clare Students Draftsman's Note: Readers are advised to have regard to Constitution 2004

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Peter

    -1- Constitution of the Union of Clare Students Draftsman's Note: Readers are advised to have regard to Constitution 2004: The Constitution Explained in interpreting this document. 1. The UCS (1. (2) In this Constitution, the expressions "Governing Body" and "Finance Committee" shall mean

  16. Stimulation of human thyroid growth via the inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein Gi: constitutive expression of the G-protein alpha subunit Gi alpha-1 in autonomous adenoma.

    PubMed Central

    Selzer, E; Wilfing, A; Schiferer, A; Hermann, M; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B; Freissmuth, M

    1993-01-01

    The alpha subunits of the stimulatory and inhibitory G proteins, Gs alpha and Gi alpha, activate transmembrane-signaling systems involved in the control of cell proliferation. We have investigated the pattern of expression of Gi alpha subtypes and Gi alpha-mediated proliferative responses in the human thyroid. Human thyroid membranes contain two subtypes of Gi alpha, Gi alpha-1 and Gi alpha-2, as assessed by using specific antibodies. The expression of Gi alpha-1 is under tight control by thyrotropin in vivo and in primary cultures of thyroid epithelial cells. In contrast, Gi alpha-1 is expressed in the absence of thyrotropin in thyroid autonomous adenoma, an endocrine-active tumor, and its levels are not regulated by thyrotropin in thyroid epithelial cells prepared from these tumors. If thyroid epithelial cells are treated with pertussis toxin to block signal transduction via Gi, the mitogenic response to serum factors is reduced. These observations demonstrate that Gi subtypes transmit growth stimuli in the human thyroid. The constitutive expression of Gi alpha-1 in autonomous adenoma may allow for the unregulated stimulation of thyroid cell proliferation by a yet unidentified signaling pathway and, thus, be causally related to autonomous growth of thyroid cells. Images PMID:8434024

  17. Contesting the Constitution: The Constitutional Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilenski, Ferdinand Alexi

    This historical dramatization, prepared for presentation at the 1985 Wyoming Chatauqua, contains three dialogues, set during the administration of President Thomas Jefferson and presenting the issues surrounding the drafting and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. The dialogues are designed to be presented in three segments to permit discussion…

  18. Constitutive control of AKT1 gene expression by JUNB/CJUN in ALK+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a novel crosstalk mechanism.

    PubMed

    Atsaves, V; Zhang, R; Ruder, D; Pan, Y; Leventaki, V; Rassidakis, G Z; Claret, F X

    2015-11-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by the t(2;5), resulting in the overexpression of nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK, which is known to activate the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, resulting in cell cycle and apoptosis deregulation. ALK+ ALCL is also characterized by strong activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity and overexpression of two AP-1 transcription factors, CJUN and JUNB. Here, we hypothesized that a biologic link between AP-1 and AKT kinase may exist, thus contributing to ALCL oncogenesis. We show that JUNB and CJUN bind directly to the AKT1 promoter, inducing AKT1 transcription in ALK+ ALCL. Knockdown of JUNB and CJUN in ALK+ ALCL cell lines downregulated AKT1 mRNA and promoter activity and was associated with lower AKT1 protein expression and activation. We provide evidence that this is a transcriptional control mechanism shared by other cell types even though it may operate in a way that is cell context-specific. In addition, STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3)-induced control of AKT1 transcription was functional in ALK+ ALCL and blocking of STAT3 and AP-1 signaling synergistically affected cell proliferation and colony formation. Our findings uncover a novel transcriptional crosstalk mechanism that links AP-1 and AKT kinase, which coordinate uncontrolled cell proliferation and survival in ALK+ ALCL. PMID:25987255

  19. GLUT2 surface expression and intracellular transport via the constitutive pathway in pancreatic beta cells and insulinoma: evidence for a block in trans-Golgi network exit by brefeldin A.

    PubMed

    Thorens, B; Gérard, N; Dériaz, N

    1993-12-01

    The biosynthesis, intracellular transport, and surface expression of the beta cell glucose transporter GLUT2 was investigated in isolated islets and insulinoma cells. Using a trypsin sensitivity assay to measure cell surface expression, we determined that: (a) greater than 95% of GLUT2 was expressed on the plasma membrane; (b) GLUT2 did not recycle in intracellular vesicles; and (c) after trypsin treatment, reexpression of the intact transporter occurred with a t1/2 of approximately 7 h. Kinetics of intracellular transport of GLUT2 was investigated in pulse-labeling experiments combined with glycosidase treatment and the trypsin sensitivity assay. We determined that transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) occurred with a t1/2 of 15 min and that transport from the TGN to the plasma membrane required a similar half-time. When added at the start of a pulse-labeling experiment, brefeldin A prevented exit of GLUT2 from the endoplasmic reticulum. When the transporter was first accumulated in the TGN during a 15-min period of chase, but not following a low temperature (22 degrees C) incubation, addition of brefeldin A (BFA) prevented subsequent surface expression of the transporter. This indicated that brefeldin A prevented GLUT2 exit from the TGN by acting at a site proximal to the 22 degrees C block. Together, these data demonstrate that GLUT2 surface expression in beta cells is via the constitutive pathway, that transport can be blocked by BFA at two distinct steps and that once on the surface, GLUT2 does not recycle in intracellular vesicles. PMID:8276890

  20. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  1. The Constitution by Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to participate…

  2. Constitutive Interoperability Amit K. Chopra

    E-print Network

    Constitutive Interoperability Amit K. Chopra Department of Computer Science North Carolina State of interoperability, constitutive and regulative. Constitutive interoperability takes into account solely the meaning, and data flow. We present a language for specifying agents constitutively and a decision procedure

  3. The Constitution's Human Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangle, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses traditional concepts of tradition, religion, commerce, and family life. Points out innovative philosophies held by the Founding Fathers which shaped the Constitution. The subsequent moral revolution needs to be reconsidered in light of the Founding Fathers' intent. (PS)

  4. Kenya's New Constitution

    E-print Network

    Kramon, Eric

    On 4 August 2010, Kenyans voted to adopt a new constitution, culminating a process that began as part of a resolution to the violent conflict that followed the December 2007 elections. By reducing executive power, devolving ...

  5. Actions, Habits and Constitution 

    E-print Network

    Pollard, Bill

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I offer a critique of the view made popular by Davidson that rationalization is a species of causal explanation, and propose instead that in many cases the explanatory relation is constitutive. Given ...

  6. Computational Analysis and Low-Scale Constitutive Expression of Laccases Synthetic Genes GlLCC1 from Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B from Pleurotus ostreatus in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Guzmán, Edwin Alfredo; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A.; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar Antonio; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio; Cardozo-Bernal, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Lacasses are multicopper oxidases that can catalyze aromatic and non-aromatic compounds concomitantly with reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases have generated a growing interest due to their biotechnological potential applications, such as lignocellulosic material delignification, biopulping and biobleaching, wastewater treatment, and transformation of toxic organic pollutants. In this work we selected fungal genes encoding for laccase enzymes GlLCC1 in Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B in Pleurotus ostreatus. These genes were optimized for codon use, GC content, and regions generating secondary structures. Laccase proposed computational models, and their interaction with ABTS [2, 2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] substrate was evaluated by molecular docking. Synthetic genes were cloned under the control of Pichia pastoris glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) constitutive promoter. P. pastoris X-33 was transformed with pGAPZ?A-LaccGluc-Stop and pGAPZ?A-LaccPost-Stop constructs. Optimization reduced GC content by 47 and 49% for LaccGluc-Stop and LaccPost-Stop genes, respectively. A codon adaptation index of 0.84 was obtained for both genes. 3D structure analysis using SuperPose revealed LaccGluc-Stop is similar to the laccase crystallographic structure 1GYC of Trametes versicolor. Interaction analysis of the 3D models validated through ABTS, demonstrated higher substrate affinity for LaccPost-Stop, in agreement with our experimental results with enzymatic activities of 451.08 ± 6.46 UL-1 compared to activities of 0.13 ± 0.028 UL-1 for LaccGluc-Stop. This study demonstrated that G. lucidum GlLCC1 and P. ostreatus POXA 1B gene optimization resulted in constitutive gene expression under GAP promoter and ?-factor leader in P. pastoris. These are important findings in light of recombinant enzyme expression system utility for environmentally friendly designed expression systems, because of the wide range of substrates that laccases can transform. This contributes to a great gamut of products in diverse settings: industry, clinical and chemical use, and environmental applications. PMID:25611746

  7. Computational analysis and low-scale constitutive expression of laccases synthetic genes GlLCC1 from Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B from Pleurotus ostreatus in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Hoyos, Claudia M; Morales-Álvarez, Edwin David; Poveda-Cuevas, Sergio Alejandro; Reyes-Guzmán, Edwin Alfredo; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar Antonio; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio; Cardozo-Bernal, Ángela M

    2015-01-01

    Lacasses are multicopper oxidases that can catalyze aromatic and non-aromatic compounds concomitantly with reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases have generated a growing interest due to their biotechnological potential applications, such as lignocellulosic material delignification, biopulping and biobleaching, wastewater treatment, and transformation of toxic organic pollutants. In this work we selected fungal genes encoding for laccase enzymes GlLCC1 in Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B in Pleurotus ostreatus. These genes were optimized for codon use, GC content, and regions generating secondary structures. Laccase proposed computational models, and their interaction with ABTS [2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] substrate was evaluated by molecular docking. Synthetic genes were cloned under the control of Pichia pastoris glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) constitutive promoter. P. pastoris X-33 was transformed with pGAPZ?A-LaccGluc-Stop and pGAPZ?A-LaccPost-Stop constructs. Optimization reduced GC content by 47 and 49% for LaccGluc-Stop and LaccPost-Stop genes, respectively. A codon adaptation index of 0.84 was obtained for both genes. 3D structure analysis using SuperPose revealed LaccGluc-Stop is similar to the laccase crystallographic structure 1GYC of Trametes versicolor. Interaction analysis of the 3D models validated through ABTS, demonstrated higher substrate affinity for LaccPost-Stop, in agreement with our experimental results with enzymatic activities of 451.08 ± 6.46 UL-1 compared to activities of 0.13 ± 0.028 UL-1 for LaccGluc-Stop. This study demonstrated that G. lucidum GlLCC1 and P. ostreatus POXA 1B gene optimization resulted in constitutive gene expression under GAP promoter and ?-factor leader in P. pastoris. These are important findings in light of recombinant enzyme expression system utility for environmentally friendly designed expression systems, because of the wide range of substrates that laccases can transform. This contributes to a great gamut of products in diverse settings: industry, clinical and chemical use, and environmental applications. PMID:25611746

  8. Relatedness of Streptococcus suis isolates of various serotypes and clinical backgrounds as evaluated by macrorestriction analysis and expression of potential virulence traits.

    PubMed

    Allgaier, A; Goethe, R; Wisselink, H J; Smith, H E; Valentin-Weigand, P

    2001-02-01

    We evaluated the genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis isolates of different serotypes by macrorestriction analysis and elucidated possible relationships between the genetic background, expression of potential virulence traits, and source of isolation. Virulence traits included expression of serotype-specific polysaccharides, muramidase-released protein (MRP), extracellular protein factor (EF), hemolysin activity, and adherence to epithelial cells. Macrorestriction analysis of streptococcal DNA digested with restriction enzymes SmaI and ApaI allowed differentiation of single isolates that could be assigned to four major clusters, named A1, A2, B1, and B2. Comparison of the genotypic and phenotypic features of the isolates with their source of isolation showed that (i) the S. suis population examined, which originated mainly from German pigs, exhibited a genetic diversity and phenotypic patterns comparable to those found for isolates from other European countries; (ii) certain phenotypic features, such as the presence of capsular antigens of serotypes 2, 1, and 9, expression of MRP and EF, and hemolysin activity (and in particular, combinations of these features), were strongly associated with the clinical background of meningitis and septicemia; and (iii) isolates from pigs with meningitis and septicemia showed a significantly higher degree of genetic homogeneity compared to that for isolates from pigs with pneumonia and healthy pigs. Since the former isolates are considered highly virulent, this supports the theory of a clonal relationship among highly virulent strains. PMID:11158088

  9. Constitutive Secretion in Tetrahymena thermophila ? † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Madinger, Catherine L.; Collins, Kathleen; Fields, Lauren G.; Taron, Christopher H.; Benner, Jack S.

    2010-01-01

    The growth, survival, and life cycle progression of the freshwater ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila are responsive to protein signals thought to be released by constitutive secretion. In addition to providing insights about ciliate communication, studies of constitutive secretion are of interest for evaluating the utility of T. thermophila as a platform for the expression of secreted protein therapeutics. For these reasons, we undertook an unbiased investigation of T. thermophila secreted proteins using wild-type and secretion mutant strains. Extensive tandem mass spectrometry analyses of secretome samples were performed. We identified a total of 207 secretome proteins, most of which were not detected in a set of abundant whole-cell protein identifications. Numerous proteases and other hydrolases were secreted from cells grown in rich medium but not cells transferred to a nutrient starvation condition. On the other hand, we detected the starvation-enhanced secretion of a small number of cytosolic proteins, suggestive of an exosome-like pathway in T. thermophila. Subsets of proteins from the T. thermophila regulated secretion pathway were detected with differential representation across strains and culture conditions. Finally, many secretome proteins had a predicted N-terminal signal sequence but no other annotated characteristic or functional classification. Our work provides the first comprehensive analysis of secreted proteins in T. thermophila and establishes the groundwork for future studies of constitutive protein secretion biology and biotechnology in ciliates. PMID:20348385

  10. Light-grown plants of transgenic tobacco expressing an introduced oat phytochrome A gene under the control of a constitutive viral promoter exhibit persistent growth inhibition by far-red light.

    PubMed

    McCormac, A; Whitelam, G; Smith, H

    1992-09-01

    A comparison of the photoregulation of development has been made for etiolated and light-grown plants of wild-type (WT) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacun L.) and an isogenic transgenic line which expresses an introduced oat phytochrome gene (phyA) under the control of a constitutive viral promoter. Etiolated seedlings of both the WT and transgenic line showed irradiance-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl growth under continuous far-red (FR) light; transgenic seedlings showed a greater level of inhibition under a given fluence rate and this is considered to be the result of the heterologous phytochrome protein (PhyA) functioning in a compatible manner with the native etiolated phytochrome. Deetiolation of WT seedlings resulted in a loss of responsiveness to prolonged FR. Light-grown transgenic seedlings, however, continued to respond in an irradiance-dependent manner to prolonged FR and it is proposed that this is a specific function of the constitutive PhyA. Mature green plants of the WT and transgenic lines showed a qualitatively similar growth promotion to a brief end-of-day FR-treatment but this response was abolished in the transgenic plants under prolonged irradiation by this same FR source. Growth inhibition (McCormac et al. 1991, Planta 185, 162-170) and enhanced levels of nitrate-reductase activity under irradiance of low red:far-red ratio, as achieved by the FR-supplementation of white light, emphasised that the introduced PhyA was eliciting an aberrant mode of photoresponse compared with the normal phytochrome population of light-grown plants. Total levels of the oat-encoded phytochrome in the etiolated transgenic tobacco were shown to be influenced by the wavelength of continuous irradiation in a manner which was qualitatively similar to that seen for the native, etiolated tobacco phytochrome, and distinct from that seen in etiolated oat tissues. These results are discussed in terms of the proposal that the constitutive oat-PhyA pool in the transgenic plants leads to a persistence of a mode of response normally restricted to the situation in etiolated plants. PMID:24178253

  11. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  12. The Evolving Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Thurgood

    1987-01-01

    Argues that bicentennial celebrations of the U.S. Constitution should be focused on struggles throughout the life of the document rather than the "miracle" of its birth. Illustrates this point by reference to changes in the voting rights and citizenship of black citizens. (BSR)

  13. Race and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Thurgood

    1987-01-01

    The Constitution is a living document whose meaning was not fixed forever at the Philadelphia Convention. Focuses on the slavery compromise and the Fourteenth Amendment to demonstrate defects of the document and its promising evolution through 200 years of American history. (PS)

  14. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  15. Sexuality and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copelon, Rhonda

    1987-01-01

    Argues for abortion rights and protection of intimate decisions and relationships. Describes the role and position of women in eighteenth century American society as a means of exposing the fallacy of the anti-abortion movement's insistence on adherence to constitutional text. Discusses the recent attempts to overturn the Roe v. Wade ruling. (PS)

  16. Constituting children's bodily integrity.

    PubMed

    Hill, B Jessie

    2015-04-01

    Children have a constitutional right to bodily integrity. Courts do not hesitate to vindicate that right when children are abused by state actors. Moreover, in at least some cases, a child's right to bodily integrity applies within the family, giving the child the right to avoid unwanted physical intrusions regardless of the parents' wishes. Nonetheless, the scope of this right vis-à-vis the parents is unclear; the extent to which it applies beyond the narrow context of abortion and contraception has been almost entirely unexplored and untheorized. This Article is the first in the legal literature to analyze the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity within the family by spanning traditionally disparate doctrinal categories such as abortion rights; corporal punishment; medical decisionmaking; and nontherapeutic physical interventions such as tattooing, piercing, and circumcision. However, the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity raises complex philosophical questions concerning the proper relationship between family and state, as well as difficult doctrinal and theoretical issues concerning the ever-murky idea of state action. This Article canvasses those issues with the ultimate goal of delineating a constitutional right of bodily security and autonomy for children. PMID:26016017

  17. Amending Higher Education's Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trower, Cathy A.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning in 1934, representatives of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) and the Association of American Colleges (AAC) met and drafted the definitive statement on academic freedom and tenure. Like the U.S. Constitution, the 1940 "Statement on Principles of Academic Freedom and Tenure" was a commendable, if deficient, product…

  18. ASBSU Constitution Revised Spring 2012 1 of 6 CONSTITUTION

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    ASBSU Constitution Revised Spring 2012 1 of 6 CONSTITUTION PREAMBLE We the students of Boise in this Constitution. They must also receive a 2.5 GPA or higher each semester in office. Failure to do so would result Responsibilities #12;ASBSU Constitution Revised Spring 2012 2 of 6 1. The Executive Council will approve

  19. Constitution, 29 March 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Haiti's 1987 Constitution relating to the family; the protection of children, aliens, and refugees; and individual rights. The age of majority in Haiti is 18, and political and civil rights are attained at age 21 regardless of sex or marital status. Haitians are equal before the law but native-born Haitians who have never renounced their nationality have special advantages. Human rights are guaranteed in conformity with the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man. Every citizen has the right to decent housing, education, food, and social security. The state is obligated to provide citizens with appropriate means to protect, maintain, and restore their health. Primary schooling is compulsory and free. Aliens in Haiti enjoy the protection offered citizens, including a limited right to own real property. Political refugees have a right to asylum. The family is considered the foundation of society and enjoys state protection regardless of whether the family is constituted within the bonds of marriage. Legal protection is afforded mothers, children, and the aged. The Constitution also calls for creation of a Family Code to ensure protection and respect for the rights of the family. PMID:12346668

  20. Thomas Jefferson and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Merrill D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Thomas Jefferson's role in the making and interpretation of the United States Constitution. Discusses the dominant features of Jefferson's constitutional theory; the character of Jefferson's presidency; and Jefferson's ongoing concern about constitutional preservation and change. Lists important dates in the history of the constitution.…

  1. A New Mouse Model for Marfan Syndrome Presents Phenotypic Variability Associated with the Genetic Background and Overall Levels of Fbn1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Gustavo R.; Merkel, Christian; Mello, Marco R. B.; Gomes, Juliana P. A.; Soukoyan, Marina; Kerkis, Alexandre; Massironi, Silvia M. G.; Visintin, José A.; Pereira, Lygia V.

    2010-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease of connective tissue caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 encoding gene FBN1. Patients present cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal manifestations, and although being fully penetrant, MFS is characterized by a wide clinical variability both within and between families. Here we describe a new mouse model of MFS that recapitulates the clinical heterogeneity of the syndrome in humans. Heterozygotes for the mutant Fbn1 allele mg?loxPneo, carrying the same internal deletion of exons 19–24 as the mg? mouse model, present defective microfibrillar deposition, emphysema, deterioration of aortic wall and kyphosis. However, the onset of a clinical phenotypes is earlier in the 129/Sv than in C57BL/6 background, indicating the existence of genetic modifiers of MFS between these two mouse strains. In addition, we characterized a wide clinical variability within the 129/Sv congenic heterozygotes, suggesting involvement of epigenetic factors in disease severity. Finally, we show a strong negative correlation between overall levels of Fbn1 expression and the severity of the phenotypes, corroborating the suggested protective role of normal fibrillin-1 in MFS pathogenesis, and supporting the development of therapies based on increasing Fbn1 expression. PMID:21152435

  2. Adult mice expressing a Braf Q241R mutation on an ICR/CD-1 background exhibit a cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Mitsuji; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Miyagawa-Tomita, Sachiko; Nakashima, Yasumi; Oba, Daiju; Niihori, Tetsuya; Hashi, Misato; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Kure, Shigeo; Matsubara, Yoichi; Aoki, Yoko

    2015-12-20

    Activation of the RAS pathway has been implicated in oncogenesis and developmental disorders called RASopathies. Germline mutations in BRAF have been identified in 50-75% of patients with cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome, which is characterized by congenital heart defects, distinctive facial features, short stature and ectodermal abnormalities. We recently demonstrated that mice expressing a Braf Q241R mutation, which corresponds to the most frequent BRAF mutation (Q257R) in CFC syndrome, on a C57BL/6J background are embryonic/neonatal lethal, with multiple congenital defects, preventing us from analyzing the phenotypic consequences after birth. Here, to further explore the pathogenesis of CFC syndrome, we backcrossed these mice onto a BALB/c or ICR/CD-1 genetic background. On a mixed (BALB/c and C57BL/6J) background, all heterozygous Braf(Q241R/+) mice died between birth and 24 weeks and exhibited growth retardation, sparse and ruffled fur, liver necrosis and atrial septal defects (ASDs). In contrast, 31% of the heterozygous Braf(Q241R/+) ICR mice survived over 74 weeks. The surviving Braf(Q241R/+) ICR mice exhibited growth retardation, sparse and ruffled fur, a hunched appearance, craniofacial dysmorphism, long and/or dystrophic nails, extra digits and ovarian cysts. The Braf(Q241R/+) ICR mice also showed learning deficits in the contextual fear-conditioning test. Echocardiography indicated the presence of pulmonary stenosis and ASDs in the Braf(Q241R/+) ICR mice, which were confirmed by histological analysis. These data suggest that the heterozygous Braf(Q241R/+) ICR mice show similar phenotypes as CFC syndrome after birth and will be useful for elucidating the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies for RASopathies. PMID:26472072

  3. Constitution, 5 October 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the constitution adopted by Brazil on 5 October 1988. This constitution seeks to promote the welfare of all citizens without discrimination. The equality of all citizens is guaranteed, and the equal rights of women are specifically mentioned. Property rights are also guaranteed and defined. Female inmates are granted the right to remain with their children while breast feeding. Workers are guaranteed a minimum wage, a family allowance for dependents, maternity/paternity leave, specific incentives to protect the labor market for women, retirement benefits, free day care for preschool-age children, pay equity, and equal rights between tenured and sporadically employed workers. Agrarian reform provisions are given, including the authority to expropriate land. Social and economic policies to promote health are called for, and public health services are to be decentralized, to be integrated, and to foster community participation. Pension plan and social assistance provisions are outlined as are duties of the state in regard to education. The amount of money to be dedicated to education is set out, and a national educational plan is called for to achieve such goals as the eradication of illiteracy, the universalization of school attendance, the improvement of instruction, and the provision of vocational training. Specific measures are set out to protect and preserve the environment. Family policy deals with issues of marriage, the definition of a family, divorce, the right to family planning services, and the deterrence of domestic violence. Social protection provisions cover mothers and children, handicapped persons, and protection of minors. Finally, the customs and rights of Indians are protected, with special provisions given to protect land tenure and to protect the rights of Indians in water resource development and prospecting and mining activities. PMID:12344286

  4. Constitutional epimutation as a mechanism for cancer causality and heritability?

    PubMed

    Hitchins, Megan P

    2015-10-01

    Constitutional epimutation, which is an aberration in gene expression due to an altered epigenotype that is widely distributed in normal tissues (albeit frequently mosaic), provides an alternative mechanism to genetic mutation for cancer predisposition. Observational studies in cancer-affected families have revealed intergenerational inheritance of constitutional epimutation, providing unique insights into the heritability of epigenetic traits in humans. In this Opinion article, the potential contribution of constitutional epimutation to the 'missing' causality and heritability of cancer is explored. PMID:26383139

  5. Constitution of the WELLCOME TRUST

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    1 Constitution of the WELLCOME TRUST (Charity registered in England and Wales no. 210183 Constitution 2 Name of the charity 4 3 Trustee 4 Objects 4 Objects of the Trust 4 5 Research in accordance Remuneration 9 Amendments 17 Amendment of Constitution 10 #12;3 18 Amendment of the Memorandum and 11 Articles

  6. Black Graduate Student Association Constitution

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Paul R.

    Black Graduate Student Association Constitution PREAMBLE: The mission of the Black Graduate Amendments to this constitution can be made by a majority vote of the membership present at a regularly be agreed upon by the membership. ARTICLE IX RATIFICATION This constitution will be ratified upon approval

  7. Proteomics: General Background

    E-print Network

    Grosu, Radu

    Proteomics: General Background Michael Hadjiargyrou Department of Biomedical Engineering #12;What is proteomics? · Study of the Proteome: Field that utilizes protein sequences, expression and structure, large scale manner · may also involve bioinformatic analysis and storage of data #12;Proteomics

  8. Constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented and the methods necessary for achieving accurate and efficient solutions have been incorporated. The most important method is the getStress function where the actual material model evaluation takes place. Obviously, all material models incorporate this function. The initialize function is included in most material models. The initialize function is called once at the beginning of an analysis and its primary purpose is to initialize the material state variables associated with the model. Many times, there is some information which can be set once per load step. For instance, we may have temperature dependent material properties in an analysis where temperature is prescribed. Instead of setting those parameters at each iteration in a time step, it is much more efficient to set them once per time step at the beginning of the step. These types of load step initializations are performed in the loadStepInit method. The final function used by many models is the pcElasticModuli method which changes the moduli that are to be used by the elastic preconditioner in Adagio. The moduli for the elastic preconditioner are set during the initialization of Adagio. Sometimes, better convergence can be achieved by changing these moduli for the elastic preconditioner. For instance, it typically helps to modify the preconditioner when the material model has temperature dependent moduli. For many material models, it is not necessary to change the values of the moduli that are set initially in the code. Hence, those models do not have pcElasticModuli functions. All four of these methods receive information from the matParams structure as described by Scherzinger and Hammerand.

  9. New Constitutive Vectors: Useful Genetic Engineering Tools for Biocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Youqiang; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive vectors are useful tools for genetic engineering. Two constitutive vectors with high levels of expression and broad host ranges were developed and used in a range of Pseudomonas hosts. The vectors showed superior characteristics compared to the inducible vectors as well as the potential to be used as improved genetic tools for biocatalysis. PMID:23416993

  10. Guidelines for Teaching and Testing the Illinois Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield. Instructional Services Unit.

    This document sets forth guidelines for teaching and testing public school students on the principles of democratic government as expressed in the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of Illinois. Identification is made of ways of making the examination required by the state of Illinois not only an integral part of…

  11. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  12. Socialist Constitution [1992].

    PubMed

    1992-12-15

    This document contains the text of the Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Chapter 1 sets out the political principles which govern the existence of the state. Chapter 2 outlines the principles of the socialist economy as they apply to the collective and private ownership of property, to meeting the needs of working people, to the technological revolution, to labor regulations (including a minimum working age of 16 years), to development plans, and to external trade. Chapter 3 covers aspects of culture including education, which involves 11-years of compulsory schooling, scholarships to universities and professional schools, and social education. Children of preschool age are enrolled in nurseries and kindergartens at the state's expense. Other issues dealt with in this chapter are the advancement of science and technology, the work of writers and artists, the provision of cultural facilities, protection of the language, the availability of physical fitness facilities, a universal free medical system, and environmental protection. Chapter 4 outlines national defense measures, and chapter 5 sets out the fundamental rights and duties of citizens. This chapter accords women equal social status and rights as men and protects marriage and the family. State institutions (such as the Supreme People's Assembly, the presidency, the National Defense Committee, the Central People's Committee, the Administrative Council, local assemblies and committees, and the court and procurator's office) are discussed in chapter 6. Chapter 7 describes the national emblem and flag and designates Pyongyang as the capital. PMID:12347140

  13. The Constitution and Its Critics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    In planning a freshman undergraduate curriculum with colleagues recently, the question arose as to what type of understanding educators wanted to impart to their students about the Constitution. The alleged defects of the Constitution that these books point to are wide-ranging and can be classified into various categories. Some problems--such as…

  14. The Constitution and American Radicalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Jules

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the history of the following movements' attitudes towards the Constitution: (1) abolition; (2) feminism; (3) trade unions; (4) socialism and communism; and (5) civil rights and anti-war. Maintains that the tensions in these movements' towards the Constitution represent basic contradictions in the document itself. (PS)

  15. Constitution And Bylaws: 2004 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education and Training Council, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the constitution and bylaws of the Distance Education and Training Council. The constitution and bylaws include 13 articles. Sections include: Name; Mission and Goals; Administration of the Council; Membership; Meetings; The Commission; Terms of Office; Officers; Committees; Compensation; Dues and Assessments; Miscellaneous…

  16. Remarks on turbulent constitutive relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that the concept of turbulent constitutive relations can be used to construct general models for various turbulent correlations. Some of the Generalized Cayley-Hamilton formulas for relating tensor products of higher extension to tensor products of lower extension are introduced. The combination of dimensional analysis and invariant theory can lead to 'turbulent constitutive relations' (or general turbulence models) for, in principle, any turbulent correlations. As examples, the constitutive relations for Reynolds stresses and scalar fluxes are derived. The results are consistent with ones from Renormalization Group (RNG) theory and two-scale Direct-Interaction Approximation (DIA) method, but with a more general form.

  17. Constitutive modeling of active polymers

    E-print Network

    Therkelsen, Scott V. (Scott Vincent), 1980-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis develops a three-dimensional constitutive model of active polymeric materials, including changes in material volume and properties due to actuation. Active polymers reversibly change shape, volume and/or material ...

  18. The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Lucinda

    1986-01-01

    Examines how the framers of the Constitution came to choose our system of government, how that system was designed to function, and how the separation of powers has served to maintain our democracy despite attempts to violate it. (JDH)

  19. Cleanup liability and the Constitution

    SciTech Connect

    Friedland, D.M.; Hagen, P.E. )

    1992-12-01

    It was observed in the July 1992 issue of this Journal that a plain reading of the Constitution's prohibition on [open quotes][ital ex post facto][close quotes] suggests that some environmental statutes such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) conflict with Constitutional principles. Like many Constitutional principles, however, the Supreme Court's interpretation of the Constitution's bar on [ital ex post facto] laws has a long history. The Court has consistently interpreted this clause as limited to criminal or penal statutes. This article discusses the history of the [ital ex post facto] clause, the retroactive application of CERCLA and RCRA, the decision that retroactive application of CERCLA and RCRA does not violate the [ital ex post facto] clause, and laws, regulations, and guidance. 27 refs.

  20. Page 1 of 6 Constitution

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Page 1 of 6 Constitution http://www.dlc.chhs.colostate.edu/ Approved September 2009 ­ updated non-discrimination the departments/units of: Design and Merchandising Food Science and Human Nutrition Health and Exercise Science

  1. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.

    1984-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review of applicable constitutive models with selection of two for detailed comparison with a wide range of experimental tests was conducted. The experimental matrix contained uniaxial and biaxial tensile, creep, stress relaxation, and cyclic fatigue tests at temperatures to 1093 C and strain rates from .0000001 to .001/sec. Some nonisothermal cycles will also be run. The constitutive models will be incorporated into the MARC finite element structural analysis program with a demonstration computation made for advanced turbine blade configuration. In the code development work, particular emphasis is being placed on developing efficient integration algorithms for the highly nonlinear and stiff constitutive equations. Another area of emphasis is the appropriate and efficient methodology for determing constitutive constants from a minimum extent of experimental data.

  3. Constitutive relations in optics in terms of geometric algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargys, A.

    2015-11-01

    To analyze the electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium the Maxwell equations should be supplemented by constitutive relations. At present the classification of linear constitutive relations is well established in tensorial-matrix and exterior p-form calculus. Here the constitutive relations are found in the context of Clifford geometric algebra. For this purpose Cl1,3 algebra that conforms with relativistic 4D Minkowskian spacetime is used. It is shown that the classification of linear optical phenomena with the help of constitutive relations in this case comes from the structure of Cl1,3 algebra itself. Concrete expressions for constitutive relations which follow from this algebra are presented. They can be applied in calculating the propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in any anisotropic, linear and nondissipative medium.

  4. Formulation of Deformation Stress Fields and Constitutive Equations in Rational Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Xiao Jianhua

    2010-12-24

    In continuum mechanics, stress concept plays an essential role. For complicated materials, different stress concepts are used with ambiguity or different understanding. Geometrically, a material element is expressed by a closed region with arbitral shape. The internal region is acted by distance dependent force (internal body force), while the surface is acted by surface force. Further more, the element as a whole is in a physical background (exterior region) which is determined by the continuum where the element is embedded (external body force). Physically, the total energy can be additively decomposed as three parts: internal region energy, surface energy, and the background energy. However, as forces, they cannot be added directly. After formulating the general forms of physical fields, the deformation tensor is introduced to formulate the force variations caused by deformation. As the force variation is expressed by the deformation tensor, the deformation stress concept is well formulated. Furthermore, as a natural result, the additive decomposition gives out the definition of static continuum, which determines the material parameters in constitutive equations. Through using the exterior differentials, the constitutive equations are formulated in general form. Throughout the paper, when it is suitable, the related results are simplified to classical results for easier understanding.

  5. Constitutive high expression of interleukin-4/13A and GATA-3 in gill and skin of salmonid fishes suggests that these tissues form Th2-skewed immune environments.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Fumio; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Ohtani, Maki; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Hashimoto, Keiichiro; Fischer, Uwe; Dijkstra, Johannes Martinus

    2011-07-01

    Rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon interleukin-4/13A (IL-4/13A) genes were identified. They were found expressed at high level in thymus, gill, and skin, in concert with the transcription factor gene GATA-3. High expression levels of IL-4, IL-13, and GATA-3 were also detected in murine thymus, suggesting similar importance of the fish and mammalian homologues for early T cell development. In mammals, combined high expression of IL-4/13 and GATA-3 in tissues other than thymus is mostly indicative of Th2 responses. Th2-skewage may protect fish skin and gill from parasites and from damage by inflammatory Th1 and Th17 responses. The immune milieus of fish gill and skin are relevant to aquaculture, because these tissues are preferred sites for vaccine administration. The similarities between the immune milieus of fish gill and thymus may reflect an evolutionary relationship, since these tissues map close together lining the gill cavity. Expression patterns of IL-4/13A and interferon gamma (IFN-?) in isolated trout gill cells and pronephrocytes were consistent with Th2 identity of IL-4/13A. PMID:21489635

  6. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 6C1-4.002 Student Affairs: Student Government Constitution.

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    RULES OF UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 6C1-4.002 Student Affairs: Student Government Constitution. (1, and is entitled to vote in accordance with the Constitution of the Student Body of the University. The Student Body Constitution has been promulgated by the students and accepted by the University as expressing

  7. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.

    1985-01-01

    The objective is to develop a unified constitutive model for finite element structural analysis of turbine engine hot-section components. This effort constitutes a different approach for non-linear finite-element computer codes which have heretofore been based on classical inelastic methods. The unified constitutive theory to be developed will avoid the simplifying assumptions of classical theory and should more accurately represent the behavior of superalloy materials under cyclic loading conditions and high temperature environments. During the first two years of the program, extensive experimental correlations were made with two representative unified models. The experiments were both uniaxial and biaxial at temperatures up to 1093 C (2000 F). In addition, the unified models were adopted to the MARC finite element code and used for stress analysis of notched bar and turbine blade geometries.

  8. Dehydrin from citrus, which confers in vitro dehydration and freezing protection activity, is constitutive and highly expressed in the flavedo of fruit but responsive to cold and water stress in leaves.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Ballesta, Maria Teresa; Rodrigo, Maria Jesus; Lafuente, Maria Teresa; Granell, Antonio; Zacarias, Lorenzo

    2004-04-01

    A cDNA encoding a dehydrin was isolated from the flavedo of the chilling-sensitive Fortune mandarin fruit (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tanaka x Citrus reticulata Blanco) and designed as Crcor15. The predicted CrCOR15 protein is a K2S member of a closely related dehydrin family from Citrus, since it contains two tandem repeats of the unusual Citrus K-segment and one S-segment (serine cluster) at an unusual C-terminal position. Crcor15 mRNA is consistently and highly expressed in the flavedo during fruit development and maturation. The relative abundance of Crcor15 mRNA in the flavedo was estimated to be higher than 1% of total RNA. The high mRNA level remained unchanged during fruit storage at chilling (2 degrees C) and nonchilling (12 degrees C) temperatures, and it was depressed by a conditioning treatment (3 days at 37 degrees C) that induced chilling tolerance. Therefore, the expression of Crcor15 appears not to be related to the acquisition of chilling tolerance in mandarin fruits. However, Crcor15, which was barely detected in unstressed mandarin leaves, was rapidly induced in response to both low temperature and water stress. COR15 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified protein conferred in vitro protection against freezing and dehydration inactivation. The potential role of Citrus COR15 is discussed. PMID:15053535

  9. GMAX Yeast Background Strain Made from Industrial Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Engineered to Convert Sucrose, Starch and Cellulosic Sugars Universally to Ethanol Anaerobically with Concurrent Coproduct Expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tailored GMAX yeast background strain technology for universal ethanol production industrially. Production of the stable baseline glucose, mannose, arabinose, xylose-utilizing (GMAX) yeast will be evaluated by taking the genes identified in high-throughput screening for a plasmid-based yeast to uti...

  10. Introduction Background

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Research Conclusions #12;Background What is a hygrometer? VCSEL Chilled mirror hygrometer Why measure does a VCSEL hygrometer address these problems? 25Hz measurements Open source environment Low wind with chilled mirror hygrometer Pressure and Temperature effects #12;Calibration Techniques Removal of all

  11. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  12. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  13. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  14. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  15. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  16. CHARACTERISTICS Nitrated compounds constitute a

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    CHARACTERISTICS Nitrated compounds constitute a class of chemical substances that can be explosive. The appearance of nitrated compounds may vary from a fine moist crystalline solid to clear viscous liquids. A few nitrated compounds can become shock sensitive or can react with certain metals to form extremely unstable

  17. Constitutional Reform of School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern, Ed.; Jordan, K. Forbis, Ed.

    This book contains conference papers by experts in educational administration, law, and economics. Six of the papers are devoted to a legal analysis of fiscal inequality among school attendance units, school districts, and States. These contributions are: (1) K. Forbis Jordan and Kern Alexander, "Constitutional Methods of Financing Public…

  18. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the idea and…

  19. Everyday Constitutional Assessments and Their Relevance to Formal Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2014-01-01

    Background: In anthropology and related disciplines, the term "assessment" refers to the everyday activities of ordinary people as they figure out what to do next given what others have just done. The assessments, in turn, constitute what is happening, whether in encounters between policeman and person in the street, or classroom lesson,…

  20. Foundations of Our Constitution. Reflecting on September 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    This lesson plan provides background on six significant historical documents: (1) "Meeting at Runnymede--The Story of King John and the Magna Carta"; (2) "The Mayflower Compact"; (3) "The Declaration of Independence and Natural Rights"; (4) "The Federalist Papers"; (5) "Aristotle: In Search of the Best Constitution"; and (6) "The Pledge of…

  1. Non-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are direct agonists for the human pregnane-X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, and activate target gene expression in a tissue-specific manner

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Salman, Fadheela; Plant, Nick

    2012-08-15

    The polychlorinated biphenyl group possesses high environmental persistence, leading to bioaccumulation and a number of adverse effects in mammals. Whilst coplanar PCBs elicit their toxic effects through agonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; however, non-coplanar PCBs are not ligands for AhR, but may be ligands for members of the nuclear receptor family of proteins. To better understand the biological actions of non-coplanar PCBs, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of their ability to activate PXR and CAR-mediated effects. Cells were exposed to a range of non-coplanar PCBs (99, 138, 153, 180 and 194), or the coplanar PCB77: Direct activation of PXR and CAR was measured using a mammalian receptor activation assay in human liver cells, with rifampicin and CITCO used as positive controls ligands for PXR and CAR, respectively; activation of target gene expression was examined using reporter gene plasmids for CYP3A4 and MDR1 transfected into liver, intestine and lung cell lines. Several of the non-coplanar PCBs directly activated PXR and CAR, whilst the coplanar PCB77 did not. Non-coplanar PCBs were also able to activate PXR/CAR target gene expression in a substitution- and tissue-specific manner. Non-coplanar PCBs act as direct activators for the nuclear receptors PXR and CAR, and are able to elicit transcriptional activation of target genes in a substitution- and tissue-dependent manner. Chronic activation of PXR/CAR is linked to adverse effects and must be included in any risk assessment of PCBs. -- Highlights: ? Several Non-coplanar PCBs are able to directly activate both PXR and CAR in vitro. ? PCB153 is the most potent direct activator of PXR and CAR nuclear receptors. ? Non-coplanar PCB activation of CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes is structure-dependent. ? Non-coplanar PCB activate CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes in a tissue-dependent. ? PCB153 is the most potent activator of PXR/CAR target gene in all tissues.

  2. Rice Computer Science Club Constitution | 1

    E-print Network

    Wallach, Dan

    Rice Computer Science Club Constitution | 1 Constitution Last Revised Apr 01, 2014 #12;Rice Computer Science Club Constitution | 2 Preamble We the members of Rice Computer Science Club, subscribing to the regulations and policies of Rice University, establish this Constitution to govern the matters within our

  3. Ordinance 16 -TUU Constitution ORDINANCE 16

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    Ordinance 16 - TUU Constitution ORDINANCE 16 TASMANIA UNIVERSITY UNION CONSTITUTION 2008.1 The purpose of this Ordinance is to clarify that Ordinance 42 does not affect the validity of the constitution of Ordinance 42 3.1 The TUU constitution as certified by the Assistant Commissioner for Corporate Affairs on 31

  4. RSO Constitution Guidelines Summary Requirement for RSO's

    E-print Network

    Capogna, Luca

    RSO Constitution Guidelines ­ Summary Requirement for RSO's Every Registered Student Organization is required to have a current (within last 3 years) constitution on file with the Office of Student Activities. Purpose of a Constitution A constitution is the basic framework and guidelines for an organization

  5. Constitutive equations for solid propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Oezuepek, S.; Becker, E.B.

    1997-04-01

    Mechanical behavior of the Space Shuttle redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) propellant is studied from a phenomenological point of view. Motivated by the study of the experimental data three initially isotropic constitutive models have been developed. All models represent the effect of strain rate, superimposed hydrostatic pressure, and cyclic loading on the stress and dilatation response of the material. A particular emphasis is given to the prediction of volume dilatation. The model resulting in the best representation of the available data is calibrated using only a few tests. The predictions of the model are compared with experiments for several loading conditions not used in the calibration.

  6. Assessing the language skills of children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds: the expressive vocabulary performance of Singaporean English-Mandarin bilingual pre-schoolers.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wei Qin; Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Standardized language assessments such as the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Pre-school 2 United Kingdom (CELF Preschool 2 UK) are often used in speech-language pathology clinics to determine if a child is at risk of language difficulties. Many of these assessments are designed and standardized for use with monolingual Standard English-speaking children. It is thus recommended that these assessments should only be used with the populations they were designed for; if not test bias might result. However, such tests are still selected and used in the clinics of many multicultural and multilinguistic communities (e.g., Singapore). This research aimed to explore the performance of 79 Singaporean English-Mandarin pre-school children on the Expressive Vocabulary (EV) sub-test of the CELF Preschool 2 UK and to determine if their performance on the EV sub-test accurately reflected their language abilities by comparing their performance on a local screening language assessment tool, the Singapore English Action Picture Test (SEAPT). Results showed that local children performed poorly as compared to their UK counterparts. Two plausible reasons for the findings are: (1) the sub-test elicited only a single measure in English which ignored the language abilities of these bilingual children in their second language; and (2) the presence of culturally and linguistically biased test items. PMID:22335605

  7. Unborn children as constitutional persons.

    PubMed

    Roden, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the state of Texas argued that "the fetus is a 'person' within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment." To which Justice Harry Blackmun responded, "If this suggestion of personhood is established, the appellant's case, of course, collapses, for the fetus' right to life would then be guaranteed specifically by the Amendment." However, Justice Blackmun then came to the conclusion "that the word 'person,' as used in the Fourteenth Amendment, does not include the unborn." In this article, it is argued that unborn children are indeed "persons" within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments. As there is no constitutional text explicitly holding unborn children to be, or not to be, "persons," this argument will be based on the "historical understanding and practice, the structure of the Constitution, and thejurisprudence of [the Supreme] Court." Specifically, it is argued that the Constitution does not confer upon the federal government a specifically enumerated power to grant or deny "personhood" under the Fourteenth Amendment. Rather, the power to recognize or deny unborn children as the holders of rights and duties has been historically exercised by the states. The Roe opinion and other Supreme Court cases implicitly recognize this function of state sovereignty. The states did exercise this power and held unborn children to be persons under the property, tort, and criminal law of the several states at the time Roe was decided. As an effect of the unanimity of the states in holding unborn children to be persons under criminal, tort, and property law, the text of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment compels federal protection of unborn persons. Furthermore, to the extent Justice Blackmun examined the substantive law in these disciplines, his findings are clearly erroneous and as a whole amount to judicial error. Moreover, as a matter of procedure, according to the due process standards recognized in Fifth Amendment jurisprudence of the Supreme Court, Roe v. Wade should be held null and void as to the rights and interests of unborn persons. PMID:20443281

  8. 75 FR 57835 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ...Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010 Proclamation 8563--National POW...Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...Citizenship Day, and during Constitution Week, we commemorate the legacy passed...

  9. Constitution of the Associate Graduate Council of the College of Constitution Adopted: July 26, 2006

    E-print Network

    Constitution of the Associate Graduate Council of the College of Science Constitution Adopted: July in violation of Article II, Section 2 and Article III, Section 1 contained in this constitution may have his

  10. THE CONSTITUTION OF OUTSPOKEN This document represents the operating constitution for OUTspoken as amended and approved

    E-print Network

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Page | 1 THE CONSTITUTION OF OUTSPOKEN This document represents the operating constitution to the constitution. ARTICLE VI ­ EXECUTIVE BOARD Section 1: The executive board shall consist of the following

  11. American Focus on World Constitutions. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stanley T., III

    This curriculum project was designed to familiarize high school students with their own constitutional roots while gaining a better understanding of governmental systems developed by other nations. The project uses the U.S. Constitution as a baseline for analyzing the constitutions of other nations, and is intended to supplement courses in such…

  12. Antithetical Ethics: Kenneth Burke and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Virginia

    1995-01-01

    Shows how the textuality of the United States Constitution, the most venerable of classic democratic icons, might be exploited to nurture postmodern ethics. Shows how Kenneth Burke's reading of the Constitution accords with and augments the postmodern theories of J.-F. Lyotard and S. Jarratt. Discusses a postmodern Constitution and the…

  13. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...position identified as an officer by the constitution and bylaws of the labor organization...elected where the labor organization's constitution identifies the holder of such a position...who are required to be elected by the constitution and bylaws of a labor...

  14. Florida Atlantic University Student Government Constitution

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Florida Atlantic University Student Government Constitution Preamble We the students of Florida the principles of the Constitution and laws of the United States and of the State of Florida, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Florida Atlantic University Student Government. Article I. Establishment

  15. THE CONSTITUTION OF THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    1 THE CONSTITUTION OF THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY (Revised and amended to December 6, 1989 this constitution is adopted for the government of the University. Article I Administrative Officers Section A Faculty. #12;The Constitution of Florida State University 2 Article IV Faculty Senate Section A. Faculty

  16. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201...Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement...paragraph (c) of this section. The constitution and identification of land as...

  17. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...position identified as an officer by the constitution and bylaws of the labor organization...elected where the labor organization's constitution identifies the holder of such a position...who are required to be elected by the constitution and bylaws of a labor...

  18. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201...Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement...paragraph (c) of this section. The constitution and identification of land as...

  19. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...position identified as an officer by the constitution and bylaws of the labor organization...elected where the labor organization's constitution identifies the holder of such a position...who are required to be elected by the constitution and bylaws of a labor...

  20. CONSTITUTION OF THE BRITISH COMBINATORIAL General Policy

    E-print Network

    Cameron, Peter

    CONSTITUTION OF THE BRITISH COMBINATORIAL COMMITTEE General Policy 1. The purpose of the Committee Meeting. #12;8. The constitution can be changed only by a two-thirds majority of those voting in the constitution. It shall also include the Committee's nomination for Chairman of the British Combinatorial Com

  1. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...position identified as an officer by the constitution and bylaws of the labor organization...elected where the labor organization's constitution identifies the holder of such a position...who are required to be elected by the constitution and bylaws of a labor...

  2. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201...Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement...paragraph (c) of this section. The constitution and identification of land as...

  3. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201...Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement...paragraph (c) of this section. The constitution and identification of land as...

  4. Boise State University Faculty Senate Constitution

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Boise State University Faculty Senate Constitution Amended: May 2011 Effective Date: Upon Board subscribe to this constitution establishing principles of organization, authority, and responsibility of the Boise State University faculty. In adopting this constitution the president and faculty of Boise State

  5. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201...Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement...paragraph (c) of this section. The constitution and identification of land as...

  6. The Constitution of the Student Government Association

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    The Constitution of the Student Government Association The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Date XI ­ Amendments 20 Article XII ­ Public Referendum 20 Article XIII ­ Constitutional Authority 21 Article XIV ­ Ratification 21 #12;3 The Constitution of the Student Government Association Preamble We

  7. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...position identified as an officer by the constitution and bylaws of the labor organization...elected where the labor organization's constitution identifies the holder of such a position...who are required to be elected by the constitution and bylaws of a labor...

  8. Constitution Organization: ASME Date: 5 September, 2014

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Constitution Organization: ASME Date: 5 September, 2014 Preamble We, the students at the University, or sexual orientation. #12;Constitution Organization: ASME Date: 5 September, 2014 Article IV Officers. The build master will coordinate with other universities for construction competitions. #12;Constitution

  9. Constitutive model for porous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, A.M.; Lee, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    A simple pressure versus porosity compaction model is developed to calculate the response of granular porous bed materials to shock impact. The model provides a scheme for calculating compaction behavior when relatively limited material data are available. While the model was developed to study porous explosives and propellants, it has been applied to a much wider range of materials. The early development of porous material models, such as that of Hermann, required empirical dynamic compaction data. Erkman and Edwards successfully applied the early theory to unreacted porous high explosives using a Gruneisen equation of state without yield behavior and without trapped gas in the pores. Butcher included viscoelastic rate dependance in pore collapse. The theoretical treatment of Carroll and Holt is centered on the collapse of a circular pore and includes radial inertia terms and a complex set of stress, strain and strain rate constitutive parameters. Unfortunately data required for these parameters are generally not available. The model described here is also centered on the collapse of a circular pore, but utilizes a simpler elastic-plastic static equilibrium pore collapse mechanism without strain rate dependence, or radial inertia terms. It does include trapped gas inside the pore, a solid material flow stress that creates both a yield point and a variation in solid material pressure with radius. The solid is described by a Mie-Gruneisen type EOS. Comparisons show that this model will accurately estimate major mechanical features which have been observed in compaction experiments.

  10. Constitutive relations associated with the Mott-Smith distribution function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, M.; Baganoff, D.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the distribution function assumed by Mott-Smith determines a unique relation between heat flux, stress, and fluid velocity given by q = (3/2)??u, i.e., it provides a constitutive relation for heat flux, and it also determines a simple expression for this ratio of third-order central moments Q = . These expressions allow the equation of transfer for c x2 to be cast in a form that yields a nonlinear constitutive relation for stress. The results obtained from the Mott-Smith ansatz are compared with the theory of Baganoff and Nathenson and results from a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for shock-wave structure obtained by Hicks and Yen.

  11. Finite gradient elasticity and plasticity: a constitutive mechanical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Albrecht

    2015-11-01

    Following a suggestion by Forest and Sievert (Acta Mech 160:71-111, 2003), a constitutive frame for a general gradient elastoplasticity for finite deformations is established. The basic assumptions are the principle of Euclidean invariance and the isomorphy of the elastic ranges. Both the elastic and the plastic laws include the first and the second deformation gradient. The starting point is an objective expression for the stress power.

  12. Covariant constitutive relations and relativistic inhomogeneous plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gratus, J.; Tucker, R. W.

    2011-04-15

    The notion of a 2-point susceptibility kernel used to describe linear electromagnetic responses of dispersive continuous media in nonrelativistic phenomena is generalized to accommodate the constraints required of a causal formulation in spacetimes with background gravitational fields. In particular the concepts of spatial material inhomogeneity and temporal nonstationarity are formulated within a fully covariant spacetime framework. This framework is illustrated by recasting the Maxwell-Vlasov equations for a collisionless plasma in a form that exposes a 2-point electromagnetic susceptibility kernel in spacetime. This permits the establishment of a perturbative scheme for nonstationary inhomogeneous plasma configurations. Explicit formulae for the perturbed kernel are derived in both the presence and absence of gravitation using the general solution to the relativistic equations of motion of the plasma constituents. In the absence of gravitation this permits an analysis of collisionless damping in terms of a system of integral equations that reduce to standard Landau damping of Langmuir modes when the perturbation refers to a homogeneous stationary plasma configuration. It is concluded that constitutive modeling in terms of a 2-point susceptibility kernel in a covariant spacetime framework offers a natural extension of standard nonrelativistic descriptions of simple media and that its use for describing linear responses of more general dispersive media has wide applicability in relativistic plasma modeling.

  13. Internal Constitution of Neutron and Strange Stars

    E-print Network

    Norman K. Glendenning

    1997-06-24

    In the first of these two lectures I will discuss the rich constitution of neutron stars as a consequence of the Pauli principle which is engaged by the dominance of gravity over the nuclear force. Three especially interesting phenomena are discussed in this contect--(1) a mechanism for the formation of low-mass black holes distinct in their mass-range from the black holes formed in the prompt collapse of an entire star, (2) a multilayered crystalline structure consisting of confined hadronic matter embedded in a background of deconfined quark matter (or vice versa) which occupies a many kilometer thick inner region, and (3) a clean and pronounced signal of the formation of quark matter in the interior of neutron stars. In the second lecture I will discuss the strange matter hypothesis, its viability as well as its consequences for compact stars and a new family of white dwarfs with dense nuclear matter central regions some orders of magnuitude greater than in ordinary white dwarfs.

  14. The constitution of cometary nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    The nongravitational term in the expression for the total force acting on a comet is calculated, and an upper limit is obtained for the product of the radial nongravitational term times the radius times the square root of the albedo. This condition is satisfied for ten periodic comets with q no greater than 1.5 AU, and the activity of these comets is consistent with control by H2O ice. Some of the comets must be spotty to account for their low albedo values. The effect of cosmic rays on comets, leading to frosting of their surface, is discussed.

  15. An integrative expression vector for Actinosynnema pretiosum

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Shan; Camattari, Andrea; Ng, Daniel; Song, Ruth; Madden, Kevin; Westpheling, Janet; Wong, Victor VT

    2007-01-01

    Background The Actinomycete Actinosynnema pretiosum ssp. auranticum has commercial importance due to its production of ansamitocin P-3 (AP-3), a potent antitumor agent. One way to increase AP-3 production would be to constitutively express selected genes so as to relieve bottlenecks in the biosynthetic pathway; however, an integrative expression vector for A. pretiosum is lacking. The aim of this study was to construct a vector for heterologous gene expression in A. pretiosum. Results A series of integrative expression vectors have been made with the following features: the IS117 transposase from Streptomyces coelicolor, the constitutive ermE* promoter from Saccharopolyspora erythraea, different ribosome-binding site (RBS) sequences and xylE as a translational reporter. Positive E. coli clones and A. pretiosum transconjugants were assayed by catechol. pAP42, containing an E. coli consensus RBS, and pAP43, containing an asm19 RBS, gave strong and moderate gene expression, respectively. In addition, an operon construct capable of multi-gene expression was created. Plasmid integration sites in transconjugants were investigated and four different sites were observed. Although the most common integration site was within a putative ORF with sequence similarity to NADH-flavin reductase, AP-3 levels and cell growth of transconjugants were unaffected. Conclusion A set of integrative vectors for constitutive gene expression in A. pretiosum has been constructed. Gene translation is easily determined by colorimetric assay on an agar plate. The vectors are suitable for studies relating to AP-3 biosynthesis as they do not affect AP-3 production. PMID:17956638

  16. Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments...Similarities and Differences throughout History. Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallasch, Brian Thomas

    This civic education resource packet is designed to provide teachers, community leaders, and other civic educators with an understanding of the differences between constitutional and non-constitutional governments. Six papers discussing the topic are included: "The Differences bewteen Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments" (John…

  17. [Body constitution in children in Cuentepec, Morelos].

    PubMed

    Ramos Rodríguez, R M

    1981-01-01

    A somatometric estimation of the body constitution was made in 87 females and 72 males applying the values of weight and height, the muscle circumference and medial section of the left arm and fat area of that section. The material represented 28.57 and 23.61% respectively of the total number of the 5 to 19 years-old inhabitants of the Nahua community of Cuentepec, Morelos. Weight and height, -but specially the latter-were impaired, both in males as in females, but more markedly in the latter. The weight as expected for the height was not affected. The behavior of the total area of the arm was quite similar to that of the body weight. In contrast, in females under 14 years old, the muscle area of the arm was located as an average, slightly below the limits of normality; subsequently, it was normal. In males it was significantly lower than in females. The fat area was the most deteriorated and the defect was persistently greater in females than in males. All this means protection mechanisms of the active tissue mass (homeorrhesis) leading to a greater resistance in females, but at the same time, being responsible for a decrease in magnitude of the somatometric expression of the sexual dimorphism. PMID:7271975

  18. Constitutive Activity among Orphan Class-A G Protein Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam L.; Steurer, Michael A.; Aronstam, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of constitutive activity among orphan class-A G protein coupled receptors within the cAMP signaling pathway. Constitutive signaling was revealed by changes in gene expression under control of the cAMP response element. Gene expression was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently co-transfected with plasmids containing a luciferase reporter and orphan receptor. Criteria adopted for defining constitutive activation were: 1) 200% elevation over baseline reporter gene expression; 2) 40% inhibition of baseline expression; and 3) 40% inhibition of expression stimulated by 3 ?M forskolin. Five patterns of activity were noted: 1) inhibition under both baseline and forskolin stimulated expression (GPR15, GPR17, GPR18, GPR20, GPR25, GPR27, GPR31, GPR32, GPR45, GPR57, GPR68, GPR83, GPR84, GPR132, GPR150, GPR176); 2) no effect on baseline expression, but inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR4, GPR26, GPR61, GPR62, GPR78, GPR101, GPR119); 3) elevation of baseline signaling coupled with inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR6, GPR12); 4) elevation of baseline signaling without inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR3, GPR21, GPR52, GPR65); and 5) no effect on expression (GPR1, GPR19, GPR22, GPR34, GPR35, GPR39, GPR63, GPR82, GPR85, GPR87). Constitutive activity was observed in 75% of the orphan class-A receptors examined (30 of 40). This constitutive signaling cannot be explained by simple overexpression of the receptor. Inhibition of cAMP mediated expression was far more common (65%) than stimulation of expression (15%). Orphan receptors that were closely related based on amino acid homology tended to have similar effects on gene expression. These results suggest that identification of inverse agonists may be a fruitful approach for categorizing these orphan receptors and targeting them for pharmacological intervention. PMID:26384023

  19. Constitutive Activity among Orphan Class-A G Protein Coupled Receptors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Adam L; Steurer, Michael A; Aronstam, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of constitutive activity among orphan class-A G protein coupled receptors within the cAMP signaling pathway. Constitutive signaling was revealed by changes in gene expression under control of the cAMP response element. Gene expression was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently co-transfected with plasmids containing a luciferase reporter and orphan receptor. Criteria adopted for defining constitutive activation were: 1) 200% elevation over baseline reporter gene expression; 2) 40% inhibition of baseline expression; and 3) 40% inhibition of expression stimulated by 3 ?M forskolin. Five patterns of activity were noted: 1) inhibition under both baseline and forskolin stimulated expression (GPR15, GPR17, GPR18, GPR20, GPR25, GPR27, GPR31, GPR32, GPR45, GPR57, GPR68, GPR83, GPR84, GPR132, GPR150, GPR176); 2) no effect on baseline expression, but inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR4, GPR26, GPR61, GPR62, GPR78, GPR101, GPR119); 3) elevation of baseline signaling coupled with inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR6, GPR12); 4) elevation of baseline signaling without inhibition of forskolin stimulated expression (GPR3, GPR21, GPR52, GPR65); and 5) no effect on expression (GPR1, GPR19, GPR22, GPR34, GPR35, GPR39, GPR63, GPR82, GPR85, GPR87). Constitutive activity was observed in 75% of the orphan class-A receptors examined (30 of 40). This constitutive signaling cannot be explained by simple overexpression of the receptor. Inhibition of cAMP mediated expression was far more common (65%) than stimulation of expression (15%). Orphan receptors that were closely related based on amino acid homology tended to have similar effects on gene expression. These results suggest that identification of inverse agonists may be a fruitful approach for categorizing these orphan receptors and targeting them for pharmacological intervention. PMID:26384023

  20. Allergic constitution theory of Chinese medicine and its assessment criterion and related studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Wang, Ting; Li, Ying-Shuai; Li, Ling-Ru; Zheng, Yan-Fei; Wang, Qi

    2015-09-01

    Constitution factor plays an important role in the occurrence, development, and transformation of diseases. The occurrence of allergic diseases is mainly caused by the disorganized physiological function and suitability regulation of patients, except for their exposure to outside allergens. Moreover, it represents susceptibility and hypersensitivity to allergens. The current study expresses the concept of allergic constitution from the perspective of Chinese medicine (CM) and presents the criterion of allergic constitution. In addition, the distribution of allergic constitution in population, its factors, and its relation to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were investigated. The HRQOL scores of allergic constitution were found to be lower than those of the Pinghe constitution. After making a study on the gene expression profile of allergic constitution, the characteristics of up-regulated or down-regulated genes were found. Finally, CM drug was researched and developed to improve allergic constitution. Based on clinical trials and animal experiments, CM is found to have good regulatory effects on allergic constitution. PMID:25537150

  1. Testing of constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    Constitutive models for computational solid mechanics codes are in LAME--the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering. These models describe complex material behavior and are used in our finite deformation solid mechanics codes. To ensure the correct implementation of these models, regression tests have been created for constitutive models in LAME. A selection of these tests is documented here. Constitutive models are an important part of any solid mechanics code. If an analysis code is meant to provide accurate results, the constitutive models that describe the material behavior need to be implemented correctly. Ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is the goal of a testing procedure that is used with the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) (see [1] and [2]). A test suite for constitutive models can serve three purposes. First, the test problems provide the constitutive model developer a means to test the model implementation. This is an activity that is always done by any responsible constitutive model developer. Retaining the test problem in a repository where the problem can be run periodically is an excellent means of ensuring that the model continues to behave correctly. A second purpose of a test suite for constitutive models is that it gives application code developers confidence that the constitutive models work correctly. This is extremely important since any analyst that uses an application code for an engineering analysis will associate a constitutive model in LAME with the application code, not LAME. Therefore, ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is essential for application code teams. A third purpose of a constitutive model test suite is that it provides analysts with example problems that they can look at to understand the behavior of a specific model. Since the choice of a constitutive model, and the properties that are used in that model, have an enormous effect on the results of an analysis, providing problems that highlight the behavior of various constitutive models to the engineer can be of great benefit. LAME is currently implemented in the Sierra based solid mechanics codes Adagio [3] and Presto [4]. The constitutive models in LAME are available in both codes. Due to the nature of a transient dynamics code--e.g. Presto--it is difficult to test a constitutive model due to inertia effects that show up in the solution. Therefore the testing of constitutive models is primarily done in Adagio. All of the test problems detailed in this report are run in Adagio. It is the goal of the constitutive model test suite to provide a useful service for the constitutive model developer, application code developer and engineer that uses the application code. Due to the conflicting needs and tight time constraints on solid mechanics code development, no requirements exist for implementing test problems for constitutive models. Model developers are strongly encouraged to provide test problems and document those problems, but given the choice of having a model without a test problem or no model at all, certain requirements must be kept loose. A flexible code development environment, especially with regards to research and development in constitutive modeling, is essential to the success of such an environment. This report provides documentation of a number of tests for the constitutive models in LAME. Each section documents a separate test with a brief description of the model, the test problem and the results. This report is meant to be updated periodically as more test problems are created and put into the test suite.

  2. Understanding the Federal Courts The Constitution and the Federal Judiciary

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    Understanding the Federal Courts The Constitution and the Federal Judiciary The Federal Courts The Constitution and the Federal Judiciary Article theConstitutionbecausetheir rulingsprotectrightsandlibertiesguaranteedbytheConstitution

  3. Politics, Economics, and Religion in the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Richard G.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the relationship between politics, economics, and religion through the philosophies of Smith, Hobbes, and Locke. Maintains that the unamended Constitution is a reconciliation of politics, religion, and economics. Defends this claim by examining property rights and the Constitution's regard to means in pursuance of freedom and justice.…

  4. CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS FIRE DEPARTMENT

    E-print Network

    SAMPLE CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS OF THE FIRE DEPARTMENT WHEREAS, Certain laws and regulations together, do ordain and adopt the following Constitution and By-Laws for our regulation and government/she shall hold, as trustee for the City of _, Texas, title to all property belonging to, used by

  5. An Internet Guide to Teaching the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, Congress passed and President Bush signed legislation designating every September 17 as Constitution Day and suggesting that all schools teach about the Constitution on that day. There are innumerable websites, countless lesson plans and a multitude of other teaching resources on the topic. Teachers were inundated with brochures,…

  6. The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Paul L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)

  7. Constitutive equations for meeting elevated-temperature-design needs

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, C.E.; Robinson, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Constitutive equations for representing the inelastic behavior of structural alloys at temperatures in the creep regime are discussed from the viewpoint of advances made over the past decade. An emphasis is placed on the progress that has been made in meeting the needs of the program whose design process is based in part on a design-by-inelastic-analysis approach. In particular, the constitutive equations that have been put into place for current use in design analyses are discussed along with some material behavior background information. Equations representing short-term plastic and long-term creep behaviors are considered. Trends towards establishing improved equations for use in the future are also described. Progress relating to fundamentals of continuum mechanics, physical modeling, phenomenological modeling, and implementation is addressed.

  8. 76 FR 58705 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011 Proclamation 8715--National Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve Week, 2011 Proclamation 8716--National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2011 Proclamation 8717--National...

  9. 3 CFR 8418 - Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Constitution and teach younger generations about its contents and history. By fulfilling civic duties, engaging... can better our country and breathe life into the freedoms established in the Constitution. The...

  10. The regularity theory of mechanistic constitution and a methodology for constitutive inference.

    PubMed

    Harbecke, Jens

    2015-12-01

    This paper discusses a Boolean method for establishing constitutive regularity statements which, according to the regularity theory of mechanistic constitution, form the core of any mechanistic explanation in neuroscience. After presenting the regularity definition for the constitution relation, the paper develops a set of inference rules allowing one to establish constitutive hypotheses in light of certain kinds of empirical evidence. The general methodology consisting of these rules is characterized as having formed the basis of many successful explanatory projects in neuroscience. PMID:26497603

  11. CONSTITUTIVE DEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY AN ALTERED BACTERIUM IN A GAS-PHASE BIOREACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas cepacia G4 expresses a unique toluene ortho-monooxygenase (Tom) that enables it to degrade toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE). ransposon mutants of G4 have been isolated that constitutively express Tom. wo fixed-film bioreactor designs were investigated for the explo...

  12. Closing in on the constitution of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    The science of consciousness is a nascent and thriving field of research that is founded on identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness. However, I have argued that it is the neural constitution of consciousness that science seeks to understand and that there are no evident strategies for distinguishing the correlates and constitution of (phenomenal) consciousness. Here I review this correlation/constitution distinction problem and challenge the existing foundations of consciousness science. I present the main analyses from a longer paper in press on this issue, focusing on recording, inhibition, stimulation, and combined inhibition/stimulation strategies, including proposal of the Jenga analogy to illustrate why identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness should not be considered the ultimate target of consciousness science. Thereafter I suggest that while combined inhibition and stimulation strategies might identify some constitutive neural activities—indeed minimally sufficient constitutive neural activities—such strategies fail to identify the whole neural constitution of consciousness and thus the correlation/constitution distinction problem is not fully solved. Various clarifications, potential objections and related scientific and philosophical issues are also discussed and I conclude by proposing new foundational claims for consciousness science. PMID:25452738

  13. Structural basis for constitutive activity and agonist-induced activation of the enteroendocrine fat sensor GPR119

    PubMed Central

    Engelstoft, M S; Norn, C; Hauge, M; Holliday, N D; Elster, L; Lehmann, J; Jones, R M; Frimurer, T M; Schwartz, T W

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose GPR119 is a G?s-coupled 7TM receptor activated by endogenous lipids such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and by the dietary triglyceride metabolite 2-monoacylglycerol. GPR119 stimulates enteroendocrine hormone and insulin secretion. But despite massive drug discovery efforts in the field, very little is known about the basic molecular pharmacology of GPR119. Experimental Approach GPR119 receptor signalling was studied in transfected cells. Mutational mapping (30 mutations in 23 positions) was performed on residues required for ligand-independent and agonist-induced GPR119 activation (AR231453 and OEA). Novel Rosetta-based receptor modelling was applied, using a composite template approach with segments from different X-ray structures and fully flexible ligand docking. Key Results The increased signalling induced by increasing the cell surface expression of GPR119 in the absence of agonist and the inhibitory effect of two synthetic inverse agonists demonstrated that GRP119 signals with a high degree of constitutive activity through the G?s pathway. The mutational maps for AR231453 and OEA were very similar and, surprisingly, also similar to the mutational map for residues affecting the constitutive signalling – albeit with key differences. Surprisingly, almost all residues in extracellular loop-2b were important for the constitutive activity. The molecular modelling and docking demonstrated that AR231453 binds in a ‘vertical’ pocket in between mutational hits reaching from the centre of the receptor out to extracellular loop-2b. Conclusions and Implications The high constitutive activity of GPR119 should be taken into account in future drug discovery efforts, which can now be guided by the detailed knowledge of the physiochemical properties of the extended ligand-binding pocket. PMID:25117266

  14. Constitutively Active Rhodopsin and Retinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Paul Shin-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Rhodopsin is the light receptor in rod photoreceptor cells of the retina that initiates scotopic vision. In the dark, rhodopsin is bound to the chromophore 11-cis retinal, which locks the receptor in an inactive state. The maintenance of an inactive rhodopsin in the dark is critical for rod photoreceptor cells to remain highly sensitive. Perturbations by mutation or absence of 11-cis retinal can cause rhodopsin to become constitutively active, which leads to the desensitization of photoreceptor cells and, in some instances, retinal degeneration. Constitutive activity can arise in rhodopsin by various mechanisms and can cause a variety of inherited retinal diseases including Leber congenital amaurosis, congenital night blindness, and retinitis pigmentosa. In this review, the molecular and structural properties of different constitutively active forms of rhodopsin are overviewed and the possibility that constitutive activity can arise from different active-state conformations is discussed. PMID:24931191

  15. Ordered Rate Constitutive Theories in Eulerian Description

    E-print Network

    Nunez, Daniel

    2012-12-31

    , Giesekus model etc with variable transport properties are a subset of the general ordered rate constitutive theories for thermoviscoelastic fluids of orders (m,n). The conditions resulting from entropy inequality, leading to restrictions on the material...

  16. Constitutive Modelling 5.1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Heil, Matthias

    as constitu- tive modelling and falls somewhere between an art and a science. One approach is to start from is used in the kinetic theory of gases, the development of constitutive models for poly- meric fluids

  17. High constitutive activity of native H3 receptors regulates histamine neurons in brain.

    PubMed

    Morisset, S; Rouleau, A; Ligneau, X; Gbahou, F; Tardivel-Lacombe, J; Stark, H; Schunack, W; Ganellin, C R; Schwartz, J C; Arrang, J M

    2000-12-14

    Some G-protein-coupled receptors display 'constitutive activity', that is, spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist. This means that a proportion of the receptor population spontaneously undergoes an allosteric transition, leading to a conformation that can bind G proteins. The process has been shown to occur with recombinant receptors expressed at high density, and/or mutated, but also non-mutated recombinant receptors expressed at physiological concentrations. Transgenic mice that express a constitutively active mutant of the beta2-adrenergic receptor display cardiac anomalies; and spontaneous receptor mutations leading to constitutive activity are at the origin of some human diseases. Nevertheless, this process has not previously been found to occur in animals expressing normal levels of receptor. Here we show that two isoforms of the recombinant rat H3 receptor display high constitutive activity. Using drugs that abrogate this activity ('inverse agonists') and a drug that opposes both agonists and inverse agonists ('neutral antagonist'), we show that constitutive activity of native H3 receptors is present in rodent brain and that it controls histaminergic neuron activity in vivo. Inverse agonists may therefore find therapeutic applications, even in the case of diseases involving non-mutated receptors expressed at normal levels. PMID:11130725

  18. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2013-09-01

    The paper considers developments of constitutive theories in Eulerian description for compressible as well as incompressible ordered homogeneous and isotropic thermofluids in which the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, and the convected time derivatives of the strain tensors of up to a desired order. The fluids described by these constitutive theories are called ordered thermofluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor and heat vector are dependent on the convected time derivatives of the strain tensor up to a desired order, the highest order of the convected time derivative of the strain tensor in the argument tensors defines the `order of the fluid'. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, that is, Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second law of thermodynamics provides no mechanism for deriving the constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. In the development of the constitutive theories in Eulerian description, the covariant and contravariant convected coordinate systems, and Jaumann measures are natural choices. Furthermore, the mathematical models for fluids require Eulerian description in which material point displacements are not measurable. This precludes the use of displacement gradients, that is, strain measures, in the development of the constitutive theories. It is shown that compatible conjugate pairs of convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain measures in co-, contravariant, and Jaumann bases in conjunction with the theory of generators and invariants provide a general mathematical framework for the development of constitutive theories for ordered thermofluids in Eulerian description. This framework has a foundation based on the basic principles and axioms of continuum mechanics but the resulting constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor must satisfy the condition of positive work expanded, a requirement resulting from the entropy inequality. The paper presents a general theory of constitutive equations for ordered thermofluids which is then specialized, assuming first-order thermofluids, to obtain the commonly used constitutive theories for compressible and incompressible generalized Newtonian and Newtonian fluids. It is demonstrated that the constitutive theories for ordered thermofluids of all orders are indeed rate constitutive theories. We have intentionally used the term `thermofluids' as opposed to `thermoviscous fluids' due to the fact that the constitutive theories presented here describe a broader group of fluids than Newtonian and generalized Newtonian fluids that are commonly referred as thermoviscous fluids.

  19. Constitutional trisomy 8 mosaicism as a model for epigenetic studies of aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate epigenetic patterns associated with aneuploidy we used constitutional trisomy 8 mosaicism (CT8M) as a model, enabling analyses of single cell clones, harboring either trisomy or disomy 8, from the same patient; this circumvents any bias introduced by using cells from unrelated, healthy individuals as controls. We profiled gene and miRNA expression as well as genome-wide and promoter specific DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation patterns in trisomic and disomic fibroblasts, using microarrays and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation. Results Trisomy 8-positive fibroblasts displayed a characteristic expression and methylation phenotype distinct from disomic fibroblasts, with the majority (65%) of chromosome 8 genes in the trisomic cells being overexpressed. However, 69% of all deregulated genes and non-coding RNAs were not located on this chromosome. Pathway analysis of the deregulated genes revealed that cancer, genetic disorder, and hematopoiesis were top ranked. The trisomy 8-positive cells displayed depletion of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and global hypomethylation of gene-poor regions on chromosome 8, thus partly mimicking the inactivated X chromosome in females. Conclusions Trisomy 8 affects genes situated also on other chromosomes which, in cooperation with the observed chromosome 8 gene dosage effect, has an impact on the clinical features of CT8M, as demonstrated by the pathway analysis revealing key features that might explain the increased incidence of hematologic malignancies in CT8M patients. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the general depletion of hydroxymethylation and global hypomethylation of chromosome 8 may be unrelated to gene expression regulation, instead being associated with a general mechanism of chromatin processing and compartmentalization of additional chromosomes. PMID:23816241

  20. Establishment of a quantitative PCR system for discriminating chitinase-like proteins: catalytically inactive breast regression protein-39 and Ym1 are constitutive genes in mouse lung

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mice and humans produce chitinase-like proteins (CLPs), which are highly homologous to chitinases but lack chitinolytic activity. Mice express primarily three CLPs, including breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) [chitinase 3-like-1 (Chi3l1) or 38-kDa glycoprotein (gp38k)], Ym1 (Chi3l3) and Ym2 (Chi3l4). Recently, CLPs have attracted considerable attention due to their increased expression in a number of pathological conditions, including asthma, allergies, rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors. Although the exact functions of CLPs are largely unknown, the significance of their increased expression levels during pathophysiological states needs to be determined. The quantification of BRP-39, Ym1 and Ym2 is an important step in gaining insight into the in vivo regulation of the CLPs. Methods We constructed a standard DNA for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) by containing three CLPs target fragments and five reference genes cDNA in a one-to-one ratio. We evaluated this system by analyzing the eight target cDNA sequences. Tissue cDNAs obtained by reverse transcription from total RNA from four embryonic stages and eight adult tissues were analyzed using the qPCR system with the standard DNA. Results We established a qPCR system detecting CLPs and comparing their expression levels with those of five reference genes using the same scale in mouse tissues. We found that BRP-39 and Ym1 were abundant in the mouse lung, whereas Ym2 mRNA was abundant in the stomach, followed by lung. The expression levels of BRP-39 and Ym1 in the mouse lung were higher than those of two active chitinases and were comparable to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a housekeeping gene which is constitutively expressed in all tissues. Conclusion Our results indicate that catalytically inactive BRP-39 and Ym1 are constitutive genes in normal mouse lung. PMID:25294623

  1. Thermoelastic constitutive equations for chemically hardening materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, B. W.; Levitsky, M.

    1974-01-01

    Thermoelastic constitutive equations are derived for a material undergoing solidification or hardening as the result of a chemical reaction. The derivation is based upon a two component model whose composition is determined by the degree of hardening, and makes use of strain-energy considerations. Constitutive equations take the form of stress rate-strain rate relations, in which the coefficients are time-dependent functions of the composition. Specific results are developed for the case of a material of constant bulk modulus which undergoes a transition from an initial liquidlike state into an isotropic elastic solid. Potential applications are discussed.

  2. Continuum constitutive modeling of woven fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boljen, M.; Hiermaier, S.

    2012-05-01

    The constitutive behavior of woven fabrics is significantly influenced by distinctive yarn interactions at the fabric mesoscale. Since, in most cases, an explicit discretization at yarn level is not desirable due to the related computational effort, an improved computational approach is proposed using a simple, but powerful kinematic model linked to the deformation of a representative volume cell (RVC) at the fabric mesoscale. The constitutive model is validated experimentally for three different fabric materials and implemented as user-defined subroutine in the explicit finite-element code LS-DYNA. The model includes an enhanced formulation for rate-dependent, dissipative shear properties.

  3. 3 CFR 9019 - Proclamation 9019 of September 16, 2013. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 9019 of September 16, 2013. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2013 9019 Proclamation 9019 Presidential Documents... celebrate the world's longest surviving written charter of government, let us remember that upholding...

  4. Constitutional legislation, European Union Law and the nature of the United Kingdom’s contemporary constitution

    E-print Network

    Elliott, Mark

    2015-01-26

     Union  1707.  The  European  Communities  Act  1972,  the  Human  Rights  Act  1998  and  the  Constitutional  Reform  Act  2005  may  now  be  added  to  this  list.  The  common  law  itself... *      This  is  a  pre-­?publication  version  of  an  article  that  has  been  accepted  for  publication  in  the  European  Constitutional  Law  Review.  The  final  version  of  the  article  will  be...

  5. 77 FR 57981 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ...Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012 Presidential Documents Federal Register...Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...contributions of all their members. This week, we reflect on the basic rights and...

  6. 75 FR 57835 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-23898 Filed 9-21-10; 11:15 am] Billing... Proclamation 8562--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010 Proclamation 8563--National POW/MIA Recognition Day, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register /...

  7. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  8. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  9. Constitutive relations for cohesionless frictional granular materials

    E-print Network

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    Constitutive relations for cohesionless frictional granular materials Sia Nemat-Nasser* and Juhua: Coustitutive models; Granular materials; Cyclic streaming; Coulomt friction; Anisotropy; Fabric 1. Introduction. The backstress #12;, is proportional to the pressure p, and an effective friction coefficient. Its magnitude

  10. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  11. Psychological Inference, Constitutive Rationality and Logical Closure

    E-print Network

    Pratt-Hartmann, Ian

    Psychological Inference, Constitutive Rationality and Logical Closure Ian Pratt Published in Hanson generally, we can say of a person characterised in psychological terms how he ought to reason, by tracing will reason if they reason aright. It follows---so goes the argument---that if psychological descriptions

  12. Constitution and Bylaws Graduate Student Advisory Council

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Constitution and Bylaws of the Graduate Student Advisory Council at Texas Tech University #12. It shall be hereinafter referred to as the GSAC. ARTICLE II. MEMBERSHIP All graduate students of Texas Tech University are members of GSAC. Graduate students at Texas Tech University who have been elected

  13. Teaching Teachers the Constitution: A Bicentennial Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opheim, Cynthia

    1990-01-01

    Describes an institute held at Southwest Texas State University on the bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution for social studies teachers to enhance their professional preparation. Notes major activities and teaching strategies of the program. Provides quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the effectiveness of the institute and a schedule of…

  14. Regulative and Constitutive Norms in Normative Multiagent Systems Guido Boella

    E-print Network

    Torino, Università di

    Regulative and Constitutive Norms in Normative Multiagent Systems Guido Boella Dipartimento di regulative norms that describe obligations, prohibitions and permissions, and constitutive norms- tem. In particular, we formalize regulative norms as goals of the normative system, and constitutive

  15. 78 FR 39721 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...June 13, 2013, Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC (Constitution), having its principal...Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77056-6106, filed...and Regulatory, Constitution Pipeline Company...1396, Houston, Texas 77251, or by...

  16. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... § 402.1 Labor organization constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with...

  17. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... § 402.1 Labor organization constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with...

  18. University of Delaware Constitution and By-Laws of the

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    University of Delaware Constitution and By-Laws of the Graduate Student Senate Ratification Date: 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1 #12;Constitution and By-Laws of the GSS V Amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws 15 5

  19. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... § 402.1 Labor organization constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with...

  20. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... § 402.1 Labor organization constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with...

  1. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section...452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation...consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible union...

  2. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section...452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation...consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible union...

  3. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section...452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation...consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible union...

  4. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section...452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation...consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible union...

  5. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section...452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation...consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible union...

  6. CONSTITUTING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH: THE EXPERIENCE OF IT RESEARCHERS

    E-print Network

    Roe, Paul

    _____________________________________________________________________________ 1 CONSTITUTING of article published as: Pham, Binh L. and Bruce, Christine S. and Stoodley, Ian D. (2005) Constituting;_____________________________________________________________________________ 2 CONSTITUTING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH: THE EXPERIENCE OF IT RESEARCHERS ABSTRACT

  7. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... § 402.1 Labor organization constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with...

  8. Constitution of the University of Florida Preamble ........................................................ ................................................................2

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    Constitution of the University of Florida Preamble .....................................................................26 The Constitution includes amendments adopted by the Faculty Senate through April 16, 2015 of organization and government; We, the Senate of the University of Florida, do hereby enact this Constitution

  9. Application of symbolic computations to the constitutive modeling of structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Tan, H. Q.; Dong, X.

    1990-01-01

    In applications involving elevated temperatures, the derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) describing the material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved and error-prone. Therefore intelligent application of symbolic systems to faciliate this tedious process can be of significant benefit. Presented here is a problem oriented, self contained symbolic expert system, named SDICE, which is capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models in analytical form. This package, running under DOE MACSYMA, has the following features: (1) potential differentiation (chain rule), (2) tensor computations (utilizing index notation) including both algebraic and calculus; (3) efficient solution of sparse systems of equations; (4) automatic expression substitution and simplification; (5) back substitution of invariant and tensorial relations; (6) the ability to form the Jacobian and Hessian matrix; and (7) a relational data base. Limited aspects of invariant theory were also incorporated into SDICE due to the utilization of potentials as a starting point and the desire for these potentials to be frame invariant (objective). The uniqueness of SDICE resides in its ability to manipulate expressions in a general yet pre-defined order and simplify expressions so as to limit expression growth. Results are displayed, when applicable, utilizing index notation. SDICE was designed to aid and complement the human constitutive model developer. A number of examples are utilized to illustrate the various features contained within SDICE. It is expected that this symbolic package can and will provide a significant incentive to the development of new constitutive theories.

  10. Expression of endoglucanases in Pichia pastoris under control of the GAP promoter

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant-derived biomass is a potential alternative to fossil feedstocks for a greener economy. Enzymatic saccharification of biomass has been studied extensively and endoglucanases have been found to be a prerequisite for quick initial liquefaction of biomass under industrial conditions. Pichia pastoris, widely used for heterologous protein expression, can be utilized for fungal endoglucanase production. The recently marketed PichiaPink™ expression system allows for rapid clone selection, and employs the methanol inducible AOX1 promoter to ensure high protein expression levels. However, methanol is toxic and poses a fire hazard, issues which become more significant at an industrial scale. It is possible to eliminate these risks and still maintain high productivity by switching to the constitutive GAP promoter. Results In the present study, a plasmid carrying the constitutive GAP promoter was created for PichiaPink™. We then studied expression of two endoglucanases, AfCel12A from Aspergillus fumigatus and TaCel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus, regulated by either the AOX1 promoter or the GAP promoter. Initial experiments in tubes and small bioreactors showed that the levels of AfCel12A obtained with the constitutive promoter were similar or higher, compared to the AOX1 promoter, whereas the levels of TaCel5A were somewhat lower. After optimization of cultivation conditions using a 15-l bioreactor, the recombinant P. pastoris strains utilizing the GAP promoter produced ca. 3–5 g/l of total secreted protein, with CMCase activity equivalent to 1200 nkat/ml AfCel12A and 170 nkat/ml TaCel5A. Conclusions We present a strategy for constitutive recombinant protein expression in the novel PichiaPink™ system. Both AfCel12A and TaCel5A were successfully expressed constitutively in P. pastoris under the GAP promoter. Reasonable protein levels were reached after optimizing cultivation conditions. PMID:24742273

  11. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  12. Cardiac Overexpression of Constitutively Active Galpha q Causes Angiotensin II Type1 Receptor Activation, Leading to Progressive Heart Failure and Ventricular Arrhythmias in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Naoko; Kashihara, Toshihide; Shimojo, Hisashi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nakada, Tsutomu; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Mende, Ulrike; Taira, Eiichi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Sanbe, Atsushi; Hirose, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    Background Transgenic mice with transient cardiac expression of constitutively active Galpha q (G?q-TG) exhibt progressive heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias after the initiating stimulus of transfected constitutively active G?q becomes undetectable. However, the mechanisms are still unknown. We examined the effects of chronic administration of olmesartan on heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia in G?q-TG mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Olmesartan (1 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was chronically administered to G?q-TG from 6 to 32 weeks of age, and all experiments were performed in mice at the age of 32 weeks. Chronic olmesartan administration prevented the severe reduction of left ventricular fractional shortening, and inhibited ventricular interstitial fibrosis and ventricular myocyte hypertrophy in G?q-TG. Electrocardiogram demonstrated that premature ventricular contraction (PVC) was frequently (more than 20 beats/min) observed in 9 of 10 vehicle-treated G?q-TG but in none of 10 olmesartan-treated G?q-TG. The collected QT interval and monophasic action potential duration in the left ventricle were significantly shorter in olmesartan-treated G?q-TG than in vehicle-treated G?q-TG. CTGF, collagen type 1, ANP, BNP, and ?-MHC gene expression was increased and olmesartan significantly decreased the expression of these genes in G?q-TG mouse ventricles. The expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) 3 and 6 channel and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) proteins but not angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor was increased in G?q-TG ventricles compared with NTG mouse ventricles. Olmesartan significantly decreased TRPC6 and tended to decrease ACE expressions in G?q-TG. Moreover, it increased AT1 receptor in G?q-TG. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation plays an important role in the development of heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia in G?q-TG mouse model of heart failure. PMID:25171374

  13. Constitutive Modeling of Crosslinked Nanotube Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Frankland, S. J. V.; Herzog, M. N.; Gates, T. S.; Fay, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    A non-linear, continuum-based constitutive model is developed for carbon nanotube materials in which bundles of aligned carbon nanotubes have varying amounts of crosslinks between the nanotubes. The model accounts for the non-linear elastic constitutive behavior of the material in terms of strain, and is developed using a thermodynamic energy approach. The model is used to examine the effect of the crosslinking on the overall mechanical properties of variations of the crosslinked carbon nanotube material with varying degrees of crosslinking. It is shown that the presence of the crosslinks has significant effects on the mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube materials. An increase in the transverse shear properties is observed when the nanotubes are crosslinked. However, this increase is accompanied by a decrease in axial mechanical properties of the nanotube material upon crosslinking.

  14. Constitutive modeling for single crystal superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Donald C.; Dame, L. Thomas; Jayaraman, N.

    1985-01-01

    A crystallographic approach to constitutive modeling of single crystal superalloys is discussed. The approach is based on identifying the active slip planes and slip directions. The shear stresses are computed on each of the slip planes from applied stress components. The slip rate is then computed on each slip system and the microscopic inelastic strain rates are the sum of the slip in the individual slip systems. The constitutive model was implemented in a finite element code using twenty noted isoparametric solid elements. Constants were determined for octahedral and cube slip systems. These constants were then used to predict tension-compression asymmetry and fatigue loops. Other data was used to model the tensile and creep response.

  15. Biaxial constitutive equation development for single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    Current gas turbine engines utilize large single crystal superalloy components in the hot section. Structural analysis of these components requires a valid stress strain temperature constitutive equation. The goal of the program described is to create one or more models and verify these models. A constitutive equation based on an assumed slip behavior of a single slip system was formulated, programmed, and debugged. Specifically, the basic theory for a model based on aggravating slip behavior on individual slip systems was formulated and programmed and some simulations were run using assumed values of constants. In addition, a formulation allowing strain controlled simulations was completed. An approach to structural analysis of the specimen was developed. This approach uses long tube consistancy conditions and finite elements specially formulated to take advantage of the symmetry of 100 oriented specimens.

  16. Unified viscoplastic constitutive equations and their applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.

    1987-01-01

    Unified constitutive equations for time- and temperature-dependent metallic plastic deformation have been applied in FEM simulations of forming processes; increasingly powerful computational tools and physical models are being used to numerically model complex engineering problems. Once confidence has been gained through adequate verification, these numerical models will increasingly replace experimental models. Attention is presently given to the contributions made by physical metallurgy, continuum mechanics, and computational mechanics.

  17. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the first year of work on a program to validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials utilized in high temperature regions of gas turbine engines and to demonstrate their usefulness in computing stress-strain-time-temperature histories in complex three-dimensional structural components. The unified theories combine all inelastic strain-rate components in a single term avoiding, for example, treating plasticity and creep as separate response phenomena. An extensive review of existing unified theories is given and numerical methods for integrating these stiff time-temperature-dependent constitutive equations are discussed. Two particular models, those developed by Bodner and Partom and by Walker, were selected for more detailed development and evaluation against experimental tensile, creep and cyclic strain tests on specimens of a cast nickel base alloy, B19000+Hf. Initial results comparing computed and test results for tensile and cyclic straining for temperature from ambient to 982 C and strain rates from 10(exp-7) 10(exp-3) s(exp-1) are given. Some preliminary date correlations are presented also for highly non-proportional biaxial loading which demonstrate an increase in biaxial cyclic hardening rate over uniaxial or proportional loading conditions. Initial work has begun on the implementation of both constitutive models in the MARC finite element computer code.

  18. Comparison of Gut Microbiota between Sasang Constitutions

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyo Sang; Lim, Chi-yeon; Kim, Mi Jeong; Seo, Jae-gu; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jai-eun

    2013-01-01

    The Sasang constitutional medicine has long been applied to diagnose and treat patients with various diseases. Studies have been conducted for establishment of scientific evidence supporting Sasang Constitutional (SC) diagnosis. Recent human microbiome studies have demonstrated individual variations of gut microbiota which can be dependent on lifestyle and health conditions. We hypothesized that gut microbial similarities and discrepancies may exist across SC types. We compared the difference of gut microbiota among three constitutions (So-Yang, So-Eum, and Tae-Eum), along with the investigation of anthropometric and biochemical parameters. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were predominant phyla in all SC types. The median plot analysis suggested that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes appeared more abundant in SE and TE, respectively, in the male subjects of 20–29 years old. At the genus level, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides manifested the difference between SE and TE types. For anthropometry, body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference of the TE type were significantly higher than those of the other types. Overall, findings indicated a possible link between SC types and gut microbiota within a narrow age range. Further investigations are deemed necessary to elucidate the influences of age, gender, and other factors in the context of SC types and gut microbiota. PMID:24454486

  19. Association of Sasang Constitutional Type with Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Choi, Kyung-Mee; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jin Kwan; Shin, Chol

    2015-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique Korean traditional medicine that classifies human beings as four distinct types named Sasang constitutional types (SCTs), based on physiologic, physical, and psychological traits. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that specific constitutional types are associated with chronic diseases, but no study has investigated the relationship between SCTs and sarcopenia. The aim of this study was to examine the association in a large population-based study. Data from 1,204 participants who completed questionnaires for life style, anthropometric evaluation, and biochemical analysis were analyzed. Classification of the SCTs was done using an integrated diagnostic method. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height2 less than one standard deviation below the gender-specific normal mean of a younger group. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess whole body composition. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 8.6% in the Tae-eum (TE) type, 44.7% in the So-eum (SE) type, and 20.7% in the So-yang (SY) type. Multivariate analysis revealed that the SE and SY types had 9.22 (5.06–16.81; P < 0.0001) and 2.90 (1.76–4.76; P < 0.0001) greater odds of sarcopenia compared to the TE type, respectively. Our results show that the SE and SY types are significantly associated with increased prevalence of sarcopenia. PMID:26649062

  20. Constitutional promoter methylation and risk of familial melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Paula L; Burke, Laura S; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Rotunno, Melissa; Sun, David; Patil, Prasad; Wu, Xiaolin; Tucker, Margaret A; Goldstein, Alisa M; Yang, Xiaohong Rose

    2014-05-01

    Constitutional epigenetic changes detected in blood or non-disease involving tissues have been associated with disease susceptibility. We measured promoter methylation of CDKN2A (p16 and p14ARF) and 13 melanoma-related genes using bisulfite pyrosequencing of blood DNA from 114 cases and 122 controls in 64 melanoma-prone families (26 segregating CDKN2A germline mutations). We also obtained gene expression data for these genes using microarrays from the same blood samples. We observed that CDKN2A epimutation is rare in melanoma families, and therefore is unlikely to cause major susceptibility in families without CDKN2A mutations. Although methylation levels for most gene promoters were very low (<5%), we observed a significantly reduced promoter methylation (odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval = 0.50, 0.80, P<0.001) and increased expression (fold change = 1.27, P = 0.048) for TNFRSF10C in melanoma cases. Future research in large prospective studies using both normal and melanoma tissues is required to assess the significance of TNFRSF10C methylation and expression changes in melanoma susceptibility. PMID:24762620

  1. 3 CFR 8418 - Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... The right to participate in self-government, and the many other freedoms guaranteed by our Constitution, inspire the dreams and ambitions of many inside and outside our borders. These principles serve as a beacon of hope for Americans and...

  2. The Constitution of Highly Reliable Practices: Materializing Communication as Constitutive of Organizing 

    E-print Network

    Spradley, Robert Tyler

    2012-10-19

    defining reliable processes. Materiality is minimized and not significantly explored as active in the constitutive process. Interrelationships between dangerous, dynamic environments, or sites, the human body, and objects (such as tools... Navigating Risk ...................................................................... 60 Feeling Danger ........................................................................ 66 Protecting Self...

  3. 77 FR 57981 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... September 17 and ending September 23 of each year as ``Constitution Week.'' NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK...

  4. 3 CFR 8862 - Proclamation 8862 of September 13, 2012. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...irrepressible optimism that every generation of immigrants has brought to our shores. Across our... This week, we reflect on the basic rights and responsibilities of citizenship...Constitution, and reaffirm our commitment to the rights and obligations of citizenship in...

  5. Power: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The fourth in a special series of handbooks dealing with constitutional themes, this document looks at power in the context of the U.S. Constitution. "The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom" (L. Peach) examines the separation of powers provided for in the Constitution. "The Concept of Power" (C. Roach) is a series of strategies, some using…

  6. Constitution of the Middle Common Room of The Queen's

    E-print Network

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    Constitution of the Middle Common Room of The Queen's College, Oxford Preamble: This Constitution repeals the existing constitution and shall come into force from the date it is passed. All acts validly undertaken under the previous constitution shall remain valid and cannot be called into question as being

  7. Turbulence modeling based on non-Newtonian constitutive laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mompean, G.; Qiu, X.; Schmitt, F. G.; Thompson, R.

    2011-12-01

    This work revisits the analogy between Newtonian turbulence and non-Newtonian laminar flows. Several direct numerical simulations (DNS) data of a plane channel flow, for a large range of Reynolds numbers (180 <= Re? <= 2000) were explored. The profiles of mean velocity and second moment quantities were used to extract viscometric functions in the non-Newtonian modeling framework. The Reynolds stress tensor is expressed in terms of a set of basis kinematic tensors based on a projection of a nonlinear framework. The coefficients of the model are given as functions of the intensity of the mean strain tensor. The apparent eddy turbulent viscosity, the first and second normal stress differences are presented as function of the shear rate. One of the advantages of the new algebraic nonlinear power law constitutive equation derived in the paper, is that is only dependent on the mean velocity gradient and can be integrated up to the wall.

  8. Amendment of the Constitution by the Convention Method under Article V. Revision of "Amending the U.S. Constitution by Means of a National Constitutional Convention" (August 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL.

    This report sets forth certain conclusions reached by the Special Constitutional Convention Study Committee of the American Bar Association after conducting a two-year study. The committee was formed to evaluate the ramifications of the constitutional convention method of initiating amendments to the U. S. Constitution as set down in Article 5. It…

  9. A Novel Moderate Constitutive Promoter Derived from Poplar (Populus tomentosa Carrière)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong; Wang, Jia; Ye, Mei-Xia; Li, Hao; Ji, Le-Xiang; Li, Ying; Cui, Dong-Qing; Liu, Jun-Mei; An, Xin-Min

    2013-01-01

    A novel sequence that functions as a promoter element for moderate constitutive expression of transgenes, designated as the PtMCP promoter, was isolated from the woody perennial Populus tomentosa. The PtMCP promoter was fused to the GUS reporter gene to characterize its expression pattern in different species. In stable Arabidopsis transformants, transcripts of the GUS reporter gene could be detected by RT-PCR in the root, stem, leaf, flower and silique. Further histochemical and fluorometric GUS activity assays demonstrated that the promoter could direct transgene expression in all tissues and organs, including roots, stems, rosette leaves, cauline leaves and flowers of seedlings and maturing plants. Its constitutive expression pattern was similar to that of the CaMV35S promoter, but the level of GUS activity was significantly lower than in CaMV35S promoter::GUS plants. We also characterized the promoter through transient expression in transgenic tobacco and observed similar expression patterns. Histochemical GUS staining and quantitative analysis detected GUS activity in all tissues and organs of tobacco, including roots, stems, leaves, flower buds and flowers, but GUS activity in PtMCP promoter::GUS plants was significantly lower than in CaMV35S promoter::GUS plants. Our results suggested that the PtMCP promoter from poplar is a constitutive promoter with moderate activity and that its function is presumably conserved in different species. Therefore, the PtMCP promoter may provide a practical choice to direct moderate level constitutive expression of transgenes and could be a valuable new tool in plant genetic engineering. PMID:23507754

  10. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  11. Constitution (as of Fall 2013) If you have any questions regarding the Constitution, please contact the GBB

    E-print Network

    Constitution (as of Fall 2013) If you have any questions regarding the Constitution, please contact this Constitution as the governing document intended to make clear the purposes, structures, and powers-Recognition Article X: Electing, Appointing and Removing GBB Members Article XI: Amendments to the Constitution

  12. A constitutive law for dense granular flows

    E-print Network

    Pierre Jop; Yoël Forterre; Olivier Pouliquen

    2006-12-05

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  13. Constitutional and thermal defects in nickel aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Korzhavyi, P.A.; Abrikosov, I.A.; Johansson, B.

    1999-07-01

    The formation energies of intrinsic point defects and the interaction energies of possible defect pairs in NiAl are calculated from first principles within an order-N, locally self-consistent Green's function method in conjunction with the multipole electrostatic corrections to the atomic sphere approximation. The theory correctly reproduces the ground-state properties of the off-stoichiometric NiAl alloys. The constitutional defects (antisite Ni atoms in Ni-rich and Ni vacancies in Al-rich NiAl) are shown to form ordered structures in the ground state, in which the defects of the same kind tend to avoid each other at the shortest separation distance on their sublattice. A mean-field theory is applied to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of thermal defects. The statistics of thermal defects is interpreted in terms of dominant composition-conserving complex defects which are shown to be triple defects in Ni-rich and nearly stoichiometric NiAl. In the Al-rich region a novel thermal excitation dominates where two constitutional Ni vacancies are replaced by one antisite Al atom. The number of vacancies, as well as the total number of point defects decrease with temperature in Al-rich NiAl. The boundary between the two regions is treated analytically. The vacancy concentration exhibits a minimum in its temperature dependence at the boundary. Similar analysis is applied to study constitutional and thermal defects in Ni{sub 3}Al as a function of concentration is in excellent agreement with recent experimental data.

  14. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-05-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  15. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kwai S.; Lindholm, Ulric S.; Bodner, S. R.; Hill, Jeff T.; Weber, R. M.; Meyer, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the third year of work on a program which is part of the NASA Hot Section Technology program (HOST) are presented. The goals of this program are: (1) the development of unified constitutive models for rate dependent isotropic materials; and (2) the demonstration of the use of unified models in structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. A test procedure was developed for assisting the generation of a data base for the Bodner-Partom model using a relatively small number of specimens. This test procedure involved performing a tensile test at a temperature of interest that involves a succession of strain-rate changes. The results for B1900+Hf indicate that material constants related to hardening and thermal recovery can be obtained on the basis of such a procedure. Strain aging, thermal recovery, and unexpected material variations, however, preluded an accurate determination of the strain-rate sensitivity parameter is this exercise. The effects of casting grain size on the constitutive behavior of B1900+Hf were studied and no particular grain size effect was observed. A systematic procedure was also developed for determining the material constants in the Bodner-Partom model. Both the new test procedure and the method for determining material constants were applied to the alternate material, Mar-M247 . Test data including tensile, creep, cyclic and nonproportional biaxial (tension/torsion) loading were collected. Good correlations were obtained between the Bodner-Partom model and experiments. A literature survey was conducted to assess the effects of thermal history on the constitutive behavior of metals. Thermal history effects are expected to be present at temperature regimes where strain aging and change of microstructure are important. Possible modifications to the Bodner-Partom model to account for these effects are outlined. The use of a unified constitutive model for hot section component analyses was demonstrated by applying the Walker model and the MARC finite-element code to a B1900+Hf airfoil problem.

  16. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Civil and Constitutional Rights of Adjudicated Youth.

    PubMed

    Landess, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Mental health clinicians serving child and adolescent patients are frequently asked to evaluate youth who have been arrested for various offenses or who are otherwise involved with the juvenile justice system. To help orient clinicians and other stakeholders involved with such cases, this article describes the evolution of the juvenile justice system and summarizes the history and current status of the civil and constitutional rights of youth involved in the adjudicatory process. This article also points out key areas in which due process rights are still evolving, particularly in the case of status offenders. PMID:26593115

  18. The IBEX background monitor

    E-print Network

    Crew, Geoffrey B.

    The IBEX Background Monitor (IBaM) provides a small and lightweight method for independently measuring IBEX’s high-energy proton background by integrating the flux of >~14 keV protons over a ~7° conical FOV. The IBaM is ...

  19. INDIAN BACKGROUNDS Patuxent Wildlife

    E-print Network

    INDIAN BACKGROUNDS of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center |./«arine'a(Megical Laboratory NOV 19 of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 138 #12;#12;INDIAN BACKGROUNDS of the Patuxent Wildlife Research of Indian Relics The Indian artifacts on display in the C. Hart Merriam Laboratory were collected

  20. Neutrino refraction by the cosmic neutrino background

    E-print Network

    Diaz, J S

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the dispersion relation of a neutrino test particle propagating in the cosmic neutrino background. Describing the relic neutrinos and antineutrinos from the hot big bang as a dense medium, a matter potential or refractive index is obtained. The vacuum neutrino mixing angles are unchanged, but the energy of each mass state is modified. Using a matrix in the space of neutrino species, the induced potential is decomposed into a part which produces signatures in beta-decay experiments and another part which modifies neutrino oscillations. The low temperature of the relic neutrinos makes a direct detection extremely challenging. From a different point of view, the identified refractive effects of the cosmic neutrino background constitute an ultralow background for future experimental studies of nonvanishing Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector.

  1. Neutrino refraction by the cosmic neutrino background

    E-print Network

    J. S. Diaz; F. R. Klinkhamer

    2015-12-07

    We have determined the dispersion relation of a neutrino test particle propagating in the cosmic neutrino background. Describing the relic neutrinos and antineutrinos from the hot big bang as a dense medium, a matter potential or refractive index is obtained. The vacuum neutrino mixing angles are unchanged, but the energy of each mass state is modified. Using a matrix in the space of neutrino species, the induced potential is decomposed into a part which produces signatures in beta-decay experiments and another part which modifies neutrino oscillations. The low temperature of the relic neutrinos makes a direct detection extremely challenging. From a different point of view, the identified refractive effects of the cosmic neutrino background constitute an ultralow background for future experimental studies of nonvanishing Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector.

  2. Computer simulation of the mathematical modeling involved in constitutive equation development: Via symbolic computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Tan, H. Q.; Dong, X.

    1989-01-01

    Development of new material models for describing the high temperature constitutive behavior of real materials represents an important area of research in engineering disciplines. Derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) which describe this high temperature material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved and error prone; thus intelligent application of symbolic systems to facilitate this tedious process can be of significant benefit. A computerized procedure (SDICE) capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models, in analytical form is presented. This package, running under MACSYMA, has the following features: partial differentiation, tensor computations, automatic grouping and labeling of common factors, expression substitution and simplification, back substitution of invariant and tensorial relations and a relational data base. Also limited aspects of invariant theory were incorporated into SDICE due to the utilization of potentials as a starting point and the desire for these potentials to be frame invariant (objective). Finally not only calculation of flow and/or evolutionary laws were accomplished but also the determination of history independent nonphysical coefficients in terms of physically measurable parameters, e.g., Young's modulus, was achieved. The uniqueness of SDICE resides in its ability to manipulate expressions in a general yet predefined order and simplify expressions so as to limit expression growth. Results are displayed when applicable utilizing index notation.

  3. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  4. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of the second year of work on a problem which is part of the NASA HOST Program. Its goals are: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are that of Bodner-Partom and Walker. For model evaluation purposes, a large constitutive data base is generated for a B1900 + Hf alloy by performing uniaxial tensile, creep, cyclic, stress relation, and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests as well as biaxial (tension/torsion) tests under proportional and nonproportional loading over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. Systematic approaches for evaluating material constants from a small subset of the data base are developed. Correlations of the uniaxial and biaxial tests data with the theories of Bodner-Partom and Walker are performed to establish the accuracy, range of applicability, and integability of the models. Both models are implemented in the MARC finite element computer code and used for TMF analyses. Benchmark notch round experiments are conducted and the results compared with finite-element analyses using the MARC code and the Walker model.

  5. Space shuttle propellant constitutive law verification tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, James R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Propellants Task (Task 2.0) on the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP), a database of material properties was generated for the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) PBAN-based propellant. A parallel effort on the Propellants Task was the generation of an improved constitutive theory for the PBAN propellant suitable for use in a finite element analysis (FEA) of the RSRM. The outcome of an analysis with the improved constitutive theory would be more reliable prediction of structural margins of safety. The work described in this report was performed by Materials Laboratory personnel at Thiokol Corporation/Huntsville Division under NASA contract NAS8-39619, Mod. 3. The report documents the test procedures for the refinement and verification tests for the improved Space Shuttle RSRM propellant material model, and summarizes the resulting test data. TP-H1148 propellant obtained from mix E660411 (manufactured February 1989) which had experienced ambient igloo storage in Huntsville, Alabama since January 1990, was used for these tests.

  6. Constitutive equations for an electroactive polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixier, Mireille; Pouget, Joël

    2015-07-01

    Ionic electroactive polymers can be used as sensors or actuators. For this purpose, a thin film of polyelectrolyte is saturated with a solvent and sandwiched between two platinum electrodes. The solvent causes a complete dissociation of the polymer and the release of small cations. The application of an electric field across the thickness results in the bending of the strip and vice versa. The material is modeled by a two-phase continuous medium. The solid phase, constituted by the polymer backbone inlaid with anions, is depicted as a deformable porous media. The liquid phase is composed of the free cations and the solvent (usually water). We used a coarse grain model. The conservation laws of this system have been established in a previous work. The entropy balance law and the thermodynamic relations are first written for each phase and then for the complete material using a statistical average technique and the material derivative concept. One deduces the entropy production. Identifying generalized forces and fluxes provides the constitutive equations of the whole system: the stress-strain relations which satisfy a Kelvin-Voigt model, generalized Fourier's and Darcy's laws and the Nernst-Planck equation.

  7. Structures of human constitutive nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiying; Jamal, Joumana; Plaza, Carla; Pineda, Stephanie Hai; Chreifi, Georges; Jing, Qing; Cinelli, Maris A; Silverman, Richard B; Poulos, Thomas L

    2014-10-01

    Mammals produce three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS): neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). The overproduction of NO by nNOS is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders; therefore, a desirable therapeutic goal is the design of drugs that target nNOS but not the other isoforms. Crystallography, coupled with computational approaches and medicinal chemistry, has played a critical role in developing highly selective nNOS inhibitors that exhibit exceptional neuroprotective properties. For historic reasons, crystallography has focused on rat nNOS and bovine eNOS because these were available in high quality; thus, their structures have been used in structure-activity-relationship studies. Although these constitutive NOSs share more than 90% sequence identity across mammalian species for each NOS isoform, inhibitor-binding studies revealed that subtle differences near the heme active site in the same NOS isoform across species still impact enzyme-inhibitor interactions. Therefore, structures of the human constitutive NOSs are indispensible. Here, the first structure of human neuronal NOS at 2.03?Å resolution is reported and a different crystal form of human endothelial NOS is reported at 1.73?Å resolution. PMID:25286850

  8. Constitutive Activity in an Ancestral Form of Abl Tyrosine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, W. Todd

    2015-01-01

    The c-abl proto-oncogene encodes a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that is found in all metazoans, and is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues. The Abl tyrosine kinase plays important roles in the regulation of mammalian cell physiology. Abl-like kinases have been identified in the genomes of unicellular choanoflagellates, the closest relatives to the Metazoa, and in related unicellular organisms. Here, we have carried out the first characterization of a premetazoan Abl kinase, MbAbl2, from the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. The enzyme possesses SH3, SH2, and kinase domains in a similar arrangement to its mammalian counterparts, and is an active tyrosine kinase. MbAbl2 lacks the N-terminal myristoylation and cap sequences that are critical regulators of mammalian Abl kinase activity, and we show that MbAbl2 is constitutively active. When expressed in mammalian cells, MbAbl2 strongly phosphorylates cellular proteins on tyrosine, and transforms cells much more potently than mammalian Abl kinase. Thus, MbAbl2 appears to lack the autoinhibitory mechanism that tightly constrains the activity of mammalian Abl kinases, suggesting that this regulatory apparatus arose more recently in metazoan evolution. PMID:26090675

  9. The diffuse X-ray background

    E-print Network

    A. M. Soltan

    2003-09-03

    The deepest observations of the X-ray background approach the surface brightness of the truly diffuse component generated by Thomson scattering of cosmic X-ray photons. Available estimates of the electron density and the X-ray luminosity density of AGNs as a function of cosmological epoch are used to calculate the integral scattered X-ray background component. It is shown that the scattered component constitutes 1.0 - 1.7 % of the total background, depending on the AGN cosmic evolution. Albeit this is a minute fragment of the total flux, it becomes a perceptible fraction of the still unresolved part of the background and should be taken into account in the future rigorous assessments of the X-ray background structure. This diffuse component at energies < 1 keV sums up with the emission by WHIM to 3 - 4 %. Consequently, one should expect that integrated counts of discrete sources account for just 96 - 97 % for soft background and ~99 % at higher energies.

  10. The Cosmic Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    George Smoot; Douglas Scott

    1997-11-08

    We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and anisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the update of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle Properties.

  11. Introduction Biological Background

    E-print Network

    Mahaffy, Joseph M.

    @mail.sdsu.eduUBC Biomath Seminar -- (1/39) #12;Introduction Biological Background Mathematical Models Conclusions Tunicate ­ Ciona intestinalis Ciona intestinalis ­ Tunicate ­ Sea Squirt Joseph M. Mahaffy, jmahaffy

  12. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-print Network

    Joseph Silk

    2002-12-12

    I review the discovery of the temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The underlying theory and the implications for cosmology are reviewed, and I describe the prospects for future progress.

  13. Mood-congruent cognitions constitute mood experience.

    PubMed

    Siemer, Matthias

    2005-09-01

    Three studies tested the assumption of a dispositional theory of moods that mood-related cognitions constitute essential parts of the phenomenal mood experience. In Study 1, after a hot- versus a cold-, sad-, or angry-mood induction, participants reported their momentary moods and their momentary mood-related cognitions. Self-reported moods and mood-related cognitions changed in a strictly parallel fashion in all mood induction groups. A mediation analysis showed that the influences of distraction on moods were completely mediated by changes in mood-related cognitions. Study 2 replicated the central findings of Study 1 with a musical mood induction procedure. Study 3 showed that the findings do not depend on the explicit manipulation of moods. The results support the tested assumption. PMID:16187865

  14. Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.

  15. Making American: Constitutive Rhetoric in the Cold War 

    E-print Network

    Thorpe, Martha

    2011-10-21

    Constitutive rhetoric theory posits that community identity is rhetorically created. There are various approaches to constitutive rhetoric, though most rhetoricians have chosen to focus on the works of Maurice Charland ...

  16. Close view of the Constitution Avenue elevation to show arched ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the Constitution Avenue elevation to show arched gateways and pedimented pavilion ("Commerce and Communication" sculpted pediment) - Interstate Commerce Commission, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Close view of the south facade on Constitution Avenue to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the south facade on Constitution Avenue to show main entrance - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Perspective view looking along the Constitution Avenue facade, showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view looking along the Constitution Avenue facade, showing the twenty-seven bays and the three central arches that mark the entrance to the building - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 3 CFR 8714 - Proclamation 8714 of September 16, 2011. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...guaranteeing the fundamental rights that make our country a beacon...Together with the Bill of Rights, our Constitution is the backbone...the law. We are a Nation of immigrants, built and sustained by...reaffirm our commitment to the rights and obligations of...

  20. 3 CFR 9019 - Proclamation 9019 of September 16, 2013. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...one another and to future generations. Let us move forward with the knowledge that in the face of impossible odds, those who love their country can change it. In remembrance of the signing of the Constitution and in recognition of the Americans who strive...

  1. Private Higher Education and the Constitutions; Constitutionality of State Aid to Private Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ann Van Wynen; Thomas, A. J., Jr.

    This report discusses the constitutionality of state aid to church-related institutions of higher education. The introduction deals with the important role that private institutions play in the total system of higher education, the seriousness of their financial plight, and the necessity for increased state aid to these institutions. Sections 2…

  2. Pinning down the Constitution: Interactively Teaching Congress's Power, Federalism, and Constitutional Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    "Pin-the-Tail-on-the-Constitution" is an engaged-learning activity that has been conducted in 26 classes over the past four years. The activity teaches multiple themes commonly included in a variety of courses on American politics such as federalism, congressional powers, the role of the federal courts, and the relevance of the commerce…

  3. LORY STUDENT CENTER GOVERNING BOARD CONSTITUTION

    E-print Network

    State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, age, color, religion, national origin identity or expression. #12;ARTICLE IV - RECALL AND REVERSAL: The Lory Student Center Governing Board voting members and acts are subject to recall and reversal respectively, upon referendum of the student

  4. Propagation of ultra-high energy neutrinos in the cosmic neutrino background

    E-print Network

    V. Van Elewyck

    2006-10-07

    UHE cosmic neutrino interaction with the cosmic neutrino background (CnuB) is expected to produce absorption dips in the UHE neutrino flux at energies above the threshold for Z-boson resonant production. The observation of these dips would constitute an evidence for the existence of the CnuB; they could also be used to determine the value of the relic neutrino masses as well as some features of the population of UHE neutrino sources. After breafly discussing the current prospects for relic neutrino spectroscopy, we present a calculation of the UHE neutrino transmission probability based on finite-temperature field theory which takes into account the thermal motion of the relic neutrinos. We then compare our results with the approximate expressions existing in the literature and discuss the influence of thermal effects on the absorption dips in the context of realistic UHE neutrino fluxes and favoured neutrino mass schemes.

  5. Loss of constitutive activity of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in familial short stature

    PubMed Central

    Pantel, Jacques; Legendre, Marie; Cabrol, Sylvie; Hilal, Latifa; Hajaji, Yassir; Morisset, Séverine; Nivot, Sylvie; Vie-Luton, Marie-Pierre; Grouselle, Dominique; de Kerdanet, Marc; Kadiri, Abdelkrim; Epelbaum, Jacques; Le Bouc, Yves; Amselem, Serge

    2006-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor (GHSR) was cloned as the target of a family of synthetic molecules endowed with GH release properties. As shown recently through in vitro means, this receptor displays a constitutive activity whose clinical relevance is unknown. Although pharmacological studies have demonstrated that its endogenous ligand — ghrelin — stimulates, through the GHSR, GH secretion and appetite, the physiological importance of the GHSR-dependent pathways remains an open question that gives rise to much controversy. We report the identification of a GHSR missense mutation that segregates with short stature within 2 unrelated families. This mutation, which results in decreased cell-surface expression of the receptor, selectively impairs the constitutive activity of the GHSR, while preserving its ability to respond to ghrelin. This first description, to our knowledge, of a functionally significant GHSR mutation, which unveils the critical importance of the GHSR-associated constitutive activity, discloses an unusual pathogenic mechanism of growth failure in humans. PMID:16511605

  6. Enhancing activity of N-glycosylation for constitutive proteins secretions in non-polarized cells

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Nobutake; Ohno, Yuji; Fukuda, Takahiro; Manome, Yosinobu; Saito, Saburo

    2009-04-17

    Several fusion proteins of mouse Interleukins (mILs) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were expressed in fibroblast and epithelial cells. Among these proteins, the mIL-31 derivative was the most efficiently secreted into the medium in a N-glycosylation-dependent manner. From the analysis of deletion mutants, the minimal structure for constitutive secretions consisted of a signal peptide and N-glycosylation. Introduction of the signal sequence from mIL-31 to human p53 protein failed to secrete the products, but further addition of the N-glycosylation site resulted in constitutive secretion of biologically active p53 protein into the medium in the N-glycosylated form. In this report, we showed the importance of N-glycosylation for constitutive protein secretions, especially using non-polarized cells.

  7. Reflections on the Establishment of Constitutional Government in Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varat, Jonathan D.

    Establishing constitutional government involves not simply the creation of a written document that purports to create the political structure of a nation and guarantee rights to its people, but "constitutionalism" in the sense of meaningful and effective adherence to constitutional norms of democratic organization and the protection of individual…

  8. Frederick Douglass Changed My Mind about the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, James

    2008-01-01

    Frederick Douglass dramatically and publicly changed his own mind about the Constitution. Like Frederick Douglass, the author had originally viewed the Constitution as pro-slavery. Yet a close look at Douglass's writings revealed a Constitution that empowered the federal government to abolish slavery.

  9. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  10. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  11. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  12. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  13. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  14. A constitutive model of cold drawing in polycarbonates

    E-print Network

    Masud, Arif

    A constitutive model of cold drawing in polycarbonates Arif Masud*, Alexander Chudnovsky Department-7023, USA Received in ®nal revised form 3 May 1999 Abstract This paper presents a set of constitutive preserving and spherical parts. Numerical constitutive integration algorithm is based on an operator

  15. Constitutive modeling of nanotubereinforced polymer composites G.M. Odegarda,

    E-print Network

    Odegard, Gregory M.

    Constitutive modeling of nanotube­reinforced polymer composites G.M. Odegarda, *, T.S. Gatesb , K constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single- walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyimide composite systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: B

  16. CONSTITUTIVE CHARACTERIZATIONS OF NON-IDEAL CONSTRAINTS IN CLASSICAL MECHANICS

    E-print Network

    Pasquero, Stefano

    CONSTITUTIVE CHARACTERIZATIONS OF NON-IDEAL CONSTRAINTS IN CLASSICAL MECHANICS Paola Morando discussed in [1] is also suitable for the constitutive characterizations of wider classes of constraints attention to the special case of a single material point. We show that the determination of a constitutive

  17. CONSTITUTION FOR THE VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY PRE-LAW SOCIETY

    E-print Network

    Hammack, Richard

    CONSTITUTION FOR THE VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY PRE- LAW SOCIETY PREAMBLE The officers fairness in the fulfillment of its purpose do hereby ratify this Constitution. ARTICLE I: NAME of legal careers. For the purposes of this Constitution, the organization will be herein referred

  18. Page 1 of 8 Bishop's University Alumni Association Constitution

    E-print Network

    Page 1 of 8 Bishop's University Alumni Association Constitution (Revised & adopted May 13, 2013 Committee. Bishop's University Alumni Association Constitution (Revised & adopted May 13, 2013) #12;Page 2. Bishop's University Alumni Association Constitution (Revised & adopted May 13, 2013) #12;Page 3 of 8 4

  19. Constitution Day: Start the School Year with Civics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Eli J.

    2006-01-01

    The celebration and recognition of Constitution Day on September 17th is now required by federal law. The new law, known colloquially as the Byrd Amendment, requires all schools receiving any federal assistance, from kindergarten to higher education, to teach students about the Constitution on Constitution Day. The concept of a school's civic…

  20. Resolution and Letter to Congress from the Constitutional Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the drafting of the United States Constitution. The United States Constitution is the longest-lasting written national constitution in the world. Its four parchment pages serve as the blueprint for a government under which more than 290 million Americans live. It holds great significance for the American people and for others…

  1. Constitutive cycling: a general mechanism to regulate cell

    E-print Network

    Constitutive cycling: a general mechanism to regulate cell surface proteins Stephen J. Royle1 trafficking process called constitutive cycling. The con- stitutive cycling of a variety of transmembrane the molecular me- chanisms of constitutive cycling, its regulation by extra- cellular agents such as hormones

  2. The Associated Students of the University of Washington Bothell CONSTITUTION

    E-print Network

    Matrajt, Graciela

    The Associated Students of the University of Washington Bothell CONSTITUTION Proposed March 1, 2005 CONSTITUTIONAL ADMENDMENT Article XI INTERPRETATION Article XII RATIFICATION PREAMBLE We, the students of the University of Washington Bothell, hereby ordain this constitution to advocate and to protect the interests

  3. Constitutive response of welded HSLA 100 steel , D. Benson a

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Marc A.

    Constitutive response of welded HSLA 100 steel Q. Xue a , D. Benson a , M.A. Meyers a , V strain rate (103 s(1 ) tension loadings at ambient and low temperatures. The constitutive responses stress (MTS) constitutive equation for different regions of the welded joint, which shows qualitatively

  4. A comprehensive evaluation of various forms of the Burnett and Woods constitutive equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welder, Wallace Tatsumi

    1998-12-01

    The conventional form of the Burnett equations, developed in 1939, has been shown in recent years to predict the behavior of monatomic gases in the continuum transition flow regime better than the Navier-Stokes equations. An inherent part of the conventional Burnett equations is an inviscid, isentropic approximation for the material derivative present in both the viscous stress and heat conduction expressions of the original Burnett equation of 1935. While the inviscid, isentropic substitution maintains the order of accuracy of the Burnett expressions, other representations of the material derivative may further improve the accuracy of the second order constitutive equations. In addition, a frame- indifferent and a modified second order set of constitutive equations have been proposed by Woods. Alternate forms for the Burnett and Woods viscous stress and heat flux are investigated herein using the exact material derivative definition, an inviscid, isentropic substitution, and an improved approximation for the material derivatives based on the Navier-Stokes equations. A rigorous stability examination details the effects of the augmented terms required to allow the use of these higher order constitutive equations with time dependent numerical methods. Comprehensive numerical tests are conducted using three model problems (monatomic shock structure, hypersonic flow about a 2-D circular body, and hypersonic leading edge problem) to examine the behavior of these higher order constitutive equations for translational nonequilibrium, rarefied compressive flow and rarefied shear flow. Of the nine different forms of higher order constitutive equations examined, the Conventional Burnett equations feature a robustness and accuracy that the eight other forms of the Burnett and Woods constitutive equations lack. Unphysical behavior, unnecessary complexity and negative entropy production limit the applicability of the other forms of the Burnett and Woods equations examined.

  5. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    With the increasing use of advanced ceramic materials in high-temperature structural applications such as advanced heat engine components, the need arises to accurately predict thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time-dependent and that is hereditary in the sense that the current behavior depends not only on current conditions but also on the material's thermomechanical history. Most current analytical life prediction methods for both subcritical crack growth and creep models use elastic stress fields to predict the time-dependent reliability response of components subjected to elevated service temperatures. Inelastic response at high temperatures has been well documented in the materials science literature for these material systems, but this issue has been ignored by the engineering design community. From a design engineer's perspective, it is imperative to emphasize that accurate predictions of time-dependent reliability demand accurate stress field information. Ceramic materials exhibit different time-dependent behavior in tension and compression. Thus, inelastic deformation models for ceramics must be constructed in a fashion that admits both sensitivity to hydrostatic stress and differing behavior in tension and compression. A number of constitutive theories for materials that exhibit sensitivity to the hydrostatic component of stress have been proposed that characterize deformation using time-independent classical plasticity as a foundation. However, none of these theories allow different behavior in tension and compression. In addition, these theories are somewhat lacking in that they are unable to capture the creep, relaxation, and rate-sensitive phenomena exhibited by ceramic materials at high temperatures. The objective of this effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center has been to formulate a macroscopic continuum theory that captures these time-dependent phenomena. Specifically, the effort has focused on inelastic deformation behavior associated with these service conditions by developing a multiaxial viscoplastic constitutive model that accounts for time-dependent hereditary material deformation (such as creep and stress relaxation) in monolithic structural ceramics. Using continuum principles of engineering mechanics, we derived the complete viscoplastic theory from a scalar dissipative potential function.

  6. Ordered rate constitutive theories for thermoviscoelastic solids without memory in Lagrangian description using Gibbs potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, K. S.; Reddy, J. N.; Nunez, D.

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents rate constitutive theories for finite deformation of homogeneous, isotropic, compressible, and incompressible thermoviscoelastic solids without memory in Lagrangian description derived using the second law of thermodynamics expressed in terms of Gibbs potential ?. To ensure thermodynamic equilibrium during evolution, the rate constitutive theories must be derived using entropy inequality [as other three conservation and balance laws are do not provide a mechanism for deriving constitutive theories for the deforming matter (Surana in Advanced mechanics of continuua. in preparation, 2014)]. The two forms of the entropy inequality in ? derived using conjugate pairs , : first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor and material derivative of the Jacobian of deformation and , ; second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor and material derivative of Green's strain tensor are precisely equivalent as the conjugate pairs , and , are transformable from each other. In the present work, we use , as conjugate pair. Two possible choices of dependent variables in the constitutive theories: ?, ?, , and ?, ?, , (in which ? is entropy density and is heat vector) are explored based on conservation and balance laws. It is shown that the choice of ?, ?, , is essential when the entropy inequality is expressed in terms of ?. The arguments of these dependent variables are decided based on desired physics. Viscoelastic behavior requires considerations of at least and (or ) in the constitutive theories. We generalize and consider strain rates ; i = 0, 1, …, n-1 as arguments of the dependent variables in the derivations of the ordered rate theories of up to orders n. At the onset, , ; i = 0, 1, …, n-1, ? and are considered as arguments of ?, ?, and . When is substituted in the entropy inequality, the resulting conditions eliminate ? as a dependent variable, reduce arguments of some of the dependent variables in the constitutive theory etc. but do not provide a mechanism to derive constitutive theories for and . The stress tensor is decomposed into equilibrium stress and deviatoric stress . Upon substituting this in the entropy inequality, we finally arrive at the inequality that must be satisfied by , and . Derivations of the constitutive theory for follow directly from , equilibrium Cauchy stress tensor, and the constitutive theory for is derived using the theory of generators and invariants. Constitutive theories for the heat vector of up to orders n that are consistent (in terms of the argument tensors) with the constitutive theories for are also derived. Many simplified forms of the rate theories of orders n are presented. Material coefficients are derived by considering Taylor series expansions of the coefficients in the linear combinations representing and using the combined generators of the argument tensors about a known configuration in the combined invariants of the argument tensors and temperature. It is shown that the rate constitutive theories of order one ( n = 1) when further simplified results in constitutive theories that resemble currently used theories but are in fact different. The solid materials characterized by these theories have mechanisms of elasticity and dissipation but have no memory, i.e., no relaxation behavior or rheology. Fourier heat conduction law is shown to be an over-simplified case of the rate theory of order one for . The paper establishes when there is equivalence between the constitutive theories derived here using ? and those presented in Surana et al. (Acta Mech 224(11):2785—2816, 2013), that are derived using Helmholtz free energy density ?.

  7. Background and Employability of Mobile vs. Non-Mobile Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiers-Jenssen, Jannecke

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison is made of the background and the early career of graduates with higher education from abroad to graduates with all domestic degrees, based on a survey among Norwegian graduates. Results show that those who have studied abroad constitute a selected group regarding social origin and mobility capital (exposure to…

  8. [Consequences of the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court on the fighting dog problem].

    PubMed

    Hülsenbusch, M

    2005-03-01

    The Federal Constitutional Court decided with its "Dangerous dog-judgment" about the constitutional complaint of 53 dog breeders on the federal act combating dangerous dogs. This judgment was a so-called Pyrrhic Victory for the appellants. The Court declared the legislative competence of the federal level in this issue for null and void. But the statutory prohibition for breeding Pitbull-Terrier-, American Staffordshire-Terrier-, Staffordshire-Bullterrier-, Bullterrier-races and cross breeding out of this dogs will be governed in police laws by the Laender finally. The Standing Conference of the Ministers for Internal Affairs declared an appropriate recommendation. The use of the category "race" was refused by experts in discussions as completely wrong and not acceptable. But the Federal Constitutional Court reasons that the legislator can use the category "race" within his scope of evaluation and prognostication in accordance with the Constitution for the ban of import of dangerous dogs. The Court demands--because of the weak data background - that the legislator monitors the legislation, to adjust it according to current developments. The Constitutional Court creates with the judgment "dangerous dogs" legal certainty. The jurisprudence of the administrative courts of the Laender and of the Federal Administrative Court based on the category "race" was approved as well as the police laws of the Laender dealing with dangerous dogs. PMID:15847070

  9. Gauging the cosmic microwave background

    E-print Network

    J. P. Zibin; Douglas Scott

    2008-12-21

    We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behaviour of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behaviour. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behaviour. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

  10. Deleterious Background Selection with Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, R. R.; Kaplan, N. L.

    1995-01-01

    An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. PMID:8601498

  11. Gauging the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Zibin, J. P.; Scott, Douglas

    2008-12-15

    We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behavior of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behavior. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behavior. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

  12. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  13. Constitutive modeling for single crystal superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, D. C.; Jayaraman, N.; Sheh, M.; Alden, D.

    1986-01-01

    The inelastic response of single crystal gamma/gamma prime superalloys is quite different from the behavior of polycrystalline nickel base superalloys. Upto a critical temperature the yield stress of single crystal alloys is a function of the material orientation relative to the direction of the applied stress and the material exhibits significant tension/compression asymmetry. This behavior is primarily due to slip on the octahedral slip system. Above the critical temperature there is a sharp drop in the yield stress, cube slip becomes more predominant and the tension/compression asymmetry is reduced. Similar orientation and tension/compression asymmetry is observed in creep and secondary creep above the critical temperature is inferred to occur by octahedral slip. There are two exceptions to this behavior. First, loading near the (111) orientation exhibits cube slip at all temperatures, and; second, loading near the (001) orientation produces only octahedral slip at all temperatures. The constitutive model is based on separating the total global strain into elastic and inelastic components. This model is developed and briefly discussed.

  14. Improvements to constitutive material model for fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morea, Mihai I.

    2011-12-01

    The high strength to weight ratio of woven fabric offers a cost effective solution to be used in a containment system for aircraft propulsion engines. Currently, Kevlar is the only Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved fabric for usage in systems intended to mitigate fan blade-out events. This research builds on an earlier constitutive model of Kevlar 49 fabric developed at Arizona State University (ASU) with the addition of new and improved modeling details. Latest stress strain experiments provided new and valuable data used to modify the material model post peak behavior. These changes reveal an overall improvement of the Finite Element (FE) model's ability to predict experimental results. First, the steel projectile is modeled using Johnson-Cook material model and provides a more realistic behavior in the FE ballistic models. This is particularly noticeable when comparing FE models with laboratory tests where large deformations in projectiles are observed. Second, follow-up analysis of the results obtained through the new picture frame tests conducted at ASU provides new values for the shear moduli and corresponding strains. The new approach for analysis of data from picture frame tests combines digital image analysis and a two-level factorial optimization formulation. Finally, an additional improvement in the material model for Kevlar involves checking the convergence at variation of mesh density of fabrics. The study performed and described herein shows the converging trend, therefore validating the FE model.

  15. A Constitutive Equation for Stratospheric Balloon Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L.; Sterling, W. J.

    2004-01-01

    The selection of a suitable material for use as a reliable stratospheric balloon gas barrier and structural component is based on a variety of properties. Due to a more desirable combination of properties, the low density polyethylene that has been used for the last half century has been replaced during the last decade by linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE). This paper describes the effort to characterize the time dependent properties of a 38 micron coextrusion of LLDPE. The nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation presented may be used to accurately describe the creep and/or relaxation of this film when subjected to a biaxial state of stress, such as might be required for an extended balloon flight. Recent laboratory data have been used to mod@ an existing model of LLDPE to account for differences caused by the coextrusion process. The new model will facilitate structural design optimization and reliability assessment, and may be further utilized as a predictive tool to benefit in-flight operations. Current structural analysis tech&ques based on linear elastic properties have predicted stresses in excess of those which would actually exist.

  16. Elastic-Plastic Constitutive Equation of WC-Co Cemented Carbides with Anisotropic Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Shigekazu

    2007-05-17

    Elastic-plastic constitutive equation of WC-Co cemented carbides with anisotropic damage is proposed to predict a precise service life of cold forging tools. A 2nd rank symmetric tensor damage tensor is introduced in order to express the stress unilaterality; a salient difference in uniaxial behavior between tension and compression. The conventional framework of irreversible thermodynamics is used to derive the constitutive equation. The Gibbs potential is formulated as a function of stress, damage tensor, isotropic hardening variable and kinematic hardening variable. The elastic-damage constitutive equation, conjugate forces of damage, isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening variable is derived from the potential. For the kinematic hardening variable, the superposition of three kinematic hardening laws is employed in order to improve the cyclic behavior of the material. For the evolution equation of the damage tensor, the damage is assumed to progress by fracture of the Co matrix - WC particle interface and by the mechanism of fatigue, i.e. the accumulation of microscopic plastic strain in matrix and particles. By using the constitutive equations, calculation of uniaxial tensile and compressive test is performed and the results are compared with the experimental ones in the literature. Furthermore, finite element analysis on cold forward extrusion was carried out, in which the proposed constitutive equation was employed as die insert material.

  17. BACKGROUND RESEARCH SAMPLE CODE

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey G.

    . This type of diabetes is normally seen in children at a very young age. Type II diabetes, on the other handBACKGROUND RESEARCH SAMPLE CODE INTRODUCTION APPLICATION MATERIALS ABSTRACT PURPOSE Diabetes is when the body does not properly use or store the glucose (Mayoclinic). There are two types of diabetes

  18. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  19. Monitored background radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruel, C.; Larouche, M.; Donato, M.

    1986-01-01

    The infrared (IR) testing of the Olympus thermal model has provided a capability to perform cost effective thermal balance testing of satellites and satellite components. A high-accuracy monitored background radiometer was developed for the measurement of absorbed radiation heat flux encountered during IR thermal vacuum testing of spacecraft. The design, development, and calibration of this radiometer is described.

  20. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Norman, E. B.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  1. PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

  2. EBSD Images Theoretical Background

    E-print Network

    Psaltis, Demetri

    /s assuming a constant growth rate on the 20 first seconds. Bad quality welds were produced by adding grease-tomography. Figure 8 Transverse slice of the bad quality weld observed through X-ray micro- tomography. The poresMotivation EBSD Images Theoretical Background Defects in the Weld Grain Growth Low Speed Welding

  3. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Ross, Donna; Grant, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on their ability to ask questions and wonder--both key components of inquiry. In this article,…

  4. Haplotype and phylogenetic analyses suggest that one European-specific mtDNA background plays a role in the expression of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy by increasing the penetrance of the primary mutations 11778 and 14484.

    PubMed Central

    Torroni, A; Petrozzi, M; D'Urbano, L; Sellitto, D; Zeviani, M; Carrara, F; Carducci, C; Leuzzi, V; Carelli, V; Barboni, P; De Negri, A; Scozzari, R

    1997-01-01

    mtDNAs from 37 Italian subjects affected by Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) (28 were 11778 positive, 7 were 3460 positive, and 2 were 14484 positive) and from 99 Italian controls were screened for most of the mutations that currently are associated with LHON. High-resolution restriction-endonuclease analysis also was performed on all subjects, in order to define the phylogenetic relationships between the mtDNA haplotypes and the LHON mutations observed in patients and in controls. This analysis shows that the putative secondary/intermediate LHON mutations 4216, 4917, 13708, 15257, and 15812 are ancient polymorphisms, are associated in specific combinations, and define two common Caucasoid-specific haplotype groupings (haplogroups J and T). On the contrary, the same analysis shows that the primary mutations 11778, 3460, and 14484 are recent and are due to multiple mutational events. However, phylogenetic analysis also reveals a different evolutionary pattern for the three primary mutations. The 3460 mutations are distributed randomly along the phylogenetic trees, without any preferential association with the nine haplogroups (H, I, J, K, T, U, V, W, and X) that characterize European populations, whereas the 11778 and 14484 mutations show a strong preferential association with haplogroup J. This finding suggests that one ancient combination of haplogroup J-specific mutations increases both the penetrance of the two primary mutations 11778 and 14484 and the risk of disease expression. PMID:9150158

  5. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to degradation of exothermic origin. This experimental program puts emphasis on the fragile nature of the preheated concrete and demonstrates the non-applicability of two failure criteria often used in engineering calculation. An alternative is proposed and well-tested. Indeed, exposing the concrete to high temperature results in irreversible loss of stiffness as well as a loss of decohesion strength. These losses are, typically, expressed through semi-empirical relationships of the mechanical properties with temperature. Unfortunately, these relationships are inadequate because the direct impact of this degradation, on the macroscopic scale, can result in a dependency relationship between the elastic properties and the hydrates mass. Therefore, unlike traditional methods using conventional elasto-plastic models and adjusting certain parameters with local temperature, the proposed constitutive law that incorporates a function of dehydration similar to the softening index in chemo-plastics gives good results. An Etse and Willam similar criterion is used and modified for the occasion. Hardening and softening mechanisms are then needed to expand and contract the loading surface for defining the strength of the concrete on a wide range of dehydration processes. The direction and magnitude of a permanent deformation, core of the inelastic domain, are defined through the development of non-associated chemoplastic potential and new curve of ductility. The influence of hydrostatic pressure (dilatancy) and dehydration on the concrete behavior are taken into account in our model. The model is implemented in the Matlab(c) code. Strains and stresses generated in the concrete are now accurately predicted. To illustrate the capabilities of the developed model to predict the complex behavior of concrete exposed to high temperature, simulations are performed through numerical loading paths scenarios. The model is able to accurately reproduce all the experimental data.

  6. [Female constitution--mythologic, historical and developmental psychological aspects].

    PubMed

    Neises, M

    2000-06-01

    Our constitution is given to us by predisposition. It always reflects our psychological dimension; and it can vary during different phases in our lives. Myths are collectively shared fantasies that contribute to the psychological stability of both individuals and society. The Antigone myth is regarded as one of the rare examples of an independent female protagonist. The historical context is important for the comprehension of psychosomatic symptoms surfacing in women and men which manifest themselves according to valid medical paradigms and historical background. Nowadays, the phase of puberty and adolescence represents a prolongation of social adolescence implying a possibility of an individual to go through these changes in his or her own rhythm. These chances and possibilities allow young females to develop a stable female identity and an ability to experience sexuality. In this phase, girls are still confronted with the conflict between professional career and performance as self-definition on the one hand and family commitment and maternity on the other. This tightrope walk between male and female roles can lead to specific wounds in women and even in some circumstances to psychosomatic illnesses. PMID:10899749

  7. Friction Constitutive Properties of Fault Zone Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, C.; Saffer, D.; McKieran, A.; Rowe, C.; Samuelson, J.

    2005-12-01

    A central problem in evaluating the relationship between fault zone properties and earthquake physics is a lack of detailed laboratory data for fault zone materials recovered from hypocentral depths. We report on a suite of experiments conducted on fault zone materials recovered from SAFOD phase 1 drilling, the Ghost Rocks Formation Kodiak Islands Alaska, and ODP drilling. The Ghost Rocks Formation underwent deformation at 12-14 km in a subduction thrust and samples consist of cataclasite and marine sediments similar to that which forms fault gouge in subduction zones. Samples from San Andreas Drilling range in depth from 1.4 km to 3.1 km and include wall rock and material from sub-faults of the San Andreas system. Layers of intact and powdered fault rock were sheared in the double-direct shear geometry, under shear velocity boundary conditions at constant normal stress, and within rough rigid forcing blocks using a servo-controlled testing machine. Normal stress and shear velocity ranged from 5 to 100 MPa and 1-300 micron/s. Intact slabs of fault rock were cut to 5 cm x 5 cm x 4-mm thick wafers for insertion in the double-direct shear geometry. Post-experiment examination of the sheared intact slabs shows that the sample remains intact and that shear is accommodated by a combination of pervasive strain and localized shear. Experiments were conducted at room temperature (22-24 C) under controlled relative humidity and saturated conditions. Changes in porosity are monitored continuously as a function of slip and time. We employed a normal stress stepping procedure to efficiently evaluate the Coulomb failure envelope and friction constitutive properties at a range of fault depths with limited sample material. SAFOD data show consistent values of the coefficient of sliding friction (we assume zero cohesion for the granulated layers) ranging from 0.57 to 0.63. At each normal stress, samples recovered from greater depth exhibit slightly lower friction values compared to the granite from 1.4 km. The frictional strength of the SAFOD samples are comparable to pure quartz powder and stronger than an illite shale. SAFOD core from 3062+ m contain shear textures and small amounts of phyllosilicates, which is consistent with their slightly lower strengths. The data for shear of the intact Ghost Rocks Formation show friction values in the range 0.34 to 0.44, which is consistent with the high clay contents in those samples. Velocity stepping tests indicate that steady-state friction values are reached and that the fault rocks exhibit slip-rate and history-dependent friction behavior similar to that documented for simulated fault gouge. A sudden increase in load point velocity results in an immediate increase in friction followed by a displacement-dependent decay to a new steady-state level. Measurements of steady-state friction as a function of slip velocity show velocity weakening frictional behavior for some SAFOD and ODP materials at low normal stress. In these cases, friction velocity dependence increases with increasing normal stress and becomes positive for normal stresses above 40 MPa. Samples from the Ghost Rocks Formation exhibit velocity strengthening for the full range of conditions studied. We report friction constitutive parameters determined by modeling data using the full rate and state friction law and elastic coupling between the testing apparatus and shearing layers.

  8. Constitutive Regulatory Activity of an Evolutionarily Excluded Riboswitch Variant*

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Renaud; Lemay, Jean-François; Blouin, Simon; Mulhbacher, Jérôme; Bonneau, Éric; Legault, Pascale; Dupont, Paul; Penedo, J. Carlos; Lafontaine, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    The exquisite specificity of the adenine-responsive riboswitch toward its cognate metabolite has been shown to arise from the formation of a Watson-Crick interaction between the adenine ligand and residue U65. A recent crystal structure of a U65C adenine aptamer variant has provided a rationale for the phylogenetic conservation observed at position 39 for purine aptamers. The G39-C65 variant adopts a compact ligand-free structure in which G39 is accommodated by the ligand binding site and is base-paired to the cytosine at position 65. Here, we demonstrate using a combination of biochemical and biophysical techniques that the G39-C65 base pair not only severely impairs ligand binding but also disrupts the functioning of the riboswitch in vivo by constitutively activating gene expression. Folding studies using single-molecule FRET revealed that the G39-C65 variant displays a low level of dynamic heterogeneity, a feature reminiscent of ligand-bound wild-type complexes. A restricted conformational freedom together with an ability to significantly fold in monovalent ions are exclusive to the G39-C65 variant. This work provides a mechanistic framework to rationalize the evolutionary exclusion of certain nucleotide combinations in favor of sequences that preserve ligand binding and gene regulation functionalities. PMID:21676871

  9. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

  10. Antiscalar cosmological background

    E-print Network

    Eduard G. Mychelkin; Maxim A. Makukov

    2015-06-11

    It is shown that the antiscalar approach to dark energy, whereby the energy-momentum tensor of the scalar field has the sign opposite to that of the rest of the matter, follows from the considerations of thermodynamic stability, as well as from the static limit of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. The same limit also demonstrates that the resulting background antiscalar field proves to be of quasi-electrostatic origin.

  11. Clinical Study on Constitutional Herbal Tea for Treating Chronic Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Jung; Bae, Young-Chun; Choi, Na-Rae; Ryu, Seung-Yeob; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue with no diagnosed cause, which is called Mibyeong in Korea. Methods: Males and females with ages between 40 and 59 years who had complained of fatigue for 1 month consistently or for 6 months intermittently without a definite cause were recruited. At the same time, a Chalder fatigue scale (CFS) score of 19 was essential for participation in this study. Sixty five subjects completed the entire process, including blood tests and tests with medical devices. Five assessments of health status were accomplished over 8 weeks by using the CFS and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To ensure that the constitutional herbal tea was being safely used, we conducted and analyzed renal function and liver function tests. For the diagnosis of the Sasang constitution, the Sasang Constitutional Analysis Tool (SCAT) was used, and a specialist in Sasang constitutional medicine made the final diagnosis based on the SCAT result. Constitutional herbal tea was served four weeks after the first visit. The subjects took the constitutional herbal tea twice a day for one month. Results: The results are as follows: The CFS and the VAS scores were significantly improved for the subjects in the constitutional herbal tea. No abnormalities were found on the blood tests to evaluate safety after taking the constitutional herbal tea. The improvements in the CFS and the VAS scores due to the constitutional herbal tea had no significant differences according to the Sasang constitution. Conclusion: Constitutional herbal tea may be used to reduce fatigue and improve health and has no adverse effect on either the kidney or the liver. PMID:25780720

  12. Constitutive equations for discrete electromagnetic problems over polyhedral grids

    SciTech Connect

    Codecasa, Lorenzo . E-mail: codecasa@elet.polimi.it; Trevisan, Francesco . E-mail: trevisan@uniud.it

    2007-08-10

    In this paper a novel approach is proposed for constructing discrete counterparts of constitutive equations over polyhedral grids which ensure both consistency and stability of the algebraic equations discretizing an electromagnetic field problem. The idea is to construct discrete constitutive equations preserving the thermodynamic relations for constitutive equations. In this way, consistency and stability of the discrete equations are ensured. At the base, a purely geometric condition between the primal and the dual grids has to be satisfied for a given primal polyhedral grid, by properly choosing the dual grid. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed discrete constitutive equations lead to accurate approximations of the electromagnetic field.

  13. Thermodynamic restrictions on the constitutive equations of electromagnetic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, B. D.; Dill, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    Thermodynamics second law restrictions on constitutive equations of electromagnetic theory for nonlinear materials with long-range gradually fading memory, considering dissipation principle consequences

  14. Nonlinear Constitutive Relations for High Temperature Application, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications were discussed. The state of the art in nonlinear constitutive modeling of high temperature materials was reviewed and the need for future research and development efforts in this area was identified. Considerable research efforts are urgently needed in the development of nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications prompted by recent advances in high temperature materials technology and new demands on material and component performance. Topics discussed include: constitutive modeling, numerical methods, material testing, and structural applications.

  15. Constitutive overexpression of a novel 21 kDa protein by Hodgkin Lymphoma and Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Minglong; Fadlelmola, Faisal M; Cohn, Jason B; Skinnider, Brian; Gascoyne, Randy D; Banerjee, Diponkar

    2008-01-01

    Background CD30, a 120 kDa surface phosphorylated protein is a member of tumour necrosis/nerve growth factor receptor (TNF/NGFR) family and constitutively expressed by Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and the neoplastic cells of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL). A disease-specific protein marker is yet to be identified in Hodgkin lymphoma cells. In order to define HL-specific biomarkers, novel murine monoclonal antibodies were developed in our laboratory. Results Murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were raised against the B3 sub clone of HL-derived cell line KM-H2. Two of these mabs (clone R23.1 mab and clone R24.1 mab) are IgG1 class antibodies that recognize a 21 kDa protein present at the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm in HL-derived cell lines. Clone R24.1 mab recognizes a formalin-resistant epitope and labels HRS cells in tissue samples from patients with HL of the classical type, ALCL, and subsets of T and B cell aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL). The antigen recognized by the clone R23.1 mab and clone R24.1 mab does not share epitopes with CD30 cluster regions A, B, or C, and, unlike CD30, is not expressed by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) activated T cells. Conclusion The 21 kDa protein detected by clone R23.1 and clone R24.1 mabs is a novel membrane-associated protein that may be a potential marker for the diagnosis and targeted therapy of HL and aggressive T and B cell NHL. PMID:18218123

  16. Signal detection: historical background.

    PubMed

    Egberts, Toine C G

    2007-01-01

    A primary aim in pharmacovigilance is the timely detection of either new adverse drug reactions (ADRs) or a relevant change of the frequency of ADRs that are already known to be associated with the drugs involved, i.e. signal detection. Adequate signal detection solely based on the human intellect (case-by-case analysis or qualitative signal detection) has proven its value. However, it is becoming increasingly time consuming given the growing volume of data, as well as less effective, especially in more complex associations, such as drug-drug interactions, syndromes and when various covariates are involved. In quantitative signal detection, measures that express the extent in which combinations of drug(s) and clinical event(s) are disproportionately present in the database of reported suspected ADRs are used to reveal associations of interest. Although the rationale and the methodology of the various quantitative approaches differ, they all share the characteristic in that they express to what extent the number of observed cases differs from the number of expected cases. Recent years have shown that the use of quantitative measures in addition to qualitative analysis is a step forward in signal detection in pharmacovigilance. This paper uses historical, classic examples and studies to illustrate the principles, pros and cons of especially quantitative methods in signal detection and adds a flavour of future perspective. PMID:17604412

  17. Comparative Gene Expression Analysis throughout the Life Cycle of Leishmania braziliensis: Diversity of Expression Profiles among Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Adaui, Vanessa; Castillo, Denis; Zimic, Mirko; Gutierrez, Andres; Decuypere, Saskia; Vanaerschot, Manu; De Doncker, Simonne; Schnorbusch, Kathy; Maes, Ilse; Van der Auwera, Gert; Maes, Louis; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Arevalo, Jorge; Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Background Most of the Leishmania genome is reported to be constitutively expressed during the life cycle of the parasite, with a few regulated genes. Inter-species comparative transcriptomics evidenced a low number of species-specific differences related to differentially distributed genes or the differential regulation of conserved genes. It is of uppermost importance to ensure that the observed differences are indeed species-specific and not simply specific of the strains selected for representing the species. The relevance of this concern is illustrated by current study. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected 5 clinical isolates of L. braziliensis characterized by their diversity of clinical and in vitro phenotypes. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed on promastigote and amastigote life stages to assess gene expression profiles at seven time points covering the whole life cycle. We tested 12 genes encoding proteins with roles in transport, thiol-based redox metabolism, cellular reduction, RNA poly(A)-tail metabolism, cytoskeleton function and ribosomal function. The general trend of expression profiles showed that regulation of gene expression essentially occurs around the stationary phase of promastigotes. However, the genes involved in this phenomenon appeared to vary significantly among the isolates considered. Conclusion/Significance Our results clearly illustrate the unique character of each isolate in terms of gene expression dynamics. Results obtained on an individual strain are not necessarily representative of a given species. Therefore, extreme care should be taken when comparing the profiles of different species and extrapolating functional differences between them. PMID:21572980

  18. Upholding Indigenous Freedoms of Religion and Medicine: Peyotists at the 1906-1908 Oklahoma Constitutional Convention and First Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedman, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In the five hundred years of European and American globalization of the world, seldom have Indigenous peoples been invited to a constitutional convention and first legislature to express their perspectives and concerns. Rarely in the five-hundred-year history of the European and American colonization of the world were the rights of the Indigenous…

  19. Constitutive properties of adult mammalian cardiac muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zile, M. R.; Richardson, K.; Cowles, M. K.; Buckley, J. M.; Koide, M.; Cowles, B. A.; Gharpuray, V.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in the constitutive properties of the cardiac muscle cell play a causative role in the development of diastolic dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiocytes from normal and pressure-hypertrophied cats were embedded in an agarose gel, placed on a stretching device, and subjected to a change in stress (sigma), and resultant changes in cell strain (epsilon) were measured. These measurements were used to examine the passive elastic spring, viscous damping, and myofilament activation. The passive elastic spring was assessed in protocol A by increasing the sigma on the agarose gel at a constant rate to define the cardiocyte sigma-versus-epsilon relationship. Viscous damping was assessed in protocol B from the loop area between the cardiocyte sigma-versus-epsilon relationship during an increase and then a decrease in sigma. In both protocols, myofilament activation was minimized by a reduction in [Ca2+]i. Myofilament activation effects were assessed in protocol C by defining cardiocyte sigma versus epsilon during an increase in sigma with physiological [Ca2+]i. In protocol A, the cardiocyte sigma-versus-epsilon relationship was similar in normal and hypertrophied cells. In protocol B, the loop area was greater in hypertrophied than normal cardiocytes. In protocol C, the sigma-versus-epsilon relation in hypertrophied cardiocytes was shifted to the left compared with normal cells. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in viscous damping and myofilament activation in combination may cause pressure-hypertrophied cardiocytes to resist changes in shape during diastole and contribute to diastolic dysfunction.

  20. Original article Underground herbivory and the costs of constitutive

    E-print Network

    Keywords: Constitutive defense Tolerance Meloidogyne incognita Nicotiana tabacum Nicotine a b s t r a c t Nicotine is both a constitutive and induced defense in cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana taba- cum). Nicotine nicotine production in four near-isogenic lines of N. tabacum differing in nicotine content. We exposed

  1. What Constitution Day Means and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    2014-01-01

    For almost three quarters of a century, advocates have worked to give comparable federal stature to September 17, the day on which we celebrate the anniversary of the 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution by the nation's founders. As President John F. Kennedy noted in his 1961 Constitution Day proclamation, it is a day for…

  2. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles not constituting approved containers. 27.206 Section 27.206 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.206 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate...

  3. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not constituting approved containers. 27.206 Section 27.206 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.206 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate...

  4. Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution Avenue and is nineteen bays long with twelve single columns and two sets of paired columns - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Elevation view of one of the doorways on the Constitution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of one of the doorways on the Constitution Avenue side of the building; the door is flanked by monumental neoclassical urns carved from granite - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Educational Research as a Reflexive Science of Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    "Constitution" is a relationship of mutual formation between people and their form of life. Neither can exist without the other. In the 1970s, proposals were made in various social sciences, including anthropology, political science, and sociology, for a new kind of inquiry that would focus squarely on constitution. It would be an explicitly…

  7. Teaching about the Constitution. NCSS Bulletin No. 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Clair W., Ed.; Schillings, Denny L., Ed.

    This book provides a historical perspective on the changing nature of the United States Constitution and the society it has shaped. Part I focuses on the eighteenth century with chapters on the origins, writing, and ratification of the Constitution. Activities are designed to help students think about the difficulties associated with the creation…

  8. Depth-varying constitutive properties observed in an isothermal glacier

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Hans-Peter

    Depth-varying constitutive properties observed in an isothermal glacier H. P. Marshall,1 J. T. Humphrey, Depth-varying constitutive properties observed in an isothermal glacier, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 of polycrystalline glacier ice such as large crystals, widely ranging crystal sizes, and natural inhomo- geneities

  9. Living Democracy: How Constitution High School Molds Better Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasof, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Philadelphia's Constitution High School (CHS) is committed both to the theory of education for democracy, and to its practice, as reflected by a school constitution, student elections, town hall meetings, and active student participation in school government. As its name indicates, CHS is a theme-based high school that focuses on history,…

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A nonlinear constitutive relationship for asphalt binders

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE A nonlinear constitutive relationship for asphalt binders Rodrigo Delgadillo A nonlinear constitutive relationship was developed for asphalt binders. Two binders, one polymer modified to the Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery loading pattern. Keywords Asphalt Á Asphalt cement Á Asphalt binder Á

  11. LARGE DEFORMATION CONSTITUTIVE LAWS FOR ISOTROPIC THERMOELASTIC MATERIALS

    E-print Network

    .1) and (1.2) reflect fundamental physical principles (the conservation of mass and Newton's lawLARGE DEFORMATION CONSTITUTIVE LAWS FOR ISOTROPIC THERMOELASTIC MATERIALS BRADLEY J. PLOHR AND JEEYEON N. PLOHR Abstract. We examine the approximations made in using Hooke's law as a constitutive

  12. TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY FACULTY SENATE CONSTITUTION

    E-print Network

    Bermúdez, José Luis

    TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY FACULTY SENATE CONSTITUTION Revised October 3, 2011 (Approved by the TAMU cooperative participation in the governance of the university. Therefore, this constitution is presented. FUNCTIONS The Faculty Senate shall report directly to the president of Texas A&M University. No Texas A

  13. Equality: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The second in a special four-part series of law-school partnership handbooks on constitutional themes, this document focuses on equality. "Equality--the Forgotten Word" (J. A. Hughes) discusses what has been considered the U.S. Constitution's one flaw, its failure to abolish slavery, and the remedy to that flaw, the Fourteenth Amendment. The issue…

  14. Decision Support The distribution of power in the European Constitution

    E-print Network

    Bilbao Arrese, Jesús Mario

    of the permanent nations (the United States, Russia, China, the United Kingdom and France) has seven votes and eachDecision Support The distribution of power in the European Constitution E. Algaba, J.M. Bilbao *, J Abstract The aim of this paper is to analyze the distribution of voting power in the Constitution

  15. [Teaching Materials about the U.S. Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, Washington, DC.

    Issued by the Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, this collection of instructional materials is designed to help teach about the United States Constitution. The documents include: "Plant a Living Legacy"; "Teaching Guide to Accompany United States Presidents, 1789-1989"; "Skills Handbook: 200 Years of the U.S.…

  16. The Constitutionality of School Choice in New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Charles G., III; Komer, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Does a "school choice" program, under which state funds are disbursed on a neutral basis to parents in the form of a voucher to defray the cost of sending their children to a school of their choice, run afoul of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, or of the New Hampshire Constitution? No. A school…

  17. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    PubMed

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant. PMID:9419321

  18. Minkowski Functional Description of Microwave Background Gaussianity

    E-print Network

    Serge Winitzki; Arthur Kosowsky

    1997-10-15

    A Gaussian distribution of cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations is a generic prediction of inflation. Upcoming high-resolution maps of the microwave background will allow detailed tests of Gaussianity down to small angular scales, providing a crucial test of inflation. We propose Minkowski functionals as a calculational tool for testing Gaussianity and characterizing deviations from it. We review the mathematical formalism of Minkowski functionals of random fields; for Gaussian fields the functionals can be calculated exactly. We then apply the results to pixelized maps, giving explicit expressions for calculating the functionals from maps as well as the Gaussian predictions, including corrections for map boundaries, pixel noise, and pixel size and shape. Variances of the functionals for Gaussian distributions are derived in terms of the map correlation function. Applications to microwave background maps are discussed.

  19. A gene expression fingerprint of C. elegans embryonic motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Rebecca M; Von Stetina, Stephen E; Barlow, Susan J; Shaffer, Christian; Olszewski, Kellen L; Moore, Jason H; Dupuy, Denis; Vidal, Marc; Miller, David M

    2005-01-01

    Background Differential gene expression specifies the highly diverse cell types that constitute the nervous system. With its sequenced genome and simple, well-defined neuroanatomy, the nematode C. elegans is a useful model system in which to correlate gene expression with neuron identity. The UNC-4 transcription factor is expressed in thirteen embryonic motor neurons where it specifies axonal morphology and synaptic function. These cells can be marked with an unc-4::GFP reporter transgene. Here we describe a powerful strategy, Micro-Array Profiling of C. elegans cells (MAPCeL), and confirm that this approach provides a comprehensive gene expression profile of unc-4::GFP motor neurons in vivo. Results Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) was used to isolate unc-4::GFP neurons from primary cultures of C. elegans embryonic cells. Microarray experiments detected 6,217 unique transcripts of which ~1,000 are enriched in unc-4::GFP neurons relative to the average nematode embryonic cell. The reliability of these data was validated by the detection of known cell-specific transcripts and by expression in UNC-4 motor neurons of GFP reporters derived from the enriched data set. In addition to genes involved in neurotransmitter packaging and release, the microarray data include transcripts for receptors to a remarkably wide variety of signaling molecules. The added presence of a robust array of G-protein pathway components is indicative of complex and highly integrated mechanisms for modulating motor neuron activity. Over half of the enriched genes (537) have human homologs, a finding that could reflect substantial overlap with the gene expression repertoire of mammalian motor neurons. Conclusion We have described a microarray-based method, MAPCeL, for profiling gene expression in specific C. elegans motor neurons and provide evidence that this approach can reveal candidate genes for key roles in the differentiation and function of these cells. These methods can now be applied to generate a gene expression map of the C. elegans nervous system. PMID:15780142

  20. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:25797499

  1. Data-driven estimations of Standard Model backgrounds to SUSY searches in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Legger, F.

    2008-11-23

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the strategy for the observation of supersymmetry in the early days is mainly based on inclusive searches. Major backgrounds are constituted by mismeasured multi-jet events and W, Z and t quark production in association with jets. We describe recent work performed in the ATLAS Collaboration to derive these backgrounds from the first ATLAS data.

  2. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  3. What constitutes the best sex life for gay and bisexual men? Implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While a large body of research has sought to understand HIV transmission risk behaviours among gay men, bisexual men and other men who have sex with men (MSM), less attention has been paid to the wider sexual health and well-being of this population. While some community-based organisations aim to support a more holistic sense of sexual well-being there is little evidence to draw on to inform their interventions. The current study sought to explore gay and bisexual men’s conceptions of what constitutes the ‘best sex’. Method The EMIS survey of 2010 recruited more than 180,000 respondents from 38 European countries to complete an online questionnaire about sexual health and behaviour. The 12,942 English language, UK-based responses to the open ended question, “What’s your idea of the best sex life?” were subjected to a detailed content analysis. A framework was devised to reflect and describe the key themes emerging from the data, which was then used to code all responses to one (or more) of these themes. Further statistical analysis sought to establish if and how responses differed according to key demographic variables. Results Eight themes emerged that capture the diversity of gay and bisexual men’s sexual desires. Most common among responses was a desire for sex within committed relationships, followed by a desire for sex which is emotionally or psychologically connected. Men also expressed a desire for volume and variety in their sexual lives, and for sex that is free from physical, social or psychological harm. Comparative analysis identified that older men were less likely to idealise a relationship or emotional connection, but were more likely to specify the sexual acts or behaviours they wished to engage in. Conclusions Attending to what men value or aspire to can help ensure interventions are engaging and meaningful to the target population. HIV prevention interventions need to attend to the broad range of sexual desires held by gay and bisexual men in delivery of holistic sexual health promotion that can help them to have the best sex with the least harm. PMID:24256555

  4. Preubiquitinated chimeric ErbB2 is constitutively endocytosed and subsequently degraded in lysosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Vuong, Tram Thu; Berger, Christian; Bertelsen, Vibeke; Rødland, Marianne Skeie; Stang, Espen; Madshus, Inger Helene

    2013-02-01

    The oncoprotein ErbB2 is endocytosis-deficient, probably due to its interaction with Heat shock protein 90. We previously demonstrated that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of ErbB2 is induced upon incubation of cells with Ansamycin derivatives, such as geldanamycin and its derivative 17-AAG. Furthermore, we have previously demonstrated that a preubiquitinated chimeric EGFR (EGFR-Ub{sub 4}) is constitutively endocytosed in a clathrin-dependent manner. We now demonstrate that also an ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} chimera is endocytosed constitutively and clathrin-dependently. Upon expression, the ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was further ubiquitinated, and by Western blotting, we demonstrated the formation of both Lys48-linked and Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains. ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was constitutively internalized and eventually sorted to late endosomes and lysosomes where the fusion protein was degraded. ErbB2-Ub{sub 4} was not cleaved prior to internalization. Interestingly, over-expression of Ubiquitin Interaction Motif-containing dominant negative fragments of the clathrin adaptor proteins epsin1 and Eps15 negatively affected endocytosis of ErbB2. Altogether, this argues that ubiquitination is sufficient to induce clathrin-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the otherwise plasma membrane localized ErbB2. Also, it appears that C-terminal cleavage is not required for endocytosis. -- Highlights: ? A chimera containing ErbB2 and a tetra-Ubiquitin chain internalizes constitutively. ? Receptor fragmentation is not required for endocytosis of ErbB2. ? Ubiquitination is sufficient to induce endocytosis and degradation of ErbB2. ? ErbB2-Ub4 is internalized clathrin-dependently.

  5. Molecular cloning of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that constitutively activates adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Eggerickx, D; Denef, J F; Labbe, O; Hayashi, Y; Refetoff, S; Vassart, G; Parmentier, M; Libert, F

    1995-01-01

    A human gene encoding an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor named ACCA (adenylate cyclase constitutive activator) was isolated from a genomic library using as a probe a DNA fragment obtained by low-stringency PCR. Human ACCA (hACCA) is a protein of 330 amino acids that exhibits all the structural hallmarks of the main family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Expression of hACCA resulted in a dramatic stimulation of adenylate cyclase, similar in amplitude to that obtained with other Gs-coupled receptors fully activated by their respective ligands. This stimulation was obtained in a large variety of stable cell lines derived from various organs, and originating from different mammalian species. hACCA was found to be the human homologue of a recently reported mouse orphan receptor (GPCR21). The mouse ACCA (mACCA) was therefore recloned by PCR, and expression of mACCA in Cos-7 cells demonstrated that the mouse receptor behaved similarly as a constitutive activator of adenylate cyclase. It is not known presently whether the stimulation of adenylate cyclase is the result of a true constitutive activity of the receptor or, alternatively, is the consequence of a permanent stimulation by a ubiquitous ligand. The tissue distribution of mACCA was determined by RNase protection assay. Abundant transcripts were found in the brain, whereas lower amounts were detected in testis, ovary and eye. Various hypotheses concerning the constitutive activity of ACCA and their potential biological significance are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7639700

  6. Isolation of nuclear proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed coats for gene expression regulation studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While seed biology is well characterized and numerous studies have focused on this subject over the past years, the regulation of seed coat development and metabolism is for the most part still non-elucidated. It is well known that the seed coat has an essential role in seed development and its features are associated with important agronomical traits. It also constitutes a rich source of valuable compounds such as pharmaceuticals. Most of the cell genetic material is contained in the nucleus; therefore nuclear proteins constitute a major actor for gene expression regulation. Isolation of nuclear proteins responsible for specific seed coat expression is an important prerequisite for understanding seed coat metabolism and development. The extraction of nuclear proteins may be problematic due to the presence of specific components that can interfere with the extraction process. The seed coat is a rich source of mucilage and phenolics, which are good examples of these hindering compounds. Findings In the present study, we propose an optimized nuclear protein extraction protocol able to provide nuclear proteins from flax seed coat without contaminants and sufficient yield and quality for their use in transcriptional gene expression regulation by gel shift experiments. Conclusions Routinely, around 250 ?g of nuclear proteins per gram of fresh weight were extracted from immature flax seed coats. The isolation protocol described hereafter may serve as an effective tool for gene expression regulation and seed coat-focused proteomics studies. PMID:22230709

  7. Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation Signals from the early universe, or pigeon droppings? #12;Microwave Background Radiation The spectrum is a near- perfect match of a time when the entire universe was a black body with a temperature T 3000 K. Very uniform microwave

  8. Freedom's Law: The Moral Reading of the American Constitution

    E-print Network

    Himma, Kenneth Einar

    Wade is not a metaphysical question about whether a fetus has a soul, but a legal question, about the correct interpre­ tation of the Constitution!;] ••• [i]t is the question whether the fetus is a constitutional person." (p. 46). If the fetus... be construed as having moral content, one would expect him to resolve the issue of whether the fetus is a constitutional person by identi­ fying the moral principles that are incorporated by use of the term 'per­ son'. Thus, one would think that the issue...

  9. Study on the Constitutive Model for Jointed Rock Mass

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Jianyun; Li, Jing; Zhao, Chunfeng; Yuan, Chenyang

    2015-01-01

    A new elasto-plastic constitutive model for jointed rock mass, which can consider the persistence ratio in different visual angle and anisotropic increase of plastic strain, is proposed. The proposed the yield strength criterion, which is anisotropic, is not only related to friction angle and cohesion of jointed rock masses at the visual angle but also related to the intersection angle between the visual angle and the directions of the principal stresses. Some numerical examples are given to analyze and verify the proposed constitutive model. The results show the proposed constitutive model has high precision to calculate displacement, stress and plastic strain and can be applied in engineering analysis. PMID:25885695

  10. A molecular analysis of desiccation tolerance mechanisms in the anhydrobiotic nematode Panagrolaimus superbus using expressed sequenced tags

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation by entering into a state of suspended animation known as anhydrobiosis. Panagrolaimus superbus is a free-living anhydrobiotic nematode that can survive rapid environmental desiccation. The mechanisms that P. superbus uses to combat the potentially lethal effects of cellular dehydration may include the constitutive and inducible expression of protective molecules, along with behavioural and/or morphological adaptations that slow the rate of cellular water loss. In addition, inducible repair and revival programmes may also be required for successful rehydration and recovery from anhydrobiosis. Results To identify constitutively expressed candidate anhydrobiotic genes we obtained 9,216 ESTs from an unstressed mixed stage population of P. superbus. We derived 4,009 unigenes from these ESTs. These unigene annotations and sequences can be accessed at http://www.nematodes.org/nembase4/species_info.php?species=PSC. We manually annotated a set of 187 constitutively expressed candidate anhydrobiotic genes from P. superbus. Notable among those is a putative lineage expansion of the lea (late embryogenesis abundant) gene family. The most abundantly expressed sequence was a member of the nematode specific sxp/ral-2 family that is highly expressed in parasitic nematodes and secreted onto the surface of the nematodes' cuticles. There were 2,059 novel unigenes (51.7% of the total), 149 of which are predicted to encode intrinsically disordered proteins lacking a fixed tertiary structure. One unigene may encode an exo-?-1,3-glucanase (GHF5 family), most similar to a sequence from Phytophthora infestans. GHF5 enzymes have been reported from several species of plant parasitic nematodes, with horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria proposed to explain their evolutionary origin. This P. superbus sequence represents another possible HGT event within the Nematoda. The expression of five of the 19 putative stress response genes tested was upregulated in response to desiccation. These were the antioxidants glutathione peroxidase, dj-1 and 1-Cys peroxiredoxin, an shsp sequence and an lea gene. Conclusions P. superbus appears to utilise a strategy of combined constitutive and inducible gene expression in preparation for entry into anhydrobiosis. The apparent lineage expansion of lea genes, together with their constitutive and inducible expression, suggests that LEA3 proteins are important components of the anhydrobiotic protection repertoire of P. superbus. PMID:22281184

  11. Serine/threonine kinase 16 and MAL2 regulate constitutive secretion of soluble cargo in hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    In, Julie G; Striz, Anneliese C; Bernad, Antonio; Tuma, Pamela L

    2014-10-15

    MAL2 (myelin and lymphocyte protein 2) is thought to regulate at least two steps in the hepatic apical transcytotic pathway. As vesicle budding and delivery at each step are driven by complex machineries, we predicted that MAL2 participates in several large protein complexes with multiple binding partners. To identify novel MAL2 interactors, we performed split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid assays and identified STK16 (serine/threonine kinase 16) as a putative interactor which we verified morphologically and biochemically. As STK16 is a Golgi-associated constitutively active kinase implicated in regulating secretion and because of the massive constitutive secretory capacity of hepatic cells, we tested whether MAL2 and STK16 function in secretion. Expression of a dominant-negative kinase-dead STK16 mutant (E202A) or knockdown of MAL2 impaired secretion that correlated with decreased expression of albumin and haptoglobin. By using 19°C temperature blocks and lysosome deacidification, we determined that E202A expression or MAL2 knockdown did not interfere with albumin synthesis or processing, but led to albumin lysosomal degradation. We conclude that MAL2 and the constitutively active STK16 function to sort secretory soluble cargo into the constitutive secretory pathway at the TGN (trans-Golgi network) in polarized hepatocytes. PMID:25084525

  12. The TRPV3 mutation associated with the hairless phenotype in rodents is constitutively active

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Tian, Jinbin; Tang, Jisen; Zhu, Michael X.

    2008-01-01

    Summary TRPV3 is a non-selective cation channel activated by warm to hot temperatures. In rodents, TRPV3 is highly expressed in basal keratinocytes of skin and oral/nasal epithelia. TRPV3 knockout mice showed impaired responses to innocuous and noxious heat but otherwise normal appearance and reactions to many sensory modalities. However, point mutations of TRPV3 at Gly573 to Ser and Cys have recently been linked to autosomal dominant hairless phenotypes and spontaneous dermatitis in mice and rats, implicating an important role for TRPV3 in alopecia and skin diseases. Exactly how the mutations affect TRPV3 function was unexplained. Here we show that both G573S and G573C mutations of murine TRPV3 are constitutively active in heterologous systems. In HEK293 cells, expression of the TRPV3 mutants causes cell death. In Xenopus oocytes, the constitutively active mutant channel is irresponsive to thermal and chemical stimuli but it reduces the temperature threshold and enhances the responses to heat and TRPV3 agonists of the wild type channel when they are co-expressed. We conclude that the G573S and G573C substitutions render the TRPV3 channel spontaneously active under normal physiological conditions, which in turn alters ion homeostasis and membrane potentials of skin keratinocytes, leading to hair loss and dermatitis-like skin diseases. PMID:17706768

  13. Constitutive Stat3 activation alters behavior of hair follicle stem and progenitor cell populations.

    PubMed

    Rao, Dharanija; Macias, Everardo; Carbajal, Steve; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John

    2015-02-01

    STATs play crucial roles in a wide variety of biological functions, including development, proliferation, differentiation and migration as well as in cancer development. In the present study, we examined the impact of constitutive activation of Stat3 on behavior of keratinocytes, including keratinocyte stem cells (KSC) in vivo. BK5.Stat3C transgenic (Tg) mice, which express a constitutively active form of Stat3 (Stat3C) in the basal layer of the epidermis and in the bulge region KSCs exhibited a significantly reduced number of CD34+/?6 integrin+ cells compared to non-transgenic (NTg) littermates. There was a concomitant increase in the Lgr-6, Lrig-1, and Sca-1 populations in the Tg mice in contrast to the CD34 and Keratin-15 positive population. In addition, increased expression of c-myc, ?-catenin, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes as well as decreased expression of ?6-integrin was observed in the hair follicles of Tg mice. Notably, Sca-1 was found to be a direct transcriptional target of Stat3 in keratinocytes. The current data suggest that elevated Stat3 activity leads to depletion of hair follicle KSCs along with a concomitant increase of stem/progenitor cells above the bulge region. Overall, the current data indicate that Stat3 plays an important role in keratinocyte stem/progenitor cell homeostasis. PMID:24038534

  14. Integrable Background Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderbank, David M. J.

    2014-03-01

    This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ?-manifold, determines a (k+?)-dimensional geometry (k+??4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ?-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+?)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(?) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(?^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently , degenerate or null reductions have attracted increased interest. Two of these reductions and their gauge theories (arguably, the two most significant) are also described.

  15. Constitutive modeling of superalloy single crystals with verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Eric; Walker, Kevin P.

    1985-01-01

    The goal is the development of constitutive equations to describe the elevated temperature stress-strain behavior of single crystal turbine blade alloys. The program includes both the development of a suitable model and verification of the model through elevated temperature-torsion testing. A constitutive model is derived from postulated constitutive behavior on individual crystallographic slip systems. The behavior of the entire single crystal is then arrived at by summing up the slip on all the operative crystallographic slip systems. This type of formulation has a number of important advantages, including the prediction orientation dependence and the ability to directly represent the constitutive behavior in terms which metallurgists use in describing the micromechanisms. Here, the model is briefly described, followed by the experimental set-up and some experimental findings to date.

  16. Dynamic Response of Viscoelastic Solids Described by Implicit Constitutive Theories 

    E-print Network

    Ponnalagu, Alagappan

    2015-07-15

    of multilayered polymers and solve the resulting boundary value problem using finite volume scheme. We first study the impact of layered polymer plate involving small deformation using a thermodynamic framework. The constitutive equations are nonlinear even...

  17. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION CONFERENCE (NELAC): CONSTITUTION, BYLAWS, AND STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principles and operating procedures for the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) are contained in the NELAC Constitution and Bylaws. The major portion of this document (standards) contains detailed requirements for accrediting environmental labo...

  18. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.121 What constitutes “raising” of livestock. The term...

  19. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.121 What constitutes “raising” of livestock. The term...

  20. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.121 What constitutes “raising” of livestock. The term...

  1. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.121 What constitutes “raising” of livestock. The term...

  2. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.121 What constitutes “raising” of livestock. The term...

  3. Narrative, Interpretation, and the Ratification of the Constitution

    E-print Network

    Maier, Pauline

    I am grateful to the participants in this forum for their careful and enthusiastic responses to Ratification: The People Debate the Constitution, 1787-1788. Some comments usefully extend the discussion beyond what’s in the ...

  4. INTRODUCTION The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a large family

    E-print Network

    Perrimon, Norbert

    INTRODUCTION The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a large family of proteins that act glycosaminoglycans are involved in signaling by fibroblast growth factor receptors, but evidence. Consistent with an involvement of Sulfateless and Sugarless in fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling

  5. Beyond the future: Fortune telling as constituted in the media 

    E-print Network

    Lyon, Taryn

    This paper utilizes discourse analysis (DA) to research how fortune telling is constituted in the news media. As current paranormal belief research is largely inconclusive (Wiseman & Watt, 2006), this paper addresses the ...

  6. A phenomenological constitutive model for magnetic shape memory alloys 

    E-print Network

    Kiefer, Bjoern

    2007-04-25

    A thermodynamics-based constitutive model is derived which predicts the nonlinear strain and magnetization response that magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) exhibit when subjected to mechanical and magnetic loads. The model development is conducted...

  7. Your Board Can Help Students Learn from Our Constitution's Bicentennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelynski, Carol C.

    1987-01-01

    The celebration of the bicentennial of the United States Constitution will begin Fall 1987 and last until 1991. Outlines the national programs, exhibitions and festivals, and curriculum materials available for educators on the bicentennial. (MD)

  8. Identification of chimeric antigen receptors that mediate constitutive or inducible proliferation of T cells.

    PubMed

    Frigault, Matthew J; Lee, Jihyun; Basil, Maria Ciocca; Carpenito, Carmine; Motohashi, Shinichiro; Scholler, John; Kawalekar, Omkar U; Guedan, Sonia; McGettigan, Shannon E; Posey, Avery D; Ang, Sonny; Cooper, Laurence J N; Platt, Jesse M; Johnson, F Brad; Paulos, Chrystal M; Zhao, Yangbing; Kalos, Michael; Milone, Michael C; June, Carl H

    2015-04-01

    This study compared second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) encoding signaling domains composed of CD28, ICOS, and 4-1BB (TNFRSF9). Here, we report that certain CARs endow T cells with the ability to undergo long-term autonomous proliferation. Transduction of primary human T cells with lentiviral vectors encoding some of the CARs resulted in sustained proliferation for up to 3 months following a single stimulation through the T-cell receptor (TCR). Sustained numeric expansion was independent of cognate antigen and did not require the addition of exogenous cytokines or feeder cells after a single stimulation of the TCR and CD28. Results from gene array and functional assays linked sustained cytokine secretion and expression of T-bet (TBX21), EOMES, and GATA-3 to the effect. Sustained expression of the endogenous IL2 locus has not been reported in primary T cells. Sustained proliferation was dependent on CAR structure and high expression, the latter of which was necessary but not sufficient. The mechanism involves constitutive signaling through NF-?B, AKT, ERK, and NFAT. The propagated CAR T cells retained a diverse TCR repertoire, and cellular transformation was not observed. The CARs with a constitutive growth phenotype displayed inferior antitumor effects and engraftment in vivo. Therefore, the design of CARs that have a nonconstitutive growth phenotype may be a strategy to improve efficacy and engraftment of CAR T cells. The identification of CARs that confer constitutive or nonconstitutive growth patterns may explain observations that CAR T cells have differential survival patterns in clinical trials. PMID:25600436

  9. The classic: The chemical constitution of respiration ferment.

    PubMed

    Warburg, Otto Heinrich

    2010-11-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Otto Heinrich Warburg, The Chemical Constitution of Respiration Ferment. An accompanying biographical sketch of Otto Heinrich Warburg, PhD, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1533-z . The Classic Article is from Warburg O. The chemical constitution of respiration ferment. Science. 1928;68:437-443. Reprinted with permission from AAAS. PMID:20809165

  10. Towards a Lasting Peace in Nepal: The Constitutional Issues

    E-print Network

    International Crisis Group

    2005-06-15

    absolute political power.21 Drawing inspiration from the "guided" democracies of Egypt, Pakistan and Indonesia, and from the Rana constitution of 1948, Mahendra's 1962 constitution instituted a four-tiered structure of "Panchayats" (councils), from... distinct sectarian bias. Article 20 described the king as an "adherent of the Aryan culture and Hindu religion". Article 3 specified Nepal as a "Hindu" kingdom. Hindu symbols, like the cow as national animal, were embedded in the text and the provision...

  11. A dislocation density based constitutive model for cyclic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Estrin, Y.; Braasch, H.; Brechet, Y.

    1996-10-01

    A new constitutive model describing material response to cyclic loading is presented. The model includes dislocation densities as internal variables characterizing the microstructural state of the material. In the formulation of the constitutive equations, the dislocation density evolution resulting from interactions between dislocations in channel-like dislocation patterns is considered. The capabilities of the model are demonstrated for INCONEL 738 LC and Alloy 800H.

  12. Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Duong Duc

    2009-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i) sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii) equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii) physical features and (iv) psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids) are equivalent to the process of internal–external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies. PMID:19745007

  13. A constitutive model for the forces of a magnetic bearing including eddy currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D. L.; Hebbale, K. V.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple magnet bearing can be developed from N individual electromagnets. The constitutive relationships for a single magnet in such a bearing is presented. Analytical expressions are developed for a magnet with poles arranged circumferencially. Maxwell's field equations are used so the model easily includes the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal. Eddy currents must be included in any dynamic model because they are the only speed dependent parameter and may lead to a critical speed for the bearing. The model is applicable to bearings using attraction or repulsion.

  14. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 1; Matrix Constitutive Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.

  15. Ordered rate constitutive theories for thermoviscoelastic solids with memory in Lagrangian description using Gibbs potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, K. S.; Reddy, J. N.; Nunez, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents ordered rate constitutive theories of orders m and n, i.e., ( m, n) for finite deformation of homogeneous, isotropic, compressible and incompressible thermoviscoelastic solids with memory in Lagrangian description using entropy inequality in Gibbs potential ? as an alternate approach of deriving constitutive theories using entropy inequality in terms of Helmholtz free energy density ?. Second Piola-Kirchhoff stress ? [0] and Green's strain tensor ? [0] are used as conjugate pair. We consider ?, heat vector q, entropy density ? and rates of upto orders m and n of ? [0] and ? [0], i.e., ? [ i]; i = 0, 1, . . . , m and ? [ j]; j = 0, 1, . . . , n. We choose ?, ? [ n], q and ? as dependent variables in the constitutive theories with ? [ j]; j = 0, 1, . . . , n - 1, ? [ i]; i = 0, 1, . . . , m, temperature gradient g and temperature ? as their argument tensors. Rationale for this choice is explained in the paper. Entropy inequality, decomposition of ? [0] into equilibrium and deviatoric stresses, the conditions resulting from entropy inequality and the theory of generators and invariants are used in the derivations of ordered rate constitutive theories of orders m and n in stress and strain tensors. Constitutive theories for the heat vector q (of up to orders m and n - 1) that are consistent (in terms of the argument tensors) with the constitutive theories for ? [ n] (of up to orders m and n) are also derived. Many simplified forms of the rate theories of orders ( m, n) are presented. Material coefficients are derived by considering Taylor series expansions of the coefficients in the linear combinations representing ? [ n] and q using the combined generators of the argument tensors about a known configuration {{\\underline{\\varOmega}}} in the combined invariants of the argument tensors and temperature. It is shown that the rate constitutive theories of order one ( m = 1, n = 1) when further simplified result in constitutive theories that resemble currently used theories but are in fact different. The solid continua characterized by these theories have mechanisms of elasticity, dissipation and memory, i.e., relaxation behavior or rheology. Fourier heat conduction law is shown to be an over simplified case of the rate theory of order one ( m = 1, n = 1) for q. The paper establishes when there is equivalence between the constitutive theories derived here using ? and those presented in reference Surana et al. (Acta Mech. doi:10.1007/s00707-014-1173-6, 2014) that are derived using Helmholtz free energy density ?. The fundamental differences between the two constitutive theories in terms of physics and their explicit forms using ? and ? are difficult to distinguish from the ordered theories of orders ( m, n) due to complexity of expressions. However, by choosing lower ordered theories, the difference between the two approaches can be clearly seen.

  16. Biaxial experiments supporting the development of constitutive theories for advanced high-temperature materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Complex states of stress and strain are introduced into components during service in engineering applications. It follows that analysis of such components requires material descriptions, or constitutive theories, which reflect the tensorial nature of stress and strain. For applications involving stress levels above yield, the situation is more complex in that material response is both nonlinear and history dependent. This has led to the development of viscoplastic constitutive theories which introduce time by expressing the flow and evolutionary equation in the form of time derivatives. Models were developed here which can be used to analyze high temperature components manufactured from advanced composite materials. In parallel with these studies, effort was directed at developing multiaxial testing techniques to verify the various theories. Recent progress in the development of constitutive theories from both the theoretical and experimental viewpoints are outlined. One important aspect is that material descriptions for advanced composite materials which can be implemented in general purpose finite element codes and used for practical design are verified.

  17. Deviatoric constitutive model: domain of strain rate validity

    SciTech Connect

    Zocher, Marvin A

    2009-01-01

    A case is made for using an enhanced methodology in determining the parameters that appear in a deviatoric constitutive model. Predictability rests on our ability to solve a properly posed initial boundary value problem (IBVP), which incorporates an accurate reflection of material constitutive behavior. That reflection is provided through the constitutive model. Moreover, the constitutive model is required for mathematical closure of the IBVP. Common practice in the shock physics community is to divide the Cauchy tensor into spherical and deviatoric parts, and to develop separate models for spherical and deviatoric constitutive response. Our focus shall be on the Cauchy deviator and deviatoric constitutive behavior. Discussions related to the spherical part of the Cauchy tensor are reserved for another time. A number of deviatoric constitutive models have been developed for utilization in the solution of IBVPs that are of interest to those working in the field of shock physics, e.g. All of these models are phenomenological and contain a number of parameters that must be determined in light of experimental data. The methodology employed in determining these parameters dictates the loading regime over which the model can be expected to be accurate. The focus of this paper is the methodology employed in determining model parameters and the consequences of that methodology as it relates to the domain of strain rate validity. We shall begin by describing the methodology that is typically employed. We shall discuss limitations imposed upon predictive capability by the typically employed methodology. We shall propose a modification to the typically employed methodology that significantly extends the domain of strain rate validity.

  18. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  19. Crystallographic analysis of murine constitutive androstane receptor ligand-binding domain complexed with 5?-androst-16-en-3?-ol

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, Jeremy; Shan, Li; Fan, Ming; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Forman, Barry M.; Fernandez, Elias J.

    2005-01-01

    The purification and structure determination of the murine constitutive androstane receptor bound to its inverse agonist/antagonist androstenol is described. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In contrast to classical nuclear receptors, which possess small-molecule ligand-inducible activity, CAR exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity in the apparent absence of ligand. CAR is among the most important transcription factors; it coordinately regulates the expression of microsomal cytochrome P450 genes and other drug-metabolizing enzymes. The murine CAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) was coexpressed with the steroid receptor coactivator protein (SRC-1) receptor-interacting domain (RID) in Escherichia coli. The mCAR LBD subunit was purified away from SRC-1 by affinity, anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography, crystallized with androstenol and the structure of the complex determined by molecular replacement.

  20. BIOCONTROL ACTIVITY OF RECOMBINANT PICHIA PASTORIS CONSTITUTIVELY EXPRESSING PEA DEFENSIN AGAINST BLUE MOLD OF APPLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A peptide (Psd1) isolated from pea seeds has been shown to have strong antifungal activity against a variety of fungi. The gene for this peptide was identified, and a recombinant peptide (46 residues) with activity similar to the original one was produced. We used a binary vector pGAPZalphaC conta...

  1. Electronic Supplemental Material Table 1: Examples of constitutively expressed novel traits of macroevolutionary

    E-print Network

    Fussman, Gregor

    . Examples are sorted by broad taxonomic grouping.. #12;Organism Ancestral taxa/taxon with conditional. soft) [14] Reptile & Amphibian Mainland tiger snake, Notechis scutatus Contemporary populations of Notechis scutatus Large head size Large, island prey types [15] Noetchis scutatus, Tiger snake Hydrophiidae

  2. CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSION OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA-REGULATED GENES IN DWARF MICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin mycotoxins are found in corn and corn-based foods. They are carcinogenic and cause cardiovascular dysfunction in animals. they are suspected risk factors for cancer and possibly cardiovascular disease in humans. There is evidence that fumonisin's mechanism of action involves peroxisome ...

  3. CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSION OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA-REGULATED GENES IN DWARF MICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin mycotoxins are found in corn and corn-based foods. They are carcinogenic and cause cardiovascular dysfunction in animals. They are suspected risk factors for cancer and possibly cardiovascular disease in humans. There is evidence that fumonisin's mechanism of action involves peroxisome ...

  4. Constitutive Type VI Secretion System Expression Gives Vibrio cholerae Intra- and Interspecific Competitive Advantages

    E-print Network

    Unterweger, Daniel

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates protein translocation across the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae – the causative agent of cholera. All V. cholerae strains examined to date ...

  5. Expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in developing endosperm of Jatropha curcas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Temporal and spatial expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes are associated with the accumulation of storage lipids in the seeds of oil plants. In jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.), a potential biofuel plant, the storage lipids are mainly synthesized and accumulated in the endosperm of seeds. Although the fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in jatropha have been identified, the expression of these genes at different developing stages of endosperm has not been systemically investigated. Results Transmission electron microscopy study revealed that the oil body formation in developing endosperm of jatropha seeds initially appeared at 28 days after fertilization (DAF), was actively developed at 42 DAF and reached to the maximum number and size at 56 DAF. Sixty-eight genes that encode enzymes, proteins or their subunits involved in fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis were identified from a normalized cDNA library of jatropha developing endosperm. Gene expression with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the 68 genes could be collectively grouped into five categories based on the patterns of relative expression of the genes during endosperm development. Category I has 47 genes and they displayed a bell-shaped expression pattern with the peak expression at 28 or 42 DAF, but low expression at 14 and 56 DAF. Category II contains 8 genes and expression of the 8 genes was constantly increased from 14 to 56 DAF. Category III comprises of 2 genes and both genes were constitutively expressed throughout endosperm development. Category IV has 9 genes and they showed a high expression at 14 and 28 DAF, but a decreased expression from 42 to 56 DAF. Category V consists of 2 genes and both genes showed a medium expression at 14 DAF, the lowest expression at 28 or 42 DAF, and the highest expression at 56 DAF. In addition, genes encoding enzymes or proteins with similar function were differentially expressed during endosperm development. Conclusion The formation of oil bodies in jatropha endosperm is developmentally regulated. The expression of the majority of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes is highly consistent with the development of oil bodies and endosperm in jatropha seeds, while the genes encoding enzymes with similar function may be differentially expressed during endosperm development. These results not only provide the initial information on spatial and temporal expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in jatropha developing endosperm, but are also valuable to identify the rate-limiting genes for storage lipid biosynthesis and accumulation during seed development. PMID:22809288

  6. Constitutive sensitivity of the oscillatory behaviour of hyperelastic cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda-Iglesias, D.; Vadillo, G.; Rodríguez-Martínez, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Free and forced nonlinear radial oscillations of a thick-walled cylindrical shell are investigated. The shell material is taken to be incompressible and isotropic within the framework of finite nonlinear elasticity. In comparison with previous seminal works dealing with the dynamic behaviour of hyperelastic cylindrical tubes, in this paper we have developed a broader analysis on the constitutive sensitivity of the oscillatory response of the shell. In this regard, our investigation is inspired by the recent works of Bucchi and Hearn (2013) [28,29], who carried out a constitutive sensitivity analysis of similar problem with hyperelastic cylindrical membranes subjected to static inflation. In the present paper we consider two different Helmholtz free-energy functions to describe the material behaviour: Mooney-Rivlin and Yeoh constitutive models. We carry out a systematic comparison of the results obtained by application of both constitutive models, paying specific attention to the critical initial and loading conditions which preclude the oscillatory response of the cylindrical tube. It has been found that these critical conditions are strongly dependent on the specific constitutive model selected, even though both Helmholtz free-energy functions were calibrated using the same experimental data.

  7. Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Responses According to Sasang Constitution and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chaeweon; Lee, Kwangho

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current study was performed to compare the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin test reactions among groups with different sexes and Sasang constitutions. Methods: Between July 2012 and June 2013, all 76 patients who underwent bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests and Sasang constitution diagnoses at Oriental Medicine Hospital of Sangji University were included in this study. The skin test was performed on the patient’s forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of sweet bee venom (SBV) on their first visit. If the patients showed a positive response, the test was discontinued. On the other hand, if the patient showed a negative response, the test was performed on the opposite forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of bee venom pharmacopuncture 25% on the next day or the next visit. Three groups were made to compare the differences in the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests according to sexual difference and Sasang constitution: group A showed a positive response to SBV, group B showed a positive response to bee venom pharmacopuncture 25%, and group C showed a negative response on all bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests. Fisher’s exact test was performed to evaluate the differences statistically. Results: The results of the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests showed no significant differences according to Sasang constitution (P = 0.300) or sexual difference (P = 0.163). Conclusion: No significant differences on the results of bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests were observed according to two factors, Sasang constitution and the sexual difference. PMID:25780682

  8. Underground herbivory and the costs of constitutive defense in tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisser, Evan L.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Adler, Lynn S.; Lewis, Edwin E.

    2007-03-01

    Nicotine is both a constitutive and induced defense in cultivated tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum). Nicotine is thought primarily to defend against above-ground herbivory; however, below-ground herbivores like the nematode Meloidogyne incognita can also damage plants. We evaluated the costs and benefits of constitutive nicotine production in four near-isogenic lines of N. tabacum differing in nicotine content. We exposed the four lines to levels of nematode infection below that found to induce nicotine synthesis, and measured nematode density and each line's response to nematode presence. Nematode density did not differ among lines and was not related to leaf nicotine content in any of the lines, suggesting that constitutive nicotine content did not affect nematode survival or reproduction. Most measures of plant performance were unaffected by nematodes; however, nematode infection decreased flowering in the high nicotine line relative to the other lines. Lines with less constitutive nicotine did not incur similar costs, suggesting a tradeoff between nicotine production and tolerance of low levels of herbivory. A cost of nicotine production is also suggested by the fact that flowering was inversely correlated with leaf nicotine content in all four lines. Although nicotine conferred no resistance to nematodes, high nicotine content reduced the plant's tolerance of low levels of nematode infection and was correlated with reduced flowering. In examining the costs and benefits of a constitutive plant defense, this work complements and extends previous research addressing the relationship between plant tolerance and induced defenses.

  9. Lipoxin A4 Attenuates Constitutive and TGF-?1–Dependent Profibrotic Activity in Human Lung Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Feghali-Bostwick, Carol A.; Amrani, Yassine; Bradding, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a common, progressive, and invariably lethal interstitial lung disease with no effective therapy. The key cell driving the development of fibrosis is the myofibroblast. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is an anti-inflammatory lipid, important in the resolution of inflammation, and it has potential antifibrotic activity. However, the effects of LXA4 on primary human lung myofibroblasts (HLMFs) have not previously been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of LXA4 on TGF-?1–dependent responses in IPF- and nonfibrotic control (NFC)–derived HLMFs. HLMFs were isolated from IPF and NFC patients and grown in vitro. The effects of LXA4 on HLMF proliferation, collagen secretion, ?-smooth muscle actin (?SMA) expression, and Smad2/3 activation were examined constitutively and following TGF-?1 stimulation. The LXA4 receptor (ALXR) was expressed in both NFC- and IPF-derived HLMFs. LXA4 (10?10 and 10?8 mol) reduced constitutive ?SMA expression, actin stress fiber formation, contraction, and nuclear Smad2/3, indicating regression from a myofibroblast to fibroblast phenotype. LXA4 also significantly inhibited FBS-dependent proliferation and TGF-?1–dependent collagen secretion, ?SMA expression, and Smad2/3 nuclear translocation in IPF-derived HLMFs. LXA4 did not inhibit Smad2/3 phosphorylation. In summary, LXA4 attenuated profibrotic HLMF activity and promoted HLMF regression to a quiescent fibroblast phenotype. LXA4 or its stable analogs delivered by aerosol may offer a novel approach to the treatment of IPF. PMID:26276873

  10. Macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha is involved in the constitutive trafficking of epidermal langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, A S; Kohrgruber, N; Kriehuber, E; Stingl, G; Rot, A; Maurer, D

    1999-12-20

    Certain types of dendritic cells (DCs) appear in inflammatory lesions of various etiologies, whereas other DCs, e.g., Langerhans cells (LCs), populate peripheral organs constitutively. Until now, the molecular mechanism behind such differential behavior has not been elucidated. Here, we show that CD1a(+) LC precursors respond selectively and specifically to the CC chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3alpha. In contrast, CD14(+) precursors of DC and monocytes are not attracted by MIP-3alpha. LCs lose the migratory responsiveness to MIP-3alpha during their maturation, and non-LC DCs do not acquire MIP-3alpha sensitivity. The notion that MIP-3alpha may be responsible for selective LC recruitment into the epidermis is further supported by the following observations: (a) MIP-3alpha is expressed by keratinocytes and venular endothelial cells in clinically normal appearing human skin; (b) LCs express CC chemokine receptor (CCR)6, the sole MIP-3alpha receptor both in situ and in vitro; and (c) non-LC DCs that are not found in normal epidermis lack CCR6. The mature forms of LCs and non-LC DCs display comparable sensitivity for MIP-3beta, a CCR7 ligand, suggesting that DC subtype-specific chemokine responses are restricted to the committed precursor stage. Although LC precursors express primarily CCR6, non-LC DC precursors display a broad chemokine receptor repertoire. These findings reflect a scenario where the differential expression of chemokine receptors by two different subpopulations of DCs determines their functional behavior. One type, the LC, responds to MIP-3alpha and enters skin to screen the epidermis constitutively, whereas the other type, the "inflammatory" DC, migrates in response to a wide array of different chemokines and is involved in the amplification and modulation of the inflammatory tissue response. PMID:10601351

  11. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  12. A genetic prion disease Background information:Background information

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    on homo- or heterozygosity · Genetic counseling ­ Prenatal and pre-implantation diagnosis for familyA genetic prion disease #12;Background information:Background information: About PrionsAbout Prions· Structure ­ Misfolded proteins ­ Not alive; no genetic material · Pathogenesis ­ Convert normal proteins

  13. Regulated and constitutive activation of specific signalling pathways by the human S1P5 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Niedernberg, Anke; Blaukat, Andree; Schöneberg, Torsten; Kostenis, Evi

    2003-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis, whether G Protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) may differentially regulate specific signalling pathways by constitutive and agonist-induced activation using the human sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor S1P5 as a model. S1P5 receptor-expressing HEK293 cells exhibited a high degree of basal activity for both inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) when cultured in serum, which contains high levels of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). However, basal activity was independent of the presence of S1P: (i) constitutive activity remained when cells were cultured in delipidated serum, (ii) addition of S1P to delipidated serum did not increase basal S1P5 receptor signalling. Conversely, constitutive inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase was further enhanced by S1P in S1P5-HEK293 cells. Transfection of several mammalian cell lines (CHO-K1, HEK293, NIH-3T3, RH7777) with the S1P5 receptor induced cell rounding, which was more pronounced in the presence of S1P-containing serum. Rounded cell morphology did not correlate with apoptotic cell death, but led to detachment of cells. Cell surface ELISA assays showed that a fraction of plasma membrane S1P5 receptors were dose-dependently internalized with S1P. These data reveal that intrinsic inhibition of unstimulated adenylyl cyclase or ERK activity by the S1P5 receptor is insensitive to ligand modulation. Conversely, effects on forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase, cell morphology and internalization can be further augmented with S1P. Our results suggest that different signal transduction pathways are not equally activated through constitutively active GPCRs with promiscuous signalling characteristics. PMID:12569073

  14. Constitutive modeling of SMA SMP multifunctional high performance smart adaptive shape memory composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarali, Chetan S.; Raja, S.; Upadhya, A. R.

    2010-10-01

    Materials design involving the thermomechanical constitutive modeling of shape memory alloy (SMA) and shape memory polymer (SMP) composites is a key topic in the development of smart adaptive shape memory composites (SASMC). In this work, a constitutive model for SASMC is developed. First, a one-dimensional SMA model, which can simulate the pseudoelastic (PE) and shape memory effects (SME) is presented. Subsequently, a one-dimensional SMP model able to reproduce the SME is addressed. Both SMA and SMP models are based on a single internal state variable, namely the martensite fraction and the frozen fraction, which can be expressed as a function of temperature. A consistent form of the analytical solution for the SMP model is obtained using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Finally, the SASMC constitutive model is proposed, following two analytical homogenization approaches. One approach is based on an equivalent inclusion method and the other approach is the rule of mixtures. The SMA and SMP constitutive models are validated independently with experimental results. However, the validation of the composite model is performed using the two homogenization approaches and a close agreement in results is observed. Results regarding the isothermal and thermomechanical stress-strain responses are analyzed as a function of SMA volume fraction. Further, it is concluded that the proposed composite model is able to reproduce consistently the overall composite response by taking into consideration not only the phase transformations, variable modulus and transformation stresses in SMA but also the variable modulus, the evolution of stored strain and thermal strain in the SMP.

  15. Paradoxical effects of constitutive human IL-32? in transgenic mice during experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jida; Bae, Suyoung; Hong, Jaewoo; Ryoo, Soyoon; Jhun, Hyunjhung; Hong, Kwangwon; Yoon, Doyoung; Lee, Siyoung; Her, Erk; Choi, Wonhyuk; Kim, Jeonghwan; Azam, Tania; Dinarello, Charles A.; Kim, Soohyun

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines mediate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and cytokine blocking therapies often ameliorate the disease severity. IL-32 affects inflammation by increasing the production of IL-1, TNF?, and several chemokines. Here, we investigated the role of IL-32 in intestinal inflammation by generating a transgenic (TG) mouse expressing human IL-32? (IL-32? TG). Although IL-32? TG mice are healthy, constitutive serum and colonic tissue levels of TNF? are elevated. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, IL-32? TG mice exhibited a modestly exacerbated acute inflammation early following the initiation of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. However, after 6 d, there was less colonic inflammation, reduced tissue loss, and improved survival rate compared with WT mice. Associated with attenuated tissue damage, colonic levels of TNF? and IL-6 were significantly reduced in the IL-32? TG mice whereas IL-10 was elevated. Cultured colon explants from IL-32? TG mice secreted higher levels of IL-10 compared with WT mice and lower levels of TNF? and IL-6. Constitutive levels of IL-32? itself in colonic tissues were significantly lower following DSS colitis. Although the highest level of serum IL-32? occurred on day 3 of colitis, IL-32 was below constitutive levels on day 9. The ability of IL-32? to increase constitutive IL-10 likely reduces TNF?, IL-6, and IL-32 itself accounting for less inflammation. In humans with ulcerative colitis (UC), serum IL-32 is elevated and colonic biopsies contain IL-32 in inflamed tissues but not in uninvolved tissues. Thus IL-32? emerges as an example of how innate inflammation worsens as well as protects intestinal integrity. PMID:21078994

  16. When ethical reform became law: the constitutional concerns raised by recent legislation in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Chen

    2014-07-01

    In an effort at ethical reform, Taiwan recently revised the Hospice Palliative Care Law authorising family members or physicians to make surrogate decisions to discontinue life-sustaining treatment if an incompetent terminally ill patient did not express their wishes while still competent. In particular, Article 7 of the new law authorises the palliative care team, namely the physicians, to act as sole decision-makers on behalf of the incompetent terminally ill patient's best interests if no family member is available. However, the law fails to provide guidance as to what constitutes the patient's best interests or what specific procedures the treating physicians should follow, and so has raised constitutional concerns. It may be difficult to translate ethical reform into law but it is not impossible if essential requirements are carefully followed. First, there must be substantial nexus between the purpose of the statute and the measures provided under the statute. Second, advocates need to convince the public that futility or waste has amounted to a public health emergency so as to justify lower procedural requirements. Third, a remedy or compensation should be available if the surrogate decisions have not been appropriately made. Fourth,minimum procedural safeguards are necessary even though the statute is intended to reduce the procedural burdens of making surrogate decisions on behalf of incompetent patients who lack family members and did not express their wishes while still competent. PMID:24131902

  17. Dual Role of CCR2 in the Constitution and the Resolution of Liver Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Claudia; Couton, Dominique; Couty, Jean-Pierre; Anson, Marie; Crain, Anne-Marie; Bizet, Vinciane; Rénia, Laurent; Pol, Stanislas; Mallet, Vincent; Gilgenkrantz, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation has been shown to induce the progression of fibrosis in response to liver injury. Among inflammatory cells, macrophages and lymphocytes play major roles in both the constitution and resolution of liver fibrosis. The chemokine receptor CCR2 is involved in the recruitment of monocytes to injury sites, and it is known to be induced during the progression of fibrosis in humans. However, its specific role during this process has not yet been unveiled. We first demonstrated that, compared with wild-type mice, CCR2 knockout animals presented a delay in liver injury after acute CCl4 injection, accompanied by a reduction in infiltrating macrophage populations. We then induced fibrosis using repeated injections of CCl4 and observed a significantly lower level of fibrotic scars at the peak of fibrosis in mutant animals compared with control mice. This diminished fibrosis was associated with a reduction in F4/80+CD11b+ and CD11c+ populations at the sites of injury. Subsequent analysis of the kinetics of the resolution of fibrosis showed that fibrosis rapidly regressed in wild-type, but not in CCR2?/? mice. The persistence of hepatic injury in mutant animals was correlated with sustained tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 mRNA expression levels and a reduction in matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression levels. In conclusion, these findings underline the role of the CCR2 signaling pathway in both the constitution and resolution of liver fibrotic scars. PMID:19359521

  18. Constitutively Active Akt Induces Ectodermal Defects and Impaired Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Segrelles, Carmen; Moral, Marta; Lorz, Corina; Santos, Mirentxu; Lu, Jerry; Cascallana, José Luis; Lara, M. Fernanda; Carbajal, Steve; Martínez-Cruz, Ana Belén; García-Escudero, Ramón; Beltran, Linda; Segovia, José C.; Bravo, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Akt pathway has been implicated in several human pathologies including cancer. However, current knowledge on the involvement of Akt signaling in development is limited. Previous data have suggested that Akt-mediated signaling may be an essential mediator of epidermal homeostasis through cell autonomous and noncell autonomous mechanisms. Here we report the developmental consequences of deregulated Akt activity in the basal layer of stratified epithelia, mediated by the expression of a constitutively active Akt1 (myrAkt) in transgenic mice. Contrary to mice overexpressing wild-type Akt1 (Aktwt), these myrAkt mice display, in a dose-dependent manner, altered development of ectodermally derived organs such as hair, teeth, nails, and epidermal glands. To identify the possible molecular mechanisms underlying these alterations, gene profiling approaches were used. We demonstrate that constitutive Akt activity disturbs the bone morphogenetic protein-dependent signaling pathway. In addition, these mice also display alterations in adult epidermal stem cells. Collectively, we show that epithelial tissue development and homeostasis is dependent on proper regulation of Akt expression and activity. PMID:17959825

  19. Impact of season and constitution on lipid parameters

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Byadgi, Parameswarappa S.; Singh, Girish; Tripathi, Narendra Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Ayurveda prescribes daily and seasonal regimen in maintaining good health. Measures in the preservation of health have been described considering one's own Prakriti, Satva, Vayas, Bala, Agni, Ojus, season, and so on. Depending on the relative predominance of Doshas in various constitutions and seasons, certain regimens have been prescribed. The present study was done to assess the lipid profile in 54 healthy volunteers. It was observed from the present data that winter month is one of the potential risk factors for cardiovascular diseases because more lipid profile level was observed during winter. Among the constitutions, Kapha and Pitta Prakriti are more vulnerable for cardiovascular diseases because more lipid profile level is observed in these constitutions during winter. PMID:24049409

  20. Verification of constitutive models using the Asay Impact Test

    SciTech Connect

    Haberman, K.S.; Bennett, J.G.

    1998-09-01

    Accurate analysis and the ability to predict the complete response of particulate composite materials requires accurate inelastic constitutive models. However, to be of maximum utility, these inelastic models must be validated using quantifiable experimental results. The Asay Impact Test is an impact experiment that provides the evolution of the two dimensional in-plane displacement field in a specimen undergoing dynamic inelastic deformation. The experimental displacement field may be directed compared with the predicted displacement field from a candidate inelastic constitutive model. In this paper, the authors report comparisons between experimental and predicted displacement fields in the energetic particulate composite material PBX-9501 during dynamic deformation, and describe the experiment and the constitutive modeling approach.

  1. Probabilistic estimation of the constitutive parameters of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, J. R.; Jordan, J. L.; Siviour, C. R.

    2012-08-01

    The Mulliken-Boyce constitutive model predicts the dynamic response of crystalline polymers as a function of strain rate and temperature. This paper describes the Mulliken-Boyce model-based estimation of the constitutive parameters in a Bayesian probabilistic framework. Experimental data from dynamic mechanical analysis and dynamic compression of PVC samples over a wide range of strain rates are analyzed. Both experimental uncertainty and natural variations in the material properties are simultaneously considered as independent and joint distributions; the posterior probability distributions are shown and compared with prior estimates of the material constitutive parameters. Additionally, particular statistical distributions are shown to be effective at capturing the rate and temperature dependence of internal phase transitions in DMA data.

  2. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Junghee; Lee, Euiju; Kim, Chungmi; Lee, Junhee; Lixing, Lao

    2012-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart), typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology. PMID:21941592

  3. Requirements for energy based constitutive modeling in tire mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchini, John R.; Peters, Jim M.; Mars, Will V.

    1995-01-01

    The history, requirements, and theoretical basis of a new energy based constitutive model for (rubber) material elasticity, hysteresis, and failure are presented. Energy based elasticity is handled by many constitutive models, both in one dimension and in three dimensions. Conversion of mechanical energy to heat can be modeled with viscoelasticity or as structural hysteresis. We are seeking unification of elasticity, hysteresis, and failure mechanisms such as fatigue and wear. An energy state characterization for failure criteria of (rubber) materials may provide this unification and also help explain the interaction of temperature effects with failure mechanisms which are described as creation of growth of internal crack surface. Improved structural modeling of tires with FEM should result from such a unified constitutive theory. The theory will also guide experimental work and should enable better interpretation of the results of computational stress analyses.

  4. Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to consultation on strengthening the NHS Constitution

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    the NHS Constitution January 2013 1 Department of Health: Strengthening the NHS Constitution Response by the Wellcome Trust January 2013 Key Points We welcome the proposals to strengthen the NHS Constitution on strengthening the NHS Constitution. The Constitution remains a useful document providing a set of guiding

  5. The Problem of Implementing a Constitutional System of Capital Punishment

    E-print Network

    McAllister, Stephen R.

    1995-08-01

    stream_size 3072 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Stephen R. McAllister, The Problem of Implementing a Constitutional System of Capital Punishment, 43 U. Kan. L. Rev. 1039 (1994-1995).pdf.txt stream_source_info Stephen R. Mc...Allister, The Problem of Implementing a Constitutional System of Capital Punishment, 43 U. Kan. L. Rev. 1039 (1994-1995).pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 HeinOnline -- 43 U. Kan. L. Rev. 1039 1994-1995 Hein...

  6. Constitutive response of Rene 80 under thermal mechanical loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Cook, T. S.; Mcknight, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of a classical constitutive model for stress-strain analysis of a nickel base superalloy, Rene' 80, in the gas turbine thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) environment is examined. A variety of tests were conducted to generate basic material data and to investigate the material response under cyclic thermomechanical loading. Isothermal stress-strain data were acquired at a variety of strain rates over the TMF temperature range. Creep curves were examined at 2 temperature ranges, 871 to 982 C and 760 to 871 C. The results provide optimism on the ability of the classical constitutive model for high temperature applications.

  7. A constitutive theory for visco-hyperelastic gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Shawn

    2012-02-01

    Many gels operate in chemically saturated environments in a variety of applications. Most constitutive theories for gels are formulated using large deformation hyperelasticity coupled with fluid transport. However, in most cases the mechanical response of such gels show hysteresis and other dissipative effects which are not accounted for in present constitutive theories. We have recently developed a three dimensional continuum level theory to describe the coupled fluid permeation and large deformation response of visco-hyperelastic materials. In this work, we apply our theory and numerical simulation capability to study the indentation response among others of visco-hyperelastic gels.

  8. A nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation - Yield predictions in multiaxial deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, R. M., Jr.; Caruthers, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Yield stress predictions of a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation for amorphous polymer solids have been obtained and are compared with the phenomenological von Mises yield criterion. Linear viscoelasticity theory has been extended to include finite strains and a material timescale that depends on the instantaneous temperature, volume, and pressure. Results are presented for yield and the correct temperature and strain-rate dependence in a variety of multiaxial deformations. The present nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation can be formulated in terms of either a Cauchy or second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, and in terms of either atmospheric or hydrostatic pressure.

  9. Are there reliable constitutive laws for dynamic friction?

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Jim; Putelat, Thibaut; McKay, Andrew

    2015-09-28

    Structural vibration controlled by interfacial friction is widespread, ranging from friction dampers in gas turbines to the motion of violin strings. To predict, control or prevent such vibration, a constitutive description of frictional interactions is inevitably required. A variety of friction models are discussed to assess their scope and validity, in the light of constraints provided by different experimental observations. Three contrasting case studies are used to illustrate how predicted behaviour can be extremely sensitive to the choice of frictional constitutive model, and to explore possible experimental paths to discriminate between and calibrate dynamic friction models over the full parameter range needed for real applications. PMID:26303920

  10. Consistency of certain constitutive relations with quantum electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Horsley, S. A. R.

    2011-12-15

    Recent work by Philbin [New J. Phys. 12, 123008 (2010)] has provided a Lagrangian theory that establishes a general method for the canonical quantization of the electromagnetic field in any dispersive, lossy, linear dielectric. Working from this theory, we extend the Lagrangian description to reciprocal and nonreciprocal magnetoelectric (bianisotropic) media, showing that some versions of the constitutive relations are inconsistent with a real Lagrangian, and hence with quantization. This amounts to a restriction on the magnitude of the magnetoelectric coupling. Moreover, from the point of view of quantization, moving media are shown to be fundamentally different from stationary magnetoelectrics, despite the formal similarity in the constitutive relations.

  11. A preliminary ferritic-martensitic stainless steel constitution diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Balmforth, M.C.; Lippold, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary research to develop a constitution diagram that will more accurately predict the microstructure of ferritic and martensitic stainless steel weld deposits. A button melting technique was used to produce a wide range of compositions using mixtures of conventional ferritic and martensitic stainless steels, including types 403, 409, 410, 430, 439 and 444. These samples were prepared metallographically, and the vol-% ferrite and martensite was determined quantitatively. In addition, the hardness and ferrite number (FN) were measured. Using this data, a preliminary constitution diagram is proposed that provides a more accurate method for predicting the microstructures of arc welds in ferritic and martensitic stainless steels.

  12. Constitutive models for rubber networks undergoing simultaneous crosslinking and scission.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Curro, John G.; Rottach, Dana R.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Budzien, Joanne L.; Lo, David Chi S.

    2006-01-01

    Constitutive models for chemically reacting networks are formulated based on a generalization of the independent network hypothesis. These models account for the coupling between chemical reaction and strain histories, and have been tested by comparison with microscopic molecular dynamics simulations. An essential feature of these models is the introduction of stress transfer functions that describe the interdependence between crosslinks formed and broken at various strains. Efforts are underway to implement these constitutive models into the finite element code Adagio. Preliminary results are shown that illustrate the effects of changing crosslinking and scission rates and history.

  13. Neutron Background at Boulby Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lightfoot, P. K.; McMillan, J. E.; Robinson, M.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Smith, P. F.; Smith, N. J. T.; Lewin, J. D.; Lüscher, R.; Liubarsky, I.

    2003-03-01

    The neutron background at the underground laboratory at Boulby - a site for several dark matter experiments - is discussed. Special emphasis is put on the neutron background produced by cosmic-ray muons. The most recent versions of the muon propagation code MUSIC, and particle transport code FLUKA are used to evaluate muon and neutron fluxes. The results of simulations are compared with experimental data.

  14. Cosmic Superstring Scattering in Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Mark G. Jackson

    2006-09-27

    We generalize the calculation of cosmic superstring reconnection probability to non-trivial backgrounds. This is done by modeling cosmic strings as wound tachyon modes in the 0B theory, and the spacetime effective action is then used to couple this to background fields. Simple examples are given including trivial and warped compactifications. Generalization to $(p,q)$ strings is discussed.

  15. Background: Extratropical Cyclones and NWP

    E-print Network

    Froude, Lizzie

    Chapter 2 Background: Extratropical Cyclones and NWP 2.1 Introduction This chapter provides background information about extratropical cyclones, numerical weather prediction (NWP) and ensemble prediction. It is organised as follows. Section 2.2 discusses extratropical cyclones and begins with a brief

  16. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  17. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  18. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    E-print Network

    William Detmold; Brian C. Tiburzi; Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-08-25

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  19. Computerized Placement Tests: Background Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    This document is a compilation of background readings for the user of Computerized Placement Tests (CPTs) developed by the College Board for student placement purposes. CPTs are computerized adaptive tests that test the individual abilities and backgrounds of examinees. CPTs are part of the ACCUPLACER student information management system. The…

  20. Bounds on gravitational wave backgrounds from large distance clock comparisons

    E-print Network

    Serge Reynaud; Brahim Lamine; Loic Duchayne; Peter Wolf; Marc-Thierry Jaekel

    2008-05-23

    Our spacetime is filled with gravitational wave backgrounds that constitute a fluctuating environment created by astrophysical and cosmological sources. Bounds on these backgrounds are obtained from cosmological and astrophysical data but also by analysis of ranging and Doppler signals from distant spacecraft. We propose here a new way to set bounds on those backgrounds by performing clock comparisons between a ground clock and a remote spacecraft equipped with an ultra-stable clock, rather than only ranging to an onboard transponder. This technique can then be optimized as a function of the signal to be measured and the dominant noise sources, leading to significant improvements on present bounds in a promising frequency range where different theoretical models are competing. We illustrate our approach using the SAGAS project which aims to fly an ultra stable optical clock in the outer solar system.

  1. Bounds on gravitational wave backgrounds from large distance clock comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Reynaud, S.; Lamine, B.; Duchayne, L.; Wolf, P.; Jaekel, M.-T.

    2008-06-15

    Our space-time is filled with gravitational wave backgrounds that constitute a fluctuating environment created by astrophysical and cosmological sources. Bounds on these backgrounds are obtained from cosmological and astrophysical data but also by analysis of ranging and Doppler signals from distant spacecraft. We propose here a new way to set bounds on those backgrounds by performing clock comparisons between a ground clock and a remote spacecraft equipped with an ultrastable clock, rather than only ranging to an on-board transponder. This technique can then be optimized as a function of the signal to be measured and the dominant noise sources, leading to significant improvements on present bounds in a promising frequency range where different theoretical models are competing. We illustrate our approach using the SAGAS project which aims to fly an ultrastable optical clock in the outer solar system.

  2. Background

    Cancer.gov

    The discovery that proteins and peptides are "leaked" by tumors into clinically accessible bodily fluids such as blood has led to the possibility of diagnosing cancer at an early stage or monitoring response to treatment by collecting these fluids and testing for the presence of cancer-related biomarkers. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) are examples of blood-borne cancer protein biomarkers that are currently being used in the clinic.

  3. Backgrounder

    Cancer.gov

    There may be more than 200 different types of cancer and many more subtypes, each caused by glitches in DNA that trigger the uncontrolled growth of cells. Identifying the changes in each cancer’s complete set of DNA - its genome - and understanding how such changes interact to drive the disease process will lay the foundation for an era of precision medicine in cancer care that treats each patient as a unique case.

  4. Background

    Cancer.gov

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls provide the highest quality, least biased dietary data. Traditional 24-hour recalls, however, are expensive and impractical for large-scale research because they rely on trained interviewers and multiple administrations to estimate usual intakes. As a result, researchers often make use of food frequency questionnaires, which are less expensive but contain substantial error.

  5. Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L.; Wang, B. S.

    2013-08-08

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3? muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

  6. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    E-print Network

    B. Majorovits; I. Abt; M. Laubenstein; O. Volynets

    2011-05-18

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10^-5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  7. Social Sciences and Constitutional Rights--the Consequences of Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Ronald M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical basis of court decisions involving school integration, analyzing the relationship between education, constitutional law, and the social sciences. Concludes that court decisions dealing with the equal protection clause are based on interpretive judgments, rather than on causal judgments drawn from statistical theory. (JG)

  8. Dynamics and Stability of Constitutions, Coalitions, Daron Acemoglu

    E-print Network

    Dynamics and Stability of Constitutions, Coalitions, and Clubs Daron Acemoglu MIT Georgy Egorov Harvard Konstantin Sonin New Economic School August 2008 Abstract A central feature of dynamic collective in laws and regulations. We develop a general framework for the analysis of this class of dynamic problems

  9. CONSTITUTION Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Staff Association

    E-print Network

    CONSTITUTION Of Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Staff Association CONTENT Article 1: Name Article 2: Objectives Article 3: Membership Article 4: The Meetings Article 5: The Executive Committee Article 6: Elections Article 7: Referendum Article 8: Vacation of Offices Article 9: Subscription

  10. Wide Variation in Understanding about What Constitutes "Binge-Drinking"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Richard; French, David P.; Sniehotta, Falko F.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies investigated undergraduates' knowledge of the UK government recommendations about binge drinking and sensible drinking, and also examined how labelling oneself as a binge drinker is associated with binge drinking perceptions. In Study 1, 325 undergraduates reported how many units constitute binge drinking, and labelled themselves as a…

  11. Constitutional and legal implications of arms control verification technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Haffenden, R.

    1992-09-01

    United States law can both help and hinder the use of instrumentation as a component of arms control verification in this country. It can foster the general use of sophisticated verification technologies, where such devices are consistent with the value attached to privacy by the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On the other hand, law can hinder reliance on devices that cross this constitutional line, or where such technology itself threatens health, safety, or environment as such threats are defined in federal statutes. The purpose of this conference paper is to explain some of the lessons that have been learned about the relationship between law and verification technologies in the hope that law can help more than hinder. This paper has three parts. In order to start with a common understanding, part I will briefly describe the hierarchy of treaties, the Constitution, federal statutes, and state and local laws. Part 2 will discuss how the specific constitutional requirement that the government respect the right of privacy in all of its endeavors may affect the use of verification technologies. Part 3 will explain the environmental law constraints on verification technology as exemplified by the system of on-site sampling embodied in the current Rolling Text of the Draft Chemical Weapons Convention.

  12. Constitution for the University of Wisconsin-Madison Geoscience Department

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Clark M.

    Constitution for the University of Wisconsin-Madison Geoscience Department Geoscience Graduate Student Association (GGSA) Article I. Name The name of this organization shall be the Geoscience Graduate Geoscience graduate students and the Faculty, Staff, University, and outside organizations. 2. Promote

  13. The American Constitutional Bicentennial Gazette, Issue Nos. 26-30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jeff, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    The Bill of Rights to the United States Constitution marks its Bicentennial in 1991. These documents are designed to educate secondary students about various aspects of the Bill of Rights and its history. Topics covered in the five issues are: a Bill of Rights for the American people; the Bill of Rights and the Supreme Court; the fourth amendment…

  14. Race and the Constitution in the Nineteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, John Hope

    1988-01-01

    Examines the impact of race on 19th century politics and social order. Discusses the denial of voting rights and due process to free Blacks prior to the Civil War and the "unkept promises" of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Lists books on the 19th century Black experience and identifies significant individuals in…

  15. The Northwest Ordinance and Constitutional Development in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, James H.

    The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 is a fundamental document in the development of the United States. It is outranked in importance only by the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. The immediate purpose of the Northwest Ordinance was to provide government for the largely unsettled lands north and west of the Ohio River. In promising…

  16. Mechanics of Granular Materials: Constitutive Behavior and Pattern

    E-print Network

    Luding, Stefan

    . The polydispersity and coefficient of friction of the particles are varied systematically to characterize, whereas it decreases with the coefficient of friction. The coordination number, i.e. average numberMechanics of Granular Materials: Constitutive Behavior and Pattern Transformation #12;Cover image c

  17. A CONSTITUTIVE MODEL TO PREDICT THE HYDROMECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF ROCK

    E-print Network

    Aubertin, Michel

    A CONSTITUTIVE MODEL TO PREDICT THE HYDROMECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF ROCK JOINTS Dominic Tremblay Polytechnique, Montréal, Québec, Canada ABSTRACT The mechanical behaviour of rock joints can be strongly phenomena should be considered simultaneously to simulate the behaviour of rock joints. The CSDS

  18. New Damage Remedies for Violations of Constitutional Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Billy W.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the concept of sovereign (governmental) immunity from prosecution for violating citizens' civil liberties. Attention is given to immunity under 42 U.S.C.A. Section 1983 and under the Constitution. Available from Baylor University Law School, Waco, Texas 76703; sc $4.00. (IRT)

  19. Tradeoffs associated with constitutive and induced plant resistance against herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Kempel, Anne; Schädler, Martin; Chrobock, Thomas; Fischer, Markus; van Kleunen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Several prominent hypotheses have been posed to explain the immense variability among plant species in defense against herbivores. A major concept in the evolutionary ecology of plant defenses is that tradeoffs of defense strategies are likely to generate and maintain species diversity. In particular, tradeoffs between constitutive and induced resistance and tradeoffs relating these strategies to growth and competitive ability have been predicted. We performed three independent experiments on 58 plant species from 15 different plant families to address these hypotheses in a phylogenetic framework. Because evolutionary tradeoffs may be altered by human-imposed artificial selection, we used 18 wild plant species and 40 cultivated garden-plant species. Across all 58 plant species, we demonstrate a tradeoff between constitutive and induced resistance, which was robust to accounting for phylogenetic history of the species. Moreover, the tradeoff was driven by wild species and was not evident for cultivated species. In addition, we demonstrate that more competitive species—but not fast growing ones—had lower constitutive but higher induced resistance. Thus, our multispecies experiments indicate that the competition–defense tradeoff holds for constitutive resistance and is complemented by a positive relationship of competitive ability with induced resistance. We conclude that the studied genetically determined tradeoffs are indeed likely to play an important role in shaping the high diversity observed among plant species in resistance against herbivores and in life history traits. PMID:21389269

  20. The Constitution of the MIT Rocket Team Article I: Purpose

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brian C.

    The Constitution of the MIT Rocket Team Article I: Purpose The MIT Rocket Team is a well-established independent student group focused on rocket-related projects. In its long history, the team has focused Launch Initiative in addition to providing our members with the necessary tools and knowledge to earn