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1

Constitutive interferon expression from retroviral vector.  

PubMed

A genomic fragment with the human beta-interferon gene was cloned into a pL3-4, a defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) vector. Here we show that clones selected after viral infection of mouse NIH 3T3 cells constitutively produced 128 IU/ml of human beta-interferon. Constitutive synthesis of retroviral RNA was confirmed by dot blot hybridization of RNA isolated from two of the selected clones. Poly(I) x poly(C) and cycloheximide induction resulted in an increased RNA level, but this was not reflected in an increased production of biologically active interferon. PMID:8279813

Knezic, Z; Nikcevic, G; Marjanovic, J; Glisin, V; Popovic, Z

1993-10-01

2

Melanoma immunotherapy using mature DCs expressing the constitutive proteasome  

PubMed Central

Background. Many cancers, including melanoma, exclusively express constitutive proteasomes (cPs) and are unable to express immunoproteasomes (iPs). In contrast, mature DCs used for immunotherapy exclusively express iPs. Since proteasomes generate peptides presented by HLA class I molecules, we hypothesized that mature melanoma antigen–loaded DCs engineered to process antigens through cPs would be superior inducers of antimelanoma immunity in vivo. Methods. Subjects with metastatic melanoma were vaccinated with mature DCs transfected with RNAs encoding melanoma antigens MART1, MAGE-3, gp100, and tyrosinase. These DCs were derived from monocytes that were untransfected (Arm A; n = 4), transfected with control siRNA (Arm B; n = 3), or transfected with siRNAs targeting the 3 inducible iP subunits (Arm C; n = 5). Results. Vaccination stimulated antigen-specific T cell responses in all subjects, which peaked after 3–4 vaccinations, but remained elevated in Arm C subjects. Also in Arm C, circulating melanoma cell levels (as detected by quantitative PCR) fell, and T cell lytic activity against autologous melanoma was induced. In HLA-A2+ subjects, CD8+ T cells that bound tetramers loaded with cP-derived melanoma antigenic peptides were found in the peripheral blood only in Arm C subjects. Of 2 subjects with active disease (both in Arm C), one had a partial clinical response, while the other, who exhibited diffuse dermal and soft tissue metastases, had a complete response. Conclusion. These results suggest that the efficacy of melanoma DC–based immunotherapy is enhanced when tumor antigen–loaded DCs used for vaccination express cPs. Trial registration. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00672542. Funding. Duke Clinical Research Institute/Duke Translational Medicine Institute, Duke Melanoma Consortium, and Duke University Department of Surgery. PMID:23934126

Dannull, Jens; Haley, N. Rebecca; Archer, Gary; Nair, Smita; Boczkowski, David; Harper, Mark; De Rosa, Nicole; Pickett, Nancy; Mosca, Paul J.; Burchette, James; Selim, Maria A.; Mitchell, Duane A.; Sampson, John; Tyler, Douglas S.; Pruitt, Scott K.

2013-01-01

3

Constitutional Downregulation of SEMA5A Expression in Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is strong evidence for the importance of genetic factors in idiopathic autism. The results from independent twin and family studies suggest that the disorder is caused by the action of several genes, possibly acting epistatically. We have used cDNA microarray technology for the identification of constitutional changes in the gene expression profile associated with idiopathic autism. Samples were obtained

M. Melin; B. Carlsson; H. Anckarsater; M. Rastam; C. Betancur; A. Isaksson; C. Gillberg; N. Dahl

2006-01-01

4

Constitutive nitrate reductase expression and inhibition in winged bean  

SciTech Connect

It was found that NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} had no effect on winged bean nitrate reductase activity (NRA). Similar NRA was expressed in plants grown on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, urea, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and nil N. This indicated that the primary NR expressed in winged bean was constitutive, rather than substrate-inducible. Maximum NRA in winged bean was obtained in the light. KClO{sub 3} was capable of inhibiting NRA of leaves if added to the root growth medium or to the NR assay medium, indicating possible competition with NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} at the reduction site. While it has previously been shown that either cycloheximide alone, or both cycloheximide and chloramphenicol impair the synthesis of NR protein, our data unexpectedly demonstrated that cycloheximide had little effect on NRA, whereas chloramphenicol greatly inhibited the expression of NRA in winged bean. One interpretation is that chloroplasts may influence the activity and/or synthesis of constitutive NR proteins.

Wu, Shenchuan; Harper, J.E. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

1990-05-01

5

Constitutive \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dominant form of human congenital nightblindness is caused by a gly903asp (G90D) mutation in rhodopsin. G90D has been shown to activate the phototransduction cascade in the ab- sence of light in vitro. Such constitutive activity of G90D rho- dopsin in vivo would desensitize rod photoreceptors and lead to nightblindness. In contrast, other rhodopsin mutations typi- cally give rise to

Paul A. Sieving; Michael L. Fowler; Ronald A. Bush; Shigeki Machida; Peter D. Calvert; Daniel G. Green; Clint L. Makino; Christina L. McHenry

2001-01-01

6

Spatial and developmental profiling of miraculin accumulation in transgenic tomato fruits expressing the miraculin gene constitutively.  

PubMed

We previously developed a transgenic tomato that expresses the miraculin gene using a constitutive promoter. In this study, we profiled the developmental and spatial accumulation of the miraculin protein and mRNA in transgenic tomato fruits. Miraculin mRNA expression was almost constant up to orange stage, and then the expression increased at red stage. The miraculin protein accumulated gradually during fruit development and reached its highest level at the overripe stage. At the red stage of fruit, miraculin protein was accumulated at the highest level in the exocarp, and similar in other fruit tissues: mesocarp, dissepiment, upper placenta, lower placenta and jelly. Moreover, the pattern of miraculin accumulation in fruit tissues was the same regardless of genetic background and position at which the miraculin gene was inserted in the genome. We also discuss suitable tomato types expressing miraculin for their commercial use. PMID:20014854

Kim, You-Wang; Kato, Kazuhisa; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

2010-01-13

7

Constitutive heterochromatin: a surprising variety of expressed sequences.  

PubMed

The organization of chromosomes into euchromatin and heterochromatin is amongst the most important and enigmatic aspects of genome evolution. Constitutive heterochromatin is a basic yet still poorly understood component of eukaryotic chromosomes, and its molecular characterization by means of standard genomic approaches is intrinsically difficult. Although recent evidence indicates that the presence of transcribed genes in constitutive heterochromatin is a conserved trait that accompanies the evolution of eukaryotic genomes, the term heterochromatin is still considered by many as synonymous of gene silencing. In this paper, we comprehensively review data that provide a clearer picture of transcribed sequences within constitutive heterochromatin, with a special emphasis on Drosophila and humans. PMID:19412619

Dimitri, Patrizio; Caizzi, Ruggiero; Giordano, Ennio; Carmela Accardo, Maria; Lattanzi, Giovanna; Biamonti, Giuseppe

2009-08-01

8

Distinct expression and ligand-binding profiles of two constitutively active GPR17 splice variants  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: In humans and non-human primates, the 7TM receptor GPR17 exists in two isoforms differing only by the length of the N-terminus. Of these, only the short isoform has previously been characterized. Hence, we investigated gene expression and ligand-binding profiles of both splice variants and furthermore uncovered and characterized constitutive activity of both isoforms. Experimental approach: Expression levels of the hGPR17 isoforms were determined in several brain regions as well as heart and kidney using quantitative RT-PCR. A CREB reporter assay and [35S]-GTP?S binding were employed to assess the constitutive activity and the activation by UDP, UDP-glucose and -galactose and the cysteinyl leukotrienes LTC4 and LTD4. Leukotriene binding and induction of internalization were furthermore tested using homologous competition binding and antibody-feeding experiments respectively. Key results: The short isoform (hGPR17-S) was expressed more abundantly (eight- to 23-fold) in the brain than the long isoform (hGPR17-L), whereas the opposite was observed in heart and kidney. As previously reported, the uracil nucleotides activated hGPR17-S with micromolar potencies. However, much lower potencies were observed for hGPR17-L with a 50- to 170-fold increase in EC50. Furthermore, contrary to previous reports, neither of the isoforms was activated or bound by the cysteinyl leukotrienes. Finally, both receptors were demonstrated to be constitutively active through G?i. Conclusions and implications: We present the first isoform-specific characterization of GPR17 and show that differences exist between the isoforms, in both expression pattern and pharmacological profile. In turn, our results indicate that the two human isoforms might serve tissue-specific functions. PMID:20148890

Benned-Jensen, T; Rosenkilde, MM

2010-01-01

9

Constitutive expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor in mouse hypothalamus  

PubMed Central

Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a potent survival molecule for a large number of neuronal and glial cells in culture; its expression in glial cells is strongly upregulated after a variety of nerve tissue injuries. Exogenously administered CNTF produces an anorectic effect via activation of hypothalamic neurons and stimulates neurogenesis in mouse hypothalamus. To determine whether CNTF is produced endogenously in the hypothalamus, we sought cellular sources and examined their distribution in adult mouse hypothalamus by immunohistochemistry. CNTF immunoreactivity (IR) was predominantly detected in the ependymal layer throughout the rostrocaudal extension of the third ventricle, where numerous ependymocytes and tanycytes exhibited specific staining. Some astrocytes in the grey matter of the anterior hypothalamus and in the median eminence of the hypothalamic tuberal region were also positive. Stimulation of cells bearing CNTF receptor ? (CNTFR?) induces specific activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling system. Treatment with recombinant CNTF and detection of the nuclear expression of phospho-STAT3 (P-STAT3) showed that CNTF-producing ependymal cells and tanycytes were intermingled with, or very close to, P-STAT3-positive, CNTFR?-bearing cells. A fraction of CNTF-producing ependymal cells and tanycytes and some median eminence astrocytes also exhibited P-STAT3 IR. Thus, in normal adult mice the ependyma of the third ventricle is both a source of and a target for CNTF, which may play hitherto unknown roles in hypothalamic function in physiological conditions. PMID:22458546

Severi, Ilenia; Carradori, Maria Rita; Lorenzi, Teresa; Amici, Adolfo; Cinti, Saverio; Giordano, Antonio

2012-01-01

10

Stable expression of constitutively-activated STAT3 in benign prostatic epithelial cells changes their phenotype to that resembling malignant cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are involved in growth regulation of cells. They are usually activated by phosphorylation at specific tyrosine residues. In neoplastic cells, constitutive activation of STATs accompanies growth dysregulation and resistance to apoptosis through changes in gene expression, such as enhanced anti-apoptotic gene expression or reduced pro-apoptotic gene expression. Activated STAT3 is thought to

Hosea F Huang; Thomas F Murphy; Ping Shu; Arnold B Barton; Beverly E Barton

2005-01-01

11

The nightshade proteinase inhibitor IIb gene is constitutively expressed in glandular trichomes.  

PubMed

The best known property of plant proteinase inhibitor II (PIN2) genes is their wound-inducible expression in leaves and constitutive expression in flowers. Here we show by promoter analysis in transgenic plants and in situ reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis that SaPIN2b, a member of the PIN2 gene family of nightshade (Solanum americanum), is also constitutively expressed in glandular trichomes. SaPIN2b promoter and its deletions were cloned and fused upstream of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) to transform the nightshade and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. Histochemical staining assays indicated that SaPIN2b:GUS was expressed constitutively in glandular trichomes, predominantly in the gland cells, of both transgenic nightshade and tobacco plants. Constitutive expression of SaPIN2b in glandular trichomes was further confirmed by liquid phase in situ RT-PCR analysis of nightshade leaves. Deletion analysis from the 5' end of the SaPIN2b promoter revealed that separate regulatory elements control SaPIN2b expression in gland cells and stalk cells of glandular trichomes. Fluorometric GUS assays showed that SaPIN2b:GUS expression was significantly increased in transgenic plant leaves after mechanical wounding or methyl jasmonate treatment. The SaPIN2b promoter sequence contains six MYB-binding motifs and an L1 box that are involved in trichome differentiation and development. Overexpression of SaPIN2b in tobacco resulted in a significant increase in glandular trichome density and promotion of trichome branching. These results suggest that, as well as being an induced defensive protein of the well-known PIN2 family, SaPIN2b could also play roles in trichome-based defense by functioning as a constitutive component of trichome chemical defense and/or by regulating the development of glandular trichomes. PMID:16926166

Liu, Jin; Xia, Kuai-Fei; Zhu, Jing-Chun; Deng, Yu-Ge; Huang, Xiao-Le; Hu, Bo-Lun; Xu, Xinping; Xu, Zeng-Fu

2006-09-01

12

Constitutive homologous expression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase increases the metabolic flux of Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium oxysporum is among the few filamentous fungi that have been reported of being able to directly ferment biomass to ethanol in a consolidated bioprocess. Understanding its metabolic pathways and their limitations can provide some insights on the genetic modifications required to enhance its growth and subsequent fermentation capability. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis reported previously that phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase are metabolic bottlenecks in the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway of the F. oxysporum metabolism. Results Both enzymes were homologously overexpressed in F. oxysporum F3 using the gpdA promoter of Aspergillus nidulans for constitutive expression. Transformants were screened for their phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase genes expression levels with northern blot. The selected transformant exhibited high mRNA levels for both genes, as well as higher specific activities of the corresponding enzymes, compared to the wild type. It also displayed more than 20 and 15% higher specific growth rate upon aerobic growth on glucose and xylose, respectively, as carbon sources and 30% higher biomass to xylose yield. The determination of the relative intracellular amino and non-amino organic acid concentrations at the end of growth on glucose revealed higher abundance of most determined metabolites between 1.5- and 3-times in the recombinant strain compared to the wild type. Lower abundance of the determined metabolites of the Krebs cycle and an 68-fold more glutamate were observed at the end of the cultivation, when xylose was used as carbon source. Conclusions Homologous overexpression of phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase in F. oxysporum was shown to enhance the growth characteristics of the strain in both xylose and glucose in aerobic conditions. The intracellular metabolites profile indicated how the changes in the metabolome could have resulted in the observed growth characteristics. PMID:24649884

2014-01-01

13

Constitutive Expression of the CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 ( CCA1) Gene Disrupts Circadian Rhythms and Suppresses Its Own Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) gene encodes a MYB-related transcription factor involved in the phytochrome induction of a light-harvesting chlorophyll a\\/b-protein (Lhcb) gene. Expression of the CCA1 gene is transiently induced by phytochrome and oscillates with a circadian rhythm. Constitutive expression of CCA1 protein in transgenic plants abolished the circadian rhythm of several genes with dramatically different phases. These

Zhi-Yong Wang; Elaine M. Tobin

1998-01-01

14

Constitutive gene expression and specification of tissue identity in adult planarian biology  

PubMed Central

Planarians are flatworms that constitutively maintain adult tissues through cell turnover and can regenerate entire organisms from tiny body fragments. In addition to requiring new cells (from neoblasts), these feats require mechanisms that specify tissue identity in the adult. Critical roles for Wnt and BMP signaling in regeneration and maintenance of the body axes have been uncovered, among other regulatory factors. Available data indicate that genes involved in positional identity regulation at key embryonic stages in other animals display persisting regionalized expression in adult planarians. These expression patterns suggest that a constitutively active gene expression map exists for maintenance of the planarian body. Planarians therefore present a fertile ground for identification of factors regulating regionalization of the metazoan body plan and for study of the attributes of these factors that can lead to maintenance and regeneration of adult tissues. PMID:21680047

Reddien, Peter W.

2011-01-01

15

Neurons expressing trace amine-associated receptors project to discrete glomeruli and constitute an olfactory subsystem.  

PubMed

Some chemoreceptors of the trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) family detect innately aversive odors and are proposed to activate hardwired olfactory circuits. However, the wiring of TAAR neurons, the regulatory mechanisms of Taar gene choice, and the subcellular localization of TAAR proteins remain unknown. Here, we reveal similarities between neurons expressing TAARs and odorant receptors (ORs), but also unexpected differences. Like ORs, TAARs seem to be monoallelically expressed and localized both in cilia, the site of odor detection, and in axons, where they may participate in guidance. TAAR neurons project to discrete glomeruli predominantly localized to a confined bulb region. Taar expression involves different regulatory logic than OR expression, as neurons choosing a Taar5 knockout allele frequently express a second Taar without silencing the deleted allele. Moreover, the epigenetic signature of OR gene choice is absent from Taar genes. The unique molecular and anatomical features of the TAAR neurons suggest that they constitute a distinct olfactory subsystem. PMID:22837392

Johnson, Mark A; Tsai, Lulu; Roy, Dheeraj S; Valenzuela, David H; Mosley, Colleen; Magklara, Angeliki; Lomvardas, Stavros; Liberles, Stephen D; Barnea, Gilad

2012-08-14

16

T Cells Expressing Constitutively Active Akt Resist Multiple Tumor-associated Inhibitory Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes has shown promise for the therapy of cancer. However, tumor-specific T cells are susceptible to diverse inhibitory signals from the tumor microenvironment. The Akt\\/protein kinase B plays a central role in T-cell proliferation, function, and survival and we hypothesized that expression of constitutively active Akt (caAkt) in T cells could provide resistance to

Jiali Sun; Gianpietro Dotti; Leslie E Huye; Aaron E Foster; Barbara Savoldo; Maria M Gramatges; David M Spencer; Cliona M Rooney

2010-01-01

17

Constitutive and Inducible Expression of B7 Family of Ligands by Human Airway Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated T cells have been implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and asthma and physically interact with epithelial cells in the airways. We now report that human airway epithelial cells display significant constitutive cell-surfaceexpression of costimulatory ligands, B7-H1, B7-H2, B7-H3, and B7-DC. Expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC was selectively induced by stimulation of either BEAS2B or primary nasal epithelial cells (PNEC)

Jean Kim; Allen C. Myers; Lieping Chen; Drew M. Pardoll; Quynh-Ai Truong-Tran; John F. McDyer; Lowella Fortuno; Robert P. Schleimer

2005-01-01

18

Enhancing Antitumor Efficacy of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Through Constitutive CD40L Expression.  

PubMed

Adoptive cell therapy with genetically modified T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a promising therapy for patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, CAR-modified T cells (CAR T cells) have mostly failed in patients with solid tumors or low-grade B-cell malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia with bulky lymph node involvement. Herein, we enhance the antitumor efficacy of CAR T cells through the constitutive expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154). T cells genetically modified to constitutively express CD40L (CD40L-modified T cells) demonstrated increased proliferation and secretion of proinflammatory TH1 cytokines. Further, CD40L-modified T cells augmented the immunogenicity of CD40(+) tumor cells by the upregulated surface expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), adhesion molecules (CD54, CD58, and CD70), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules (Class I and HLA-DR), and the Fas-death receptor (CD95). Additionally, CD40L-modified T cells induced maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 by monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Finally, tumor-targeted CD19-specific CAR/CD40L T cells exhibited increased cytotoxicity against CD40(+) tumors and extended the survival of tumor-bearing mice in a xenotransplant model of CD19(+) systemic lymphoma. This preclinical data supports the clinical application of CAR T cells additionally modified to constitutively express CD40L with anticipated enhanced antitumor efficacy. PMID:25582824

Curran, Kevin J; Seinstra, Beatrijs A; Nikhamin, Yan; Yeh, Raymond; Usachenko, Yelena; van Leeuwen, Dayenne G; Purdon, Terence; Pegram, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J

2015-04-01

19

Constitutive type VI secretion system expression gives Vibrio cholerae intra- and interspecific competitive advantages.  

PubMed

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates protein translocation across the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae - the causative agent of cholera. All V. cholerae strains examined to date harbor gene clusters encoding a T6SS. Structural similarity and sequence homology between components of the T6SS and the T4 bacteriophage cell-puncturing device suggest that the T6SS functions as a contractile molecular syringe to inject effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic target cells. Regulation of the T6SS is critical. A subset of V. cholerae strains, including the clinical O37 serogroup strain V52, express T6SS constitutively. In contrast, pandemic strains impose tight control that can be genetically disrupted: mutations in the quorum sensing gene luxO and the newly described regulator gene tsrA lead to constitutive T6SS expression in the El Tor strain C6706. In this report, we examined environmental V. cholerae isolates from the Rio Grande with regard to T6SS regulation. Rough V. cholerae lacking O-antigen carried a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding the global T6SS regulator VasH and did not display virulent behavior towards Escherichia coli and other environmental bacteria. In contrast, smooth V. cholerae strains engaged constitutively in type VI-mediated secretion and displayed virulence towards prokaryotes (E. coli and other environmental bacteria) and a eukaryote (the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum). Furthermore, smooth V. cholerae strains were able to outcompete each other in a T6SS-dependent manner. The work presented here suggests that constitutive T6SS expression provides V. cholerae with an advantage in intraspecific and interspecific competition. PMID:23110230

Unterweger, Daniel; Kitaoka, Maya; Miyata, Sarah T; Bachmann, Verena; Brooks, Teresa M; Moloney, Jessica; Sosa, Oscar; Silva, David; Duran-Gonzalez, Jorge; Provenzano, Daniele; Pukatzki, Stefan

2012-01-01

20

Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding derivatives of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide BP100: impact on rice host plant fitness  

PubMed Central

Background The Biopeptide BP100 is a synthetic and strongly cationic ?-helical undecapeptide with high, specific antibacterial activity against economically important plant-pathogenic bacteria, and very low toxicity. It was selected from a library of synthetic peptides, along with other peptides with activities against relevant bacterial and fungal species. Expression of the BP100 series of peptides in plants is of major interest to establish disease-resistant plants and facilitate molecular farming. Specific challenges were the small length, peptide degradation by plant proteases and toxicity to the host plant. Here we approached the expression of the BP100 peptide series in plants using BP100 as a proof-of-concept. Results Our design considered up to three tandemly arranged BP100 units and peptide accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), analyzing five BP100 derivatives. The ER retention sequence did not reduce the antimicrobial activity of chemically synthesized BP100 derivatives, making this strategy possible. Transformation with sequences encoding BP100 derivatives (bp100der) was over ten-fold less efficient than that of the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII) transgene. The BP100 direct tandems did not show higher antimicrobial activity than BP100, and genetically modified (GM) plants constitutively expressing them were not viable. In contrast, inverted repeats of BP100, whether or not elongated with a portion of a natural antimicrobial peptide (AMP), had higher antimicrobial activity, and fertile GM rice lines constitutively expressing bp100der were produced. These GM lines had increased resistance to the pathogens Dickeya chrysanthemi and Fusarium verticillioides, and tolerance to oxidative stress, with agronomic performance comparable to untransformed lines. Conclusions Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding short cationic ?-helical synthetic peptides can have a strong negative impact on rice fitness. However, GM plants expressing, for example, BP100 based on inverted repeats, have adequate agronomic performance and resistant phenotypes as a result of a complex equilibrium between bp100der toxicity to plant cells, antimicrobial activity and transgene-derived plant stress response. It is likely that these results can be extended to other peptides with similar characteristics. PMID:22947243

2012-01-01

21

Proline Reverses the Abnormal Phenotypes of Colletotrichum trifolii Associated with Expression of Endogenous Constitutively Active Ras  

PubMed Central

Colletotrichum trifolii is the causative organism of alfalfa anthracnose. We previously cloned and characterized the small prototypical G protein, Ras, of C. trifolii, which is involved in the signaling pathways that mediate interaction between the pathogen and its host. Transformants expressing constitutively active forms of Ras have growth medium-dependent phenotypes. In nutrient-rich media (e.g., yeast extract and peptone), the phenotype of the transformants was indistinguishable from that of the wild type. However, during nutrient starvation, the transformants lose polarity, have distended hyphae, and fail to sporulate and produce appressoria. Since peptone caused the phenotype to revert, amino acids were tested singly and in combination to identify the responsible amino acid(s). We found that 1.6 mM proline in the medium reverses the constitutively active Ras phenotype. PMID:11916680

Memmott, Stephen D.; Ha, Young-sil; Dickman, Martin B.

2002-01-01

22

Enhancement of cellulose pellicle production by constitutively expressing vitreoscilla hemoglobin in Acetobacter xylinum.  

PubMed

Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) gene driven by the constitutive bla promoter was expressed in the cellulose-producing Acetobacter xylinum. The expressed VHb was biochemically active and could enhance cell growth in a shaken culture containing cellulase. VHb-expressing A. xylinum (VHb+) exhibited a specific growth rate 50% higher than that of the host strain (VHb-). Probably because of its faster growth rate, the size of tentacled cellulose beads produced by VHb+ was about 20% of that produced by VHb- after 2 days cultivation in a shake-flask. When cultured statically, the amount of cellulose pellicle produced by VHb+ could be 2-fold that produced by VHb-. Cellulose pellicle concentration of 11 g/L was obtained for VHb+, whereas 6 g/L was obtained for VHb- after 6 days of microaerobic incubation. PMID:17137307

Chien, Liang-Jung; Chen, Hsiao-Ting; Yang, Pei-Fen; Lee, Cheng-Kang

2006-01-01

23

Distinct gene-expression profiles characterize mammary tumors developed in transgenic mice expressing constitutively active and C-terminally truncated variants of STAT5  

PubMed Central

Background Stat5 is a latent transcription factor that regulates essential growth and survival functions in normal cells. Constitutive activity of Stat5 and the involvement of its C-terminally truncated variant have been implicated in blood cell malignancies and mammary or breast cancer. To distinguish the individual contributions of the Stat5 variants to mammary tumorigenesis, global gene-expression profiling was performed on transgenic STAT5-induced tumors. Results We identified 364 genes exhibiting differential expression in mammary tumors developed in transgenic mice expressing constitutively active STAT5 (STAT5ca) vs. its C-terminally truncated variant (STAT5?750). These genes mediate established Stat5 effects on cellular processes such as proliferation and cell death, as well as yet-unrelated homeostatic features, e.g. carbohydrate metabolism. A set of 14 genes linked STAT5?750 expression to the poorly differentiated carcinoma phenotype and STAT5ca to the highly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma. Specifically affected genes exhibited differential expression in an individual tumor set vs. its counterpart and the intact mammary gland: 50 genes were specifically affected by STAT5ca, and 94% of these were downregulated, the latter involved in suppression of tumor suppressors and proliferation antagonistics. This substantial downregulation distinguishes the STAT5ca-induced tumorigenic consequences from the relatively equal effect of the STAT5?750 on gene expression, which included significant elevation in the expression of oncogenes and growth mediators. STAT5?750 mRNA expression was below detection levels in the tumors and the amount of STAT5ca transcript was not correlated with the expression of its specifically affected genes. Interestingly, we identified several groups of three to eight genes affected by a particular STAT5 variant with significant correlated expression at distinct locations in the clustergram. Conclusion The different gene-expression profiles in mammary tumors caused by the STAT5?750 and STAT5ca variants, corroborated by the absence of a direct link to transgenic STAT5 expression, imply distinct metabolic consequences for their oncogenic role which probably initiate early in tumor development. Tumorigenesis may involve induction of growth factor and oncogenes by STAT5?750 or suppression of tumor suppressors and growth antagonists by STAT5ca. The list of genes specifically affected by the STAT5 variants may provide a basis for the development of a marker set for their distinct oncogenic role. PMID:19450255

Eilon, Tali; Barash, Itamar

2009-01-01

24

Conditional expression of constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} in chondrocytes impairs longitudinal bone growth in mice  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional transgenic mice expressing constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} (caER{alpha}) in chondrocytes were developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of caER{alpha} in chondrocytes impaired longitudinal bone growth in mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer caER{alpha} affects chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This mouse model is useful for understanding the physiological role of ER{alpha}in vivo. -- Abstract: Estrogen plays important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, which are essential steps for longitudinal bone growth; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action on chondrocytes have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we generated conditional transgenic mice, designated as caER{alpha}{sup ColII}, expressing constitutively active mutant estrogen receptor (ER) {alpha} in chondrocytes, using the chondrocyte-specific type II collagen promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice. caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice showed retardation in longitudinal growth, with short bone lengths. BrdU labeling showed reduced proliferation of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferating layer of the growth plate of tibia in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. In situ hybridization analysis of type X collagen revealed that the maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes was impaired in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. These results suggest that ER{alpha} is a critical regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during skeletal development, mediating longitudinal bone growth in vivo.

Ikeda, Kazuhiro [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan)] [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Tsukui, Tohru [Experimental Animal Laboratory, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan)] [Experimental Animal Laboratory, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Imazawa, Yukiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan)] [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Inoue, Satoshi, E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan) [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Anti-Aging Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-09-07

25

A new method to customize protein expression vectors for fast, efficient and background free parallel cloning  

PubMed Central

Background Expression and purification of correctly folded proteins typically require screening of different parameters such as protein variants, solubility enhancing tags or expression hosts. Parallel vector series that cover all variations are available, but not without compromise. We have established a fast, efficient and absolutely background free cloning approach that can be applied to any selected vector. Results Here we describe a method to tailor selected expression vectors for parallel Sequence and Ligation Independent Cloning. SLIC cloning enables precise and sequence independent engineering and is based on joining vector and insert with 15–25 bp homologies on both DNA ends by homologous recombination. We modified expression vectors based on pET, pFastBac and pTT backbones for parallel PCR-based cloning and screening in E.coli, insect cells and HEK293E cells, respectively. We introduced the toxic ccdB gene under control of a strong constitutive promoter for counterselection of insert less vector. In contrast to DpnI treatment commonly used to reduce vector background, ccdB used in our vector series is 100% efficient in killing parental vector carrying cells and reduces vector background to zero. In addition, the 3’ end of ccdB functions as a primer binding site common to all vectors. The second shared primer binding site is provided by a HRV 3C protease cleavage site located downstream of purification and solubility enhancing tags for tag removal. We have so far generated more than 30 different parallel expression vectors, and successfully cloned and expressed more than 250 genes with this vector series. There is no size restriction for gene insertion, clone efficiency is > 95% with clone numbers up to 200. The procedure is simple, fast, efficient and cost-effective. All expression vectors showed efficient expression of eGFP and different target proteins requested to be produced and purified at our Core Facility services. Conclusion This new expression vector series allows efficient and cost-effective parallel cloning and thus screening of different protein constructs, tags and expression hosts. PMID:23410102

2013-01-01

26

Constitutive expression of CYP3A mRNA in Bama miniature pig tissues.  

PubMed

The pig, particularly the miniature pig (minipig), is becoming an important animal model due to its physiological and anatomical similarities to humans. Bama minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica), a Chinese natural minipig breed, are a promising animal model. The pig is a useful model for drug metabolism and pharmacological studies due to the similar properties of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A between pigs and humans. However, a detailed investigation regarding the abundance and expression of CYP3A in porcine tissues, particularly in minipig tissues, has not been performed. The present study investigated constitutive expression of CYP3A mRNA in Bama minipig tissues using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the expression of CYP3A mRNAs relative to the endogenous control, ?-actin (ACTB), was lower than when compared to the expression of the endogenous control, TATA-binding protein (TBP), except for the expression of CYP3A29 mRNA in the spleen, adrenal gland, testis, and epididymis, and CYP3A46 in the spleen. Expression levels of all three CYP3As were highest in the liver amongst all the tissues tested, and the order of relative mRNA expression level of the three CYP3As was different between other tissues. We also analyzed the relative expression of the three CYP3A mRNAs in each tissue. CYP3A46 had the highest expression in all extrahepatic tissues, whereas CYP3A22 had the highest expression in the liver, and CYP3A29 had the lowest expression in all tissues except in the duodenum, where it had higher expression than CYP3A22. Because CYP3A22 and CYP3A46 were the most highly expressed isoforms, it could follow that they are probably important functional CYP3A genes for Bama miniature pig. Our present work will broaden the understanding of the physiological functions of CYP3As in the Bama minipig and promote its application in drug metabolism and pharmacological studies. Our results also indicate that the breed, age, and castration status of the pig should be considered when using the pig as an animal model in pharmacological applications. PMID:23618816

Shang, Haitao; Guo, Kenan; Liu, Yu; Yang, Jiada; Wei, Hong

2013-07-25

27

Resistance to simian immunodeficiency virus low dose rectal challenge is associated with higher constitutive TRIM5? expression in PBMC  

PubMed Central

Background At least six host-encoded restriction factors (RFs), APOBEC3G, TRIM5?, tetherin, SAMHD1, schlafen 11, and Mx2 have now been shown to inhibit HIV and/or SIV replication in vitro. To determine their role in vivo in the resistance of macaques to mucosally-acquired SIV, we quantified both pre-exposure (basal) and post-exposure mRNA levels of these RFs, Mx1, and IFN? in PBMC, lymph nodes, and duodenum of rhesus macaques undergoing weekly low dose rectal exposures to the primary isolate, SIV/DeltaB670. Results Repetitive challenge divided the monkeys into two groups with respect to their susceptibility to infection: highly susceptible (2–3 challenges, 5 monkeys) and poorly susceptible (?6 challenges, 3 monkeys). Basal RF and Mx1 expression varied among the three tissues examined, with the lowest expression generally detected in duodenal tissues, and the highest observed in PBMC. The one exception was A3G whose basal expression was greatest in lymph nodes. Importantly, significantly higher basal expression of TRIM5? and Mx1 was observed in PBMC of animals more resistant to mucosal infection. Moreover, individual TRIM5? levels were stable throughout a year prior to infection. Post-exposure induction of these genes was also observed after virus appearance in plasma, with elevated levels in PBMC and duodenum transiently occurring 7–10 days post infection. They did not appear to have an effect on control of viremia. Interestingly, minimal to no induction was observed in the resistant animal that became an elite controller. Conclusions These results suggest that constitutively expressed TRIM5? appears to play a greater role in restricting mucosal transmission of SIV than that associated with type I interferon induction following virus entry. Surprisingly, this association was not observed with the other RFs. The higher basal expression of TRIM5? observed in PBMC than in duodenal tissues emphasizes the understated role of the second barrier to systemic infection involving the transport of virus from the mucosal compartment to the blood. Together, these observations provide a strong incentive for a more comprehensive examination of the intrinsic, variable control of constitutive expression of these genes in the sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:24884551

2014-01-01

28

Cloning, constitutive activity and expression profiling of two receptors related to relaxin receptors in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptors (LGRs) comprise a cluster of transmembrane proteins, characterized by the presence of a large N-terminal extracellular domain. This receptor group can be classified into three subtypes. Belonging to the subtype C LGRs are the mammalian relaxin receptors LGR7 (RXFP1) and LGR8 (RXFP2), which mediate important reproductive and other processes. We identified two related receptors in the genome of the fruit fly and cloned their open reading frames into an expression vector. Interestingly, dLGR3 demonstrated constitutive activity at very low doses of transfected plasmid, whereas dLGR4 did not show any basal activity. Both receptors exhibited a similar expression pattern during development, with relatively high transcript levels during the first larval stage. In addition, both receptors displayed higher expression in male adult flies as compared to female flies. Analysis of the tissue distribution of both receptor transcripts revealed a high expression of dLGR3 in the female fat body, while the expression of dLGR4 peaked in the midgut of both the wandering and adult stage. PMID:25064813

Van Hiel, Matthias B; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Proost, Paul; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

2014-07-23

29

Constitutive expression of cell wall invertase genes increases grain yield and starch content in maize.  

PubMed

Grain size, number and starch content are important determinants of grain yield and quality. One of the most important biological processes that determine these components is the carbon partitioning during the early grain filling, which requires the function of cell wall invertase. Here, we showed the constitutive expression of cell wall invertase-encoding gene from Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa) or maize (Zea mays), driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, all increased cell wall invertase activities in different tissues and organs, including leaves and developing seeds, and substantially improved grain yield up to 145.3% in transgenic maize plants as compared to the wild-type plants, an effect that was reproduced in our 2-year field trials at different locations. The dramatically increased grain yield is due to the enlarged ears with both enhanced grain size and grain number. Constitutive expression of the invertase-encoding gene also increased total starch content up to 20% in the transgenic kernels. Our results suggest that cell wall invertase gene can be genetically engineered to improve both grain yield and grain quality in crop plants. PMID:23926950

Li, Bei; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Yue; Kang, Tao; Zhang, Li; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Zhang, Hongxia

2013-12-01

30

Cre-conditional expression of constitutively active Notch1 in transgenic mice.  

PubMed

The Notch signaling pathway plays a critical role during mammalian development. To bypass embryonic lethality associated with constitutive Notch1 signaling, we created transgenic mice with a floxed beta-geo/stop signal between a cytomegalo virus promoter and the constitutively active intracellular domain of Notch1 (IC-Notch1). IC-Notch1 is activated upon introduction of Cre recombinase and it is coexpressed with an enhanced green fluorescent protein or human placental alkaline phosphatase reporter. We created three IC-Notch1 transgenic mouse lines and crossed them to a general Cre deletor mouse line, pCX-Cre. The double transgenic IC-Notch1/pCX-Cre embryos have widespread expression of IC-Notch1 and reporters and die before 10.5 days of gestation. Morphological and histological analysis of the double transgenic embryos indicated growth arrest and various developmental defects, including lack of neural tube closure, disorganized somites, and disrupted vasculature. The conditional IC-Notch1 expressing transgenic mice provide a unique tool to investigate the Notch pathway using tissue-specific Cre mice and inducible Cre systems. PMID:17440974

Liu, Ju; Lobe, Corrinne G

2007-05-01

31

Effect of constitutive expression of bacterial phytoene desaturase CRTI on photosynthetic electron transport in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The constitutive expression of the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI) in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to increased susceptibility of leaves to light-induced damage. Changes in the photosynthetic electron transport chain rather than alterations of the carotenoid composition in the antenna were responsible for the increased photoinhibition. A much higher level of superoxide/hydrogen peroxide was generated in the light in thylakoid membranes from the CRTI expressing lines than in wild-type while the level of singlet oxygen generation remained unchanged. The increase in reactive oxygen species was related to the activity of plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) since their generation was inhibited by the PTOX-inhibitor octyl gallate, and since the protein level of PTOX was increased in the CRTI-expressing lines. Furthermore, cyclic electron flow was suppressed in these lines. We propose that PTOX competes efficiently with cyclic electron flow for plastoquinol in the CRTI-expressing lines and that it plays a crucial role in the control of the reduction state of the plastoquinone pool. PMID:24378845

Galzerano, Denise; Feilke, Kathleen; Schaub, Patrick; Beyer, Peter; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

2014-03-01

32

Constitutively expressed DHAR and MDHAR influence fruit, but not foliar ascorbate levels in tomato  

PubMed Central

Vitamin C (l-ascorbate, AsA) is an essential nutrient required in key metabolic functions in humans and must be obtained from the diet, mainly from fruits and vegetables. Given its importance in human health and plant physiology we sought to examine the role of the ascorbate recycling enzymes monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an economically important fruit crop. Cytosolic-targeted tomato genes Mdhar and Dhar were cloned and over-expressed under a constitutive promoter in tomato var. Micro-Tom. Lines with increased protein levels and enzymatic activity were identified and examined. Mature green and red ripe fruit from DHAR over-expressing lines had a 1.6 fold increase in AsA content in plants grown under relatively low light conditions (150 µmol m?2 s?1). Conversely, MDHAR over-expressers had significantly reduced AsA levels in mature green fruits by 0.7 fold. Neither over-expressing line had altered levels of AsA in foliar tissues. These results underscore a complex regulation of the AsA pool size in tomato. PMID:21875809

Haroldsen, Victor M.; Chi-Ham, Cecilia L.; Kulkarni, Shashank; Lorence, Argelia; Bennett, Alan B.

2012-01-01

33

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells constitutively express arginase-I in the naive and inflamed lung.  

PubMed

Arg1 is produced by AAMs and is proposed to have a regulatory role during asthma and allergic inflammation. Here, we use an Arg1 reporter mouse to identify additional cellular sources of the enzyme in the lung. We demonstrate that ILC2s express Arg1 at rest and during infection with the migratory helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. In contrast to AAMs, which express Arg1 following IL-4/IL-13-mediated STAT6 activation, ILC2s constitutively express the enzyme in a STAT6-independent manner. Although ILC2s deficient in the IL-33R subunit T1/ST2 maintain Arg1 expression, IL-33 can regulate total lung Arg1 by expanding the ILC2 population and by activating macrophages indirectly via STAT6. Finally, we find that ILC2 Arg1 does not mediate ILC2 accumulation, ILC2 production of IL-5 and IL-13, or collagen production during N. brasiliensis infection. Thus, ILC2s are a novel source of Arg1 in resting tissue and during allergic inflammation. PMID:23924659

Bando, Jennifer K; Nussbaum, Jesse C; Liang, Hong-Erh; Locksley, Richard M

2013-11-01

34

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells constitutively express arginase-I in the naďve and inflamed lung  

PubMed Central

Arg1 is produced by AAMs and is proposed to have a regulatory role during asthma and allergic inflammation. Here, we use an Arg1 reporter mouse to identify additional cellular sources of the enzyme in the lung. We demonstrate that ILC2s express Arg1 at rest and during infection with the migratory helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. In contrast to AAMs, which express Arg1 following IL-4/IL-13-mediated STAT6 activation, ILC2s constitutively express the enzyme in a STAT6-independent manner. Although ILC2s deficient in the IL-33R subunit T1/ST2 maintain Arg1 expression, IL-33 can regulate total lung Arg1 by expanding the ILC2 population and by activating macrophages indirectly via STAT6. Finally, we find that ILC2 Arg1 does not mediate ILC2 accumulation, ILC2 production of IL-5 and IL-13, or collagen production during N. brasiliensis infection. Thus, ILC2s are a novel source of Arg1 in resting tissue and during allergic inflammation. PMID:23924659

Bando, Jennifer K.; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Liang, Hong-Erh; Locksley, Richard M.

2013-01-01

35

A Constitutive Expression System for Cellulase Secretion in Escherichia coli and Its Use in Bioethanol Production  

PubMed Central

The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass appears to be attractive and viable due to the abundance and availability of this biomass. The hydrolysis of this biomass, however, is challenging because of the complex lignocellulosic structure. The ability to produce hydrolytic cellulase enzymes in a cost-effective manner will certainly accelerate the process of making lignocellulosic ethanol production a commercial reality. These cellulases may need to be produced aerobically to generate large amounts of protein in a short time or anaerobically to produce biofuels from cellulose via consolidated bioprocessing. Therefore, it is important to identify a promoter that can constitutively drive the expression of cellulases under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions without the need for an inducer. Using lacZ as reporter gene, we analyzed the strength of the promoters of four genes, namely lacZ, gapA, ldhA and pflB, and found that the gapA promoter yielded the maximum expression of the ?-galactosidase enzyme under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We further cloned the genes for two cellulolytic enzymes, ?-1,4-endoglucanase and ?-1,4-glucosidase, under the control of the gapA promoter, and we expressed these genes in Escherichia coli, which secreted the products into the extracellular medium. An ethanologenic E. colistrain transformed with the secretory ?-glucosidase gene construct fermented cellobiose in both defined and complex medium. This recombinant strain also fermented wheat straw hydrolysate containing glucose, xylose and cellobiose into ethanol with an 85% efficiency of biotransformation. An ethanologenic strain that constitutively secretes a cellulolytic enzyme is a promising platform for producing lignocellulosic ethanol. PMID:25768292

Munjal, Neha; Jawed, Kamran; Wajid, Saima; Yazdani, Syed Shams

2015-01-01

36

A Constitutive Expression System for Cellulase Secretion in Escherichia coli and Its Use in Bioethanol Production.  

PubMed

The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass appears to be attractive and viable due to the abundance and availability of this biomass. The hydrolysis of this biomass, however, is challenging because of the complex lignocellulosic structure. The ability to produce hydrolytic cellulase enzymes in a cost-effective manner will certainly accelerate the process of making lignocellulosic ethanol production a commercial reality. These cellulases may need to be produced aerobically to generate large amounts of protein in a short time or anaerobically to produce biofuels from cellulose via consolidated bioprocessing. Therefore, it is important to identify a promoter that can constitutively drive the expression of cellulases under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions without the need for an inducer. Using lacZ as reporter gene, we analyzed the strength of the promoters of four genes, namely lacZ, gapA, ldhA and pflB, and found that the gapA promoter yielded the maximum expression of the ?-galactosidase enzyme under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We further cloned the genes for two cellulolytic enzymes, ?-1,4-endoglucanase and ?-1,4-glucosidase, under the control of the gapA promoter, and we expressed these genes in Escherichia coli, which secreted the products into the extracellular medium. An ethanologenic E. colistrain transformed with the secretory ?-glucosidase gene construct fermented cellobiose in both defined and complex medium. This recombinant strain also fermented wheat straw hydrolysate containing glucose, xylose and cellobiose into ethanol with an 85% efficiency of biotransformation. An ethanologenic strain that constitutively secretes a cellulolytic enzyme is a promising platform for producing lignocellulosic ethanol. PMID:25768292

Munjal, Neha; Jawed, Kamran; Wajid, Saima; Yazdani, Syed Shams

2015-01-01

37

Constitutive and regulated expression of the class IB molecule Qa-1 in pancreatic beta cells.  

PubMed

Enhanced major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression is a prominent early feature of pancreatic beta-cell pathology in autoimmune diabetes. The number and nature of class I MHC loci expressed by beta cells are generally undefined and potentially critical to the onset and progression of insulitis. Mounting evidence indicates that the non-classical MHC class IB molecule Qa-1, encoded by H2-T23, is capable of presenting antigens to alpha beta and gamma delta T cells and that lymphocytes restricted to Qa-1 may contribute immunoregulatory functions. We compared the expression of Qa-1 and MHC class IA in a beta-cell line (beta TC6-F7) before and after treatment with the insulitic cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Similar to MHC class IA, Qa-1 was expressed constitutively at a low level in beta TC6-F7 cells, with both T23b mRNA and cell surface Qa-1b being up-regulated following 24-hr treatment with mouse IFN-gamma. Based on binding characteristics established for the predominant Qa-1-binding peptide, Qa-1 determinant modifier (Qdm), we also examined the possibility that Qa-1 binding peptides may be encoded in the preproinsulin leader sequence. One nonarmeric peptide (Ins II: ALWMRFLPL) derived from the preproinsulin II leader sequence was recognized by a Qa-1b-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) clone. Specific binding of Ins II to Qa-1b was confirmed by a CTL peptide-blocking assay. Demonstration of IFN-gamma-regulated Qa-1 expression in beta cells and identification of a Qa-1-binding peptide in the preproinsulin leader sequence invoke further consideration of possible roles of Qa-1 in the progression of islet inflammation. PMID:9708188

Chun, T; Aldrich, C J; Baldeón, M E; Kawczynski, L V; Soloski, M J; Gaskins, H R

1998-05-01

38

Constitutively expressed Protocadherin-? regulates the coalescence and elimination of homotypic olfactory axons through its cytoplasmic region  

PubMed Central

Olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) axons coalesce into specific glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (OB) according to their odorant receptor (OR) expression. Several guidance molecules enhance the coalescence of homotypic OSN projections, in an OR-specific- and neural-activity-dependent manner. However, the mechanism by which homotypic OSN axons are organized into glomeruli is unsolved. We previously reported that the clustered protocadherin-? (Pcdh-?) family of diverse cadherin-related molecules plays roles in the coalescence and elimination of homotypic OSN axons throughout development. Here we showed that the elimination of small ectopic homotypic glomeruli required the constitutive expression of a Pcdh-? isoform and Pcdh-?'s cytoplasmic region, but not OR specificity or neural activity. These results suggest that Pcdh-? proteins provide a cytoplasmic signal to regulate repulsive activity for homotypic OSN axons independently of OR expression and neural activity. The counterbalancing effect of Pcdh-? proteins for the axonal coalescence mechanisms mediated by other olfactory guidance molecules indicate a possible mechanism for the organization of homotypic OSN axons into glomeruli during development. PMID:23087612

Hasegawa, Sonoko; Hirabayashi, Takahiro; Kondo, Takahiko; Inoue, Ken; Esumi, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Atsushi; Hamada, Shun; Yagi, Takeshi

2012-01-01

39

The Isolation and Characterization of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Mutants That Constitutively Express Purine Biosynthetic Genes  

PubMed Central

In response to an external source of adenine, yeast cells repress the expression of purine biosynthesis pathway genes. To identify necessary components of this signalling mechanism, we have isolated mutants that are constitutively active for expression. These mutants were named bra (for bypass of repression by adenine). BRA7 is allelic to FCY2, the gene encoding the purine cytosine permease and BRA9 is ADE12, the gene encoding adenylosuccinate synthetase. BRA6 and BRA1 are new genes encoding, respectively, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase and adenylosuccinate lyase. These results indicate that uptake and salvage of adenine are important steps in regulating expression of purine biosynthetic genes. We have also shown that two other salvage enzymes, adenine phosphoribosyl transferase and adenine deaminase, are involved in activating the pathway. Finally, using mutant strains affected in AMP kinase or ribonucleotide reductase activities, we have shown that AMP needs to be phosphorylated to ADP to exert its regulatory role while reduction of ADP into dADP by ribonucleotide reductase is not required for adenine repression. Together these data suggest that ADP or a derivative of ADP is the effector molecule in the signal transduction pathway. PMID:9335580

Guetsova, M. L.; Lecoq, K.; Daignan-Fornier, B.

1997-01-01

40

Premature lethality, hyperactivity, and aberrant phosphorylation in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of Fyn  

PubMed Central

The kinase Fyn, the microtubule-associated protein tau and the peptide amyloid-? (A?) constitute a toxic triad in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau's subcellular localization is mainly regulated by phosphorylation whereas Fyn's localization is dictated by palmitoylation targeting it to the plasma membrane in a reversible manner. We have previously shown that tau is required for Fyn to be targeted to the dendritic spine. We had also shown that a truncated form of tau (?tau) that accumulates in the cell soma is capable of trapping Fyn and preventing it from entering the spine. Here we determined that palmitoylation is required for Fyn's membrane and spine localization. We further evaluated the functional consequences of neuronal over-expression of the constitutively active Y531F mutant form of Fyn (FynCA) in transgenic mice. We found that the FynCA transgenic mice displayed a reduced weight, a massively reduced lifespan and a high level of hyperactivity. The lifespan of the FynCA mice was only slightly extended by crossing them with ?tau transgenic mice, possibly reflecting differences in expression patterns of the transgenes and high levels of transgenic FynCA compared to endogenous Fyn. Analysis of synaptosomes revealed that FynCA accumulated at high levels in the spine, resulting in increased levels of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2b phosphorylated at residue Y1472. Tau was strongly phosphorylated at the AT8 epitope S202/T205 as shown by Western blot and immunohistochemistry indicating that an increased tyrosine kinase activity of Fyn has down-stream consequences for serine/threonine-directed phosphorylation. PMID:24860422

Xia, Di; Götz, Jürgen

2014-01-01

41

Constitutive expression of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase LIP2 in Pichia pastoris using GAP as promoter.  

PubMed

A gene encoding Yarrowia lipolytica lipase LIP2 (YlLIP2) was cloned into a constitutive expression vector pGAPZ?A and electrotransformed into the Pichia pastoris X-33 strain. The high-yield clones obtained by high copy and enzyme activity screening were chosen as the host strains for shaking flask and fermentor culture. The results showed that glucose was the optimum carbon source for YlLIP2 production, and the maximum hydrolytic activity of recombinant YlLIP2 reached 1,315 U/ml under the flask culture at 28 °C, pH 7.0, for 48 h. The fed-batch fermentation was carried out in 3- and 10-l bioreactors by continuously feeding glucose into the growing medium for achieving high cell density and YlLIP2 yields. The maximum hydrolytic activity of YlLIP2 and cell density obtained in the 3-l bioreactor were 10,300 U/ml and 116 g dry cell weight (DCW)/l, respectively. The peak hydrolytic activity of YlLIP2 and cell density were further improved in the 10-l fermentor where the values respectively attained were 13,500 U/ml and 120 g DCW/l. The total protein concentration in the supernatant reached 3.3 g/l and the cell viability remained approximately 99% after 80 h of culture. Furthermore, the recombinant YlLIP2 produced in P. pastoris pGAP and pAOX1 systems have similar content of sugar (about 12%) and biochemical characteristics. The above results suggest that the GAP promoter-derived expression system of P. pastoris is effective for the expression of YlLIP2 by high cell density culture and is probably an alternative to the conventional AOX1 promoter expression system in large-scale production of industrial lipases. PMID:22246727

Wang, Xiaofeng; Sun, Yongchuan; Ke, Feng; Zhao, Heyun; Liu, Tao; Xu, Li; Liu, Yun; Yan, Yunjun

2012-03-01

42

Enhancement of endothelial cell migration by constitutively active LPA{sub 1}-expressing tumor cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutated LPA{sub 1} stimulates cell migration of endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF expressions are increased by mutated LPA{sub 1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPA signaling via mutated LPA{sub 1} is involved in angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutated LPA{sub 1} promotes cancer cell progression. -- Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors belong to G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors (LPA receptors; LPA{sub 1} to LPA{sub 6}). They indicate a variety of cellular response by the interaction with LPA, including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Recently, we have reported that constitutive active mutated LPA{sub 1} induced the strong biological effects of rat neuroblastoma B103 cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of mutated LPA{sub 1} on the interaction between B103 cells and endothelial F-2 cells. Each LPA receptor expressing B103 cells were maintained in serum-free DMEM and cell motility assay was performed with a Cell Culture Insert. When F-2 cells were cultured with conditioned medium from Lpar1 and Lpar3-expressing cells, the cell motility of F-2 cells was significantly higher than control cells. Interestingly, the motile activity of F-2 cells was strongly induced by mutated LPA{sub 1} than other cells, correlating with the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf)-A and Vegf-C. Pretreatment of LPA signaling inhibitors inhibited F-2 cell motility stimulated by mutated LPA{sub 1}. These results suggest that activation of LPA signaling via mutated LPA{sub 1} may play an important role in the promotion of angiogenesis in rat neuroblastoma cells.

Kitayoshi, Misaho; Kato, Kohei; Tanabe, Eriko; Yoshikawa, Kyohei; Fukui, Rie [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)] [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Fukushima, Nobuyuki [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi, E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)] [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

2012-06-01

43

Constitutive IRF8 expression inhibits AML by activation of repressed immune response signaling.  

PubMed

Myeloid differentiation is blocked in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the molecular mechanisms are not well characterized. Meningioma 1 (MN1) is overexpressed in AML patients and confers resistance to all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation. To understand the role of MN1 as a transcriptional regulator in myeloid differentiation, we fused transcriptional activation (VP16) or repression (M33) domains with MN1 and characterized these cells in vivo. Transcriptional activation of MN1 target genes induced myeloproliferative disease with long latency and differentiation potential to mature neutrophils. A large proportion of differentially expressed genes between leukemic MN1 and differentiation-permissive MN1VP16 cells belonged to the immune response pathway like interferon-response factor (Irf) 8 and Ccl9. As MN1 is a cofactor of MEIS1 and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA), we compared chromatin occupancy between these genes. Immune response genes that were upregulated in MN1VP16 cells were co-targeted by MN1 and MEIS1, but not RARA, suggesting that myeloid differentiation is blocked through transcriptional repression of shared target genes of MN1 and MEIS1. Constitutive expression of Irf8 or its target gene Ccl9 identified these genes as potent inhibitors of murine and human leukemias in vivo. Our data show that MN1 prevents activation of the immune response pathway, and suggest restoration of IRF8 signaling as therapeutic target in AML. PMID:24957708

Sharma, A; Yun, H; Jyotsana, N; Chaturvedi, A; Schwarzer, A; Yung, E; Lai, C K; Kuchenbauer, F; Argiropoulos, B; Görlich, K; Ganser, A; Humphries, R K; Heuser, M

2015-01-01

44

Constitutive Expression of Mammalian Nitric Oxide Synthase in Tobacco Plants Triggers Disease Resistance to Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is known for its role in the activation of plant defense responses. To examine the involvement and mode of action of NO in plant defense responses, we introduced calmodulin-dependent mammalian neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which controls the CaMV35S promoter, into wild-type and NahG tobacco plants. Constitutive expression of nNOS led to NO production and triggered spontaneous induction of leaf lesions. Transgenic plants accumulated high amounts of H2O2, with catalase activity lower than that in the wild type. nNOS transgenic plants contained high levels of salicylic acid (SA), and they induced an array of SA-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, and/or ethylene (ET)-related genes. Consequently, NahG co-expression blocked the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-associated genes in transgenic plants, implying SA is involved in NO-mediated induction of SAR genes. The transgenic plants exhibited enhanced resistance to a spectrum of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Our results suggest a highly ranked regulatory role for NO in SA-, JA-, and/or ET-dependent pathways that lead to disease resistance. PMID:23124383

Chun, Hyun Jin; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Koo, Sung Cheol; Lee, Ju Huck; Park, Chan Young; Choi, Man Soo; Kang, Chang Ho; Baek, Dongwon; Cheong, Yong Hwa; Yun, Dae-Jin; Chung, Woo Sik; Cho, Moo Je; Kim, Min Chul

2012-01-01

45

Constitutive Expression of Thermobifida fusca Thermostable Acetylxylan Esterase Gene in Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

A gene encoding the thermostable acetylxylan esterase (AXE) in Thermobifida fusca NTU22 was amplified by PCR, sequenced and cloned into the Pichia pastoris X-33 host strain using the vector pGAPZ?A, allowing constitutive expression and secretion of the protein. Recombinant expression resulted in high levels of extracellular AXE production, as high as 526 U/mL in the Hinton flask culture broth. The purified enzyme showed a single band at about 28 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after being treated with endo-?-N-acetylglycosaminidase H; this agrees with the predicted size based on the nucleotide sequence. About 70% of the original activity remained after heat treatment at 60 °C for three hours. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified enzyme were 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The properties of the purified AXE from the P. pastoris transformant are similar to those of the AXE from an E. coli transformant. PMID:21614198

Yang, Chao-Hsun; Lin, Kun-I; Chen, Gen-Hung; Chen, Yu-Fen; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wei-Lin; Huang, Yu-Chun

2010-01-01

46

Constitutive patterns of gene expression regulated by RNA-binding proteins  

PubMed Central

Background RNA-binding proteins regulate a number of cellular processes, including synthesis, folding, translocation, assembly and clearance of RNAs. Recent studies have reported that an unexpectedly large number of proteins are able to interact with RNA, but the partners of many RNA-binding proteins are still uncharacterized. Results We combined prediction of ribonucleoprotein interactions, based on catRAPID calculations, with analysis of protein and RNA expression profiles from human tissues. We found strong interaction propensities for both positively and negatively correlated expression patterns. Our integration of in silico and ex vivo data unraveled two major types of protein–RNA interactions, with positively correlated patterns related to cell cycle control and negatively correlated patterns related to survival, growth and differentiation. To facilitate the investigation of protein–RNA interactions and expression networks, we developed the catRAPID express web server. Conclusions Our analysis sheds light on the role of RNA-binding proteins in regulating proliferation and differentiation processes, and we provide a data exploration tool to aid future experimental studies. PMID:24401680

2014-01-01

47

Pantophysin is a ubiquitously expressed synaptophysin homologue and defines constitutive transport vesicles  

PubMed Central

Certain properties of the highly specialized synaptic transmitter vesicles are shared by constitutively occurring vesicles. We and others have thus identified a cDNA in various nonneuroendocrine cell types of rat and human that is related to synaptophysin, one of the major synaptic vesicle membrane proteins, which we termed pantophysin. Here we characterize the gene structure, mRNA and protein expression, and intracellular distribution of pantophysin. Its mRNA is detected in murine cell types of nonneuroendocrine as well as of neuroendocrine origin. The intron/exon structure of the murine pantophysin gene is identical to that of synaptophysin except for the last intron that is absent in pantophysin. The encoded polypeptide of calculated mol wt 28,926 shares many sequence features with synaptophysin, most notably the four hydrophobic putative transmembrane domains, although the cytoplasmic end domains are completely different. Using antibodies against the unique carboxy terminus pantophysin can be detected by immunofluorescence microscopy in both exocrine and endocrine cells of human pancreas, and in cultured cells, colocalizing with constitutive secretory and endocytotic vesicle markers in nonneuroendocrine cells and with synaptophysin in cDNA-transfected epithelial cells. By immunoelectron microscopy, the majority of pantophysin reactivity is detected at vesicles with a diameter of < 100 nm that have a smooth surface and an electron-translucent interior. Using cell fractionation in combination with immunoisolation, these vesicles are enriched in a light fraction and shown to contain the cellular vSNARE cellubrevin and the ubiquitous SCAMPs in epithelial cells and synaptophysin in neuroendocrine or cDNA-transfected nonneuroendocrine cells and neuroendocrine tissues. Pantophysin is therefore a broadly distributed marker of small cytoplasmic transport vesicles independent of their content. PMID:8707851

1996-01-01

48

Differences in physical characteristics, perinatal histories, and social backgrounds between children with growth hormone deficiency and constitutional short stature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four hundred and forty-nine children with heights below -2.5 SD were identified by screening for height a total population of 48221 in three Scottish cities. Children participating in the study could be classified into 5 groups: severe growth hormone deficiency (n = 13), partial growth hormone deficiency (n = 25), low birthweight short stature (n = 34), constitutional short stature

G V Vimpani; A F Vimpani; S J Pocock; J W Farquhar

1981-01-01

49

The constitutive AHSB4 promoter--a novel component of the Arxula adeninivorans-based expression platform.  

PubMed

An Arxula adeninivorans-AHSB4 gene, encoding histone H4, was isolated and characterized. The gene includes a coding sequence of 363 bp disrupted by a 51-bp intron, similar to the situation in other fungal H4 genes. The identity of the gene was confirmed by the high degree of homology of the derived amino acid sequence with that of other H4 histones. The gene is strongly and constitutively expressed, maintaining this expression profile under salt-stress conditions. The AHSB4 promoter was tested for suitability in heterologous gene expression using genes encoding the intracellular green fluorescent protein and the secreted human serum albumin (HSA) for assessment. Plasmids incorporating respective expression cassettes were used to transform the host strain A. adeninivorans LS3, which forms budding cells at 30 degrees C, and strain 135, which forms mycelia under these conditions. Transformants of both types were found to harbor a single copy of the heterologous DNA. Strong constitutive expression was observed during culture in salt-containing and salt-free media, as expected from the expression profile of AHSB4. In 200-ml shake-flask cultures, maximal HSA levels of 20 mg l(-1) culture medium were achieved. This productivity could be increased to 50 mg l(-1 )in strains harboring two copies of the expression cassette. The AHSB4 promoter thus provides an attractive component for constitutive heterologous gene expression under salt-free and salt-stress conditions. PMID:12733004

Wartmann, T; Bellebna, C; Böer, E; Bartelsen, O; Gellissen, G; Kunze, G

2003-10-01

50

Biologic and immunohistochemical analysis of interleukin-6 expression in vivo. Constitutive and induced expression in murine polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered an important multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular responses, including the induction of acute-phase protein synthesis, lymphocyte activation, and hematopoiesis. In vitro studies have identified many cells that can produce IL-6, but the cellular sources under physiologic conditions have yet to be identified. Using immunoaffinity purified goat anti-murine IL-6, the authors performed immunohistochemical studies to localize cells expressing IL-6 in selected organs of normal and endotoxin challenged NIH-Swiss outbred mice. In the blood, findings were correlated with cell-associated bioactivity using the standard B9 cell proliferation assay. In normal mice, constitutive expression was seen in granulocytes, monocytes and their precursors as well as in bone marrow and splenic stromal macrophages. Hepatic macrophages were negative, as were lymphocytes, megakaryocytes, erythroid precursors, and endothelial cells. In the absence of significant serum levels of IL-6, cell-associated IL-6 bioactivity was detected in circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not lymphocytes. After endotoxin challenge, there was a threefold increase in PMN IL-6 content from 1 to 3 hours followed by almost complete depletion at 6 hours. This correlated well with a threefold increase of IL-6 mRNA in the bone marrow followed by a decrease at 6 hours. This pattern also correlated with serum levels of IL-6, which peaked at 3 hours and dropped significantly by 6 hours. By 24 hours, cell-associated IL-6 showed recovery with no increase in serum levels. In vivo findings showing IL-6 expression in bone marrow macrophages support in vitro studies suggesting a role for IL-6 in hematopoiesis. Furthermore, PMNs as well as macrophages are likely important sources of IL-6 during inflammatory and septic states. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:1372159

Terebuh, P. D.; Otterness, I. G.; Strieter, R. M.; Lincoln, P. M.; Danforth, J. M.; Kunkel, S. L.; Chensue, S. W.

1992-01-01

51

Constitutive over-expression of pectinases in Penicillium occitanis CT1 mutant is transcriptionally regulated.  

PubMed

The CT1 mutant of Penicillium occitanis hyperproduces extracellular pectinases constitutively since it secretes pectinases even on glucose-containing medium. We show here that all other hydrolytic enzymes remain at low activities in CT1, confirming the specificity of the regulatory mutation towards pectinases. We isolated, by RT-PCR and through the construction of a cDNA library, three fragments coding for: a pectin lyase (pnl1), a polygalacturonase (pga1) and a pectate lyase (pal1). These fragments were used as probes in Northern blots analysis of the wild type strain CL100 and the CT1 mutant of P. occitanis grown in three culture conditions. The CT1 mutant showed a very high amount of pnl1, pga1 and pal1 mRNA either in pectin, glucose or glycerol grown cells while in the wild type CL100 strain, all transcripts were undetectable even on pectin. These results suggest that the CT1 mutation affects a trans-regulatory transcriptional factor regulating pectinase expression. PMID:21287229

Ayadi, Malika; Trigui, Sameh; Trigui-Lahiani, Hčla; Hadj-Taďeb, Noomen; Jaoua, Mohamed; Gargouri, Ali

2011-06-01

52

Isolation of a constitutively expressed enzyme for hydrolysis of carbaryl in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

A hydrolase constitutively expressed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa which converts carbaryl to 1-naphthol was purified 1,767-fold by using a combination of anion-exchange, hydroxylapatite, gel filtration, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography techniques. The presence of Triton X-100 in buffers was necessary for deaggregation and purification of the hydrolase. This is the first membrane-bound hydrolase involved in the hydrolysis of any methylcarbamate pesticide purified from a bacterial source to date. The enzyme exhibited a unique specificity of hydrolyzing only carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) but not any other methylcarbamates. The purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 65,000 Da. The pH and temperature optima for the enzyme activity were 8.5 and 45 degrees C, respectively. No cofactor requirement for the hydrolase activity could be demonstrated, and none of the divalent cations studied affected the activity of the enzyme. Also, the enzyme activity was not affected by the thiols: dithioerythritol, dithiothreitol, and 2-mercaptoethanol. The Km and Vmax values for carbaryl were 9 microM and 7.9 mumol/min/mg of protein, respectively. Images PMID:8407847

Chapalmadugu, S; Chaudhry, G R

1993-01-01

53

Constitutive Expression of the Cold-Regulated Arabidopsis thaliana COR15a Gene Affects Both Chloroplast and Protoplast Freezing Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold acclimation in plants is associated with the expression of COR (cold-regulated) genes that encode polypeptides of unknown function. It has been widely speculated that products of these genes might have roles in freezing tolerance. Here we provide direct evidence in support of this hypothesis. We show that constitutive expression of COR15a, a cold-regulated gene of Arabidopsis thaliana that encodes

Nancy N. Artus; Matsuo Uemura; Peter L. Steponkus; Sarah J. Gilmour; Chentao Lin; Michael F. Thomashow

1996-01-01

54

CONSTITUTIVE AND STIMULATED MCP-1, GROA, B, AND Y EXPRESSION IN HUMAN A AIRWAY EPITHELIUM AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Constitutive expression of mRNAs for GROa, GROB, GROY, and MCP-1, belonging to the chemokine family of 8-10 kD cytokines with chemotactic properties for granulocytes and monocytes, has been identified in freshly isolated human nasal and bronchial epithelium, and in bronchoalveola...

55

Paradata for 'ALK1 signalling analysis identifies angiogenesis related genes and reveals disparity between TGF-? and constitutively active receptor induced gene expression'  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This record contains paradata for the resource 'ALK1 signalling analysis identifies angiogenesis related genes and reveals disparity between TGF-? and constitutively active receptor induced gene expression'

56

New Vectors for Chromosomal Integration Enable High-Level Constitutive or Inducible Magnetosome Expression of Fusion Proteins in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense  

PubMed Central

The alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense biomineralizes magnetosomes, which consist of monocrystalline magnetite cores enveloped by a phospholipid bilayer containing specific proteins. Magnetosomes represent magnetic nanoparticles with unprecedented magnetic and physicochemical characteristics. These make them potentially useful in a number of biotechnological and biomedical applications. Further functionalization can be achieved by expression of foreign proteins via genetic fusion to magnetosome anchor peptides. However, the available genetic tool set for strong and controlled protein expression in magnetotactic bacteria is very limited. Here, we describe versatile vectors for either inducible or high-level constitutive expression of proteins in M. gryphiswaldense. The combination of an engineered native PmamDC promoter with a codon-optimized egfp gene (Mag-egfp) resulted in an 8-fold increase in constitutive expression and in brighter fluorescence. We further demonstrate that the widely used Ptet promoter is functional and tunable in M. gryphiswaldense. Stable and uniform expression of the EGFP and ?-glucuronidase (GusA) reporters was achieved by single-copy chromosomal insertion via Tn5-mediated transposition. In addition, gene duplication by Mag-EGFP–EGFP fusions to MamC resulted in further increased magnetosome expression and fluorescence. Between 80 and 210 (for single MamC–Mag-EGFP) and 200 and 520 (for MamC–Mag-EGFP–EGFP) GFP copies were estimated to be expressed per individual magnetosome particle. PMID:24532068

Borg, Sarah; Hofmann, Julia; Pollithy, Anna; Lang, Claus

2014-01-01

57

New vectors for chromosomal integration enable high-level constitutive or inducible magnetosome expression of fusion proteins in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense.  

PubMed

The alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense biomineralizes magnetosomes, which consist of monocrystalline magnetite cores enveloped by a phospholipid bilayer containing specific proteins. Magnetosomes represent magnetic nanoparticles with unprecedented magnetic and physicochemical characteristics. These make them potentially useful in a number of biotechnological and biomedical applications. Further functionalization can be achieved by expression of foreign proteins via genetic fusion to magnetosome anchor peptides. However, the available genetic tool set for strong and controlled protein expression in magnetotactic bacteria is very limited. Here, we describe versatile vectors for either inducible or high-level constitutive expression of proteins in M. gryphiswaldense. The combination of an engineered native PmamDC promoter with a codon-optimized egfp gene (Mag-egfp) resulted in an 8-fold increase in constitutive expression and in brighter fluorescence. We further demonstrate that the widely used Ptet promoter is functional and tunable in M. gryphiswaldense. Stable and uniform expression of the EGFP and ?-glucuronidase (GusA) reporters was achieved by single-copy chromosomal insertion via Tn5-mediated transposition. In addition, gene duplication by Mag-EGFP-EGFP fusions to MamC resulted in further increased magnetosome expression and fluorescence. Between 80 and 210 (for single MamC-Mag-EGFP) and 200 and 520 (for MamC-Mag-EGFP-EGFP) GFP copies were estimated to be expressed per individual magnetosome particle. PMID:24532068

Borg, Sarah; Hofmann, Julia; Pollithy, Anna; Lang, Claus; Schüler, Dirk

2014-04-01

58

Constitutive high-level SOS1 expression and absence of HKT1;1 expression in the salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia dolichostachya.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of salinity on ion accumulation and expression of candidate salt tolerance genes in the highly tolerant salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia dolichostachya and the taxonomically related glycophytic Spinacia oleracea. S. dolichostachya, in comparison with S. oleracea, constitutively expressed SOS1 at a high level, but did not detectably express HKT1;1. These findings suggest that the constitutive high level of shoot salt accumulation in S. dolichostachya is accomplished through enhancement of SOS1-mediated Na(+) xylem loading, in combination with complete suppression of HKT1;1-mediated Na(+) retrieval from the xylem. Our findings demonstrate the importance of gene expression comparisons between highly tolerant halophytes and taxonomically related glycophytes to improve the understanding of mechanisms of Na(+) movement and salt tolerance in plants. PMID:25804817

Katschnig, D; Bliek, T; Rozema, J; Schat, H

2015-05-01

59

Hypoxia reduces constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human proximal renal tubular cells  

SciTech Connect

Chronic hypoxia has been reported to be associated with macrophage infiltration in progressive forms of kidney disease. Here, we investigated the regulatory effects of hypoxia on constitutive and TNF-{alpha}-stimulated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in cultured human proximal renal tubular cells (HPTECs). Hypoxia reduced constitutive MCP-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent fashion for up to 48 h. Hypoxia also inhibited MCP-1 up-regulation by TNF-{alpha}. Treatment with actinomycin D showed that hypoxic down-regulation of MCP-1 expression resulted mainly from a decrease in the transcription but not the mRNA stability. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that treatment with hypoxia or an iron chelator, desferrioxamine, induced nuclear accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in HPTECs. Desferrioxamine mimicked hypoxia in the reduction of MCP-1 expression. However, overexpression of a dominant negative form of HIF-1{alpha} did not abolish the hypoxia-induced reduction of MCP-1 expression in HPTECs. These results suggest that hypoxia is an important negative regulator of monocyte chemotaxis to the renal inflamed interstitium, by reducing MCP-1 expression partly via hypoxia-activated signals other than the HIF-1 pathway.

Li Xuan [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Kimura, Hideki [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)]. E-mail: hkimura@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Hirota, Kiichi [Department of Anesthesia, Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute Kitano Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anesthesia, School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Sugimoto, Hidehiro [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Yoshida, Haruyoshi [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

2005-10-07

60

BST2/Tetherin is constitutively expressed on human thymocytes with the phenotype and function of Treg cells.  

PubMed

In contrast to peripheral plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), thymic pDCs constitutively express low levels of IFN-?. This leads to induction of interferon secondary genes (ISGs) in medullary thymocytes, raising the question whether IFN-? may play a role in T-cell development. When characterizing further differences between peripheral and thymic pDCs, we found that thymic pDCs have a phenotype consistent with an "activated signature" including expression of TNF-? and bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2), but no expression of ILT7. Given that BST2 is induced by IFN-?, and IFN-? secretion is controlled by interaction between ILT7 and BST2, this regulatory pathway is apparently lost in thymic pDCs. Further, we also show that BST2 is constitutively expressed on a subset of medullary thymocytes at the mRNA and protein level reflecting a history of IFN-? transduced signals. The majority of BST2(+) thymocytes express CCR5 rendering them prevalent targets for R5-tropic HIV infection. Moreover, BST2(+) thymocytes express Foxp3 and CD25, consistent with the phenotype of natural Treg cells, and exert suppressive activity as they impair the proliferation of autologous CD3(+) thymocytes. Collectively, our results suggest that low levels of IFN-? secreted by thymic pDCs play an important role in the development of natural Treg cells. PMID:25408362

Epeldegui, Marta; Blom, Bianca; Uittenbogaart, Christel H

2015-03-01

61

Selection for low dormancy in annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) seeds results in high constitutive expression of a glucose-responsive ?-amylase isoform  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims ?-Amylase in grass caryopses (seeds) is usually expressed upon commencement of germination and is rarely seen in dry, mature seeds. A heat-stable ?-amylase activity was unexpectedly selected for expression in dry annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) seeds during targeted selection for low primary dormancy. The aim of this study was to characterize this constitutive activity biochemically and determine if its presence conferred insensitivity to the germination inhibitors abscisic acid and benzoxazolinone. Methods ?-Amylase activity in developing, mature and germinating seeds from the selected (low-dormancy) and a field-collected (dormant) population was characterized by native activity PAGE. The response of seed germination and ?-amylase activity to abscisic acid and benzoxazolinone was assessed. Using an alginate affinity matrix, ?-amylase was purified from dry and germinating seeds for analysis of its enzymatic properties. Key Results The constitutive ?-amylase activity appeared late during seed development and was mainly localized in the aleurone; in germinating seeds, this activity was responsive to both glucose and gibberellin. It migrated differently on native PAGE compared with the major activities in germinating seeds of the dormant population, but the enzymatic properties of ?-amylase purified from the low-dormancy and dormant seeds were largely indistinguishable. Seed imbibition on benzoxazolinone had little effect on the low-dormancy seeds but greatly inhibited germination and ?-amylase activity in the dormant population. Conclusions The constitutive ?-amylase activity in annual ryegrass seeds selected for low dormancy is electrophoretically different from that in germinating seeds and its presence confers insensitivity to benzoxazolinone. The concurrent selection of low dormancy and constitutive ?-amylase activity may help to enhance seedling establishment under competitive conditions. PMID:23002268

Goggin, Danica E.; Powles, Stephen B.

2012-01-01

62

Field tolerance to fungal pathogens of Brassica napus constitutively expressing a chimeric chitinase gene  

SciTech Connect

Constitutive overexpression of a protein involved in plant defense mechanisms to disease is one of the strategies proposed to increase plant tolerance to fungal pathogens. A hybrid endochitinase gene under a constitutive promoter was introduced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into a winter-type oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera) inbred line. Progeny from transformed plants was challenged using three different fungal pathogens (Cylindrosporium concentricum, Phoma lingam, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in field trials at two different geographical locations. These plants exhibited an increased tolerance to disease as compared with the nontransgenic parental plants. 31 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Grison, R.; Grezes-Besset, B.; Lucante, N. [Rustica Prograin Genetique, Mondonville (France)] [and others] [Rustica Prograin Genetique, Mondonville (France); and others

1996-05-01

63

Constitutive Expression of a High-Affinity Sulfate Transporter in Indian Mustard Affects Metal Tolerance and Accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stylosanthes hamata SHST1 gene encodes a high-affinity sulfate transporter located in the plasma membrane. In this study the S. hamata SHST1 gene was constitutively expressed in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) to investigate its importance for toler- ance and accumulation of various oxyanions that may be transported by SHST1 and for cadmium, which is detoxified by sulfur-rich com-

Stormy Dawn Lindblom; Salah Abdel-Ghany; Brady R. Hanson; Seongbin Hwang; Norman Terry; Elizabeth A. H. Pilon-Smits

2006-01-01

64

The impact of constitutive heterologous expression of a moss Na + transporter on the metabolomes of rice and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic profiles of rice and barley plants constitutively expressing a sodium-pumping ATPase (PpENA1) isolated from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens were examined using GC-MS. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA levels of PpENA1 in root and leaf tissues of the transgenic rice and barley lines. PpENA1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in rice lines than in

Andrew Jacobs; Christina Lunde; Antony Bacic; Mark Tester; Ute Roessner

2007-01-01

65

Freedom of Expression Adjudication in Europe and America: A Case Study in Comparative Constitutional Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that the structure of free expression adjudication varies dramatically between the United States, on the one hand, and Canada, South Africa, and the European Convention on Civil Rights, among others, on the other hand. Under the conventional wisdom, American freedom of expression doctrine is largely about categorization and about efforts to exclude categories of expression from

Frederick Schauer

2005-01-01

66

Background  

E-print Network

Efficiency of the EMDR procedure is based on a presumption of neuropsychological changes in therapeutic process.The aim of the investigation is to scann and give evidence of electroactivity changes, during the process of EMDR procedure and after finishing it. Materials and methods We have recorded a continual polygraph EEG, before, during and after EMDR therapy, in patient with combat-related PTSD. Results Before the treatment, EEG recorded basic activity of low voltage (attenuation) of 20 ?V, frequency of beta range (17-26 Hz), bioccipital, with no pathologic activity. Patient had prominent vegetative symptoms (anxiety, heart rate 100/min). Background activity immediately

Grozdanko Grbesa; Maja Simonovic; Dorjanka Jankovic

67

Inhibition of Human UGT2B7 Gene Expression in Transgenic Mice by the Constitutive Androstane Receptor  

PubMed Central

The xenobiotic receptors, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulate and alter the metabolism of xenobiotic substrates. Among the 19 functional UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in humans, UGT2B7 is involved in the metabolism of many structurally diverse xenobiotics and plays an important role in the clearance and detoxification of many therapeutic drugs. To examine whether this gene is regulated by CAR and PXR in vivo, transgenic mice expressing the entire UGT2B7 gene (TgUGT2B7) were created. Gene expression profiles revealed that UGT2B7 is differentially expressed in liver, kidney, adipocytes, brain, and estrogen-sensitive tissues, such as ovary and uterus. Liver UGT2B7 expression levels were decreased when TgUGT2B7 mice were treated with the CAR ligand 1,4-b-s-[2-(3,5,-dichloropyridyloxy)] (TCPOBOP) but not the PXR ligand pregnenolone 16?-carbonitrile. Although TCPOBOP decreased the levels of UGT2B7 mRNA in TgUGT2B7 mice, it had no affect on Tg(UGT2B7)Car(?/?) mice, adding support for a CAR-dependent mechanism contributing toward UGT2B7 gene suppression. Expression of promoter constructs in HepG2 cells showed the CAR-dependent inhibition was linked to hepatocyte nuclear factor-4? (HNF4?)-mediated transactivation of the UGT2B7 promoter. The inhibitory effect of CAR on UGT2B7 gene expression was validated in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in which TCPOBOP treatment blocked HNF4? binding to the UGT2B7 promoter. These results suggest that HNF4? plays an important role in the constitutive expression of hepatic UGT2B7, and CAR acts as a negative regulator by interfering with HNF4? binding activity. PMID:21415305

Yueh, M. F.; Mellon, P. L.

2011-01-01

68

Constitutive Expression of Alpha Interferon by Skin Dendritic Cells Confers Resistance to Infection by Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus  

PubMed Central

The role of dendritic cells (DC) in the initiation of immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is poorly understood. We analyzed the innate response of freshly isolated swine skin DC to the virus and show a rapid induction of beta interferon (IFN-?) mRNA but not IFN-? mRNA. However, these DC secreted both IFN-? and IFN-? proteins in response to live virus but not killed virus. Furthermore, the surface expression of swine major histocompatibility complex class II (SLA II) or CD80/CD86 molecules and antigen processing functions were not affected by FMDV exposure. Given the demonstrated sensitivity of FMDV to IFN-?/?, there was no productive or nonproductive infection of these cells. Finally, freshly isolated skin DC constitutively expressed intracellular IFN-? protein in the absence of stimulation, with no detectable secretion of the cytokine until virus exposure. In situ analysis of these DC showed that these cells express and store IFN-? in uninfected animals. This is the first demonstration of the constitutive expression of IFN-? in resident, tissue-derived DC and indicates that skin DC can play an important role in the innate immune response of swine to viral infections. PMID:15795269

Bautista, Elida M.; Ferman, Geoffrey S.; Gregg, Douglas; Brum, Mario C. S.; Grubman, Marvin J.; Golde, William T.

2005-01-01

69

Mast cell hyperplasia, B-cell malignancy, and intestinal inflammation in mice with conditional expression of a constitutively active kit.  

PubMed

Signaling through the receptor tyrosine kinase kit controls proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells and mast cells. Somatic point mutations of the receptor that constitutively activate kit signaling are associated with mastocytosis and various hematopoietic malignancies. We generated a Cre/loxP-based bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model that allows conditional expression of a kit gene carrying the kitD814V mutation (the murine homolog of the most common mutation in human mastocytosis, kitD816V) driven by the kit promoter. Expression of the mutant kit in cells of adult mice, including hematopoietic precursors, caused severe mastocytosis with 100% penetrance at young age frequently associated with additional hematopoietic (mostly B lineage-derived) neoplasms and focal colitis. Restriction of transgene expression to mature mast cells resulted in a similar mast cell disease developing with slower kinetics. Embryonic expression led to a hyperproliferative dysregulation of the erythroid lineage with a high rate of perinatal lethality. In addition, most adult animals developed colitis associated with mucosal mast cell accumulation. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of constitutive kit signaling critically depend on the developmental stage and the state of differentiation of the cell hit by the gain-of-function mutation. PMID:21148330

Gerbaulet, Alexander; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Scholten, Julia; Peschke, Katrin; Drube, Sebastian; Horny, Hans-Peter; Kamradt, Thomas; Naumann, Ronald; Müller, Werner; Krieg, Thomas; Waskow, Claudia; Hartmann, Karin; Roers, Axel

2011-02-10

70

Constitutive expression and costimulatory function of LIGHT/TNFSF14 on human melanoma cells and melanoma-derived microvesicles.  

PubMed

Neoplastic cells are thought to have defective expression of costimulatory molecules. However, in this study, we show that human melanoma cells express LIGHT/TNFSF14, a ligand of herpesvirus entry mediator on T cells and of lymphotoxin beta receptor on stromal cells. In vitro, melanoma cells stained for LIGHT in the intracellular compartment, with weak or negative cell surface expression. However, LIGHT was expressed on tumor-derived microvesicles released from melanoma cells. In vivo, LIGHT was found in metastatic lesions, and the extent of lymphotoxin beta receptor expression on the stromal cells was significantly associated with a "brisk" T-cell infiltrate in the neoplastic tissue. In the lesions with a brisk T-cell infiltrate, stromal cells surrounding the tumor also stained for the T-cell attractant chemokine CCL21. The intratumoral T lymphocytes frequently expressed herpesvirus entry mediator and were characterized by a differentiated phenotype. Coculture of lymphocytes with LIGHT(+) melanoma-derived microvesicles or even with LIGHT(+) melanoma cells in the presence of interleukin-2 costimulated LIGHT-dependent CD3(+)CD8(+) T-cell proliferation. However, lymphocyte coculture with LIGHT(+) microvesicles in the presence of interleukin-2 was also associated with an apoptotic response as documented by increased binding of Annexin V by CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells. These data suggest that LIGHT constitutively expressed in human melanoma cells and microvesicles may contribute to regulate T-cell responses to tumor cells. PMID:15833878

Mortarini, Roberta; Scarito, Alessia; Nonaka, Daisuke; Zanon, Marina; Bersani, Ilaria; Montaldi, Elisabetta; Pennacchioli, Elisabetta; Patuzzo, Roberto; Santinami, Mario; Anichini, Andrea

2005-04-15

71

Background  

E-print Network

Background: Although the outcomes of caustic ingestion differ between children and adults, it is unclear whether such outcomes differ among adults as a function of their age. This retrospective study was performed to ascertain whether the clinical outcomes of caustic ingestion differ significantly between elderly and non-elderly adults. Methods: Medical records of patients hospitalized for caustic ingestion between June 1999 and July 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. Three hundred eighty nine patients between the ages of 17 and 107 years were divided into two groups: non-elderly (ingestion, substance ingested, systemic and gastrointestinal complications, psychological and systemic comorbidities, severity of mucosal injury, and time to expiration. Results: The incidence of psychological comorbidities was higher for the non-elderly group. By contrast, the incidence of systemic comorbidities, the grade of severity of mucosal damage, and the incidence of systemic complications were higher for the elderly group. The percentages of ICU admissions and deaths in the ICU were higher and the cumulative survival rate was lower for the elderly group. Elderly subjects, those with systemic complications had the greatest mortality risk due to caustic ingestion. Conclusions: Caustic ingestion by subjects ?65 years of age is associated with poorer clinical outcomes as compared to subjects < 65 years of age; elderly subjects with systemic complications have the poorest clinical outcomes. The severity of gastrointestinal tract injury appears to have no impact on the survival of elderly subjects.

Jui-min Chang; Nai-jen Liu; Betty Chien-jung Pai; Yun-hen Liu; Ming-hung Tsai; Ching-song Lee; Yin-yi Chu; Chih-chuan Lin; Cheng-tang Chiu; Hao-tsai Cheng

72

Inducible and constitutive expression of an elicitor gene Hrip1 from Alternaria tenuissima enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Hrip1 is a novel hypersensitive response-inducing protein secreted by Alternaria tenuissima that activates defense responses and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco. This study investigates the role that Hrip1 plays in responses to abiotic and biotic stress using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the Hrip1 gene under the control of the stress-inducible rd29A promoter or constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Bioassays showed that inducible Hrip1 expression in rd29A?Hrip1 transgenic lines had a significantly higher effect on plant height, silique length, plant dry weight, seed germination and root length under salt and drought stress compared to expression in 35S?Hrip1 lines and wild type plants. The level of enhancement of resistance to Botrytis cinerea by the 35S?Hrip1 lines was higher than in the rd29A?Hrip1 lines. Moreover, stress-related gene expression in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines was significantly increased by 200 mM NaCl and 200 mM mannitol treatments, and defense genes in the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated after Botrytis inoculation in the Hrip1 transgenic plants. Furthermore, the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidase and catalase increased after salt and drought stress and Botrytis infection. These results suggested that the Hrip1 protein contributes to abiotic and biotic resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis and may be used as a useful gene for resistance breeding in crops. Although the constitutive expression of Hrip1 is suitable for biotic resistance, inducible Hrip1 expression is more responsive for abiotic resistance. PMID:25120219

Peng, Xue-Cong; Qiu, De-Wen; Zeng, Hong-Mei; Guo, Li-Hua; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Zheng

2015-02-01

73

Constitutive expression of the neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF)/REST in differentiating neurons disrupts neuronal gene expression and causes axon pathfinding errors in vivo  

PubMed Central

The neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF; also known as REST for repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor) is a transcriptional repressor of multiple neuronal genes, but little is known about its function in vivo. NRSF is normally down-regulated upon neuronal differentiation. Constitutive expression of NRSF in the developing spinal cord of chicken embryos caused repression of two endogenous target genes, N-tubulin and Ng-CAM, but did not prevent overt neurogenesis. Nevertheless, commissural neurons that differentiated while constitutively expressing NRSF showed a significantly increased frequency of axon guidance errors. These data suggest that down-regulation of NRSF is necessary for the proper development of at least some classes of neurons in vivo. PMID:11050251

Paquette, Alice J.; Perez, Sharon E.; Anderson, David J.

2000-01-01

74

Evidence that functional interactions of CREB and SF1 mediate hormone regulated expression of the aromatase gene in granulosa cells and constitutive expression in R2C cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximal promoter of the rat aromatase CYP19 gene contains two functional domains that can confer hormone\\/cAMP inducibility in primary cultures of rat granulosa cells and constitutive expression in R2C Leydig cells. Region A contains a hexameric sequence that binds steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). Region B contains a CRE-like sequence that binds CREB and two other factors, X and Y. To

Diana L. Carlone; JoAnne S. Richards

1997-01-01

75

Efficient constitutive expression of thermostable 4-?-glucanotransferase in Bacillus subtilis using dual promoters  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-?-Glucanotransferases possess strong transglycosylation activity which has been used in various carbohydrate chemistry fields.\\u000a Due to safety issues of the recombinant enzymes we chose Bacillus subtilis as an expression host to produce a thermostable 4-?-glucanotransferase from Thermus scotoductus (TS?GT). The HpaII promoter in the Gram-positive bacterial vector pUB110 was used first to express TS?GT gene in B. subtilis. However, the

Hee-Kwon Kang; Jun-Hyuck Jang; Jae-Hoon Shim; Jong-Tae Park; Young-Wan Kim; Kwan-Hwa Park

2010-01-01

76

Rhizoremediation of Trichloroethylene by a Recombinant, Root-Colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain Expressing Toluene ortho-Monooxygenase Constitutively  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene (TCE) was removed from soils by using a wheat rhizosphere established by coating seeds with a recombinant, TCE-degrading Pseudomonas fluorescens strain that expresses the tomA+ (toluene o-monooxygenase) genes from Burkholderia cepacia PR123(TOM23C). A transposon integration vector was used to insert tomA+ into the chromosome of P. fluorescens 2-79, producing a stable strain that expressed constitutively the monooxygenase at a level of 1.1 nmol/min · mg of protein (initial TCE concentration, 10 ?M, assuming that all of the TCE was in the liquid) for more than 280 cell generations (36 days). We also constructed a salicylate-inducible P. fluorescens strain that degraded TCE at an initial rate of 2.6 nmol/min · mg of protein in the presence of 10 ?M TCE [cf. B. cepacia G4 PR123(TOM23C), which degraded TCE at an initial rate of 2.5 nmol/min · mg of protein]. A constitutive strain, P. fluorescens 2-79TOM, grew (maximum specific growth rate, 0.78 h?1) and colonized wheat (3 × 106 CFU/cm of root) as well as wild-type P. fluorescens 2-79 (maximum specific growth rate, 0.77 h?1; level of colonization, 4 × 106 CFU/cm of root). Rhizoremediation of TCE was demonstrated by using microcosms containing the constitutive monooxygenase-expressing microorganism, soil, and wheat. These closed microcosms degraded an average of 63% of the initial TCE in 4 days (20.6 nmol of TCE/day · plant), compared to the 9% of the initial TCE removed by negative controls consisting of microcosms containing wild-type P. fluorescens 2-79-inoculated wheat, uninoculated wheat, or sterile soil. PMID:9435067

Yee, Dennis C.; Maynard, Jennifer A.; Wood, Thomas K.

1998-01-01

77

Constitutive expression of high-affinity sulfate transporter (HAST) gene in Indian mustard showed enhanced sulfur uptake and assimilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycopersicon esculantum sulfate transporter gene (LeST 1.1) encodes a high-affinity sulfate transporter (HAST) located in root epidermis. In this\\u000a study, the LeST 1.1 gene was constitutively expressed in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Jai Kisan). Transgenic as well as untransformed plants were grown in sulfur-insufficient (25 and 50 ?M) and sulfur-sufficient\\u000a (1,000 ?M) conditions for 30 days. Two-fold increase was noticed in

M. Z. Abdin; M. Akmal; M. Ram; T. Nafis; P. Alam; M. Nadeem; M. A. Khan; A. Ahmad

78

Inducible and constitutive expression of pMOL28-encoded nickel resistance in Alcaligenes eutrophus N9A  

SciTech Connect

The nickel and cobalt resistance plasmid pMOL28 was transferred by conjugation from its natural host Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 to the susceptible A. eutrophus N9A. Strain N9A and its pMOL28-containing transconjugant M220 were studied in detail. At a concentration of 3.0 mM NiCl{sub 2}, the wild-type N9A did not grow, while M220 started to grow at its maximum exponential growth rate a lag of 12 to 24 h. When grown in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of nickel salt, M220 grew actively at 3 mM NiCl{sub 2} without a lag, indicating that nickel resistance is an inducible property. Expression of nickel resistance required active growth in the presence of nickel salts at a concentration higher than 0.05 mM. Two mutants of M220 were isolated which expressed nickel resistance constitutively. When the plasmids, pMOL28.1 and pMOL28.2, carried by the mutants were transferred to strains H16 and CH34, the transconjugants expressed constitutive nickel resistance. This indicates that the mutation is plasmid located. Both mutants expressed constitutive resistance to nickel and cobalt. Physiological studies revealed the following difference between strain N9A and its pMOL28.1-harboring mutant derivatives. (i) The uptake of {sup 63}NiCl{sub 2} occurred more rapidly in the susceptible strain and reached a 30- to 60-fold-higher amount than that in the pMOL28.1-harboring mutant; (ii) in intact cells of the susceptible strain N9A, the cytoplasmic hydrogenase was inhibited by 1 to 5 mM NiCl{sub 2}, whereas 10 mM Ni{sup 2+} was needed to inhibit the hydrogenase of mutant cells; (iii) the minimal concentration of nickel chloride for the derepressed synthesis of cytoplasmic hydrogenase was lower in strain N9A than in the constitutive mutant.

Siddiqui, R.A.; Schlegel, H.G.; Meyer, M. (Universitaet Goettingen (Germany, F.R.))

1988-09-01

79

Suppression of granzyme B activity and caspase-3 activation in leukaemia cells constitutively expressing the protease inhibitor 9.  

PubMed

Immune surveillance against malignant cells is mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells (CTL/NK) that induce apoptosis through the granzyme-B-dependent pathway. The serine protease inhibitor serpinB9/protease inhibitor-9 (PI-9) is a known inhibitor of granzyme B. Ectopic expression of PI-9 in tumour cells has been reported. However, the impact of PI-9 on granzyme-B-induced apoptosis in tumour cells remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of constitutive PI-9 expression in leukaemia cell lines on the activity of granzyme B and apoptosis induction. PI-9 negative (lymphoblastic Jurkat cells; myeloblastic U937 cells) and PI-9-expressing cell lines (myeloblastic K562 cells, EBV-transformed LCL-1 and LCL-2 B-cells, lymphoblastic Daudi cells, AML-R cells f leukaemia and the U937 subclone U937PI-9(+)). For accurate granzyme B activity determination a quantitative substrate (Ac-IEPD-pNA) cleavage assay was established and caspase-3 activation measured for apoptosis assessment. Cells were treated with a cytotoxic granule isolate that has previously been shown to induce apoptosis through granzyme B signalling. We found a robust correlation between constitutive PI-9 expression levels and the suppression of granzyme B activity. Further, inhibition of granzyme B translated into reduced caspase-3 activation. We conclude, suppression of granzyme B initiated apoptosis in PI-9-expressing cells could contribute to immune evasion and the measurement of granzyme B activity with our assay might be a useful predictive marker in immune-therapeutic approaches against cancer. PMID:23892923

Fritsch, Kristina; Finke, Jürgen; Grüllich, Carsten

2013-12-01

80

Sex steroid hormones regulate constitutive expression of Cyp2e1 in female mouse liver  

PubMed Central

CYP2E1 is of paramount toxicological significance because it metabolically activates a large number of low-molecular-weight toxicants and carcinogens. In this context, factors that interfere with Cyp2e1 regulation may critically affect xenobiotic toxicity and carcinogenicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of female steroid hormones in the regulation of CYP2E1, as estrogens and progesterone are the bases of contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy in menopausal women. Interestingly, a fluctuation in the hepatic expression pattern of Cyp2e1 was revealed in the different phases of the estrous cycle of female mice, with higher Cyp2e1 expression at estrus (E) and lower at methestrus (ME), highly correlated with that in plasma gonadal hormone levels. Depletion of sex steroids by ovariectomy repressed Cyp2e1 expression to levels similar to those detected in males and cyclic females at ME. Hormonal supplementation brought Cyp2e1 expression back to levels detected at E. The role of progesterone appeared to be more prominent than that of 17?-estradiol. Progesterone-induced Cyp2e1 upregulation could be attributed to inactivation of the insulin/PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 signaling pathway. Tamoxifen, an anti-estrogen, repressed Cyp2e1 expression potentially via activation of the PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 and GH/STAT5b-linked pathways. The sex steroid hormone-related changes in hepatic Cyp2e1 expression were highly correlated with those observed in Hnf-1?, ?-catenin, and Srebp-1c. In conclusion, female steroid hormones are clearly involved in the regulation of CYP2E1, thus affecting the metabolism of a plethora of toxicants and carcinogenic agents, conditions that may trigger several pathologies or exacerbate the outcomes of various pathophysiological states. PMID:23548611

Cheng, Jie; Gonzalez, Frank J.

2013-01-01

81

MosSCI and Gateway Compatible Plasmid Toolkit for Constitutive and Inducible Expression of Transgenes in  

E-print Network

. elegans heat shock promoters (Phsp-16.2 and Phsp-16.41) can be used to induce transgene expression using Mos1-mediated single copy insertion (MosSCI) transformation. We have generated promoter and 39UTR in the germline when inserted via MosSCI transformation. This flexible set of new vectors, available

Ahringe, Julie

82

International Constitutional Law (ICL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the University of Wuerzburg (Germany), International Constitutional Law (ICL) provides English texts of constitutional documents and links to background information on over seventy countries. Documents are cross-referenced for comparison of constitutional provisions. Also featured are links to Constitutional Court sites, a Model Constitutional Code, a section on German Case Law, a comprehensive list of international organizations, and a strong collection of links to constitutional and international law and constitution sites. The material available at ICL is widely applicable to fields such as political science, international relations, or government, and could be very useful for research projects in both secondary and university classrooms.

1997-01-01

83

Evaluation of constitutive iron reductase (AtFRO2) expression on mineral accumulation and distribution in soybean (Glycine max. L)  

PubMed Central

Iron is an important micronutrient in human and plant nutrition. Adequate iron nutrition during crop production is central for assuring appropriate iron concentrations in the harvestable organs, for human food or animal feed. The whole-plant movement of iron involves several processes, including the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron at several locations throughout the plant, prior to transmembrane trafficking of ferrous iron. In this study, soybean plants that constitutively expressed the AtFRO2 iron reductase gene were analyzed for leaf iron reductase activity, as well as the effect of this transgene’s expression on root, leaf, pod wall, and seed mineral concentrations. High Fe supply, in combination with the constitutive expression of AtFRO2, resulted in significantly higher concentrations of different minerals in roots (K, P, Zn, Ca, Ni, Mg, and Mo), pod walls (Fe, K, P, Cu, and Ni), leaves (Fe, P, Cu, Ca, Ni, and Mg) and seeds (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ni). Leaf and pod wall iron concentrations increased as much as 500% in transgenic plants, while seed iron concentrations only increased by 10%, suggesting that factors other than leaf and pod wall reductase activity were limiting the translocation of iron to seeds. Protoplasts isolated from transgenic leaves had three-fold higher reductase activity than controls. Expression levels of the iron storage protein, ferritin, were higher in the transgenic leaves than in wild-type, suggesting that the excess iron may be stored as ferritin in the leaves and therefore unavailable for phloem loading and delivery to the seeds. Also, citrate and malate levels in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type, suggesting that organic acid production could be related to the increased accumulation of minerals in roots, leaves, and pod walls, but not in the seeds. All together, these results suggest a more ubiquitous role for the iron reductase in whole-plant mineral accumulation and distribution. PMID:24765096

Vasconcelos, Marta W.; Clemente, Thomas E.; Grusak, Michael A.

2014-01-01

84

Constitutive Expression of Pluripotency-Associated Genes in Mesodermal Progenitor Cells (MPCs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWe recently characterized a progenitor of mesodermal lineage (MPCs) from the human bone marrow of adults or umbilical cord blood. These cells are progenitors able to differentiate toward mesenchymal, endothelial and cardiomyogenic lineages. Here we present an extensive molecular characterization of MPCs, from bone marrow samples, including 39 genes involved in stem cell machinery, differentiation and cell cycle regulation.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsMPCs

Simone Pacini; Vittoria Carnicelli; Luisa Trombi; Marina Montali; Rita Fazzi; Edoardo Lazzarini; Stefano Giannotti; Mario Petrini

2010-01-01

85

Extraendothelial and constitutive COX-2 expression is involved in the contractile effect of angiotensin II in the rat aorta.  

PubMed

1 The role of the extraendothelial and constitutive isoforms of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the contractile effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) was investigated using thoracic and abdominal aortic rings without endothelium from young Wistar rats. 2 Ang II elicited similar contractions in both aortic segments, and the effect was inhibited by pretreatment with NS398 (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) but not SC-560 [selective cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor]. 3 COX-2 mRNA was expressed under basal conditions in both aortic segments. Additionally, Ang II increased COX-2 mRNA expression in the abdominal but not the thoracic segment, while cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor) did not affect the contractile response to Ang II in either of the two segments; this suggests that the effect is not associated with de novo COX-2 synthesis. 4 In conclusion, the basal amount of COX-2 found in aortic smooth muscle cells is sufficient to explain the production of the prostanoids related to the contractile effect of Ang II. The production of these prostanoids, which are derived from constitutive COX-2, occurs independently of the endothelium vascular system. PMID:20626388

Castillo-Hernández, M C; Martinez-Godinez, M A; Guevara-Balcazar, G; Miliar-Garcia, A; Mancilla, J; Lopez-Mayorga, R M; Castillo-Henkel, E F; Castillo-Henkel, C

2010-10-01

86

Characterization of dextran-producing Weissella strains isolated from sourdoughs and evidence of constitutive dextransucrase expression.  

PubMed

The study of exopolysaccharide production by heterofermentative sourdough lactic acid bacteria has shown that Weissella strains isolated from sourdoughs produce linear dextrans containing ?-(1?6) glucose residues with few ?-(1?3) linkages from sucrose. In this study, several dextran-producing strains, Weissella cibaria and Weissella confusa, isolated from sourdough, were characterized according to carbohydrate fermentation, repetitive element-PCR fingerprinting using (GTG)(5) primers and glucansucrase activity (soluble or cell-associated). This study reports, for the first time, the characterization of dextransucrase from Weissella strains using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in situ polymer production (after incubation with sucrose) from enzymatic fractions harvested from both sucrose and glucose culture media. Results demonstrate that dextransucrase activity was mainly soluble and associated with a constitutive 180-kDa protein. In addition, microsequencing of the active dextransucrase from W. cibaria LBAE-K39 allowed the design of specific primers that could detect the presence of glucansucrase encoding genes similar to GTFKg3 of Lactobacillus fermentum Kg3 and to DSRWC of W. cibaria CMU. This study hence indicates that sourdough Weissella strains synthesize original dextransucrase. PMID:20722740

Bounaix, Marie-Sophie; Robert, Hervé; Gabriel, Valérie; Morel, Sandrine; Remaud-Siméon, Magali; Gabriel, Bruno; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine

2010-10-01

87

Constitutive and xenobiotics-induced expression of a novel CYP3A gene from zebrafish larva  

SciTech Connect

In mammals, CYP3A isozymes collectively comprise the largest portion of the liver and small intestinal CYP protein. They are involved in the metabolism of an extensive range of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics and make a significant contribution to the termination of the action of steroid hormones. A full-length cDNA of CYP3A gene, named CYP3A65, was cloned from zebrafish by RT-PCR. The CYP3A65 mRNA was initially transcribed only in the liver and intestine upon hatching of the zebrafish embryos. Like the human CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription in the foregut region was enhanced by treatment of the zebrafish larvae with the steroid dexamethasone and the macrocyclic antibiotic rifampicin. Differing from mammalian CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription was also elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during early larval stages. Repression of AHR2 translation by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides abrogated both of constitutive and TCDD-stimulated CYP3A65 transcription in larval intestine. These findings suggested that the AHR2 signaling pathway plays an essential role in CYP3A65 transcription.

Tseng, H.-P. [Department of Life Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hseu, Tzong-Hsiung [Department of Life Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Buhler, Donald R. [Department of Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Wang, W.-D. [Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Hu, C.-H. [Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chhu@mail.ntou.edu.tw

2005-06-15

88

Selective lignin downregulation leads to constitutive defense response expression in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).  

PubMed

• Downregulation of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) reduces lignin levels and improves forage quality and saccharification efficiency for bioethanol production. However, the plants have reduced stature. It was previously reported that HCT-down-regulated Arabidopsis have impaired auxin transport, but this has recently been disproved. • To address the basis for the phenotypes of lignin-modified alfalfa, we measured auxin transport, profiled a range of metabolites including flavonoids and hormones, and performed in depth transcriptome analyses. • Auxin transport is unaffected in HCT antisense alfalfa despite increased flavonoid biosynthesis. The plants show increased cytokinin and reduced auxin levels, and gibberellin levels and sensitivity are both reduced. Levels of salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids are elevated, associated with massive upregulation of pathogenesis and abiotic stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to fungal infection and drought. • We suggest that HCT downregulated alfalfa plants exhibit constitutive activation of defense responses, triggered by release of bioactive cell wall fragments and production of hydrogen peroxide as a result of impaired secondary cell wall integrity. PMID:21251001

Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

2011-05-01

89

Pseudotyped AAV vectors for constitutive and regulated gene expression in the eye.  

PubMed

Since the first reports describing the injection of recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors in the murine eye, the advancement of the field has been enormous resulting in the correction of several animal models of retinal diseases. The recent development of "pseudotyped" AAV vectors with transduction characteristics that best fit the correction of specific retinal disease phenotypes and of sophisticated systems for tight regulation of gene expression expands on the potentiality of this delivery system for the eye. PMID:12668060

Auricchio, Alberto

2003-04-01

90

Characterization of Constitutive Promoters for piggyBac Transposon-Mediated Stable Transgene Expression in Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)  

PubMed Central

Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can undergo self-renewal and give rise to multi-lineages under given differentiation cues. It is frequently desirable to achieve a stable and high level of transgene expression in MSCs in order to elucidate possible molecular mechanisms through which MSC self-renewal and lineage commitment are regulated. Retroviral or lentiviral vector-mediated gene expression in MSCs usually decreases over time. Here, we choose to use the piggyBac transposon system and conduct a systematic comparison of six commonly-used constitutive promoters for their abilities to drive RFP or firefly luciferase expression in somatic HEK-293 cells and MSC iMEF cells. The analyzed promoters include three viral promoters (CMV, CMV-IVS, and SV40), one housekeeping gene promoter (UbC), and two composite promoters of viral and housekeeping gene promoters (hEFH and CAG-hEFH). CMV-derived promoters are shown to drive the highest transgene expression in HEK-293 cells, which is however significantly reduced in MSCs. Conversely, the composite promoter hEFH exhibits the highest transgene expression in MSCs whereas its promoter activity is modest in HEK-293 cells. The reduced transgene expression driven by CMV promoters in MSCs may be at least in part caused by DNA methylation, or to a lesser extent histone deacetlyation. However, the hEFH promoter is not significantly affected by these epigenetic modifications. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the hEFH composite promoter may be an ideal promoter to drive long-term and high level transgene expression using the piggyBac transposon vector in progenitor cells such as MSCs. PMID:24714676

Wen, Sheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Li, Yasha; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Yang, Ke; Wu, Ningning; Chen, Xian; Deng, Fang; Liao, Zhan; Zhang, Junhui; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Zhengjian; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhonglin; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Zhou, Guolin; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; Shi, Lewis L.; He, Tong-Chuan; Wei, Guanghui

2014-01-01

91

Chronic Lung Injury by Constitutive Expression of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Leads to Focal Mucous Cell Metaplasia and Cancer  

PubMed Central

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an enzyme required for antibody diversification, and it causes DNA mutations and strand breaks. Constitutive AID expression in mice invariably caused lung lesions morphologically similar to human atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), which can be a precursor of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Similar to AAH, mouse AAH-like lesion (MALL) exhibited signs of alveolar differentiation, judging from the expression of alveolar type II (AT2) cell marker surfactant protein C (SP-C). However, electron microscopy indicated that MALL, which possessed certain features of a mucous cell, is distinct from an AAH or AT2 cell. Although MALL developed in all individuals within 30 weeks after birth, lung tumors occurred in only 10%; this suggests that the vast majority of MALLs fail to grow into visible tumors. MALL expressed several recently described markers of lung alveolar regeneration such as p63, keratin 5, keratin 14, leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5), and Lgr6. Increased cell death was observed in the lungs of AID transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. Based on these observations, we speculate that MALL is a regenerating tissue compensating for cellular loss caused by AID cytotoxicity. AID expression in such regenerating tissue should predispose cells to malignant transformation via its mutagenic activity. PMID:25659078

Kitamura, Jiro; Uemura, Munehiro; Kurozumi, Mafumi; Sonobe, Makoto; Manabe, Toshiaki; Hiai, Hiroshi; Date, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Kazuo

2015-01-01

92

Constitutive expression of human lactoferrin and its N-lobe in rice plants to confer disease resistance.  

PubMed

The milk protein, lactoferrin, is known to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities. To explore the possibility of conferring disease resistance in plants by expressing this protein, the gene for the full-length human lactoferrin (HLF), as well as the N-lobe, the N-terminal half molecule (HLFN), was introduced into rice plants and expressed constitutively under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promotor. Western blot analysis of leaves from HLF-transgenic rice plants showed an 80 kDa-band, which was about 1-2 kDa less than human milk lactoferrin. HLFN was expressed as a 45-kDa protein and retained its heparin-binding property. Deglycosylation experiments suggested that both proteins produced by the plants had plant-type oligosaccharide chains. The transgenic rice plants were assessed for resistance against disease-causing bacteria, virus, and fungi. Of the pathogens tested, significant resistance against Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) plantarii, the causative agent of bacterial seedling blight disease, was observed in the transgenic plants expressing HLF or HLFN. PMID:15864332

Takase, Kenji; Hagiwara, Kiyoshi; Onodera, Haruko; Nishizawa, Yaeko; Ugaki, Masashi; Omura, Toshihiro; Numata, Shinichi; Akutsu, Katsuki; Kumura, Haruto; Shimazaki, Kei-ichi

2005-04-01

93

Constitutive Expression of Human Telomerase Enhances the Proliferation Potential of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are highly desirable cells for bone engineering due to the inherent multipotent nature of the cells. Unfortunately, there is a high degree of variability, as primary hMSC cultures quickly undergo replicative senescence with loss of proliferative potential as they are continually propagated in cell culture. We sought to reduce the variability of these cells by insertion and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) to immortalize the cell line. hMSCs were transduced with a lentivirus containing the human TERT gene. The resulting cell line has been propagated through more than 70 population-doubling level (PDL) to date and continues to grow exhibiting the characteristic fibroblastic hMSC phenotype. Expression of TERT mRNA and protein activity was confirmed in the TERT-transduced cells. Mock-transduced hMSCs had almost undetectable levels of TERT mRNA and protein activity and lost proliferation potential at PDL 14. The enhanced growth capacity of the hMSC TERT cells was due to increased cell proliferation and reduced cellular senescence rather than due to inhibition of apoptosis. The multipotent nature of the TERT cells was confirmed by differentiation toward the osteoblastic and adipogenic lineages in vitro. Osteoblastic differentiation was confirmed by both expression of alkaline phosphate and mineral deposition visualized by Alizarin Red staining. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed by production of lipid droplets, which were detected by Oil Red-O staining. In summary, we have generated a stable hMSC line that can be continually propagated and retains both osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation potential. PMID:23515239

Bischoff, David S.; Makhijani, Nalini S.

2012-01-01

94

Constitutive gene expression profile segregates toxicity in locally advanced breast cancer patients treated with high-dose hyperfractionated radical radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer patients show a wide variation in normal tissue reactions after radiotherapy. The individual sensitivity to x-rays limits the efficiency of the therapy. Prediction of individual sensitivity to radiotherapy could help to select the radiation protocol and to improve treatment results. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between gene expression profiles of ex vivo un-irradiated and irradiated lymphocytes and the development of toxicity due to high-dose hyperfractionated radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Raw data from microarray experiments were uploaded to the Gene Expression Omnibus Database (GEO accession GSE15341). We obtained a small group of 81 genes significantly regulated by radiotherapy, lumped in 50 relevant pathways. Using ANOVA and t-test statistical tools we found 20 and 26 constitutive genes (0 Gy) that segregate patients with and without acute and late toxicity, respectively. Non-supervised hierarchical clustering was used for the visualization of results. Six and 9 pathways were significantly regulated respectively. Concerning to irradiated lymphocytes (2 Gy), we founded 29 genes that separate patients with acute toxicity and without it. Those genes were gathered in 4 significant pathways. We could not identify a set of genes that segregates patients with and without late toxicity. In conclusion, we have found an association between the constitutive gene expression profile of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the development of acute and late toxicity in consecutive, unselected patients. These observations suggest the possibility of predicting normal tissue response to irradiation in high-dose non-conventional radiation therapy regimens. Prospective studies with higher number of patients are needed to validate these preliminary results. PMID:19497124

Henríquez Hernández, Luis Alberto; Lara, Pedro Carlos; Pinar, Beatriz; Bordón, Elisa; Gallego, Carlos Rodríguez; Bilbao, Cristina; Pérez, Leandro Fernández; Morales, Amílcar Flores

2009-01-01

95

Constitutively Active PTH/PTHrP Receptor Specifically Expressed in Osteoblasts Enhances Bone Formation Induced by Bone Marrow Ablation  

PubMed Central

Bone is maintained by continuous bone formation by osteoblasts provided by proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitors. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) activates bone formation, but because of the complexity of cells in the osteoblast lineage, how these osteoprogenitors are regulated by PTH in vivo is incompletely understood. To elucidate how signals by PTH in differentiated osteoblasts regulate osteoprogenitors in vivo, we conducted bone marrow ablation using Col1a1-constitutively active PTH/PTHrP receptor (caPPR) transgenic mice. These mice express caPPR specifically in osteoblasts by using 2.3 kb Col1a1 promoter and showed higher trabecular bone volume under steady-state conditions. In contrast, after bone marrow ablation, stromal cells recruited from bone surface extensively proliferated in the marrow cavity in transgenic mice, compared to limited proliferation in wild-type mice. Whereas de novo bone formation was restricted to the ablated area in wild-type mice, the entire marrow cavity, including not only ablated area but also outside the ablated area, was filled with newly formed bone in transgenic mice. Bone mineral density was significantly increased after ablation in transgenic mice. Bone marrow cell culture in osteogenic medium revealed that alkaline phosphatase-positive area was markedly increased in the cells obtained from transgenic mice. Furthermore, mRNA expression of Wnt-signaling molecules such as LRP5, Wnt7b, and Wnt10b were upregulated after marrow ablation in bone marrow cells of transgenic mice. These results indicate that constitutive activation of PTH/PTHrP receptor in differentiated osteoblasts enhances bone marrow ablation-induced recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoprogenitors. PMID:21866553

ONO, NORIAKI; NAKASHIMA, KAZUHISA; SCHIPANI, ERNESTINA; HAYATA, TADAYOSHI; EZURA, YOICHI; SOMA, KUNIMICHI; KRONENBERG, HENRY M.; NODA, MASAKI

2013-01-01

96

Identification of centrarchid hepcidins and evidence that 17beta-estradiol disrupts constitutive expression of hepcidin-1 and inducible expression of hepcidin-2 in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).  

PubMed

Hepcidin is a highly conserved antimicrobial peptide and iron-regulatory hormone. Here, we identify two hepcidin genes (hep-1 and hep-2) in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Hepcidin-1 contains a putative ATCUN metal-binding site in the amino-terminus that is missing in hepcidin-2, suggesting that hepcidin-1 may function as an iron-regulatory hormone. Both hepcidins are predominately expressed in the liver of largemouth bass, similar to other fish and mammals. Experimental exposure of pond-raised largemouth bass to 17beta-estradiol and/or the bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri led to distinct changes in expression of hep-1 and hep-2. Estradiol reduced the constitutive expression of hep-1 in the liver. Bacterial exposure induced expression of hep-2, suggesting that hepcidin-2 may have an antimicrobial function, and this induction was abolished by estradiol. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the regulation of hepcidin expression by estradiol in either fish or mammals. PMID:19376234

Robertson, Laura S; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Marranca, Jamie Marie

2009-06-01

97

Identification of centrarchid hepcidins and evidence that 17?-estradiol disrupts constitutive expression of hepcidin-1 and inducible expression of hepcidin-2 in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hepcidin is a highly conserved antimicrobial peptide and iron-regulatory hormone. Here, we identify two hepcidin genes (hep-1 and hep-2) in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Hepcidin-1 contains a putative ATCUN metal-binding site in the amino-terminus that is missing in hepcidin-2, suggesting that hepcidin-1 may function as an iron-regulatory hormone. Both hepcidins are predominately expressed in the liver of largemouth bass, similar to other fish and mammals. Experimental exposure of pond-raised largemouth bass to 17?-estradiol and/or the bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri led to distinct changes in expression of hep-1 and hep-2. Estradiol reduced the constitutive expression of hep-1 in the liver. Bacterial exposure induced expression of hep-2, suggesting that hepcidin-2 may have an antimicrobial function, and this induction was abolished by estradiol. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the regulation of hepcidin expression by estradiol in either fish or mammals.

Robertson, L.S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Marranca, J.M.

2009-01-01

98

Constitutive Expression of a Transcription Termination Factor by a Repressed Prophage: Promoters for Transcribing the Phage HK022 nun Gene  

PubMed Central

Lysogens of phage HK022 are resistant to infection by phage ?. Lambda resistance is caused by the action of the HK022 Nun protein, which prematurely terminates early ? transcripts. We report here that transcription of the nun gene initiates at a constitutive prophage promoter, PNun, located just upstream of the protein coding sequence. The 5? end of the transcript was determined by primer extension analysis of RNA isolated from HK022 lysogens or RNA made in vitro by transcribing a template containing the promoter with purified Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Inactivation of PNun by mutation greatly reduced Nun activity and Nun antigen in an HK022 lysogen. However, a low level of residual activity was detected, suggesting that a secondary promoter also contributes to nun expression. We found one possible secondary promoter, PNun?, just upstream of PNun. Neither promoter is likely to increase the expression of other phage genes in a lysogen because their transcripts should be terminated downstream of nun. We estimate that HK022 lysogens in stationary phase contain several hundred molecules of Nun per cell and that cells in exponential phase probably contain fewer. PMID:10629193

King, Rodney A.; Madsen, Peter L.; Weisberg, Robert A.

2000-01-01

99

NnSR1, a class III non-S-RNase constitutively expressed in styles, is induced in roots and stems under phosphate deficiency in Nicotiana alata  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Non-S-ribonucleases (non-S-RNases) are class III T2 RNases constitutively expressed in styles of species with S-RNase-based self-incompatibility. So far, no function has been attributed to these RNases. The aim of this work is to examine if NnSR1, a non-S-RNase from Nicotiana alata, is induced under conditions of phosphate (Pi) deprivation. The hypothesis is that under Pi-limited conditions, non-S-RNase functions may resemble the role of S-like RNases. To date, the only RNases reported to be induced by Pi deficiency are class I and class II S-like RNases, which are phylogenetically different from the class III clade of RNases. Methods Gene and protein expression of NnSR1 were assayed in plants grown hydroponically with and without Pi, by combining RT-PCR, immunoblot and enzymatic activity approaches. Key Results NnSR1 transcripts were detected in roots 7 d after Pi deprivation and remained stable for several days. Transcript expression was correlated based on Pi availability in the culture medium. Antiserum against a peptide based on a hypervariable domain of NnSR1 recognized NnSR1 in roots and stems but not leaves exposed to Pi shortage. NnSR1 was not detected in culture medium and was pelleted with the microsomal fraction, suggesting that it was membrane-associated or included in large compartments. The anti-NnSR1 inhibited selectively the enzymatic activity of a 31-kDa RNase indicating that NnSR1 was induced in an enzymatically active form. Conclusions The induction of NnSR1 indicates that there is a general recruitment of all classes of T2 RNases in response to Pi shortage. NnSR1 appears to have regained ancestral functions of class III RNases related to strategies to cope with Pi limitation and also possibly with other environmental challenges. This constitutes the first report for a specific function of class III RNases other than S-RNases. PMID:24047716

Rojas, Hernán J.; Roldán, Juan A.; Goldraij, Ariel

2013-01-01

100

Ortho-aminoazotoluene activates mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes  

SciTech Connect

2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car{sup -/-}) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car{sup -/-} livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor. - Highlights: > The azo dye and mouse carcinogen OAT is a very effective mCAR activator. > OAT increases mCAR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. > OAT CAR-dependently increases the expression of a specific subset of CAR target genes. > OAT induces an unexpectedly deferred, but CAR-dependent hepatocyte proliferation.

Smetanina, Mariya A., E-mail: maria.smetanina@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Laboratory of Gene Expression Control, Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, prospekt Lavrentyeva 10, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Group of Pharmacogenomics, Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, prospekt Lavrentyeva 8, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Pakharukova, Mariya Y. [Laboratory of Gene Expression Control, Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, prospekt Lavrentyeva 10, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kurinna, Svitlana M. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Unit 1000, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P.; Moore, David D. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Merkulova, Tatyana I. [Laboratory of Gene Expression Control, Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, prospekt Lavrentyeva 10, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2011-08-15

101

Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study  

PubMed Central

The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were recalled as sad when sad music was previously heard, and that sad faces were recalled as happy when happy music was previously heard. Overall, the results indicated that when recalling a scene, the emotional tone is set by an integration of stimulus features from several modalities. PMID:22956988

Woloszyn, Michael R.; Ewert, Laura

2012-01-01

102

Regulation of the constitutive expression of the human CYP1A2 gene: cis elements and their interactions with proteins.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) is a member of the cytochrome P450 family that is involved in phase I drug metabolism in vertebrates. To understand how the constitutive expression of the human CYP1A2 gene is regulated, its 5' flanking region was analyzed. The promoter activity of a human CYP1A2 gene sequence [base pairs (bp) -3203 to +58 bp] was measured in transiently transfected HepG2 cells using fusion constructs containing the luciferase reporter gene. Using 5'-end deletion analysis, two functionally important cis elements, i.e., a proximal 42-bp DNA from bp -72 to bp -31 and a distal 259-bp DNA from bp -2352 to bp -2094, were identified. The proximal sequence (bp -72 to -31) contained CCAAT and GC boxes, with which well characterized transcription factors such as nuclear factor-1/CCAT transcription factor and simian virus 40 promoter factor-1 could interact. With regard to the 259-bp fragment (bp -2352 to bp -2094), gel mobility shift analyses with HepG2 nuclear lysates indicated high affinity, specific interactions of several trans-acting factors. Three protein binding sites within the 259-bp fragment were identified by DNase 1 footprinting analysis; these sites contained activator protein-1, nuclear factor-E1.7, and one-half hepatic nuclear factor-1 (HNF-1) binding consensus sequences. Only the region from bp -2124 to bp -2098, in which the HNF-1 binding site was located, was markedly protected by a HepG2 nuclear extract, compared with a MCF7 human breast cancer nuclear extract. These results suggested that the 259-bp DNA fragment contained positive regulator binding sites and HNF-1 could contribute to the liver-specific expression of human CYP1A2. PMID:7723729

Chung, I; Bresnick, E

1995-04-01

103

Increased skin barrier disruption by sodium lauryl sulfate in mice expressing a constitutively active STAT6 in T cells  

PubMed Central

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic, chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 10–20% of children and 1–3% of adults worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that the ability of Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) to regulate skin barrier function may be a predisposing factor for AD development. The present studies examined the ability of increased Th2 activity to affect cutaneous barrier function in vivo and epidermal thickening. Mice that express a constitutively active Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6VT) have increased Th2 cells and a predisposition to allergic inflammation were used in these studies; they demonstrate that topical treatment with the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) caused increased transepidermal water loss and epidermal thickening in STAT6VT mice over similarly treated wild-type mice. The proliferation marker Ki-67 was increased in the epidermis of STAT6VT compared to wild-type mice. However, these differences do not appear to be linked to the addition of an irritant as control-treated STAT6VT skin also exhibited elevated Ki-67 levels, suggesting that the increased epidermal thickness in SLS-treated STAT6VT mice is primarily driven by epidermal cell hypertrophy rather than an increase in cellular proliferation. Our results suggest that an environment with increased Th2 cytokines results in abnormal responses to topical irritants. PMID:21959772

DaSilva, Sonia C.; Sahu, Ravi P.; Konger, Raymond L.; Perkins, Susan M.; Kaplan, Mark H.; Travers, Jeffrey B.

2011-01-01

104

Functional ability of cytoskeletal ? - actin regulator to drive constitutive and ubiquitous expression of a fluorescent reporter throughout the life cycle of transgenic marine medaka Oryzias dancena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine medaka Oryzias dancena, a candidate model organism, represents many attractive merits as a material for experimental transgenesis and\\/or heterologous\\u000a expression assay particularly in the field of ecotoxicology and developmental biology. In this study, cytoskeletal ?-actin gene was characterized from O. dancena and the functional capability of its promoter to drive constitutive expression of foreign reporter protein was evaluated.\\u000a The

Young Sun Cho; Sang Yoon Lee; Youn Kyoung Kim; Dong Soo Kim; Yoon Kwon Nam

105

Constitutive expression of a small heat-shock protein confers cellular thermotolerance and thermal protection to the photosynthetic apparatus in cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of a small heat-shock protein (Hsp) in the acquisition of thermotolerance in cyanobacteria was investigated. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 was transformed with an expression vector carrying the coding sequence of the hspA gene encoding a small heat-shock protein from Synechococcus vulcanus under the control of the tac promoter. The transformant which was shown to constitutively express HspA displayed

Hitoshi Nakamoto; Nobuaki Suzuki; Sanjit Kumer Roy

2000-01-01

106

Constitutive Expression of the Maize Genes B1 and C1 in Transgenic Hi II Maize Results in Differential Tissue Pigmentation and Generates Resistance to Helicoverpa zea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anthocyanin biosynthesis in maize protects tissues from biotic and abiotic stresses. Constitutive expression of the maize B1 and C1 genes, which induces anthocyanin biosynthesis, resulted in transgenic plants with varied phenotypes. Some colored leaves were substantially resistant to thrips damage...

107

Up-regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in tobacco cells constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP(3). The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP(3) compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP(3) in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP(3) levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP(3) signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP(2)), the lipid precursor of InsP(3), was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP(2) metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP(2)-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of (32)P into PtdInsP(2) in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP(2) synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP(2) synthesis as a regulatory step in this system.

Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

108

Impairments in cognition and neural precursor cell proliferation in mice expressing constitutively active glycogen synthase kinase-3  

PubMed Central

Brain glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is hyperactive in several neurological conditions that involve impairments in both cognition and neurogenesis. This raises the hypotheses that hyperactive GSK3 may directly contribute to impaired cognition, and that this may be related to deficiencies in neural precursor cells (NPC). To study the effects of hyperactive GSK3 in the absence of disease influences, we compared adult hippocampal NPC proliferation and performance in three cognitive tasks in male and female wild-type (WT) mice and GSK3 knockin mice, which express constitutively active GSK3. NPC proliferation was ~40% deficient in both male and female GSK3 knockin mice compared with WT mice. Environmental enrichment (EE) increased NPC proliferation in male, but not female, GSK3 knockin mice and WT mice. Male and female GSK3 knockin mice exhibited impairments in novel object recognition, temporal order memory, and coordinate spatial processing compared with gender-matched WT mice. EE restored impaired novel object recognition and temporal ordering in both sexes of GSK3 knockin mice, indicating that this repair was not dependent on NPC proliferation, which was not increased by EE in female GSK3 knockin mice. Acute 1 h pretreatment with the GSK3 inhibitor TDZD-8 also improved novel object recognition and temporal ordering in male and female GSK3 knockin mice. These findings demonstrate that hyperactive GSK3 is sufficient to impair adult hippocampal NPC proliferation and to impair performance in three cognitive tasks in both male and female mice, but these changes in NPC proliferation do not directly regulate novel object recognition and temporal ordering tasks. PMID:25788881

Pardo, Marta; King, Margaret K.; Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Martinez, Ana; Beurel, Eleonore; Jope, Richard S.

2015-01-01

109

Genetic background influences murine prostate gene expression: implications for cancer phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer of the prostate is influenced by both genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The identification of genes capable of modulating cancer development has the potential to unravel disease heterogeneity and aid diagnostic and prevention strategies. To this end, mouse models have been developed to isolate the influences of individual genetic lesions in the context of consistent genotypes and environmental exposures. However, the normal prostatic phenotypic variability dictated by a genetic background that is potentially capable of influencing the process of carcinogenesis has not been established. Results In this study we used microarray analysis to quantify transcript levels in the prostates of five commonly studied inbred mouse strains. We applied a multiclass response t-test and determined that approximately 13% (932 genes) exhibited differential expression (range 1.3-190-fold) in any one strain relative to other strains (false discovery rate ?10%). Expression differences were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, or immunohistochemistry for several genes previously shown to influence cancer progression, such as Psca, Mmp7, and Clusterin. Analyses of human prostate transcripts orthologous to variable murine prostate genes identified differences in gene expression in benign epithelium that correlated with the differentiation state of adjacent tumors. For example, the gene encoding apolipoprotein D, which is known to enhance resistance to cell stress, was expressed at significantly greater levels in benign epithelium associated with high-grade versus low-grade cancers. Conclusion These studies support the concept that the cellular, tissue, and organismal context contribute to oncogenesis and suggest that a predisposition to a sequence of events leading to pathology may exist prior to cancer initiation. PMID:17577413

Bianchi-Frias, Daniella; Pritchard, Colin; Mecham, Brigham H; Coleman, Ilsa M; Nelson, Peter S

2007-01-01

110

Genetic Background Modulates Gene Expression Profile Induced by Skin Irradiation in Ptch1 Mice  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Ptch1 germ-line mutations in mice predispose to radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma of the skin, with tumor incidence modulated by the genetic background. Here, we examined the possible mechanisms underlying skin response to radiation in F1 progeny of Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice crossed with either skin tumor-susceptible (Car-S) or -resistant (Car-R) mice and X-irradiated (3 Gy) at 2 days of age or left untreated. Methods and Materials: We conducted a gene expression profile analysis in mRNA samples extracted from the skin of irradiated or control mice, using Affymetrix whole mouse genome expression array. Confirmation of the results was done using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Analysis of the gene expression profile of normal skin of F1 mice at 4 weeks of age revealed a similar basal profile in the nonirradiated mice, but alterations in levels of 71 transcripts in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-R cross and modulation of only eight genes in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-S cross. Conclusions: These results indicate that neonatal irradiation causes a persistent change in the gene expression profile of the skin. The tendency of mice genetically resistant to skin tumorigenesis to show a more complex pattern of transcriptional response to radiation than do genetically susceptible mice suggests a role for this response in genetic resistance to basal cell tumorigenesis.

Galvan, Antonella; Noci, Sara [Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna [ENEA Laboratories, Rome (Italy); Dragani, Tommaso A. [Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: tommaso.dragani@istitutotumori.mi.it

2008-12-01

111

Constitutive CCND1/CDK2 Activity Substitutes for p53 Loss, or MYC or Oncogenic RAS Expression in the Transformation of Human Mammary Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Cancer develops following the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that inactivate tumor suppressor genes and activate proto-oncogenes. Dysregulated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity has oncogenic potential in breast cancer due to its ability to inactivate key tumor suppressor networks and drive aberrant proliferation. Accumulation or over-expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) occurs in a majority of breast cancers and over-expression of CCND1 leads to accumulation of activated CCND1/CDK2 complexes in breast cancer cells. We describe here the role of constitutively active CCND1/CDK2 complexes in human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) transformation. A genetically-defined, stepwise HMEC transformation model was generated by inhibiting p16 and p53 with shRNA, and expressing exogenous MYC and mutant RAS. By replacing components of this model, we demonstrate that constitutive CCND1/CDK2 activity effectively confers anchorage independent growth by inhibiting p53 or replacing MYC or oncogenic RAS expression. These findings are consistent with several clinical observations of luminal breast cancer sub-types that show elevated CCND1 typically occurs in specimens that retain wild-type p53, do not amplify MYC, and contain no RAS mutations. Taken together, these data suggest that targeted inhibition of constitutive CCND1/CDK2 activity may enhance the effectiveness of current treatments for luminal breast cancer. PMID:23390492

Junk, Damian J.; Cipriano, Rocky; Stampfer, Martha; Jackson, Mark W.

2013-01-01

112

Constitutive phosphorylation and turnover of I kappa B alpha in human T-cell leukemia virus type I-infected and Tax-expressing T cells.  

PubMed Central

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) encodes a strong transcriptional activator, Tax, that stimulates transcription indirectly through the viral long terminal repeat and also activates a number of cellular genes via association with host transcription factors. The NF-kappa B/Rel pathway is a target for Tax trans-activation, and Tax has been correlated with increased NF-kappa B-binding activity and NF-kappa B-dependent gene expression in HTLV-I-infected cells. In this study we demonstrate that constitutive phosphorylation and increased turnover of the regulatory I kappa B alpha protein in HTLV-I-infected MT-2 and C8166 cells and Tax-expressing 19D cells contribute to constitutive NF-kappa B-binding activity, which consists primarily of c-Rel, p52(NFKB2), and p50(NFKB1). I kappa B alpha mRNA expression is also increased 7- to 20-fold in these cells, although the steady-state level of I kappa B alpha protein is reduced in HTLV-I-infected and Tax-expressing T cells. These results indicate that the viral Tax protein, by indirectly mediating phosphorylation of I kappa B, may target I kappa B alpha for rapid degradation, thus leading to constitutive NF-kappa B activity. PMID:7983756

Lacoste, J; Petropoulos, L; Pépin, N; Hiscott, J

1995-01-01

113

Antisense Suppression of a (+)-?-Cadinene Synthase Gene in Cotton Prevents the Induction of This Defense Response Gene during Bacterial Blight Infection But Not Its Constitutive Expression1[w  

PubMed Central

In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) the enzyme (+)-?-cadinene synthase (CDNS) catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of cadinane-type sesquiterpenes, such as gossypol, that provide constitutive and inducible protection against pests and diseases. A cotton cDNA clone encoding CDNS (cdn1-C4) was isolated from developing embryos and functionally characterized. Southern analysis showed that CDNS genes belong to a large multigene family, of which five genomic clones were studied, including three pseudogenes and one gene that may represent another subfamily of CDNS. CDNS expression was shown to be induced in cotton infected with either the bacterial blight or verticillium wilt pathogens. Constructs for the constitutive or seed-specific antisense suppression of cdn1-C4 were introduced into cotton by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gossypol levels were not reduced in the seeds of transformants with either construct, nor was the induction of CDNS expression affected in stems of the constitutive antisense plants infected with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. However, the induction of CDNS mRNA and protein in response to bacterial blight infection of cotyledons was completely blocked in the constitutive antisense plants. These results suggest that cdn1-C4 may be involved specifically in the bacterial blight response and that the CDNS multigene family comprises a complex set of genes differing in their temporal and spatial regulation and responsible for different branches of the cotton sesquiterpene pathway. PMID:15849309

Townsend, Belinda J.; Poole, Andrew; Blake, Christopher J.; Llewellyn, Danny J.

2005-01-01

114

Natural killer T cells constitutively expressing the interleukin-2 receptor ? chain early in life are primed to respond to lower antigenic stimulation  

PubMed Central

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are known to constitutively express the high affinity interlukin-2 receptor ? chain (CD25) in neonates, but the functional consequence of this phenotype is unknown. Here, we show that high numbers of CD25-expressing iNKT cells are present early in gestation and represent a significant proportion of the developing immune system. Despite their activated phenotype, neonatal iNKT cells express high levels of the Krüppel-like factor-2, a transcription factor associated with quiescent T cells, and require de novo T-cell receptor and CD28 co-stimulation to proliferate. In contrast to bona fide CD4/CD25-expressing regulatory T cells, neonatal iNKT cells do not suppress T-cell responses, indicating that they do not represent an immunosuppressive cell subset. Evidence that neonatal iNKT cells respond to dramatically reduced amounts of CD1d-restricted antigen compared with adult iNKT cells or T cells, and that their proliferation can be induced in the absence of early interleukin-2 suggest that constitutive expression of CD25 ‘primes’ neonatal iNKT cells to respond rapidly to low amounts of antigen. This unique phenotype, which is distinct from adult iNKT cells, as well as other CD25-expressing activated T or regulatory T cells, may be important to ensure stability of a structurally limited peripheral iNKT-cell repertoire early in life. PMID:20545784

Ladd, Mihoko; Sharma, Ashish; Huang, Qing; Wang, Adele Y; Xu, Lixin; Genowati, Indira; Levings, Megan K; Lavoie, Pascal M

2010-01-01

115

Inducible and constitutive transcription factors in the mammalian nervous system: control of gene expression by Jun, Fos and Krox, and CREB\\/ATF proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews findings up to the end of 1997 about the inducible transcription factors (ITFs) c-Jun, JunB, JunD, c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2, Krox-20 (Egr-2) and Krox-24 (NGFI-A, Egr-1, Zif268); and the constitutive transcription factors (CTFs) CREB, CREM, ATF-2 and SRF as they pertain to gene expression in the mammalian nervous system. In the first part we consider basic facts

T. Herdegen; J. D. Leah

1998-01-01

116

Direct tensor expression by Eulerian approach for constitutive relations based on strain invariants in transversely isotropic green elasticity - finite extension and torsion  

E-print Network

DIRECT TENSOR EXPRESSION BY EULERIAN APPROACH FOR CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS BASED ON STRAIN INVARIANTS IN TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC GREEN ELASTICITY: FINITE EXTENSION AND TORSION A Thesis by MIN JAE SONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... IN TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC GREEN ELASTICITY: FINITE EXTENSION AND TORSION A Thesis by MIN JAE SONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair...

Song, Min Jae

2009-05-15

117

Constitutive IDO expression in human cancer is sustained by an autocrine signaling loop involving IL-6, STAT3 and the AHR  

PubMed Central

Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors have entered clinical trials based on their ability to restore anti-tumor immunity in preclinical studies. However, the mechanisms leading to constitutive expression of IDO in human tumors are largely unknown. Here we analyzed the pathways mediating constitutive IDO expression in human cancer. IDO-positive tumor cells and tissues showed basal phosphorylation and acetylation of STAT3 as evidenced by western blotting and immunoprecipitation. Inhibition of IL-6 or STAT3 using siRNA and/or pharmacological inhibitors reduced IDO mRNA and protein expression as well as kynurenine formation. In turn, IDO enzymatic activity activated the AHR as shown by the induction of AHR target genes. IDO-mediated AHR activation induced IL-6 expression, while inhibition or knockdown of the AHR reduced IL-6 expression. IDO activity thus sustains its own expression via an autocrine AHR–IL-6–STAT3 signaling loop. Inhibition of the AHR–IL-6–STAT3 signaling loop restored T-cell proliferation in mixed leukocyte reactions performed in the presence of IDO-expressing human cancer cells. Identification of the IDO-AHR-IL-6-STAT3 signaling loop maintaining IDO expression in human cancers reveals novel therapeutic targets for the inhibition of this core pathway promoting immunosuppression of human cancers. The relevance of the IDO-AHR-IL-6-STAT3 transcriptional circuit is underscored by the finding that high expression of its members IDO, STAT3 and the AHR target gene CYP1B1 is associated with reduced relapse-free survival in lung cancer patients. PMID:24657910

Sahm, Felix; Rauschenbach, Katharina J.; Trump, Saskia; Winter, Marcus; Ott, Martina; Ochs, Katharina; Lutz, Christian; Liu, Xiangdong; Anastasov, Natasa; Lehmann, Irina; Höfer, Thomas; von Deimling, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael

2014-01-01

118

Altered Constitutive Expression of Fatty Acid-metabolizing Enzymes in Mice Lacking the Peroxisome Proliferator-activated  

E-print Network

Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR )* (Received for publication, October 22, 1997) Toshifumi Aoyama University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano 390, Japan Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR. Constitutive liver -oxida- tion of the long chain fatty acid, palmitic acid, was lower in the PPAR null mice

Omiecinski, Curtis

119

Constitutive expression of the embryonic stem cell marker OCT4 in bovine somatic donor cells influences blastocysts rate and quality after nucleus transfer.  

PubMed

Nuclear transfer (NT) is associated with epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells. Expression of certain genes in these cells might facilitate their expression in the NT embryo. This research was aimed to investigate the effect of constitutive expression of OCT4 in bovine somatic cells used for NT on the developmental potential of derived cloned embryos as well as in the expression of pluripotency markers in the Day-7 resulting embryos. Cloned blastocysts were generated from five cell lines that expressed OCT4. Pools of blastocysts were screened to detect OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG by qPCR. In vitro-fertilized time-matched blastocysts were used as controls. The development potential was assessed on the basis of blastocysts rate; grading and total cell counts at Day 7. OCT4 expression in the cell lines positively correlates with blastocysts rate (r = 0.92; p = 0.02), number of grade I blastocysts (r = 0.96; p = 0.01), and total cell number (r = 0.98; p = 0.002). The high expression of OCT4 in the cell line did not improve the final outcome of cloning. Somatic expression of OCT4 lead to increased expression of OCT4 and SOX2 in cloned grade I blastocysts; however, there was a bigger variability in OCT4 and SOX2 (p = 0.03; p = 0.02) expression in the embryos generated from cells expressing highest levels of OCT4. Probably the higher variability in OCT4 expression in cloned embryos is due to incorrect reprogramming and incapability of the oocyte to correct for higher OCT4 levels. For that reason, we concluded that OCT4 expression in somatic cells is not a good prognosis marker for selecting cell lines. PMID:23846396

Rodríguez-Alvarez, Lleretny; Manriquez, Jose; Velasquez, Alejandra; Castro, Fidel Ovidio

2013-10-01

120

Inducible but Not Constitutive Expression of PD-L1 in Human Melanoma Cells Is Dependent on Activation of NF-?B  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies against immune checkpoint blockade have proven to be a major success in the treatment of melanoma. The programmed death receptor-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression on melanoma cells is believed to have an inhibitory effect on T cell responses and to be an important escape mechanism from immune attack. Previous studies have shown that PD-L1 can be expressed constitutively or can be induced by IFN-? secreted by infiltrating lymphocytes. In the present study we have investigated the mechanism underlying these two modes of PD-L1 expression in melanoma cells including cells that had acquired resistance to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. PD-L1 expression was examined by flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Specific inhibitors and siRNA knockdown approaches were used to examine the roles of the RAF/ MEK, PI3K, NF-?B, STAT3 and AP1/ c-Jun pathways. IFN-? inducible expression of PD-L1 was dependent on NF-?B as shown by inhibition with BMS-345541, an inhibitor of I?B and the BET protein inhibitor I-BET151, as well as by siRNA knockdown of NF-?B subunits. We were unable to implicate the BRAF/MEK pathway as major regulators in PD-L1 expression on vemurafenib resistant cells. Similarly the PI3K/AKT pathway and the transcription factors STAT3 and c-Jun had only minor roles in IFN-? induced expression of PD-L1. The mechanism underlying constitutive expression remains unresolved. We suggest these results have significance in selection of treatments that can be used in combination with monoclonal antibodies against PD1, to enhance their effectiveness and to reduce inhibitory effects melanoma cells have against cytotoxic T cell activity. PMID:25844720

Gowrishankar, Kavitha; Gunatilake, Dilini; Gallagher, Stuart J.; Tiffen, Jessamy; Rizos, Helen; Hersey, Peter

2015-01-01

121

Constitution Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone could use a bit of the Constitution added to their daily lives, and this website more than delivers on its promise to deliver "smart conversation about the Constitution". Constitution Daily is an experimental blog edited by the National Constitution Center (NCC) in Philadelphia, and commentary here can include conversations about student privacy rights, the Second Amendment, and the activities of Congress. Visitors can click on the "Issues" section to dive into topic areas that include civility and privacy. After looking at each topic area, visitors can look at an interactive timeline that arranges comments, posts, and discussion on the subject. The site also contains some nice polls, and information about upcoming events at the NCC.

122

Constitutive knox1 gene expression in dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale , Web.) changes leaf morphology from simple to compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed plants with compound leaves constitute a polyphyletic group, but studies of diverse taxa show that genes of the class 1 KNOTTED-LIKE HOMEOBOX (KNOX1) family are often involved in compound leaf development. This suggests that knox1 genes have been recruited on multiple occasions during angiosperm evolution (Bharathan et al. in Science 296:1858–1860, 2002). In agreement with this, we demonstrate that

Kai J. Müller; Xinqiang He; Rainer Fischer; Dirk Prüfer

2006-01-01

123

Constitutive expression of B7-1 (CD80) on mouse keratinocytes does not prevent development of chemically induced skin papillomas and carcinomas.  

PubMed

Expression of the B7-1 (CD80) costimulatory molecule in a variety of tumor cell lines leads to an enhanced CD8+ T cell response to tumor Ags. We used transgenic mice constitutively expressing B7-1 on keratinocytes (K14/B7-1 line) to determine whether keratinocyte B7-1 expression would inhibit the development of papillomas and carcinomas following two-stage chemical carcinogenesis in skin. FVB inbred mice carrying the K14/B7-1 transgene and controls were initiated with 25 micrograms of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and promoted weekly with 5 micrograms of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for 20 wk. Expression of the B7-1 transgene did not result in statistically significant decreases in the mean number of papillomas or carcinomas compared with controls. The incidence of carcinomas in both transgenic and control mice reached 90% or greater by 60 wk after initiation. Carcinoma cell lines established from the K14/B7-1 mice maintained expression of B7-1 and Kq. These B7-1 expressing carcinomas grew progressively following intradermal injection into syngeneic FVB mice, further demonstrating their inability to evoke protective tumor immunity. These same carcinoma cell lines were rapidly rejected by minor alloantigen-mismatched SWR mice, confirming their susceptibility to immune effector mechanisms. The failure of constitutive B7-1 expression on keratinocytes to prevent the growth of squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas may reflect the limited immunogenicity of tumors arising after initiation-promotion carcinogenesis. Our results in this transgenic model system are further evidence that B7-1 gene therapy alone may not be sufficient to induce protective immunity to some types of tumors. PMID:8617964

Williams, I R; Ort, R J; Daley, D; Manning, L; Karaoli, T; Barnhill, R L; Kupper, T S

1996-05-01

124

Constitutive c-myb expression in K562 cells inhibits induced erythroid differentiation but not tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate-induced megakaryocytic differentiation.  

PubMed Central

K562 cells were stably transfected with a plasmid vector constitutively expressing a full-length human c-myb gene. Parental cells possess the dual potential of inducibility of cellular differentiation along two lineages, i.e., erythroid and megakaryocytic. The resulting lineage is dependent on the inducing agent, with a number of compounds being competent to various degrees for inducing erythroid differentiation, while the tumor promoter tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) induces a macrophage-like morphology with enhanced expression of proteins associated with megakaryocytes. Exogeneous expression of c-myb in transfected cell lines abrogated erythroid differentiation induced by cadaverine or cytosine arabinoside as assessed by hemoglobin production. However, TPA-induced megakaryocytic differentiation was left intact, as assessed by cell morphology, cytochemical staining, and the expression of the megakaryocytic antigens. These results indicate that c-Myb and protein kinase C play important roles in cellular differentiation of K562 cells and suggest that agents which directly modulate protein kinase C can induce differentiation in spite of constitutively high levels of c-Myb. PMID:7823945

Rosson, D; O'Brien, T G

1995-01-01

125

Cis- and trans-acting elements required for constitutive and cytokine-regulated expression of the mouse complement C3 gene.  

PubMed Central

The third component of complement (C3) is an important mediator of inflammation. Murine and human genomic cosmid clones were isolated, characterized and sequenced 5' to the complement C3 gene transcriptional initiation sites to determine cis elements that participate in constitutive and regulated C3 gene expression. The murine and human 5' flanking regions are 51% identical overall, with positions -36 to -1 and -146 to -68 showing 80% identity. Four TATA boxes were identified upstream of the murine transcriptional initiation site, but deletion and transfection analysis using reporter gene constructs in HepG2 cells indicated that only the TATA element at position -30, together with sequences -395 to -111, are essential for constitutive expression of murine C3 in hepatocytes. Deletion analysis also suggested that sequences between -1457 and -800 contain regulatory elements that are involved in suppressing basal expression. Sequences between -90 to -41 confer both enhancer activity and interleukin-1/-6 (IL-1/IL-6)-responsiveness. Mutation analyses showed that both sequences between -88 and -83 and -77 to -72 are essential for enhancer activity and responsiveness to IL-1, but only sequences between -88 and -83 are necessary for IL-6-responsiveness. A gel-retardation assay showed that several nucleoproteins, perhaps of the C/EBP family, from HepG2 cells bound to sequences between -88 to -83. Collectively, these results localize cis-acting elements involved in constitutive and IL-1/IL-6-regulated murine C3 gene expression and provide evidence for specific transacting factors. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1590761

Kawamura, N; Singer, L; Wetsel, R A; Colten, H R

1992-01-01

126

Prostacyclin Synthase: Upregulation during Renal Development and in Glomerular Disease as well as Its Constitutive Expression in Cultured Human Mesangial Cells  

PubMed Central

Prostacyclin (PGI2) plays a critical role in nephrogenesis and renal physiology. However, our understanding of how prostacyclin release in the kidney is regulated remains poorly defined. We studied expression of prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) in developing and adult human kidneys, and also in selected pediatric renal diseases. We also examined PGI2 formation in human mesangial cells in vitro. We observed abundant expression of PGIS in the nephrogenic cortex in humans and in situ hybridization revealed an identical pattern in mice. In the normal adult kidney, PGIS-immunoreactive protein and mRNA appear to localize to mesangial fields and endothelial and smooth muscle cells of arteries and peritubular capillaries. In kidney biopsies taken from pediatric patients, enhanced expression of PGIS-immunoreactive protein was noted mainly in endothelial cells of patients with IgA-nephropathy. Cultured human mesangial cells produce primarily PGI2 and prostaglandin E2, followed by prostaglandin F2? Cytokine stimulation increased PGI2 formation 24-fold. Under these conditions expression of PGIS mRNA and protein remained unaltered whereas mRNA for cyclooxygenase-2 was markedly induced. In contrast to its constitutive expression in vitro, renal expression of prostacyclin-synthase appears to be regulated both during development and in glomerular disease. Further research is needed to identify the factors involved in regulation of PGIS-expression. PMID:25684863

Klaus, Günther

2015-01-01

127

Prostacyclin synthase: upregulation during renal development and in glomerular disease as well as its constitutive expression in cultured human mesangial cells.  

PubMed

Prostacyclin (PGI2) plays a critical role in nephrogenesis and renal physiology. However, our understanding of how prostacyclin release in the kidney is regulated remains poorly defined. We studied expression of prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) in developing and adult human kidneys, and also in selected pediatric renal diseases. We also examined PGI2 formation in human mesangial cells in vitro. We observed abundant expression of PGIS in the nephrogenic cortex in humans and in situ hybridization revealed an identical pattern in mice. In the normal adult kidney, PGIS-immunoreactive protein and mRNA appear to localize to mesangial fields and endothelial and smooth muscle cells of arteries and peritubular capillaries. In kidney biopsies taken from pediatric patients, enhanced expression of PGIS-immunoreactive protein was noted mainly in endothelial cells of patients with IgA-nephropathy. Cultured human mesangial cells produce primarily PGI2 and prostaglandin E2, followed by prostaglandin F2 ? Cytokine stimulation increased PGI2 formation 24-fold. Under these conditions expression of PGIS mRNA and protein remained unaltered whereas mRNA for cyclooxygenase-2 was markedly induced. In contrast to its constitutive expression in vitro, renal expression of prostacyclin-synthase appears to be regulated both during development and in glomerular disease. Further research is needed to identify the factors involved in regulation of PGIS-expression. PMID:25684863

Klein, Thomas; Klaus, Günther; Kömhoff, Martin

2015-01-01

128

Constitution Annotated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What exactly does the United States Constitution mean? It is subject, of course, to ongoing meditation, debate, argument, and interpretation. This useful site provides one lens of interpretation of the Constitution, based primarily on Supreme Court case law and legal analysis. Visitors can look over each section of the Constitution individually, including all of the articles and amendments. Additionally, the site contains a complete table of Supreme Court cases, along with those cases that have been overruled as well as proposed amendments that have not been ratified. Additionally, the site contains a gallery of significant primary source documents from American history. Interested users should not forget to download the helpful app that is also included here.

2013-06-26

129

Physiological effects of constitutive expression of Oilseed Rape Mosaic Tobamovirus (ORMV) movement protein in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movement proteins (MPs) are non-cell autonomous viral-encoded proteins that assist viruses in their cell-to-cell movement. The MP encoded by Tobamoviruses is the best characterized example among MPs of non-tubule-inducing plant RNA viruses. The MP of Oilseed Rape Mosaic Tobamovirus (ORMV) was transgenically expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, ecotype RLD, under the expression of the 35S promoter from Cauliflower Mosaic Virus. Transgenic lines

Carmen Mansilla; Isabel Aguilar; David Martínez-Herrera; Flora Sánchez; Fernando Ponz

2006-01-01

130

Display of heterologous proteins on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae surface display system using a single constitutive expression vector.  

PubMed

In this study, we constructed a novel and simple yeast surface display system with a single expression vector. The newly established system uses a bidirectional expression vector carrying the AGA1 gene driven by the PGK1 promoter in one direction and the AGA2-expression cassette driven by the TEF1 promoter in the reverse direction, and uses the geneticin, a G418-resistant gene, as the selection marker for transformants. Because all the display elements are put into one expression vector, the new system is much simpler to use, and there is no need for any genetic modification of the host strains; therefore, the new system can be used in wild type as well as laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The display efficiency of heterologous proteins using the new system has been confirmed by displaying enhanced green fluorescent protein and Eimeria tenella (a chicken protozoan parasite) microneme protein2 (EtMic2) on several S. cerevisiae strains. We also tested the new system with an aga2 mutant strain of S. cerevisiae. The results indicate that the native expressed Aga2 protein has no effect on the display efficiency of heterologous proteins. PMID:24851254

Sun, Hui; Wang, Tiantian; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Qing; Wang, Longjiang; Chen, Peipei; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaomin

2014-01-01

131

Human eosinophils constitutively express multiple Th1, Th2, and immunoregulatory cytokines that are secreted rapidly and differentially  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are innate immune leukocytes implicated in the initiation and maintenance of type 2 immune responses, including asthma and allergy. The ability to store and rapidly secrete preformed cytokines distinguishes eosinophils from most lymphocytes, which must synthesize cytokine proteins prior to secretion and may be a factor in the apparent Th2 bias of eosinophils. Multiple studies confirm that human eosinophils from atopic or hypereosinophilic donors can secrete over 30 cytokines with a varying and often opposing immune-polarizing potential. However, it remains unclear whether all of these cytokines are constitutively preformed and available for rapid secretion from eosinophils in the circulation of healthy individuals or are restricted to eosinophils from atopic donors. Likewise, the relative concentrations of cytokines stored within eosinophils have not been studied. Here, we demonstrate that human blood eosinophils are not singularly outfitted with Th2-associated cytokines but rather, constitutively store a cache of cytokines with nominal Th1, Th2, and regulatory capacities, including IL-4, IL-13, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-?, and TNF-?. We demonstrate further rapid and differential release of each cytokine in response to specific stimuli. As agonists, strong Th1 and inflammatory cytokines elicited release of Th2-promoting IL-4 but not Th1-inducing IL-12. Moreover, a large quantity of IFN-? was secreted in response to Th1, Th2, and inflammatory stimuli. Delineations of the multifarious nature of preformed eosinophil cytokines and the varied stimulus-dependent profiles of rapid cytokine secretion provide insights into the functions of human eosinophils in mediating inflammation and initiation of specific immunity. PMID:18840671

Spencer, Lisa A.; Szela, Craig T.; Perez, Sandra A. C.; Kirchhoffer, Casey L.; Neves, Josiane S.; Radke, Amy L.; Weller, Peter F.

2009-01-01

132

Rat lymphoid cell lines producing human T cell leukemia virus. II. Constitutive expression of rat interleukin 2 receptor  

PubMed Central

Three rat lymphoid cell lines (TARS-1, TARL-2, and TART-1) (12) transformed by human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus I (HTLV-I) had rearrangement of the beta chain gene of the T cell antigen receptor, and had integrated proviral DNA from HTLV-I in their genomes. As is the case with adult T cell leukemia (ATL)-derived human T cell lines transformed by HTLV-I, these rat cell lines unequivocally expressed interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, as determined by radiolabeled IL-2 binding. By Scatchard plot analysis, one of the cell lines, TART-1, proved to have high affinity receptors (Ka = 1.3 X 10(11)/M and 8.8 X 10(9)/M). Rat IL-2 receptor, not human IL-2 receptor, was expressed on HTLV+ rat cell lines, as demonstrated by the fact that they expressed antigens reactive with monoclonal antibodies (ART-18) against rat IL-2 receptor, but not with anti-Tac antibodies. The collective evidence indicates that the endogenous IL-2 receptor gene is activated in human and rat lymphoid cell lines with HTLV-I production. The mechanism of abnormal IL-2 receptor expression in HTLV infection is discussed. PMID:2985731

1985-01-01

133

Cell, Vol. 93, 12071217, June 26, 1998, Copyright 1998 by Cell Press Constitutive Expression of the CIRCADIAN CLOCK  

E-print Network

of the CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) Gene Disrupts Circadian Rhythms and Suppresses Its Own Expression of the circadian oscillator also supports a central role of the Zhi-Yong Wang and Elaine M. Tobin* Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology UCLA Los Angeles, California 90095-1606 circadian clock in light

Tobin, Elaine

134

Transposon-mediated alteration of TaMATE1B expression in wheat confers constitutive citrate efflux from root apices.  

PubMed

The TaMATE1B gene (for multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) was isolated and shown to encode a citrate transporter that is located on the plasma membrane. TaMATE1B expression in roots was induced by iron deficiency but not by phosphorus deficiency or aluminum treatment. The coding region of TaMATE1B was identical in a genotype showing citrate efflux from root apices (cv Carazinho) to one that lacked citrate efflux (cv Egret). However, sequence upstream of the coding region differed between these two genotypes in two ways. The first difference was a single-nucleotide polymorphism located approximately 2 kb upstream from the start codon in cv Egret. The second difference was an 11.1-kb transposon-like element located 25 bp upstream of the start codon in cv Carazinho that was absent from cv Egret. The influence of these polymorphisms on TaMATE1B expression was investigated using fusions to green fluorescent protein expressed in transgenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa). Fluorescence measurements in roots of rice indicated that 1.5- and 2.3-kb regions upstream of TaMATE1B in cv Carazinho (which incorporated 3' regions of the transposon-like element) generated 20-fold greater expression in the apical 1 mm of root compared with the native promoter in cv Egret. By contrast, fluorescence in more mature tissues was similar in both cultivars. The presence of the single-nucleotide polymorphism alone consistently generated 2-fold greater fluorescence than the cv Egret promoter. We conclude that the transposon-like element in cv Carazinho extends TaMATE1B expression to the root apex, where it confers citrate efflux and enhanced aluminum tolerance. PMID:23204428

Tovkach, Andriy; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E; Lewis, David C; Rathjen, Tina M; Ramesh, Sunita; Tyerman, Stephen D; Delhaize, Emmanuel

2013-02-01

135

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (STAT3) Is Constitutively Activated in Normal, Self-renewing B-1 Cells but Only Inducibly Expressed in Conventional B Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Cytokine and growth factor receptor engagement leads to the rapid phosphorylation and activation of latent, cytosolic signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins, which then translocate to the nucleus where they regulate transcriptional events from specific promoter sequences. STAT3 expression in particular has been associated with Abl, Src, and HTLV-1 transformation of normal cells. B-1 lymphocytes are self-renewing, CD5+ B cells that display a propensity for malignant transformation and are the normal counterpart to human chronic lymphocytic leukemias. Further, B-1 cells are characterized by aberrant intracellular signaling, including hyperresponsiveness to phorbol ester PKC agonists. Here we demonstrate that B-1 lymphocytes constitutively express nuclear activated STAT3, which is not expressed by unmanipulated conventional (B-2) lymphocytes. In contrast, STAT3 activation is induced in B-2 cells after antigen receptor engagement in a delayed fashion (after 3 h). Induction of STAT3 is inhibited by both the serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor H-7 and the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin and requires de novo protein synthesis, demonstrating novel coupling between sIg and STAT proteins that differs from the classical paradigm for STAT induction by cytokine receptors. The inability of prolonged stimulation of conventional B-2 cells with anti-Ig, a treatment sufficient to induce CD5 expression, to result in sustained STAT3 activation suggests that STAT3 is a specific nuclear marker for B-1 cells. Thus, STAT3 may play a role in B cell antigen-specific signaling responses, and its constitutive activation is associated with a normal cell population exhibiting intrinsic proliferative behavior. PMID:9091577

Karras, James G.; Wang, Zihua; Huo, Li; Howard, Robert G.; Frank, David A.; Rothstein, Thomas L.

1997-01-01

136

Constitutive Smad signaling and Smad-dependent collagen gene expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}  

SciTech Connect

Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}), a potent inducer of collagen synthesis, is implicated in pathological fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates adipogenesis and numerous other biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that collagen gene expression was markedly elevated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking PPAR-{gamma} compared to heterozygous control MEFs. Treatment with the PPAR-{gamma} ligand 15d-PGJ{sub 2} failed to down-regulate collagen gene expression in PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs, whereas reconstitution of these cells with ectopic PPAR-{gamma} resulted in their normalization. Compared to control MEFs, PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs displayed elevated levels of the Type I TGF-{beta} receptor (T{beta}RI), and secreted more TGF-{beta}1 into the media. Furthermore, PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs showed constitutive phosphorylation of cellular Smad2 and Smad3, even in the absence of exogenous TGF-{beta}, which was abrogated by the ALK5 inhibitor SB431542. Constitutive Smad2/3 phosphorylation in PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs was associated with Smad3 binding to its cognate DNA recognition sequences, and interaction with coactivator p300 previously implicated in TGF-{beta} responses. Taken together, these results indicate that loss of PPAR-{gamma} in MEFs is associated with upregulation of collagen synthesis, and activation of intracellular Smad signal transduction, due, at least in part, to autocrine TGF-{beta} stimulation.

Ghosh, Asish K [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, 240 East Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)], E-mail: a-ghosh2@northwestern.edu; Wei, Jun; Wu, Minghua [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, 240 East Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Varga, John [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, 240 East Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)], E-mail: j-varga@northwestern.edu

2008-09-19

137

Constitutive expression of the xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III delays Fusarium head blight symptoms in durum wheat transgenic plants.  

PubMed

Cereals contain xylanase inhibitor (XI) proteins which inhibit microbial xylanases and are considered part of the defense mechanisms to counteract microbial pathogens. Nevertheless, in planta evidence for this role has not been reported yet. Therefore, we produced a number of transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing TAXI-III, a member of the TAXI type XI that is induced by pathogen infection. Results showed that TAXI-III endows the transgenic wheat with new inhibition capacities. We also showed that TAXI-III is correctly secreted into the apoplast and possesses the expected inhibition parameters against microbial xylanases. The new inhibition properties of the transgenic plants correlate with a significant delay of Fusarium head blight disease symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum but do not significantly influence leaf spot symptoms caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. We showed that this contrasting result can be due to the different capacity of TAXI-III to inhibit the xylanase activity of these two fungal pathogens. These results provide, for the first time, clear evidence in planta that XI are involved in plant defense against fungal pathogens and show the potential to manipulate TAXI-III accumulation to improve wheat resistance against F. graminearum. PMID:23945000

Moscetti, Ilaria; Tundo, Silvio; Janni, Michela; Sella, Luca; Gazzetti, Katia; Tauzin, Alexandra; Giardina, Thierry; Masci, Stefania; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

2013-12-01

138

Constitutive expression of mustard annexin, AnnBj1 enhances abiotic stress tolerance and fiber quality in cotton under stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annexins belong to a multigene family of Ca2+ dependent, phospholipid and cytoskeleton binding proteins. They have been shown to be upregulated under various stress conditions.\\u000a We generated transgenic cotton plants expressing mustard annexin (AnnBj1), which showed enhanced tolerance towards different abiotic stress treatments like sodium chloride, mannitol, polyethylene\\u000a glycol and hydrogen peroxide. The tolerance to these treatments was associated with

Kesanakurti Divya; S. K. Jami; P. B. Kirti

2010-01-01

139

Ectopic expression of CsCTR1, a cucumber CTR-like gene, attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant and expression pattern analysis of CsCTR1 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).  

PubMed

The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1) is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1) was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant CTR1 proteins. The ectopic expression of CsCTR1 in the Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling of this mutant, suggesting that CsCTR1 indeed performs its function as negative regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. CsCTR1 is constitutively expressed in all of the examined cucumber organs, including roots, stems, leaves, shoot apices, mature male and female flowers, as well as young fruits. CsCTR1 expression gradually declined during male flower development and increased during female flower development. Additionally, our results indicate that CsCTR1 can be induced in the roots, leaves and shoot apices by external ethylene. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for further studies on the role of CTR1 in the biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway. PMID:25226540

Bie, Beibei; Sun, Jin; Pan, Junsong; He, Huanle; Cai, Run

2014-01-01

140

Ectopic Expression of CsCTR1, a Cucumber CTR-Like Gene, Attenuates Constitutive Ethylene Signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 Mutant and Expression Pattern Analysis of CsCTR1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)  

PubMed Central

The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1) is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1) was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant CTR1 proteins. The ectopic expression of CsCTR1 in the Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling of this mutant, suggesting that CsCTR1 indeed performs its function as negative regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. CsCTR1 is constitutively expressed in all of the examined cucumber organs, including roots, stems, leaves, shoot apices, mature male and female flowers, as well as young fruits. CsCTR1 expression gradually declined during male flower development and increased during female flower development. Additionally, our results indicate that CsCTR1 can be induced in the roots, leaves and shoot apices by external ethylene. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for further studies on the role of CTR1 in the biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway. PMID:25226540

Bie, Beibei; Sun, Jin; Pan, Junsong; He, Huanle; Cai, Run

2014-01-01

141

Establishment of Stably Transfected Cells Constitutively Expressing the Full-Length and Truncated Antigenic Proteins of Two Genetically Distinct Mink Astroviruses  

PubMed Central

Astroviruses are becoming a growing concern in veterinary and public health. To date there are no registered vaccines against astrovirus-induced disease, mostly due to the difficulty to cultivate astroviruses to high titer for vaccine development using conventional techniques. As means to circumvent this drawback, we have developed stably transfected mink fetal cells and BHK21 cells constitutively expressing the full-length and truncated capsid proteins of two distinct genotypes of mink astrovirus. Protein expression in these stably transfected cells was demonstrated by strong signals as evaluated by in-situ PLA and IFA, and confirmed by Western blotting. The recombinant full-length and truncated proteins induced a high level of antibodies in mink, evaluated by ELISA, demonstrating their immunogenicity. In a challenge experiment in mink, a reduction in presentation clinical signs and virus shedding was observed in mink kits born from immunized females. The gene integration and protein expression were sustained through cell passage, showing that the used approach is robust and reliable for expression of functional capsid proteins for vaccine and diagnostic applications. PMID:24376619

Bidokhti, Mehdi R. M.; Ullman, Karin; Jensen, Trine H.; Chriél, Mariann; Mottahedin, Amin; Munir, Muhammad; Andersson, Anna Maria; Detournay, Olivier; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Baule, Claudia

2013-01-01

142

Enhancement of stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing AtIpk2?, an inositol polyphosphate 6-/3-kinase from Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Inositol phosphates (IPs) and their turnover products have been implicated to play important roles in stress signaling in eukaryotic cells. In higher plants genes encoding inositol polyphosphate kinases have been identified previously, but their physiological functions have not been fully resolved. Here we expressed Arabidopsis inositol polyphosphate 6-/3-kinase (AtIpk2?) in two heterologous systems, i.e. the yeast Saccharomycescerevisiae and in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and tested the effect on abiotic stress tolerance. Expression of AtIpk2? rescued the salt-, osmotic- and temperature-sensitive growth defects of a yeast mutant strain (arg82?) that lacks inositol polyphosphate multikinase activity encoded by the ARG82/IPK2 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing AtIpk2? under the control of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter were generated and found to exhibit improved tolerance to diverse abiotic stresses when compared to wild type plants. Expression patterns of various stress responsive genes were enhanced, and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were elevated in transgenic plants, suggesting a possible involvement of AtIpk2? in plant stress responses. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11103-007-9267-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18165921

Yang, Lei; Tang, Renjie; Zhu, Jinqi; Liu, Hua; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Xia, Huijun

2007-01-01

143

Constitutive expression of the SAP1 gene from willow (Salix discolor) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

SAP1-1 and SAP1-2 were isolated from the male reproductive buds of willow (Salix discolor, clone S365). SAP1-1 differs from SAP1-2 based on a few nucleotide substitutions, but the sizes of their full-length cDNAs are identical. The deduced amino acid sequences of SAP1-1 and SAP1-2 were 98% similar and contain the same C-terminal amino acid motif "GYGA" like that of PTAP1-2 from Populus trichocarpa. The expression patterns of SAP1 in various parts of the male reproductive buds of S. discolor implicate this gene in the formation of the inflorescence meristems, bracts, and floral meristems. To characterize the functions of SAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with 35S: :SAP1-1. A total of 52 transgenic T1 lines were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio was obtained in the T2 generation of each line. In the T3 generation, five homozygous transgenic lines were obtained, which were used for further analysis. Screening of transgenic lines was greatly facilitated by the detection of GFP expression starting with germinating seeds. Phenotypes of the homozygous transgenic lines included early flowering, conversion of inflorescence branches to solitary flowers, formation of terminal flowers, and formation of flowers with greater number of petals, stamens, and pistils. Northern analysis showed similar expression levels in all five lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an APETALA1 (AP1)/SQUAMOSA (SQUA) homolog from a dioecious species and suggests that SAP1 is a homolog of the AP1/SQUA gene. PMID:16228224

Fernando, Danilo D; Zhang, Shiliang

2006-01-01

144

Constitutive expression of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) protein by human amniotic membrane cells leads to formation of the heavy chain (HC)-hyaluronan (HA)-PTX3 complex.  

PubMed

Heavy chain (HC)-hyaluronan (HA), a complex formed by the covalent linkage between HC1 from the inter-?-trypsin inhibitor (I?I) and HA, purified from the human amniotic membrane (AM), is responsible for the anti-inflammatory, antiscarring, and antiangiogenic actions of the AM. This HC-HA complex is produced by constitutive expression of TNF-stimulated gene 6 and endogenous production of I?I by AM cells. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a prototypic long pentraxin that plays a non-redundant role in innate immunity against selected pathogens, also helps stabilize HC-HA to ensure female fertility. Here we noted strong positive PTX3 staining in the AM epithelium and compact stroma. PTX3 was constitutively expressed and secreted by cultured AM epithelial and stromal cells and, further, greatly up-regulated by TNF and IL-1?. Using an agarose overlay to trap the HA-containing matrix, the HC-HA-PTX3 complex was formed, as analyzed by Western blot analysis, by AM cells but not human skin fibroblasts, despite being cultured in the presence of serum and TNF. However, exogenous PTX3 helps human skin fibroblasts form the HC-HA-PTX3 complex with an agarose overlay. Furthermore, PTX3 can be coimmunoprecipitated with the HC-HA complex from agarose-overlaid AM cell extracts by an anti-human I?I antibody. Such a HC-HA-PTX3 complex can be reconstituted in vitro and exhibit similar effects as those reported for AM HC-HA-PTX3 on polarization of M2 macrophages. The tight binding between PTX3 and AM HC-HA withstands four runs of CsCl ultracentrifugation in the presence of 4 m GnHCl. These results indicate that PTX3 is constitutively expressed and secreted by AM cells as an integral component of the AM HC-HA-PTX3 complex and contributes to the biological function of AM HC-HA-PTX3. PMID:24652286

Zhang, Suzhen; Zhu, Ying-Ting; Chen, Szu-Yu; He, Hua; Tseng, Scheffer C G

2014-05-01

145

The TLR4 D299G and T399I SNPs Are Constitutively Active to Up-Regulate Expression of Trif-Dependent Genes  

PubMed Central

Dysregulated Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) signalling and genetic polymorphisms in these proteins are linked to many human diseases. We investigated TLR4 functional variants D299G and T399I to assess the impact on LPS-induced responsiveness in comparison to wild-type TLR4. The mechanism by which this occurs in unclear as these SNPs do not lie within the lipid A binding domain or dimerisation sites of the LPS-TLR4/MD2 receptor complexes. Transfection of TLR4D299G, TLR4T399I or TLR4D299G. T399I into HEK cells resulted in constitutive activation of an NF-?B reporter gene and a blunting of the LPS-induced reporter activation compared to WT-TLR4. Unstimulated human monocyte/macrophages, from patients with the D299G and T399I SNPs demonstrated a downregulation of many genes, particularly Tram/Trif signalling pathway constitutents compared to the TLR4 wild-type subjects supporting the concept of basal receptor activity. Monocyte/macrophages from carriers of the TLR4 D299G and T399I polymorphisms stimulated with LPS showed >6 fold lower levels of NF-?B and ?12 fold higher IFN-? gene expression levels compared to wild-type subjects (P<0.05; MWU test) and dramatically altered resultant cytokine profiles. We conclude that these TLR4 SNPs affect constitutive receptor activity which impacts on the hosts ability to respond to LPS challenge leading to a dysregulated sub-optimal immune response to infection. PMID:25365308

Hold, Georgina L.; Berry, Susan; Saunders, Karin A.; Drew, Janice; Mayer, Claus; Brookes, Heather; Gay, Nick J.; El-Omar, Emad M.; Bryant, Clare E.

2014-01-01

146

Molecular cloning and characterization of PtrLAR3, a gene encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase from Populus trichocarpa, and its constitutive expression enhances fungal resistance in transgenic plants  

PubMed Central

The flavonoid-derived proanthocyanidins (PAs) are one class of the major defence phenolics in poplar leaves. Transcriptional activation of PA biosynthetic genes, resulting in PA accumulation in leaves, was detected following infection by the fungal Marssonina brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi using digital gene expression analysis. In order to study PA biosynthesis and its induction by fungi, a putative leucoanthocyanidin reductase gene, PtrLAR3, was isolated from Populus trichocarpa. Sequence comparison of PtrLAR3 with other known leucoanthocyanidin reductase proteins revealed high amino acid sequence similarity. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription (RT) PCR and quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that PtrLAR3 was expressed in various tissues and the highest level of expression was observed in roots. Overexpression of PtrLAR3 in Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.) led to a significant plant-wide increase in PA levels. In vitro assays showed that crude leaf extracts from 35S:PtrLAR3 transformants were able to inhibit significantly the hyphal growth of M. brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi compared to the extracts from control plants. The transgenic 35S:PtrLAR3 poplar plants displayed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in their disease symptoms compared with the control. RT-PCR analysis showed that PtrLAR3 expression was up-regulated in all transformants. These results suggested that constitutive expression of endogenous PtrLAR3 could be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogens in poplar. PMID:22268151

Yuan, Li; Wang, Lijun; Han, Zujing; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Zhao, Lili; Liu, Hong; Yang, Li; Luo, Keming

2012-01-01

147

Constitutive Production of NF-?B2 p52 Is Not Tumorigenic but Predisposes Mice to Inflammatory Autoimmune Disease by Repressing Bim Expression*  

PubMed Central

Normal development of the immune system requires regulated processing of NF-?B2 p100 to p52, which activates NF-?B2 signaling. Constitutive production of p52 has been suggested as a major mechanism underlying lymphomagenesis induced by NF-?B2 mutations, which occur recurrently in a variety of human lymphoid malignancies. To test the hypothesis, we generated transgenic mice with targeted expression of p52 in lymphocytes. In contrast to their counterparts expressing the tumor-derived NF-?B2 mutant p80HT, which develop predominantly B cell tumors, p52 transgenic mice are not prone to lymphomagenesis. However, they are predisposed to inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan infiltration of activated lymphocytes, high levels of autoantibodies in the serum, and immune complex glomerulonephritis. p52, but not p80HT, represses Bim expression, leading to defects in apoptotic processes critical for elimination of autoreactive lymphocytes and control of immune response. These findings reveal distinct signaling pathways for actions of NF-?B2 mutants and p52 and suggest a causal role for sustained NF-?B2 activation in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:18281283

Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Baochun; Yang, Liqun; Ding, Jane; Ding, Han-Fei

2008-01-01

148

Selection for low or high primary dormancy in Lolium rigidum Gaud seeds results in constitutive differences in stress protein expression and peroxidase activity  

PubMed Central

Seed dormancy in wild Lolium rigidum Gaud (annual ryegrass) populations is highly variable and not well characterized at the biochemical level. To identify some of the determinants of dormancy level in these seeds, the proteomes of subpopulations selected for low and high levels of primary dormancy were compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts from mature, dry seeds. High-dormancy seeds showed higher expression of small heat shock proteins, enolase, and glyoxalase I than the low-dormancy seeds. The functional relevance of these differences in protein expression was confirmed by the fact that high-dormancy seeds were more tolerant to high temperatures imposed at imbibition and had consistently higher glyoxalase I activity over 0–42?d dark stratification. Higher expression of a putative glutathione peroxidase in low-dormancy seeds was not accompanied by higher activity, but these seeds had a slightly more oxidized glutathione pool and higher total peroxidase activity. Overall, these biochemical and physiological differences suggest that L. rigidum seeds selected for low dormancy are more prepared for rapid germination via peroxidase-mediated cell wall weakening, whilst seeds selected for high dormancy are constitutively prepared to survive environmental stresses, even in the absence of stress during seed development. PMID:20974739

Goggin, Danica E.; Powles, Stephen B.; Steadman, Kathryn J.

2011-01-01

149

Biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic tomatoes by constitutive expression of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene.  

PubMed

Recent findings have implicated the role of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) in stress tolerance. Therefore, the present work was carried out with the goal of generating transgenic tomato plants with human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (samdc) gene, a key gene involved in biosynthesis of polyamines, viz. spermidine and spermine and evaluating the transgenic plants for tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Several putative transgenic tomato plants with normal phenotype were obtained, and the transgene integration and expression was validated by PCR, Southern blot analysis and RT-PCR analysis, respectively. The transgenic plants exhibited high levels of polyamines as compared to the untransformed control plants. They also showed increased resistance against two important fungal pathogens of tomato, the wilt causing Fusarium oxysporum and the early blight causing Alternaria solani and tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, cold and high temperature. These results suggest that engineering polyamine accumulation can confer tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. PMID:23573001

Hazarika, Pranjal; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

2011-04-01

150

Yeast GMP kinase mutants constitutively express AMP biosynthesis genes by phenocopying a hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase defect.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized a new locus, BRA3, leading to deregulation of the yeast purine synthesis genes (ADE genes). We show that bra3 mutations are alleles of the GUK1 gene, which encodes GMP kinase. The bra3 mutants have a low GMP kinase activity, excrete purines in the medium, and show vegetative growth defects and resistance to purine base analogs. The bra3 locus also corresponds to the previously described pur5 locus. Several lines of evidence indicate that the decrease in GMP kinase activity in the bra3 mutants results in GMP accumulation and feedback inhibition of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT), encoded by the HPT1 gene. First, guk1 and hpt1 mutants share several phenotypes, such as adenine derepression, purine excretion, and 8-azaguanine resistance. Second, overexpression of HPT1 allows suppression of the deregulated phenotype of the guk1 mutants. Third, we show that purified yeast HGPRT is inhibited by GMP in vitro. Finally, incorporation of hypoxanthine into nucleotides is similarly diminished in hpt1 and guk1 mutants in vivo. We conclude that the decrease in GMP kinase activity in the guk1 mutants results in deregulation of the ADE gene expression by phenocopying a defect in HGPRT. The possible occurrence of a similar phenomenon in humans is discussed. PMID:11063676

Lecoq, K; Konrad, M; Daignan-Fornier, B

2000-01-01

151

Constitutively Opa-Expressing and Opa-Deficient Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains Differentially Stimulate and Survive Exposure to Human Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

The Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus [Gc]) opacity-associated (Opa) proteins mediate bacterial binding and internalization by human epithelial cells and neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]). Investigating the contribution of Opa proteins to gonococcal pathogenesis is complicated by high-frequency phase variation of the opa genes. We therefore engineered a derivative of Gc strain FA1090 in which all opa genes were deleted in frame, termed Opaless. Opaless Gc remained uniformly Opa negative (Opa?), whereas cultures of predominantly Opa? parental Gc and an intermediate lacking the “translucent” subset of opa genes (?opaBEGK) stochastically gave rise to Opa-positive (Opa+) bacterial colonies. Loss of Opa expression did not affect Gc growth. Opaless Gc survived exposure to primary human PMNs and suppressed the PMN oxidative burst akin to parental, Opa? bacteria. Notably, unopsonized Opaless Gc was internalized by adherent, chemokine-primed, primary human PMNs, by an actin-dependent process. When a non-phase-variable, in-frame allele of FA1090 opaD was reintroduced into Opaless Gc, the bacteria induced the PMN oxidative burst, and OpaD+ Gc survived less well after exposure to PMNs compared to Opa? bacteria. These derivatives provide a robust system for assessing the role of Opa proteins in Gc biology. PMID:23625842

Ball, Louise M.

2013-01-01

152

The Constitution Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new addition to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) Digital Classroom site (see the November 18, 199 Scout Report for Social Sciences), the Constitution Community is a partnership between classroom teachers and education specialists from the NARA. Like other Digital Classroom projects, the Constitution Community offers sample lesson plans, correlated to the National History Standards, that make use of original documents and images from American history. In addition to the lesson plan, each also includes background information, a number of suggested teaching activities, and its connection to the US Constitution The lessons are grouped by eight historical eras, covering the American Revolution to the Great Depression to the Civil Rights Act. Highlights include The Growth of Regionalism, The Civil War as Photographed by Mathew Brady, FDR's First Inaugural Address: Declaring "War" on the Great Depression, and the Founding Documents of the Peace Corps.

153

Constitution, 15 August 1982.  

PubMed

This document reprints major provisions of the 1982 Constitution of Equatorial Guinea. The Constitution calls for protection of the family as the basic building block of society. Foreigners are afforded the same civil rights as citizens and may seek asylum but may not exercise political rights. The Constitution guarantees equality before the law and prohibits discrimination based on ethnic background, race, sex, language, religion, filiation, political or other views, social origin, economic position, or birth. Women are afforded the same rights as men regardless of their marital status. The Constitution also guarantees citizens freedom to travel nationally and internationally and to choose a place of residence. Equatoguineans are also entitled to a standard of living that insures health, nutrition, education, clothing, housing, medical care, and necessary social services. The family policy contained in the Constitution protects all types of legal marriages equally and recognizes nonattachable and inalienable family patrimony. Children are protected from the time of conception, and all inhabitants are guaranteed a basic state education which is compulsory and free. Efforts are also being made to eradicate illiteracy. Women are insured training and promotion for their integration into the active life and development of the country, and farmers are guaranteed traditional ownership of the lands they possess, although the state retains the right of eminent domain. PMID:12346662

1987-01-01

154

Acetaminophen Modulates P-Glycoprotein Functional Expression at the Blood-Brain Barrier by a Constitutive Androstane Receptor–Dependent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Effective pharmacologic treatment of pain with opioids requires that these drugs attain efficacious concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A primary determinant of CNS drug permeation is P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an endogenous blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporter that is involved in brain-to-blood transport of opioid analgesics (i.e., morphine). Recently, the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) has been identified as a regulator of P-gp functional expression at the BBB. This is critical to pharmacotherapy of pain/inflammation, as patients are often administered acetaminophen (APAP), a CAR-activating ligand, in conjunction with an opioid. Our objective was to investigate, in vivo, the role of CAR in regulation of P-gp at the BBB. Following APAP treatment, P-gp protein expression was increased up to 1.4–1.6-fold in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, APAP increased P-gp transport of BODIPY-verapamil in freshly isolated rat brain capillaries. This APAP-induced increase in P-gp expression and activity was attenuated in the presence of CAR pathway inhibitor okadaic acid or transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D, suggesting P-gp regulation is CAR-dependent. Furthermore, morphine brain accumulation was enhanced by P-gp inhibitors in APAP-treated animals, suggesting P-gp–mediated transport. A warm-water (50°C) tail-flick assay revealed a significant decrease in morphine analgesia in animals treated with morphine 3 or 6 hours after APAP treatment, as compared with animals treated concurrently. Taken together, our data imply that inclusion of APAP in a pain treatment regimen activates CAR at the BBB and increases P-gp functional expression, a clinically significant drug-drug interaction that modulates opioid analgesic efficacy. PMID:24019224

Thompson, Brandon J.; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Zhang, Yifeng; Laracuente, Mei-Li; Vanderah, Todd W.; Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Davis, Thomas P.

2013-01-01

155

Role of Constitutive Androstane Receptor in Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Gene Expression of Hepatic Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters  

PubMed Central

Impairment of drug disposition in the liver during inflammation has been attributed to downregulation of gene expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and drug transporters. Inflammatory responses in the liver are primarily mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We have recently shown that activation of TLR2 or TLR4 by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively, leads to the downregulation of gene expression of DMEs/transporters. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this downregulation is not fully understood. The xenobiotic nuclear receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), regulate the expression of DMEs/transporter genes. Downregulation of DMEs/transporters by LTA or LPS was associated with reduced expression of PXR and CAR genes. To determine the role of CAR, we injected CAR+/+ and CAR?/? mice with LTA or LPS, which significantly downregulated (?40%–60%) RNA levels of the DMEs, cytochrome P450 (Cyp)3a11, Cyp2a4, Cyp2b10, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1a1, amine N-sulfotransferase, and the transporter, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, in CAR+/+ mice. Suppression of most of these genes was attenuated in LTA-treated CAR?/? mice. In contrast, LPS-mediated downregulation of these genes was not attenuated in CAR?/? mice. Induction of these genes by mouse CAR activator 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene was sustained in LTA- but not in LPS-treated mice. Similar observations were obtained in humanized CAR mice. We have replicated these results in primary hepatocytes as well. Thus, LPS can downregulate DME/transporter genes in the absence of CAR, whereas the effect of LTA on these genes is attenuated in the absence of CAR, indicating the potential involvement of CAR in LTA-mediated downregulation of DME/transporter genes. PMID:24194512

Shah, Pranav; Guo, Tao; Moore, David D.

2014-01-01

156

Expression of mRNA encoding the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (c-fms) is controlled by a constitutive promoter and tissue-specific transcription elongation.  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding the receptor for macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), the c-fms protooncogene, is selectively expressed in immature and mature mononuclear phagocytes and trophoblasts. Exon 1 is expressed only in trophoblasts. Isolation and sequencing of genomic DNA flanking exon 2 of the murine c-fms gene revealed a TATA-less promoter with significant homology to human c-fms. Reverse transcriptase primer extension analysis using exon 2 primers identified multiple clustered transcription initiation sites. Their position was confirmed by RNase protection. The same primer extension products were detected in equal abundance from macrophage or nonmacrophage sources of RNA. c-fms mRNA is acutely down-regulated in primary macrophages by CSF-1, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Each of these agents reduced the abundance of c-fms RNA detectable by primer extension using an exon 3 primer without altering the abundance of presumptive short c-fms transcripts detected with exon 2 primers. Primer extension analysis with an intron 2 primer detected products at greater abundance in nonmacrophages. Templates detected with the intronic primer were induced in macrophages by LPS, PMA, and CSF-1, suggesting that each of the agents caused a shift from full-length c-fms mRNA production to production of unspliced, truncated transcripts. The c-fms promoter functioned constitutively in the RAW264 macrophage cell line, the B-cell line MOPC.31C, and several nonhematopoietic cell lines. Macrophage-specific expression and responsiveness to selective repression by LPS and PMA was achieved by the incorporation of intron 2 into the c-fms promoter-reporter construct. The results suggest that expression of the c-fms gene in macrophages is controlled by sequences in intron 2 that act by regulating transcription elongation. Images PMID:8497248

Yue, X; Favot, P; Dunn, T L; Cassady, A I; Hume, D A

1993-01-01

157

Identification of centrarchid hepcidins and evidence that 17?-estradiol disrupts constitutive expression of hepcidin-1 and inducible expression of hepcidin-2 in largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepcidin is a highly conserved antimicrobial peptide and iron-regulatory hormone. Here, we identify two hepcidin genes (hep-1 and hep-2) in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Hepcidin-1 contains a putative ATCUN metal-binding site in the amino-terminus that is missing in hepcidin-2, suggesting that hepcidin-1 may function as an iron-regulatory hormone. Both hepcidins are predominately expressed in the

Laura S. Robertson; Luke R. Iwanowicz; Jamie Marie Marranca

2009-01-01

158

Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei  

PubMed Central

Here, we constructed stable, chromosomal, constitutively expressed, green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and RFP) as reporters in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using bioinformatic approaches and other experimental analyses, we identified P0253 and P1 as potent promoters that drive the optimal expression of fluorescent reporters in single copy in B. anthracis and Burkholderia spp. as well as their surrogate strains, respectively. In comparison, Y. pestis and its surrogate strain need two chromosomal copies of cysZK promoter (P2cysZK) for optimal fluorescence. The P0253-, P2cysZK-, and P1-driven GFP and RFP fusions were first cloned into the vectors pRP1028, pUC18R6KT-mini-Tn7T-Km, pmini-Tn7-gat, or their derivatives. The resultant constructs were delivered into the respective surrogates and subsequently into the select agent strains. The chromosomal GFP- and RFP-tagged strains exhibited bright fluorescence at an exposure time of less than 200 msec and displayed the same virulence traits as their wild-type parental strains. The utility of the tagged strains was proven by the macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages. PMID:25044501

Su, Shengchang; Bangar, Hansraj; Saldanha, Roland; Pemberton, Adin; Aronow, Bruce; Dean, Gary E; Lamkin, Thomas J; Hassett, Daniel J

2014-01-01

159

Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei.  

PubMed

Here, we constructed stable, chromosomal, constitutively expressed, green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and RFP) as reporters in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using bioinformatic approaches and other experimental analyses, we identified P0253 and P1 as potent promoters that drive the optimal expression of fluorescent reporters in single copy in B. anthracis and Burkholderia spp. as well as their surrogate strains, respectively. In comparison, Y. pestis and its surrogate strain need two chromosomal copies of cysZK promoter (P2cysZK) for optimal fluorescence. The P0253-, P2cysZK-, and P1-driven GFP and RFP fusions were first cloned into the vectors pRP1028, pUC18R6KT-mini-Tn7T-Km, pmini-Tn7-gat, or their derivatives. The resultant constructs were delivered into the respective surrogates and subsequently into the select agent strains. The chromosomal GFP- and RFP-tagged strains exhibited bright fluorescence at an exposure time of less than 200 msec and displayed the same virulence traits as their wild-type parental strains. The utility of the tagged strains was proven by the macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages. PMID:25044501

Su, Shengchang; Bangar, Hansraj; Saldanha, Roland; Pemberton, Adin; Aronow, Bruce; Dean, Gary E; Lamkin, Thomas J; Hassett, Daniel J

2014-10-01

160

Interleukin-22 binding protein (IL-22BP) is constitutively expressed by a subset of conventional dendritic cells and is strongly induced by retinoic acid  

PubMed Central

IL-22 is mainly produced at barrier surfaces by T cells and innate lymphoid cells and is crucial to maintain epithelial integrity. However, dysregulated IL-22 action leads to deleterious inflammation and is involved in diseases such as psoriasis, intestinal inflammation and cancer. IL-22BP is a soluble inhibitory IL-22 receptor and may represent a crucial regulator of IL-22. We show both in rats and mice that, in the steady state, the main source of IL-22BP is constituted by a subset of conventional dendritic cells (DC) in lymphoid and non lymphoid tissues. In mouse intestine, IL-22BP was specifically expressed in lamina propria CD103+CD11b+ DC. In humans, IL-22BP was expressed in immature monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) and strongly induced by retinoic acid (RA) but dramatically reduced upon maturation. Our data suggest that a subset of immature DC may actively participate in the regulation of IL-22 activity in the gut by producing high levels of IL-22BP. PMID:23653115

Martin, JCJ; Bériou, G; Heslan, M; Chauvin, C; Utriainen, L; Aumeunier, A; Scott, CL; Mowat, A; Cerovic, V; Houston, SA; Leboeuf, M; Hubert, FX; Hémont, C; Merad, M; Milling, S; Josien, R

2014-01-01

161

Many maize genes are expressed in an oat background carrying a specific maize chromosome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oat-maize addition (OMA) lines are derived from oat x maize sexual hybrids in which individual maize chromosomes have been retained in plants containing a full complement of oat chromosomes. Many of the OMA lines display specific phenotypes, which indicate that maize genes are likely expressed and c...

162

Clinical Expression of Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Is Affected by the Mitochondrial DNA–Haplogroup Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is due primarily to one of three common point mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but the incomplete penetrance implicates additional genetic or environmental factors in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Both the 11778G-->A and 14484T-->C LHON mutations are preferentially found on a specific mtDNA genetic background, but 3460G-->A is not. However, there is no clear

Gavin Hudson; Valerio Carelli; Liesbeth Spruijt; Mike Gerards; Catherine Mowbray; Alessandro Achilli; Angela Pyle; Joanna Elson; Neil Howell; Chiara La Morgia; Maria Lucia Valentino; Kirsi Huoponen; Marja-Liisa Savontaus; Eeva Nikoskelainen; Alfredo A. Sadun; Solange R. Salomao; Rubens Belfort; Philip Griffiths; Patrick Yu Wai Man; Rene F. M. de Coo; Rita Horvath; Massimo Zeviani; Hubert J. T. Smeets; Antonio Torroni; Patrick F. Chinnery

2007-01-01

163

Constitutive and LPS-Induced Expression of MCP-1 and IL-8 by Human Uveal Melanocytes In Vitro and Relevant Signal Pathways  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Melanocytes are one of the major cellular components in the uvea. Interleukin-8/CXCL8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) are the two most important proinflammatory chemokines. We studied the constitutive and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 in cultured human uveal melanocytes (UM) and explored the relevant signal pathways. Methods. Conditioned media and cells were collected from UM cultured in medium with and without stimulation of LPS. Interleukin-8 and MCP-1 proteins and mRNAs were measured using an ELISA kit and RT-PCR, respectively. Nuclear factor (NF)-?B in nuclear extracts and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase1/2 (JNK1/2) in cells cultured with and without LPS were measured by ELISA kits. Inhibitors of p38 (SB203580), ERK1/2 (UO1026), JNK1/2 (SP600125), and NF-?B (BAY11-7082) were added to the cultures to evaluate their effects. Results. Low levels of IL-8 and MCP-1 proteins were detected in the conditioned media in UM cultured without serum. Lipopolysaccharide (0.01–1 ?g/mL) increased IL-8 and MCP-1 mRNAs and proteins levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, accompanied by a significant increase of phosphorylated JNK1/2 in cell lysates and NF-?B in nuclear extracts. Nuclear factor–?B and JNK1/2 inhibitors significantly blocked LPS-induced expression of IL-8 and MCP-1. Conclusions. This is the first report on the expression and secretion of chemokines by UM. The data suggest that UM may play a role in the pathogenesis of ocular inflammatory diseases. PMID:25125602

Hu, Dan-Ning; Bi, Mingchao; Zhang, David Y.; Ye, Fei; McCormick, Steven A.; Chan, Chi-Chao

2014-01-01

164

Identification of a 27 bp 5'-flanking region element responsible for the low level constitutive expression of the human cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene.  

PubMed Central

The cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) gene codes for an enzyme that liberates arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids, and thus plays a pivotal role in the production of the prostaglandin and leukotriene mediators of inflammation, as well as in a variety of cell signalling pathways. After preliminary studies demonstrated the cPLA2 gene is expressed in a variety of human tissues and was localized to the q arm of chromosome 1 between markers F13B and D1S74, we cloned and characterized the 5'-flanking region of this gene in order to identify the elements controlling its low level constitutive expression. The 5'-flanking region has features typical of a housekeeping gene with no TATA box or CAAT box, although atypical in that it is not GC rich, has no SP1 sites, and has a long run of CA repeats. Analysis of fragments of the 5'-flanking region demonstrated that 541 bp 5' to exon 1 supported reporter gene activity at a level 30% of the SV40 promoter. Interestingly, similar activity was observed by deleting most of the 5'-flanking region down to a 27 bp region containing a sequence with homology to the initiator sequence in the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase gene and a polypyrimidine tract similar to the initiator element of the mouse ribosomal protein gene. Within this 27 bp region, a 10 bp fragment (-17 to -8 bp) within the polypyrimidine tract is critical for the baseline expression of the human cPLA2 gene. While the 5'-flanking region contains a putative composite AP-1 and glucocorticoid response element, this region does not respond to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and/or glucocorticoids in a cell line (HEp-2) that exhibits upregulation of cPLA2 mRNA transcript levels by TNF. The observations that the expression of the cPLA2 gene is tightly controlled at a relatively low level is consistent with the evolving concept that modulation of expression of this critical enzyme is primarily at the post-translational level. Images PMID:7862535

Miyashita, A; Crystal, R G; Hay, J G

1995-01-01

165

Constitutive expression of selected genes from the pentose phosphate and aromatic pathways increases the shikimic acid yield in high-glucose batch cultures of an Escherichia coli strain lacking PTS and pykF  

PubMed Central

Background During the last two decades many efforts have been directed towards obtaining efficient microbial processes for the production of shikimic acid (SA); however, feeding high amounts of substrate to increase the titer of this compound has invariably rendered low conversion yields, leaving room for improvement of the producing strains. In this work we report an alternative platform to overproduce SA in a laboratory-evolved Escherichia coli strain, based on plasmid-driven constitutive expression of six genes selected from the pentose phosphate and aromatic amino acid pathways, artificially arranged as an operon. Production strains also carried inactivated genes coding for phosphotransferase system components (ptsHIcrr), shikimate kinases I and II (aroK and aroL), pyruvate kinase I (pykF) and the lactose operon repressor (lacI). Results The strong and constitutive expression of the constructed operon permitted SA production from the beginning of the cultures, as evidenced in 1 L batch-mode fermentors starting with high concentrations of glucose and yeast extract. Inactivation of the pykF gene improved SA production under the evaluated conditions by increasing the titer, yield and productivity of this metabolite compared to the isogenic pykF+ strain. The best producing strain accumulated up to 43 g/L of SA in 30 h and relatively low concentrations of acetate and aromatic byproducts were detected, with SA accounting for 80% of the produced aromatic compounds. These results were consistent with high expression levels of the glycolytic pathway and synthetic operon genes from the beginning of fermentations, as revealed by transcriptomic analysis. Despite the consumption of 100 g/L of glucose, the yields on glucose of SA and of total aromatic compounds were about 50% and 60% of the theoretical maximum, respectively. The obtained yields and specific production and consumption rates proved to be constant with three different substrate concentrations. Conclusions The developed production system allowed continuous SA accumulation until glucose exhaustion and eliminated the requirement for culture inducers. The obtained SA titers and yields represent the highest reported values for a high-substrate batch process, postulating the strategy described in this report as an interesting alternative to the traditionally employed fed-batch processes for SA production. PMID:24079972

2013-01-01

166

Constitutive expression of hrap gene in transgenic tobacco plant enhances resistance against virulent bacterial pathogens by induction of a hypersensitive response.  

PubMed

Hypersensitive response-assisting protein (HRAP) has been previously reported as an amphipathic plant protein isolated from sweet pepper that intensifies the harpin(Pss)-mediated hypersensitive response (HR). The hrap gene has no appreciable similarity to any other known sequences, and its activity can be rapidly induced by incompatible pathogen infection. To assess the function of the hrap gene in plant disease resistance, the CaMV 35S promoter was used to express sweet pepper hrap in transgenic tobacco. Compared with wild-type tobacco, transgenic tobacco plants exhibit more sensitivity to harpin(Pss) and show resistance to virulent pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora). This disease resistance of transgenic tobacco does not originate from a constitutive HR, because endogenous level of salicylic acid and hsr203J mRNA showed similarities in transgenic and wildtype tobacco under noninfected conditions. However, following a virulent pathogen infection in hrap transgenic tobacco, hsr203J was rapidly induced and a micro-HR necrosis was visualized by trypan blue staining in the infiltration area. Consequently, we suggest that the disease resistance of transgenic plants may result from the induction of a HR by a virulent pathogen infection. PMID:12182333

Ger, Mang-jye; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi; Huang, Hsiang-En; Podile, Appa Rao; Dayakar, Badri Venkata; Feng, Teng-yung

2002-08-01

167

Constitutive Activation of the G-Protein Subunit G[alpha]s within Forebrain Neurons Causes PKA-Dependent Alterations in Fear Conditioning and Cortical "Arc" mRNA Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory formation requires cAMP signaling; thus, this cascade has been of great interest in the search for cognitive enhancers. Given that medications are administered long-term, we determined the effects of chronically increasing cAMP synthesis in the brain by expressing a constitutively active isoform of the G-protein subunit G[alpha]s…

Kelly, Michele P.; Cheung, York-Fong; Favilla, Christopher; Siegel, Steven J.; Kanes, Stephen J.; Houslay, Miles D.; Abel, Ted

2008-01-01

168

Constitutive expression of a salinity-induced wheat WRKY transcription factor enhances salinity and ionic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •A class II WRKY transcription factor, TaWRKY79 was isolated and characterized. •TaWRKY79 was induced by NaCl or abscisic acid. •843 bp regulatory segment was sufficient to respond to ABA or NaCl treatment. •TaWRKY79 enhanced salinity and ionic tolerance while reduced sensitivity to ABA. •TaWRKY79 increased salinity and ionic tolerance in an ABA-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: The isolation and characterization of TaWRKY79, a wheat class II WRKY transcription factor, is described. Its 1297 bp coding region includes a 987 bp long open reading frame. TaWRKY79 was induced by stressing seedlings with either NaCl or abscisic acid (ABA). When a fusion between an 843 bp segment upstream of the TaWRKY79 coding sequence and GUS was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana, GUS staining indicated that this upstream segment captured the sequence(s) required to respond to ABA or NaCl treatment. When TaWRKY79 was constitutively expressed as a transgene in A. thaliana, the transgenic plants showed an improved capacity to extend their primary root in the presence of either 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM LiCl or 2 ?M ABA. The inference was that TaWRKY79 enhanced the level of tolerance to both salinity and ionic stress, while reducing the level of sensitivity to ABA. The ABA-related genes ABA1, ABA2 ABI1 and ABI5 were all up-regulated in the TaWRKY79 transgenic plants, suggesting that the transcription factor operates in an ABA-dependent pathway.

Qin, Yuxiang, E-mail: yuxiangqin@126.com [Department of Biotechnology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)] [Department of Biotechnology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Tian, Yanchen [The Key Laboratory of Plant Cell Engineering and Germplasm Innovation, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Plant Cell Engineering and Germplasm Innovation, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Han, Lu; Yang, Xinchao [Department of Biotechnology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)] [Department of Biotechnology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

2013-11-15

169

Strain rate sensitive constitutive equations  

E-print Network

1971 ABSTRACT Strain Rate Sensitive Constitutive Equations (August 1971) Charles Edward Helson, B. S. , Texas A&H University; Directed by: Dr. dames L. Rand The purpose of this research is to develop rate sensitive constitutive equ, tions... amounts of error are incurred. iv ACFNOlH FDGL~IENT The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. James L, Rand for his interest and guidance throughout this research program. Special thanks are extended to Dr. U. S. Lindholm...

Nelson, Charles Edward

1971-01-01

170

Morphoproteomics identifies constitutive activation of the mTORC2/Akt and NF-?B pathways and expressions of IGF-1R, Sirt1, COX-2, and FASN in peripheral T-cell lymphomas: pathogenetic implications and therapeutic options  

PubMed Central

Background: Gaining a better understanding of the molecular circuitries and pathways implicated in the malignant growth and biological behavior of T cell lymphomas may identify potential cellular targets with clinical therapeutic potential. The immunohistochemical characterization of key cellular proteins participating in these pathways can provide surrogate markers of biological activity. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) signaling pathway has been implicated in T-cell lymphopoiesis. The mTORC2 pathway involves downstream activation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B and p-Akt (Ser 473). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) are expressed upstream of the mTORC and NF-?B signaling pathways. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 products influence these pathways. Our goal was to use morphoproteomics to characterize the expression patterns of the proteins in various peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Design: Ten cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) were examined for expression of proteins along the mTORC, Akt and NF-?B pathways and affiliated tumorigenic molecules. These included two angioimmunoblastic PTCL, one natural killer/PTCL, one anaplastic large PTCL, and six PTCL not otherwise specified. Immunostaining for phosphorylated (p) mTOR (Ser 2448), p-Akt (Ser 473), p-NF-?Bp65 (Ser 536), IGF-1R (Tyr1165/1166), silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1), COX-2 and FASN was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue for each case. Percent expression was scored using bright-field microscopy with high expression designated as more than 50% of the cells with positive stain in the appropriate subcellular compartment. Results: All ten cases demonstrated nuclear staining for p-mTOR (Ser 2448) corresponding to mTORC 2, and all cases showed strong, diffuse nuclear staining for p-NF-?Bp65 (Ser 536). All ten also showed nuclear and cytoplasmic staining for p-Akt (Ser 473) and cytoplasmic staining for IGF-1R. High expressions for nuclear Sirt1, and cytoplasmic COX-2 and FASN were detected in 7, 9, and 8 out of 10 cases, respectively. Six out of 10 cases demonstrated high expression of all the mentioned markers. Conclusion: The constitutive activation of mTORC2, NF-?B, p-Akt and the concomitant expression of IGF-1R suggests convergence of these molecular pathways in T-cell lymphoma. The results of this study also suggest that mTORC2 may be a common denominator among this heterogeneous group of lymphomas. Interference of key nodes of this pathway may carry a clinical therapeutic benefit. Agents that may be considered based on existing data include: bortezomib to inhibit NF-?B pathway activation; metformin to inhibit both NF-?B and mTORC2 and histone deacteylase inhibitors to inhibit mTORC2 pathway signaling. Furthermore, panobinostat inhibits Sirt1 pathway when present, and celecoxib inhibits NF-?B pathway activation independent of COX2. PMID:25674239

Quesada, Andrés E; Nguyen, Nghia D; Rios, Adan; Brown, Robert E

2014-01-01

171

Symptoms induced by transgenic expression of p23 from Citrus tristeza virus in phloem-associated cells of Mexican lime mimic virus infection without the aberrations accompanying constitutive expression.  

PubMed

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is phloem restricted in natural citrus hosts. The 23-kDa protein (p23) encoded by the virus is an RNA silencing suppressor and a pathogenicity determinant. The expression of p23, or its N-terminal 157-amino-acid fragment comprising the zinc finger and flanking basic motifs, driven by the constitutive 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus, induces CTV-like symptoms and other aberrations in transgenic citrus. To better define the role of p23 in CTV pathogenesis, we compared the phenotypes of Mexican lime transformed with p23-derived transgenes from the severe T36 and mild T317 CTV isolates under the control of the phloem-specific promoter from Commelina yellow mottle virus (CoYMV) or the 35S promoter. Expression of the constructs restricted to the phloem induced a phenotype resembling CTV-specific symptoms (vein clearing and necrosis, and stem pitting), but not the non-specific aberrations (such as mature leaf epinasty and yellow pinpoints, growth cessation and apical necrosis) observed when p23 was ectopically expressed. Furthermore, vein necrosis and stem pitting in Mexican lime appeared to be specifically associated with p23 from T36. Phloem-specific accumulation of the p23?158-209(T36) fragment was sufficient to induce the same anomalies, indicating that the region comprising the N-terminal 157 amino acids of p23 is responsible (at least in part) for the vein clearing, stem pitting and, possibly, vein corking in this host. PMID:25171669

Soler, Nuria; Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peńa, Leandro

2015-05-01

172

The Constitutional Amendment Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

Chism, Kahlil

2005-01-01

173

SURVIVAL AND DEGRADATIVE CAPACITY OF PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA INDUCED OR CONSTITUTIVELY EXPRESSING PLASMA-MEDIATED DEGRADATION OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETATE (TFD) IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The survival of genetically altered Pseudomonas putida strains harboring an inducible plasmid, PRO101, or a constitutive plasmid, PRO103, was compared. hese plasmids encode for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (TFD) to 2-chloromaleylacetate, and the maintenance of ei...

174

SURVIVAL AND DEGRADATIVE CAPACITY OF PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA INDUCED OR CONSTITUTIVELY EXPRESSING PLASMID-MEDIATED DEGRADATION OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETATE (TFD) IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Survival of genetically altered Pseudonomas putida strains harboring an inducible plasmid, pRO101, or a constitutive plasmid, pRO103, was compared. hese plasmids encoded for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (TFD) to 2-chloromaleylacetate, and the maintenance of eithe...

175

Hedistin: A novel antimicrobial peptide containing bromotryptophan constitutively expressed in the NK cells-like of the marine annelid, Nereis diversicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel antimicrobial peptide, named hedistin was identified from the coelomocytes of Nereis diversicolor. Hedistin shows no obvious similarities with other known peptides and constitutes the first antimicrobial peptide containing bromotryptophans demonstrated in annelids. cDNA and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that, upon bacteria challenge, this peptide is secreted following processing of a precursor containing a signal peptide and prosequences. Hedistin

Aurélie Tasiemski; David Schikorski; Françoise Le Marrec-Croq; Christelle Pontoire-Van Camp; Céline Boidin-Wichlacz; Pierre-Eric Sautičre

2007-01-01

176

The Inflammatory versus Constitutive Trafficking of Mononuclear Phagocytes into the Alveolar Space of Mice Is Associated with Drastic Changes in Their Gene Expression Profiles1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mononuclear phagocytes enter the lungs both constitutively to maintain alveolar macrophage and dendritic cell homeostasis, as well as during lung inflammation, where the role of these cells is less well defined. We used a transgenic mouse strain (CX3CR1 \\/ GFP ) that harbors a GFP label in circulating monocytes to identify and sort these cells from the vascular and alveolar

Mrigank Srivastava; Steffen Jung; Jochen Wilhelm; Ludger Fink; Frank Buhling; Tobias Welte; Rainer M. Bohle; Werner Seeger; Jurgen Lohmeyer; Ulrich A. Maus

2005-01-01

177

Phospho-flow detection of constitutive and cytokine-induced pSTAT3/5, pAKT and pERK expression highlights novel prognostic biomarkers for patients with multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Identifying check points in cell signal transduction pathways has led to the development of new cancer therapies; however, relatively few studies have determined the diagnostic and prognostic significance of analysing phosphorylated signaling proteins in patient blood and bone marrow (BM) samples. This is the first comprehensive phospho-flow study of both constitutive and cytokine-induced pSTAT3, pSTAT5, pAKT and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) expression in malignant plasma cells of patients with monoclonal gammopathies. In diagnostic BM samples from 65 patients with multiple myeloma (MM), interleukin (IL)-6-induced pSTAT3 proved to be a new and independent prognostic biomarker for improved survival. When combined with the International Staging System, 6 subgroups demonstrated stratified median survivals from 9 to 72 months (?(2)=34.3; P<0.0001). In contrast, constitutive expression of pSTAT3, pSTAT5, pAKT and pERK did not assist the differential diagnosis nor determine prognosis. High pSTAT3 expression was dependent on existing CD45 expression and pSTAT5 appeared to regulate IgG production. Phospho-flow cytometry could be used to screen for personalized therapy, although the lack of clinical significance of constitutive pSTAT3 levels suggests that pSTAT3 blockade may not be clinically relevant in MM. This study has revealed novel prognostic biomarkers and insights into the biology of signaling pathways in patients with MM. PMID:24990616

Brown, R; Yang, S; Weatherburn, C; Gibson, J; Ho, P J; Suen, H; Hart, D; Joshua, D

2015-02-01

178

ALTERED SENSITIVITY OF THE MOUSE FETUS TO IMPAIRED PROSTATIC BUD FORMATION BY DIOXIN: INFLUENCE OF GENETIC BACKGROUND AND NULL EXPRESSION OF TGF-ALFA AND EGF  

EPA Science Inventory

Altered sensitivity of the mouse fetus to impaired prostatic bud formation by dioxin: Influence of genetic background and null expression of TGF and EGF. Rasmussen, N.T., Lin T-M., Fenton, S.E., Abbott, B.D. and R.E. Peterson. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)...

179

The Constitutive Expression of Type X Collagen in Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Osteoarthritis Patients Is Reproduced in a Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

The expression of type X collagen (COL X), a late-stage chondrocyte hypertrophy marker in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from osteoarthritis (OA) patients poses a major setback to current cartilage and intervertebral disc tissue engineering efforts. However, it is not yet clear whether COL X is expressed by all human bone marrow stem cells or if it is related to age, gender, site, disease status, or drug therapy. In the current study, we report that COL X expression is upregulated in MSCs from rabbits in a surgical instability model of OA (anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)) when compared to control rabbit MSCs. Thus COL X expression in OA is a common phenomenon that is due to the disease process itself and not to other environmental factors. It is, therefore, critical to understand MSC phenotype in OA patients, as these cells are essential clinically for biological repair of cartilage lesions using autologous stem cells. PMID:21808721

Mwale, Fackson; Rampersad, Sonia; Richard, Hélčne; Guoying, Yao; Al Rowas, Sora; Madiraju, Padma; Antoniou, John; Laverty, Sheila

2011-01-01

180

The constitutive expression of type x collagen in mesenchymal stem cells from osteoarthritis patients is reproduced in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

The expression of type X collagen (COL X), a late-stage chondrocyte hypertrophy marker in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from osteoarthritis (OA) patients poses a major setback to current cartilage and intervertebral disc tissue engineering efforts. However, it is not yet clear whether COL X is expressed by all human bone marrow stem cells or if it is related to age, gender, site, disease status, or drug therapy. In the current study, we report that COL X expression is upregulated in MSCs from rabbits in a surgical instability model of OA (anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)) when compared to control rabbit MSCs. Thus COL X expression in OA is a common phenomenon that is due to the disease process itself and not to other environmental factors. It is, therefore, critical to understand MSC phenotype in OA patients, as these cells are essential clinically for biological repair of cartilage lesions using autologous stem cells. PMID:21808721

Mwale, Fackson; Rampersad, Sonia; Richard, Hélčne; Guoying, Yao; Al Rowas, Sora; Madiraju, Padma; Antoniou, John; Laverty, Sheila

2011-01-01

181

Constitutive Expression of a Bacterial Pattern Recognition Receptor, CD14, in Human Salivary Glands and Secretion as a Soluble Form in Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saliva contains a number of proteins and glycoproteins that protect oral tissues, but little is known about the role of human saliva in innate immunity. Here we showed that human major salivary gland cells consti- tutively expressed a bacterial pattern recognition receptor, CD14, by immunohistochemistry. Human salivary gland cells in culture express CD14 mRNA and a 55-kDa CD14 protein in,

Akiko Uehara; Shunji Sugawara; Kouichi Watanabe; Seishi Echigo; Mitsunobu Sato; Takahiro Yamaguchi; Haruhiko Takada

2003-01-01

182

Development of Non-Antibiotic-Resistant, Chromosomally Based, Constitutive and Inducible Expression Systems for aroA-Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live-vaccine delivery systems expressing two model antigens from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae ,F 2P97 (Adh) and NrdF, were constructed using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium aroA (STM-1), and immunoge- nicity in mice was evaluated. Recombinant plasmid-based expression (PBE) and chromosomally based expres- sion (CBE) systems were constructed. The PBE system was formed by cloning both antigen genes into pJLA507 to create an operon

Jake N. Matic; Tamsin D. Terry; David Van Bockel; Tracy Maddocks; David Tinworth; Michael P. Jennings; Steven P. Djordjevic; Mark J. Walker

2009-01-01

183

Constitutive L-Sox5 overexpression delays differentiation of ATDC5 cells into chondrocytes and correlates with reduced expression of differentiation markers.  

PubMed

L-Sox5 is a member of sex-determining region Y-type high mobility group box (SOX) family of transcription factors. We assessed the effects of retroviral overexpression of L-Sox5 on chondrocyte differentiation using the clonal murine cell line ATDC5. We observed a temporal-restricted expression pattern of L-Sox5 in insulin-induced ATDC5 cells differentiating toward chondrocyte lineage. The protein expression levels of L-Sox5 showed a drastic decrease in contrast to unaltered mRNA levels during differentiation. L-Sox5 delayed the differentiation of ATDC5 cells as evidenced by Alcian blue staining for proteoglycan synthesis. The mRNA levels of chondrocyte and hypertrophic/osteoarthritic markers were markedly decreased or delayed in L-Sox5 overexpressing cells. L-Sox5 abrogated the promoter activity of Runx2. These results suggest that L-Sox5 protein expression may diminish along with the progress of chondrogenic differentiation. L-Sox5 may act as a negative regulator if expressed aberrantly at least in part by regulating the critical fate of chondrogenesis. PMID:25445168

Sun, Dongmei; Deepak, Vishwa; Mu, Ping; Jiang, Haiying; Shi, Xiuming; Liu, Zhongbo; Zeng, Xianlu; Liu, Wenguang

2015-03-01

184

TGF-?-mediated downregulation of microRNA-196a contributes to the constitutive upregulated type I collagen expression in scleroderma dermal fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Previous reports indicated the significance of the TGF-? signaling in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. We tried to evaluate the possibility that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a part in the type I collagen upregulation seen in normal fibroblasts stimulated with exogenous TGF-? and systemic sclerosis (SSc) fibroblasts. miRNA expression profile was evaluated by miRNA PCR array and real-time PCR. The protein expression of type I collagen was determined by immunoblotting. In vivo detection of miRNA in paraffin section was performed by in situ hybridization. Several miRNAs were found to be downregulated in both TGF-?-stimulated normal fibroblasts and SSc fibroblasts compared with normal fibroblasts by PCR array. Among them, miR-196a expression was decreased in SSc both in vivo and in vitro by real-time PCR or in situ hybridization. In SSc fibroblasts, miR-196a expression was normalized by TGF-? small interfering RNA. miR-196a inhibitor leads to the overexpression of type I collagen in normal fibroblasts, whereas overexpression of the miRNA resulted in the downregulation of type I collagen in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, miR-196a was detectable and quantitative in the serum of SSc patients. Patients with lower serum miR-196a levels had significantly higher ratio of diffuse cutaneous SSc:limited cutaneous SSc, higher modified Rodnan total skin thickness score, and higher prevalence of pitting scars than those without. miR-196a may play some roles in the pathogenesis of SSc. Investigation of the regulatory mechanisms of type I collagen expression by miR-196a may lead to new treatments using miRNA. PMID:22379029

Honda, Noritoshi; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Takamitsu; Makino, Katsunari; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Fukushima, Satoshi; Okamoto, Yoshinobu; Hasegawa, Minoru; Fujimoto, Manabu; Ihn, Hironobu

2012-04-01

185

Triple synergism of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-encoded tax, GATA-binding protein, and AP-1 is required for constitutive expression of the interleukin-5 gene in adult T-cell leukemia cells.  

PubMed Central

Accumulated evidence demonstrates that adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is frequently associated with eosinophilia, and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cells frequently express interleukin-5 (IL-5). However, the molecular mechanism of constitutive IL-5 expression in HTLV-1-infected cells remains unclear. To clarify the mechanism of aberrant IL-5 expression in HTLV-1-infected cells, we investigated the response of the human IL-5 promoter to the HTLV-1-encoded protein Tax. Cotransfection experiments using Jurkat cells revealed that Tax is incapable of activating the IL-5 promoter by itself but that it synergistically transactivates the promoter with GATA-binding protein (GATA-4) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulation. By introducing a series of mutations within the IL-5 promoter, we found that conserved lymphokine element 0 (CLE0) is responsible for mediating the signal induced by Tax-TPA. A deletion construct of the promoter indicated that the -75 GATA element and CLE0 are sufficient to mediate synergistic activation of the IL-5 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using Jurkat cell nuclear extracts demonstrated that TPA induces a transcription factor to bind CLE0, and an experiment using JPX-9 cell nuclear extracts showed that Tax enhances this binding activity. An antibody supershift experiment revealed that this band consists of c-Jun and JunD. However, among the Jun family members, only c-Jun is able to cooperate with Tax and GATA-4 to activate the IL-5 promoter. We have determined the minimum factors required for IL-5 gene activation by reconstituting the IL-5 promoter activity in F9 cells. This is the first report to demonstrate the functional involvement of Tax protein in IL-5 gene regulation and to suggest the functional triple synergism among Tax, GATA-4, and AP-1, which disrupts regulated control of the gene and leads to constitutive expression of the IL-5 gene. PMID:9234684

Yamagata, T; Mitani, K; Ueno, H; Kanda, Y; Yazaki, Y; Hirai, H

1997-01-01

186

Constitutive expression of the Wilms' tumor gene (WT1) in the leukemic cell line U937 blocks parts of the differentiation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wilms tumor gene, WT1, encodes a zinc-finger DNA binding protein which is thought to function as a tissue specific transcription factor, regulating cell growth and differentiation. High expression of WT1 has been detected in a range of acute leukemias. To elucidate a role for WT1 in leukemogenesis, we transfected the monoblastic cell line U937, which lacks detectable levels of

Helena Svedberg; Kristina Chylicki; Bo Baldetorp; Frank J Rauscher; Urban Gullberg

1998-01-01

187

Three second chromosome-linked clustered Cyp6 genes show differential constitutive and barbital-induced expression in DDT-resistant and susceptible strains of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of expression of the Cyp6a2 gene is much higher in the DDT-resistant 91-R strain than in the susceptible 91-C strain of Drosophila melanogaster (Waters et al. (1992b) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89, 4855–4859). To understand the role of Cyp6a2 and related genes in insecticide resistance, we have isolated and characterized two new Cyp6 genes from the 91-R

Sushmita Maitra; Susan M. Dombrowski; Larry C. Waters; Ranjan Ganguly

1996-01-01

188

The proto-oncogene FGF-3 is constitutively expressed in tumorigenic, but not in non-tumorigenic, clones of a human colon carcinoma cell line.  

PubMed

The human colon carcinoma cell line, SW613-S, is composed of cells with a high-level amplification of the MYC proto-oncogene that are tumorigenic in nude mice and of cells with a low-level amplification of MYC that are not tumorigenic. Transcripts from FGF-3, a member of the fibroblast growth factor gene family, accumulate in cells from tumorigenic clones, but are undetectable in those from non-tumorigenic clones. Nuclear run-on analyses indicate that this differential FGF-3 expression is regulated at the level of transcription initiation. Determination of the structure of the FGF-3 transcripts indicates that they are generated by splicing of the three exons and termination at the single polyadenylation site predicted from the genomic sequence. Their size heterogeneity is due to multiple initiation sites spanning a 700 base-pair long promoter region. FGF-3 is activated in tumors induced in nude mice by MYC-transfected cells from non-tumorigenic clones. However, in most of the cell lines established from these tumors, FGF-3 expression tends to be lost upon in vitro propagation. Thus, in these transfectant cell lines, the presence of exogenous MYC gene copies is not sufficient to activate FGF-3 expression and in vivo growth is also required. PMID:7784081

Galdemard, C; Brison, O; Lavialle, C

1995-06-15

189

The Constitution by Cell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to participate…

Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

2010-01-01

190

Constitution Council on Student  

E-print Network

Constitution of the Council on Student Services Revised April 2008 #12;Constitution of the Council on Student Services (CSS) 2 Preamble Under the general provision of the University of Toronto protocols (approved by the Governing Council on October 24, 1996) regarding the student services fee

Boonstra, Rudy

191

Interpreting the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

Brennan, William J., Jr.

1987-01-01

192

Comprehensive genome-wide survey, genomic constitution and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).  

PubMed

The NAC proteins represent a major plant-specific transcription factor family that has established enormously diverse roles in various plant processes. Aided by the availability of complete genomes, several members of this family have been identified in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and poplar. However, no comprehensive investigation has been presented for the recently sequenced, naturally stress tolerant crop, Setaria italica (foxtail millet) that is famed as a model crop for bioenergy research. In this study, we identified 147 putative NAC domain-encoding genes from foxtail millet by systematic sequence analysis and physically mapped them onto nine chromosomes. Genomic organization suggested that inter-chromosomal duplications may have been responsible for expansion of this gene family in foxtail millet. Phylogenetically, they were arranged into 11 distinct sub-families (I-XI), with duplicated genes fitting into one cluster and possessing conserved motif compositions. Comparative mapping with other grass species revealed some orthologous relationships and chromosomal rearrangements including duplication, inversion and deletion of genes. The evolutionary significance as duplication and divergence of NAC genes based on their amino acid substitution rates was understood. Expression profiling against various stresses and phytohormones provides novel insights into specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiNAC genes, which may be responsible for functional divergence among individual members in this crop. Further, we performed structure modeling and molecular simulation of a stress-responsive protein, SiNAC128, proffering an initial framework for understanding its molecular function. Taken together, this genome-wide identification and expression profiling unlocks new avenues for systematic functional analysis of novel NAC gene family candidates which may be applied for improvising stress adaption in plants. PMID:23691254

Puranik, Swati; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Mandal, Sambhu Nath; B, Venkata Suresh; Parida, Swarup Kumar; Prasad, Manoj

2013-01-01

193

Comprehensive Genome-Wide Survey, Genomic Constitution and Expression Profiling of the NAC Transcription Factor Family in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.)  

PubMed Central

The NAC proteins represent a major plant-specific transcription factor family that has established enormously diverse roles in various plant processes. Aided by the availability of complete genomes, several members of this family have been identified in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and poplar. However, no comprehensive investigation has been presented for the recently sequenced, naturally stress tolerant crop, Setaria italica (foxtail millet) that is famed as a model crop for bioenergy research. In this study, we identified 147 putative NAC domain-encoding genes from foxtail millet by systematic sequence analysis and physically mapped them onto nine chromosomes. Genomic organization suggested that inter-chromosomal duplications may have been responsible for expansion of this gene family in foxtail millet. Phylogenetically, they were arranged into 11 distinct sub-families (I-XI), with duplicated genes fitting into one cluster and possessing conserved motif compositions. Comparative mapping with other grass species revealed some orthologous relationships and chromosomal rearrangements including duplication, inversion and deletion of genes. The evolutionary significance as duplication and divergence of NAC genes based on their amino acid substitution rates was understood. Expression profiling against various stresses and phytohormones provides novel insights into specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiNAC genes, which may be responsible for functional divergence among individual members in this crop. Further, we performed structure modeling and molecular simulation of a stress-responsive protein, SiNAC128, proffering an initial framework for understanding its molecular function. Taken together, this genome-wide identification and expression profiling unlocks new avenues for systematic functional analysis of novel NAC gene family candidates which may be applied for improvising stress adaption in plants. PMID:23691254

Puranik, Swati; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Mandal, Sambhu Nath; B., Venkata Suresh; Parida, Swarup Kumar; Prasad, Manoj

2013-01-01

194

[Sex- and species-differences on xenobiotic-induced toxicity: differences in constitutive and xenobiotic-mediated expression of cytochrome P450 1A subfamily enzymes (CYP1As)].  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 1A subfamily enzymes (CYP1As) are important molecules in the metabolic activation of carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines and are induced by their substrate exposure. There are species, sex, and organ differences in the induction of CYP1As, and susceptibilities to carcinogens are closely related to the constitutive and carcinogen-induced levels of CYP1As in target organs of experimental rodents. In this study, we investigated the induction of CYP1As and their species or sex differences after treatment with various chemicals using experimental animals and cultured cell lines. We found that: 1) newly established reporter cell lines, HepG2-A10 and KanR2-XL8, can be used for determining of activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a key transcription factor in the expression of CYP1As; 2) monocyclic aromatic amine (2-methoxy-4-nitroaniline) induced hepatic CYP1As in rats but not in other rodents in an AhR-independent manner; 3) androgen suppressed the constitutive expression or heterocyclic aromatic amine (Trp-P-1)-dependent induction of these enzymes in pigs and mice; and 4) nicardipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, increased hepatic CYP1A expression in rats and augmented 3-methylcholanthrene-mediated induction of CYP1As and DNA-adduct formation in HepG2 cells. These findings indicate that there are species or sex differences in the induction of hepatic CYP1As via AhR-independent and unexplained transcriptional mechanisms. The elucidation of these mechanisms will aid in finding new predictors or developing new prevention strategies for chemical-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:21372538

Sekimoto, Masashi

2011-03-01

195

Inducible and constitutive heat shock gene expression responds to modification of Hsp70 copy number in Drosophila melanogaster but does not compensate for loss of thermotolerance in Hsp70 null flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The heat shock protein Hsp70 promotes inducible thermotolerance in nearly every organism examined to date. Hsp70 interacts with a network of other stress-response proteins, and dissecting the relative roles of these interactions in causing thermotolerance remains difficult. Here we examine the effect of Hsp70 gene copy number modification on thermotolerance and the expression of multiple stress-response genes in Drosophila

Brian R Bettencourt; Catherine C Hogan; Mario Nimali; Brian W Drohan

2008-01-01

196

Controlled expression of functional miR122 with a ligand inducible expression system  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To study the biological function of miRNAs, and to achieve sustained or conditional gene silencing with siRNAs, systems that allow controlled expression of these small RNAs are desirable. Methods for cell delivery of siRNAs include transient transfection of synthetic siRNAs and expression of siRNAs in the form of short hairpins using constitutive RNA polymerase III promoters. Systems employing constitutive

Cathy M Shea; George Tzertzinis

2010-01-01

197

A gene expression fingerprint of C. elegans embryonic motor neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Differential gene expression specifies the highly diverse cell types that constitute the nervous system. With its sequenced genome and simple, well-defined neuroanatomy, the nematode C. elegans is a useful model system in which to correlate gene expression with neuron identity. The UNC-4 transcription factor is expressed in thirteen embryonic motor neurons where it specifies axonal morphology and synaptic function.

Rebecca M Fox; Stephen E Von Stetina; Susan J Barlow; Christian Shaffer; Kellen L Olszewski; Jason H Moore; Denis Dupuy; Marc Vidal; David M Miller III

2005-01-01

198

GLUT2 surface expression and intracellular transport via the constitutive pathway in pancreatic beta cells and insulinoma: evidence for a block in trans-Golgi network exit by brefeldin A  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis, intracellular transport, and surface expression of the beta cell glucose transporter GLUT2 was investigated in isolated islets and insulinoma cells. Using a trypsin sensitivity assay to measure cell surface expression, we determined that: (a) greater than 95% of GLUT2 was expressed on the plasma membrane; (b) GLUT2 did not recycle in intracellular vesicles; and (c) after trypsin treatment, reexpression of the intact transporter occurred with a t1/2 of approximately 7 h. Kinetics of intracellular transport of GLUT2 was investigated in pulse-labeling experiments combined with glycosidase treatment and the trypsin sensitivity assay. We determined that transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) occurred with a t1/2 of 15 min and that transport from the TGN to the plasma membrane required a similar half-time. When added at the start of a pulse-labeling experiment, brefeldin A prevented exit of GLUT2 from the endoplasmic reticulum. When the transporter was first accumulated in the TGN during a 15-min period of chase, but not following a low temperature (22 degrees C) incubation, addition of brefeldin A (BFA) prevented subsequent surface expression of the transporter. This indicated that brefeldin A prevented GLUT2 exit from the TGN by acting at a site proximal to the 22 degrees C block. Together, these data demonstrate that GLUT2 surface expression in beta cells is via the constitutive pathway, that transport can be blocked by BFA at two distinct steps and that once on the surface, GLUT2 does not recycle in intracellular vesicles. PMID:8276890

1993-01-01

199

The Constitution's Human Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses traditional concepts of tradition, religion, commerce, and family life. Points out innovative philosophies held by the Founding Fathers which shaped the Constitution. The subsequent moral revolution needs to be reconsidered in light of the Founding Fathers' intent. (PS)

Pangle, Thomas L.

1987-01-01

200

Constitution, 29 October 1987.  

PubMed

This document contains provisions of chapter 2 (Rights and Duties of Citizens) of the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of Korea relating to equality of the sexes, freedom of movement, free and compulsory education, equal opportunity at work, social protection, housing, and health care. The Constitution states that all citizens are equal before the law with no discrimination in political, economic, social, or cultural life based on sex, religion, or social status. The Constitution also protects freedom of residence and mobility, the right to an equal education, free compulsory education, and working mothers (with specific protection against discrimination). The Constitution directs the state to promote the welfare and rights of women, enhance the welfare of the aged and the young, and protect those incapable of earning a living. Housing development policies will be used to ensure comfortable housing for all citizens. State protection is afforded to mothers and to the health of all citizens. PMID:12346680

1987-01-01

201

Kenya's New Constitution  

E-print Network

On 4 August 2010, Kenyans voted to adopt a new constitution, culminating a process that began as part of a resolution to the violent conflict that followed the December 2007 elections. By reducing executive power, devolving ...

Kramon, Eric

202

HYPOPROLIFERATIVE Acquired or Constitutional  

E-print Network

9/16/2013 1 HYPOPROLIFERATIVE ANEMIAS Acquired or Constitutional Disorder with Chronic Bone Marrow, or megakaryocytic hypoplasia used APLASTIC ANEMIA Criteria Bone Cellularity : Granulocyte Count Anemia with corrected Retic Count

203

The Trypanosoma brucei DNA polymerase alpha core subunit gene is developmentally regulated and linked to a constitutively expressed open reading frame.  

PubMed Central

As an initial step towards the characterization of replicative DNA polymerases of trypanosomes, we have cloned, sequenced and examined the expression of the Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei brucei gene that encodes the DNA polymerase alpha catalytic core (pol alpha). The protein sequence contains the six conserved regions that have been recognized previously in eukaryotic and viral replicative DNA polymerases. In addition, we have identified a seventh region which appears to be conserved primarily in alpha-type DNA polymerases. The T.brucei DNA pol alpha core N-terminus is 123 and 129 amino acids smaller than that of the human and yeast homologue, respectively. The gene is separated by 386 bp from an upstream open reading frame (ORF) of 442 codons. Stable transcripts of the upstream sequence are detected in both dividing and non-dividing forms, while pol alpha transcripts are detected principally in dividing forms. Allelic copies of the T.brucei pol alpha region exhibit restriction site polymorphisms; one such sequence polymorphism affects the amino acid sequence of the T.brucei DNA pol alpha core. The T.brucei pol alpha region cross-hybridizes weakly with that of T.(Nannomonas) congolense and T.(Duttonella) vivax. Images PMID:1754381

Leegwater, P A; Strating, M; Murphy, N B; Kooy, R F; van der Vliet, P C; Overdulve, J P

1991-01-01

204

Constitutive expression of the poplar WRKY transcription factor PtoWRKY60 enhances resistance to Dothiorella gregaria Sacc. in transgenic plants.  

PubMed

WRKY proteins are involved in various physiological processes in plants, especially in coping with diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, limited information is available on the roles of specific WRKY transcription factors in poplar defense. In this study, we reported the characterization of PtoWRKY60, a Group IIa WRKY member, from Populus tomentosa Carr. The gene expression profile of PtoWRKY60 in various tissues showed that it significantly accumulated in old leaves. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PtoWRKY60 had a close relationship with AtWRKY18, AtWRKY40 and AtWRKY60. PtoWRKY60 was induced mainly by salicylic acid (SA) and slightly by Dothiorella gregaria Sacc., jasmonic acid, wounding treatment, low temperature and salinity stresses. Overexpression of PtoWRKY60 in poplar resulted in increased resistance to D. gregaria. The defense-associated genes, such as PR5.1, PR5.2, PR5.4, PR5.5 and CPR5, were markedly up-regulated in transgenic plants overexpressing PtoWRKY60. These results indicate that PtoWRKY60 might be partly involved in the signal transduction pathway initiated by SA in Populus. PMID:25281841

Ye, Shenglong; Jiang, Yuanzhong; Duan, Yanjiao; Karim, Abdul; Fan, Di; Yang, Li; Zhao, Xin; Yin, Jia; Luo, Keming

2014-10-01

205

Constitutional chromosomal breakage  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were 18 individuals found to have a constitutional chromosome fragility causing an increase in break frequency. For each chromosome the breakpoint is always the same, whether it involves chromosomes from the same person, the same family, or different families. The fragile points are bands 10q24, 12q13, 16q21, 17p12, and Xq27. Autosomal constitutional fragility does not seem to have a

F. Giraud; S. Ayme; J. F. Mattei; M. G. Mattei

1976-01-01

206

Purification from rat liver of a novel constitutively expressed member of the aldo-keto reductase 7 family that is widely distributed in extrahepatic tissues.  

PubMed Central

Antiserum raised against human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 1 (hAFAR1) has been used to identify a previously unrecognized rat aldo-keto reductase (AKR). This novel enzyme is designated rat aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 2 (rAFAR2) and it characteristically migrates faster during SDS/PAGE than does the archetypal ethoxyquin-inducible rAFAR protein (now called rAFAR1). Significantly, rAFAR2 is essentially unreactive with polyclonal antibodies raised against rAFAR1. Besides its distinct electrophoretic and immunochemical properties, rAFAR2 appears to be regulated differently from rAFAR1 as it is expressed in most rat tissues and does not appear to be induced by ethoxyquin. Multiple forms of rAFAR2 have been identified. Anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, followed by adsorption chromatography on columns of Matrex Orange A and Cibacron Blue, have been employed to purify rAFAR2 from rat liver cytosol. The Q-Sepharose chromatography step resulted in the resolution of rAFAR2 into three peaks of AKR activity, two of which were purified and shown to be capable of catalysing the reduction of 2-carboxybenzaldehyde, succinic semialdehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and 9,10-phenathrenequinone. The two most highly purified rAFAR2-containing preparations eluted from the Cibacron Blue column were 91 and 98% homogeneous. Analysis of these by SDS/PAGE indicated that the least anionic (peak CBA5) comprised a polypeptide of 37.0 kDa, whereas the most anionic (peak CBA6) contained two closely migrating polypeptides of 36.8 and 37.0 kDa; by contrast, in the present study, rAFAR1 was estimated by SDS/PAGE to be composed of 38.0 kDa subunits. Final purification of the 37 kDa polypeptide in CBA5 and CBA6 was accomplished by reversed-phase HPLC. Partial proteolysis of the two preparations of the 37 kDa polypeptide with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease yielded fragments of identical size, suggesting that they represent the product of a single gene. Furthermore, the peptide maps from CBA5 and CBA6 differed substantially from that yielded by rAFAR1, indicating that they are genetically distinct from the inducible reductase. A peptide generated by CNBr digestion of the 37 kDa polypeptide from CBA6 was shown by Edman degradation to share 88% sequence identity with residues Tyr(168)-Leu(183) of rAFAR1. This provides evidence that the rat protein identified by its cross-reactivity with anti-hAFAR1 serum is an additional member of the AKR7 family. PMID:10816434

Kelly, V P; Ireland, L S; Ellis, E M; Hayes, J D

2000-01-01

207

Human & Constitutional Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Arthur W. Diamond Law Library at Columbia Law School maintains this excellent resource for finding materials on human rights and constitutional rights. The metasite serves students, scholars, and practitioners as a portal to documents and Internet resources on international and domestic law related to human and constitutional rights. The information resources are divided into six sections: Country Reports, International Links, Regional Links, National Links, Documents, and Other Web Resources. Each section is clearly organized into neat lists or pop-up menus to ease navigation. Marylin Raisch -- the International, Comparative, and Foreign Law Librarian responsible for this metasite -- also provides a Hot Topics section, which posts information on current events related to human and constitutional rights.

208

National Constitution Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 4, 2003, the new National Constitution Center will open in a brand new facility within Independence Historical Park in Philadelphia that will help it pursue its mission of "increasing public understanding of, and appreciation for, the Constitution, its history, and its contemporary relevance." Visitors will want to take the virtual tour available online, which moves through the building's Great Hall, the Kimmel Theatre (which will be used for museum orientation programs), the DeVos Exhibit Hall, and the rest of the building's different areas. As might be expected, the Web site has an online version of the complete Constitution (in English and Spanish), along with helpful educational resources such as lesson plans for grades K-12. The site is rounded out by information for visitors and a "Save the Bill of Rights!" educational game where students help recover the Bill of Rights by looking for clues in a series of graphic images depicting each right protected by this important document.

209

Computational Analysis and Low-Scale Constitutive Expression of Laccases Synthetic Genes GlLCC1 from Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B from Pleurotus ostreatus in Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

Lacasses are multicopper oxidases that can catalyze aromatic and non-aromatic compounds concomitantly with reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases have generated a growing interest due to their biotechnological potential applications, such as lignocellulosic material delignification, biopulping and biobleaching, wastewater treatment, and transformation of toxic organic pollutants. In this work we selected fungal genes encoding for laccase enzymes GlLCC1 in Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B in Pleurotus ostreatus. These genes were optimized for codon use, GC content, and regions generating secondary structures. Laccase proposed computational models, and their interaction with ABTS [2, 2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] substrate was evaluated by molecular docking. Synthetic genes were cloned under the control of Pichia pastoris glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) constitutive promoter. P. pastoris X-33 was transformed with pGAPZ?A-LaccGluc-Stop and pGAPZ?A-LaccPost-Stop constructs. Optimization reduced GC content by 47 and 49% for LaccGluc-Stop and LaccPost-Stop genes, respectively. A codon adaptation index of 0.84 was obtained for both genes. 3D structure analysis using SuperPose revealed LaccGluc-Stop is similar to the laccase crystallographic structure 1GYC of Trametes versicolor. Interaction analysis of the 3D models validated through ABTS, demonstrated higher substrate affinity for LaccPost-Stop, in agreement with our experimental results with enzymatic activities of 451.08 ± 6.46 UL-1 compared to activities of 0.13 ± 0.028 UL-1 for LaccGluc-Stop. This study demonstrated that G. lucidum GlLCC1 and P. ostreatus POXA 1B gene optimization resulted in constitutive gene expression under GAP promoter and ?-factor leader in P. pastoris. These are important findings in light of recombinant enzyme expression system utility for environmentally friendly designed expression systems, because of the wide range of substrates that laccases can transform. This contributes to a great gamut of products in diverse settings: industry, clinical and chemical use, and environmental applications. PMID:25611746

Reyes-Guzmán, Edwin Alfredo; Poutou-Pińales, Raúl A.; Reyes-Montańo, Edgar Antonio; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio; Cardozo-Bernal, Ángela M.

2015-01-01

210

Computational analysis and low-scale constitutive expression of laccases synthetic genes GlLCC1 from Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B from Pleurotus ostreatus in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Lacasses are multicopper oxidases that can catalyze aromatic and non-aromatic compounds concomitantly with reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases have generated a growing interest due to their biotechnological potential applications, such as lignocellulosic material delignification, biopulping and biobleaching, wastewater treatment, and transformation of toxic organic pollutants. In this work we selected fungal genes encoding for laccase enzymes GlLCC1 in Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B in Pleurotus ostreatus. These genes were optimized for codon use, GC content, and regions generating secondary structures. Laccase proposed computational models, and their interaction with ABTS [2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] substrate was evaluated by molecular docking. Synthetic genes were cloned under the control of Pichia pastoris glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) constitutive promoter. P. pastoris X-33 was transformed with pGAPZ?A-LaccGluc-Stop and pGAPZ?A-LaccPost-Stop constructs. Optimization reduced GC content by 47 and 49% for LaccGluc-Stop and LaccPost-Stop genes, respectively. A codon adaptation index of 0.84 was obtained for both genes. 3D structure analysis using SuperPose revealed LaccGluc-Stop is similar to the laccase crystallographic structure 1GYC of Trametes versicolor. Interaction analysis of the 3D models validated through ABTS, demonstrated higher substrate affinity for LaccPost-Stop, in agreement with our experimental results with enzymatic activities of 451.08 ± 6.46 UL-1 compared to activities of 0.13 ± 0.028 UL-1 for LaccGluc-Stop. This study demonstrated that G. lucidum GlLCC1 and P. ostreatus POXA 1B gene optimization resulted in constitutive gene expression under GAP promoter and ?-factor leader in P. pastoris. These are important findings in light of recombinant enzyme expression system utility for environmentally friendly designed expression systems, because of the wide range of substrates that laccases can transform. This contributes to a great gamut of products in diverse settings: industry, clinical and chemical use, and environmental applications. PMID:25611746

Rivera-Hoyos, Claudia M; Morales-Álvarez, Edwin David; Poveda-Cuevas, Sergio Alejandro; Reyes-Guzmán, Edwin Alfredo; Poutou-Pińales, Raúl A; Reyes-Montańo, Edgar Antonio; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio; Cardozo-Bernal, Ángela M

2015-01-01

211

Constitutional Chapel and Music  

E-print Network

Constitutional change at BNC Chapel and Music Diary 2010-11 In the year that one of his pupils song GoldenEye 30 January 2011 Phantasm The viol quartet gained international fame when its debut CD Consort- in-Residence at Oxford University and they regularly appear at the Holywell Music Room and other

Oxford, University of

212

NJIT Student Senate Constitution  

E-print Network

1 NJIT Student Senate Constitution Last Amended: September 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS Article I ­ Name as the Student Senate of the New Jersey Institute of Technology and may also be referred to as the NJIT Student Senate. ARTICLE II - PURPOSE AND DUTIES SECTION 1: In that The NJIT Student Senate is the only duly

Bieber, Michael

213

COLLEGE OF ELECTORS CONSTITUTION  

E-print Network

44755 COLLEGE OF ELECTORS CONSTITUTION I AUTHORITY Pursuant to the provisions of The University of Toronto Alumni Association (UTAA) of October 28, 1971 to establish a College of Electors. The Governing Council, on June 20, 1974 gave a continuing mandate to the College of Electors to elect the alumni members

Boonstra, Rudy

214

The Constitution in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

Potter, Lee Ann

2007-01-01

215

US CONSTITUTION 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Continue to study and review the uS Constitution. Welcome now get ready to study the document which has allowed our great nation to grow, provide our citizens to flourish, and ispired nations around the world. Answer each question in your spiral. Define the following. 1. admirality and maritime law 2.Bill of Rights 3. clear and ...

dramsden

2013-04-08

216

Crushed Salt Constitutive Model  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

Callahan, G.D.

1999-02-01

217

N-glycosylation-dependent control of functional expression of background potassium channels K2P3.1 and K2P9.1.  

PubMed

Two-pore domain potassium (K(2P)) channels play fundamental roles in cellular processes by enabling a constitutive leak of potassium from cells in which they are expressed, thus influencing cellular membrane potential and activity. Hence, regulation of these channels is of critical importance to cellular function. A key regulatory mechanism of K(2P) channels is the control of their cell surface expression. Membrane protein delivery to and retrieval from the cell surface is controlled by their passage through the secretory and endocytic pathways, and post-translational modifications regulate their progression through these pathways. All but one of the K(2P) channels possess consensus N-linked glycosylation sites, and here we demonstrate that the conserved putative N-glycosylation site in K(2P)3.1 and K(2P)9.1 is a glycan acceptor site. Patch clamp analysis revealed that disruption of channel glycosylation reduced K(2P)3.1 current, and flow cytometry was instrumental in attributing this to a decreased number of channels on the cell surface. Similar findings were observed when cells were cultured in reduced glucose concentrations. Disruption of N-linked glycosylation has less of an effect on K(2P)9.1, with a small reduction in number of channels on the surface observed, but no functional implications detected. Because nonglycosylated channels appear to pass through the secretory pathway in a manner comparable with glycosylated channels, the evidence presented here suggests that the decreased number of nonglycosylated K(2P)3.1 channels on the cell surface may be due to their decreased stability. PMID:23250752

Mant, Alexandra; Williams, Sarah; Roncoroni, Laura; Lowry, Eleanor; Johnson, Daniel; O'Kelly, Ita

2013-02-01

218

Explore the Constitution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you type the words â??U.S. Constitutionâ?ť into Google, the search engine returns about 31 million results. Thatâ??s a lot of talk about a document written by a handful of scholar-politicians in an upstart republic more than 227 years ago. Yet less than a quarter of Americans have actually read the document. This site, hosted by the National Constitution Center, includes the United States Constitution in its entirety, divided clearly by Article and Amendment, and annotated with notes by the Annenberg Classroom. Perhaps best of all, you can browse the site by Issue. For instance, click on Abortion and explore how the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court ruling was based on Ninth and 14th Amendment rights.

219

The Constitution in Other Lands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for classroom teaching, this document contains articles on the new constitutions of Japan, South Korea, and the Philippine Islands which were modeled in part on the U.S. Constitution. These countries' experiences with constitutional government are examined, and whether or not the U.S. Constitution can be a suitable model for other…

Bill of Rights in Action, 1987

1987-01-01

220

Thomas Jefferson and the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines Thomas Jefferson's role in the making and interpretation of the United States Constitution. Discusses the dominant features of Jefferson's constitutional theory; the character of Jefferson's presidency; and Jefferson's ongoing concern about constitutional preservation and change. Lists important dates in the history of the constitution.…

Peterson, Merrill D.

1987-01-01

221

Bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids from ginkgo biloba extract induce the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes through Pregnane X receptor, Constitutive androstane receptor, and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathways  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective of the current study is to investigate the hypothesis that bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) induce human hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters through the selective activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Methods Human primary hepatocyte (HPH), and HepG2 cells are used as in vitro models for enzyme induction and nuclear receptor activation studies. A combination of real-time RT-PCR, transient transfection, and cell-based reporter assays were employed. Results In human primary hepatocytes, real-time PCR analysis showed induction of CYP2B6, CYP3A4, UGT1A1, MDR1, and MRP2 by EGb 761, ginkgolide A (GA) and ginkgolide B (GB), but not by bilobalide (BB) or the flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and tamarixetin) of GBE. Cell-based reporter assays in HepG2 revealed that GA and GB are potent activators of PXR; quercetin and kaempferol activate PXR, CAR, and AhR, whereas BB exerts no effects on these xenobiotic receptors. Notably, the flavonoids induced the expression of UGT1A1 and CYP1A2 in HepG2 cells but not in HPH. Conclusion Our results indicate that terpenoids and flavonoids of GBE exhibit differential induction of DMEs through the selective activation of PXR, CAR, and AhR. PMID:19034627

Li, Linhao; Stanton, Joseph D; Tolson, Antonia H; Luo, Yuan; Wang, Hongbing

2008-01-01

222

Constitution, 30 September 1987.  

PubMed

This document reprints provisions of Suriname's 1987 Constitution relating to freedom of movement, equality of the sexes, the right to life, the right to physical integrity, equal opportunity in employment, the family, children, maternity benefits, the right to health care, parental responsibilities, free and compulsory education, illiteracy, and housing. All citizens enjoy freedom of movement within the bounds of the law. All people within the territory may claim protection of their person and property, and discrimination is forbidden on the basis of birth, sex, race, language, religion, education, political beliefs, economic position, or other status. Torture or inhuman treatment and punishment is banned, and the right to life is protected by the law. The state guarantees the right to work, and all employees have the right to equal remuneration for equal work, safe working conditions, and sufficient rest and recreation. The family is protected, and husbands and wives are equal before the law. Children have the right to protection, and working women are entitled to paid maternity leave. The state promotes the right to good health by systematic improvements in living and working conditions and dissemination of health education. The right to education is protected by the provision of free general primary education and efforts of the state to enable all citizens to achieve the highest educational levels possible. The Constitution also calls for the institution of a plan to allow the state to create public housing. PMID:12346681

1987-01-01

223

Conscience and the Constitution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion site to the PBS national broadcast December 2000, of "Conscience and the Constitution" examines the historical and moral issues surrounding the decision of a handful of Japanese to refuse to be drafted from their location in an American concentration camp in 1944. The site also looks at the history of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), an organization of first generation Japanese-Americans that not only supported the efforts of the US military to apprehend and relocate Japanese citizens, but opposed all efforts of individual Japanese-Americans to challenge the constitutionality of the government's actions. In addition to the thoughtful narration of the history and the controversy it continues to generate, the Website provides access to original documents of the parties involved, including letters and statements from the draft resisters, who eventually served more than two years hard labor, the columns of the journalist who supported their civil disobedience, and public statements and correspondence of the JACL. Some video portions of the broadcast are also available here in RealPlayer.

224

Polity.org: Constitutional Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Full text of the new South African Constitution, adopted by the Constitutional Assembly on May 8, 1996, and the full text of President Nelson Mandela's address to the Constitutional Assembly upon its adoption, are available via the Web. The constitution is available as a single file, and as plain text, WordPerfect 5.1, 6.1 and Microsoft Word 6.0 .zip files.

1996-01-01

225

Constitutive models in LAME.  

SciTech Connect

The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented and the methods necessary for achieving accurate and efficient solutions have been incorporated. The most important method is the getStress function where the actual material model evaluation takes place. Obviously, all material models incorporate this function. The initialize function is included in most material models. The initialize function is called once at the beginning of an analysis and its primary purpose is to initialize the material state variables associated with the model. Many times, there is some information which can be set once per load step. For instance, we may have temperature dependent material properties in an analysis where temperature is prescribed. Instead of setting those parameters at each iteration in a time step, it is much more efficient to set them once per time step at the beginning of the step. These types of load step initializations are performed in the loadStepInit method. The final function used by many models is the pcElasticModuli method which changes the moduli that are to be used by the elastic preconditioner in Adagio. The moduli for the elastic preconditioner are set during the initialization of Adagio. Sometimes, better convergence can be achieved by changing these moduli for the elastic preconditioner. For instance, it typically helps to modify the preconditioner when the material model has temperature dependent moduli. For many material models, it is not necessary to change the values of the moduli that are set initially in the code. Hence, those models do not have pcElasticModuli functions. All four of these methods receive information from the matParams structure as described by Scherzinger and Hammerand.

Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

2007-09-01

226

New Constitutive Vectors: Useful Genetic Engineering Tools for Biocatalysis  

PubMed Central

Constitutive vectors are useful tools for genetic engineering. Two constitutive vectors with high levels of expression and broad host ranges were developed and used in a range of Pseudomonas hosts. The vectors showed superior characteristics compared to the inducible vectors as well as the potential to be used as improved genetic tools for biocatalysis. PMID:23416993

Xu, Youqiang; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

2013-01-01

227

Guidelines for Teaching and Testing the Illinois Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document sets forth guidelines for teaching and testing public school students on the principles of democratic government as expressed in the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of Illinois. Identification is made of ways of making the examination required by the state of Illinois not only an integral part of…

Illinois State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield. Instructional Services Unit.

228

The Constitution Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, The Constitution Project (TCP) started the bipartisan Task Force on Detainee Treatment. The purpose of TCP is to "bring the American people a comprehensive understanding of what is known and what may still be unknown about the past and current treatment of detainees by the U.S. government, as part of the counterterrorism policies of the Obama, Bush, and Clinton administrations." Visitors to their site can learn about their efforts to shed light on these various activities, and it is a good idea to take a quick look over their "Headline News" area to get started. Users should not miss the report "Principles for Government Data Mining", which can be found near the bottom of the homepage. This section is dedicated to looking into the threats to civil liberties posed by government data mining programs and recommends a series of reforms. Along with reading the report here, users can watch a webcast that features a panel of experts discussing the report's findings and future directions.

229

Conversations on the Constitution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps the United States might be a better place if at the dinner table one interested party might ask the question, "Hey Mom, can we talk about the establishment clause tonight?" Until such topics spontaneously arrive in a pre-prandial setting like the one just mentioned, there will still be great interest in this lovely website created by the American Bar Association. As its mission statement declares, "This project is designed to further dialogue in schools and in the workplace about American constitutional principles and values." Within the site, visitors can peruse a list of topics, such as war powers, the establishment of religion, and cruel and unusual punishment. Each area has a brief overview of each topic, and then three "starter" questions. These starter questions feature a list of specific queries, accompanied by brief illustrations (such as political cartoons and the like) that can be used at the dinner table, the boardroom table, or just about any table. Finally, interested parties can also take a few interactive tests on such areas as Supreme Court rulings and students' rights in the classroom.

230

Constitution, 1989. [Selected provisions].  

PubMed

Chapter XII of the Hungarian Constitution, 1989, details the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens. Everyone lawfully within the territory of Hungary has the right to liberty of movement and the freedom to choose his or her residence, except when restricted by law, including the right to leave his or her residence or county. The Republic of Hungary grants asylum to foreign citizens who were persecuted for racial, religious ethnic, linguistic, or political reasons. Men and women shall equally enjoy all civil, political, economic, social and political rights. Mothers are entitled to special care and protection before and after childbirth; women and juveniles are protected at work by special regulations. Every child has the right to special care an assistance from his or her family, the State, and society, for appropriate physical, spiritual, and moral development. Parents shall decide the kind of education their children receive. Hungary grants equal rights to all person within its territories, without regard to race, color, sex, language, religion, political, or other opinion, national, and social origin, property, birth and other status. Prejudicial discrimination shall be severely punished. Everyone has the right to work, to the free choice of employment and profession and to equal pay for equal work. Citizens have the right to social security, including social services necessary in old age, sickness, disability, widowhood, orphanhood an unemployment through no fault of their own. Hungary guarantees the right to culture for its citizens and realized this right by free and compulsory elementary education, by secondary and higher education which is accessible to all on the basis of capacity, and by the financial support of those receiving an education. PMID:12344373

1989-01-01

231

Natural resources - constitutional law  

SciTech Connect

New England Power Co. reaffirms Congressional authority under the commerce clause to regulate interstate trade in natural resources. The Supreme Court has consistently held that states cannot restrict to their own citizens the benefits of natural resources located within state boundaries. As a result, a state's control over such resources is largely limited to taxing their generation or extraction. New England Power Co. reiterates the Court's adamant stand against economic protectionism, especially when natural resources are concerned. Secondarily, this case establishes that Congressional consent to otherwise impermissible state regulation of interstate commerce must be express; the Court will not infer such consent. 29 references.

Jorgensen, C.L.

1983-10-01

232

Constitutive equations of ageing polymeric materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The constitutive equation for the relaxation behavior of time-dependent, chemically unstable materials developed by Valanis and Peng (1983), which used the irreversible thermodynamics of internal variables in Eyring's absolute reaction theory and yielded a theoretical expression for the effect of chemical crosslink density on the relaxation rate, is presently applied to the creep behavior of a network polymer which is undergoing a scission process. In particular, two equations are derived which may for the first time show the relations between mechanical models and internal variables in the creep expressions, using a three-element model with a Maxwell element.

Peng, S. T. J.

1985-01-01

233

The Texas Constitutions Digitization Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the Tarlton Law Library at the University of Texas School of law, this site offers digital copies of the twelve constitutions of the State (and Republic) of Texas drafted between 1824 and 1876. Both transcriptions and digital images of the original documents are provided, along with a bibliography of printings, a supplemental bibliography, and a link to the relevant Handbook of Texas article. A Spanish version is also available for a few of the constitutions. An internal search engine, an annotated bibliography on the constitutions, a bibliography on Texas constitutional history, and a collection of related links are also provided.

234

Constitutions and Political Reconstruction? Israel's Quest for a Constitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Israel's Declaration of the Foundation of the State of 14 May 1948 specified, as required by UN Resolution 181, that Israel be a constitutional democracy. The constituent assembly was only elected in 1949, after the 1948 war, and made itself into the first Knesset, thus conflating constitution-making and regular legislative authority. In 1950, the young state decided not to enact

Ruth Gavison

2003-01-01

235

Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in human glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in human glomerulonephritis.BackgroundWe have recently demonstrated that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a pathogenic role in experimental glomerulonephritis (GN). The aim of the current study was to investigate MIF expression in human GN.MethodsMIF expression was examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry staining in 65 biopsies from a variety of glomerulonephridities.ResultsThere is constitutive

Hui Y Lan; Niansheng Yang; David J Nikolic-Paterson; Xue Q Yu; Wei Mu; Nicole M Isbel; Christine N Metz; Richard Bucala; Robert C Atkins

2000-01-01

236

Expressions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you need help learning how to simplify expressions? In this simulation, you will not only learn how to add and subtract like terms, but you will also learn how to simplify variable expressions. At the end of this lesson, you can practice your mathematics in a short quiz!

2007-01-01

237

The Constitution and Its Critics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In planning a freshman undergraduate curriculum with colleagues recently, the question arose as to what type of understanding educators wanted to impart to their students about the Constitution. The alleged defects of the Constitution that these books point to are wide-ranging and can be classified into various categories. Some problems--such as…

Main, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

238

Formal State Constitutional Change Processesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constitutional change in democracies occurs in two ways: by altering the meaning of the document through interpretation, or by altering the text of the document through amendment or revision. For the United States Constitution, change through interpretation predominates. Review of the extensive experience of the American states with \\

Gerald Benjamin

239

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW Political Science 320  

E-print Network

@cofc.edu ________________________________________________________________________ I. CONTENT & OBJECTIVES This course is an examination of the United States Constitution1 CONSTITUTIONAL LAW Political Science 320 Maybank Room 111 T/TH 10:50-12:05 Spring 2013 branches of the federal government, the balance of power between the state and federal government

Young, Paul Thomas

240

Constitutional Issues in Information Privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Constitution has been largely ignored in the recent flurry of privacy laws and regulations designed to protect personal information from incursion by the private sector, despite the fact that many of these enactments and efforts to enforce them significantly implicate the First Amendment. Questions about the role of the Constitution have assumed new importance in the aftermath of

Fred Cate; Robert E. Litan

2001-01-01

241

Constitutional Issues in Information Privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Constitution has been largely ignored in the recent flurry of privacy laws and regulations designed to protect personal information from incursion by the private sector, despite the fact that many of these enactments and efforts to enforce them significantly implicate the First Amendment. Questions about the role of the Constitution have assumed new importance in the aftermath of

Fred H Cate; Robert E. Litan

2002-01-01

242

Constitution And Bylaws: 2004 Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the constitution and bylaws of the Distance Education and Training Council. The constitution and bylaws include 13 articles. Sections include: Name; Mission and Goals; Administration of the Council; Membership; Meetings; The Commission; Terms of Office; Officers; Committees; Compensation; Dues and Assessments; Miscellaneous…

Distance Education and Training Council, 2004

2004-01-01

243

Antisense Suppression of a (1)-d-Cadinene Synthase Gene in Cotton Prevents the Induction of This Defense Response Gene during Bacterial Blight Infection But Not Its Constitutive Expression1(w)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) the enzyme (1)-d-cadinene synthase (CDNS) catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of cadinane-type sesquiterpenes, such as gossypol, that provide constitutive and inducible protection against pests and diseases. A cotton cDNA clone encoding CDNS (cdn1-C4) was isolated from developing embryos and functionally characterized. Southern analysis showed that CDNS genes belong to a large multigene family,

Belinda J. Townsend; Andrew Poole; Christopher J. Blake; Danny J. Llewellyn

244

Constitutive modeling of active polymers  

E-print Network

This thesis develops a three-dimensional constitutive model of active polymeric materials, including changes in material volume and properties due to actuation. Active polymers reversibly change shape, volume and/or material ...

Therkelsen, Scott V. (Scott Vincent), 1980-

2005-01-01

245

Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

246

The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how the framers of the Constitution came to choose our system of government, how that system was designed to function, and how the separation of powers has served to maintain our democracy despite attempts to violate it. (JDH)

Peach, Lucinda

1986-01-01

247

32 CFR 770.27 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

2011-07-01

248

32 CFR 770.27 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

2012-07-01

249

32 CFR 770.27 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

2013-07-01

250

32 CFR 770.27 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

2010-07-01

251

32 CFR 770.27 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

2014-07-01

252

Constitutively overexpressed 21 kDa protein in Hodgkin lymphoma and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas identified as cytochrome B5b (CYB5B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a novel constitutively overexpressed 21 kDa protein in Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) and aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL). The objective of the current study was to 1) identify this protein using two independent methods, 2) study the expression of the protein and its encoding mRNA in reactive lymph nodes, normal lymphocytes and CD34+ bone marrow precursor cells,

Derek Murphy; Jeremy Parker; Minglong Zhou; Faisal M Fadlelmola; Christian Steidl; Aly Karsan; Randy D Gascoyne; Hong Chen; Diponkar Banerjee

2010-01-01

253

GMAX Yeast Background Strain Made from Industrial Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Engineered to Convert Sucrose, Starch and Cellulosic Sugars Universally to Ethanol Anaerobically with Concurrent Coproduct Expression  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tailored GMAX yeast background strain technology for universal ethanol production industrially. Production of the stable baseline glucose, mannose, arabinose, xylose-utilizing (GMAX) yeast will be evaluated by taking the genes identified in high-throughput screening for a plasmid-based yeast to uti...

254

Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics is a treasure trove of political primary documents that have influenced the U.S. government as well as many other countries with Republican forms of government around the world. The site makes available documents online it a variety of formats, each format is given a symbol the user can then choose which format (html, pdf, word, etc) they would prefer. The primary documents range from the Code of Hammurabi (c.1780 BCE), to Civil Disobedience by Henry David Thoreau (1849). The documents are arranged chronologically to make searching simple. Students will find this site especially useful and perhaps even a cost effective way of accessing documents for class readings or research. Instructors will also enjoy the easy access to these sources. The site also contains links to other collections including, U.S. State Constitutions, National Constitutions (from around the world), and Landmark Court Decisions.

Roland, Jon

255

Differential gene expression mediated by 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Given the immuno-modulatory activity of native haemozoin (Hz), the effects of constitutive Hz components on immune response are of interest. Recently, gene expression changes mediated by HNE and the synthetic analogue of Hz, beta-haematin (BH), were identified and implicated a significant role for lipid peroxidation products in Hz's activity. The study presented herein examines gene expression changes in response

Alexandra C Schrimpe; David W Wright

2009-01-01

256

Constitutive IL-10 production accounts for the high NK sensitivity, low MHC class I expression, and poor transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-1/2 function in the prototype NK target YAC-1.  

PubMed

Tumor cells that are treated with rIL-10 or transfected with the IL-10 gene show phenotypic changes. These include low but peptide-inducible expression of MHC class I, low sensitivity to specific CTL-mediated lysis, and increased NK sensitivity. In vitro-established mouse tumor lines were screened for IL-10 expression and production, and a large proportion of plasmocytomas or T cell lymphomas were found to produce IL-10. Since one of these lines was the prototype NK target cell YAC-1, we investigated whether the high IL-10 production of this cell line was related to its high NK sensitivity and its defects in MHC class I expression. The decrease in H-2 expression following the in vitro culture of in vivo-passaged YAC-1 cells was accompanied by a gradual increase in IL-10 production, whereas the reverse was found when passing in vitro-grown YAC-1 in vivo as an ascites tumor in syngenic mice. In addition, differences in YAC-1 MHC class I expression correlated with alterations in the functional activity of TAP-1/2 proteins. YAC-1 cells that were transduced with a retroviral IL-10 antisense construct (Y-IL-10 AS) only produced about half of the IL-10 that was produced by YAC-1 transduced with the control construct (Y-IL-10 Mock). Relative to Y-IL-10 Mock cells, the expression of H-2 on Y-IL-10 AS cells was markedly increased, and NK sensitivity was decreased. These data argue for a mechanism wherein IL-10 production is causally related to the low H-2 expression, decreased TAP function, and high NK sensitivity of YAC-1 cells. PMID:9725200

Petersson, M; Charo, J; Salazar-Onfray, F; Noffz, G; Mohaupt, M; Qin, Z; Klein, G; Blankenstein, T; Kiessling, R

1998-09-01

257

Phenotypic and histological expression of different genetic backgrounds in interactions between lettuce, wild Lactuca spp., L. sativa × L. serriola hybrids and Bremia lactucae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic and histological responses of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and wild relatives L. saligna, L.?virosa as well as interspecific crosses derived from L. sativa × L. serriola to two races of Bremia lactucae (CS2, CS9) were investigated. With the exception of L. sativa genotypes, all accessions and hybrids expressed incomplete or complete resistance to both pathogen races, with slight differences

Aleš Lebeda; Michaela Sedlá?ová; James Lynn; David A. C. Pink

2006-01-01

258

President Mandela Address to Constitutional Assembly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Full text of the new South African Constitution, adopted by the Constitutional Assembly on May 8, 1996, and the full text of President Nelson Mandela's address to the Constitutional Assembly upon its adoption, are available via the Web.

Mandela, Nelson, 1918-.

1996-01-01

259

Digital Media Design Students Constitution  

E-print Network

Digital Media Design Students Constitution ARTICLE I: ORGANIZATION'S NAME AND PURPOSE Section 1. Name The name of this organization is Digital Media Design Students (DMDS). Section 2: Purpose A. To promote, enhance and further develop educational and social achievements and interests in digital media. B

Jones, Michelle

260

Civil Liberties under State Constitutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses "new judicial federalism" as the rediscovery of state bills of rights for protecting civil liberties. Analyzes the differences in protection under state and federal bills of rights. Recommends that the growing importance of state constitutions be included in the political science curriculum and suggests bibliographic sources to be used.…

Tarr, G. Alan

1988-01-01

261

CONSTITUTION Article I--NAME  

E-print Network

CONSTITUTION Article I--NAME The Botany Club Article II--PURPOSE The Botany Club will foster--MEMBERSHIP Membership is open to all students, faculty, and staff that have an interest in Botany. Size is unlimited. We The Botany Club will elect a President, Vice President, and Treasurer once each year during the spring

262

The Laurel Collegiate Society CONSTITUTION  

E-print Network

The Laurel Collegiate Society CONSTITUTION (Revised 10/9/2008) ARTICLE I: A. Name The name of this organization shall be The Laurel Collegiate Society. B. Purpose The Laurel Collegiate Society enriches members shall not discriminate against any individual(s) for reasons of race, color, creed, religion

Jones, Michelle

263

Take Advantage of Constitution Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the idea and…

McCune, Bonnie F.

2008-01-01

264

Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization  

E-print Network

Polarization of the cosmic microwave background, though not yet detected, provides a source of information about cosmological parameters complementary to temperature fluctuations. This paper provides a complete theoretical treatment of polarization fluctuations. After a discussion of the physics of polarization, the Boltzmann equation governing the evolution of the photon density matrix is derived from quantum theory and applied to microwave background fluctuations, resulting in a complete set of transport equations for the Stokes parameters from both scalar and tensor metric perturbations. This approach is equivalent at lowest order in scattering kinematics to classical radiative transfer, and provides a general framework for treating the cosmological evolution of density matrices. The metric perturbations are treated in the physically appealing longitudinal gauge. Expressions for various temperature and polarization correlation functions are derived. Detection prospects and theoretical utility of microwave background polarization are briefly discussed.

Arthur Kosowsky

1995-02-03

265

Foundations of Our Constitution. Reflecting on September 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan provides background on six significant historical documents: (1) "Meeting at Runnymede--The Story of King John and the Magna Carta"; (2) "The Mayflower Compact"; (3) "The Declaration of Independence and Natural Rights"; (4) "The Federalist Papers"; (5) "Aristotle: In Search of the Best Constitution"; and (6) "The Pledge of…

Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

266

RNA editing of the Q/R site of GluA2 in different cultured cell lines that constitutively express different levels of RNA editing enzyme ADAR2.  

PubMed

Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) catalyzes RNA editing at the glutamine/arginine (Q/R) site of GluA2, and an ADAR2 deficiency may play a role in the death of motor neurons in ALS patients. The expression level of ADAR2 mRNA is a determinant of the editing activity at the GluA2 Q/R site in human brain but not in cultured cells. Therefore, we investigated the extent of Q/R site-editing in the GluA2 mRNA and pre-mRNA as well as the ADAR2 mRNA and GluA2 mRNA and pre-mRNA levels in various cultured cell lines. The extent of the GluA2 mRNA editing was 100% except in SH-SY5Y cells, which have a much lower level of ADAR2 than the other cell lines examined. The ADAR2 activity at the GluA2 pre-mRNA Q/R site correlated with the ADAR2 mRNA level relative to the GluA2 pre-mRNA. SH-SY5Y cells expressed higher level of the GluA2 mRNA in the cytoplasm compared with other cell lines. These results suggest that the ADAR2 expression level reflects editing activity at the GluA2 Q/R site and that although the edited GluA2 pre-mRNA is readily spliced, the unedited GluA2 pre-mRNA is also spliced and transported to the cytoplasm when ADAR2 expression is low. PMID:22366356

Yamashita, Takenari; Tadami, Chieko; Nishimoto, Yoshinori; Hideyama, Takuto; Kimura, Daisuke; Suzuki, Takeshi; Kwak, Shin

2012-05-01

267

Constitutive expression and alternative splicing of the exons encoding SCRs in Sp152 , the sea urchin homologue of complement factor B. Implications on the evolution of the Bf\\/C2 gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, possesses a non-adaptive immune system including elements homologous to C3 and factor B (Bf) of the vertebrate complement system. SpBf is composed of motifs typical of the Bf\\/C2 protein family. Expression of Sp152 (encodes SpBf) was identified in the phagocyte type of coelomocyte in addition to gut, pharynx and esophagus, which may have been

David P. Terwilliger; Lori A. Clow; Paul S. Gross; L. Courtney Smith

2004-01-01

268

Constitutive expression of hyaluronan binding protein 1 (HABP1\\/p32\\/gC1qR) in normal fibroblast cells perturbs its growth characteristics and induces apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyaluronan binding protein 1 (HABP1) is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional phospho-protein that interacts with a wide range of ligands and is implicated in cell signalling. Recently, we have reported that HABP1 is an endogenous substrate for MAP kinase and upon mitogenic stimulation it is translocated to the nucleus in a MAP kinase-dependent manner (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 291(4) (2002) 829–837).

J Meenakshi; Anupama; S. K Goswami; K Datta

2003-01-01

269

Constitutive behaviour of crushed ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ice-structure interaction, a zone of highly damaged ice is created near the structure surface. The crushed material of\\u000a this zone has large ductility and is subjected to complex load and deformation histories. In this paper, various aspects of\\u000a constitutive modelling of this material are discussed. The changes in microstructures such as cracks and grain boundaries\\u000a are modelled by a

S. K. Singh; I. J. Jordaan

1999-01-01

270

Judicial Illumination of the Constitutional \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police brutality is one of the most serious and enduring human rights violations in the United States today. One means by which victims may seek redress is under 42 U.S.C. 1983, which provides a civil cause of action against state actors who deprive individuals of their constitutional rights. This Note examines 1983 litigation brought by post-arrest, pretrial detainees alleging the

Eamonn OHagan

2003-01-01

271

Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The third and fourth years of a 4-year research program, part of the NASA HOST Program, are described. The program goals were: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analysis of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation were those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. The unified approach for elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations is a viable method for representing and predicting material response characteristics in the range where strain rate and temperature dependent inelastic deformations are experienced. This conclusion is reached by extensive comparison of model calculations against the experimental results of a test program of two high temperature Ni-base alloys, B1900+Hf and Mar-M247, over a wide temperature range for a variety of deformation and thermal histories including uniaxial, multiaxial, and thermomechanical loading paths. The applicability of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models for structural applications has been demonstrated by implementing these models into the MARC finite element code and by performing a number of analyses including thermomechanical histories on components of hot sections of gas turbine engines and benchmark notch tensile specimens. The results of the 4-year program have been published in four annual reports. The results of the base program are summarized in this report. The tasks covered include: (1) development of material test procedures, (2) thermal history effects, and (3) verification of the constitutive model for an alternative material.

Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.

1988-01-01

272

Constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) signaling pathway in fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) is an aggressive neoplasm due to high frequency of recurrence after surgical resection and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Activation of transcription factor NF-kB signaling pathway has been recognized for involvement in progression of various malignant neoplasms. The role of NF-kB pathway in FLHCC has not been studied to date. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 8 FLHCC, 10 normal liver tissues (NLT) were evaluated immunohistochemically for the expression of p-NF-kBp65 using phosphospecific antibody directed against phosphorylated (p)-NF-kBp65 (Ser 536). The level of p-NF-kBp65 (Ser 536) expression was categorized into four grades: 0 (background), 1+ (weak), 2+ (moderate), or 3+ (strong) based on intensity of intranuclear staining, and was further assessed using two scales: high expression (2+ or 3+) and low expression (0 or 1+). Only high expression of p-NF-kBp65 (Ser 536) in cells with nuclear translocation was considered as constitutive NF-kB activation. High expression of p-NF-kBp65 (Ser 536) was found in 88 % (7/8) of FLHCC tissue. In contrast, only 10 % (1/10) of NLT showed high expression for p-NF-kBp65 (Ser 536). The differences in p-NF-kBp65 nuclear expression between FLHCC tissue and NLT were significant (P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between the expression of intranuclear p-NF-kBp65 and the stage of FLHCC. Constitutive NF-kB activation was observed in FLHCC. The findings suggest that NF-kB activation is involved in the tumorigenesis of FLHCC and may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention to FLHCC. PMID:20224721

Li, Wei; Tan, Dongfeng; Zenali, Maryam J; Brown, Robert E

2010-01-01

273

What is a Twentieth-Century Constitution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, almost all of the constitutions in the world are twentieth-century constitutions; indeed, most of them were not adopted until the second half of the twentieth century. Accordingly, the eighteenth-century Constitution of the United States -- which includes the original constitution of 1787-89; the first ten amendments, adopted in 1791; and the Eleventh Amendment, adopted in 1798 -- antedates

Peter E. Quint

2007-01-01

274

Growth of hormone-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells is promoted by constitutive caveolin-1 whose expression is lost in an EGF-R-mediated manner during development of tamoxifen resistance.  

PubMed

Caveolin-1 displays both tumour-suppressor and tumour-promoter properties in breast cancer. Using characterised preclinical cell models for the transition of oestrogen-sensitive (WT-MCF-7 cells) to a tamoxifen-resistant (TAM-R cells) phenotype we examined the role caveolin-1 in the development of hormone-resistant breast cancer. The WT-MCF-7 cells showed abundant expression of caveolin-1 which potentiated oestrogen-receptor (ERalpha) signalling and promoted cell growth despite caveolin-1 mediating inhibition of ERK signalling. In TAM-R cells caveolin-1 expression was negligible, repressed by EGF-R/ERK signalling. Pharmacological inhibition of EGFR/ERK in TAM-R cells restored caveolin-1 and also resulted in the emergence of pools of phosphorylated caveolin-1. WT-MCF-7 cells exposed to tamoxifen for upto 12 weeks displayed increased caveolin-1 (peaking by week 2) followed (after week 8) by a marked decrease as the cells progress to develop a stable tamoxifen-resistant phenotype. The targeted down-regulation (siRNA) of caveolin-1 in WT-MCF-7 cells reduced growth but did not affect their sensitivity to tamoxifen, suggesting loss of caveolin-1 alone is not sufficient to confer tamoxifen-resistance. Hyperactivation of EGFR/ERK is a feature of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, a principal driver of cell growth. Recombinant expression of caveolin-1 in TAM-R cells did not affect EGFR/ERK activity, potentially due to mislocalisation of caveolin-1 through hyperactivation of the mTOR pathway or altered caveolin-1 phosphorylation. This work defines a novel role for caveolin-1 with implications for the clinical course of breast cancer and identifies caveolin-1 as a potential drug target for the treatment of early oestrogen-dependent breast cancers. Further, the loss of caveolin-1 may have benefit as a molecular signature for tamoxifen resistance. PMID:19288272

Thomas, Nicholas B P; Hutcheson, Iain R; Campbell, Lee; Gee, Julia; Taylor, Kathryn M; Nicholson, Robert I; Gumbleton, Mark

2010-02-01

275

The Rehnquist Court, Structural Due Process, and Semisubstantive Constitutional Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semisubstantive review, as I use that label, entails four key features. First, the subject matter of judicial inquiry is not the process applied in adjudicating a discrete dispute; rather, the matter at hand is the constitutionality of a statute or other generalized expression of legal policy. Second, some procedural omission by the lawmaker -- rather than an incurably substantive flaw

Dan T. Coenen

2002-01-01

276

Ayurvedic genomics, constitutional psychology, and endocrinology: the missing connection.  

PubMed

A recent methodological approach for human classification, diagnosis, and therapeutics through the combination of current Western constitutional psychology somatotypes and traditional Indian medicine (prakriti) body types and mind (manas) is herein presented. The striking similarities between psychologic somatotypes and Indian medicine body types permits proposal of a finite genopsycho-somatotyping of humans. Genopsycho-somatotyping of humans consists of a set of common physiologic, physical, and psychologic attributes related to a common basic birth constitution that remains somewhat permanent during human lifetime, since it is proposed that this birth constitution is programmed in the person's DNA (genes). This mainly provides a tool for classifying the human population based on broad and finite phenotype clusters across different ethnicity, languages, geographical location, or self-reported ancestry. In spite of any social or environmental traumatic event, I propose for males that every basic constitution has an associated identification organ, a measured property or marker, a soma, and some psyche general tendencies suggesting specific behavior or recurrent conduct. Three (3) basic extreme genopsycho-somatotypes or birth constitutions are enunciated: mesomorphic or andrus (Pitta), endomorphic or thymus (Khapa), and ectomorphic or thyrus (Vata). The method further predicts that male andrus constitution across races shares similarities in androgen (An) nuclear receptor behavior, whereas thymus constitutions are mainly regulated by T-cells (Tc) nuclear receptor behavior. Moreover, it suggests that thyrus constitutions share similarities in thyroxine (Th) nuclear receptor behavior. These proposed nuclear receptors are expected to regulate the expression of specific genes, thereby controlling the embryonic development, adult homeostasis, and metabolism of the human organism in a very profound way. The method finally predicts small differences in measured property (An, Tc, and Th nuclear receptors behavior) within a birth constitution across different races to be expected by modulation effects in melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor behavior. PMID:21563964

Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V

2011-05-01

277

Is the tobacco settlement constitutional?  

PubMed

In August 2005, the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI), a conservative advocacy organization, filed a lawsuit in Louisiana challenging the legality of the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA). The suit alleges that the MSA, under which the states receive monetary payments and the four major tobacco companies are insulated from price competition, violates the Compact Clause and other provisions of the U.S. Constitution. This lawsuit threatens to unravel of one of the most significant opportunities to improve public health in United States history. We consider the merits of the lawsuit, the problems with the MSA that it highlights, and the potential consequences of the suit for public health. PMID:17199817

Rajkumar, Rahul; Gross, Cary P; Forman, Howard P

2006-01-01

278

Constitutive equations for solid propellants  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical behavior of the Space Shuttle redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) propellant is studied from a phenomenological point of view. Motivated by the study of the experimental data three initially isotropic constitutive models have been developed. All models represent the effect of strain rate, superimposed hydrostatic pressure, and cyclic loading on the stress and dilatation response of the material. A particular emphasis is given to the prediction of volume dilatation. The model resulting in the best representation of the available data is calibrated using only a few tests. The predictions of the model are compared with experiments for several loading conditions not used in the calibration.

Oezuepek, S.; Becker, E.B. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics

1997-04-01

279

Non-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are direct agonists for the human pregnane-X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, and activate target gene expression in a tissue-specific manner  

SciTech Connect

The polychlorinated biphenyl group possesses high environmental persistence, leading to bioaccumulation and a number of adverse effects in mammals. Whilst coplanar PCBs elicit their toxic effects through agonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; however, non-coplanar PCBs are not ligands for AhR, but may be ligands for members of the nuclear receptor family of proteins. To better understand the biological actions of non-coplanar PCBs, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of their ability to activate PXR and CAR-mediated effects. Cells were exposed to a range of non-coplanar PCBs (99, 138, 153, 180 and 194), or the coplanar PCB77: Direct activation of PXR and CAR was measured using a mammalian receptor activation assay in human liver cells, with rifampicin and CITCO used as positive controls ligands for PXR and CAR, respectively; activation of target gene expression was examined using reporter gene plasmids for CYP3A4 and MDR1 transfected into liver, intestine and lung cell lines. Several of the non-coplanar PCBs directly activated PXR and CAR, whilst the coplanar PCB77 did not. Non-coplanar PCBs were also able to activate PXR/CAR target gene expression in a substitution- and tissue-specific manner. Non-coplanar PCBs act as direct activators for the nuclear receptors PXR and CAR, and are able to elicit transcriptional activation of target genes in a substitution- and tissue-dependent manner. Chronic activation of PXR/CAR is linked to adverse effects and must be included in any risk assessment of PCBs. -- Highlights: ? Several Non-coplanar PCBs are able to directly activate both PXR and CAR in vitro. ? PCB153 is the most potent direct activator of PXR and CAR nuclear receptors. ? Non-coplanar PCB activation of CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes is structure-dependent. ? Non-coplanar PCB activate CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes in a tissue-dependent. ? PCB153 is the most potent activator of PXR/CAR target gene in all tissues.

Al-Salman, Fadheela; Plant, Nick, E-mail: N.Plant@Surrey.ac.uk

2012-08-15

280

A macro-mechanical constitutive model for shape memory polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is of theoretical and engineering interest to establish a macro-mechanical constitutive model of the shape memory polymer (SMP), which includes the mechanical constitutive equation and the material parameter function, from the viewpoint of practical application. In this paper, a new three-dimensional macro-mechanical constitutive equation, which describes the mechanical behaviors associated with the shape memory effect of SMP, is developed based on solid mechanics and the viscoelasticity theorem. According to the results of the DMA test, a new material parameter function is established to express the relationship of the material parameters and temperature during the glass transition of SMP. The new macro-mechanical constitutive equation and material parameter function are used to numerically simulate the process producing the shape memory effect of SMP, which includes deforming at high temperature, stress freezing, unloading at low temperature and shape recovery. They are also used to investigate and analyze the influences of loading rate and temperature change rate on the thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMP. The numerical results and the comparisons with Zhou's material parameter function and Tobushi's mechanical constitutive equation illustrate that the proposed three-dimensional macro-mechanical constitutive model can effectively predict the thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMP under the state of complex stress.

Zhou, Bo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

2010-12-01

281

Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the program is to evaluate and develop existing constitutive models for use in finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. The class of constitutive equation studied is considered unified in that all inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation are treated in a single term rather than a classical separation of plasticity (time independent) and creep (time dependent) behavior. The unified theories employed also do not utilize the classical yield surface or plastic potential concept. The models are constructed from an appropriate flow law, a scalar kinetic relation between strain rate, temperature and stress, and evolutionary equations for internal variables describing strain or work hardening, both isotropic and directional (kinematic). This and other studies have shown that the unified approach is particularly suited for determining the cyclic behavior of superalloy type blade and vane materials and is entirely compatible with three-dimensional inelastic finite-element formulations. The behavior was examined of a second nickel-base alloy, MAR-M247, and compared it with the Bodner-Partom model, further examined procedures for determining the material-specific constants in the models, and exercised the MARC code for a turbine blade under simulated flight spectrum loading. Results are summarized.

Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.

1986-01-01

282

Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first year of progress on a NASA-Lewis contract with the General Electric Co is documented. The purpose of this contract (NAS3-23927) is to develop and evaluate unified constitutive equations for applications to hot-path components of aircraft gas turbine engines such as high pressure turbine blades and vanes. To accomplish this goal, uniaxial, notched, and multiaxial specimens made of conventionally cast Rene 80 are being tested under conditions that simulate engine operating conditions. To reduce the raw data, automated data reduction techniques are being developed that produce computer files containing the information needed to analyze proposed constitutive theories. Described are the analytical methods being developed to determine the parameters for these nonlinear unified theories by using the reduced data files. In another activity, a dedicated finite-element computer code is being developed to use unified theories in the structural analysis of hot-section components. This code was extensively verified for one such theory by successfully predicting the strain histories measured experimentally at the notch root of complex specimens taken from complex laboratory specimens.

Ramaswamy, V. G.; Vanstone, R. H.; Dame, L. T.; Laflen, J. H.

1985-01-01

283

Cloning and functional characterization of an Arabidopsis nitrate transporter gene that encodes a constitutive component of low-affinity uptake.  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis CHL1 (AtNRT1) gene encodes an inducible component of low-affinity nitrate uptake, which necessitates a "two-component" model to account for the constitutive low-affinity uptake observed in physiological studies. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a CHL1 homolog, AtNRT1:2 (originally named NTL1), with data to indicate that this gene encodes a constitutive component of low-affinity nitrate uptake. Transgenic plants expressing antisense AtNRT1:2 exhibited reduced nitrate-induced membrane depolarization and nitrate uptake activities in assays with 10 mM nitrate. Furthermore, transgenic plants expressing antisense AtNRT1:2 in the chl1-5 background exhibited an enhanced resistance to chlorate (7 mM as opposed to 2 mM for the chl1-5 mutant). Kinetic analysis of AtNRT1:2-injected Xenopus oocytes yielded a K(m) for nitrate of approximately 5.9 mM. In contrast to CHL1, AtNRT1:2 was constitutively expressed before and after nitrate exposure (it was repressed transiently only when the level of CHL1 mRNA started to increase significantly), and its mRNA was found primarily in root hairs and the epidermis in both young (root tips) and mature regions of roots. We conclude that low-affinity systems of nitrate uptake, like high-affinity systems, are composed of inducible and constitutive components and that with their distinct functions, they are part of an elaborate nitrate uptake network in Arabidopsis. PMID:10449574

Huang, N C; Liu, K H; Lo, H J; Tsay, Y F

1999-01-01

284

Normalisation genes for expression analyses in the brown alga model Ectocarpus siliculosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Brown algae are plant multi-cellular organisms occupying most of the world coasts and are essential actors in the constitution of ecological niches at the shoreline. Ectocarpus siliculosus is an emerging model for brown algal research. Its genome has been sequenced, and several tools are being developed to perform analyses at different levels of cell organization, including transcriptomic expression analyses.

Aude Le Bail; Simon M Dittami; Pierre-Olivier de Franco; Sylvie Rousvoal; Mark J Cock; Thierry Tonon; Bénédicte Charrier

2008-01-01

285

75 FR 57835 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010 Proclamation 8563--National POW...Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...Citizenship Day, and during Constitution Week, we commemorate the legacy passed...

2010-09-22

286

Madison, Montpelier and the Constitution: A Field Trip Experience for Students. Middle School Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key to a successful field trip is planning. This publication, designed to provide guidelines for the middle school teacher, outlines the step-by-step experience of a visit to Montpelier, the home of James Madison. A prefatory article by constitutional authority A. E. Dick Howard, called "James Madison and the Constitution," provides background

Biermann, Melanie; And Others

287

American Focus on World Constitutions. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum project was designed to familiarize high school students with their own constitutional roots while gaining a better understanding of governmental systems developed by other nations. The project uses the U.S. Constitution as a baseline for analyzing the constitutions of other nations, and is intended to supplement courses in such…

Holmes, Stanley T., III

288

Daniel Defoe and the Written Constitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, as constitutionalism spreads around the globe, it is embodied de rigueur in written documents. Even places that sustained polities for centuries without a written constitution have begun to succumb to the lure of writtenness. America, we think, spawned this worldwide force, inaugurating a radically new form of political organization when it adopted the U.S. Constitution as its foundational text.

Bernadette Meyler

2008-01-01

289

University of Florida Student Body Constitution  

E-print Network

rights under the constitutions and laws of the United States and State of Florida. Student government.--All political power granted by authorities authorized under the constitution, laws, and regulations of the StateUniversity of Florida Student Body Constitution Submitted by: David M. Kerner, Chairman 2009

Roy, Subrata

290

Antithetical Ethics: Kenneth Burke and the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how the textuality of the United States Constitution, the most venerable of classic democratic icons, might be exploited to nurture postmodern ethics. Shows how Kenneth Burke's reading of the Constitution accords with and augments the postmodern theories of J.-F. Lyotard and S. Jarratt. Discusses a postmodern Constitution and the…

Anderson, Virginia

1995-01-01

291

Regulation of Constitutive GPR3 Signaling and Surface Localization by GRK2 and b-arrestin-2 Overexpression in  

E-print Network

Regulation of Constitutive GPR3 Signaling and Surface Localization by GRK2 and b-arrestin-2¨ttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany Abstract G protein-coupled receptor 3 (GPR3) is a constitutively active receptor of constitutively active GPCRs. We demonstrate herein that exogenously-expressed GPR3 localizes to the cell membrane

Terasaki, Mark

292

Constitutive caspase-like machinery executes programmed cell death in plant cells  

E-print Network

Constitutive caspase-like machinery executes programmed cell death in plant cells M Elbaz1 , A AvniPCDmachineryremainobscure.Wehaveshownthat plant cells undergo PCD by constitutively expressed molecular machinery upon induction with the fungal ± 6 The morphological features of apoptosis and the molecular machinery involved in the death program

Avni, Adi

293

Constitutive Theories for Thermoelastic Solids in Lagrangian Description Using Gibbs Potential  

E-print Network

of the constitution of the matter, the second law of thermodynamics, i.e. entropy inequality, must form the basis for all constitutive theories of the deforming matter to ensure thermodynamic equilibrium during the evolution [1, 2]. The entropy inequality expressed...

Mendoza, Yusshy

2012-08-31

294

Constitutive model for porous materials  

SciTech Connect

A simple pressure versus porosity compaction model is developed to calculate the response of granular porous bed materials to shock impact. The model provides a scheme for calculating compaction behavior when relatively limited material data are available. While the model was developed to study porous explosives and propellants, it has been applied to a much wider range of materials. The early development of porous material models, such as that of Hermann, required empirical dynamic compaction data. Erkman and Edwards successfully applied the early theory to unreacted porous high explosives using a Gruneisen equation of state without yield behavior and without trapped gas in the pores. Butcher included viscoelastic rate dependance in pore collapse. The theoretical treatment of Carroll and Holt is centered on the collapse of a circular pore and includes radial inertia terms and a complex set of stress, strain and strain rate constitutive parameters. Unfortunately data required for these parameters are generally not available. The model described here is also centered on the collapse of a circular pore, but utilizes a simpler elastic-plastic static equilibrium pore collapse mechanism without strain rate dependence, or radial inertia terms. It does include trapped gas inside the pore, a solid material flow stress that creates both a yield point and a variation in solid material pressure with radius. The solid is described by a Mie-Gruneisen type EOS. Comparisons show that this model will accurately estimate major mechanical features which have been observed in compaction experiments.

Weston, A.M.; Lee, E.L.

1982-01-01

295

Constitutive relations associated with the Mott-Smith distribution function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the distribution function assumed by Mott-Smith determines a unique relation between heat flux, stress, and fluid velocity given by q = (3/2) tau u - i.e., it provides a constitutive relation for heat flux, and it also determines a simple expression for the ratio of third-order central moments. These expressions allow the equation of transfer for (C sub x) squared to be cast in a form that yields a nonlinear constitutive relation for stress. The results obtained from the Mott-Smith ansatz are compared with the theory of Baganoff and Nathenson (1970) and results from a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for shock-wave structure obtained by Hicks et al. (1972).

Nathenson, M.; Baganoff, D.

1973-01-01

296

Constitutive relations associated with the Mott-Smith distribution function  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is shown that the distribution function assumed by Mott-Smith determines a unique relation between heat flux, stress, and fluid velocity given by q = (3/2)??u, i.e., it provides a constitutive relation for heat flux, and it also determines a simple expression for this ratio of third-order central moments Q = . These expressions allow the equation of transfer for c x2 to be cast in a form that yields a nonlinear constitutive relation for stress. The results obtained from the Mott-Smith ansatz are compared with the theory of Baganoff and Nathenson and results from a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for shock-wave structure obtained by Hicks and Yen.

Nathenson, M.; Baganoff, D.

1973-01-01

297

The E92K Melanocortin 1 Receptor Mutant Induces cAMP Production and Arrestin Recruitment but Not ERK Activity Indicating Biased Constitutive Signaling  

PubMed Central

Background The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) constitutes a key regulator of melanism. Consequently, many naturally-occurring MC1R mutations are associated with a change in color. An example is the Glu-to-Lys substitution found at position II:20/2.60 in the top of transmembrane helix II which has been identified in melanic mice and several other species. This mutation induces a pronounced increase in MC1R constitutive activity suggesting a link between constitutive activity and melanism which is corroborated by the attenuation of ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?MSH) induced activation. However, the mechanism by which the mutation induces constitutive activity is currently not known. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we characterize the constitutive activity, cell surface expression and internalization of the mouse mutant, Mc1r E92K. As previously reported, only positively charged residues at position II:20/2.60 induced an increase in constitutive activity as measured by cAMP accumulation and CREB activation. Furthermore, the mutation induced a constitutive recruitment of ?-arrestin. This phenomenon is only observed in MC1R, however, as the equivalent mutations in MC2-5R had no effect on receptor signaling. Interestingly, the mutation did not induce constitutive ERK1/2 phosphorylation or increase the internalization rate indicating the constitutive activity to be biased. Finally, to identify regions of importance for the increased constitutive activity of Mc1r E92K, we employed a chimeric approach and identified G102 and L110 in the extracellular loop 1 to be selectively important for the constitutive activity as this, but not ?MSH-mediated activation, was abolished upon Ala substitution. Conclusions/Significance It is concluded that the E92K mutation induces an active conformation distinct from that induced by ?MSH and that the extracellular loop 1 is involved in maintaining this conformational state. In turn, the results suggest that in MC1R, which lacks an extracellular loop 2, the first extracellular loop may play a more prominent role during receptor activation than in general. PMID:21931793

Benned-Jensen, Tau; Mokrosinski, Jacek; Rosenkilde, Mette M.

2011-01-01

298

Constitutive relation of weakly anisotropic polycrystal with microstructure and initial stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Man (Nondestr Test Eval 15:191–214, 1999) derived the constitutive relation of a weakly-textured orthorhombic aggregate of cubic crystallites with effects of microstructure and initial stress. In this paper, a computational expression\\u000a on the integration $${{\\\\int_{\\\\rm SO(3)} Q^{\\\\otimes h}D^{l}_{m0}{\\\\rm dg}}}$$ is given. Then, by means of the computational expression, the general constitutive relation of a weakly-textured anisotropic polycrystal with the consideration

Mojia Huang; Hua Zhan; Xiuqiao Lin; Hai Tang

2007-01-01

299

The constitution of cometary nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nongravitational term in the expression for the total force acting on a comet is calculated, and an upper limit is obtained for the product of the radial nongravitational term times the radius times the square root of the albedo. This condition is satisfied for ten periodic comets with q no greater than 1.5 AU, and the activity of these comets is consistent with control by H2O ice. Some of the comets must be spotty to account for their low albedo values. The effect of cosmic rays on comets, leading to frosting of their surface, is discussed.

Whipple, F. L.

1977-01-01

300

Microwave Background, Backgrounds Hierarchy - Polyphony of Universe  

E-print Network

We discuss the structure, physical nature, dynamic genesis of clearly detected diffuse backgrounds (radiations) in the Universe. From the point of view of Wave Universe concept it is shown, that observed Backgrounds Hierarchy (Polyphony of Universe) is close connected and causely determined by the sound velocity Hierarchy of the physical medium, cosmic (polycomponent) plasma. The well-known Microwave Background (Cosmic Background Radiation - CBR) corresponds to the F[3] Background, that is characterized by the calculated sound velocity C*[3]=11.483 km/s, by the calculated temperature T*[3]=2.9 grad.K and by wavelength of the radiation intensity maximum lambda*[3]=1 mm.

A. M. Chechelnitsky

2001-05-18

301

Constitutive expression of the machinery for programmed cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of cycloheximide (CHX) to inhibit protein synthesis, a high concentration of stau- rosporine (STS) induces almost all cells in explant cul- tures of 8\\/8 types of newborn mouse organs and 3\\/3 types of adult mouse organs to die with the characteris- tic features of apoptosis. Eggs and blastomeres also die in this way when treated with STS

M. Weil; M. D. Jacobson; H. S. R. Coles; T. J. Davies; R. L. Gardner; K. D. Raft; M. C. Raft

1996-01-01

302

Constitutive Activity of the Androgen Receptor  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the United States. The androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis is central to all stages of PCa pathophysiology and serves as the main target for endocrine-based therapy. The most advanced stage of the disease, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), is presently incurable and accounts for most PCa mortality. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms by which the AR signaling axis can bypass endocrine-targeted therapies and drive progression of CRPC. These mechanisms include alterations in growth factor, cytokine, and inflammatory signaling pathways, altered expression or activity of transcriptional co-regulators, AR point mutations, and AR gene amplification leading to AR protein overexpression. Additionally, we will discuss the mechanisms underlying the synthesis of constitutively active AR splice variants (AR-Vs) lacking the COOH-terminal ligand binding domain, as well as the role and regulation of AR-Vs in supporting therapeutic resistance in CRPC. Finally, we summarize the ongoing development of inhibitors targeting discrete AR functional domains as well as the status of new biomarkers for monitoring the AR signaling axis in patients. PMID:24931201

Chan, Siu Chiu; Dehm, Scott M.

2014-01-01

303

FindLaw Constitutional Law Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This offering from FindLaw (last discussed in the January 15, 1999 Scout Report) focuses on the US Constitution. The site is composed of two primary sections. The first offers an annotated Constitution, commentary on selected topics with links to key sections of the Constitution or The Federalist Papers, a history of the Constitution, and brief biographies of notable "Founding Fathers" and delegates to the Constitutional Convention. The second section highlights the Third Branch of government, with a history of the Supreme Court, landmark decisions regarding civil rights with the full opinions, a summary and analysis of the criminal law and procedure decisions of the October 1998 Supreme Court Term, and several links for current Supreme Court news and information. Both sections also feature a search engine. Additional resources at the site include a Town Hall section that explores Hot Topics (currently flag burning) and message boards on a wide variety of Constitutional issues.

304

FindLaw Constitutional Law Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest offering from FindLaw (last discussed in the January 15, 1999 Scout Report) focuses on the US Constitution. The site is composed of two primary sections. The first offers an annotated Constitution, commentary on selected topics with links to key sections of the Constitution or The Federalist Papers, a history of the Constitution, and brief biographies of notable "Founding Fathers" and delegates to the Constitutional Convention. The second section highlights the Third Branch of government, with a history of the Supreme Court, landmark decisions regarding civil rights with the full opinions, a summary and analysis of the criminal law and procedure decisions of the October 1998 Supreme Court Term, and several links for current Supreme Court news and information. Both sections also feature a search engine. Additional resources at the site include a Town Hall section that explores Hot Topics (currently flag burning) and message boards on a wide variety of Constitutional issues.

305

Testing of constitutive models in LAME.  

SciTech Connect

Constitutive models for computational solid mechanics codes are in LAME--the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering. These models describe complex material behavior and are used in our finite deformation solid mechanics codes. To ensure the correct implementation of these models, regression tests have been created for constitutive models in LAME. A selection of these tests is documented here. Constitutive models are an important part of any solid mechanics code. If an analysis code is meant to provide accurate results, the constitutive models that describe the material behavior need to be implemented correctly. Ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is the goal of a testing procedure that is used with the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) (see [1] and [2]). A test suite for constitutive models can serve three purposes. First, the test problems provide the constitutive model developer a means to test the model implementation. This is an activity that is always done by any responsible constitutive model developer. Retaining the test problem in a repository where the problem can be run periodically is an excellent means of ensuring that the model continues to behave correctly. A second purpose of a test suite for constitutive models is that it gives application code developers confidence that the constitutive models work correctly. This is extremely important since any analyst that uses an application code for an engineering analysis will associate a constitutive model in LAME with the application code, not LAME. Therefore, ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is essential for application code teams. A third purpose of a constitutive model test suite is that it provides analysts with example problems that they can look at to understand the behavior of a specific model. Since the choice of a constitutive model, and the properties that are used in that model, have an enormous effect on the results of an analysis, providing problems that highlight the behavior of various constitutive models to the engineer can be of great benefit. LAME is currently implemented in the Sierra based solid mechanics codes Adagio [3] and Presto [4]. The constitutive models in LAME are available in both codes. Due to the nature of a transient dynamics code--e.g. Presto--it is difficult to test a constitutive model due to inertia effects that show up in the solution. Therefore the testing of constitutive models is primarily done in Adagio. All of the test problems detailed in this report are run in Adagio. It is the goal of the constitutive model test suite to provide a useful service for the constitutive model developer, application code developer and engineer that uses the application code. Due to the conflicting needs and tight time constraints on solid mechanics code development, no requirements exist for implementing test problems for constitutive models. Model developers are strongly encouraged to provide test problems and document those problems, but given the choice of having a model without a test problem or no model at all, certain requirements must be kept loose. A flexible code development environment, especially with regards to research and development in constitutive modeling, is essential to the success of such an environment. This report provides documentation of a number of tests for the constitutive models in LAME. Each section documents a separate test with a brief description of the model, the test problem and the results. This report is meant to be updated periodically as more test problems are created and put into the test suite.

Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

2007-09-01

306

Ratification of European Union Constitution Hits a Roadblock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This past week, the ratification of the European Union's constitution met with some resistance as voters in both the Netherlands and France both voted "no" to approving the document. Some analysts have suggested that this rejection of the constitution is indicative of the fact that there is an increasing unease about the process of unification more generally in various countries across the continent. Pundits and analysts also agreed that there was no one defining reason why voters rejected the constitution. In France, those voting "no" seemed to range from those on the far right to the far left, and interestingly enough, included a large proportion of young people. It is worth noting that a number of opponents (particularly those on the political left) of ratification continue to make the claim that the constitution promotes a type of unencumbered capitalism that is akin to the type of socioeconomic mode of governance practiced in the United Kingdom and the United States. It will be sometime before the full impact of this recent development is understood, but it is certainly a story that is worthy of a closer look. The first link will take users to coverage of the ongoing EU Constitution process offered by the Voice of America from this past Monday. The second link will take visitors to a fine news piece from the Guardian that provides some insight into the recent rejection of the EU Constitution by Dutch voters. The third link leads to an article from Deutsche Welle that discusses the implications of these latest developments in Europe. The fourth link leads to a very thorough set of analyses of the ratification process as reported by National Public Radio. From this main page, visitors can also learn about the history of the EU Constitution and read some essential background material about the document. The fifth link, offered by the BBC, provides a quick introduction to the Constitution, along with providing a link to the full text of the document. The final link leads to the homepage of the Historical Archives of the European Union, where visitors can review primary documents related to the EU's development and also learn about utilizing their various collections.

307

Women and the Constitution. Curriculum Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this curriculum unit is to give students a better understanding of the history of the relationship between women and constitutional issues. The study of women and the United States Constitution is an important reminder of the complexity of a democracy. In the United States, even today, the ideology of freedom and justice is often…

MacGregor, Molly Murphy

308

Federal Fiscal Constitutions: Risk Sharing and Redistribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the political and economic determinants of regional public transfers. Specifically, it focuses on how such transfers are shaped by alternative fiscal constitutions, where a constitution is an allocation of fiscal instruments across different levels of governments plus a procedure for the collective choice of these instruments. Realistic restrictions on fiscal instruments introduce a trade-off between risk sharing

Torsten Persson; Guido Tabellini

1996-01-01

309

The Constitution for the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union Constitution represented the next great reform the European Union when it was drafted in October of 2004. With the support of the respected leaders of Europe attained, the Constitution began the ratification process, aiming to earn the approval of the people of Europe. Yet despite early successes through parliamentary votes in countries such as Germany, Greece, and

Galen Smith

2005-01-01

310

Liberty, Power, and the American Constitutional Heritage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles, values, and issues of our constitutional heritage that should be emphasized in citizenship education are based on the concepts of liberty and power. The Constitution is not a sacred icon formulated by immortals, but rather a changing and controversial framework guided by a diverse group of practical politicians, sensitive to their…

Madison, James H.

311

An Internet Guide to Teaching the Constitution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, Congress passed and President Bush signed legislation designating every September 17 as Constitution Day and suggesting that all schools teach about the Constitution on that day. There are innumerable websites, countless lesson plans and a multitude of other teaching resources on the topic. Teachers were inundated with brochures,…

Risinger, C. Frederick

2005-01-01

312

The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)

Murphy, Paul L.

1987-01-01

313

The United States and the Indian Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

India, a huge land with the second largest population in the world, socially and economically poor, and culturally and linguistically diverse, became the largest democracy in the world on November 26, 1949 with the adoption of the Indian Constitution. The goals of that constitution are: (1) the achievement of national unity and stability; (2) the…

Weil, Jonathan S.

314

Constitutive Modelling of San Francisco Bay Mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper constructs a constitutive model based on laboratory tests on undisturbed samples of a highly plastic silt. The paper then verifies the model first against the laboratory tests and then against a field cavity expansion experiment (the self-boring pressuremeter test) in the same soil. The field pressuremeter tests are predicted using a numerical model incorporating a laboratory based constitutive

Subodh Jain; Atul Nanda

315

How Does Astronomy Constitute A Learning Community?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted in Turkey within an interdisciplinary project called "From a windowless home to a skyscraper: Let's build a home". It was realized through collaboration between a public university and a private high school. Researchers from Physics Education Department and volunteer teachers from high school, each studying on a different discipline, and volunteer high school students, all from an urban area of the country, conducted the project in a rural small town with resident secondary school students. It was implemented on the basis of history, through the use of different fields such as science, mathematics, geography, art, handcraft, architecture, engineering and astronomy in August 2008. The purpose of this study was to present the effect of the astronomical activities involved in the project. These implementations constructed a scientific and social base for the framework of astronomical activities of IYA2009, including building an amateur observatory. Since today's people are not so much acquainted with the issues of space and astronomy as much as the people of Antiquity, we attached special importance to the efforts in this field. The project, proceeded by a preparatory and informative period, involved night sky observation, initially with naked eye, followed by observation through telescope. Not only the students but also countless people, old or young, participated in our work in the field of astronomy. It provided a chance for all the people participating in or connected to the project to discover the sky. Astronomical activities aroused curiosity among students and the community and made a difference by inducing an awareness of the sky. The participants of the study had completely different social and cultural backgrounds, and this study removed all these differences bringing them together under the overarching astronomical and historical aspect. Moreover the community revealed all the characteristics that constitute a learning community.

Dogan, Yasemin; Sengul, R.; Unat, O.; Aknil, A.; Gurel, Z.

2010-01-01

316

[Mental health in primary attention: needed constitution of competences].  

PubMed

The family/people integrally attention is one of health services and professionals challenges, creating spaces for metal health in the primary level health attention. The aim of this study is to reflect about the constitution necessity of new knowledges/dones to the mental health at the primary attention, taking as perspective the competence referential. Essay developed since the historical assumptions ascertains that contextualize the Family Health Strategy and its interfaces with the psychosocial principles and some nurse background implications since the competence development theoretical intentions. We consider that reality transformation, with the health attention improvement asks for knowledges/dones constitution that attends to the psychosocial attention and the Unique Health System rules. PMID:20835675

Neves, Hilton Giovani; Lucchese, Roselma; Munari, Denize Bouttelet

2010-01-01

317

Documents from the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of Congress American Memory Project has been producing high-quality digital collections for a decade, and one of their first projects has recently been updated and is worthy of a second (or first) look. This particular collection brings together a number of documents, including dozens of broadsides related to the work of the Continental Congress, dating from 1774 to 1788. The majority of these items contain extracts of the journals of Congress, resolutions, proclamations, treaties, and other congressional proceedings. Other documents in the collection include early printed versions of the United States Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. Those persons who are seeking a bit more background information will want to take a look at two timelines that cover related events from the 1764 Sugar Act to the official ratification of the Constitution in 1788. Finally, the site also contains a nice essay titled â??To Form a More Perfect Union.â?ť.

318

76 FR 58705 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011 Proclamation 8715--National Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve Week, 2011 Proclamation 8716--National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2011 Proclamation 8717--National...

2011-09-21

319

3 CFR 8562 - Proclamation 8562 of September 16, 2010. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Convention in Philadelphia established a Constitution for the United States of America, signing the finished charter...solemn oath to “support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of America.” In so doing, they...

2011-01-01

320

MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND FACULTY ASSOCIATION CONSTITUTION (This copy of the Constitution contains amendments  

E-print Network

MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND FACULTY ASSOCIATION CONSTITUTION (This copy of the Constitution (Name) Memorial University of Newfoundland Faculty Association (MUNFA). Article II (Purpose) The purpose teaching and research, and, within the Province of Newfoundland, to regulate relations between employers

Oyet, Alwell

321

The constitutive and stress inducible forms of hsp 70 exhibit functional similarities and interact with one another in an ATP dependent fashion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian cells constitutively express a cytosolic and nuclear form of heat shock protein (hsp) 70, referred to here as hsp 73. In response to heat shock or other metabolic insults, increased expression of another cytosolic and nuclear form of hsp 70, hsp 72, is observed. The constitutively expressed hsp 73, and stress-inducible hsp 72, are highly related pro- teins. Still

C. Randell Brown; Robert L. Martin; William J. Hansen; Richard P. Beckmarm; William J. Welch

1993-01-01

322

Closing in on the constitution of consciousness  

PubMed Central

The science of consciousness is a nascent and thriving field of research that is founded on identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness. However, I have argued that it is the neural constitution of consciousness that science seeks to understand and that there are no evident strategies for distinguishing the correlates and constitution of (phenomenal) consciousness. Here I review this correlation/constitution distinction problem and challenge the existing foundations of consciousness science. I present the main analyses from a longer paper in press on this issue, focusing on recording, inhibition, stimulation, and combined inhibition/stimulation strategies, including proposal of the Jenga analogy to illustrate why identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness should not be considered the ultimate target of consciousness science. Thereafter I suggest that while combined inhibition and stimulation strategies might identify some constitutive neural activities—indeed minimally sufficient constitutive neural activities—such strategies fail to identify the whole neural constitution of consciousness and thus the correlation/constitution distinction problem is not fully solved. Various clarifications, potential objections and related scientific and philosophical issues are also discussed and I conclude by proposing new foundational claims for consciousness science. PMID:25452738

Miller, Steven M.

2014-01-01

323

Stress-inducible synthesis of proline in transgenic rice confers faster growth under stress conditions than that with constitutive synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proline accumulation has been shown to correlate with tolerance to drought and salt stresses in plants. Our goal was to compare the growth rate of transgenic rice plants in which the expression of a mothbean ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (p5cs) cDNA was driven separately with a constitutive and a stress-inducible promoter. We found that both constitutive expression and stress-inducible expression of the

Jin Su; Ray Wu

2004-01-01

324

Constitutively active UVR8 photoreceptor variant in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) is a UV-B photoreceptor that initiates photomorphogenic responses underlying acclimation and UV-B tolerance in plants. UVR8 is a homodimer in its ground state, and UV-B exposure results in its instantaneous monomerization followed by interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1), a major factor in UV-B signaling. UV-B photoreception by UVR8 is based on intrinsic tryptophan aromatic amino acid residues, with tryptophan-285 as the main chromophore. We generated transgenic plants expressing UVR8 with a single amino acid change of tryptophan-285 to alanine. UVR8W285A appears monomeric and shows UV-B–independent interaction with COP1. Phenotypically, the plants expressing UVR8W285A exhibit constitutive photomorphogenesis associated with constitutive activation of target genes, elevated levels of anthocyanins, and enhanced, acclimation-independent UV-B tolerance. Moreover, we have identified COP1, REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 and 2 (RUP1 and RUP2), and the SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) family as proteins copurifying with UVR8W285A. Whereas COP1, RUP1, and RUP2 are known to directly interact with UVR8, we show that SPA1 interacts with UVR8 indirectly through COP1. We conclude that UVR8W285A is a constitutively active UVR8 photoreceptor variant in Arabidopsis, as is consistent with the crucial importance of monomer formation and COP1 binding for UVR8 activity. PMID:24277841

Heijde, Marc; Binkert, Melanie; Yin, Ruohe; Ares-Orpel, Florence; Rizzini, Luca; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Persiau, Geert; Nolf, Jonah; Gevaert, Kris; De Jaeger, Geert; Ulm, Roman

2013-01-01

325

CONSTITUTIVE DEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY AN ALTERED BACTERIUM IN A GAS-PHASE BIOREACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Pseudomonas cepacia G4 expresses a unique toluene ortho-monooxygenase (Tom) that enables it to degrade toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE). ransposon mutants of G4 have been isolated that constitutively express Tom. wo fixed-film bioreactor designs were investigated for the explo...

326

FOXO1 Binds to the TAU5 Motif and Inhibits Constitutively Active Androgen Receptor Splice Variants  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Aberrant activation of the androgen receptor (AR) is a major factor highly relevant to castration-resistant progression of prostate cancer (PCa). FOXO1, a key downstream effector of PTEN, inhibits androgen-independent activation of the AR. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. METHODS The inhibitory effect of FOXO1 on full-length and constitutively active splice variants of the AR was examined by luciferase reporter assays and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In vitro protein binding assays and western blot analyses were used to determine the regions in FOXO1 and AR responsible for their interaction. RESULTS We found that a putative transcription repression domain in the NH2-terminus of FOXO1 is dispensable for FOXO1 inhibition of the AR. In vitro protein binding assays showed that FOXO1 binds to the transcription activation unit 5 (TAU5) motif in the AR NH2-terminal domain (NTD), a region required for recruitment of p160 activators including SRC-1. Ectopic expression of SRC-1 augmented transcriptional activity of some, but not all AR splice variants examined. Forced expression of FOXO1 blocked the effect of SRC-1 on AR variants’ transcriptional activity by decreasing the binding of SRC-1 to the AR NTD. Ectopic expression of FOXO1 inhibited expression of endogenous genes activated primarily by alternatively spliced AR variants in human castration-resistant PCa 22Rv1 cells. CONCLUSIONS FOXO1 binds to the TAU5 motif in the AR NTD and inhibits ligand-independent activation of AR splice variants, suggesting the PTEN/FOXO1 pathway as a potential therapeutic target for inhibition of aberrant AR activation and castration-resistant PCa growth. PMID:23389878

Bohrer, Laura R.; Liu, Ping; Zhong, Jian; Pan, Yunqian; Angstman, James; Brand, Lucas J.; Dehm, Scott M.; Huang, Haojie

2014-01-01

327

Scholars Debate Constitution's Effect on Blacks, Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U. S. Constitution's treatment of women and blacks is generating heated controversy among historians, with some scholars charging that its framers ignored those groups and that subsequent reformers have gained too little for them, too late. (MSE)

Winkler, Karen J.

1988-01-01

328

Constitutively active rhodopsin and retinal disease.  

PubMed

Rhodopsin is the light receptor in rod photoreceptor cells of the retina that initiates scotopic vision. In the dark, rhodopsin is bound to the chromophore 11-cis retinal, which locks the receptor in an inactive state. The maintenance of an inactive rhodopsin in the dark is critical for rod photoreceptor cells to remain highly sensitive. Perturbations by mutation or the absence of 11-cis retinal can cause rhodopsin to become constitutively active, which leads to the desensitization of photoreceptor cells and, in some instances, retinal degeneration. Constitutive activity can arise in rhodopsin by various mechanisms and can cause a variety of inherited retinal diseases including Leber congenital amaurosis, congenital night blindness, and retinitis pigmentosa. In this review, the molecular and structural properties of different constitutively active forms of rhodopsin are overviewed, and the possibility that constitutive activity can arise from different active-state conformations is discussed. PMID:24931191

Park, Paul Shin-Hyun

2014-01-01

329

Constitution Constitution  

E-print Network

of sustainable communities and jobs. (h) The elimination of harassment and discrimination of any.III 51 Retired Members B.V 58 Secretary-Treasurer B.III 51 Suspension from Membership B.XI 74 Transfer of Canada. (b) The advancement of the social, economic and general welfare of active and retired employees

Warkentin, Ian G.

330

Background Knowledge Requirement The concepts covered here are considered to constitute a minimal core body of  

E-print Network

, graph traversal, shortest paths, minimum spanning trees). Formal Languages and Automata Theory. Logical or Formal Languages and Automata Theory. Algorithms and Data Structures. Analysis, data structures Foundations: Algorithms and Data Structures - CSCI 4041 Formal Languages and Automata Theory - CSCI 4011 o

Minnesota, University of

331

Background sources at PEP  

SciTech Connect

Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

1988-01-01

332

Building Background Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

2014-01-01

333

Shielding and background reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background spectrum in a Low Background intrinsic germanium detector was analysed. Different possible sources of background and the influence of the materials used as well as the thickness of shielding was studied. Lead, copper, nylon, delrin and teflon of different thicknessewere used. Too much shielding material could induce some gamma rays from neutron production in the shielding due to

R. Núńez-Lagos; A. Virto

1996-01-01

334

Generalized constitutive relations for metamaterials based on the quasi-static Lorentz theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method of calculating the elements of the generalized matrix representation of the macroscopic constitutive relations for a three-dimensional (3-D) array of non-magnetic inclusions with arbitrary shape. The derivation is based on the quasi-static Lorentz theory and the inclusions are represented by electric and magnetic dipole moments. The 6×6 constitutive relation matrix is expressed in terms of

Akira Ishimaru; Seung-Woo Lee; Yasuo Kuga; Vikram Jandhyala

2003-01-01

335

Generalized strain probing of constitutive models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced material constitutive models are used to describe complex soil behaviour. These models are often used in the solution of boundary value problems under general loading conditions. Users and developers of constitutive models need to methodically investigate the represented soil response under a wide range of loading conditions. This paper presents a systematic procedure for probing constitutive models. A general incremental strain probe, 6D hyperspherical strain probe (HSP), is introduced to examine rate-independent model response under all possible strain loading conditions. Two special cases of HSP, the true triaxial strain probe (TTSP) and the plane-strain strain probe (PSSP), are used to generate 3-D objects that represent model stress response to probing. The TTSP, PSSP and general HSP procedures are demonstrated using elasto-plastic models. The objects resulting from the probing procedure readily highlight important model characteristics including anisotropy, yielding, hardening, softening and failure. The PSSP procedure is applied to a Neural Network (NN) based constitutive model. It shows that this probing is especially useful in understanding NN constitutive models, which do not contain explicit functions for yield surface, hardening, or anisotropy. Copyright

Hashash, Youssef M. A.; Fu, Qingwei; Butkovich, Jeremy

2004-12-01

336

Unified constitutive equations of foam materials  

SciTech Connect

Foam materials, because of their energy absorbing and recovery behavior during impact as well as lightweight and moldable characteristics, have found more and more applications in the automotive industry. A unified constitutive equation with the effect of compression strain rate, tension strain, and shear strain for foam materials with very low Poisson`s ratio has been developed. The mathematical derivation of the constitutive equation is described in detail. The effect of each parameter in the constitutive equation is studied. Numerical formula and procedure are also included in the paper. The test data of two types of energy absorbing foam materials are used for correlation study: polyurethane foam, which was tested at five compressive strain rates, and polypropylene foam, which was tested for quasi-static compression, tension, and shear. Good correlations have been concluded for both cases.

Chang, Fu S.; Song, Y.; Lu, D.X. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); DeSilva, C.N. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1998-07-01

337

Constitutive overexpression of soybean plasma membrane intrinsic protein GmPIP1;6 confers salt tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background Under saline conditions, plant growth is depressed via osmotic stress and salt can accumulate in leaves leading to further depression of growth due to reduced photosynthesis and gas exchange. Aquaporins are proposed to have a major role in growth of plants via their impact on root water uptake and leaf gas exchange. In this study, soybean plasma membrane intrinsic protein 1;6 (GmPIP1;6) was constitutively overexpressed to evaluate the function of GmPIP1;6 in growth regulation and salt tolerance in soybean. Results GmPIP1;6 is highly expressed in roots as well as reproductive tissues and the protein targeted to the plasma membrane in onion epidermis. Treatment with 100 mM NaCl resulted in reduced expression initially, then after 3 days the expression was increased in root and leaves. The effects of constitutive overexpression of GmPIP1;6 in soybean was examined under normal and salt stress conditions. Overexpression in 2 independent lines resulted in enhanced leaf gas exchange, but not growth under normal conditions compared to wild type (WT). With 100 mM NaCl, net assimilation was much higher in the GmPIP1;6-Oe and growth was enhanced relative to WT. GmPIP1;6-Oe plants did not have higher root hydraulic conductance (Lo) under normal conditions, but were able to maintain Lo under saline conditions compared to WT which decreased Lo. GmPIP1;6-Oe lines grown in the field had increased yield resulting mainly from increased seed size. Conclusions The general impact of overexpression of GmPIP1;6 suggests that it may be a multifunctional aquaporin involved in root water transport, photosynthesis and seed loading. GmPIP1;6 is a valuable gene for genetic engineering to improve soybean yield and salt tolerance. PMID:24998596

2014-01-01

338

Thermoelastic constitutive equations for chemically hardening materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermoelastic constitutive equations are derived for a material undergoing solidification or hardening as the result of a chemical reaction. The derivation is based upon a two component model whose composition is determined by the degree of hardening, and makes use of strain-energy considerations. Constitutive equations take the form of stress rate-strain rate relations, in which the coefficients are time-dependent functions of the composition. Specific results are developed for the case of a material of constant bulk modulus which undergoes a transition from an initial liquidlike state into an isotropic elastic solid. Potential applications are discussed.

Shaffer, B. W.; Levitsky, M.

1974-01-01

339

Constitutional aspects of economic law enforcement  

SciTech Connect

Economic remedies for violations of environmental standards provide a better administrative approach than civil penalties based on more traditional discretionary criteria. Economic penalties are not subject to the constitutional requirements that limit the procedures for criminal penalties. Economic penalties also provide a constitutionally permissible way of accruing liability during litigation. These penalties are large enough to eliminate the benefits of delayed compliance and unnecessary litigation; however, they do not alter the rights of judicial review. Agencies can determine economic penalties with more objectivity and accuracy than under traditional penalty schemes.

Tundermann, D.W.

1980-01-01

340

Constitutive Androstane Receptor Ligands Modulate the Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Paclitaxel in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Lung tumors are the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and paclitaxel has proven to be useful for patients with lung cancer, however, acquired resistance is a major problem. To overcome this problem, one promising option is the use of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) ligands in combination with chemotherapeutics against cancer cells. Therefore, we wish to elucidate the effects of CAR ligands on the antineoplastic efficacy of paclitaxel in lung cancer cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results from cell viability assays exposing CAR agonist or inverse-agonist to mouse and human lung cancer cells modulated the antineoplastic effect of paclitaxel. The CAR agonists increased the effect of Paclitaxel in 6 of 7 lung cancer cell lines, whereas the inverse-agonist had no effect on paclitaxel cytotoxicity. Interestingly, the mCAR agonist TCPOBOP enhanced the expression of two tumor suppressor genes, namely WT1 and MGMT, which were additively enhanced in cells treated with CAR agonist in combination with paclitaxel. Also, in silico analysis showed that both paclitaxel and CAR agonist TCPOBOP docked into the mCAR structure but not the inverse agonist androstenol. Paclitaxel per se increases the expression of CAR in cancer cells. At last, we analyzed the expression of CAR in two public independent studies from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). CAR is expressed in variable levels in NSCLC samples and no association with overall survival was noted. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results demonstrated that CAR agonists modulate the antineoplastic efficacy of paclitaxel in mouse and human cancer cell lines. This effect was probably related by the enhanced expression of two tumor suppressor genes, viz. WT1 and MGMT. Most of NSCLC cases present CAR gene expression turning it possible to speculate the use of CAR modulation by ligands along with Paclitaxel in NSCLC therapy. PMID:24959746

Fukumasu, Heidge; Rochetti, Arina L.; Pires, Pedro R. L.; Silva, Edson R.; Mesquita, Ligia G.; Strefezzi, Ricardo F.; De Carvalho, Daniel D.; Dagli, Maria L.

2014-01-01

341

Cosmological String Backgrounds  

E-print Network

Talk given at the ``4th Hellenic School on Elementary Particle Physics", Corfu, 2-20 September 1992: The propagation of strings in cosmological space-time backgrounds is reviewed. We show the relation of a special class of cosmological backgrounds to exact conformal field theory. Particular emphasis is put on the singularity structure of the cosmological space-time and on the discrete duality symmetries of the string background.

Dieter Luest

1993-03-31

342

The Cosmic Background Explorer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

1990-01-01

343

Establishment of a quantitative PCR system for discriminating chitinase-like proteins: catalytically inactive breast regression protein-39 and Ym1 are constitutive genes in mouse lung  

PubMed Central

Background Mice and humans produce chitinase-like proteins (CLPs), which are highly homologous to chitinases but lack chitinolytic activity. Mice express primarily three CLPs, including breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) [chitinase 3-like-1 (Chi3l1) or 38-kDa glycoprotein (gp38k)], Ym1 (Chi3l3) and Ym2 (Chi3l4). Recently, CLPs have attracted considerable attention due to their increased expression in a number of pathological conditions, including asthma, allergies, rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors. Although the exact functions of CLPs are largely unknown, the significance of their increased expression levels during pathophysiological states needs to be determined. The quantification of BRP-39, Ym1 and Ym2 is an important step in gaining insight into the in vivo regulation of the CLPs. Methods We constructed a standard DNA for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) by containing three CLPs target fragments and five reference genes cDNA in a one-to-one ratio. We evaluated this system by analyzing the eight target cDNA sequences. Tissue cDNAs obtained by reverse transcription from total RNA from four embryonic stages and eight adult tissues were analyzed using the qPCR system with the standard DNA. Results We established a qPCR system detecting CLPs and comparing their expression levels with those of five reference genes using the same scale in mouse tissues. We found that BRP-39 and Ym1 were abundant in the mouse lung, whereas Ym2 mRNA was abundant in the stomach, followed by lung. The expression levels of BRP-39 and Ym1 in the mouse lung were higher than those of two active chitinases and were comparable to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a housekeeping gene which is constitutively expressed in all tissues. Conclusion Our results indicate that catalytically inactive BRP-39 and Ym1 are constitutive genes in normal mouse lung. PMID:25294623

2014-01-01

344

77 FR 57981 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012 Presidential Documents Federal Register...Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...contributions of all their members. This week, we reflect on the basic rights and...

2012-09-18

345

Does the Constitution Protect the Despised?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the history of the Scottsboro case, in which eight Black men were found guilty and sentenced to death for raping two White women in Alabama. At the heart of the Scottsboro trials was the issue of whether the U.S. Constitution established standards of justice in state criminal trials. (RM)

Roe, Richard L; And Others

1984-01-01

346

The Constitution and Bylaws Board of Directors  

E-print Network

Lutheran Church in America SECTION 1. NAME The name of this corporation, in accordance with its Charter University shall be connected with and conducted as an institution related to the Evangelical Lutheran Church Lutheran Church in America. #12;Page 2 - THE CONSTITUTION SECTION 4. SUPPORT BY LUTHERAN CHURCH BODIES

Bogaerts, Steven

347

Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

Knaresborough, Adam

2009-01-01

348

Government and Ethics: The Constitutional Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Government and ethics teachers should educate students in the "wholesale sanity" of American democracy. In particular they should (1) identify and defend the principles of the American constitutional order, (2) criticize government actions departing from these principles, and (3) seek means by which to correct for these departures. (RM)

Rossum, Ralph A.

1984-01-01

349

Celebrating the Constitution: A Bicentennial Retrospective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commemorative document was published to celebrate the Bicentennial of the signing of the U.S. Constitution and to pay tribute to the bicentennial celebration efforts of the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration staff. The included articles are: (1) "Introduction: A Celebration at the National Archives" (F. Burke); (2) "The Odyssey…

Walch, Timothy G., Ed.

1988-01-01

350

Social Work Students' Society Constitution November 2005  

E-print Network

Social Work Students' Society Constitution ­ November 2005 Preamble The Social Work Students operating out of the University of Regina's Faculty of Social Work. Mission The SWSS exists as a venue for social work students to gather and pursue common goals and interests. The SWSS shall have as an over

Argerami, Martin

351

The Constitution and Administrative Ethics in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores the contributions of founding thought to current issues regarding administrative ethics. It is argued that the founders understood public administration to be a political enterprise and, therefore, public administrators should not be excluded from their analysis of citizen character. The U.S. Constitution anticipates that self-interest will be the dominant motive of citizens and governors, including public administrators.

William D. Richardson; Lloyd G. Nigro

1991-01-01

352

Crushed-salt constitutive model update  

SciTech Connect

Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-01-01

353

Florida Atlantic University Student Government Constitution  

E-print Network

Florida Atlantic University Student Government Constitution Preamble We the students of Florida Atlantic University, in order to form a Student Government that will provide effective representation in the students' best interests, promote general welfare, ensure the continuation of self-governance, uphold

Fernandez, Eduardo

354

Article I: Name The Raven Society Constitution  

E-print Network

Article I: Name The Raven Society Constitution (As last amended April 24, 2012) The name of this society shall be the Raven Society of the University of Virginia (the "Raven Society" or the "Society-President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, a Banquet Chair, all of whom are Raven student members, and an Archivist. Section 2

Acton, Scott

355

School Choice and State Constitutions' Religion Clauses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris," only state religion clauses represent a potential constitutional bar to the inclusion of religious options in properly designed school choice programs. The two most significant are compelled support clauses and Blaine Amendments. Both are frequently misinterpreted by state…

Komer, Richard D.

2009-01-01

356

The Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

Arthur Kosowsky

2001-02-23

357

Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

Mello Koch, Robert de [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

2009-01-15

358

Application of symbolic computations to the constitutive modeling of structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In applications involving elevated temperatures, the derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) describing the material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved and error-prone. Therefore intelligent application of symbolic systems to faciliate this tedious process can be of significant benefit. Presented here is a problem oriented, self contained symbolic expert system, named SDICE, which is capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models in analytical form. This package, running under DOE MACSYMA, has the following features: (1) potential differentiation (chain rule), (2) tensor computations (utilizing index notation) including both algebraic and calculus; (3) efficient solution of sparse systems of equations; (4) automatic expression substitution and simplification; (5) back substitution of invariant and tensorial relations; (6) the ability to form the Jacobian and Hessian matrix; and (7) a relational data base. Limited aspects of invariant theory were also incorporated into SDICE due to the utilization of potentials as a starting point and the desire for these potentials to be frame invariant (objective). The uniqueness of SDICE resides in its ability to manipulate expressions in a general yet pre-defined order and simplify expressions so as to limit expression growth. Results are displayed, when applicable, utilizing index notation. SDICE was designed to aid and complement the human constitutive model developer. A number of examples are utilized to illustrate the various features contained within SDICE. It is expected that this symbolic package can and will provide a significant incentive to the development of new constitutive theories.

Arnold, Steven M.; Tan, H. Q.; Dong, X.

1990-01-01

359

Constitutive Somatostatin Receptor Subtype-3 Signaling Suppresses Growth Hormone Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Somatostatin signals through somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR) 2 and 5 to attenuate GH secretion. Although expressed in normal pituitary glands and in GH-secreting pituitary tumors, SSTR3 function was unclear, and we have now determined the role of SSTR3 in somatotroph function. Stable rat pituitary tumor cell (GC) transfectants of human SSTR3 (GpSSTR3WT) showed suppression of rat (r) GH promoter activity, GH mRNA expression, and secreted GH concordant with suppressed cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. In contrast, cAMP levels and GH expression were unchanged in cells expressing a mutant SSTR3 DRY motif (GpSSTR3R141A). GH expression was rescued by treatment of GpSSTR3WT with forskolin and 8-bromo-cAMP. GpSSTR3WT exhibited activation of glycogen synthase kinase3-? (GSK3-?), a PKA substrate, which was also reversed by 8-Bromo-cAMP treatment. Moreover, SSTR3-dependent GH transcriptional inhibition was rescued by inhibition of GSK3-?. GpSSTR3WT exhibited elevated Pit-1 serine phosphorylation and decreased Pit-1 occupancy of the rGH promoter with sustained Pit-1 expression. GSK3-? and Pit-1 physically interacted with each other, indicating that Pit-1 may be a GSK3-? phosphorylation substrate. In conclusion, constitutive SSTR3 activity mediates transcriptional repression of GH through cAMP/PKA, leading to subsequent activation of GSK3-? and increased Pit-1 phosphorylation and ultimately attenuating Pit-1 binding to the rGH promoter. PMID:24606125

Eigler, Tamar; Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Zhou, Cuiqi; Khalafi, Ramtin; Ren, Song-Guang

2014-01-01

360

Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

SciTech Connect

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of volcanic aerosol is over 30% faster than one would obtain without this correction. At background, the aerosol size distribution is found to remain remarkably constant between the tropopause and an altitude of approx.25 km, with a sudden transition to a distribution dominated by smaller particles above this altitude. The observations, in some respects, compare favorably with equilibrium one-dimensional stratospheric aerosol models and thus to some extent support the concept of relatively inert tropospheric sulfurous gases, such as carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide, as the main background stratospheric aerosol sulfur source. Models which incorporate sulfur chemistry are apparently not able to predict the observed variation of particle size with altitude. The 2-year background period is not long enough in itself to establish long-term trends. The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in May 1980 has considerably disrupted the background stratospheric aerosol which will probably not recover for several years. A comparison of the 1978--79 observations with Junge's original measurements made some 20 years earlier, also during a period void of volcanic perturbations, does not preclude a long-term increase in the background stratospheric aerosol level.

Hofmann, D.J.; Rosen, J.M.

1981-01-01

361

Do Attending Physicians, Nurses, Residents, and Medical Students Agree on What Constitutes Medical Student Abuse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Whether attending physicians, residents, nurses, and medical students agree on what constitutes medical student abuse, its severity, or influencing factors is unknown. Method We surveyed 237 internal medicine attending physicians, residents, medical students, and nurses at 13 medical schools after viewing five vignettes depicting potentially abusive behaviors. Results The majority of each group felt the belittlement, ethnic insensitivity, and

Paul E. Ogden; Edward H. Wu; Michael D. Elnicki; Michael J. Battistone; Lynn M. Cleary; Mark J. Fagan; Erica Friedman; Peter M. Gliatto; Heather E. Harrell; May S. Jennings; Cynthia H. Ledford; Alex J. Mechaber; Matthew Mintz; Matthew R. Thomas; Raymond Y. Wong

2005-01-01

362

Association of ghrelin and leptin with reproductive hormones in constitutional delay of growth and puberty  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) is a variation of the onset and timing of pubertal development without a defined endocrine abnormality. Recently published studies indicate that leptin and ghrelin play a role in puberty initiation and progress. They have been implicated in regulation of GnRH secretion, with ghrelin having inhibitory and leptin, facilitatory effects. We hypothesized that

Mervat M El-Eshmawy; Ibrahim A Abdel Aal; Amany K El hawary

2010-01-01

363

Constitutional Advancement of Growth Is Associated with Early Puberty in Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Constitutional advancement of growth (CAG) is the growth pattern of early growth acceleration that has been shown to be characteristic in girls with idiopathic precocious puberty (IPP). The aim of this study was to examine the growth pattern of girls with early puberty compared to girls with IPP. Methods: We studied the growth pattern, from birth to presentation, of

Anastasios Papadimitriou; George Kanakis; Konstantinos Douros; Dimitrios T. Papadimitriou; Anastasios H. Boutsiadis; Polyxeni Nicolaidou; Andreas Fretzayas

2011-01-01

364

Material modeling and structural analysis with the microplane constitutive model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microplane model is a versatile and powerful approach to constitutive modeling in which the stress-strain relations are defined in terms of vectors rather than tensors on planes of all possible orientations. Such planes are called the microplanes and are representative of the microstructure of the material. The microplane model with kinematic constraint has been successfully employed in the past in the modeling of concrete, soils, ice, rocks, fiber composites and other quasibrittle materials. The microplane model provides a powerful and efficient numerical and theoretical framework for the development and implementation of constitutive models for any kind of material. The dissertation presents a review of the background from which the microplane model stems, highlighting differences and similarities with other approaches. The basic structure of the microplane model is then presented, together with its extension to finite strain deformation. To show the effectiveness of the microplane model approach, some examples are given demonstrating applications of microplane models in structural analysis with the finite element method. Some new constitutive models are also introduced for materials characterized by very different properties and microstructures, showing that the approach is indeed very versatile and provides a robust basis for the study of a broad range of problems. New models are introduced for metal plasticity, shape memory alloys and cellular materials. The new models are compared quantitatively with the existing models and experimental data. In particular, the newly introduced microplane models for metal plasticity are compared with the classical J2-flow theory for incremental plasticity. An existing microplane model for concrete is employed in finite element analysis of the 'tube-squash' test, in which concrete undergoes very large deviatoric deformation, and of the size effect in compressive failure of concrete columns. The microplane model for shape memory alloys is shown to accurately reproduce the behavior observed experimentally in uniaxial and triaxial tests. Finally, the microplane model for cellular materials is successfully used to perform finite element analysis of failure of sandwich beams by core indentation.

Brocca, Michele

365

The Cosmic Background Radiation  

E-print Network

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and anisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the update of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle Properties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

1997-11-08

366

Building Background Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on

Donna Ross

2010-01-01

367

Introduction Biological Background  

E-print Network

@mail.sdsu.eduUBC Biomath Seminar -- (1/39) #12;Introduction Biological Background Mathematical Models Conclusions Tunicate ­ Ciona intestinalis Ciona intestinalis ­ Tunicate ­ Sea Squirt Joseph M. Mahaffy, jmahaffy

Mahaffy, Joseph M.

368

Introduction 1 Background 1  

E-print Network

squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). The grey squirrel was introduced to Britain in the late 19 th century populations in Northern Ireland. Background The red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) was once ubiquitous

369

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J. F. [University of Denver (United States); Atwood, W. [University of California at Santa Cruz (United States); Burnett, T. [University of Washington (United States); Grove, E. [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Longo, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)-Pisa (Italy); McEnery, J.; Ritz, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Mizuno, T. [Hiroshima University (Japan)

2007-07-12

370

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J.F.; /Denver U.; Atwood, W.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Burnett, T.; /Washington U., Seattle; Grove, E.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Longo, F.; /INFN, Pisa; McEnery, J.; /NASA, Goddard; Mizuno, T.; /Hiroshima U.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

2007-10-17

371

The Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

I review the discovery of the temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The underlying theory and the implications for cosmology are reviewed, and I describe the prospects for future progress.

Joseph Silk

2002-12-12

372

Laboratory investigation of constitutive property scaling behavior  

SciTech Connect

Because many constitutive rock properties must be measured at one scale but applied at another, scaling behavior is an issue facing many applied disciplines, including the petroleum industry. A research program has been established to investigate and a quantify scaling behavior through systematic physical experimentation, with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of gas-permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. The approach is to systematically isolate those factors that influence property scaling and investigate their relative contributions to overall scaling behavior. Two blocks of rock, each exhibiting differing heterogeneity structure. have recently been examined. The two samples were found to yield different scaling behavior, as exhibited by changes in the distribution functions and semi-variograms. Simple models have been fit to the measured scaling behavior that are of similar functional form but of different magnitude.

Tidwell, V.C.

1994-10-01

373

Mechanism of constitution liquid film migration  

SciTech Connect

Liquid film migration (LFM) in liquid phase sintering classically involves a large metastable liquid volume adjacent to solid, and migration occurs at an isolated solid-liquid (S-L) interface. Constitutional liquid film migration (CLFM), discovered in alloy 718, has major characteristics similar to those of LFM, except that the metastable liquid is from the constitutional liquation of precipitates on the grain boundary. The similarity between LFM and CLFM has led to the theory that coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also responsible for CLFM. The coherency strain hypothesis was tested in this study by evaluating whether the Hillert model of LFM would also apply for CLFM. Experimental results of CLFM in alloy 718 showed that migration velocity followed the trend predicted by the Hillert model. This indicates that the coherency strain hypothesis of LFM also applies for CLFM and that the coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also the driving force for CLFM.

NONE

1999-06-01

374

Constitutive Modeling of Crosslinked Nanotube Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-linear, continuum-based constitutive model is developed for carbon nanotube materials in which bundles of aligned carbon nanotubes have varying amounts of crosslinks between the nanotubes. The model accounts for the non-linear elastic constitutive behavior of the material in terms of strain, and is developed using a thermodynamic energy approach. The model is used to examine the effect of the crosslinking on the overall mechanical properties of variations of the crosslinked carbon nanotube material with varying degrees of crosslinking. It is shown that the presence of the crosslinks has significant effects on the mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube materials. An increase in the transverse shear properties is observed when the nanotubes are crosslinked. However, this increase is accompanied by a decrease in axial mechanical properties of the nanotube material upon crosslinking.

Odegard, G. M.; Frankland, S. J. V.; Herzog, M. N.; Gates, T. S.; Fay, C. C.

2004-01-01

375

Arbitrary background picture segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new method for real time arbitrary background picture segmentation. We consider the following picture conditions: color picture, noisy picture, scene light changes, and still image arbitrary background. They are typical for many applications, e.g. for video security system, videophone, videoconference, V-commerce, etc. A set-theoretic approach has been used for picture model creation, adaptive picture

S. Itzikowitz; S. Sheraizin

2002-01-01

376

Unified viscoplastic constitutive equations and their applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unified constitutive equations for time- and temperature-dependent metallic plastic deformation have been applied in FEM simulations of forming processes; increasingly powerful computational tools and physical models are being used to numerically model complex engineering problems. Once confidence has been gained through adequate verification, these numerical models will increasingly replace experimental models. Attention is presently given to the contributions made by physical metallurgy, continuum mechanics, and computational mechanics.

Lindholm, U. S.

1987-01-01

377

Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the first year of work on a program to validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials utilized in high temperature regions of gas turbine engines and to demonstrate their usefulness in computing stress-strain-time-temperature histories in complex three-dimensional structural components. The unified theories combine all inelastic strain-rate components in a single term avoiding, for example, treating plasticity and creep as separate response phenomena. An extensive review of existing unified theories is given and numerical methods for integrating these stiff time-temperature-dependent constitutive equations are discussed. Two particular models, those developed by Bodner and Partom and by Walker, were selected for more detailed development and evaluation against experimental tensile, creep and cyclic strain tests on specimens of a cast nickel base alloy, B19000+Hf. Initial results comparing computed and test results for tensile and cyclic straining for temperature from ambient to 982 C and strain rates from 10(exp-7) 10(exp-3) s(exp-1) are given. Some preliminary date correlations are presented also for highly non-proportional biaxial loading which demonstrate an increase in biaxial cyclic hardening rate over uniaxial or proportional loading conditions. Initial work has begun on the implementation of both constitutive models in the MARC finite element computer code.

Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.

1984-01-01

378

Rapid implementation of advanced constitutive models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a methodology based on the NICE integration scheme [1, 2] for simple and rapid numerical implementation of a class of plasticity constitutive models. In this regard, an algorithm is purposely developed for the implementation of newly developed advanced constitutive models into explicit finite element framework. The methodology follows the organization of the problem state variables into an extended form, which allows the constitutive models' equations to be organized in such a way, that the algorithm can be optionally extended with minimal effort to integrate also evolution equations related to a description of other specific phenomena, such as damage, distortional hardening, phase transitions, degradation etc. To confirm simplicity of the program implementation, computational robustness, effectiveness and improved accuracy of the implemented integration algorithm, a deep drawing simulation of the cylindrical cup is considered as the case study, performed in ABAQUS/Explicit. As a fairly complex considered model, the YLD2004-18p model [3, 4] is first implemented via external subroutine VUMAT. Further, to give additional proof of the simplicity of the proposed methodology, a combination of the YLD2004-18p model and Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model (GTN) is considered. As demonstrated, the implementation is really obtained in a very simple way.

Starman, Bojan; Halilovi?, Miroslav; Vrh, Marko; Štok, Boris

2013-12-01

379

Cardiac Overexpression of Constitutively Active Galpha q Causes Angiotensin II Type1 Receptor Activation, Leading to Progressive Heart Failure and Ventricular Arrhythmias in Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Transgenic mice with transient cardiac expression of constitutively active Galpha q (G?q-TG) exhibt progressive heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias after the initiating stimulus of transfected constitutively active G?q becomes undetectable. However, the mechanisms are still unknown. We examined the effects of chronic administration of olmesartan on heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia in G?q-TG mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Olmesartan (1 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was chronically administered to G?q-TG from 6 to 32 weeks of age, and all experiments were performed in mice at the age of 32 weeks. Chronic olmesartan administration prevented the severe reduction of left ventricular fractional shortening, and inhibited ventricular interstitial fibrosis and ventricular myocyte hypertrophy in G?q-TG. Electrocardiogram demonstrated that premature ventricular contraction (PVC) was frequently (more than 20 beats/min) observed in 9 of 10 vehicle-treated G?q-TG but in none of 10 olmesartan-treated G?q-TG. The collected QT interval and monophasic action potential duration in the left ventricle were significantly shorter in olmesartan-treated G?q-TG than in vehicle-treated G?q-TG. CTGF, collagen type 1, ANP, BNP, and ?-MHC gene expression was increased and olmesartan significantly decreased the expression of these genes in G?q-TG mouse ventricles. The expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) 3 and 6 channel and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) proteins but not angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor was increased in G?q-TG ventricles compared with NTG mouse ventricles. Olmesartan significantly decreased TRPC6 and tended to decrease ACE expressions in G?q-TG. Moreover, it increased AT1 receptor in G?q-TG. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation plays an important role in the development of heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia in G?q-TG mouse model of heart failure. PMID:25171374

Matsushita, Naoko; Kashihara, Toshihide; Shimojo, Hisashi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nakada, Tsutomu; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Mende, Ulrike; Taira, Eiichi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Sanbe, Atsushi; Hirose, Masamichi

2014-01-01

380

Constitutional Thinness and Anorexia Nervosa: A Possible Misdiagnosis?  

PubMed Central

Clinical and biological aspects of restrictive anorexia nervosa (R-AN) are well documented. More than 10,000 articles since 1911 and more than 600 in 2013 have addressed R-AN psychiatric, somatic, and biological aspects. Genetic background, ineffectiveness of appetite regulating hormones on refeeding process, bone loss, and place of amenorrhea in the definition are widely discussed and reviewed. Oppositely, constitutional thinness (CT) is an almost unknown entity. Only 32 articles have been published on this topic since 1953. Similar symptoms associating low body mass index, low fat, and bone mass are reported in both CT and R-AN subjects. Conversely, menses are preserved in CT women and almost the entire hormonal profile is normal, except for leptin and PYY. The aim of the present review is to alert the clinician on the confusing clinical presentation of these two situations, a potential source of misdiagnosis, especially since R-AN definition has changed in DSM5. PMID:25368605

Estour, Bruno; Galusca, Bogdan; Germain, Natacha

2014-01-01

381

3 CFR 8418 - Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The right to participate in self-government, and the many other freedoms guaranteed by our Constitution, inspire the dreams and ambitions of many inside and outside our borders. These principles serve as a beacon of hope for Americans and...

2010-01-01

382

3 CFR 9019 - Proclamation 9019 of September 16, 2013. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of each year as “Constitution Week.” NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim September...of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-eighth.BARACK...

2014-01-01

383

Constitutionalism Through the Looking Glass of Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article explores the following question: why did constitutionalism in Latin America take a different path than in the United States? Constitutions were adopted throughout the New World in the wake of independence movements in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to effectuate republican government. Yet constitutionalism in Latin America led to dictatorship whereas constitutionalism in the United States

Miguel Schor

2005-01-01

384

The United States Constitution as an Incomplete Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewing the Constitution of the United States of America as a political text leads to the application of techniques of textual analysis when reading it. Textual analysis shows the Constitution to be incomplete, both as a constitution and as a founding instrument of the federal union. A complete text of a constitution for the United States requires inclusion of the

Donald S. Lutz

1988-01-01

385

Power: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourth in a special series of handbooks dealing with constitutional themes, this document looks at power in the context of the U.S. Constitution. "The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom" (L. Peach) examines the separation of powers provided for in the Constitution. "The Concept of Power" (C. Roach) is a series of strategies, some using…

American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

386

High constitutive activity of native H3 receptors regulates histamine neurons in brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some G-protein-coupled receptors display `constitutive activity', that is, spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist. This means that a proportion of the receptor population spontaneously undergoes an allosteric transition, leading to a conformation that can bind G proteins. The process has been shown to occur with recombinant receptors expressed at high density, and\\/or mutated, but also non-mutated recombinant receptors expressed

Séverine Morisset; Agnčs Rouleau; Xavier Ligneau; Florence Gbahou; Joël Tardivel-Lacombe; Holger Stark; Walter Schunack; C. Robin Ganellin; Jean-Michel Arrang

2000-01-01

387

Single-point sampling for assessment of constitutive, induced, and inhibited  

E-print Network

variability, partly as a result of the broad levels of CYP3A4 expression and genetic polymorphism in CYP3A5Single-point sampling for assessment of constitutive, induced, and inhibited cytochrome P450 3A are in vivo probes for assessing first-pass and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. Clearance

Steinbach, Joe Henry

388

Operator-constitutive mutants in the threonine operon of Escherichia coli K-12.  

PubMed Central

Three Escherichia coli K-12 mutant strains resistant to DL-alpha-amino-beta-hydroxyvaleric acid were isolated in which the expression of the thr operon is constitutive. The localization and dominance properties of the mutations involved, called thrO, are those of operator mutations. The gene sequence is OABC as suggested by earlier studies. PMID:172487

Saint-Girons, I; Margarita, D

1975-01-01

389

Sakhalin tender background detailed  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that on Jan. 27, 1992, the committee constituted by order of the Russian government of Dec. 23, 1991, and headed by V.I. Danilov-Danilyan, the Russian Federation's Minister for Ecology and Natural Resources, assessed the results of a tender announced in May 1991. The tender was for foreign companies to submit feasibility studies for exploration and development of oil and gas on the continental shelf off Sakhalin Island. The announced winner was the MMM group consisting of McDermott International Inc., Marathon Oil Co., and Mitsui and Co. Ltd. In its decision the governmental tender committee (GTC) begged to differ from V. Fedorov, governor of the Territory of Sakhalin, in whose opinion the U.S.-Japanese combine of Exxon Corp.-Sakhalin Oil Development Co. (Sodeco) should have been pronounced winner at the bidding's end. GTC's decision also ran counter to the verdict by a panel of experts constituted by decision of the Examining Council under the Chairman of the Russian Government on Dec. 3, 1991, and headed by F. Salmanov, first deputy Minister of Geology of the U.S.S.R.

Konoplyanik, A. (Russian Federation Ministry for Fuels and Energy (SU))

1992-03-23

390

Expression of endoglucanases in Pichia pastoris under control of the GAP promoter  

PubMed Central

Background Plant-derived biomass is a potential alternative to fossil feedstocks for a greener economy. Enzymatic saccharification of biomass has been studied extensively and endoglucanases have been found to be a prerequisite for quick initial liquefaction of biomass under industrial conditions. Pichia pastoris, widely used for heterologous protein expression, can be utilized for fungal endoglucanase production. The recently marketed PichiaPink™ expression system allows for rapid clone selection, and employs the methanol inducible AOX1 promoter to ensure high protein expression levels. However, methanol is toxic and poses a fire hazard, issues which become more significant at an industrial scale. It is possible to eliminate these risks and still maintain high productivity by switching to the constitutive GAP promoter. Results In the present study, a plasmid carrying the constitutive GAP promoter was created for PichiaPink™. We then studied expression of two endoglucanases, AfCel12A from Aspergillus fumigatus and TaCel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus, regulated by either the AOX1 promoter or the GAP promoter. Initial experiments in tubes and small bioreactors showed that the levels of AfCel12A obtained with the constitutive promoter were similar or higher, compared to the AOX1 promoter, whereas the levels of TaCel5A were somewhat lower. After optimization of cultivation conditions using a 15-l bioreactor, the recombinant P. pastoris strains utilizing the GAP promoter produced ca. 3–5 g/l of total secreted protein, with CMCase activity equivalent to 1200 nkat/ml AfCel12A and 170 nkat/ml TaCel5A. Conclusions We present a strategy for constitutive recombinant protein expression in the novel PichiaPink™ system. Both AfCel12A and TaCel5A were successfully expressed constitutively in P. pastoris under the GAP promoter. Reasonable protein levels were reached after optimizing cultivation conditions. PMID:24742273

2014-01-01

391

Structural three-dimensional constitutive law for the passive myocardium.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional constitutive law is proposed for the myocardium. Its formulation is based on a structural approach in which the total strain energy of the tissue is the sum of the strain energies of its constituents: the muscle fibers, the collagen fibers and the fluid matrix which embeds them. The ensuing material law expresses the specific structural and mechanical properties of the tissue, namely, the spatial orientation of the comprising fibers, their waviness in the unstressed state and their stress-strain behavior when stretched. Having assumed specific functional forms for the distribution of the fibers spatial orientation and waviness, the results of biaxial mechanical tests serve for the estimation of the material constants appearing in the constitutive equations. A very good fit is obtained between the measured and the calculated stresses, indicating the suitability of the proposed model for describing the mechanical behavior of the passive myocardium. Moreover, the results provide general conclusions concerning the structural basis for the tissue overall mechanical properties, the main of which is that the collagen matrix, though comprising a relatively small fraction of the whole tissue volume, is the dominant component accounting for its stiffness. PMID:3172739

Horowitz, A; Lanir, Y; Yin, F C; Perl, M; Sheinman, I; Strumpf, R K

1988-08-01

392

Constitutive phosphorylation of the Parkinson's disease associated alpha-synuclein.  

PubMed

alpha-Synuclein has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, since rare autosomal dominant mutations are associated with early onset of the disease and alpha-synuclein was found to be a major constituent of Lewy bodies. We have analyzed alpha-synuclein expression in transfected cell lines. In pulse-chase experiments alpha-synuclein appeared to be stable over long periods (t((1)/(2)) 54 h) and no endoproteolytic processing was observed. alpha-Synuclein was constitutively phosphorylated in human kidney 293 cells as well as in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. In both cell lines phosphorylation was highly sensitive to phosphatases, since okadaic acid markedly stabilized phosphate incorporation. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that phosphorylation occurred predominantly on serine. Using site-directed mutagenesis we have identified a major phosphorylation site at serine 129 within the C-terminal domain of alpha-synuclein. An additional site, which was phosphorylated less efficiently, was mapped to serine 87. The major phosphorylation site was located within a consensus recognition sequence of casein kinase 1 (CK-1). In vitro experiments and two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping provided further evidence that serine 129 was phosphorylated by CK-1 and CK-2. Moreover, phosphorylation of serine 129 was reduced in vivo upon inhibition of CK-1 or CK-2. These data demonstrate that alpha-synuclein is constitutively phosphorylated within its C terminus and may indicate that the function of alpha-synuclein is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. PMID:10617630

Okochi, M; Walter, J; Koyama, A; Nakajo, S; Baba, M; Iwatsubo, T; Meijer, L; Kahle, P J; Haass, C

2000-01-01

393

We the People: Indiana and the United States Constitution. Lectures in Observance of the Bicentennial of the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These lectures, presented in observance of the U.S. Constitution bicentennial celebration, consider selected constitutionally significant law cases that occurred in Indiana. These cases are representative of U.S. constitutional development and of the relationship of Indiana to the U.S. Constitution. Patrick Furlong, in "The South Bend Fugitive…

Furlong, Partick J.; And Others

394

Constitutive Phosphorylation of Interferon Receptor A-Associated Signaling Proteins in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Background Overexpression of type I interferon (IFN-I)-induced genes is a common feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its experimental models, but the participation of endogenous overproduction of IFN-I on it is not clear. To explore the possibility that abnormally increased IFN-I receptor (IFNAR) signaling could participate in IFN-I-induced gene overexpression of SLE, we examined the phosphorylation status of the IFNAR-associated signaling partners Jak1 and STAT2, and its relation with expression of its physiologic inhibitor SOCS1 and with plasma levels of IFN? and IFN-like activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from SLE patients with or without disease activity and healthy controls cultured in the presence or in the absence of IFN? were examined by immunoprecipitation and/or western blotting for expression of the two IFNAR chains, Jak1, Tyk2, and STAT2 and their phosphorylated forms. In SLE but not in healthy control PBMC, Jak1 and STAT2 were constitutively phosphorylated, even in the absence of disease activity (basal pJak1: controls vs. active SLE p<0.0001 and controls vs. inactive SLE p?=?0.0006; basal pSTAT2: controls vs. active and inactive SLE p<0.0001). Although SOCS1 protein was slightly but significantly decreased in SLE in the absence or in the presence of IFN? (p?=?0.0096 to p<0.0001), in SOCS1 mRNA levels were markedly decreased (p?=?0.036 to p<0.0001). IFN? induced higher levels of the IFN-I-dependent MxA protein mRNA in SLE than in healthy controls, whereas the opposite was observed for SOCS1. Although there was no relation to increased serum IFN?, active SLE plasma could induce expression of IFN-dependent genes by normal PBMC. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that in some SLE patients IFN-I dependent gene expression could be the result of a low IFNAR signaling threshold. PMID:22859983

Ramírez-Vélez, Gabriela; Medina, Francisco; Ramírez-Montańo, Luis; Zarazúa-Lozada, Abraham; Hernández, Ramiro; Llorente, Luis; Moreno, José

2012-01-01

395

Prokaryotic expression of a constitutively expressed Tephrosia villosa defensin and its potent antifungal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant defensins are small, highly stable, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides produced by the plants for inhibiting a broad-spectrum\\u000a of microbial pathogens. Some of the well-characterized plant defensins exhibit potent antifungal activity on certain pathogenic\\u000a fungal species only. We characterized a defensin, TvD1 from a weedy leguminous herb, Tephrosia villosa. The open reading frame of the cDNA was 228 bp, which codes for

S. Vijayan; Lalitha Guruprasad; P. B. Kirti

2008-01-01

396

Matching Background Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter introduces an especially important subject in the concealment of animals--countershading. One observes many animals with colors that match the general color of their usual backgrounds. Many leaf-eating insects appear green, for example, making them relatively inconspicuous against their normal background of leaves. The manner of coloration that will provide such a color match is not as obvious as one might imagine. It depends significantly on the nature of the lighting. The inquiry-based activities included in this section effectively illustrate this concept.

David Ipsen

2008-04-01

397

The cosmic microwave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

Silk, Joseph

1991-01-01

398

The Cosmic Background Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

1990-01-01

399

Cosmic Microwave Background  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the cosmic microwave background to understand why it permeates the universe and why it peaks as microwave radiation. Students should be able to explain that the origin of the background radiation is the uniform thermal radiation of the big bang and that the radiation produced was evenly distributed around the small early universe, causing it to permeate today's universe. This activity is part of the Cosmic Times teachers guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1965 Cosmic Times Poster.

400

A Novel Moderate Constitutive Promoter Derived from Poplar (Populus tomentosa Carričre).  

PubMed

A novel sequence that functions as a promoter element for moderate constitutive expression of transgenes, designated as the PtMCP promoter, was isolated from the woody perennial Populus tomentosa. The PtMCP promoter was fused to the GUS reporter gene to characterize its expression pattern in different species. In stable Arabidopsis transformants, transcripts of the GUS reporter gene could be detected by RT-PCR in the root, stem, leaf, flower and silique. Further histochemical and fluorometric GUS activity assays demonstrated that the promoter could direct transgene expression in all tissues and organs, including roots, stems, rosette leaves, cauline leaves and flowers of seedlings and maturing plants. Its constitutive expression pattern was similar to that of the CaMV35S promoter, but the level of GUS activity was significantly lower than in CaMV35S promoter::GUS plants. We also characterized the promoter through transient expression in transgenic tobacco and observed similar expression patterns. Histochemical GUS staining and quantitative analysis detected GUS activity in all tissues and organs of tobacco, including roots, stems, leaves, flower buds and flowers, but GUS activity in PtMCP promoter::GUS plants was significantly lower than in CaMV35S promoter::GUS plants. Our results suggested that the PtMCP promoter from poplar is a constitutive promoter with moderate activity and that its function is presumably conserved in different species. Therefore, the PtMCP promoter may provide a practical choice to direct moderate level constitutive expression of transgenes and could be a valuable new tool in plant genetic engineering. PMID:23507754

Chen, Zhong; Wang, Jia; Ye, Mei-Xia; Li, Hao; Ji, Le-Xiang; Li, Ying; Cui, Dong-Qing; Liu, Jun-Mei; An, Xin-Min

2013-01-01

401

A Novel Moderate Constitutive Promoter Derived from Poplar (Populus tomentosa Carričre)  

PubMed Central

A novel sequence that functions as a promoter element for moderate constitutive expression of transgenes, designated as the PtMCP promoter, was isolated from the woody perennial Populus tomentosa. The PtMCP promoter was fused to the GUS reporter gene to characterize its expression pattern in different species. In stable Arabidopsis transformants, transcripts of the GUS reporter gene could be detected by RT-PCR in the root, stem, leaf, flower and silique. Further histochemical and fluorometric GUS activity assays demonstrated that the promoter could direct transgene expression in all tissues and organs, including roots, stems, rosette leaves, cauline leaves and flowers of seedlings and maturing plants. Its constitutive expression pattern was similar to that of the CaMV35S promoter, but the level of GUS activity was significantly lower than in CaMV35S promoter::GUS plants. We also characterized the promoter through transient expression in transgenic tobacco and observed similar expression patterns. Histochemical GUS staining and quantitative analysis detected GUS activity in all tissues and organs of tobacco, including roots, stems, leaves, flower buds and flowers, but GUS activity in PtMCP promoter::GUS plants was significantly lower than in CaMV35S promoter::GUS plants. Our results suggested that the PtMCP promoter from poplar is a constitutive promoter with moderate activity and that its function is presumably conserved in different species. Therefore, the PtMCP promoter may provide a practical choice to direct moderate level constitutive expression of transgenes and could be a valuable new tool in plant genetic engineering. PMID:23507754

Chen, Zhong; Wang, Jia; Ye, Mei-Xia; Li, Hao; Ji, Le-Xiang; Li, Ying; Cui, Dong-Qing; Liu, Jun-Mei; An, Xin-Min

2013-01-01

402

A constitutive law for dense granular flows.  

PubMed

A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications. PMID:16760972

Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

2006-06-01

403

Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1993-12-31

404

Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the third year of work on a program which is part of the NASA Hot Section Technology program (HOST) are presented. The goals of this program are: (1) the development of unified constitutive models for rate dependent isotropic materials; and (2) the demonstration of the use of unified models in structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. A test procedure was developed for assisting the generation of a data base for the Bodner-Partom model using a relatively small number of specimens. This test procedure involved performing a tensile test at a temperature of interest that involves a succession of strain-rate changes. The results for B1900+Hf indicate that material constants related to hardening and thermal recovery can be obtained on the basis of such a procedure. Strain aging, thermal recovery, and unexpected material variations, however, preluded an accurate determination of the strain-rate sensitivity parameter is this exercise. The effects of casting grain size on the constitutive behavior of B1900+Hf were studied and no particular grain size effect was observed. A systematic procedure was also developed for determining the material constants in the Bodner-Partom model. Both the new test procedure and the method for determining material constants were applied to the alternate material, Mar-M247 . Test data including tensile, creep, cyclic and nonproportional biaxial (tension/torsion) loading were collected. Good correlations were obtained between the Bodner-Partom model and experiments. A literature survey was conducted to assess the effects of thermal history on the constitutive behavior of metals. Thermal history effects are expected to be present at temperature regimes where strain aging and change of microstructure are important. Possible modifications to the Bodner-Partom model to account for these effects are outlined. The use of a unified constitutive model for hot section component analyses was demonstrated by applying the Walker model and the MARC finite-element code to a B1900+Hf airfoil problem.

Chan, Kwai S.; Lindholm, Ulric S.; Bodner, S. R.; Hill, Jeff T.; Weber, R. M.; Meyer, T. G.

1986-01-01

405

Native American Constitution and Law Digitization Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A cooperative effort from the University of Oklahoma Law Center, the National Indian Law Library (NILL), and Native American tribes, this site offers access to the full texts of selected legal documents. Among these are Constitutions, Tribal Codes, Charters, Indian Land Titles, and summaries of recent US Supreme Court cases that have involved or affected Native Americans. At present, the Project provides only about 30 documents total, but scholars and users with an interest in Native American legal issues will want to monitor the site.

406

Constitutive parameter measurements of lossy materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical constitutive parameters of lossy materials are considered. A discussion of the NRL arch for lossy coatings is presented involving analytical analyses of the reflected field using the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) and physical optics (PO). The actual values for these parameters can be obtained through a traditional transmission technique which is examined from an error analysis standpoint. Alternate sample geometries are suggested for this technique to reduce sample tolerance requirements for accurate parameter determination. The performance for one alternate geometry is given.

Dominek, A.; Park, A.

1989-01-01

407

Cosmic background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and\\u000aanisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the\\u000aupdate of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle\\u000aProperties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

2000-01-01

408

Local microwave background radiation  

E-print Network

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos Soares

2014-11-13

409

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing  

E-print Network

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

Rambaut, Andrew

410

EBSD Images Theoretical Background  

E-print Network

function during a welding procedure. Consistent grain growth curves were obtained with this techniqueMotivation EBSD Images Theoretical Background Defects in the Weld Grain Growth Low Speed Welding High Speed Welding Conclusion Heat-Affected Zone Observations Welding Experiments The low density

Candea, George

411

Microsoft External Research Backgrounder  

E-print Network

Microsoft External Research Backgrounder has been a part of a number of highly successful, cutting-edge collaborative projects over the years. In fact, in fiscal year 2008, Microsoft External Research supported External Research supports long-term initiatives to enhance teaching and learning through the creative use

Narasayya, Vivek

412

David Smith Academic background  

E-print Network

David Smith Academic background Ph.D. in Mathematics (Algebra), Université de Sherbrooke, Canada project program (I. Assem, F. Bergeron, C. Reutenauer, D. Smith) $132,000 ($44,000 per year for 3 years. Schiffler and D. Smith, Friezes, strings and cluster variables, to appear in Glasgow Mathematcal Journal. 2

413

Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies have and will continue to revolutionize our understanding of cosmology. The recent discovery of the previously predicted acoustic peaks in the power spectrum has established a working cosmological model: a critical density universe consisting of mainly dark matter and dark energy, which formed its structure through gravitational instability from quantum fluctuations during an inflationary

Wayne Hu; Scott Dodelson

2002-01-01

414

Cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is widely interpreted as the thermal afterglow of a hot big bang. Measurements of the CMBR intensity as a function of frequency constrain the history of cosmic energetics. Measurements of the anisotropy in the CMBR temperature provide a snapshot of the distribution of fluctuations in the gravitational potential at the earliest stages of cosmic

Lyman Page; David Wilkinson

1999-01-01

415

Radioactive Decay 1. Background  

E-print Network

Radioactive Decay 1. Background It is well known that many nuclei are unstable and are transformed into other nuclear species by means of either alpha decay or beta decay. The rate at which those radioactive on the number N of radioactive nuclei in the sample and also on the probability for each nucleus to decay

Elster, Charlotte

416

Constitutively active phosphatase inhibitor-1 improves cardiac contractility in young mice but is deleterious after catecholaminergic stress and with aging  

PubMed Central

Phosphatase inhibitor-1 (I-1) is a distal amplifier element of ?-adrenergic signaling that functions by preventing dephosphorylation of downstream targets. I-1 is downregulated in human failing hearts, while overexpression of a constitutively active mutant form (I-1c) reverses contractile dysfunction in mouse failing hearts, suggesting that I-1c may be a candidate for gene therapy. We generated mice with conditional cardiomyocyte-restricted expression of I-1c (referred to herein as dTGI-1c mice) on an I-1–deficient background. Young adult dTGI-1c mice exhibited enhanced cardiac contractility but exaggerated contractile dysfunction and ventricular dilation upon catecholamine infusion. Telemetric ECG recordings revealed typical catecholamine-induced ventricular tachycardia and sudden death. Doxycycline feeding switched off expression of cardiomyocyte-restricted I-1c and reversed all abnormalities. Hearts from dTGI-1c mice showed hyperphosphorylation of phospholamban and the ryanodine receptor, and this was associated with an increased number of catecholamine-induced Ca2+ sparks in isolated myocytes. Aged dTGI-1c mice spontaneously developed a cardiomyopathic phenotype. These data were confirmed in a second independent transgenic mouse line, expressing a full-length I-1 mutant that could not be phosphorylated and thereby inactivated by PKC-? (I-1S67A). In conclusion, conditional expression of I-1c or I-1S67A enhanced steady-state phosphorylation of 2 key Ca2+-regulating sarcoplasmic reticulum enzymes. This was associated with increased contractile function in young animals but also with arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy after adrenergic stress and with aging. These data should be considered in the development of novel therapies for heart failure. PMID:20071777

Wittköpper, Katrin; Fabritz, Larissa; Neef, Stefan; Ort, Katharina R.; Grefe, Clemens; Unsöld, Bernhard; Kirchhof, Paulus; Maier, Lars S.; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Dobrev, Dobromir; Eschenhagen, Thomas; El-Armouche, Ali

2010-01-01

417

Expression of Androgen Receptor Splice Variants in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases is Associated with Castration-Resistance and Short Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundConstitutively active androgen receptor variants (AR-V) lacking the ligand binding domain (LBD) may promote the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The expression of AR-Vs in the clinically most important metastatic site, the bone, has, however, not been well documented. Our aim was therefore to compare levels of AR-Vs in hormone-naive (HN) and CRPC bone metastases in comparison to primary

Emma Hörnberg; Erik Bovinder Ylitalo; Sead Crnalic; Henrik Antti; Pär Stattin; Anders Widmark; Anders Bergh; Pernilla Wikström; Paul Dent

2011-01-01

418

Background on Net Acid or ARD Potential  

E-print Network

acid generating and the amount of acid is determined by titration and expressed in the same units01-1 Background on Net Acid or ARD Potential GARD Guide Section 5.4.10 Types of Tests · Acid Base Accounting (ABA) ­ Measures net acid potential through independent determination of acid generating

Boisvert, Jeff

419

Gauging the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect

We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behavior of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behavior. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behavior. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

Zibin, J. P.; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2008-12-15

420

Deleterious background selection with recombination  

SciTech Connect

An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Hudson, R.R. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kaplan, N.L. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-12-01

421

The urban background of Enslaved Muslims in the Americas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enslaved Muslims constituted a relatively small proportion of the enslaved population in the Americas, and that population was largely male. This article explores an unappreciated dimension of the background of these enslaved Muslims, the fact that most came from towns and had traveled widely, between towns; that is enslaved Muslims tended to come from urban settings, no matter where they

Paul E. Lovejoy

2005-01-01

422

Background and Employability of Mobile vs. Non-Mobile Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, a comparison is made of the background and the early career of graduates with higher education from abroad to graduates with all domestic degrees, based on a survey among Norwegian graduates. Results show that those who have studied abroad constitute a selected group regarding social origin and mobility capital (exposure to…

Wiers-Jenssen, Jannecke

2011-01-01

423

Space shuttle propellant constitutive law verification tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Propellants Task (Task 2.0) on the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP), a database of material properties was generated for the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) PBAN-based propellant. A parallel effort on the Propellants Task was the generation of an improved constitutive theory for the PBAN propellant suitable for use in a finite element analysis (FEA) of the RSRM. The outcome of an analysis with the improved constitutive theory would be more reliable prediction of structural margins of safety. The work described in this report was performed by Materials Laboratory personnel at Thiokol Corporation/Huntsville Division under NASA contract NAS8-39619, Mod. 3. The report documents the test procedures for the refinement and verification tests for the improved Space Shuttle RSRM propellant material model, and summarizes the resulting test data. TP-H1148 propellant obtained from mix E660411 (manufactured February 1989) which had experienced ambient igloo storage in Huntsville, Alabama since January 1990, was used for these tests.

Thompson, James R.

1995-01-01

424

Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of the second year of work on a problem which is part of the NASA HOST Program. Its goals are: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are that of Bodner-Partom and Walker. For model evaluation purposes, a large constitutive data base is generated for a B1900 + Hf alloy by performing uniaxial tensile, creep, cyclic, stress relation, and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests as well as biaxial (tension/torsion) tests under proportional and nonproportional loading over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. Systematic approaches for evaluating material constants from a small subset of the data base are developed. Correlations of the uniaxial and biaxial tests data with the theories of Bodner-Partom and Walker are performed to establish the accuracy, range of applicability, and integability of the models. Both models are implemented in the MARC finite element computer code and used for TMF analyses. Benchmark notch round experiments are conducted and the results compared with finite-element analyses using the MARC code and the Walker model.

Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.

1985-01-01

425

Constitutional moments in governing science and technology.  

PubMed

Scholars in science and technology studies (STS) have recently been called upon to advise governments on the design of procedures for public engagement. Any such instrumental function should be carried out consistently with STS's interpretive and normative obligations as a social science discipline. This article illustrates how such threefold integration can be achieved by reviewing current US participatory politics against a 70-year backdrop of tacit constitutional developments in governing science and technology. Two broad cycles of constitutional adjustment are discerned: the first enlarging the scope of state action as well as public participation, with liberalized rules of access and sympathetic judicial review; the second cutting back on the role of the state, fostering the rise of an academic-industrial complex for technology transfer, and privatizing value debates through increasing delegation to professional ethicists. New rules for public engagement in the United Sates should take account of these historical developments and seek to counteract some of the anti-democratic tendencies observable in recent decades. PMID:21879357

Jasanoff, Sheila

2011-12-01

426

Nonlocal Constitutive Relation for Steady Granular Flow  

E-print Network

Extending recent modeling efforts for emulsions, we propose a nonlocal fluidity relation for flowing granular materials, capturing several known finite-size effects observed in steady flow. We express the local Bagnold-type ...

Kamrin, Kenneth N.

427

Granular materials: constitutive equations and strain localization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strain localization into shear bands is commonly observed in natural soil masses, as well as in human-built embankments, footings, retaining walls and other geotechnical structures. Numerical predictions for the process of shear band formation are critically dependent on the constitutive equations employed. In this paper, the plane strain "double-shearing" constitutive model (e.g., Spencer, A.J.M., 1964. A theory of the kinematics of ideal soils under plane strain conditions. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 12, 337-351; Spencer, A.J.M., 1982, Deformation of ideal granular materials. In: Hopkins, H.G., Sewell, M.J. (Eds.), Mechanics of Solids. Pergamon Press, Oxford and New York, pp. 607-652; Mehrabadi, M.M., Cowin, S.C., 1978. Initial planar deformation of dilatant granular materials. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 26, 269-284; Nemat-Nasser, S., Mehrabadi, M.M., Iwakuma, T. 1981. On certain macroscopic and microscopic aspects of plastic flow of ductile materials. In: Nemat-Nasser, S. (Ed.), Three-dimensional Constitutive Relations and Ductile Fracture. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 157-172; Anand, L., 1983. Plane deformations of ideal granular materials. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 31, 105-122) is generalized to three dimensions including the effects of elastic deformation and pre-peak behavior. The constitutive model is implemented in a finite element program and is used to predict the formation of shear bands in plane strain compression, and plane strain cylindrical cavity expansion. The predictions from the model are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with the recent experiments of Han, C., Drescher, A., (1993. Shear bands in biaxial tests on dry coarse sand. Soils and Foundations 33, 118-132) and Alsiny, H., Vardoulakis, I., Drescher, A., (1992. Deformation localization in cavity inflation experiments on dry sand. Geotechnique 42, 395-410) on a dry sand. The constitutive model is also used to predict the stress state in a static sand pile — a topic which has occupied the attention of many investigators in recent years. In our simulations we model an initially loose sand mass as a cohesionless material with a mobilized internal friction coefficient which evolves from an initial value of zero to a saturation value. The formation of a sand pile is numerically modeled as a two-step process: (i) In the first step a conical sand mass is placed between a flat rigid surface and an axi-symmetric conical mold. Interaction between the sand mass and the rigid base plate is modeled using an interface friction coefficient which has the same value as the saturation value of the internal friction coefficient. The sand mass (which is confined between the base plate and the conical mold) is subjected to gravity loading, and the system is allowed to equilibrate. (ii) In the second step the conical mold is quickly lifted and the sand mass allowed to reach a new equilibrate, but slightly slumped configuration. In the process of slight slumping, there is non-homogeneous plastic deformation of the sand pile. This non-homogeneous plastic deformation, coupled with the evolving internal friction coefficient, naturally gives rise to a static stress state which exhibits the interesting feature that the vertical stress distribution at the base of the sand pile does not have a maximum under the apex of the cone, but shows a local dip there.

Anand, L.; Gu, C.

2000-08-01

428

Computer simulation of the mathematical modeling involved in constitutive equation development: Via symbolic computations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of new material models for describing the high temperature constitutive behavior of real materials represents an important area of research in engineering disciplines. Derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) which describe this high temperature material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved and error prone; thus intelligent application of symbolic systems to facilitate this tedious process can be of significant benefit. A computerized procedure (SDICE) capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models, in analytical form is presented. This package, running under MACSYMA, has the following features: partial differentiation, tensor computations, automatic grouping and labeling of common factors, expression substitution and simplification, back substitution of invariant and tensorial relations and a relational data base. Also limited aspects of invariant theory were incorporated into SDICE due to the utilization of potentials as a starting point and the desire for these potentials to be frame invariant (objective). Finally not only calculation of flow and/or evolutionary laws were accomplished but also the determination of history independent nonphysical coefficients in terms of physically measurable parameters, e.g., Young's modulus, was achieved. The uniqueness of SDICE resides in its ability to manipulate expressions in a general yet predefined order and simplify expressions so as to limit expression growth. Results are displayed when applicable utilizing index notation.

Arnold, S. M.; Tan, H. Q.; Dong, X.

1989-01-01

429

Analysis of constitutive and constitutive-like secretion in semi-intact pituitary cells.  

PubMed

To study biosynthetic transport through the constitutive and regulated secretory pathways, we have designed a semi-intact mammalian cell system that restores the transport of secretory proteins from the trans-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface. The mouse pituitary AtT-20 cell line is a suitable model to biochemically analyze molecular sorting in the secretory pathway. The prohormone proopiomelanocortin is sulfated on N-linked carbohydrate chains in the trans-Golgi prior to proteolytic processing in the secretory granule. Radiolabeling with [35S]sulfate therefore provides a convenient tool to selectively follow molecular events in the regulated secretory pathway without interference from earlier steps. Likewise, transport through the constitutive secretory pathway may be monitored using sulfate-labeled glycosaminoglycan chains. We show that export from the TGN is efficiently reconstituted in cells made semi-intact with streptolysin O, and is dependent on temperature, ATP and GTP hydrolysis, and cytosol. Packaging of proopiomelanocortin into immature secretory granules also activates the proteolytic processing machinery which eventually converts the prohormone to its bioactive mature product, adrenocorticotropic hormone. In addition, a large fraction of incompletely processed proopiomelanocortin is secreted as the processing intermediates from immature secretory granules. This process of constitutive-like secretion can be clearly distinguished from direct constitutive secretion from the trans-Golgi network by kinetic and compositional criteria. Furthermore, we have found that specific inhibitors of different protein phosphatases and kinases are potent blockers of constitutive and constitutive-like secretion. This experimental model should provide a valuable system to elucidate the molecular mechanism regulating post-Golgi traffic during secretory granule biogenesis. PMID:9790865

Dumermuth, E; Moore, H P

1998-10-01

430

ENHANCING CTR1-10 ETHYLENE RESPONSE2 is a novel allele involved in CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE-RESPONSE1-mediated ethylene receptor signaling in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Background The signal output of ethylene receptor family members is mediated by unknown mechanisms to activate the Raf-like protein CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) in negatively regulating ethylene signaling. The physical interaction between the ethylene receptor histidine kinase (HK) domain and CTR1 N terminus is essential to the CTR1-mediated receptor signal output. To advance our knowledge of the involvement of CTR1-mediated ethylene receptor signaling, we performed a genetic screen for mutations that enhanced the constitutive ethylene response in the weak ctr1-10 allele. Results We isolated a loss-of-function allele of ENHANCING ctr1-10 ETHYLENE RESPONSE2 (ECR2) and found that ecr2-1 ctr1-10 and the strong allele ctr1-1 conferred a similar, typical constitutive ethylene response phenotype. Genetic analyses and transformation studies suggested that ECR2 acts downstream of the ethylene receptors and upstream of the transcription factors ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) and EIN3-LIKE1 (EIL1), which direct the expression of ethylene response genes. Signal output by the N terminus of the ethylene receptor ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (ETR1) can be mediated by a pathway independent of CTR1. Expression of the N terminus of the ethylene-insensitive etr1-1 but not the full-length isoform rescued the ecr2-1 ctr1-10 phenotype, which indicates the involvement of ECR2 in CTR1-mediated but not -independent, ethylene receptor signaling. ECR2 was mapped to the centromere region on chromosome 2. With incomplete sequence and annotation information and rare chromosome recombination events in this region, the cloning of ECR2 is challenging and still in progress. Conclusions ECR2 is a novel allele involved in the ethylene receptor signaling that is mediated by CTR1. CTR1 activation by ethylene receptors may require ECR2 for suppressing the ethylene response. PMID:24529183

2014-01-01

431

Wandering in the Background: A Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer  

E-print Network

Wandering in the Background: A Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer by Wayne T. Hu B.A. (Princeton Spinrad 1995 #12;1 Wandering in the Background: A Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer by Wayne T. Hu and geometry. Stressing model independent results, we show how the microwave background can be used to extract

Hu, Wayne

432

The cosmic microwave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

Silk, Joseph

1989-01-01

433

Giants On Deformed Backgrounds  

E-print Network

We study giant graviton probes in the framework of the three--parameter deformation of the AdS_5 x S^5 background. We examine both the case when the brane expands in the deformed part of the geometry and the case when it blows up into AdS. Performing a detailed analysis of small fluctuations around the giants, the configurations turn out to be stable. Our results hold even for the supersymmetric Lunin-Maldacena deformation.

Marco Pirrone

2006-12-07

434

Mars Express  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the European Space Agency (ESA) features information about the Mars Express orbiter and its ongoing mission. Mars Express represents ESA's first visit to another planet in the solar system and will help answer fundamental questions about the geology, atmosphere, surface environment, history of water and potential for life on Mars. The site spotlights information about the mission, the spacecraft and its instrumentation, background science about Mars, images and scientific results gathered so far, recent publications, images and animations, plus updated special features and news articles.

European Space Agency

435

Non linear constitutive models for lattice materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a computational homogenisation approach to derive a non linear constitutive model for lattice materials. A representative volume element (RVE) of the lattice is modelled by means of discrete structural elements, and macroscopic stress-strain relationships are numerically evaluated after applying appropriate periodic boundary conditions to the RVE. The influence of the choice of the RVE on the predictions of the model is discussed. The model has been used for the analysis of the hexagonal and the triangulated lattices subjected to large strains. The fidelity of the model has been demonstrated by analysing a plate with a central hole under prescribed in plane compressive and tensile loads, and then comparing the results from the discrete and the homogenised models.

Vigliotti, Andrea; Deshpande, Vikram S.; Pasini, Damiano

2014-03-01

436

A continuum constitutive model for amorphous metallic materials  

E-print Network

A finite-deformation, Coulomb-Mohr type constitutive theory for the elastic-viscoplastic response of pressure-sensitive and plastically-dilatant isotropic materials has been developed. The constitutive model has been ...

Su, Cheng, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

437

Close view of the Constitution Avenue elevation to show arched ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Close view of the Constitution Avenue elevation to show arched gateways and pedimented pavilion ("Commerce and Communication" sculpted pediment) - Interstate Commerce Commission, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

438

Changing Constitutions: Judicial Review and Redemption in the Philippines  

E-print Network

appropriate implementing statute to change the Constitutionimplementing law for amend- ment of the Constitution via initiative, proponents of constitu- tional changeimplementing law was not insurmounta- ble. The proponents of constitutional change

Gatmaytan-Mango, Dante

2007-01-01