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1

Mitochondrial Genetic Background Modulates Bioenergetics and Susceptibility to Acute Cardiac Volume – Overload  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Dysfunctional bioenergetics has emerged as a key feature in many chronic pathologies such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This has led to the mitochondrial paradigm in which it has been proposed that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation contributes to disease susceptibility. In this study we present a novel animal model of mtDNA polymorphisms, the mitochondrial nuclear exchange mouse (MNX), in which the mtDNA from C3H/HeN mouse has been inserted onto the C57/BL6 nuclear background and vice versa to test this concept. Our data show a major contribution of the C57/BL6 mtDNA to the susceptibility to the pathological stress of cardiac volume overload which is independent of the nuclear background. Mitochondria harboring the C57/BL6J mtDNA generate more reactive oxygen species (ROS) and have a higher mitochondrial membrane potential relative to those having the C3H/HeN mtDNA, independent of nuclear background. We propose this is the primary mechanism associated with increased bioenergetic dysfunction in response to volume overload. In summary, these studies support the “mitochondrial paradigm” for the development of disease susceptibility, and show that the mtDNA modulates, cellular bioenergetics, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and susceptibility to cardiac stress. PMID:23924350

Fetterman, Jessica L.; Zelickson, Blake R.; Johnson, Larry W.; Moellering, Douglas R.; Westbrook, David G.; Pompilius, Melissa; Sammy, Melissa J.; Johnson, Michelle; Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J.; Cao, Xuemei; Bradley, Wayne E.; Zhang, Jinju; Wei, Chih-Chang; Chacko, Balu; Schurr, Theodore G.; Kesterson, Robert A.; Dell’Italia, Louis J.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Welch, Danny R.; Ballinger, Scott W.

2013-01-01

2

Genetic Susceptibility to Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) is a strong supporter of epidemiology studies investigating genetic susceptibility to cancer across all populations, including family studies, candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and use of next generation sequencing techniques to identify variants associated with specific cancers. Such studies have identified many genetic variants that may be associated with cancer.

3

Murine Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cell Apoptosis and Susceptibility to Oxidative Stress In Vitro Are Regulated by Genetic Background  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) are of interest for regenerative medicine as they are isolated easily and can differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Studies of their in vitro proliferation, survival, and differentiation are common; however, genetic effects on these phenotypes remain unknown. To test if these phenotypes are genetically regulated, ADSCs were isolated from three genetically diverse inbred mouse strains- C57BL/6J (B6), BALB/cByJ (BALB), and DBA/2J (D2)- in which genetic regulation of hematopoietic stem function is well known. ADSCs from all three strains differentiated into osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. ADSCs from BALB grew least well in vitro, probably due to apoptotic cell death after several days in culture. BALB ADSCs were also the most susceptible to the free radical inducers menadione and H2O2. ADSCs from the three possible F1 hybrids were employed to further define genetic regulation of ADSC phenotypes. D2, but not B6, alleles stimulated ADSC expansion in BALB cells. In contrast, B6, but not D2, alleles rescued BALB H2O2 resistance. We conclude that low oxidative stress resistance does not limit BALB ADSC growth in vitro, as these phenotypes are genetically regulated independently. In addition, ADSCs from these strains are an appropriate model system to investigate genetic regulation of ADSC apoptosis and stress resistance in future studies. Such investigations are essential to optimize cell expansion and differentiation and thus, potential for regenerative medicine. PMID:23593442

Pazdro, Robert; Harrison, David E.

2013-01-01

4

Genetic susceptibility to endomyocardial fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is the most common form of restrictive cardiomyopathy worldwide. It has been linked to poverty and various environmental factors, but—for unknown reasons—only some people who live in similar conditions develop the disease. EMF cases cluster within both families and ethnic groups, suggesting a role for a genetic factor in host susceptibility. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is associated with predisposition to various diseases. This two-center study was designed to investigate variation in the HLA system between EMF patients and unaffected controls. We provide the first genetic investigation of patients with EMF, as well as a comprehensive review of the literature. Methods: HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, -C) and class II (DRB1, DQB1) types were determined in 71 patients with severe EMF and 137 controls from Uganda and Mozambique. Chi Square analysis was used to identify any significant difference in frequency of class I and class II HLA types between cases and controls. Results: Compared to ethnically matched controls, HLA-B*58 occurred more frequently in Mozambique patients with EMF and HLA-A*02:02 occurred more frequently in Ugandan patients with EMF. Conclusions: Ample subjective evidence in the historical literature suggests the importance of a genetically susceptible host in EMF development. In this first formal genetic study, we found HLA alleles associated with cases of EMF in two populations from sub-Saharan Africa, with EMF patients being more likely than controls to have the HLA-B*58 allele in Mozambique (p-0.03) and the HLA-A*02:02 in Uganda (p = 0.005). Further investigations are needed to more fully understand the role of genetics in EMF development.

Beaton, Andrea; Sable, Craig; Brown, Juliette; Hoffman, Joshua; Mungoma, Michael; Mondo, Charles; Cereb, Nezith; Brown, Colin; Summar, Marshall; Freers, Jurgen; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz; Yacoub, Magdi; Mocumbi, Ana Olga

2014-01-01

5

Genetic susceptibility to occupational exposures  

PubMed Central

Because of their high prevalence in the general population, genetic variants that determine susceptibility to environmental exposures may contribute greatly to the development of occupational diseases in the setting of specific exposures occurring in the workplace. Studies investigating genetic susceptibilities in the workplace may: (1) provide mechanistic insight into the aetiology of disease, in particular the determination of environmentally responsive genes; (2) identify susceptible subpopulations with respect to exposure; and (3) provide valuable input in setting occupational exposure limits by taking genetic susceptibility into account. Polymorphisms in the NAT2 and the HLA-DPB1Glu69 genes provide classic examples of how genetic susceptibility markers have a clear role in identifying disease risk in bladder cancer and chronic beryllium disease, respectively. For diseases with more complex and multifactorial aetiology such as occupational asthma and chronic airways disease, susceptibility studies for selected genetic polymorphisms provide additional insight into the biological mechanisms of disease. Even when polymorphisms for genetic susceptibility have a clear role in identifying disease risk, the value of wide scale genetic screening in occupational settings remains limited due to primarily ethical and social concerns. Thus, large scale genetic screening in the workplace is not currently recommended. PMID:18487431

Christiani, D C; Mehta, A J; Yu, C-L

2013-01-01

6

Genetic susceptibility to occupational exposures.  

PubMed

Because of their high prevalence in the general population, genetic variants that determine susceptibility to environmental exposures may contribute greatly to the development of occupational diseases in the setting of specific exposures occurring in the workplace. Studies investigating genetic susceptibilities in the workplace may: (1) provide mechanistic insight into the aetiology of disease, in particular the determination of environmentally responsive genes; (2) identify susceptible subpopulations with respect to exposure; and (3) provide valuable input in setting occupational exposure limits by taking genetic susceptibility into account. Polymorphisms in the NAT2 and the HLA-DPB1(G)(lu69) genes provide classic examples of how genetic susceptibility markers have a clear role in identifying disease risk in bladder cancer and chronic beryllium disease, respectively. For diseases with more complex and multifactorial aetiology such as occupational asthma and chronic airways disease, susceptibility studies for selected genetic polymorphisms provide additional insight into the biological mechanisms of disease. Even when polymorphisms for genetic susceptibility have a clear role in identifying disease risk, the value of wide scale genetic screening in occupational settings remains limited due to primarily ethical and social concerns. Thus, large scale genetic screening in the workplace is not currently recommended. PMID:18487431

Christiani, D C; Mehta, A J; Yu, C-L

2008-06-01

7

Genetic susceptibility in pneumoconiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of cellular mediators such as cytokines, antioxidants and growth factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory and fibrotic diseases. Common functional polymorphisms in these genes have been shown to influence individual susceptibility to these diseases. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, progressive massive fibrosis and berylliosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis and are characterized by irreversible

Berran Yucesoy; Michael I. Luster

2007-01-01

8

Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer.  

PubMed

Deleterious mutations in two breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been identified in breast and ovarian cancer families. Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation are candidates for additional risk reduction measures such as intensive screening, prophylactic surgery or chemoprevention. Additional susceptibility genes have been identified, including PTEN, ATM, TP53, CHEK2, CASP8, PBRL and BRIP1. Yet, many women with a personal or family history suggestive of a hereditary susceptibility to breast cancer undergo genetic testing and no significant genetic alteration is found. Thus, there are other susceptibility genes that have not been identified, and it is likely that the remaining familial contribution to breast cancer will be explained by the presence of multiple low penetrance alleles that coexist to confer high penetrance risks (a polygenic model). The American Cancer Society has identified cancer prevention as a key component of cancer management and there is interest in developing individualized cancer prevention focused on identifying high risk individuals who are most likely to benefit from more aggressive risk reduction measures. Breast cancer risk assessment and genetic counseling are currently provided by genetic counselors, oncology nurse specialist, geneticists, medical and surgical oncologists, gynecologists and other health care professionals, often working within a multidisciplinary clinical setting. Current methods for risk assessment and predictive genetic testing have limitations and improvements in molecular testing and risk assessment tools is necessary to maximize individual breast cancer risk assessment and to fulfill the promise of cancer prevention. PMID:17508290

Bradbury, Angela R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

2007-09-01

9

Genetic susceptibility to radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of space radiation, it is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. One possibility is that haploinsufficiency for ATM confers radiosensitivity, and this defect involves 1-3% of the population. Using knock-out mice we chose to study cataractogenesis in the lens and oncogenic transformation in mouse embryo fibroblasts to assay for effects of ATM deficiency. Radiation induced cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals following exposure to either gamma rays or 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. In addition, it was found that embryo fibroblasts of Atm heterozygotes showed an increased incidence of oncogenic transformation compared with their normal litter-matched counterparts. From these data we suggest that Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes could indeed represent a societally-significant radiosensitive subpopulation.

Hall, E. J.; Brenner, D. J.; Worgul, B.; Smilenov, L.

10

The ontology of genetic susceptibility factors (OGSF) and its application in modeling genetic susceptibility to vaccine adverse events  

PubMed Central

Background Due to human variations in genetic susceptibility, vaccination often triggers adverse events in a small population of vaccinees. Based on our previous work on ontological modeling of genetic susceptibility to disease, we developed an Ontology of Genetic Susceptibility Factors (OGSF), a biomedical ontology in the domain of genetic susceptibility and genetic susceptibility factors. The OGSF framework was then applied in the area of vaccine adverse events (VAEs). Results OGSF aligns with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). OGSF defines ‘genetic susceptibility’ as a subclass of BFO:disposition and has a material basis ‘genetic susceptibility factor’. The ‘genetic susceptibility to pathological bodily process’ is a subclasses of ‘genetic susceptibility’. A VAE is a type of pathological bodily process. OGSF represents different types of genetic susceptibility factors including various susceptibility alleles (e.g., SNP and gene). A general OGSF design pattern was developed to represent genetic susceptibility to VAE and associated genetic susceptibility factors using experimental results in genetic association studies. To test and validate the design pattern, two case studies were populated in OGSF. In the first case study, human gene allele DBR*15:01 is susceptible to influenza vaccine Pandemrix-induced Multiple Sclerosis. The second case study reports genetic susceptibility polymorphisms associated with systemic smallpox VAEs. After the data of the Case Study 2 were represented using OGSF-based axioms, SPARQL was successfully developed to retrieve the susceptibility factors stored in the populated OGSF. A network of data from the Case Study 2 was constructed by using ontology terms and individuals as nodes and ontology relations as edges. Different social network analys is (SNA) methods were then applied to verify core OGSF terms. Interestingly, a SNA hub analysis verified all susceptibility alleles of SNPs and a SNA closeness analysis verified the susceptibility genes in Case Study 2. These results validated the proper OGSF structure identified different ontology aspects with SNA methods. Conclusions OGSF provides a verified and robust framework for representing various genetic susceptibility types and genetic susceptibility factors annotated from experimental VAE genetic association studies. The RDF/OWL formulated ontology data can be queried using SPARQL and analyzed using centrality-based network analysis methods. PMID:24963371

2014-01-01

11

Genetic susceptibility to radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of space radiation, it is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. One possibility is that haploinsufficiency for ATM confers radiosensitivity, and this defect involves 1 3% of the population. Using knock-out mice we chose to study cataractogenesis in the lens and oncogenic transformation in mouse embryo fibroblasts to assay for effects of ATM deficiency. Radiation induced cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals following exposure to either gamma rays or 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. In addition, it was found that embryo fibroblasts of Atm heterozygotes showed an increased incidence of oncogenic transformation compared with their normal litter-matched counterparts. From these data we suggest that Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes could indeed represent a societally significant radiosensitive subpopulation. Knock-out mice are now available for other genes including BRCA1 and 2, and Mrad9. An exciting possibility is the creation of double heterozygotes for pairs of mutated genes that function in the same signal transduction pathway, and consequently confer even greater radiosensitivity.

Hall, E. J.; Brenner, D. J.; Worgul, B.; Smilenov, L.

12

Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections  

PubMed Central

Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series. PMID:23629947

Smeekens, Sanne P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Netea, Mihai G

2013-01-01

13

Genetics of Asthma Susceptibility and Severity  

PubMed Central

The interaction of genes and environmental exposures influences the development of asthma and determines asthma severity. This review focuses on recent developments in genetic studies of asthma onset and progression. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are currently the most effective approach to study genetics of complex diseases. There have been two large meta-analyses of asthma susceptibility, GABRIEL and EVE, which identified the same four chromosomal regions, many of which had also been identified in previous GWAS: loci in the ORMDL3 region of 17q21, IL1RL/IL18R genes on chromosome 2q, the TSLP gene region on 5q22, and IL33 on chromosome 9p24. These regions were associated with asthma in individuals of different ethnic backgrounds. EVE also identified a novel asthma susceptibility locus, PYHIN1, in individuals of African descent. Genome-wide screens for asthma susceptibility in Asian adults and children both identified genetic variants in the major histocompatiblity complex gene region (HLA region) on chromosome 6p21 as highly associated with asthma risk. This locus was one of the first candidate genes identified for asthma and has been a significant predictor of asthma risk in several GWAS. There is also a need to understand asthma disease heterogeneity as different phenotypes may reflect several pathogenic pathways. Genes that are associated with phenotypes including lung function, biomarker levels and asthma therapeutic responses provide insight into mechanisms of asthma severity progression. For example, the HHIP gene is a significant predictor of pulmonary function changes in asthma and in the normal population. A joint model of risk variants in lung function genes were highly associated with lower FEV1 and increased asthma severity criteria. In addition, a genome-wide screen to discover pharmacogenetic associations related to response to inhaled glucocorticoids identified two correlated SNPs in the GLCCI1 gene that confer a significant lung function response to this asthma therapy. Future genetic studies for asthma susceptibility and severity will incorporate exome or whole-genome sequencing to identify common and rare genetic variants. Using these variants identified in comprehensively phenotyped asthmatics will lead to the development of personalized therapy in individuals with asthma. PMID:22929093

Slager, Rebecca E.; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Li, Xingnan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.

2012-01-01

14

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Genetic susceptibility to Chagas disease  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Genetic susceptibility to Chagas disease cardiomyopathy: involvement Cunha-Neto1,2,6 and Christophe Chevillard7* Abstract Background: Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic in Latin America. Thirty percent of infected individuals develop chronic Chagas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

15

Genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster pathogen susceptibility  

E-print Network

). Drosophila melanogaster is the principal model system for study of the invertebrate immune system and hasGenetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster pathogen susceptibility M. C. TINSLEY*, S. BLANFORD melano- gaster, a major model organism for immunological research. We found that within populations

Jiggins, Francis

16

Genetic susceptibility to cancer. Family physicians' experience.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To explore family physicians' experiences in dealing with genetic susceptibility to cancer. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus groups. SETTING: Four Ontario sites: northern, rural, urban, and inner city. PARTICIPANTS: Forty rural and urban FPs participated in four focus groups: 28 were male; average age was 41. METHOD: Focus groups using a semistructured interview guide were audiotaped and transcribed. The constant comparative method of data analysis was used. Key words and concepts were identified. Data were sorted using NUD*IST software. MAIN FINDINGS: Participants realized the escalating expectations for genetic testing and its effect on family practice. They explored an expanded role for themselves in genetic testing. Possible activities included risk assessment, gatekeeping, and ordering genetic tests. They were concerned about the complexity of genetic testing, the lack of evidence regarding management, and the implications for families. CONCLUSION: We must help FPs struggling to integrate genetics into their practices, by addressing their concerns, enhancing the way they communicate information on genetics, and developing appropriate educational tools. PMID:12602842

Carroll, June C.; Brown, Judith Belle; Blaine, Sean; Glendon, Gord; Pugh, Patricia; Medved, Wendy

2003-01-01

17

Patients' understanding of genetic susceptibility testing in mainstream medicine: qualitative study on thrombophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: UK and US policy initiatives have suggested that, in the future, patients and clinicians in mainstream medicine could use genetic information to prevent common illnesses. There are no studies on patients' experience and understanding of the process of testing for common genetic susceptibilities in mainstream medicine. METHODS: Qualitative interviews with 42 individuals who had undergone testing for a genetic

Paula M Saukko; Sian Ellard; Suzanne H Richards; Maggie H Shepherd; John L Campbell

2007-01-01

18

Genetic background of supernumerary teeth  

PubMed Central

Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico–Rhino–Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed. PMID:25713500

Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

2015-01-01

19

Personalized genetic testing and norovirus susceptibility  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The availability of direct-to-consumer personalized genetic testing has enabled the public to access and interpret their own genetic information. Various genetic traits can be determined including resistance to norovirus through a nonsense mutation (G428A) in the FUT2 gene. Although this trait is believed to confer resistance to the most dominant norovirus genotype (GII.4), the spectrum of resistance to other norovirus strains is unknown. The present report describes a cluster of symptomatic norovirus GI.6 infection in a family identified to have norovirus resistance through personalized genetic testing. CASE PRESENTATION: In January 2013, four members of a family determined by a direct-to-consumer genetic test to be homozygous for the norovirus resistance trait (A/A genotype for single nucleotide polymorphism rs601338) developed symptoms consistent with acute viral gastroenteritis. Stool and vomitus samples were submitted for enteric viral pathogen testing. Samples were positive for norovirus GI.6 in three of the four cases. CONCLUSIONS: The present report is the first to describe norovirus GI.6 infection in patients with the G428A nonsense mutation in FUT2; this cluster of cases suggests that the G428A mutation in FUT2 may not confer resistance to norovirus GI.6. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is empowering members of the public to identify novel associations with their genetic traits. Expert consultation is important for the interpretation of personalized genetic test results, and follow-up laboratory testing can confirm any potentially novel associations. PMID:25285128

Prystajecky, Natalie; Brinkman, Fiona SL; Auk, Brian; Isaac-Renton, Judith L; Tang, Patrick

2014-01-01

20

Network analysis of skin tumor progression identifies a rewired genetic architecture affecting inflammation and tumor susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Germline polymorphisms can influence gene expression networks in normal mammalian tissues and can affect disease susceptibility. We and others have shown that analysis of this genetic architecture can identify single genes and whole pathways that influence complex traits, including inflammation and cancer susceptibility. Whether germline variants affect gene expression in tumors that have undergone somatic alterations, and the extent

David A Quigley; Minh D To; Il Jin Kim; Kevin K Lin; Donna G Albertson; Jonas Sjolund; Jesús Pérez-Losada; Allan Balmain

2011-01-01

21

A Combinatorial Method for Predicting Genetic Susceptibility to Complex Diseases  

E-print Network

A Combinatorial Method for Predicting Genetic Susceptibility to Complex Diseases Weidong Mao Jingwu brought a great deal of attention to disease association and susceptibility studies. This paper ex- plores possibility of applying combinatorial methods to disease susceptibility prediction. The proposed combinatorial

Zelikovsky, Alexander

22

Genetic polymorphisms and associated susceptibility to asthma  

PubMed Central

As complex common diseases, asthma and allergic diseases are caused by the interaction of multiple genetic variants with a variety of environmental factors. Candidate-gene studies have examined the involvement of a very large list of genes in asthma and allergy, demonstrating a role for more than 100 loci. These studies have elucidated several themes in the biology and pathogenesis of these diseases. A small number of genes have been associated with asthma or allergy through traditional linkage analyses. The publication of the first asthma-focused genome-wide association (GWA) study in 2007 has been followed by nearly 30 reports of GWA studies targeting asthma, allergy, or associated phenotypes and quantitative traits. GWA studies have confirmed several candidate genes and have identified new, unsuspected, and occasionally uncharacterized genes as asthma susceptibility loci. Issues of results replication persist, complicating interpretation and making conclusions difficult to draw, and much of the heritability of these diseases remains undiscovered. In the coming years studies of complex diseases like asthma and allergy will probably involve the use of high-throughput next-generation sequencing, which will bring a tremendous influx of new information as well as new problems in dealing with vast datasets. PMID:23637549

March, Michael E; Sleiman, Patrick MA; Hakonarson, Hakon

2013-01-01

23

GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AND EXPERIMENTAL INDUCTION OF PULMONARY DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Genetic Susceptibility and Experimental Induction of Pulmonary Disease. UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, PS Gilmour, P Evansky, KR Smith*, WP Watkinson, DL Costa, KE Pinkerton*. ETD, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC; *Univ California, Davis, CA, USA. Conventional la...

24

Role of genetic background in induced instability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genomic instability is effectively induced by ionizing radiation. Recently, evidence has accumulated supporting a relationship between genetic background and the radiation-induced genomic instability phenotype. This is possibly due to alterations in proteins responsible for maintenance of genomic integrity or altered oxidative metabolism. Studies in human cell lines, human primary cells, and mouse models have been performed predominantly using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, or high doses of low LET radiation. The interplay between genetics, radiation response, and genomic instability has not been fully determined at low doses of low LET radiation. However, recent studies using low doses of low LET radiation suggest that the relationship between genetic background and radiation-induced genomic instability may be more complicated than these same relationships at high LET or high doses of low LET radiation. The complexity of this relationship at low doses of low LET radiation suggests that more of the population may be at risk than previously recognized and may have implications for radiation risk assessment.

Kadhim, Munira A.; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

25

Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA) study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about

Kaja K Aas; Kristian Tambs; Marit S Kise; Per Magnus; Kjersti S Rønningen

2010-01-01

26

Genetic interaction in the susceptibility of rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionRecent advances have revolutionised the identification of genes underlying common diseases. For rheumatoid arthritis (RA), over 20 genes have been identified to associate to disease susceptibility. The strongest of these genetic associations is with particular genes within the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region. To date, however, little is known about underlying relations between genes on a genetic level, which provides

Nina A Daha; Annemiek Willemze; David B Robinson; Kiem G Oen; Irene Smolik; Donna Hart; Wendimagegn Ghidey; Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat; KA Siminovitch; Tom WJ Huizinga; Hani S El-Gabalawy; René EM Toes

2011-01-01

27

Genetic susceptibility to hypertensive renal disease  

PubMed Central

Hypertensive renal disease occurs at increased frequency among the relatives of patients with this disease compared with individuals who lack a family history of disease. This suggests a heritable risk in which genetic variation may play a role. These observations have motivated a search for genetic variation contributing to this risk in both experimental animal models and in human populations. Studies of animal models indicate the capacity of natural genetic variants to contribute to disease risk and have produced a few insights into disease mechanism. In its current phase, human population genetic studies have sought to associate genetic variation with disease in large populations by testing genotypes at a large number of common genetic variations in the genome, expecting that common genetic variants contributing to renal disease risk will be identified. These genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been productive and are a clear technical success; they have also identified narrowly defined loci and genes containing variation contributing to disease risk. Further extension and refinement of these GWAS are likely to extend this success. However, it is also clear that few additional variants with substantial effects accounting for the greatest part of heritability will be uncovered by GWAS. This raises an interesting biological question regarding where the remaining unaccounted heritable risk may be located. At present much consideration is being given to this question and to the challenge of testing hypotheses that lead from the various alternative mechanisms under consideration. One result of the progress of GWAS is likely to be a renewed interest in mechanisms by which related individuals can share and transmit traits independently of Mendelian inheritance. This paper reviews current progress in this area and considers other mechanisms by which familial aggregation of risk for renal disease may arise. PMID:22562581

Doris, Peter A.

2012-01-01

28

Genetic Susceptibility and Survival: Application to Breast Cancer  

E-print Network

Genetic Susceptibility and Survival: Application to Breast Cancer Edwin S. IVERSEN, JR., Giovanni are known to confer an elevated risk of both breast and ovarian cancers. The effect of carrying such a mutation on survival after developing breast or ovarian cancer is less well understood. We investigate

West, Mike

29

Host genetic susceptibility, dysbiosis and viral triggers in IBD  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is thought to occur in genetically susceptible individuals. However, environmental factors, potentially including shifts in commensal microbiota, are also required to trigger disease. This review discusses some of the recent discoveries in host susceptibility and interaction with the microbial environment, and pinpoints key areas for advancement in our understanding of IBD pathogenesis. Recent findings Meta-analyses of genome wide association studies have uncovered many new exciting genes associated with susceptibility loci. In addition, improved methods to analyze the commensal microbiota path the way to better define dysbiosis and its potential role in disease. Lastly, identification of viral triggers in experimental systems of IBD suggests a potential role in IBD. Summary Understanding the precise microbial and immune triggers of IBD in a genetic context will hopefully lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease and the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches including vaccines for specific viruses. PMID:21483258

Sun, Lulu; Nava, Gerardo M.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

2014-01-01

30

Comprehensive Assessment and Network Analysis of the Emerging Genetic Susceptibility Landscape of Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping have made possible identification of genetic variants associated with increased risk of developing prostate cancer using genome-wide associations studies (GWAS). However, the broader context in which the identified genetic variants operate is poorly understood. Here we present a comprehensive assessment, network, and pathway analysis of the emerging genetic susceptibility landscape of prostate cancer. Methods We created a comprehensive catalog of genetic variants and associated genes by mining published reports and accompanying websites hosting supplementary data on GWAS. We then performed network and pathway analysis using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-containing genes to identify gene regulatory networks and pathways enriched for genetic variants. Results We identified multiple gene networks and pathways enriched for genetic variants including IGF-1, androgen biosynthesis and androgen signaling pathways, and the molecular mechanisms of cancer. The results provide putative functional bridges between GWAS findings and gene regulatory networks and biological pathways. PMID:24031161

Hicks, Chindo; Miele, Lucio; Koganti, Tejaswi; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

2013-01-01

31

Chloroquine Susceptibility and Reversibility in a Plasmodium falciparum Genetic Cross  

PubMed Central

Summary Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) resistance transporter (PfCRT), are major determinants of verapamil (VP)-reversible CQ resistance (CQR). In the presence of mutant PfCRT, additional genes contribute to the wide range of CQ susceptibilities observed. It is not known if these genes influence mechanisms of chemosensitization by CQR reversal agents. Using quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of progeny clones from the HB3 × Dd2 cross, we show that the P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) interacts with the Southeast Asia-derived mutant pfcrt haplotype to modulate CQR levels. A novel chromosome 7 locus is predicted to contribute with the pfcrt and pfmdr1 loci to influence CQR levels. Chemoreversal via a wide range of chemical structures operates through a direct pfcrt-based mechanism. Direct inhibition of parasite growth by these reversal agents is influenced by pfcrt mutations and additional loci. Direct labeling of purified recombinant PfMDR1 protein with a highly specific photoaffinity CQ analogue, and lack of competition for photolabeling by VP, supports our QTL predictions. We find no evidence that pfmdr1 copy number affects CQ response in the progeny, however, inheritance patterns indicate that an allele-specific interaction between pfmdr1 and pfcrt is part of the complex genetic background of CQR. PMID:20807203

Patel, Jigar J.; Thacker, Drew; Tan, John C.; Pleeter, Perri; Checkley, Lisa; Gonzales, Joseph M.; Deng, Bingbing; Roepe, Paul D.; Cooper, Roland A.; Ferdig, Michael T.

2011-01-01

32

Genetic susceptibility testing for neurodegenerative diseases: Ethical and practice issues  

PubMed Central

As the genetics of neurodegenerative disease become better understood, opportunities for genetic susceptibility testing for at-risk individuals will increase. Such testing raises important ethical and practice issues related to test access, informed consent, risk estimation and communication, return of results, and policies to prevent genetic discrimination. The advent of direct-to-consumer genetic susceptibility testing for various neurodegenerative disorders (including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and certain prion diseases) means that ethical and practical challenges must be faced not only in traditional research and clinical settings, but also in broader society. This review addresses several topics relevant to the development and implementation of genetic susceptibility tests across research, clinical, and consumer settings; these include appropriate indications for testing, the implications of different methods for disclosing test results, clinical versus personal utility of risk information, psychological and behavioral responses to test results, testing of minors, genetic discrimination, and ethical dilemmas posed by whole-genome sequencing. We also identify future areas of likely growth in the field, including pharmacogenomics and genetic screening for individuals considering or engaged in activities that pose elevated risk of brain injury (e.g., football players, military personnel). APOE gene testing for risk of Alzheimer’s disease is used throughout as an instructive case example, drawing upon the authors’ experience as investigators in a series of multisite randomized clinical trials that have examined the impact of disclosing APOE genotype status to interested individuals (e.g., first-degree relatives, persons with mild cognitive impairment). PMID:23583530

Roberts, J. Scott; Uhlmann, Wendy R.

2013-01-01

33

Duffy antigen receptor and genetic susceptibility of African Americans to acute rejection and delayed function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duffy antigen receptor and genetic susceptibility of African Americans to acute rejection and delayed function.BackgroundThe unique distribution of the alleles for the Duffy antigen receptor complex (DARC) that binds to chemokines may be associated with the rates of acute rejection and delayed allograft function (DGF) among African Americans.MethodsA prospective, multicenter cohort study enrolled 222 African American recipients of cadaveric renal

Kevin C. Mange; ELINE LUNING PRAK; MALEK KAMOUN; YANGZHU DU; NOAH GOODMAN; THEODORE DANOFF; TRACEY HOY; MELISSA NEWMAN; Marshall M. Joffe; Harold I. Feldman

2004-01-01

34

Update of genetic susceptibility in patients with Kawasaki disease  

PubMed Central

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects children, and can result in coronary artery lesions (CAL). A patient with KD who is resistant to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has a higher risk of developing CAL. Incomplete KD has increased in prevalence in recent years, and is another risk factor for the development of CAL. Although the pathogenesis of KD remains unclear, there has been increasing evidence for the role of genetic susceptibility to the disease since it was discovered in 1967. We retrospectively reviewed previous genetic research for known susceptibility genes in the pathogenesis of KD, IVIG resistance, and the development of CAL. This review revealed numerous potential susceptibility genes including genetic polymorphisms of ITPKC, CASP3, the transforming growth factor-? signaling pathway, B lymphoid tyrosine kinase, FCGR2A, KCNN2, and other genes, an imbalance of Th17/Treg, and a range of suggested future treatment options. The results of genetic research may improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of KD, and aid in the discovery of new treatment modalities for high-risk patients with KD.

2015-01-01

35

Human genetic susceptibility and infection with Leishmania peruviana  

SciTech Connect

Racial differences, familial clustering, and murine studies are suggestive of host genetic control of Leishmania infections. Complex segregation analysis has been carried out by use of the programs POINTER and COMDS and data from a total population survey, comprising 636 nuclear families, from an L. perurviana endemic area. The data support genetic components controlling susceptibility to clinical leishmaniasis, influencing severity of disease and resistance to disease among healthy individuals. A multifactorial model is favored over a sporadic model. Two-locus models provided the best fit to the data, the optimal model being a recessive gene (frequency .57) plus a modifier locus. Individuals infected at an early age and with recurrent lesions are genetically more susceptible than those infected with a single episode of disease at a later age. Among people with no lesions, those with a positive skin-test response are genetically less susceptible than those with a negative response. The possibility of the involvement of more than one gene together with environmental effects has implications for the design of future linkage studies. 31 refs., 7 tabs.

Shaw, M.A.; Davis, C.R.; Collins, A. [and others

1995-11-01

36

Genetic mapping of tumor susceptibility genes involved in mouse plasmacytomagenesis.  

PubMed

Plasmacytomas (PCTs) were induced in 47% of BALB/cAnPt mice by the intraperitoneal injection of pristane, in 2% of (BALB/c x DBA/2N)F1, and in 11% of 773 BALB/cAnPt x (BALB/cAnPt x DBA/2N)F1 N2 backcross mice. This result indicates a multigenic mode of inheritance for PCT susceptibility. To locate genes controlling this complex genetic trait, tumor susceptibility in backcross progeny generated from BALB/c and DBA/2N (resistant) mice was correlated with alleles of 83 marker loci. The genotypes of the PCT-susceptible progeny displayed an excess homozygosity for BALB/c alleles within a 32-centimorgan stretch of mouse chromosome 4 (> 95% probability of linkage) with minimal recombination (12%) near Gt10. Another susceptibility gene on mouse chromosome 1 may be linked to Fcgr2 (90% probability of linkage); there were excess heterozygotes for Fcgr2 among the susceptible progeny and excess homozygotes among the resistant progeny. Regions of mouse chromosomes 4 and 1 that are correlated with PCT susceptibility share extensive linkage homology with regions of human chromosome 1 that have been associated with cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma and lymphoid, breast, and endocrine tumors. PMID:8105477

Mock, B A; Krall, M M; Dosik, J K

1993-10-15

37

Genetic advances in glioma: susceptibility genes and networks.  

PubMed

Recent advances in human genome studies have opened new avenues for the identification of susceptibility genes for many complex genetic disorders, especially in the field of rare cancers such as glioma. To date, eight glioma susceptibility loci have been identified by candidate gene-association studies: PRKDC G6721T, XRCC1 W399R, PARP1 A762V, MGMT F84L, ERCC1 A8092C, ERCC2 Q751K, EGF +61 A/G, and IL13 R110G. Five loci have been identified by genome-wide association studies: TERT rs2736100, CCDC26 rs4295627, CDKN2A-CDKN2B rs4977756, PHLDB1 rs498872, and RTEL1 rs6010620. Using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool, we investigated whether these 13 susceptibility genes are biologically related. Our data provide not only networks for understanding the biological properties of gliomagenesis but also useful pathway maps for future understanding of disease. PMID:20211558

Liu, Yanhong; Shete, Sanjay; Hosking, Fay; Robertson, Lindsay; Houlston, Richard; Bondy, Melissa

2010-06-01

38

Genetic susceptibility to malignant diseases--ethical issues. Minireview.  

PubMed

Ethical problems connected with genetic testing with the intention of the measurement of the susceptibility or predisposition to malignant tumors are presented (respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, confidentiality, privacy, veracity and truth-telling, informed consent, right to know, right not to know, informational self-determination, etc.). Various aspects dealing with ethics of screening and research projects involving human subjects are discussed as well. PMID:12044052

Munzarová, M

2002-01-01

39

Genetic Algorithms To provide a background and understanding of basic genetic  

E-print Network

Genetic Algorithms Objectives To provide a background and understanding of basic genetic algorithms and some of their applications. ·a basic genetic algorithm ·the basic discussion ·the applications of the algorithm #12;Genetic Algorithms 1859 Origin of the Species Survival of the Fittest #12;Genetic Algorithms

Qu, Rong

40

Autism genetic database (AGD): a comprehensive database including autism susceptibility gene-CNVs integrated with known noncoding RNAs and fragile sites  

E-print Network

Background: Autism is a highly heritable complex neurodevelopmental disorder, therefore identifying its genetic basis has been challenging. To date, numerous susceptibility genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been reported in association...

Matuszek, Gregory; Talebizadeh, Zohreh

2009-09-24

41

Genetic testing in asymptomatic minors Background considerations towards ESHG Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Although various guidelines and position papers have discussed, in the past, the ethical aspects of genetic testing in asymptomatic minors, the European Society of Human Genetics had not earlier endorsed any set of guidelines exclusively focused on this issue. This paper has served as a background document in preparation of the development of the policy recommendations of the Public and Professional Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics. This background paper first discusses some general considerations with regard to the provision of genetic tests to minors. It discusses the concept of best interests, participation of minors in health-care decisions, parents' responsibilities to share genetic information, the role of clinical genetics and the health-care system in communication within the family. Second, it discusses, respectively, the presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing for adult-onset disorders, childhood-onset disorders and carrier testing. PMID:19277061

Borry, Pascal; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Cornel, Martina C; Clarke, Angus; Dierickx, Kris

2009-01-01

42

Genetic testing in asymptomatic minors: background considerations towards ESHG Recommendations.  

PubMed

Although various guidelines and position papers have discussed, in the past, the ethical aspects of genetic testing in asymptomatic minors, the European Society of Human Genetics had not earlier endorsed any set of guidelines exclusively focused on this issue. This paper has served as a background document in preparation of the development of the policy recommendations of the Public and Professional Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics. This background paper first discusses some general considerations with regard to the provision of genetic tests to minors. It discusses the concept of best interests, participation of minors in health-care decisions, parents' responsibilities to share genetic information, the role of clinical genetics and the health-care system in communication within the family. Second, it discusses, respectively, the presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing for adult-onset disorders, childhood-onset disorders and carrier testing. PMID:19277061

Borry, Pascal; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Cornel, Martina C; Clarke, Angus; Dierickx, Kris

2009-06-01

43

Comparing test-specific distress of susceptibility versus deterministic genetic testing for Alzheimer’s disease  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may be conferred by the susceptibility polymorphism apolipoprotein E (APOE), where the ?4 allele increases the risk of developing late-onset Alzheimer’s disease but is not a definitive predictor of the disease, or by autosomal dominant mutations (e.g., the presenilins), which almost inevitably result in early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the psychological impact of using these two different types of genetic information to disclose genetic risk for AD to family members of affected patients. Methods Data were compared from two separate protocols. The Risk Evaluation and Education for Alzheimer’s Disease (REVEAL) Study is a randomized, multi-site clinical trial that evaluated the impact of susceptibility testing for Alzheimer’s disease with APOE in 101 adult children of Alzheimer’s disease patients. A separate study, conducted at the University of Washington, assessed the impact of deterministic genetic testing by disclosing presenilin-1, presenilin-2, or TAU genotype to 22 individuals at risk for familial Alzheimer’s disease or frontotemporal dementia. In both protocols, participants received genetic counseling and completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a measure of test-specific distress. Scores were analyzed at the time point closest to one year post-disclosure at which IES data were available. The role of genetic test result (positive vs. negative) and type of genetic testing (deterministic vs. susceptibility) in predicting log-transformed IES scores was assessed with linear regression, controlling for age, gender, and time from disclosure. Results Subjects from the REVEAL Study who learned that they were positive for the susceptibility gene APOE ?4+ experienced similar, low levels of test-specific distress compared to those who received positive results of deterministic testing in the University of Washington study (p= 0.78). APOE ?4+ individuals in the susceptibility protocol experienced more test-specific distress than those who tested ?4? in the same study (p= 0.04); however, among those receiving deterministic test disclosure, the subjects who received positive results did not experience significantly higher levels of distress when compared to those who received negative results (p= 0.88). Conclusions The findings of this preliminary study, with limited sample size, suggest that the test-related distress experienced by those receiving positive results for a deterministic mutation is similar to the distress experienced by those receiving positive results from genetic susceptibility testing, and that the majority of participants receiving genotype disclosure do not experience clinically significant distress as indicated by IES scores one year after learning of their test results. PMID:19012865

Cassidy, Michael R.; Roberts, J. Scott; Bird, Thomas D.; Steinbart, Ellen J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Chen, Clara A.; Linnenbringer, Erin; Green, Robert C.

2008-01-01

44

‘A Low Risk Is Still a Risk’: Exploring Women’s Attitudes towards Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in Order to Target Disease Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Population breast cancer screening programs by mammography are offered to women based on age. It has been suggested that a screening program based on genetic risk profile could be more effective by targeting interventions at those at higher genetic risk. This study explores women’s attitudes towards genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility in order to target breast cancer prevention.

L. Henneman; D. R. Timmermans; C. M. Bouwman; M. C. Cornel; H. Meijers-Heijboer

2011-01-01

45

Identification of Multiple Genetic Susceptibility Loci in Takayasu Arteritis  

PubMed Central

Takayasu arteritis is a rare inflammatory disease of large arteries. The etiology of Takayasu arteritis remains poorly understood, but genetic contribution to the disease pathogenesis is supported by the genetic association with HLA-B?52. We genotyped ?200,000 genetic variants in two ethnically divergent Takayasu arteritis cohorts from Turkey and North America by using a custom-designed genotyping platform (Immunochip). Additional genetic variants and the classical HLA alleles were imputed and analyzed. We identified and confirmed two independent susceptibility loci within the HLA region (r2 < 0.2): HLA-B/MICA (rs12524487, OR = 3.29, p = 5.57 × 10?16) and HLA-DQB1/HLA-DRB1 (rs113452171, OR = 2.34, p = 3.74 × 10?9; and rs189754752, OR = 2.47, p = 4.22 × 10?9). In addition, we identified and confirmed a genetic association between Takayasu arteritis and the FCGR2A/FCGR3A locus on chromosome 1 (rs10919543, OR = 1.81, p = 5.89 × 10?12). The risk allele in this locus results in increased mRNA expression of FCGR2A. We also established the genetic association between IL12B and Takayasu arteritis (rs56167332, OR = 1.54, p = 2.18 × 10?8). PMID:23830517

Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher; Hughes, Travis; Aksu, Kenan; Keser, Gokhan; Coit, Patrick; Aydin, Sibel Z.; Alibaz-Oner, Fatma; Kamal?, Sevil; Inanc, Murat; Carette, Simon; Hoffman, Gary S.; Akar, Servet; Onen, Fatos; Akkoc, Nurullah; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry; Karadag, Omer; Kiraz, Sedat; Langford, Carol A.; McAlear, Carol A.; Ozbalkan, Zeynep; Ates, Askin; Karaaslan, Yasar; Maksimowicz-McKinnon, Kathleen; Monach, Paul A.; Ozer, Hüseyin T.; Seyahi, Emire; Fresko, Izzet; Cefle, Ayse; Seo, Philip; Warrington, Kenneth J.; Ozturk, Mehmet A.; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Cobankara, Veli; Onat, A. Mesut; Guthridge, Joel M.; James, Judith A.; Tunc, Ercan; Duzgun, Nur?en; B?cakc?gil, Muge; Yentür, Sibel P.; Merkel, Peter A.; Direskeneli, Haner; Sawalha, Amr H.

2013-01-01

46

Genetics of Susceptibility to Infection with Enteric Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To examine recent developments in human genetic susceptibility to enteropathogens that cause infectious diarrhea. Recent findings The affinity of specific Norovirus genogroups to different histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) secretor cells has been studied in different epidemiologic studies. HBGA are also used as receptors by V. cholerae with different degrees of affinity between biotypes. Polymorphisms in the CD14, lactoferrin and osteoprotegerin promoter genes were associated to diarrhea in travelers. SNPs in the IL-8 genes are also associated to increased risk for enteroaggregative E. coli and C. difficile infection. IL-10 haplotypes were associated to enterotoxigenic E. coli associated diarrhea in exposed individuals. A family-based study showed a significant association of the LPLUNC1 gene and cholera. The major histocompatibility complex class II antigens are associated to different degrees of susceptibility and resistance to Salmonella, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba infection. Summary Variants in genes that encode molecules that mediate attachment, pathogen recognition, inflammatory cytokine response, innate and acquired immunity are being identified as determinants of host genetic susceptibility to infectious diarrhea. PMID:19633551

Flores, Jose; Okhuysen, Pablo C.

2010-01-01

47

Evidence for a Shared Genetic Susceptibility to Migraine and Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although epilepsy and migraine are known to co-occur within individuals, the contribution of a shared genetic susceptibility to this comorbidity remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of shared genetic effects on migraine and epilepsy in the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project (EPGP) cohort. Methods We studied prevalence of a history of migraine in 730 EPGP participants aged ?12 years with non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE) or generalized epilepsy (GE) from 501 families containing ?2 individuals with epilepsy of unknown cause. Information on migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with aura (MA) was collected using an instrument validated for individuals ?12 years. Since many individuals have both MO and MA, we considered two non-overlapping groups of individuals with migraine: those who met criteria for MA in any of their headaches (MA), and those who did not (“MO-only”). EPGP participants were interviewed about the history of seizure disorders in additional non-enrolled family members. We evaluated associations of migraine prevalence in enrolled subjects with family history of seizure disorders in additional non-enrolled relatives, using generalized estimating equations to control for the non-independence of observations within families. Key Findings Prevalence of a history of MA (but not MO-only) was significantly increased in enrolled participants with ?2 additional affected first degree relatives. Significance These findings support the hypothesis of a shared genetic susceptibility to epilepsy and MA. PMID:23294289

Winawer, Melodie R.; Connors, Robert

2012-01-01

48

Integrated Laplacian-based phase unwrapping and background phase removal for quantitative susceptibility mapping.  

PubMed

Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a recently developed MRI technique that provides a quantitative measure of tissue magnetic susceptibility. To compute tissue magnetic susceptibilities based on gradient echoes, QSM requires reliable unwrapping of the measured phase images and removal of contributions caused by background susceptibilities. Typically, the two steps are performed separately. Here, we present a method that simultaneously performs phase unwrapping and HARmonic (background) PhasE REmovaL using the LAplacian operator (HARPERELLA). Both numerical simulations and in vivo human brain images show that HARPERELLA effectively removes both phase wraps and background phase, whilst preserving all low spatial frequency components originating from brain tissues. When compared with other QSM phase preprocessing techniques, such as path-based phase unwrapping followed by background phase removal, HARPERELLA preserves the tissue phase signal in gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid with excellent robustness, providing a convenient and accurate solution for QSM. The proposed algorithm is provided, together with QSM and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) tools, in a shared software package named 'STI Suite'. PMID:24357120

Li, Wei; Avram, Alexandru V; Wu, Bing; Xiao, Xue; Liu, Chunlei

2014-02-01

49

Genetic Algorithms To provide a background and understanding of basic genetic  

E-print Network

and have been successfully applied to complex engineering optimisation problems. Genetic Algorithms1 Genetic Algorithms Objectives To provide a background and understanding of basic genetic algorithms and some of their applications. ·a basic genetic algorithm ·the basic discussion ·the applications

Qu, Rong

50

Additional mechanisms conferring genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer’s disease  

PubMed Central

Familial Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mostly associated with early onset, is caused by mutations in three genes (APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2) involved in the production of the amyloid ? peptide. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms that trigger the most common late onset sporadic AD remain largely unknown. With the implementation of an increasing number of case-control studies and the upcoming of large-scale genome-wide association studies there is a mounting list of genetic risk factors associated with common genetic variants that have been associated with sporadic AD. Besides apolipoprotein E, that presents a strong association with the disease (OR?4), the rest of these genes have moderate or low degrees of association, with OR ranging from 0.88 to 1.23. Taking together, these genes may account only for a fraction of the attributable AD risk and therefore, rare variants and epistastic gene interactions should be taken into account in order to get the full picture of the genetic risks associated with AD. Here, we review recent whole-exome studies looking for rare variants, somatic brain mutations with a strong association to the disease, and several studies dealing with epistasis as additional mechanisms conferring genetic susceptibility to AD. Altogether, recent evidence underlines the importance of defining molecular and genetic pathways, and networks rather than the contribution of specific genes.

Calero, Miguel; Gómez-Ramos, Alberto; Calero, Olga; Soriano, Eduardo; Avila, Jesús; Medina, Miguel

2015-01-01

51

Phenotypic associations of genetic susceptibility loci in systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease. A number of genetic loci that increase lupus susceptibility have been established. This study examines if these genetic loci also contribute to the clinical heterogeneity in lupus. Materials and methods 4001 European-derived, 1547 Hispanic, 1590 African-American and 1191 Asian lupus patients were genotyped for 16 confirmed lupus susceptibility loci. Ancestry informative markers were genotyped to calculate and adjust for admixture. The association between the risk allele in each locus was determined and compared in patients with and without the various clinical manifestations included in the ACR criteria. Results Renal disorder was significantly correlated with the lupus risk allele in ITGAM (p=5.0×10?6, OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.35) and in TNFSF4 (p=0.0013, OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.25). Other significant findings include the association between risk alleles in FCGR2A and malar rash (p=0.0031, OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.33), ITGAM and discoid rash (p=0.0020, OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.33), STAT4 and protection from oral ulcers (p=0.0027, OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.96) and IL21 and haematological disorder (p=0.0027, OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). All these associations are significant with a false discovery rate of <0.05 and pass the significance threshold using Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Conclusion Significant associations were found between lupus clinical manifestations and the FCGR2A, ITGAM, STAT4, TNSF4 and IL21 genes. The findings suggest that genetic profiling might be a useful tool to predict disease manifestations in lupus patients in the future. PMID:21719445

Sanchez, Elena; Nadig, Ajay; Richardson, Bruce C; Freedman, Barry I; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Kelly, Jennifer A; Niewold, Timothy B; Kamen, Diane L; Gilkeson, Gary S; Ziegler, Julie T; Langefeld, Carl D; Alarcón, Graciela S; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle; Brown, Elizabeth E; Kimberly, Robert P; Reveille, John D; Vilá, Luis M; Merrill, Joan T; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; James, Judith A; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Martin, Javier; Park, So-Yeon; Bang, So-Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Moser, Kathy L; Vyse, Timothy J; Criswell, Lindsey A; Gaffney, Patrick M; Tsao, Betty P; Jacob, Chaim O; Harley, John B; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Sawalha, Amr H

2011-01-01

52

Genetic Variability in Susceptibility to Occupational Respiratory Sensitization  

PubMed Central

Respiratory sensitization can be caused by a variety of substances at workplaces, and the health and economic burden linked to allergic respiratory diseases continues to increase. Although the main factors that affect the onset of the symptoms are the types and intensity of allergen exposure, there is a wide range of interindividual variation in susceptibility to occupational/environmental sensitizers. A number of gene variants have been reported to be associated with various occupational allergic respiratory diseases. Examples of genes include, but are not limited to, genes involved in immune/inflammatory regulation, antioxidant defenses, and fibrotic processes. Most of these variants act in combination with other genes and environmental factors to modify disease progression, severity, or resolution after exposure to allergens. Therefore, understanding the role of genetic variability and the interaction between genetic and environmental/occupational factors provides new insights into disease etiology and may lead to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies. This paper will focus on the current state of knowledge regarding genetic influences on allergic respiratory diseases, with specific emphasis on diisocyanate-induced asthma and chronic beryllium disease. PMID:21747866

Yucesoy, Berran; Johnson, Victor J.

2011-01-01

53

The Complexity of Genetic Susceptibility to Cancer - Stephen J. Chanock, M.D.  

Cancer.gov

Stephen J. Chanock, M.D., Director of NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, gave the 11th Jeffrey M. Trent Lecture in Cancer Research, titled "The Complexity of Genetic Susceptibility to Cancer".

54

Advances in susceptibility genetics of intervertebral degenerative disc disease.  

PubMed

The traditional view that the etiology of lumbar disc herniation is primarily due to age, gender, occupation, smoking and exposure to vehicular vibration dominated much of the last century. Recent research indicates that heredity may be largely responsible for the degeneration as well as herniation of intervertebral discs. Since 1998, genetic influences have been confirmed by the identification of several genes forms associated with disc degeneration. These researches are paving the way for a better understanding of the biologic mechanisms. Now, many researchers unanimously agree that lumbar disc herniation appears to be similar to other complex diseases, whose etiology has both environmental and hereditary influence, each with a part of contribution and relative risk. Then addressing the etiological of lumbar disc herniation, it is important to integrate heredity with the environment factors. For the purpose of this review, we have limited our discussion to several susceptibility genes associated with disc degeneration. PMID:18781226

Zhang, Yin'gang; Sun, Zhengming; Liu, Jiangtao; Guo, Xiong

2008-01-01

55

Acute lung injury: functional genomics and genetic susceptibility.  

PubMed

Initiated by numerous factors, acute lung injury is marked by epithelial and endothelial cell perturbation and inflammatory cell influx that leads to surfactant disruption, pulmonary edema, and atelectasis. This syndrome has been associated with a myriad of mediators including cytokines, oxidants, and growth factors. To better understand gene-environmental interactions controlling this complex process, the sensitivity of inbred mouse strains was investigated following acute lung injury that was induced by fine nickel sulfate aerosol. Measuring survival time, protein and neutrophil concentrations in BAL fluid, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, and histology, we found that these responses varied between inbred mouse strains and that susceptibility is heritable. To assess the progression of acute lung injury, the temporal expression of genes and expressed sequence tags was assessed by complementary DNA microarray analysis. Enhanced expression was noted in genes that were associated with oxidative stress, antiprotease function, and extracellular matrix repair. In contrast, expression levels of surfactant proteins (SPs) and Clara cell secretory protein (ie, transcripts that are constitutively expressed in the lung) decreased markedly. Genome-wide analysis was performed with offspring derived from a sensitive and resistant strain (C57BL/6xA F(1) backcrossed with susceptible A strain). Significant linkage was identified for a locus on chromosome 6 (proposed as Aliq4), a region that we had identified previously following ozone-induced acute lung injury. Two suggestive linkages were identified on chromosomes 1 and 12. Using haplotype analysis to estimate the combined effect of these regions (along with putative modifying loci on chromosomes 9 and 16), we found that five loci interact to account for the differences in survival time of the parental strains. Candidate genes contained in Aliq4 include SP-B, aquaporin 1, and transforming growth factor-alpha. Thus, the functional genomic approaches of large gene set expression (complementary DNA microarray) and genome-wide analyses continue to provide novel insights into the genetic susceptibility of lung injury. PMID:11893692

Leikauf, George D; McDowell, Susan A; Wesselkamper, Scott C; Hardie, William D; Leikauf, John E; Korfhagen, Thomas R; Prows, Daniel R

2002-03-01

56

Genetic, clinical and radiographic signs in knee osteoarthritis susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered to be a multifactorial and polygenic disease and diagnosis is mainly clinical and radiological. Correlation between radiographic data and clinical status has been reported. However, very few studies, especially in Caucasian people, describe the association between the Kellgren and Lawrence OA grading scale (KL) and genetic alterations to better understand OA etiopathogenesis and susceptibility. In order to update the knee OA grading, in this study we assessed the associations between KL grade, clinical features such as American Knee Society Score (AKSS), age, and polymorphisms in the principal osteoarthritis susceptibility (OS) genes in Sicilian individuals. Methods In 66 Sicilian individuals affected by primary knee OA, the clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed using 2 sub-scores of AKSS (knee score (KS) and function score (FS)) and KL. The patients were also classified according to age. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP) Short Genetic Variations databases were used to select gene regions containing the following polymorphisms to analyze: FRZB rs288326 and rs7775, MATN3 rs77245812, ASPN D14 repeats, PTHR2 rs76758470, GDF5 rs143383 and DVWA rs11718863. Patient genotypes were obtained using Sanger DNA sequencing analysis. Results In our cohort of patients a statistical association between the variables analyzed was reported in all associations tested (KL versus KS, FS and age). We observed that a mild to severe OA radiographic grade is related to severe clinical conditions and loss of articular function and that the severity of symptoms increases with age. Concerning the genotyping analysis, our results revealed a significant statistical association between KL grading and GDF5 rs143383 and DVWA rs11718863 genetic alterations. The latter was also associated with a more severe radiographic grade, displaying its predictive role as OA marker progression. Statistically significant association between clinical, radiographic and genetic signs observed, suggests extending the actual grading of knee OA based mainly on X-ray features. Conclusions This work represents a multidisciplinary and translational medicine approach to study OA where clinical, radiological, and OS5 and OS6 SNPs evaluation could contribute to better define grading and progression of OA and to the development of new therapies. PMID:24716474

2014-01-01

57

Contribution of Environment and Genetics to Pancreatic Cancer Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Several risk factors have been identified as potential contributors to pancreatic cancer development, including environmental and lifestyle factors, such as smoking, drinking and diet, and medical conditions such as diabetes and pancreatitis, all of which generate oxidative stress and DNA damage. Oxidative stress status can be modified by environmental factors and also by an individual's unique genetic makeup. Here we examined the contribution of environment and genetics to an individual's level of oxidative stress, DNA damage and susceptibility to pancreatic cancer in a pilot study using three groups of subjects: a newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer group, a healthy genetically-unrelated control group living with the case subject, and a healthy genetically-related control group which does not reside with the subject. Oxidative stress and DNA damage was evaluated by measuring total antioxidant capacity, direct and oxidative DNA damage by Comet assay, and malondialdehyde levels. Direct DNA damage was significantly elevated in pancreatic cancer patients (age and sex adjusted mean ± standard error: 1.00±0.05) versus both healthy unrelated and related controls (0.70±0.06, p<0.001 and 0.82±0.07, p?=?0.046, respectively). Analysis of 22 selected SNPs in oxidative stress and DNA damage genes revealed that CYP2A6 L160H was associated with pancreatic cancer. In addition, DNA damage was found to be associated with TNFA ?308G>A and ERCC4 R415Q polymorphisms. These results suggest that measurement of DNA damage, as well as select SNPs, may provide an important screening tool to identify individuals at risk for development of pancreatic cancer. PMID:24651674

Hocevar, Barbara A.; Kamendulis, Lisa M.; Pu, Xinzhu; Perkins, Susan M.; Wang, Zheng-Yu; Johnston, Erica L.; DeWitt, John M.; Li, Lang; Loehrer, Patrick J.; Klaunig, James E.; Chiorean, E. Gabriela

2014-01-01

58

Breast cancer susceptibility: current knowledge and implications for genetic counselling.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world. Except for the high breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers as well as the risk for breast cancer in certain rare syndromes caused by mutations in TP53, STK11, PTEN, CDH1, NF1 or NBN, familial clustering of breast cancer remains largely unexplained. Despite significant efforts, BRCA3 could not be identified, but several reports have recently been published on genes involved in DNA repair and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with an increased breast cancer risk. Although candidate gene approaches demonstrated moderately increased breast cancer risks for rare mutations in genes involved in DNA repair (ATM, CHEK2, BRIP1, PALB2 and RAD50), genome-wide association studies identified several SNPs as low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms within genes as well as in chromosomal loci with no known genes (FGFR2, TOX3, LSP1, MAP3K1, TGFB1, 2q35 and 8q). Some of these low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms also act as modifier genes in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers. This review not only outlines the recent key developments and potential clinical benefit for preventive management and therapy but also discusses the current limitations of genetic testing of variants associated with intermediate and low breast cancer risk. PMID:19092773

Ripperger, Tim; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Meindl, Alfons; Schlegelberger, Brigitte

2009-06-01

59

Breast cancer susceptibility: current knowledge and implications for genetic counselling  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world. Except for the high breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers as well as the risk for breast cancer in certain rare syndromes caused by mutations in TP53, STK11, PTEN, CDH1, NF1 or NBN, familial clustering of breast cancer remains largely unexplained. Despite significant efforts, BRCA3 could not be identified, but several reports have recently been published on genes involved in DNA repair and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with an increased breast cancer risk. Although candidate gene approaches demonstrated moderately increased breast cancer risks for rare mutations in genes involved in DNA repair (ATM, CHEK2, BRIP1, PALB2 and RAD50), genome-wide association studies identified several SNPs as low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms within genes as well as in chromosomal loci with no known genes (FGFR2, TOX3, LSP1, MAP3K1, TGFB1, 2q35 and 8q). Some of these low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms also act as modifier genes in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers. This review not only outlines the recent key developments and potential clinical benefit for preventive management and therapy but also discusses the current limitations of genetic testing of variants associated with intermediate and low breast cancer risk. PMID:19092773

Ripperger, Tim; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Meindl, Alfons; Schlegelberger, Brigitte

2009-01-01

60

Autism genetic database (AGD): a comprehensive database including autism susceptibility gene-CNVs integrated with known noncoding RNAs and fragile sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Autism is a highly heritable complex neurodevelopmental disorder, therefore identifying its genetic basis has been challenging. To date, numerous susceptibility genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been reported in association with autism, but most discoveries either fail to be replicated or account for a small effect. Thus, in most cases the underlying causative genetic mechanisms are not fully understood. In

Gregory Matuszek; Zohreh Talebizadeh

2009-01-01

61

A weighted genetic risk score using all known susceptibility variants to estimate rheumatoid arthritis risk  

PubMed Central

Background There is currently great interest in the incorporation of genetic susceptibility loci into screening models to identify individuals at high risk of disease. Here, we present the first risk prediction model including all 46 known genetic loci associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was created using 45 RA non-human leucocyte antigen (HLA) susceptibility loci, imputed amino acids at HLA-DRB1 (11, 71 and 74), HLA-DPB1 (position 9) HLA-B (position 9) and gender. The wGRS was tested in 11?366 RA cases and 15?489 healthy controls. The risk of developing RA was estimated using logistic regression by dividing the wGRS into quintiles. The ability of the wGRS to discriminate between cases and controls was assessed by receiver operator characteristic analysis and discrimination improvement tests. Results Individuals in the highest risk group showed significantly increased odds of developing anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-positive RA compared to the lowest risk group (OR 27.13, 95% CI 23.70 to 31.05). The wGRS was validated in an independent cohort that showed similar results (area under the curve 0.78, OR 18.00, 95% CI 13.67 to 23.71). Comparison of the full wGRS with a wGRS in which HLA amino acids were replaced by a HLA tag single-nucleotide polymorphism showed a significant loss of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Our study suggests that in RA, even when using all known genetic susceptibility variants, prediction performance remains modest; while this is insufficiently accurate for general population screening, it may prove of more use in targeted studies. Our study has also highlighted the importance of including HLA variation in risk prediction models. PMID:24092415

Yarwood, Annie; Han, Buhm; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Bowes, John; Lunt, Mark; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Kremer, Joel; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Plenge, Robert; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne; Eyre, Steve

2015-01-01

62

QTL x Genetic Background Interaction: Application to Predicting Progeny Value  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Failures of the additive infinitesimal model continue to provide incentive to study other modes of gene action, in particular, epistasis. Epistasis can be modeled as a QTL by genetic background interaction. Association mapping models lend themselves to fitting such an interaction because they often ...

63

Genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and co-morbidities  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death and disease burden in many countries. Understanding of the biological pathways involved in lung cancer aetiology is required to identify key biomolecules that could be of significant clinical value, either as predictive, prognostic or diagnostic markers, or as targets for the development of novel therapies to treat this disease, in addition to smoking avoidance strategies. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled significant progress in the past 5 years in investigating genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. Large scale, multi-cohort GWAS of mainly Caucasian, smoking, populations have identified strong associations for lung cancer mapped to chromosomal regions 15q [nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits: CHRNA3, CHRNA5], 5p (TERT-CLPTM1L locus) and 6p (BAT3-MSH5). Some studies in Asian populations of smokers have found similar risk loci, whereas GWAS in never smoking Asian females have identified associations in other chromosomal regions, e.g., 3q (TP63), that are distinct from smoking-related lung cancer risk loci. GWAS of smoking behaviour have identified risk loci for smoking quantity at 15q (similar genes to lung cancer susceptibility: CHRNA3, CHRNA5) and 19q (CYP2A6). Other genes have been mapped for smoking initiation and smoking cessation. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is a known risk factor for lung cancer, GWAS in large cohorts have also found CHRNA3 and CHRNA5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping at 15q as risk loci, as well as other regions at 4q31 (HHIP), 4q24 (FAM13A) and 5q (HTR4). The overlap in risk loci between lung cancer, smoking behaviour and COPD may be due to the effects of nicotine addiction; however, more work needs to be undertaken to explore the potential direct effects of nicotine and its metabolites in gene-environment interaction in these phenotypes. Goals of future genetic susceptibility studies of lung cancer should focus on refining the strongest risk loci in a wide range of populations with lung cancer, and integrating other clinical and biomarker information, in order to achieve the aim of personalised therapy for lung cancer. PMID:24163739

Holloway, John W.; Fong, Kwun M.

2013-01-01

64

Genetically determined susceptibility to neurodegeneration is associated with expression of inflammatory genes.  

PubMed

Axonal damage, a core feature of neurological diseases, induces a retrograde reaction in neurons and surrounding glia. We determined transcriptional profiles of this reaction using Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays. Gene expression was examined in spinal cord tissue prior to injury and following ventral root avulsion in two inbred rat strains, where the degree of neurodegeneration differs. Stringent statistical analysis revealed 278 regulated genes, whereof 245 were regulated by the injury and 68 differed between strains. Principal component analysis disclosed a common injury response pattern significantly modified by genetic background. Notably, inflammatory genes comprised the largest group of genes induced by injury and these transcripts prevailed in the strain most susceptible to neurodegeneration. In addition, levels of the strain regulated genes C1qb and Timp1 correlated with degree of neurodegeneration in a cohort of genetically heterogeneous animals. These results suggest a link between the inflammatory response elicited by nerve injury and subsequent neurodegeneration. PMID:16934480

Swanberg, Maria; Duvefelt, Kristina; Diez, Margarita; Hillert, Jan; Olsson, Tomas; Piehl, Fredrik; Lidman, Olle

2006-10-01

65

Evaluation of Genetic Susceptibility Loci for Obesity in Chinese Women  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified 18 genetic loci for obesity. Using directly observed and imputed GWA genotyping data on approximately 5,000 Chinese women (1996–2007), the authors evaluated 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represent 17 distinct obesity loci. Two SNPs near the BAT2 and MC4R genes and 3 SNPs within the FTO, SEC16B, and SH2B1 genes were significantly associated with body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), body weight, and the prevalence of obesity. The per-allele increase in body mass index ranged from 0.16 units (BAT2) to 0.38 units (SH2B1). Odds ratios for obesity ranged from 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12, 1.92) for BAT2 to 2.16 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.37) for MC4R. A genetic risk score calculated by summing the number of risk-increasing alleles that each woman carried at these 5 loci was significantly associated with the prevalence of obesity. Women carrying 5 or more risk alleles had a 3.13-fold (95% CI: 2.06, 4.77) higher prevalence of obesity than women carrying 1 or no risk alleles. Results from this study extend some previous GWA findings to Chinese women and show the need for additional studies to identify susceptibility loci in Chinese and other Asian populations. PMID:20616199

Shi, Jiajun; Long, Jirong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Lu, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Wen, Wanqing; Zheng, Ying; Yu, Kai; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

2010-01-01

66

Mutualism effectiveness and vertical transmission of symbiotic fungal endophytes in response to host genetic background  

PubMed Central

Certain species of the Pooideae subfamily develop stress tolerance and herbivory resistance through symbiosis with vertically transmitted, asexual fungi. This symbiosis is specific, and genetic factors modulate the compatibility between partners. Although gene flow is clearly a fitness trait in allogamous grasses, because it injects hybrid vigor and raw material for evolution, it could reduce compatibility and thus mutualism effectiveness. To explore the importance of host genetic background in modulating the performance of symbiosis, Lolium multiflorum plants, infected and noninfected with Neotyphodium occultans, were crossed with genetically distant plants of isolines (susceptible and resistant to diclofop-methyl herbicide) bred from two cultivars and exposed to stress. The endophyte improved seedling survival in genotypes susceptible to herbicide, while it had a negative effect on one of the genetically resistant crosses. Mutualism provided resistance to herbivory independently of the host genotype, but this effect vanished under stress. While no endophyte effect was observed on host reproductive success, it was increased by interpopulation plant crosses. Neither gene flow nor herbicide had an important impact on endophyte transmission. Host fitness improvements attributable to gene flow do not appear to result in direct conflict with mutualism while this seems to be an important mechanism for the ecological and contemporary evolution of the symbiotum. PMID:23346228

Gundel, Pedro E; Martínez-Ghersa, María A; Omacini, Marina; Cuyeu, Romina; Pagano, Elba; Ríos, Raúl; Ghersa, Claudio M

2012-01-01

67

Genetic Background Modulates Gene Expression Profile Induced by Skin Irradiation in Ptch1 Mice  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Ptch1 germ-line mutations in mice predispose to radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma of the skin, with tumor incidence modulated by the genetic background. Here, we examined the possible mechanisms underlying skin response to radiation in F1 progeny of Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice crossed with either skin tumor-susceptible (Car-S) or -resistant (Car-R) mice and X-irradiated (3 Gy) at 2 days of age or left untreated. Methods and Materials: We conducted a gene expression profile analysis in mRNA samples extracted from the skin of irradiated or control mice, using Affymetrix whole mouse genome expression array. Confirmation of the results was done using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Analysis of the gene expression profile of normal skin of F1 mice at 4 weeks of age revealed a similar basal profile in the nonirradiated mice, but alterations in levels of 71 transcripts in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-R cross and modulation of only eight genes in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-S cross. Conclusions: These results indicate that neonatal irradiation causes a persistent change in the gene expression profile of the skin. The tendency of mice genetically resistant to skin tumorigenesis to show a more complex pattern of transcriptional response to radiation than do genetically susceptible mice suggests a role for this response in genetic resistance to basal cell tumorigenesis.

Galvan, Antonella; Noci, Sara [Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna [ENEA Laboratories, Rome (Italy); Dragani, Tommaso A. [Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: tommaso.dragani@istitutotumori.mi.it

2008-12-01

68

Genetic risk profiles for cancer susceptibility and therapy response.  

PubMed

Cells in the body are permanently attacked by DNA-reactive species, both from intracellular and environmental sources. Inherited and acquired deficiencies in host defense mechanisms against DNA damage (metabolic and DNA repair enzymes) can modify cancer susceptibility as well as therapy response. Genetic profiles should help to identify high-risk individuals who subsequently can be enrolled in preventive measures or treated by tailored therapy regimens. Some of our attempts to define such risk profiles are presented. Cancer susceptibility: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in metabolic and repair genes were investigated in a hospital-based lung cancer case-control study. When evaluating the risk associated with different genotypes for N-acetyltransferases (Wikman et al. 2001) and glutathione-S-transferases (Risch et al. 2001), it is mandatory to distinguish between the three major histological subtypes of lung tumors. A promoter polymorphism of the myeloperoxidase gene MPO was shown to decrease lung cancer susceptibility mainly in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (Dally et al. 2002). The CYP3A4*1B allele was also linked to an increased SCLC risk and in smoking women increased the risk of lung cancer eightfold (Dally et al. 2003b). Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes were shown to modulate lung cancer risk in smokers, and reduced DNA repair capacity elevated the disease risk (Rajaee-Behbahani et al. 2001). Investigations of several DNA repair gene variants revealed that lung cancer risk was only moderately affected by a single variant but was enhanced up to approximately threefold by specific risk allele combinations (Popanda et al. 2004). Therapy response: Inter-individual differences in therapy response are consistently observed with cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Initial results from ongoing studies showed that certain polymorphisms in drug transporter genes (ABCB1) differentially affect response outcome in histological subgroups of lung cancer. Stronger beneficial effects were seen in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients following gemcitabine and in SCLC patients following etoposide-based treatment. Several DNA repair parameters (polymorphisms, RNA expression, and DNA repair capacity) were measured in vitro in lymphocytes of patients before radiotherapy and correlated with the occurrence of acute side effects (radio-hypersensitivity). Our initial analysis of several repair gene variants in breast cancer patients (n = 446) who received radiotherapy revealed no association of single polymorphisms and the development of side effects (moist desquamation of the irradiated normal skin). The risk for this side effect was, however, strongly reduced in normal weight women carrying a combination of XRCC1 399Gln and APE1 148Glu alleles, indicating that these variants afford some protection against radio-hypersensitivity (Chang-Claude et al. 2005). Based on these data we conclude that specific metabolic and DNA repair gene variants can affect cancer risk and therapy outcome. Predisposition to hereditary cancer syndromes is dominated by the strong effects of some high-penetrance tumor susceptibility genes, while predisposition to sporadic cancer is influenced by the combination of multiple low-penetrance genes, of which as a major challenge, many disease-relevant combinations remain to be identified. Before translating these findings into clinical use and application for public health measures, large population-based studies and validation of the results will be required. PMID:17302182

Bartsch, Helmut; Dally, Heike; Popanda, Odilia; Risch, Angela; Schmezer, Peter

2007-01-01

69

Genetic Susceptibility to Coronary Heart Disease in Type 2 Diabetes: Three Independent Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate whether coronary heart disease (CHD)-susceptibility loci identified by genome-wide association studies of the general population also contribute to CHD in type 2 diabetes. Background No study has examined the effects of these genetic variants on CHD in diabetic patients. Methods We genotyped 15 genetic markers of 12 loci in three studies of diabetic patients: the prospective Nurses’ Health Study (309 CHD cases and 544 controls) and Health Professional Follow-up Study (345 CHD cases and 451 controls), and the cross-sectional Joslin Heart Study (422 CHD cases and 435 controls). Results Five SNPs, rs4977574 (CDKN2A/2B), rs12526453 (PHACTR1), rs646776 (CELSR2-PSRC1-SORT1), rs2259816 (HNF1A), and rs11206510 (PCSK9) showed directionally consistent associations with CHD in the three studies, with combined odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.17 to 1.25 (p=0.03 to 0.0002). None of the other SNPs reached significance in individual or combined analyses. A genetic risk score (GRS) was created by combining the risk alleles of the five significantly associated loci. The OR of CHD per GRS unit was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13– 1.26; p<0.0001). Individuals with GRS ?8 (19% of diabetic subjects) had almost a two-fold increase in CHD risk (OR=1.94, 95% CI 1.60–2.35) as compared to individuals with GRS ?5 (30% of diabetic subjects). Prediction of CHD was significantly improved (p<0.001) when the GRS was added to a model including clinical predictors in the combined samples. Conclusions Our results illustrate the consistency and differences in the determinants of genetic susceptibility to CHD in diabetic patients and the general populations. PMID:22152955

Qi, Lu; Parast, Layla; Cai, Tianxi; Powers, Christine; Gervino, Ernest V.; Hauser, Thomas H.; Hu, Frank B.; Doria, Alessandro

2011-01-01

70

Copyright 2001 by the Genetics Society of America Genetic Loci Controlling Breast Cancer Susceptibility in the Wistar-Kyoto Rat  

E-print Network

for linkage mapping to genetically identify mammary carcinoma susceptibility (Mcs) loci underlying parametric and nonparametric distributional assumptions and used permutation tests to calculate significance thresholds. A generalized linear model analysis was also per- formed to test for interactions between

Gould, Michael N.

71

Genetic Background and Climatic Droplet Keratopathy Incidence in a Mapuche Population from Argentina  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether the incidence of and susceptibility to climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), an acquired, often bilateral degenerative corneal disease, is influenced by the genetic background of the individuals who exhibit the disorder. Methods To determine whether the disease expression was influenced by the genetic ancestry of CDK cases in native Mapuche of the northwest area of Patagonia in Argentina, we examined mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome variation in 53 unrelated individuals. Twenty-nine of them were part of the CDK (patient) population, while 24 were part of the control group. The analysis revealed the maternal and paternal lineages that were present in the two study groups. Results This analysis demonstrated that nearly all persons had a Native American mtDNA background, whereas 50% of the CDK group and 37% of the control group had Native American paternal ancestry, respectively. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups between the CDK patient and control groups. Although the Y-chromosome data revealed differences in specific haplogroup frequencies between these two groups, there was no statistically significant relationship between individual paternal genetic backgrounds and the incidence or stage of disease. Conclusions These results indicate a lack of correlation between genetic ancestry as represented by haploid genetic systems and the incidence of CDK in Mapuche populations. In addition, the mtDNA appears to play less of a role in CDK expression than for other complex diseases linked to bioenergetic processes. However, further analysis of the mtDNA genome sequence and other genes involved in corneal function may reveal the more precise role that mitochondria play in the expression of CDK. PMID:24040292

Schurr, Theodore G.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Cafaro, Thamara A.; Suarez, María F.

2013-01-01

72

Complex genetic background in a large family with Brugada syndrome  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited arrhythmia characterized by ST?segment elevation in V1–V3 leads and negative T wave on standard ECG. BrS patients are at risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to ventricular tachyarrhythmia. At least 17 genes have been proposed to be linked to BrS, although recent findings suggested a polygenic background. Mutations in SCN5A, the gene coding for the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5, have been found in 15–30% of index cases. Here, we present the results of clinical, genetic, and expression studies of a large Iranian family with BrS carrying a novel genetic variant (p.P1506S) in SCN5A. By performing whole?cell patch?clamp experiments using HEK293 cells expressing wild?type (WT) or p.P1506S Nav1.5 channels, hyperpolarizing shift of the availability curve, depolarizing shift of the activation curve, and hastening of the fast inactivation process were observed. These mutant?induced alterations lead to a loss of function of Nav1.5 and thus suggest that the p.P1506S variant is pathogenic. In addition, cascade familial screening found a family member with BrS who did not carry the p.P1506S mutation. Additional next generation sequencing analyses revealed the p.R25W mutation in KCNH2 gene in SCN5A?negative BrS patients. These findings illustrate the complex genetic background of BrS found in this family and the possible pathogenic role of a new SCN5A genetic variant. PMID:25626866

Saber, Siamak; Amarouch, Mohamed?Yassine; Fazelifar, Amir?Farjam; Haghjoo, Majid; Emkanjoo, Zahra; Alizadeh, Abolfath; Houshmand, Massoud; Gavrilenko, Alexander V.; Abriel, Hugues; Zaklyazminskaya, Elena V.

2015-01-01

73

Complex genetic background in a large family with Brugada syndrome.  

PubMed

The Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited arrhythmia characterized by ST-segment elevation in V1-V3 leads and negative T wave on standard ECG. BrS patients are at risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to ventricular tachyarrhythmia. At least 17 genes have been proposed to be linked to BrS, although recent findings suggested a polygenic background. Mutations in SCN5A, the gene coding for the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5, have been found in 15-30% of index cases. Here, we present the results of clinical, genetic, and expression studies of a large Iranian family with BrS carrying a novel genetic variant (p.P1506S) in SCN5A. By performing whole-cell patch-clamp experiments using HEK293 cells expressing wild-type (WT) or p.P1506S Nav1.5 channels, hyperpolarizing shift of the availability curve, depolarizing shift of the activation curve, and hastening of the fast inactivation process were observed. These mutant-induced alterations lead to a loss of function of Nav1.5 and thus suggest that the p.P1506S variant is pathogenic. In addition, cascade familial screening found a family member with BrS who did not carry the p.P1506S mutation. Additional next generation sequencing analyses revealed the p.R25W mutation in KCNH2 gene in SCN5A-negative BrS patients. These findings illustrate the complex genetic background of BrS found in this family and the possible pathogenic role of a new SCN5A genetic variant. PMID:25626866

Saber, Siamak; Amarouch, Mohamed-Yassine; Fazelifar, Amir-Farjam; Haghjoo, Majid; Emkanjoo, Zahra; Alizadeh, Abolfath; Houshmand, Massoud; Gavrilenko, Alexander V; Abriel, Hugues; Zaklyazminskaya, Elena V

2015-01-01

74

CTLA4 Alanine17 Confers Genetic Susceptibility to Graves' Disease and to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease and type 1 (insulin- dependent) diabetes mellitus is conferred by genes in the human leukocyte antigen region on the short arm of chromosome 6, but several other genes are presumed to determine disease susceptibility. Among those candidate genes is the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) located on chromosome 2q33 in man. We investigated

HORST DONNER; HARALD RAU; PAUL G. WALFISH; JENS BRAUN; THORSTEN SIEGMUND; REINHARD FINKE; JURGEN HERWIG; KLAUS H. USADEL; KLAUS BADENHOOP

75

Genetic variants at 6p21.33 are associated with susceptibility  

E-print Network

-wide association studies of non- Hodgkin lymphoma using Illumina HumanHap550 BeadChips to identify subtype psoriasis susceptibility region 1 (PSORS1). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous group of neoGenetic variants at 6p21.33 are associated with susceptibility to follicular lymphoma Christine F

California at Berkeley, University of

76

Genetic susceptibility of the donor kidney contributes to the development of renal damage after syngeneic transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary kidneys, especially in rats, appear vulnerable to develop functional and structural damage. However, differences in susceptibility exist between strains. It is not clear whether this is intrinsic to the kidney or due to environmental factors. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in genetic susceptibility for renal damage. By transplanting different rat donor kidneys

E. A. Kouwenhoven; R. P. E. van Dokkum; R. L. Marquet; U. W. Heemann; R. W. F. de Bruin; J. N. M. IJzermans; A. P. Provoost

1999-01-01

77

The BOADICEA model of genetic susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancers: updates and extensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple genetic loci confer susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancers. We have previously developed a model (BOADICEA) under which susceptibility to breast cancer is explained by mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, as well as by the joint multiplicative effects of many genes (polygenic component). We have now updated BOADICEA using additional family data from two UK population-based studies of breast

A C Antoniou; A P Cunningham; J Peto; D G Evans; F Lalloo; S A Narod; H A Risch; J E Eyfjord; J L Hopper; M C Southey; H Olsson; O Johannsson; A Borg; B Passini; P Radice; S Manoukian; D M Eccles; N Tang; E Olah; H Anton-Culver; E Warner; J Lubinski; J Gronwald; B Gorski; L Tryggvadottir; K Syrjakoski; O-P Kallioniemi; H Eerola; H Nevanlinna; P D P Pharoah; D F Easton

2008-01-01

78

Genetic Association Between PER3 Genetic Polymorphisms and Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis.  

PubMed

The genes along the circadian pathways control and modulate circadian rhythms essential for the maintenance of physiological homeostasis through self-sustained transcription-translation feedback loops. PER3 (period 3) is a circadian pathway gene and its variants (rs1012477, 4/5-repeat) have frequently been associated with human cancer. The mixed findings, however, make the role of the 2 variants in cancer susceptibility elusive. We aimed in this article to clarify the association of PER3 variants with cancer.We collected genetic data from 8 studies, providing 6149 individuals for rs1012477 and 5241 individuals for 4/5-repeat. Based on the genotype and allele frequency, we chose the fixed-effects model to estimate risk of cancer.Overall analysis did not suggest a global role of rs1012477 in cancer susceptibility. For PER3 4/5-repeat variant, we found a moderate increase in risk of cancer among individuals with the 5-allele compared to individuals with the 4-allele, although this association was not statistically significant (homozygous model: odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-1.67; recessive model: OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.82-1.67). No substantial heterogeneity was revealed in this analysis.Our meta-analysis provides no evidence supporting a global association of PER3 genetic variants with the incidence of cancer. PMID:25837749

Geng, Peiliang; Ou, Juanjuan; Li, Jianjun; Wang, Ning; Xie, Ganfeng; Sa, Rina; Liu, Chen; Xiang, Lisha; Liang, Houjie

2015-04-01

79

Genetic Variation in 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase and Colon Cancer Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Background 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is a metabolic antagonist of COX-2, catalyzing the degradation of inflammation mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and other prostanoids. Recent studies have established the 15-PGDH gene as a colon cancer suppressor. Methods We evaluated 15-PDGH as a colon cancer susceptibility locus in a three-stage design. We first genotyped 102 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 15-PGDH gene, spanning ?50 kb up and down-stream of the coding region, in 464 colon cancer cases and 393 population controls. We then genotyped the same SNPs, and also assayed the expression levels of 15-PGDH in colon tissues from 69 independent patients for whom colon tissue and paired germline DNA samples were available. In the final stage 3, we genotyped the 9 most promising SNPs from stages 1 and 2 in an independent sample of 525 cases and 816 controls (stage 3). Results In the first two stages, three SNPs (rs1365611, rs6844282 and rs2332897) were statistically significant (p<0.05) in combined analysis of association with risk of colon cancer and of association with 15-PGDH expression, after adjustment for multiple testing. For one additional SNP, rs2555639, the T allele showed increased cancer risk and decreased 15-PGDH expression, but just missed statistical significance (p-adjusted?=?0.063). In stage 3, rs2555639 alone showed evidence of association with an odds ratio (TT compared to CC) of 1.50 (95% CI?=?1.05–2.15, p?=?0.026). Conclusions Our data suggest that the rs2555639 T allele is associated with increased risk of colon cancer, and that carriers of this risk allele exhibit decreased expression of 15-PGDH in the colon. PMID:23717544

Lutterbaugh, James D.; Elston, Robert C.; Veigl, Martina L.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Li, Li

2013-01-01

80

Genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases: big is beautiful, but will bigger be even better?  

PubMed

Genetic epidemiology, including twin studies, provides robust evidence that genetic variation in human populations contributes to susceptibility to infectious disease. One of the major limitations of studies that attempt to identify the genes and mechanisms that underlie this susceptibility has been lack of power caused by small sample size. With the development of novel technologies, burgeoning information on the human genome, the HapMap project, and human genetic diversity, we are at the beginning of a new era in the study of the genetics of complex diseases. This review looks afresh at the epidemiological evidence that supports a role for genetics in susceptibility to infectious disease, examines the somewhat limited achievements to date, and discusses current advances in methodology and technology that will potentially lead to translational data in the future. PMID:17008174

Burgner, David; Jamieson, Sarra E; Blackwell, Jenefer M

2006-10-01

81

T Helper Phenotype and Genetic Susceptibility in Experimental Lyme Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Infection of inbred mice with Borrelia burgdorferi results in strain-specific variation in the severity of pathogen-induced arthritis: BALB\\/c mice develop only mild disease whereas C3H\\/HeJ mice develop severe arthritis. The immunologic basis for varying host susceptibility has yet to be defined. We modified experimental Lyme disease to facilitate measurement of antigen-specific cytokine production in resistant and susceptible mice. The

Jennifer E. Matyniak; Steven L. Reiner

82

The BOADICEA model of genetic susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer: updating, validation and predictions  

Cancer.gov

The BOADICEA model of genetic susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer: updating, validation and predictions. Antonis C. Antoniou (1), Paul D.P Pharoah (2) and Douglas F Easton (1) on behalf of the Boadicea collaborators. (1) CR-UK Genetic Epidemiology

83

Antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Poland, 2010-2012  

PubMed Central

Background In Poland, gonorrhoea has been a mandatorily reported infection since 1948, however, the reported incidences are likely underestimated. No antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been internationally reported in nearly four decades, and data concerning genetic characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae are totally lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate the AMR to previously and currently recommended gonorrhoea treatment options, the main genetic resistance determinant (penA) for extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), and genotypic distribution of N. gonorrhoeae isolates in Poland in 2010-2012. Methods N. gonorrhoeae isolates cultured in 2010 (n?=?28), 2011 (n?=?92) and 2012 (n?=?108) in Warsaw and Bialystok, Poland, were examined using antimicrobial susceptibility testing (Etest), pyrosequencing of penA and N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Results The proportions of N. gonorrhoeae isolates showing resistance were as follows: ciprofloxacin 61%, tetracycline 43%, penicillin G 22%, and azithromycin 8.8%. No isolates resistant to ceftriaxone, cefixime or spectinomycin were found. However, the proportion of isolates with an ESC MIC?=?0.125 mg/L, i.e. at the resistance breakpoint, increased significantly from none in 2010 to 9.3% and 19% in 2012 for ceftriaxone and cefixime, respectively. Furthermore, 3.1% of the isolates showed multidrug resistance, i.e., resistance to ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, azithromycin, and decreased susceptibility to cefixime (MIC?=?0.125 mg/L). Seventy-six isolates (33%) possessed a penA mosaic allele and 14 isolates (6.1%) contained an A501V/T alteration in penicillin-binding protein 2. NG-MAST ST1407 (n?=?58, 25% of isolates) was the most prevalent ST, which significantly increased from 2010 (n?=?0) to 2012 (n?=?46; 43%). Conclusions In Poland, the diversified gonococcal population displayed a high resistance to most antimicrobials internationally previously recommended for gonorrhoea treatment and decreasing susceptibility to the currently recommended ESCs. The decreasing susceptibility to ESCs was mostly due to the introduction of the internationally spread multidrug-resistant NG-MAST ST1407 in 2011. It is essential to promptly revise the gonorrhoea treatment guidelines, improve the gonorrhoea laboratory diagnostics, and implement quality assured surveillance of gonococcal AMR (ideally also treatment failures) in Poland. PMID:24502606

2014-01-01

84

Genetic differential susceptibility on trial: meta-analytic support from randomized controlled experiments.  

PubMed

The most stringent test of differential susceptibility theory is provided by randomized control trials examining the moderating role of genetic markers of differential susceptibility in experimental manipulations of the environment (Gene × Experimental Environment interactions), being at least 10 times more powerful than correlational Gene × Environment interaction studies. We identified 22 experiments involving 3,257 participants with various developmental outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, internalizing behaviors, and cognitive development). Effect sizes contrasting experimental versus control group were computed both for subjects with the polymorphism considered indicative of heightened susceptibility (e.g., the dopamine receptor D4 gene seven-repeat allele and the serotonin transporter polymorphic region short allele) and others expected to be low in susceptibility (e.g., the dopamine receptor D4 gene four-repeat allele and the serotonin transporter polymorphic region short allele). Clear-cut experimental support for genetic differential susceptibility emerged: the combined effect size of the interventions for the susceptible genotypes amounted to r = .33 (95% confidence interval = 0.23, 0.42; p < .01) versus a nonsignificant r = .08 (95% confidence interval = -0.02, 0.17; p = .12) for the hypothesized nonsusceptible genotypes. Macrotrials showed more evidence of genetic differential susceptibility than microtrials, and differential susceptibility was more clearly observed in trials with externalizing and cognitive outcomes than with internalizing problems. This meta-analysis shows proof of principle for genetic differential susceptibility and indicates that it is time to explore its mechanisms and limits. The concept of differential susceptibility alters the idea of constitutional "risk" factors (reactive temperament and risk genotypes), and points to intervention efficacy hidden in Gene × Environment interactions. PMID:25640837

van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

2015-02-01

85

Human Leptospirosis: Seroreactivity and Genetic Susceptibility in the Population of São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal)  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic and recognized neglected infectious disease. It has been observed that only a proportion of individuals exposed to pathogenic species of Leptospira become infected and develop clinically evident disease. Moreover, little information is available in subsequent reinfections. In the present study, we determine if a first infection with leptospirosis protects against subsequent reinfection, and investigate which of the host genetic factors are involved in the susceptibility and resistance to leptospirosis. Methodology and Findings We conducted, in 2011, a retrospective hospital-based case-control study in the São Miguel Island population (Azores archipelago). In order to determine the seropositivity against pathogenic Leptospira after the first episode of leptospirosis, we performed a serological evaluation in 97 unrelated participants diagnosed with leptospirosis between 1992 and 2011. The results revealed that 46.4% of the 97 participants have circulating anti-Leptospira antibodies, and from these participants 35.6% maintained the seroprevalence for the same serogroup. Moreover, three of them were reinfected with unrelated Leptospira serovars. The genetic study was carried out by adding a control group composed of 470 unrelated healthy blood donors, also from São Miguel Island. Twenty five SNPs among twelve innate immune genes – IL1?, IL1?, IL6, IL10, IL12RB1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, CD14, CISH, LTA and TNF – were genotyped, as well as HLA class I (–A and –B) genes. Association analysis indicates that genotypes -511GG (OR?=?1.6, 95%CI 1.01-2.56, p?=?0.04) in IL1?, +1196CG (OR?=?2.0, 95%CI 1.26-3.27, p?=?0.003) in IL12RB1, -292TA (OR?=?1.8, 95% CI 1.06–2.1, p?=?0.03) and +3415CG (OR?=?1.8, 95% CI 1.08–3.08, p?=?0.02), both in CISH confer susceptibility to pathogenic Leptospira. Conclusion The present study suggests some degree of long-term protection against leptospires with an attenuation of symptoms in case of reinfection. Moreover, our data supports the genetic influence of IL1?, IL12RB1 and CISH genes and the susceptibility to leptospirosis infection. PMID:25255143

Esteves, Lisa M.; Bulhões, Sara M.; Branco, Claudia C.; Mota, Francisco M.; Paiva, Clara; Cabral, Rita; Vieira, Maria Luisa; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

2014-01-01

86

A Systems Genetic Approach to Identify Low Dose Radiation-Induced Lymphoma Susceptibility/DOE2013FinalReport  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of this project is to identify the combinations of genetic variants that confer an individual's susceptibility to the effects of low dose (0.1 Gy) gamma-radiation, in particular with regard to tumor development. In contrast to the known effects of high dose radiation in cancer induction, the responses to low dose radiation (defined as 0.1 Gy or less) are much less well understood, and have been proposed to involve a protective anti-tumor effect in some in vivo scientific models. These conflicting results confound attempts to develop predictive models of the risk of exposure to low dose radiation, particularly when combined with the strong effects of inherited genetic variants on both radiation effects and cancer susceptibility. We have used a Â?Â?Systems Genetics approach in mice that combines genetic background analysis with responses to low and high dose radiation, in order to develop insights that will allow us to reconcile these disparate observations. Using this comprehensive approach we have analyzed normal tissue gene expression (in this case the skin and thymus), together with the changes that take place in this gene expression architecture a) in response to low or high- dose radiation and b) during tumor development. Additionally, we have demonstrated that using our expression analysis approach in our genetically heterogeneous/defined radiation-induced tumor mouse models can uniquely identify genes and pathways relevant to human T-ALL, and uncover interactions between common genetic variants of genes which may lead to tumor susceptibility.

Balmain, Allan [University of California, San Francisco; Song, Ihn Young [University of California, San Francisco

2013-05-15

87

Genetic susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in the genomic era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the genetic basis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been rapidly advanced using large-scale, case–control, candidate gene studies as well as genome-wide association studies during the past 3 years. These techniques have identified more than 30 robust genetic associations with SLE including genetic variants of HLA and Fc? receptor genes, IRF5, STAT4, PTPN22, TNFAIP3, BLK, BANK1, TNFSF4

Yun Deng; Betty P. Tsao

2010-01-01

88

Population differences in platinum toxicity as a means to identify novel genetic susceptibility variants  

PubMed Central

Objectives Clinical studies show that Asians (ASN) are more susceptible to toxicities associated with platinum-containing regimens. We hypothesized that studying ASN as an `enriched phenotype' population could enable the discovery of novel genetic determinants of platinum susceptibility. Methods Using well-genotyped lymphoblastoid cell lines from the HapMap, we determined cisplatin and carboplatin cytotoxicity phenotypes (IC50s) for ASN, Caucasians (CEU), and Africans (YRI). IC50s were used in genome-wide association studies. Results ASN were most sensitive to platinums, corroborating clinical findings. ASN genome-wide association studies produced 479 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associating with cisplatin susceptibility and 199 with carboplatin susceptibility (P<10?4). Considering only the most significant variants (P< 9.99 × 10?6), backwards elimination was then used to identify reduced-model SNPs, which robustly described the drug phenotypes within ASN. These SNPs comprised highly descriptive genetic signatures of susceptibility, with 12 SNPs explaining more than 95% of the susceptibility phenotype variation for cisplatin, and eight SNPs approximately 75% for carboplatin. To determine the possible function of these variants in ASN, the SNPs were tested for association with differential expression of target genes. SNPs were highly associated with the expression of multiple target genes, and notably, the histone H3 family was implicated for both drugs, suggesting a platinum-class mechanism. Histone H3 has repeatedly been described as regulating the formation of platinum-DNA adducts, but this is the first evidence that specific genetic variants might mediate these interactions in a pharmacogenetic manner. Finally, to determine whether any ASN-identified SNPs might also be important in other human populations, we interrogated all 479/199 SNPs for association with platinum susceptibility in an independent combined CEU/YRI population. Three unique SNPs for cisplatin and 10 for carboplatin replicated in CEU/YRI. Conclusion Enriched `platinum susceptible' populations can be used to discover novel genetic determinants governing interindividual platinum chemotherapy susceptibility. PMID:20393316

O'Donnell, Peter H.; Gamazon, Eric; Zhang, Wei; Stark, Amy L.; Kistner-Griffin, Emily O.; Huang, R. Stephanie; Dolan, M. Eileen

2010-01-01

89

Ethnic Background and Genetic Variation in the Evaluation of Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

The clinical use of genetic variation in the evaluation of cancer risk is expanding, and thus understanding how determinants of cancer susceptibility identified in one population can be applied to another is of growing importance. However there is considerable debate on the relevance of ethnic background in clinical genetics, reflecting both the significance and complexity of genetic heritage. We address this via a systematic review of reported associations with cancer risk for 82 markers in 68 studies across six different cancer types, comparing association results between ethnic groups and examining linkage disequilibrium between risk alleles and nearby genetic loci. We find that the relevance of ethnic background depends on the question. If asked whether the association of variants with disease risk is conserved across ethnic boundaries, we find that the answer is yes, the majority of markers show insignificant variability in association with cancer risk across ethnic groups. However if the question is whether a significant association between a variant and cancer risk is likely to reproduce, the answer is no, most markers do not validate in an ethnic group other than the discovery cohort’s ancestry. This lack of reproducibility is not attributable to studies being inadequately populated due to low allele frequency in other ethnic groups. Instead, differences in local genomic structure between ethnic groups are associated with the strength of association with cancer risk and therefore confound interpretation of the implied physiologic association tracked by the disease allele. This suggest that a biological association for cancer risk alleles may be broadly consistent across ethnic boundaries, but reproduction of a clinical study in another ethnic group is uncommon, in part due to confounding genomic architecture. As clinical studies are increasingly performed globally this has important implications for how cancer risk stratifiers should be studied and employed. PMID:24901479

Jing, Lijun; Su, Li; Ring, Brian Z.

2014-01-01

90

Copyright 2003 by the Genetics Society of America Effects of Genetic Background on Response to Selection in Experimental  

E-print Network

Copyright 2003 by the Genetics Society of America Effects of Genetic Background on Response received June 28, 2002 Accepted for publication September 9, 2002 ABSTRACT The extent to which genetic consequences. Using experimental populations of Arabidopsis thaliana and map-based population genetic data, we

Rieseberg, Loren

91

A Genetic Lung Cancer Susceptibility Test may have a Positive Effect on Smoking Cessation.  

PubMed

Smoking increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Genetic loci have been identified which could form the basis of a lung cancer susceptibility test; but little is known whether such a test would interest or motivate those trying to quit smoking. To address this, we investigated the attitudes of people trying to quit smoking towards genetic susceptibility testing for lung cancer. Participant's attitudes to topics associated with lung cancer susceptibility testing were assessed; were they interested in genetic testing? What impact would a hypothetical high- or low- risk result have on smoking cessation? 680 self-completion questionnaires were given to individuals attending National Health Service stop smoking clinics in three different areas of the United Kingdom between 2011 and 2012. 139 questionnaires were returned, giving a 20 % response rate. Participants expressed an interest in a genetic susceptibility test for lung cancer and almost all reported that a high-risk result would increase their motivation to stop smoking. However, many participants had a neutral attitude towards a low-risk result. Most participants agreed their smoking habit could lead to lung cancer. Lung cancer susceptibility testing may be a useful incentive to help people quit smoking. This study suggests the need for genetic services to work with smoking cessation teams if routine testing becomes available in the future. PMID:25403897

Kammin, Tammy; Fenton, Andrew K; Thirlaway, Kathryn

2014-11-19

92

Evolutionary Determinants of Genetic Variation in Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases in Humans  

PubMed Central

Although genetic variation among humans in their susceptibility to infectious diseases has long been appreciated, little focus has been devoted to identifying patterns in levels of variation in susceptibility to different diseases. Levels of genetic variation in susceptibility associated with 40 human infectious diseases were assessed by a survey of studies on both pedigree-based quantitative variation, as well as studies on different classes of marker alleles. These estimates were correlated with pathogen traits, epidemiological characteristics, and effectiveness of the human immune response. The strongest predictors of levels of genetic variation in susceptibility were disease characteristics negatively associated with immune effectiveness. High levels of genetic variation were associated with diseases with long infectious periods and for which vaccine development attempts have been unsuccessful. These findings are consistent with predictions based on theoretical models incorporating fitness costs associated with the different types of resistance mechanisms. An appreciation of these observed patterns will be a valuable tool in directing future research given that genetic variation in disease susceptibility has large implications for vaccine development and epidemiology. PMID:22242158

Baker, Christi; Antonovics, Janis

2012-01-01

93

Genetic mapping of a susceptibility locus for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus on chromosome llq  

Microsoft Academic Search

LOCI in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromo-some 6 and the insulin (INS) region on chromosome 11 have been implicated in susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) through candidate gene investigations1-5, but they may account for less than 50% of genetic risk for the disease6. Genome-wide linkage studies have led to localization of more than 10 sus-ceptibility loci for

L. Hashimoto; C. Habita; J. P. Beressi; M. Delepine; C. Basse; A. Cambon-Thomsen; I. Deschamps; J. I. Rotter; S. Djoulah; M. R. James; P. Froguel; J. Weissenbach; G. M. Lathrop; C. Julier

1994-01-01

94

Genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis in Africans: A genome-wide scan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human genetic variation is an important determinant of the outcome of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We have conducted a two-stage genome-wide linkage study to search for regions of the human genome containing tuberculosis-susceptibility genes. This approach uses sibpair families that contain two full siblings who have both been affected by clinical tuberculosis. For any chromosomal region containing a major tuberculosis-susceptibility

Richard Bellamy; Nulda Beyers; Keith P. W. J. McAdam; Cyril Ruwende; Robert Gie; Priscilla Samaai; Danite Bester; Mandy Meyer; Tumani Corrah; Matthew Collin; D. Ross Camidge; David Wilkinson; Eileen Hoal-van Helden; Hilton C. Whittle; William Amos; Paul van Helden; Adrian V. S. Hill

2000-01-01

95

Familial gastric cancer: genetic susceptibility, pathology, and implications for management.  

PubMed

Familial gastric cancer comprises at least three major syndromes: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach, and familial intestinal gastric cancer. The risk of development of gastric cancer is high in families affected b-y these syndromes, but only hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is genetically explained (caused by germline alterations of CDH1, which encodes E-cadherin). Gastric cancer is also associated with a range of several cancer-associated syndromes with known genetic causes, such as Lynch, Li-Fraumeni, Peutz-Jeghers, hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndromes, familial adenomatous polyposis, and juvenile polyposis. We present contemporary knowledge on the genetics, pathogenesis, and clinical features of familial gastric cancer, and discuss research and technological developments, which together are expected to open avenues for new genetic testing approaches and novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25638682

Oliveira, Carla; Pinheiro, Hugo; Figueiredo, Joana; Seruca, Raquel; Carneiro, Fátima

2015-02-01

96

New Genetic Susceptibility Factors for Sjögren's Syndrome Revealed  

MedlinePLUS

... but it is thought to arise from a complex mix of genetic and environmental factors. To gain ... at Multiple Loci Implicated in Both Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses Are Associated With Sjögren’s Syndrome. Nature ...

97

Genetic context determines susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation in a mouse pigmentary glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Background DBA/2J (D2) mice develop an age-related form of glaucoma. Their eyes progressively develop iris pigment dispersion and iris atrophy followed by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Mutant alleles of the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 genes are necessary for the iris disease, but it is unknown whether alleles of other D2 gene(s) are necessary for the distinct later stages of disease. We initiated a study of congenic strains to further define the genetic requirements and disease mechanisms of the D2 glaucoma. Results To further understand D2 glaucoma, we created congenic strains of mice on the C57BL/6J (B6) genetic background. B6 double-congenic mice carrying D2-derived Gpnmb and Tyrp1 mutations develop a D2-like iris disease. B6 single-congenics with only the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 mutations develop milder forms of iris disease. Genetic epistasis experiments introducing a B6 tyrosinase mutation into the congenic strains demonstrated that both the single and double-congenic iris diseases are rescued by interruption of melanin synthesis. Importantly, our experiments analyzing mice at ages up to 27 months indicate that the B6 double-congenic mice are much less prone to IOP elevation and glaucoma than are D2 mice. Conclusion As demonstrated here, the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 iris phenotypes are both individually dependent on tyrosinase function. These results support involvement of abnormal melanosomal events in the diseases caused by each gene. In the context of the inbred D2 mouse strain, the glaucoma phenotype is clearly influenced by more genes than just Gpnmb and Tyrp1. Despite the outward similarity of pigment-dispersing iris disease between D2 and the B6 double-congenic mice, the congenic mice are much less susceptible to developing high IOP and glaucoma. These new congenic strains provide a valuable new resource for further studying the genetic and mechanistic complexity of this form of glaucoma. PMID:16827931

Anderson, Michael G; Libby, Richard T; Mao, Mao; Cosma, Ioan M; Wilson, Larry A; Smith, Richard S; John, Simon WM

2006-01-01

98

Durability of plant major resistance genes to pathogens depends on the genetic background, experimental evidence and consequences for breeding strategies.  

PubMed

* The breakdown of plant resistance by pathogen populations is a limit to the genetic control of crop disease. Polygenic resistance is postulated as a durable alternative to defeated major resistance genes. Here, we tested this postulate in the pepper-Potato virus Y interaction. * The virus was selected for virulence towards monogenic and polygenic host resistance, using serial inoculations in laboratory and in natural epidemic conditions. The frequency of resistance breakdown and the genetic changes in the virus avirulence gene were analysed. * The monogenic resistance provided by the pvr2(3) gene was defeated at high frequency when introgressed in a susceptible genetic background whereas it was not when combined to partial resistance quantitative trait loci. The suppression of emergence of virulent mutants because of the genetic background resulted both from a differential selection effect and the necessity for the virus to generate multiple mutations. The virus adaptation to the polygenic resistance required a step-by-step selection with a primary selection for virulence towards the major gene, followed by selection for adaptation to the genetic background. * Polygenic resistance proved more durable than monogenic resistance, but breeding strategies giving priority to major resistance factors may jeopardize the progress in durability expected from polygenic resistance. PMID:19344475

Palloix, A; Ayme, V; Moury, B

2009-01-01

99

Gluten ataxia in perspective: epidemiology, genetic susceptibility and clinical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We previously have described a group of patients with gluten sensitivity presenting with ataxia (gluten ataxia) and suggested that this disease entity may account for a large number of patients with sporadic idiopathic ataxia. We have therefore investigated the prevalence of gluten sensitivity amongst a large cohort of patients with sporadic and familial ataxia and looked at possible genetic

Marios Hadjivassiliou; Richard Grunewald; Basil Sharrack; David Sanders; Alan Lobo; Clare Williamson; Nicola Woodroofe; Nicholas Wood; Aelwyn Davies-Jones

2003-01-01

100

Genetics of susceptibility and treatment response in psoriatic arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA), an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis, has a wide spectrum of disease severity. The clinical heterogeneity in PsA probably reflects substantial genetic heterogeneity. In recent years, many genes that contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis and PsA have been identified, especially in Western cohorts. Emerging evidence from functional studies of candidate genes identified by genome-wide association studies

Darren D. O'Rielly; Proton Rahman

2011-01-01

101

mimicry by HSV-1 (KOS) is essential for disease induction in genetically susceptible  

E-print Network

mimicry by HSV-1 (KOS) is essential for disease induction in genetically susceptible hosts under level viral in- fections into an autoimmune response. In- fections by higher concentrations of HSV-1 (KOS) or by more virulent strains of HSV-1 may induce inflammatory responses that are sufficient

Baker, Chris I.

102

Genetic risk online and offline: Two ways of being susceptible to blood clots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social science research into online health groups often studies characteristics of Internet communication, such as anonymity and ability to connect individuals across distance, which facilitate unique modes of support between people with similar illnesses. This article compares discussion in an online group for people with a genetic susceptibility for deep vein thrombosis with offline interviews with individuals with the same

Paula Saukko

2009-01-01

103

Genetic variation in the 22q11 locus and susceptibility to schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased prevalence of microdeletions at the 22q11 locus has been reported in samples of patients with schizophrenia. 22q11 microdeletions represent the highest known genetic risk factor for the development of schizophrenia, second only to that of the monozygotic cotwin of an affected individual or the offspring of two schizophrenic parents. It is therefore clear that a schizophrenia susceptibility locus

Hui Liu; Gonçalo R. Abecasis; Simon C. Heath; Alyson Knowles; Sandra Demars; Ying-Jiun Chen; J. Louw Roos; Judith L. Rapoport; Joseph A. Gogos; Maria Karayiorgou

2002-01-01

104

Mechanisms of Disease: genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers in the development of rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex disease in which environmental agents are thought to interact with genetic factors that influence susceptibility. This interaction triggers immunologic events that eventually result in the clinical signs of arthritis. Knowledge of the chain of etiological events that lead to the development of RA is incomplete. In this review, we describe the experimental approaches that

Leonid Padyukov; Johnny Lorentzen; Lars Alfredsson; Lars Klareskog

2006-01-01

105

Linking genetic susceptibility and T cell activation in beryllium-induced disease.  

PubMed

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder caused by beryllium (Be) exposure in the workplace. It is characterized by the accumulation of Be-specific CD4(+) T cells in the lung as well as persistent lung inflammation, culminating in the development of lung fibrosis. CBD occurs in 2 to 16% of Be-exposed workers depending on the individuals' genetic susceptibility and the characteristics of the exposure. Genetic susceptibility to Be-induced disease has been linked to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. In particular, HLA-DP alleles possessing a glutamic acid at the 69th position of the beta-chain (betaGlu69) are most strongly linked to disease susceptibility. The HLA-DP alleles that present Be to T cells match those implicated in the genetic susceptibility, suggesting that the HLA contribution to disease is based on the ability of those molecules to bind and present Be to T cells. However, the structural features of betaGlu69-containing HLA-DP molecules that explain the disease association remain unknown. We have recently crystallized HLA-DP2, which is the most prevalent of the betaGlu69-containing HLA-DP molecules. Its unique structure, which includes surface exposure of betaGlu69, provides an explanation of the genetic linkage between betaGlu69-containing HLA-DP alleles and Be-induced disease. PMID:20427584

Falta, Michael T; Bowerman, Natalie A; Dai, Shaodong; Kappler, John W; Fontenot, Andrew P

2010-05-01

106

Linking Genetic Susceptibility and T Cell Activation in Beryllium-induced Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder caused by beryllium (Be) exposure in the workplace. It is characterized by the accumulation of Be-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung as well as persistent lung inflammation, culminating in the development of lung fibrosis. CBD occurs in 2 to 16% of Be-exposed workers depending on the individuals' genetic susceptibility and the characteristics of the exposure. Genetic susceptibility to Be-induced disease has been linked to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. In particular, HLA-DP alleles possessing a glutamic acid at the 69th position of the ?-chain (?Glu69) are most strongly linked to disease susceptibility. The HLA-DP alleles that present Be to T cells match those implicated in the genetic susceptibility, suggesting that the HLA contribution to disease is based on the ability of those molecules to bind and present Be to T cells. However, the structural features of ?Glu69-containing HLA-DP molecules that explain the disease association remain unknown. We have recently crystallized HLA-DP2, which is the most prevalent of the ?Glu69-containing HLA-DP molecules. Its unique structure, which includes surface exposure of ?Glu69, provides an explanation of the genetic linkage between ?Glu69-containing HLA-DP alleles and Be-induced disease. PMID:20427584

Falta, Michael T.; Bowerman, Natalie A.; Dai, Shaodong; Kappler, John W.; Fontenot, Andrew P.

2010-01-01

107

Genetic susceptibility and environmental factors of esophageal cancer in Xi'an  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To analyse the role of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors in the process of esophageal cancer (EC) formation in Xi'an, China. METHODS: A hospital based case-control study, combined with molecular epidemiological method, was carried out. A total of 127 EC cases and 101 controls were interviewed with questionnaires containing demographic items, habit of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and family

An-Hui Wang; Chang-Sheng Sun; Liang-Shou Li; Jiu-Yi Huang; Qing-Shu Chen; De-Zhong Xu

108

Genetic variation in the 22q11 locus and susceptibility to schizophrenia  

E-print Network

schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of MentalGenetic variation in the 22q11 locus and susceptibility to schizophrenia Hui Liu*, Gonc¸alo R, Republic of South Africa; and National Institute of Mental Health, Child Psychiatry Branch, Bethesda, MD

109

Genetic Association and Gene Expression Analysis Identify FGFR1 as a New Susceptibility Gene for  

E-print Network

Genetic Association and Gene Expression Analysis Identify FGFR1 as a New Susceptibility Gene.8 10 6 , which was P 7.0 10 8 in the recessive model. rs7012413*T was associated with FGFR1 expression ]0.001) and increased after diet-induced obesity (P 0.05). Conclusions: FGFR1 is a novel obesity gene

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Host genetic background impacts modulation of the TLR4 pathway by RON in tissue-associated macrophages  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) enable metazoans to mount effective innate immune responses to microbial and viral pathogens, as well as to endogenous host-derived ligands. It is understood that genetic background of the host can influence TLR responsiveness, altering susceptibility to pathogen infection, autoimmunity and cancer. Macrophage stimulatory protein (MSP), which activates the receptor tyrosine kinase recepteur d'origine nantais (RON), promotes key macrophage functions such as motility and phagocytic activity. MSP also acts via RON to modulate signaling by TLR4, which recognizes a range of pathogen or endogenous host-derived molecules. Here, we show that RON exerts divergent control over TLR4 activity in macrophages from different mouse genetic backgrounds. RON potently modulated the TLR4 response in macrophages from M2-prone FVB mice, as compared with M1-skewed C57Bl6 mice. Moreover, global expression analysis revealed that RON suppresses the TLR4-dependent type-I interferon gene signature only in FVB macrophages. This leads to attenuated production of the potent inflammatory mediator, tumor necrosis factor-?. Eliminating RON kinase activity markedly decreased carcinogen-mediated tumorigenesis in M2/Th2-biased FVB mice. We propose that host genetic background influences RON function, thereby contributing to the variability in TLR4 responsiveness in rodents and, potentially, in humans. These findings provide novel insight into the complex interplay between genetic context and immune function. PMID:23817579

Chaudhuri, Amitabha; Wilson, Nicholas S; Yang, Becky; Paler Martinez, Andres; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhu, Catherine; Bricker, Nicole; Couto, Suzana; Modrusan, Zora; French, Dorothy; Cupp, James; Ashkenazi, Avi

2013-01-01

111

Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup A may confer a genetic susceptibility to AIDS group from Southwest China.  

PubMed

Abstract The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans was one of the chronic infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the interactions between viral infection and mitochondrial energetic implicated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation(s) may effect genetic susceptibility to AIDS. Thus, to illustrate the maternal genetic structure and further identify whether mtDNA variation(s) can effect HIV infection among southwest Chinese AIDS group, the whole mtDNA control region sequences of 70 AIDS patients and 480 health individuals from southwest China were analyzed here. Our results indicated the plausible recent genetic admixture results of AIDS group; comparison of matrilineal components between AIDS and matched Han groups showed that mtDNA haplogroup A (p?=?0.048, OR?=?3.006, 95% CI?=?1.109-8.145) has a significant higher difference between the two groups; further comparison illustrated that mtDNA mutations 16,209 (p?=?0.046, OR?=?2.607, 95% CI?=?0.988-6.876) and 16,319 (p?=?0.009, OR?=?2.965, 95% CI?=?1.278-6.876) have significant differences between AIDS and matched control groups, and both of which were the defining variations of mtDNA haplogroup A, they further confirmed that mtDNA haplogroup A may confer genetic susceptibility to AIDS. Our results suggested that haplogroup A may confer a genetic susceptibility to AIDS group from Southwest China. PMID:25431816

Wang, Hua-Wei; Xu, Yu; Miao, Ying-Lei; Luo, Hua-You; Wang, Kun-Hua

2014-11-28

112

Genetic Background Influences Fluoride’s Effects on Osteoclastogenesis  

PubMed Central

Excessive fluoride (F) can lead to abnormal bone biology. Numerous studies have focused on the anabolic action of F yet little is known regarding any action on osteoclastogenesis. Little is known regarding the influence of an individual’s genetic background on the responses of bone cells to F. Four-week old C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) female mice were treated with NaF in the drinking water (0ppm, 50ppm and 100ppm F ion) for 3 weeks. Bone marrow cells were harvested for osteoclastogenesis and hematopoietic colony-forming cell assays. Sera were analyzed for biochemical and bone markers. Femurs, tibiae and lumbar vertebrae were subjected to microCT analysis. Tibiae and femurs were subjected to histology and biomechanical testing, respectively. The results demonstrated new actions of F on osteoclastogenesis and hematopoietic cell differentiation. Strain specific responses were observed. The anabolic action of F was favored in B6 mice exhibiting dose dependent increases in serum ALP activity (p < 0.001); in proximal tibia trabecular and vertebral BMD (tibia at 50&100ppm, p = 0.001; vertebrae at 50&100ppm, p = 0.023&0.019, respectively); and decrease in intact PTH and sRANKL (p = 0.045 and p < 0.001, respectively). F treatment in B6 mice also resulted in increased numbers of CFU-GEMM colonies (p = 0.025). Strain specific accumulations in bone [F] were observed. For C3H mice, dose dependent increases were observed in osteoclast potential (p < 0.001), in situ trabecular osteoclast number (p = 0.007), hematopoietic colony forming units (CFU-GEMM: p < 0.001, CFU-GM: p = 0.006, CFU-M: p < 0.001), and serum markers for osteoclastogenesis (intact PTH: p = 0.004, RANKL: p = 0.022, TRAP5b: p < 0.001). A concordant decrease in serum OPG (p = 0.005) was also observed. Fluoride treatment had no significant effects on bone morphology, BMD and serum PYD crosslinks in C3H suggesting a lack of significant bone resorption. Mechanical properties were also unaltered in C3H. In conclusion, short term F treatment at physiological levels has strain specific effects in mice. The expected anabolic effects were observed in B6 and novel actions hallmarked by enhanced osteoclastogenesis shifts in hematopoietic cell differentiation in the C3H strain. PMID:17936699

Yan, Dong; Gurumurthy, Aruna; Wright, Maggie; Pfeiler, T. Wayne; Loboa, Elizabeth G.; Everett, Eric T.

2008-01-01

113

Post-Traumatic Brain Injury: Genetic Susceptibility to Outcome.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 2% of the population from industrialized countries live with lifelong disabilities resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and roughly one in four adults are unable to return to work 1 year after injury because of physical or mental disabilities. TBI is a significant public health issue that causes substantial physical and economical repercussions for the individual and society. Electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar) were searched with the keywords traumatic brain injury, TBI, genes and TBI, TBI outcome, head injury. Human studies on non-penetrating traumatic brain injuries reported in English were included. To provide health care workers with the basic information for clinical management we summarize and compare the data on post-TBI outcome with regard to the impact of genetic variation: apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), calcium channel, voltage dependent P/Q type, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine receptor D2 and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (DRD2 and ANKK1), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), kidney and brain expressed protein (KIBRA), neurofilament, heavy polypeptide (NEFH), endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme (PPP3CC), the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene solute carrier family 6 member (SLC6A4) and tumor protein 53 (TP53). It is evident that contradicting results are attributable to the heterogeneity of studies, thus further researches are warranted to effectively assess a relation between genetic traits and clinical outcome following traumatic injuries. PMID:25059577

Davidson, Jennilee; Cusimano, Michael D; Bendena, William G

2014-07-24

114

Genetic control of susceptibility to Cryptococcus neoformans in mice.  

PubMed

Inbred mice injected intravenously with 5 x 10(6) cells of Cryptococcus neoformans showed two patterns of survival: sensitive (A/WySn, A.BY, A/J, DBA/2J, NZB/B1NJ, and SWR/J) and resistant [C57BL/10Sn, B10.A, B10.A (2R), B10.S (7R),C57BR/cdJ, C58/J, C3H/HeJ, BALB/c, DBA/1J, and SJL/J]. Relative susceptibility based on survival time was shown to correspond to differences obtained for 50% lethal dose values. Either decreasing the dose of organisms or changing to the intraperitoneal route of inoculation resulted in prolonged survival times, but neither change affected the observed patterns of survival. F1 hybrids between different sensitive strains were also sensitive, whereas F1 hybrids between sensitive and resistant strains were resistant, indicating a dominant mode of inheritance. Sensitivity and resistance were shown to be under single gene control by segregation analysis in F2 progeny produced by inbreeding (B10.A x A/WySn)F1 hybrids and in (F1 x A/WySn) backcross progeny. Blood obtained from parental strains, F1, F2, and backcross hybrids was tested for the presence or absence of hemolytic complement. Mice lacking hemolytic complement activity in their sera are homozygous for the Hc(0) allele at the Hc locus on chromosome 2 and are deficient in the complement component C5. A 1:1 correspondence was found between C5 deficiency and sensitivity to C. neoformans. Resistance was shown to cosegregate with the presence of hemolytic complement in the F2 and the backcross progenies. PMID:7216421

Rhodes, J C; Wicker, L S; Urba, W J

1980-08-01

115

Identification of genetic loci that control mammary tumor susceptibility through the host microenvironment  

PubMed Central

The interplay between host genetics, tumor microenvironment and environmental exposure in cancer susceptibility remains poorly understood. Here we assessed the genetic control of stromal mediation of mammary tumor susceptibility to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) using backcrossed F1 into BALB/c (F1Bx) between cancer susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (SPRET/EiJ) mouse strains. Tumor formation was evaluated after transplantation of non-irradiated Trp53-/- BALB/c mammary gland fragments into cleared fat pads of F1Bx hosts. Genome-wide linkage analysis revealed 2 genetic loci that constitute the baseline susceptibility via host microenvironment. However, once challenged with LDIR, we discovered 13 additional loci that were enriched for genes involved in cytokines, including TGF?1 signaling. Surprisingly, LDIR-treated F1Bx cohort significantly reduced incidence of mammary tumors from Trp53-/- fragments as well as prolonged tumor latency, compared to sham-treated controls. We demonstrated further that plasma levels of specific cytokines were significantly correlated with tumor latency. Using an ex vivo 3-D assay, we confirmed TGF?1 as a strong candidate for reduced mammary invasion in SPRET/EiJ, which could explain resistance of this strain to mammary cancer risk following LDIR. Our results open possible new avenues to understand mechanisms of genes operating via the stroma that affect cancer risk from external environmental exposures. PMID:25747469

Zhang, Pengju; Lo, Alvin; Huang, Yurong; Huang, Ge; Liang, Guozhou; Mott, Joni; Karpen, Gary H.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Snijders, Antoine M.; Mao, Jian-Hua

2015-01-01

116

Malignant transformation in a defined genetic background: proteome changes displayed by 2D-PAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cancer arises from normal cells through the stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations. Cancer development can be studied by direct genetic manipulation within experimental models of tumorigenesis. Thereby, confusion by the genetic heterogeneity of patients can be circumvented. Moreover, identification of the critical changes that convert a pre-malignant cell into a metastatic, therapy resistant tumor cell, however, is one necessary

Stephanie M Pütz; Fotini Vogiatzi; Thorsten Stiewe; Albert Sickmann

2010-01-01

117

Application of a hybrid model of neural networks and genetic algorithms to evaluate landslide susceptibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few decades, the development of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology has provided a method for the evaluation of landslide susceptibility and hazard. Slope units were found to be appropriate for the fundamental morphological elements in landslide susceptibility evaluation. Following the DEM construction in a loess area susceptible to landslides, the direct-reverse DEM technology was employed to generate 216 slope units in the studied area. After a detailed investigation, the landslide inventory was mapped in which 39 landslides, including paleo-landslides, old landslides and recent landslides, were present. Of the 216 slope units, 123 involved landslides. To analyze the mechanism of these landslides, six environmental factors were selected to evaluate landslide occurrence: slope angle, aspect, the height and shape of the slope, distance to river and human activities. These factors were extracted in terms of the slope unit within the ArcGIS software. The spatial analysis demonstrates that most of the landslides are located on convex slopes at an elevation of 100-150 m with slope angles from 135°-225° and 40°-60°. Landslide occurrence was then checked according to these environmental factors using an artificial neural network with back propagation, optimized by genetic algorithms. A dataset of 120 slope units was chosen for training the neural network model, i.e., 80 units with landslide presence and 40 units without landslide presence. The parameters of genetic algorithms and neural networks were then set: population size of 100, crossover probability of 0.65, mutation probability of 0.01, momentum factor of 0.60, learning rate of 0.7, max learning number of 10 000, and target error of 0.000001. After training on the datasets, the susceptibility of landslides was mapped for the land-use plan and hazard mitigation. Comparing the susceptibility map with landslide inventory, it was noted that the prediction accuracy of landslide occurrence is 93.02%, whereas units without landslide occurrence are predicted with an accuracy of 81.13%. To sum up, the verification shows satisfactory agreement with an accuracy of 86.46% between the susceptibility map and the landslide locations. In the landslide susceptibility assessment, ten new slopes were predicted to show potential for failure, which can be confirmed by the engineering geological conditions of these slopes. It was also observed that some disadvantages could be overcome in the application of the neural networks with back propagation, for example, the low convergence rate and local minimum, after the network was optimized using genetic algorithms. To conclude, neural networks with back propagation that are optimized by genetic algorithms are an effective method to predict landslide susceptibility with high accuracy.

Wang, H. B.; Li, J. W.; Zhou, B.; Yuan, Z. Q.; Chen, Y. P.

2013-03-01

118

Lung cell responses to M. tuberculosis in genetically susceptible and resistant mice following intratracheal challenge  

PubMed Central

One approach to study the role of distinct cellular mechanisms in susceptibility/resistance to tuberculosis (TB) is to compare parameters of response to infection in the lungs of mouse strains exhibiting genetically determined differences in TB susceptibility/severity. Interstrain differences in antimycobacterial macrophage reactions, T cell responses & inflammation in the lungs of TB-susceptible I/St, TB-resistant A/Sn and (I/St × A/Sn)F1 mice were analysed following intratracheal inoculation of 103 CFUs of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The antimycobacterial responses in the lungs of susceptible I/St mice were characterized by: (i) increased inflammatory infiltration by all major immune cell subsets; (ii) decreased type 1 cytokine production; (iii) impaired antimycobacterial activity of lung macrophages; (iv) unusually high proliferation of lung T lymphocytes. Differences in several parameters of anti-TB immunity between susceptible and resistant mice corresponded well to the polygenic pattern of TB control previously established in this mouse model. Importantly, lung macrophages isolated from noninfected mice were unable to respond to IFN-? by increasing their mycobactericidal function, but between weeks 3 and 5 of the infection this capacity developed in all mice. However, by this time point susceptible but not resistant mice demonstrated a pronounced decrease in IFN-? production by lung cells. This chain of events may explain the inability of I/St mice to control both early and chronic TB infection. PMID:14678260

ERUSLANOV, E B; MAJOROV, K B; ORLOVA, M O; MISCHENKO, V V; KONDRATIEVA, T K; APT, A S; LYADOVA, I V

2004-01-01

119

Study of the common genetic background for rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence is beginning to emerge that there may be susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that are common to both diseases. Objective To investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms that have been reported to be associated with SLE in a UK cohort of patients with RA and controls. Methods 3962 patients with RA and 9275 controls were included in the study. Eleven SNPs mapping to confirmed SLE loci were investigated. These mapped to the TNFSF4, BANK1, TNIP1, PTTG1, UHRF1BP1, ATG5, JAZF1, BLK, KIAA1542, ITGAM and UBE2L3 loci. Genotype frequencies were compared between patients with RA and controls using the trend test. Results The SNPs mapping to the BLK and UBE2L3 loci showed significant evidence for association with RA. Two other SNPs, mapping to ATG5 and KIAA1542, showed nominal evidence for association with RA (p=0.02 and p=0.02, respectively) but these were not significant after applying a Bonferroni correction. Additionally, a significant global enrichment in carriage of SLE alleles in patients with RA compared with controls (p=9.1×10?7) was found. Meta-analysis of this and previous studies confirmed the association of the BLK and UBE2L3 gene with RA at genome-wide significance levels (p<5×10?8). Together, the authors estimate that the SLE and RA overlapping loci, excluding HLA-DRB1 alleles, identified so far explain ?5.8% of the genetic susceptibility to RA as a whole. Conclusion The findings confirm the association of the BLK and UBE2L3 loci with RA, thus adding to the list of loci showing overlap between RA and SLE. PMID:21068098

Orozco, Gisela; Eyre, Steve; Hinks, Anne; Bowes, John; Morgan, Ann W; Wilson, Anthony G; Wordsworth, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Thomson, Wendy; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne

2011-01-01

120

Fetal Radiation Exposure Induces Testicular Cancer in Genetically Susceptible Mice  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC) into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES), an antiandrogen (flutamide), or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1) congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5–6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis. PMID:22348147

Shetty, Gunapala; Comish, Paul B.; Weng, Connie C. Y.; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L.

2012-01-01

121

Identification of susceptibility genes and genetic modifiers of human diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The completion of the human genome sequence enables the discovery of genes involved in common human disorders. The successful identification of these genes is dependent on the availability of informative sample sets, validated marker panels, a high-throughput scoring technology, and a strategy for combining these resources. We have developed a universal platform technology based on mass spectrometry (MassARRAY) for analyzing nucleic acids with high precision and accuracy. To fuel this technology, we generated more than 100,000 validated assays for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering virtually all known and predicted human genes. We also established a large DNA sample bank comprised of more than 50,000 consented healthy and diseased individuals. This combination of reagents and technology allows the execution of large-scale genome-wide association studies. Taking advantage of MassARRAY"s capability for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids, allele frequencies are estimated in sample pools containing large numbers of individual DNAs. To compare pools as a first-pass "filtering" step is a tremendous advantage in throughput and cost over individual genotyping. We employed this approach in numerous genome-wide, hypothesis-free searches to identify genes associated with common complex diseases, such as breast cancer, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritis, and genes involved in quantitative traits like high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-c) levels and central fat. Access to additional well-characterized patient samples through collaborations allows us to conduct replication studies that validate true disease genes. These discoveries will expand our understanding of genetic disease predisposition, and our ability for early diagnosis and determination of specific disease subtype or progression stage.

Abel, Kenneth; Kammerer, Stefan; Hoyal, Carolyn; Reneland, Rikard; Marnellos, George; Nelson, Matthew R.; Braun, Andreas

2005-03-01

122

SEPTIN12 genetic variants confer susceptibility to teratozoospermia.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 10-15% of couples are infertile and male factors account for about half of these cases. With the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), many infertile men have been able to father offspring. However, teratozoospermia still remains a big challenge to tackle. Septins belong to a family of cytoskeletal proteins with GTPase activity and are involved in various biological processes e.g. morphogenesis, compartmentalization, apoptosis and cytokinesis. SEPTIN12, identified by c-DNA microarray analysis of infertile men, is exclusively expressed in the post meiotic male germ cells. Septin12(+/+)/Septin12(+/-) chimeric mice have multiple reproductive defects including the presence of immature sperm in the semen, and sperm with bent neck (defect of the annulus) and nuclear DNA damage. These facts make SEPTIN12 a potential sterile gene in humans. In this study, we sequenced the entire coding region of SEPTIN12 in infertile men (n?=?160) and fertile controls (n?=?200) and identified ten variants. Among them is the c.474 G>A variant within exon 5 that encodes part of the GTP binding domain. The variant creates a novel splice donor site that causes skipping of a portion of exon 5, resulting in a truncated protein lacking the C-terminal half of SEPTIN12. Most individuals homozygous for the c.474 A allele had teratozoospermia (abnormal sperm <14%) and their sperm showed bent tail and de-condensed nucleus with significant DNA damage. Ex vivo experiment showed truncated SEPT12 inhibits filament formation in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides the first causal link between SEPTIN12 genetic variant and male infertility with distinctive sperm pathology. Our finding also suggests vital roles of SEPT12 in sperm nuclear integrity and tail development. PMID:22479503

Lin, Ying-Hung; Wang, Ya-Yun; Chen, Hau-Inh; Kuo, Yung-Che; Chiou, Yu-Wei; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Wu, Ching-Ming; Hsu, Chao-Chin; Chiang, Han-Sun; Kuo, Pao-Lin

2012-01-01

123

SEPTIN12 Genetic Variants Confer Susceptibility to Teratozoospermia  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that 10–15% of couples are infertile and male factors account for about half of these cases. With the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), many infertile men have been able to father offspring. However, teratozoospermia still remains a big challenge to tackle. Septins belong to a family of cytoskeletal proteins with GTPase activity and are involved in various biological processes e.g. morphogenesis, compartmentalization, apoptosis and cytokinesis. SEPTIN12, identified by c-DNA microarray analysis of infertile men, is exclusively expressed in the post meiotic male germ cells. Septin12+/+/Septin12+/? chimeric mice have multiple reproductive defects including the presence of immature sperm in the semen, and sperm with bent neck (defect of the annulus) and nuclear DNA damage. These facts make SEPTIN12 a potential sterile gene in humans. In this study, we sequenced the entire coding region of SEPTIN12 in infertile men (n?=?160) and fertile controls (n?=?200) and identified ten variants. Among them is the c.474 G>A variant within exon 5 that encodes part of the GTP binding domain. The variant creates a novel splice donor site that causes skipping of a portion of exon 5, resulting in a truncated protein lacking the C-terminal half of SEPTIN12. Most individuals homozygous for the c.474 A allele had teratozoospermia (abnormal sperm <14%) and their sperm showed bent tail and de-condensed nucleus with significant DNA damage. Ex vivo experiment showed truncated SEPT12 inhibits filament formation in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides the first causal link between SEPTIN12 genetic variant and male infertility with distinctive sperm pathology. Our finding also suggests vital roles of SEPT12 in sperm nuclear integrity and tail development. PMID:22479503

Lin, Ying-Hung; Wang, Ya-Yun; Chen, Hau-Inh; Kuo, Yung-Che; Chiou, Yu-Wei; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Wu, Ching-Ming; Hsu, Chao-Chin; Chiang, Han-Sun; Kuo, Pao-Lin

2012-01-01

124

Host Genetics of Bordetella pertussis Infection in Mice: Significance of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Genetic Susceptibility and Pathobiology  

PubMed Central

The susceptibility to and the severity of Bordetella pertussis infections in infants and children varies widely, suggesting that genetic differences between individuals influence the course of infection. We have previously identified three novel loci that influence the severity of whooping cough by using recombinant congenic strains of mice: Bordetella pertussis susceptibility loci 1, 2, and 3 (Bps1, -2, and -3). Because these loci could not account for all genetic differences between mice, we extended our search for additional susceptibility loci. We therefore screened 11 inbred strains of mice for susceptibility to a pertussis infection after intranasal infection. Susceptibility was defined by the number of bacteria in the lungs, being indicative of the effect between the clearance and replication of bacteria. The most resistant (A/J) and the most susceptible (C3H/HeJ) strains were selected for further genetic and phenotypic characterization. The link between bacterial clearance and chromosomal location was investigated with 300 F2 mice, generated by crossing A/J and C3H/HeJ mice. We found a link between the delayed clearance of bacteria from the lung and a large part of chromosome 4 in F2 mice with a maximum log of the odds score of 33.6 at 65.4 Mb, which is the location of Tlr4. C3H/HeJ mice carry a functional mutation in the intracellular domain of Tlr4. This locus accounted for all detectable genetic differences between these strains. Compared to A/J mice, C3H/HeJ mice showed a delayed clearance of bacteria from the lung, a higher relative lung weight, and increased body weight loss. Splenocytes from infected C3H/HeJ mice produced almost no interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) upon ex vivo restimulation with B. pertussis compared to A/J mice and also showed a delayed gamma interferon (IFN-?) production. TNF-? expression in the lungs 3 days after infection was increased fivefold compared to uninfected controls in A/J mice and was not affected in C3H/HeJ mice. In conclusion, Tlr4 is a major host factor explaining the differences in the course of infection between these inbred strains of mice. Functional Tlr4 is essential for an efficient IL-1-?, TNF-?, and IFN-? response; efficient clearance of bacteria from the lung; and reduced lung pathology. PMID:16622195

Banus, H. A.; Vandebriel, R. J.; de Ruiter, H.; Dormans, J. A. M. A.; Nagelkerke, N. J.; Mooi, F. R.; Hoebee, B.; van Kranen, H. J.; Kimman, T. G.

2006-01-01

125

Complex genetic susceptibility to vascular dementia and an evidence for its underlying genetic factors associated with memory and associative learning.  

PubMed

Genetic basis for vascular dementia (VD) as a typical complex disease has been limitedly reported from association studies conducted with candidate genes. Even recent genomewide association studies (GWAS) could hardly identify additional genetic factors for VD. Although a considerable complexity for its genetic architecture was suspected, there were some challenges to identify false negative associations that resulted from the GWAS. Challenges to identifying genetic factors and their functions after the trials of GWAS revealed that splicing of primary transcript was inhibited (SYK) or delayed (PHLDB2) by a nucleotide substitution of the corresponding gene. The studies gave us the lesson that integrated investigations with statistical genomics as well as functional genomics are needed to identify false negatives from the GWAS. Such endeavors would provide key insights into aspects of underlying nucleotide architectures of VD and incorporate the genetic factors into clinical practice. The recent genetic association studies for susceptibility to VD were briefly overviewed in this article. We also showed a challenge to understanding genetic dissection of VD by a genomic region enrichment analysis with distal cis-regulatory sequences. The analysis with a variant set of potential false negatives from the GWAS revealed that the variants were significantly enriched near genes involved in critical biological processes to VD. PMID:23262336

Lee, Chaeyoung; Kim, Younyoung

2013-03-01

126

Genetic Difference in Susceptibility to the Blood-Retina Barrier Breakdown in Diabetes and Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

The breakdown of the blood-retina barrier (BRB) is a common feature of diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether there are genetic differences in susceptibility to the breakdown of the BRB in diabetic retinopathy using two rat models. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, Brown Norway (BN) rats developed sustained vascular hyperpermeability in the retina during the entire experimental period (16 weeks of diabetes), while diabetic Sprague Dawley (SD) rats only showed retinal hyperpermeability from 3 to 10 days after the onset of diabetes. The strain difference in permeability was not correlated with the blood glucose levels in these two strains. In oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), BN rats developed retinal vascular hyperpermeability from postnatal day 12 (P12) to P22 with a peak at P16, which was 8.7-fold higher than that in the age-matched normal controls. In OIR-SD rats, however, hyperpermeability was observed from P14 to P18, with a peak only 2.2-fold higher than that in the controls. The strain difference in vascular hyperpermeability was correlated with the different overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the retina of these two models. This finding suggests that genetic backgrounds contribute to the susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy. PMID:15632023

Zhang, Sarah X.; Ma, Jian-xing; Sima, Jing; Chen, Ying; Hu, Mark S.; Ottlecz, Anna; Lambrou, George N.

2005-01-01

127

A candidate gene approach for the genetic analysis of susceptibility to tuberculosis  

SciTech Connect

Tuberculosis is the most frequent and severe human disease caused by mycobacteria. In the mouse a candidate gene for innate resistance to mycobacteria (Bcg) was recently isolated and termed Nramp. We used SSCA and DNA sequencing to identify mutations in the human homologue, NRAMP, in chromosome region 2q35 in order to test if NRAMP contributes to susceptibility to tuberculosis. We have identified 16 sequence variants in or near NRAMP and defined haplotypes segregating in multiplex tuberculosis families from Canada, Columbia and Hong Kong. We defined a recessive susceptibility model for linkage analysis with four liability classes which take into account clinical status, age, exposure, and BCG vaccination. Our preliminary results support a role of NRAMP in tuberculosis susceptibility in an epidemic situation. This research was supported by grants from the Medical Research Council of Canada and the Canadian Genetic Diseases Network.

Morgan, K.; Liu, J.; Boothroyd, L. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)] [and others

1994-09-01

128

Metabolomics of Apc Min/+ mice genetically susceptible to intestinal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background To determine how diets high in saturated fat could increase polyp formation in the mouse model of intestinal neoplasia, Apc Min/+ , we conducted large-scale metabolome analysis and association study of colon and small intestine polyp formation from plasma and liver samples of Apc Min/+ vs. wild-type littermates, kept on low vs. high-fat diet. Label-free mass spectrometry was used to quantify untargeted plasma and acyl-CoA liver compounds, respectively. Differences in contrasts of interest were analyzed statistically by unsupervised and supervised modeling approaches, namely Principal Component Analysis and Linear Model of analysis of variance. Correlation between plasma metabolite concentrations and polyp numbers was analyzed with a zero-inflated Generalized Linear Model. Results Plasma metabolome in parallel to promotion of tumor development comprises a clearly distinct profile in Apc Min/+ mice vs. wild type littermates, which is further altered by high-fat diet. Further, functional metabolomics pathway and network analyses in Apc Min/+ mice on high-fat diet revealed associations between polyp formation and plasma metabolic compounds including those involved in amino-acids metabolism as well as nicotinamide and hippuric acid metabolic pathways. Finally, we also show changes in liver acyl-CoA profiles, which may result from a combination of Apc Min/+ -mediated tumor progression and high fat diet. The biological significance of these findings is discussed in the context of intestinal cancer progression. Conclusions These studies show that high-throughput metabolomics combined with appropriate statistical modeling and large scale functional approaches can be used to monitor and infer changes and interactions in the metabolome and genome of the host under controlled experimental conditions. Further these studies demonstrate the impact of diet on metabolic pathways and its relation to intestinal cancer progression. Based on our results, metabolic signatures and metabolic pathways of polyposis and intestinal carcinoma have been identified, which may serve as useful targets for the development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:24954394

2014-01-01

129

Genetic analysis of hypoxia tolerance and susceptibility in Drosophila and humans.  

PubMed

Oxygen is essential for metazoans' life on earth. Oxygen deprivation, or hypoxia, contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of many human diseases. A better understanding of the fundamental molecular and genetic basis for adaptation to low-oxygen environments will help us develop therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat diseases that have hypoxia as a major part of their pathogenesis. Different cells and organisms have evolved different ways to cope with this life-threatening challenge, and the molecular and genetic mechanisms remain largely unknown. The current revolution of genomic technology has advanced our understanding of the genetic basis of many diseases and conditions, including hypoxia tolerance and susceptibility. In this review, we highlight the progress made in understanding the molecular responses to hypoxia in an animal model organism (Drosophila melanogaster) and genetic adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia in humans. PMID:23808366

Zhou, Dan; Haddad, Gabriel G

2013-01-01

130

Genetic Testing for TMEM154 Mutations Associated with Lentivirus Susceptibility in Sheep  

PubMed Central

In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV) elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal’s health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E) at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V) and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T) of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes). The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks. PMID:23408992

Petrik, Dustin T.; Simpson, Barry; Kijas, James W.; Clawson, Michael L.; Chitko-McKown, Carol G.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Leymaster, Kreg A.

2013-01-01

131

Genetic variants associated with susceptibility of Ashkenazi Jews to West Nile virus infection.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The epidemiology of West Nile virus (WNV) in Israel is different from other neighbouring countries in the Middle East where disease burden has been minimal. We analysed a cohort of Ashkenazi Jewish patients with symptomatic WNV infection (n = 39), and WNV-negative controls (n = 61), for nine genetic variants that has been suggested to be associated with susceptibility to WNV. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly more frequent in WNV-infected than non-infected individuals, rs7280422 (MX1) [odds ratio (OR) 4·05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·04-8·03, P < 0·001] and rs3213545 (OASL) (OR 1·85, 95% CI 1·03-3·3, P = 0·03). Genetic polymorphism may play a significant role in susceptibility to WNV infection in Ashkenazi Jews. PMID:24865988

Danial-Farran, N; Eghbaria, S; Schwartz, N; Kra-Oz, Z; Bisharat, N

2015-03-01

132

Validation of six genetic determinants of susceptibility to estrogen-induced mammary cancer in the rat and assessment of their relevance to breast cancer risk in humans.  

PubMed

When treated with 17?-estradiol, female ACI rats (Rattus norvegicus) rapidly develop mammary cancers that share multiple phenotypes with luminal breast cancers. Seven distinct quantitative trait loci that harbor genetic determinants of susceptibility to 17?-estradiol-induced mammary cancer have been mapped in reciprocal intercrosses between susceptible ACI rats and resistant Brown Norway (BN) rats. A panel of unique congenic rat strains has now been generated and characterized to confirm the existence of these quantitative trait loci, designated Emca3 through Emca9, and to quantify their individual effects on susceptibility to 17?-estradiol-induced mammary cancer. Each congenic strain carries BN alleles spanning an individual Emca locus, introgressed onto the ACI genetic background. Data presented herein indicate that BN alleles at Emca3, Emca4, Emca5, Emca6, and Emca9 reduce susceptibility to 17?-estradiol-induced mammary cancer, whereas BN alleles at Emca7 increase susceptibility, thereby confirming the previous interval mapping data. All of these Emca loci are orthologous to regions of the human genome that have been demonstrated in genome-wide association studies to harbor genetic variants that influence breast cancer risk. Moreover, four of the Emca loci are orthologous to loci in humans that have been associated with mammographic breast density, a biomarker of breast cancer risk. This study further establishes the relevance of the ACI and derived congenic rat models of 17?-estradiol-induced mammary cancer for defining the genetic bases of breast cancer susceptibility and elucidating the mechanisms through which 17?-estradiol contributes to breast cancer development. PMID:24875630

Colletti, John A; Leland-Wavrin, Kristin M; Kurz, Scott G; Hickman, Maureen Peters; Seiler, Nicole L; Samanas, Nyssa Becker; Eckert, Quincy A; Dennison, Kirsten L; Ding, Lina; Schaffer, Beverly S; Shull, James D

2014-08-01

133

Genetic interactions among cortical malformation genes that influence susceptibility to convulsions in C. elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epilepsy is estimated to affect 1–2% of the world population, yet remains poorly understood at a molecular level. We have previously established the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for investigating genetic susceptibilities to seizure-like convulsions in vivo. Here we investigate the behavioral consequences of decreasing the activity of nematode gene homologs within the LIS1 pathway that are associated with

Cody J. Locke; Shelli N. Williams; Erich M. Schwarz; Guy A. Caldwell; Kim A. Caldwell

2006-01-01

134

EXPERIMENTAL INDUCTION OF CHRONIC PULMONARY DISEASE IN GENETICALLY SUSCEPTIBLE RAT MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental induction of chronic pulmonary disease in genetically susceptible rat model. M.C.Schladweiler, BS 1, A.D.Ledbetter 1, K.E.Pinkerton, PhD 2, K.R.Smith, PhD 2, P.S.Gilmour, PhD 1, P.A.Evansky 1, D.L.Costa, ScD 1, W.P.Watkinson, PhD 1, J.P.Nolan 1 and U.P.Kodava...

135

A CD14 monocyte receptor polymorphism and genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease for females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that inflammation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Because the C(?260)?T polymorphism in the promoter of the CD14 monocyte receptor gene (pCD14) could affect the predisposition to the inflammatory response, we conducted a case-control study to investigate a possible genetic susceptibility of the pCD14 polymorphism in patients with PD. This study

J. J. Lin; C. H. Chen; K. C. Yueh; C. Y. Chang; S. Z. Lin

2006-01-01

136

CTLA4 Variants and Haplotype Contribute Genetic Susceptibility to Myasthenia Gravis in Northern Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4), a critical negative regulator of the T-cell response, has been considered a candidate for many autoimmune diseases. Evidence from Caucasians supported a genetic predisposition of CTLA4 to myasthenia gravis (MG), but the contribution in East Asians has not been established. Objectives To investigate the role of CTLA4 variants in the susceptibility to MG and the contribution to subtypes of MG. Methods Six autoimmune disease-related risk alleles of CTLA4 (rs1863800, rs733618, rs4553808, rs5742909, rs231775, and rs3087243) were investigated for MG in northern Chinese. 168 patients with MG (mean age 37.1±20.5 years, 64 men and 104 women) and 233 healthy controls (mean age 53.3±8.7 years, 96 men and 137 women) were screened, and the contribution of CTLA4 to the general risk of MG and each subgroup was explored. Results rs1863800*C, rs733618*C, and rs231775*G were significantly associated with the whole cohort of patients with MG after permutation correction for multiple-testing adjustment (P?=?0.027, 0.001, and 0.032, respectively). A risk haplotype (CCACG) [odds ratio (OR)?=?1.535, range?=?1.150–2.059, P?=?0.004)] was also identified. The stratified subtype analysis indicated that the positive contribution was possibly derived from early onset MG (EOMG), seropositive MG (SPMG), female patients, and MG without thymoma. No association was observed in juvenile MG/LOMG, and MG coupled with thymoma. Conclusion A predisposing effect of rs1863800*C, rs733618*C, and rs231775*G of CTLA4 gene to general risk of MG in Chinese was demonstrated for the first time, which was likely derived from EOMG, SPMG, MG without thymoma and the female patients. PMID:25003519

Xie, Yanchen; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Bin; Li, Wei; Li, Yao; Yang, Ze

2014-01-01

137

Molecular epidemiology of genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer: focus on single nucleotide polymorphisms in gastric carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is a disease of gene-environment interactions, as suggested by the varying geographic patterns of its incidence. Even in areas with high rates of Helicobacter pylori infection, only a small proportion of infected individuals develop gastric cancer. Genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer can be investigated by common genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in various genes that regulate multiple biological pathways. The susceptibility to gastric carcinogenesis has a substantial influence on the population attributable risk by modulating the effects of environmental risk factors. Despite recent progress in the field of the molecular epidemiology of cancer, a re-evaluation of gastric cancer susceptibility and potentially functional SNPs in candidate genes is necessary, given the inconsistency of previous reported studies. This review focuses on genetic variants that contribute to the etiology of gastric cancer, particularly those SNPs involved in inflammatory response, metabolism of chemical carcinogens, DNA repair, and tumor suppression. In the future, well-designed large multicenter population-based studies will be needed to validate current findings and provide the rationale for identifying at-risk subpopulations for primary prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:19966937

Yin, Ming; Hu, Zhibin; Tan, Dongfeng; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Wei, Qingyi

2009-01-01

138

Expression quantitative trait analyses to identify causal genetic variants for type 2 diabetes susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a common metabolic disorder which is caused by multiple genetic perturbations affecting different biological pathways. Identifying genetic factors modulating the susceptibility of this complex heterogeneous metabolic phenotype in different ethnic and racial groups remains challenging. Despite recent success, the functional role of the T2D susceptibility variants implicated by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) remains largely unknown. Genetic dissection of transcript abundance or expression quantitative trait (eQTL) analysis unravels the genomic architecture of regulatory variants. Availability of eQTL information from tissues relevant for glucose homeostasis in humans opens a new avenue to prioritize GWAS-implicated variants that may be involved in triggering a causal chain of events leading to T2D. In this article, we review the progress made in the field of eQTL research and knowledge gained from those studies in understanding transcription regulatory mechanisms in human subjects. We highlight several novel approaches that can integrate eQTL analysis with multiple layers of biological information to identify ethnic-specific causal variants and gene-environment interactions relevant to T2D pathogenesis. Finally, we discuss how the eQTL analysis mediated search for “missing heritability” may lead us to novel biological and molecular mechanisms involved in susceptibility to T2D. PMID:24748924

Das, Swapan Kumar; Sharma, Neeraj Kumar

2014-01-01

139

Genetic Background Specific Hypoxia Resistance in Rat is Correlated with Balanced Activation of a Cross-Chromosomal Genetic Network Centering on Physiological Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Genetic background of an individual can drastically influence an organism’s response upon environmental stress and pathological stimulus. Previous studies in inbred rats showed that compared to Brown Norway (BN), Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat exerts strong hypoxia susceptibility. However, despite extensive narrow-down approaches via the chromosome substitution methodology, this genome-based physiological predisposition could not be traced back to distinct quantitative trait loci. Upon the completion and public data availability of PhysGen SS-BN consomic (CS) rat platform, I employed systems biology approach attempting to further our understanding of the molecular basis of genetic background effect in light of hypoxia response. I analyzed the physiological screening data of 22 CS rat strains under normoxia and 2-weeks of hypoxia, and cross-compared them to the parental strains. The analyses showed that SS-9BN and SS-18BN represent the most hypoxia-resistant CS strains with phenotype similar to BN, whereas SS-6BN and SS-YBN segregated to the direction of SS. A meta-analysis on the transcriptomic profiles of these CS rat strains under hypoxia treatment showed that although polymorphisms on the substituted BN chromosomes could be directly involved in hypoxia resistance, this seems to be embedded in a more complex trans-chromosomal genetic regulatory network. Via information theory based modeling approach, this hypoxia relevant core genetic network was reverse engineered. Network analyses showed that the protective effects of BN chromosome 9 and 18 were reflected by a balanced activation of this core network centering on physiological homeostasis. Presumably, it is the system robustness constituted on such differential network activation that acts as hypoxia response modifier. Understanding of the intrinsic link between the individual genetic background and the network robustness will set a basis in the current scientific efforts toward personalized medicine. PMID:23087704

Mao, Lei

2012-01-01

140

The Impact of Genetic Susceptibility to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus on Placental Malaria in Mice  

PubMed Central

Severe malaria, including cerebral malaria (CM) and placental malaria (PM), have been recognized to have many of the features of uncontrolled inflammation. We recently showed that in mice genetic susceptibility to the lethal inflammatory autoimmune disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), conferred resistance to CM. Protection appeared to be mediated by immune mechanisms that allowed SLE-prone mice, prior to the onset of overt SLE symptoms, to better control their inflammatory response to Plasmodium infection. Here we extend these findings to ask does SLE susceptibility have 1) a cost to reproductive fitness and/or 2) an effect on PM in mice? The rates of conception for WT and SLE susceptible (SLEs) mice were similar as were the number and viability of fetuses in pregnant WT and SLEs mice indicating that SLE susceptibility does not have a reproductive cost. We found that Plasmodium chabaudi AS (Pc) infection disrupted early stages of pregnancy before the placenta was completely formed resulting in massive decidual necrosis 8 days after conception. Pc-infected pregnant SLEs mice had significantly more fetuses (?1.8 fold) but SLE did not significantly affect fetal viability in infected animals. This was despite the fact that Pc-infected pregnant SLEs mice had more severe symptoms of malaria as compared to Pc-infected pregnant WT mice. Thus, although SLE susceptibility was not protective in PM in mice it also did not have a negative impact on reproductive fitness. PMID:23675429

Waisberg, Michael; Lin, Christina K.; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Pena, Mirna; Orandle, Marlene; Bolland, Silvia; Pierce, Susan K.

2013-01-01

141

Cellular basis of the genetic susceptibility of murine experimental allergic encephalomyelitis  

SciTech Connect

Murine experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an induced autoimmune disease that resembles human multiple sclerosis. The authors have investigated the cellular basis of the genetic predisposition and resistance of inbred strains of mice to EAE using an adoptive transfer system between two H-2 compatible, Thy 1 antigen disparate strains of mice. Genetically EAE susceptible SJL/J strain mice (H-2/sup s/, Thy 1.2) and resistant B10.S Thy 1.1 (H-2/sub s/, Thy 1.1) strain mice were lethally irradiated (700R) and reconstituted with 5-10 x 10/sup 6/ bone marrow cells from either SJL/J or congenic B10.S (Thy 1.1 or Thy 1.2) donors. After 30-45 days, more than 95% of the thymocytes and 75% of the peripheral T cells in the chimeras were of donor origin. These lymphohemopoietic chimeras were then sensitized in their hind footpads with porcine myelin basic protein in complete Freund's adjuvant containing M. tuberculosis H/sub 37/RA, followed at 24 and 72 hours by i.v. injection of B. pertussis. Clinical signs of EAE developed in unirradiated SJL/J, but not B10.S, controls, and in irradiated B10.S and SJL/J recipients of SJL/J, but not B10.S, bone marrow. These results indicate that bone marrow cells can transfer the predisposition to EAE from genetically susceptible to genetically resistant mouse strains. The cellular component in the bone marrow that is responsible for the transfer of the genetic susceptibility to EAE is under investigation.

Binder, T.A.; Greiner, D.L.; Goldschneider, I.

1986-03-01

142

CHEMICALLY AND GENETICALLY IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MICE ARE NOT MORE SUSCEPTIBLE THAN IMMUNOCOMPETENT MICE TO INFECTION WITH CRYPTOSPORIDIUM MURIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The prevailing paradigm is that immunosuppressed individuals are more susceptible to infection and are at higher risk of infection from Cryptosporidium oocysts if present in drinking water. To test this hypothesis, three immune conditions were examined: genetically immunocomprom...

143

Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67:11541162, 2000 A Second-Generation Genomewide Screen for Asthma-Susceptibility  

E-print Network

Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67:1154­1162, 2000 1154 A Second-Generation Genomewide Screen for Asthma of South Dakota Medical School, Sioux Falls A genomewide screen for asthma- and atopy-susceptibility loci on asthma and atopy phenotypes in diverse populations. Introduction The identification of susceptibility

Cox, Nancy J.

144

Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74:160167, 2004 Mapping Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility to the HLA-DR Locus in African  

E-print Network

Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74:160­167, 2004 160 Report Mapping Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility to the HLA, CA; 3 Multiple Sclerosis Center, Department of Neurology, Wayne State University School of Medicine susceptibility exists in multiple sclerosis (MS), and an association with the HLA- DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype

Reich, David

145

Targeted Disruption of Mouse EGF Receptor: Effect of Genetic Background on Mutant Phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene targeting was used to create a null allele at the epidermal growth factor receptor locus (Egfr). The phenotype was dependent on genetic background. EGFR deficiency on a CF-1 background resulted in peri-implantation death due to degeneration of the inner cell mass. On a 129\\/Sv background, homozygous mutants died at mid-gestation due to placental defects; on a CD-1 background, the

David W. Threadgill; Andrzej A. Dlugosz; Laura A. Hansen; Tamar Tennenbaum; Ulrike Lichti; Della Yee; Christian Lamantia; Tracy Mourton; Karl Herrup; Raymond C. Harris; John A. Barnard; Stuart H. Yuspa; Robert J. Coffey; Terry Magnuson

1995-01-01

146

Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.25, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles) and borderline significant for rs698 and rs2102302. The rs3803185 variant was not significantly associated with CRC risk in an external cohort (MCC-Spain), but it still showed some borderline significance in the pooled analysis of both cohorts (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.98-1.18, P-value = 0.09, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles). Conclusions ARL11, ADH1C, GALNTL2 and IL6 genetic variants may have an effect on CRC risk. Further validation and meta-analyses should be undertaken in larger CRC studies. PMID:21819567

2011-01-01

147

Interstitial lung disease in children – genetic background and associated phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Interstitial lung disease in children represents a group of rare chronic respiratory disorders. There is growing evidence that mutations in the surfactant protein C gene play a role in the pathogenesis of certain forms of pediatric interstitial lung disease. Recently, mutations in the ABCA3 transporter were found as an underlying cause of fatal respiratory failure in neonates without surfactant protein B deficiency. Especially in familiar cases or in children of consanguineous parents, genetic diagnosis provides an useful tool to identify the underlying etiology of interstitial lung disease. The aim of this review is to summarize and to describe in detail the clinical features of hereditary interstitial lung disease in children. The knowledge of gene variants and associated phenotypes is crucial to identify relevant patients in clinical practice. PMID:15819986

Hartl, Dominik; Griese, Matthias

2005-01-01

148

The genetic basis of aminoglycoside ototoxicity: The search for susceptibility genes  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility to aminoglycoside ototoxicity appears to be genetically determined. Recently we identified a mutation in the small ribosomal RNA gene of the mitochondrial DNA that can cause deafness after aminoglycoside treatment in families with maternally-inherited susceptibility to the ototoxic effect of these antibiotics. The mutation produces a structural change in the 12S rRNA, which allows increased binding of aminoglycosides, mistranslation of mitochondrial proteins, decreased energy production, and cell death. Because only a minority of sporadic patients have mutations in the 12S rRNA gene, we anticipate the involvement of other genes in ototoxic deafness. We have developed a model system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to functionally identify genes whose products interact with aminoglycosides. Besides its small genome size and well-developed genetic tools, a unique advantage of using this haploid organism is that recessive drug-responsive mutations will not be missed. An additional advantage is that yeast can be grown in either fermentative or respiratory media, allowing the functional categorization of mutants. Over 100 antibiotic-resistant mutants have now been isolated. The majority of these mutations (69%) are dominant and are being sorted by segregation tests. The 31% of mutations that are recessive have been sorted into two major complementation groups, indicating that two genes appear to be responsible for most of the recessive cases. Our strategy is to isolate the yeast genes that most commonly acquire mutations, clone the human homologs, and screen patients for susceptibility mutations.

Prezant, T.R.; Fischel-Ghodsian, F. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1994-09-01

149

Identification of Genetic Susceptibility to Childhood Cancer through Analysis of Genes in Parallel  

PubMed Central

Clinical cancer genetic susceptibility analysis typically proceeds sequentially beginning with the most likely causative gene. The process is time consuming and the yield is low particularly for families with unusual patterns of cancer. We determined the results of in parallel mutation analysis of a large cancer-associated gene panel. We performed deletion analysis and sequenced the coding regions of 45 genes (8 oncogenes and 37 tumor suppressor or DNA repair genes) in 48 childhood cancer patients who also (1) were diagnosed with a second malignancy under age 30, (2) have a sibling diagnosed with cancer under age 30 and/or (3) have a major congenital anomaly or developmental delay. Deleterious mutations were identified in 6 of 48 (13%) families, 4 of which met the sibling criteria. Mutations were identified in genes previously implicated in both dominant and recessive childhood syndromes including SMARCB1, PMS2, and TP53. No pathogenic deletions were identified. This approach has provided efficient identification of childhood cancer susceptibility mutations and will have greater utility as additional cancer susceptibility genes are identified. Integrating parallel analysis of large gene panels into clinical testing will speed results and increase diagnostic yield. The failure to detect mutations in 87% of families highlights that a number of childhood cancer susceptibility genes remain to be discovered. PMID:21356188

Plon, Sharon E.; Wheeler, David A.; Strong, Louise C.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Pirics, Michael; Meng, Qingchang; Cheung, Hannah C.; Begin, Phyllis R.; Muzny, Donna M.; Lewis, Lora; Biegel, Jaclyn A.; Gibbs, Richard A.

2011-01-01

150

Causes and Consequences of Genetic Background Effects Illuminated by Integrative Genomic Analysis  

PubMed Central

The phenotypic consequences of individual mutations are modulated by the wild-type genetic background in which they occur. Although such background dependence is widely observed, we do not know whether general patterns across species and traits exist or about the mechanisms underlying it. We also lack knowledge on how mutations interact with genetic background to influence gene expression and how this in turn mediates mutant phenotypes. Furthermore, how genetic background influences patterns of epistasis remains unclear. To investigate the genetic basis and genomic consequences of genetic background dependence of the scallopedE3 allele on the Drosophila melanogaster wing, we generated multiple novel genome-level datasets from a mapping-by-introgression experiment and a tagged RNA gene expression dataset. In addition we used whole genome resequencing of the parental lines—two commonly used laboratory strains—to predict polymorphic transcription factor binding sites for SD. We integrated these data with previously published genomic datasets from expression microarrays and a modifier mutation screen. By searching for genes showing a congruent signal across multiple datasets, we were able to identify a robust set of candidate loci contributing to the background-dependent effects of mutations in sd. We also show that the majority of background-dependent modifiers previously reported are caused by higher-order epistasis, not quantitative noncomplementation. These findings provide a useful foundation for more detailed investigations of genetic background dependence in this system, and this approach is likely to prove useful in exploring the genetic basis of other traits as well. PMID:24504186

Chandler, Christopher H.; Chari, Sudarshan; Dworkin, Ian

2014-01-01

151

Relative susceptibilities of male germ cells to genetic defects induced by cancer chemotherapies  

SciTech Connect

Some chemotherapy regimens include agents that are mutagenic or clastogenic in model systems. This raises concerns that cancer survivors, who were treated before or during their reproductive years, may be at increased risks for abnormal reproductive outcomes. However, the available data from offspring of cancer survivors are limited, representing diverse cancers, therapies, time-to-pregnancies, and reproductive outcomes. Rodent breeding data after paternal exposures to individual chemotherapeutic agents illustrate the complexity of factors that influence the risk for transmitted genetic damage including agent, dose, endpoint, and the germ-cell susceptibility profiles that vary across agents. Direct measurements of chromosomal abnormalities in sperm of mice and humans by sperm FISH have corroborated the differences in germ-cell susceptibilities. The available evidence suggests that the risk of producing chromosomally defective sperm is highest during the first few weeks after the end of chemotherapy, and decays with time. Thus, sperm samples provided immediately after the initiation of cancer therapies may contain treatment-induced genetic defects that will jeopardize the genetic health of offspring.

Wyrobek, A J; Schmid, T E; Marchetti, F

2004-06-15

152

Genetic variation associates with susceptibility for cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia in mice.  

PubMed

Neutrophilic airway inflammation is one of the major hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is also seen in steroid resistant asthma. Neutrophilic airway inflammation can be induced by different stimuli including cigarette smoke (CS). Short-term exposure to CS induces neutrophilic airway inflammation in both mice and humans. Since not all individuals develop extensive neutrophilic airway inflammation upon smoking, we hypothesized that this CS-induced innate inflammation has a genetic component. This hypothesis was addressed by exposing 30 different inbred mouse strains to CS or control air for 5 consecutive days, followed by analysis of neutrophilic lung inflammation. By genomewide haplotype association mapping, we identified four susceptibility genes with a significant association to lung tissue levels of the neutrophil marker myeloperoxidase under basal conditions and an additional five genes specifically associated with CS-induced tissue MPO levels. Analysis of the expression levels of the susceptibility genes by quantitative RT-PCR revealed that three of the four genes associated with CS-induced tissue MPO levels had CS-induced changes in gene expression levels that correlate with CS-induced airway inflammation. Most notably, CS exposure induces an increased expression of the coiled-coil domain containing gene, Ccdc93, in mouse strains susceptible for CS-induced airway inflammation whereas Ccdc93 expression was decreased upon CS exposure in nonsusceptible mouse strains. In conclusion, this study shows that CS-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation has a genetic component and that several genes contribute to the susceptibility for this response. PMID:25637605

Pouwels, Simon D; Heijink, Irene H; Brouwer, Uilke; Gras, Renee; den Boef, Lisette E; Boezen, H Marike; Korstanje, Ron; van Oosterhout, Antoon J M; Nawijn, Martijn C

2015-04-01

153

AN INVESTIGATION OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS BETWEEN TWO GENETICALLY DIVERSE COMMERCIAL LINES OF PIGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine if host genetics plays a role in susceptibility to the respiratory disease in growing pigs caused by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Based on a previous study, two genetically diverse commercial lines of pigs that were als...

154

The impact of familial environment on depression scores after genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.  

PubMed

The associations between characteristics of family relationships and family trends in cancer worry and the psychological adjustment of recipients of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility were investigated. Data provided by 178 individuals from 24 families with Lynch syndrome who participated in a cohort study investigating psychological and behavioral outcomes of genetic testing were used. Responses from multiple family members were aggregated to construct family trends representing norms and departure from norms in cancer worry. Lower perceived family cohesion at baseline and decrease in this variable at 6 months after receipt of test results were associated with higher depression scores at 12 months. More variability in cancer worry among family members at baseline was also associated with higher depression scores at 12 months. Increase in family conflict was associated with decrease in depression scores among individuals from families with higher levels of cancer worry on average and less variability among the members. Family relationships and family trends in levels of cancer worry may play important roles in the psychological adjustment of genetic test recipients. The findings highlight the complexity of familial environment surrounding individuals that undergo genetic testing and suggest the benefits of considering these factors when providing genetic services. PMID:19021640

Ashida, S; Hadley, D W; Vaughn, B K; Kuhn, N R; Jenkins, J F; Koehly, L M

2009-01-01

155

miR-124 rs531564 polymorphism influences genetic susceptibility to cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. It most frequently results from human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; however, recent evidence suggests that there may be underlying genetic factors, specifically in regions encoding microRNAs, dictating susceptibility to cervical cancer. This study investigated the relationship between the miR-124 rs531564 gene polymorphism and genetic susceptibility to cervical cancer in Chinese Han women. From January 2011 to July 2013, 158 Chinese Han cervical cancer patients and 260 healthy Chinese Han females were recruited to provide blood samples. The miR-124 rs531564 (C > G) polymorphism genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-based ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR), and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to deduce the relationship between the miR-124 rs531564 variant and cancer diagnosis. As expected, the incidence of HPV infection in cervical cancer patients was significantly higher than controls (P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that a CG genotype was associated with reduced risk of cervical cancer compared to the wildtype CC genotype (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.19-0.92); the findings were similar when the variant genotypes were combined (CG + GG; OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.17-0.86). The G allele was associated with reduced risk of cervical cancer (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.14-0.89) particularly among women over age 40 (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84), as well as reduced risk of HPV infection (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.28-0.93). These results further support a role for genetic susceptibility in miR-124 rs531564 in determining the risk of cervical cancer in Chinese Han women. PMID:25664118

Wu, Henghui; Zhang, Juxin

2014-01-01

156

Genetic markers of rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in anti-citrullinated peptide antibody negative patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction There are now over 30 confirmed loci predisposing to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies have been largely undertaken in patients with anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) positive RA, and some genetic associations appear stronger in this subgroup than in anti-CCP negative disease, although few studies have had adequate power to address the question. The authors therefore investigated confirmed RA susceptibility loci in a large cohort of anti-CCP negative RA subjects. Methods RA patients and controls, with serological and genetic data, were available from UK Caucasian patients (n=4068 anti-CCP positive, 2040 anti-CCP negative RA) and 13,009 healthy controls. HLA-DRB1 genotypes and 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested for association between controls and anti-CCP positive or negative RA. Results The shared epitope (SE) showed a strong association with anti-CCP positive and negative RA, although the effect size was significantly lower in the latter (effect size ratio=3.18, p<1.0E-96). A non-intronic marker at TNFAIP3, GIN1/C5orf30, STAT4, ANKRD55/IL6ST, BLK and PTPN22 showed association with RA susceptibility, irrespective of the serological status, the latter three markers remaining significantly associated with anti-CCP negative RA, after correction for multiple testing. No significant association with anti-CCP negative RA was detected for other markers (eg, AFF3, CD28, intronic marker at TNFAIP3), though the study power for those markers was over 80%. Discussion In the largest sample size studied to date, the authors have shown that the strength of association, the effect size and the number of known RA susceptibility loci associated with disease is different in the two disease serotypes, confirming the hypothesis that they might be two genetically different subsets. PMID:22661644

Viatte, Sebastien; Plant, Darren; Bowes, John; Lunt, Mark; Eyre, Stephen; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane

2012-01-01

157

Genetic background modulates phenotypes of serotonin transporter Ala56 knock-in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Previously, we identified multiple, rare serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) variants in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although in our study the SERT Ala56 variant was over-transmitted to ASD probands, it was also seen in some unaffected individuals, suggesting that associated ASD risk is influenced by the epistatic effects of other genetic variation. Subsequently, we established that mice expressing the SERT Ala56 variant on a 129S6/S4 genetic background display multiple biochemical, physiological and behavioral changes, including hyperserotonemia, altered 5-HT receptor sensitivity, and altered social, communication, and repetitive behavior. Here we explore the effects of genetic background on SERT Ala56 knock-in phenotypes. Methods To explore the effects of genetic background, we backcrossed SERT Ala56 mice on the 129 background into a C57BL/6 (B6) background to achieve congenic B6 SERT Ala56 mice, and assessed autism-relevant behavior, including sociability, ultrasonic vocalizations, and repetitive behavior in the home cage, as well as serotonergic phenotypes, including whole blood serotonin levels and serotonin receptor sensitivity. Results One consistent phenotype between the two strains was performance in the tube test for dominance, where mutant mice displayed a greater tendency to withdraw from a social encounter in a narrow tube as compared to wildtype littermate controls. On the B6 background, mutant pup ultrasonic vocalizations were significantly increased, in contrast to decreased vocalizations seen previously on the 129 background. Several phenotypes seen on the 129 background were reduced or absent when the mutation was placed on the B6 background, including hyperserotonemia, 5-HT receptor hypersensivity, and repetitive behavior. Conclusions Our findings provide a cogent example of how epistatic interactions can modulate the impact of functional genetic variation and suggest that some aspects of social behavior may be especially sensitive to changes in SERT function. Finally, these results provide a platform for the identification of genes that may modulate the risk of ASD in humans. PMID:24083388

2013-01-01

158

Contribution of NTRK2 to the genetic susceptibility to anorexia nervosa, Harm avoidance and minimum body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are eating disorders (ED) with complex genetic and environmental components. Genetic studies and animal models support the participation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the vulnerability to AN and BN. We investigated the genetic contribution of the BDNF-specific receptor neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (NTRK2) to the susceptibility to ED. We have

M Ribases; M Gratacos; A Badia; L Jimenez; R Solano; J Vallejo; F Fernandez-Aranda; X Estivill

2005-01-01

159

Genetic Susceptibility to ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: State of the Art  

PubMed Central

ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of disorders that is caused by inflammation affecting small blood vessels. Both arteries and veins are affected. AAV includes microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) renamed from Wegener’s granulomatosis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), renamed from Churg–Strauss syndrome. AAV is primarily due to leukocyte migration and resultant damage. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms behind AAV disease etiology are still not fully understood, although it is clear that genetic and environmental factors are involved. To improve the understanding of the disease, the genetic component has been extensively studied by candidate association studies and two genome-wide association studies. The majority of the identified genetic AAV risk factors are common variants. These have uncovered information that still needs further investigation to clarify its importance. In this review, we summarize and discuss the results of the genetic studies in AAV. We also present the novel approaches to identifying the causal variants in complex susceptibility loci and disease mechanisms. Finally, we discuss the limitations of current methods and the challenges that we still have to face in order to incorporate genomic and epigenomic data into clinical practice. PMID:25452756

Bonatti, Francesco; Reina, Michele; Neri, Tauro Maria; Martorana, Davide

2014-01-01

160

Assessing the quality of studies supporting genetic susceptibility and outcomes of ARDS  

PubMed Central

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe inflammatory disease manifested as a result of pulmonary and systemic responses to several insults. It is now well accepted that genetic variation influences these responses. However, little is known about the genes that are responsible for patient susceptibility and outcome of ARDS. Methodological flaws are still abundant among genetic association studies with ARDS and here, we aimed to highlight the quality criteria where the standards have not been reached, to expose the associated genes to facilitate replication attempts, and to provide quick-reference guidance for future studies. We conducted a PubMed search from January 2008 to September 2012 for original articles. Studies were considered if a statistically significant association was declared with either susceptibility or outcomes of all-cause ARDS. Fourteen criteria were used for evaluation and results were compared to those from a previous quality assessment report. Significant improvements affecting study design and statistical analysis were detected. However, major issues such as adjustments for the underlying population stratification and replication studies remain poorly addressed. PMID:24567738

Acosta-Herrera, Marialbert; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Perez-Mendez, Lina; Villar, Jesús; Flores, Carlos

2014-01-01

161

Overlapping dopaminergic pathway genetic susceptibility to heroin and cocaine addictions in african americans.  

PubMed

Drugs of abuse activate the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Genetic variations in the dopaminergic system may contribute to drug addiction. Several processes are shared between cocaine and heroin addictions but some neurobiological mechanisms may be specific. This study examined the association of 98 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 13 dopamine-related genes with heroin addiction (OD) and/or cocaine addiction (CD) in a sample of 801 African Americans (315 subjects with OD ± CD, 279 subjects with CD, and 207 controls). Single-marker analyses provided nominally significant evidence for associations of 24 SNPs) in DRD1, ANKK1/DRD2, DRD3, DRD5, DBH, DDC, COMT and CSNK1E. A DRD2 7-SNPs haplotype that includes SNPs rs1075650 and rs2283265, which were shown to alter D2S/D2L splicing, was indicated in both addictions. The Met allele of the functional COMT Val158Met was associated with protection from OD. None of the signals remained significant after correction for multiple testing. The study results are in accordance with the results of previous studies, including our report of association of DRD1 SNP rs5326 with OD. The findings suggest the presence of an overlap in genetic susceptibility for OD and CD, as well as shared and distinct susceptibility for OD in subjects of African and European descent. PMID:25875614

Levran, Orna; Randesi, Matthew; da Rosa, Joel Correa; Ott, Jurg; Rotrosen, John; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

2015-05-01

162

Differential Genetic Susceptibility to Child Risk at Birth in Predicting Observed Maternal Behavior  

PubMed Central

This study examined parenting as a function of child medical risks at birth and parental genotype (dopamine D4 receptor; DRD4). Our hypothesis was that the relation between child risks and later maternal sensitivity would depend on the presence/absence of a genetic variant in the mothers, thus revealing a gene by environment interaction (GXE). Risk at birth was defined by combining risk indices of children's gestational age at birth, birth weight, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. The DRD4-III 7-repeat allele was chosen as a relevant genotype as it was recently shown to moderate the effect of environmental stress on parental sensitivity. Mothers of 104 twin pairs provided DNA samples and were observed with their children in a laboratory play session when the children were 3.5 years old. Results indicate that higher levels of risk at birth were associated with less sensitive parenting only among mothers carrying the 7-repeat allele, but not among mothers carrying shorter alleles. Moreover, mothers who are carriers of the 7-repeat allele and whose children scored low on the risk index were observed to have the highest levels of sensitivity. These findings provide evidence for the interactive effects of genes and environment (in this study, children born at higher risk) on parenting, and are consistent with a genetic differential susceptibility model of parenting by demonstrating that some parents are inherently more susceptible to environmental influences, both good and bad, than are others. PMID:21603618

Fortuna, Keren; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Mankuta, David; Kaitz, Marsha; Avinun, Reut; Ebstein, Richard P.; Knafo, Ariel

2011-01-01

163

Modifying Behavioral Phenotypes in Fmr1 KO Mice: Genetic Background Differences Reveal Autistic-Like Responses  

PubMed Central

Scientific Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability in humans. In addition to cognitive impairment, patients may exhibit hyperactivity, attention deficits, social difficulties and anxiety, and autistic-like behaviors. The degree to which patients display these behaviors varies considerably and is influenced by family history, suggesting that genetic modifiers play a role in the expression of behaviors in FXS. Several studies have examined behavior in a mouse model of FXS in which the Fmr1 gene has been ablated. Most of those studies were done in Fmr1 knockout mice on a pure C57BL/6 or FVB strain background. To gain a better understanding of the effects of genetic background on behaviors resulting from the loss of Fmr1 gene expression, we generated F1 hybrid lines from female Fmr1 heterozygous mice on a pure C57BL/6J background bred with male Fmr1 wild-type mice of various background strains (A/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, 129S1/SvImJ and CD-1). Male Fmr1 knockout and wild-type littermates from each line were examined in an extensive behavioral test battery. Results clearly indicate that multiple behavioral responses are dependent on genetic background, including autistic-like traits that are present on limited genetic backgrounds. This approach has allowed us to identify improved models for different behavioral symptoms present in FXS including autistic-like traits. PMID:21268289

Spencer, Corinne M.; Alekseyenko, Olga; Hamilton, Shannon M.; Thomas, Alexia M.; Serysheva, Ekaterina; Yuva-Paylor, Lisa A.; Paylor, Richard

2010-01-01

164

Combination of hearing screening and genetic screening for deafness-susceptibility genes in newborns  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the results of screening of newborn hearing and the incidence of deafness-susceptibility genes. One thousand newborn babies in the Handan Center Hospital (Handan, China) underwent screening of hearing and deafness-susceptibility genes. The first screening test was carried out using otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Babies with hearing loss who failed to pass the initial screening were scheduled for rescreening at 42 days after birth. Cord blood was used for the screening of deafness-susceptibility genes, namely the GJB2, SLC26A4 and mitochondrial 12S rRNA (MTRNR1) genes. Among the 1,000 neonates that underwent the first hearing screening, 25 exhibited left-sided hearing loss, 21 exhibited right-sided hearing loss and 15 cases had binaural hearing loss. After rescreening 42 days later, only one of the initial 61 cases exhibited hearing loss under OAE testing. The neonatal deafness gene tests showed two cases with 1555A>G mutation and two cases with 1494C>T mutation of the MTRNR1 gene. In the SLC26A4 gene screening, four cases exhibited the heterozygous IVS7-2A>G mutation and one case exhibited heterozygous 1226G>A mutation. In the GJB2 gene screening, two cases exhibited the homozygous 427C>T mutation and 10 exhibited the heterozygous 235delC mutation. The genetic screening revealed 21 newborns with mutations in the three deafness-susceptibility genes. The overall carrier rate was 2.1% (21/1,000). The association of hearing and gene screening may be the promising screening strategy for the diagnosis of hearing loss. PMID:24348793

YAO, GEN-DONG; LI, SHOU-XIA; CHEN, DING-LI; FENG, HAI-QIN; ZHAO, SU-BIN; LIU, YONG-JIE; GUO, LI-LI; YANG, ZHI-MING; ZHANG, XIAO-FANG; SUN, CAI-XIA; WANG, ZE-HUI; ZHANG, WEI-YONG

2014-01-01

165

Histopathogenesis of malignant skin melanoma induced in genetically susceptible transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Animal models of human malignant skin melanoma were created in melanoma-susceptible inbred-strain transgenic mice by grafting skin from donors of high-susceptibility lines to hosts of a low-susceptibility line, thereby overcoming the problem of early death of the more susceptible animals from eye melanomas. As already described [Mintz, B. & Silvers, W. K. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 8817-8821], melanocytes within the grafts selectively proliferated in close proximity to areas of greatest wound healing, presumably in response to mitogenic factors from cells contributing to wound repair. An orderly sequence of externally visible events culminated in malignant melanoma. We examine here the histogenetic concomitants of these changes and find that they define a stepwise sequence strikingly comparable to that leading to human cutaneous melanoma. Moreover, the histological details suggest some of the underlying mechanisms. While the early lesions are first seen in the superficial dermis in the mouse, and in the basal layer of the epidermis in the human, both progress by radial growth followed by vertical growth. Melanocytic hyperplasia resulted in nests of densely melanized fusiform cells which were losing their dendrites. Some discrete lesions in the deep dermis appeared as blue nevi. As radial proliferation advanced, cellular atypia increased and the previously independent melanocytes cohered closely and formed a small solid tumor; the cells were usually then hypomelanotic or amelanotic. Ulceration of tumor through the epidermis occurred early. The tumor mass grew rapidly in the deep dermis and invaded and destroyed subcutaneous tissue and muscle. Primary tumors in the skin were often heterogeneous, with lobules or regions differing in pigmentation or atypia. However, the cells in circulating emboli, or in metastases in lymph nodes and lungs, appeared relatively homogeneous. These genetically uniform transgenic mouse models provide experimental access to the multistage genesis of melanoma. PMID:8415614

Mintz, B; Silvers, W K; Klein-Szanto, A J

1993-10-01

166

A framework for detecting and characterizing genetic background-dependent imprinting effects  

PubMed Central

Genomic imprinting, where the effects of alleles depend on their parent-of-origin, can be an important component of the genetic architecture of complex traits. Although there has been a rapidly increasing number of studies of genetic architecture that have examined imprinting effects, none have examined whether imprinting effects depend on genetic background. Such effects are critical for the evolution of genomic imprinting because they allow the imprinting state of a locus to evolve as a function of genetic background. Here we develop a two-locus model of epistasis that includes epistatic interactions involving imprinting effects and apply this model to scan the mouse genome for loci that modulate the imprinting effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The inclusion of imprinting leads to nine orthogonal forms of epistasis, five of which do not appear in the usual two-locus decomposition of epistasis. Each form represents a change in the imprinting status of one locus across different classes of genotypes at the other locus. Our genome scan identified two different locus pairs that show complex patterns of epistasis, where the imprinting effect at one locus changes across genetic backgrounds at the other locus. Thus, our model provides a framework for the detection of genetic background-dependent imprinting effects that should provide insights into the background dependence and evolution of genomic imprinting. Our application of the model to a genome scan supports this assertion by identifying pairs of loci that show reciprocal changes in their imprinting status as the background provided by the other locus changes. PMID:19657694

Cheverud, James M.

2010-01-01

167

Lifespan Modulation in Mice and the Confounding Effects of Genetic Background  

PubMed Central

We are currently in the midst of a revolution in ageing research, with several dietary, genetic and pharmacological interventions now known to modulate ageing in model organisms. Excitingly, these interventions also appear to have beneficial effects on late-life health. For example, dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to slow the incidence of age-associated cardiovascular disease, metabolic disease, cancer and brain ageing in non-human primates and has been shown to improve a range of health indices in humans. While the idea that DR's ability to extend lifespan is often thought of as being universal, studies in a range of organisms, including yeast, mice and monkeys, suggest that this may not actually be the case. The precise reasons underlying these differential effects of DR on lifespan are currently unclear, but genetic background may be an important factor in how an individual responds to DR. Similarly, recent findings also suggest that the responsiveness of mice to specific genetic or pharmacological interventions that modulate ageing may again be influenced by genetic background. Consequently, while there is a clear driver to develop interventions to improve late-life health and vitality, understanding precisely how these act in response to particular genotypes is critical if we are to translate these findings to humans. We will consider of the role of genetic background in the efficacy of various lifespan interventions and discuss potential routes of utilising genetic heterogeneity to further understand how particular interventions modulate lifespan and healthspan. PMID:25269675

Mulvey, Lorna; Sinclair, Amy; Selman, Colin

2014-01-01

168

Antibacterial resistance, genes encoding toxins and genetic background among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections in France: a national prospective survey.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of staphylococcal community-acquired skin and soft tissues infections (CA-SSTIs) has changed dramatically. We described prospectively the characteristics of the Staphylococcus aureus isolated from 71 non-teaching French hospitals and implicated in CA-SSTIs: antimicrobial susceptibility (mecA polymerase chain reaction [PCR], disk diffusion method), virulence factor gene (sea, tst, pvl) prevalence and genetic background (agr allele). During November 2006, 235 strains were collected (wound infection: 51%, abscess: 21%, whitlow: 8%, diabetic foot: 7%, furunculosis: 3%). sea, tst and pvl were identified in 22.1, 13.2 and 8.9% strains, respectively. agr allele 1 was the most frequently encountered genetic background, whatever the methicillin susceptibility. Among the 34 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, 14.5% of all S. aureus), only one strain (2.9%) harboured pvl (belonging to the European ST80 clone), four (11.8%) tst (belonging to two endemic French clones) and 18 (52.9%) sea gene (mainly the Lyon clone). According to their in vitro activity, pristinamycin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole could be considered as first-choice antibiotics. To date, the international pvl-positive MRSA clones have not spread in France. MRSA strains isolated from putative CA-SSTIs exhibited a genetic and phenotypic background of hospital-acquired (HA) clones. National survey should be continued, in order to monitor the emergence of virulent clones. PMID:21997773

Lamy, B; Laurent, F; Gallon, O; Doucet-Populaire, F; Etienne, J; Decousser, J-W

2012-06-01

169

Implication of IL-2/IL-21 region in systemic sclerosis genetic susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Objective The interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 21 (IL-21) locus at chromosome 4q27 has been associated with several autoimmune diseases, and both genes are related to immune system functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the IL-2/IL-21 locus in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Patients and methods The case control study included 4493 SSc Caucasian patients and 5856 healthy controls from eight Caucasian populations (Spain, Germany, The Netherlands, USA, Italy, Sweden, UK and Norway). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2069762, rs6822844, rs6835457 and rs907715) were genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Results We observed evidence of association of the rs6822844 and rs907715 variants with global SSc (pc=6.6E-4 and pc=7.2E-3, respectively). Similar statistically significant associations were observed for the limited cutaneous form of the disease. The conditional regression analysis suggested that the most likely genetic variation responsible for the association was the rs6822844 polymorphism. Consistently, the rs2069762A-rs6822844T-rs6835457G-rs907715T allelic combination showed evidence of association with SSc and limited cutaneous SSc subtype (pc=1.7E-03 and pc=8E-4, respectively). Conclusions These results suggested that the IL-2/IL-21 locus influences the genetic susceptibility to SSc. Moreover, this study provided further support for the IL-2/IL-21 locus as a common genetic factor in autoimmune diseases. PMID:23172754

Diaz-Gallo, Lina-Marcela; Simeon, Carmen P; Broen, Jasper C; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Beretta, Lorenzo; Vonk, Madelon C; Carreira, Patricia E; Vargas, Sofia; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; González-Gay, Miguel A; Tolosa, Carlos; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Espinosa, Gerard; Vicente, Esther F; Hesselstrand, Roger; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Witte, Torsten; Distler, Jörg H W; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Schuerwegh, Annemie J; Shiels, Paul G; Nordin, Annika; Padyukov, Leonid; Hoffmann-Vold, Anna-Maria; Scorza, Raffaella; Lunardi, Claudio; Airo, Paolo; van Laar, Jacob M; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Gathof, Birgit S; Kreuter, Alexander; Herrick, Ariane; Worthington, Jane; Denton, Christopher P; Zhou, Xiaodong; Arnett, Frank C; Fonseca, Carmen; Koeleman, Bobby PC; Assasi, Shervin; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Mayes, Maureen D; Martín, Javier

2013-01-01

170

Genetic interactions: the missing links for a better understanding of cancer susceptibility, progression and treatment  

PubMed Central

It is increasingly clear that complex networks of relationships between genes and/or proteins govern neoplastic processes. Our understanding of these networks is expanded by the use of functional genomic and proteomic approaches in addition to computational modeling. Concurrently, whole-genome association scans and mutational screens of cancer genomes identify novel cancer genes. Together, these analyses have vastly increased our knowledge of cancer, in terms of both "part lists" and their functional associations. However, genetic interactions have hitherto only been studied in depth in model organisms and remain largely unknown for human systems. Here, we discuss the importance and potential benefits of identifying genetic interactions at the human genome level for creating a better understanding of cancer susceptibility and progression and developing novel effective anticancer therapies. We examine gene expression profiles in the presence and absence of co-amplification of the 8q24 and 20q13 chromosomal regions in breast tumors to illustrate the molecular consequences and complexity of genetic interactions and their role in tumorigenesis. Finally, we highlight current strategies for targeting tumor dependencies and outline potential matrix screening designs for uncovering molecular vulnerabilities in cancer cells. PMID:18186929

Maxwell, Christopher A; Moreno, Víctor; Solé, Xavier; Gómez, Laia; Hernández, Pilar; Urruticoechea, Ander; Pujana, Miguel Angel

2008-01-01

171

Role of Genetic Variants of Autophagy Genes in Susceptibility for Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer and Patients Outcome  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a central process in regulation of cell survival, cell death and proliferation and plays an important role in carcinogenesis, including thyroid carcinoma. Genetic variation in autophagy components has been demonstrated to influence the capacity to execute autophagy and is associated with disease susceptibility, progression and outcome. In the present study, we assessed whether genetic variation in autophagy genes contributes to susceptibility to develop thyroid carcinoma, disease progression and/or patient outcome. The results indicate that patients carrying the ATG5 single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2245214 have a higher probability to develop thyroid carcinoma (OR 1.85 (95% CI 1.04–3.23), P?=?0.042). In contrast, no significant differences could be observed for the other genetic variants studied in terms of thyroid carcinoma susceptibility. Furthermore, none of the selected genetic variants were associated with clinical parameters of disease progression and outcome. In conclusion, genetic variation in ATG5, a central player in the autophagy process, is found to be associated with increased susceptibility for thyroid carcinoma, indicating a role for autophagy in thyroid carcinogenesis. PMID:24739953

Plantinga, Theo S.; van de Vosse, Esther; Huijbers, Angelique; Netea, Mihai G.; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Smit, Jan W. A.; Netea-Maier, Romana T.

2014-01-01

172

Population synthesis modeling of the X-ray background with genetic algorithm - based optimization method  

E-print Network

We present population synthesis modeling of the X-ray background with genetic algorithm - based optimization method. In our models the best fit could be achieved for lower values of high-energy exponential cut-off (~ 170 keV) and larger amount of the highly obscured (log N_H=25.5) AGNs.

Alexander V. Halevin

2003-09-05

173

GENETIC BACKGROUND BUT NOT METALLOTHIONEIN PHENOTYPE DICTATES SENSITIVITY TO CADMIUM-INDUCED TESTICULAR INJURY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Genetic Background but not Metallothionein Phenotype Dictates Sensitivity to Cadmium-Induced Testicular Injury in Mice Jie Liu1,2, Chris Corton3, David J. Dix4, Yaping Liu1, Michael P. Waalkes2 and Curtis D. Klaassen1 ABSTRACT Parenteral administrati...

174

Tuberculin Skin Test Reactivity Is Dependent on Host Genetic Background in Colombian Tuberculosis Household Contacts  

PubMed Central

The tuberculin skin test (TST) measures the intensity of antimycobacterial acquired immunity and is used to diagnose latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We report evidence for a codominant gene explaining ?65% of the TST variability. Disregarding the host genetic background may lead to misclassifications of TST-based diagnosis of latent M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:22291100

Cobat, Aurélie; Barrera, Luis F.; Henao, Hanna; Arbeláez, Patricia; Abel, Laurent; García, Luis F.; Schurr, Erwin

2012-01-01

175

Identification and physiological analyses of a locus for rice yield potential across the genetic background  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new locus responsible for increased yield potential across the genetic background in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was identified and evaluated. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were analysed for the ratio of filled grains, a yield component, in backcrossed inbred lines of a japonica 'Nipponbare'3indica 'Kasalath' cross for 3 years. Only one QTL (rg5 ), with a positive Kasalath allele, was

Ken Ishimaru; Takayuki Kashiwagi; Naoki Hirotsu; Yuka Madoka

2005-01-01

176

Pharmacogenetic analysis of adverse drug effect reveals genetic variant for susceptibility to liver toxicity.  

PubMed

A retrospective pharmacogenetic study was conducted to identify possible genetic susceptibility factors in patients in whom the administration of the anti-Parkinson drug, tolcapone (TASMAR), was associated with hepatic toxicity. We studied 135 cases of patients with elevated liver transaminase levels (ELT) of >/=1.5 times above the upper limit of normal, in comparison with matched controls that had also received the drug but had not experienced ELT. DNA samples were genotyped for 30 previously described or newly characterized bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), representing 12 candidate genes selected based on the known metabolic pathways involved in the tolcapone elimination. SNPs located within the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A gene complex, which codes for the enzymes involved in the main elimination pathway of the drug, were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of tolcapone-associated ELTs. PMID:12439739

Acuña, Gonzalo; Foernzler, Dorothee; Leong, Diane; Rabbia, Michael; Smit, Ralf; Dorflinger, Ernest; Gasser, Rodolfo; Hoh, Josephine; Ott, Jürg; Borroni, Edilio; To, Zung; Thompson, Annick; Li, Jia; Hashimoto, Lara; Lindpaintner, Klaus

2002-01-01

177

Genetic analysis of Drosophila melanogaster susceptibility to intestinal Vibrio cholerae infection  

PubMed Central

Summary We previously demonstrated that Vibrio cholerae is able to colonize the intestine of the fly to produce a lethal infection. Here we present the results of a genetic screen undertaken to identify factors that alter susceptibility of the fly to intestinal V. cholerae infection. In this model of infection, the Eiger/Wengen signalling pathway protects the fly against infection. Furthermore, mutations within the IMD signalling pathway increase resistance to intestinal V. cholerae infection and increase programmed cell death within the intestinal epithelium during infection. We propose that programmed cell death protects the intestinal epithelium against V. cholerae infection and therefore that the fly may serve as a useful model in which to study modulation of intestinal epithelial cell survival by commensal and pathogenic intestinal bacteria as well as the pathological processes leading to erosion of the intestinal epithelium and intestinal malignancy. PMID:19046341

Berkey, Cristin D.; Blow, Nathan; Watnick, Paula I.

2009-01-01

178

Genetics of Transfusion Recipient Alloimmunization: Can Clues from Susceptibility to Autoimmunity Pave the Way?  

PubMed Central

Summary The search for genetic determinants of alloimmunization in sickle cell disease transfusion recipients was based on two premises: i) that polymorphisms responsible for stronger immune and/or inflammatory responses and hemoglobin ?S mutation were co-selected by malaria; and ii) that stronger responder status contributes to development of lupus. We found a marker of alloimmunization in the gene encoding for Ro52 protein, also known as Sjögren syndrome antigen 1 (SSA1) and TRIM21. Surprisingly, the nature of the association was opposite of that with lupus; the same variant of a polymorphism (rs660) that was associated with lupus incidence was also associated with induction of tolerance to red blood cell antigens during early childhood. The dual function of Ro52 can explain this apparent contradiction. We propose that other lupus/autoimmunity susceptibility loci may reveal roles of additional molecules in various aspects of alloimmunization induced by transfusion as well as during pregnancy. PMID:25670931

Tatari-Calderone, Zohreh; Luban, Naomi L.C.; Vukmanovic, Stanislav

2014-01-01

179

Sequence variant classification and reporting: recommendations for improving the interpretation of cancer susceptibility genetic test results  

PubMed Central

Genetic testing of cancer susceptibility genes is now widely applied in clinical practice to predict risk of developing cancer. In general, sequence-based testing of germline DNA is used to determine whether an individual carries a change that is clearly likely to disrupt normal gene function. Genetic testing may detect changes that are clearly pathogenic, clearly neutral or variants of unclear clinical significance. Such variants present a considerable challenge to the diagnostic laboratory and the receiving clinician in terms of interpretation and clear presentation of the implications of the result to the patient. There does not appear to be a consistent approach to interpreting and reporting the clinical significance of variants either among genes or among laboratories. The potential for confusion among clinicians and patients is considerable and misinterpretation may lead to inappropriate clinical consequences. In this article we review the current state of sequence-based genetic testing, describe other standardized reporting systems used in oncology and propose a standardized classification system for application to sequence based results for cancer predisposition genes. We suggest a system of five classes of variants based on the degree of likelihood of pathogenicity. Each class is associated with specific recommendations for clinical management of at-risk relatives that will depend on the syndrome. We propose that panels of experts on each cancer predisposition syndrome facilitate the classification scheme and designate appropriate surveillance and cancer management guidelines. The international adoption of a standardized reporting system should improve the clinical utility of sequence-based genetic tests to predict cancer risk. PMID:18951446

Plon, Sharon E.; Eccles, Diana M.; Easton, Douglas; Foulkes, William D.; Genuardi, Maurizio; Greenblatt, Marc S.; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Tavtigian, Sean

2011-01-01

180

Genetic susceptibility to dental caries differs between the sexes: a family-based study.  

PubMed

Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience have been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting a higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although it may be partly due to the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family based study (N = 2,663; 740 families; ages 1-93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:25612913

Shaffer, John R; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L

2015-01-01

181

Background  

E-print Network

Efficiency of the EMDR procedure is based on a presumption of neuropsychological changes in therapeutic process.The aim of the investigation is to scann and give evidence of electroactivity changes, during the process of EMDR procedure and after finishing it. Materials and methods We have recorded a continual polygraph EEG, before, during and after EMDR therapy, in patient with combat-related PTSD. Results Before the treatment, EEG recorded basic activity of low voltage (attenuation) of 20 ?V, frequency of beta range (17-26 Hz), bioccipital, with no pathologic activity. Patient had prominent vegetative symptoms (anxiety, heart rate 100/min). Background activity immediately

Grozdanko Grbesa; Maja Simonovic; Dorjanka Jankovic

182

The Impact of PPAR? Genetic Variants on IBD Susceptibility and IBD Disease Course  

PubMed Central

PPAR? is a nuclear receptor that regulates numerous pathways including cytokine expression and immune responses and plays an important role in controlling colon inflammation. We aimed at determining the occurring PPAR? SNPs, at predicting the haplotypes, and at determining the frequency outcome in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in comparison with healthy controls. We determined genetic variants in the coding exons and flanking intronic sequences of the NR1C3 gene in 284 IBD patients and 194 controls and predicted NR1C3 haplotypes via bioinformatic analysis. We investigated whether certain NR1C3 variants are associated with susceptibility to IBD or its disease course. None of the detected 22 NR1C3 variants were associated with IBD. Two variants with allelic frequencies over 1% were included in haplotype/diplotype analyses. None of the NR3C1 haplotypes showed association with IBD development or disease course. We conclude that NR1C3 haplotypes are not related to IBD susceptibility or IBD disease activity. PMID:22448164

Mwinyi, Jessica; Grete-Wenger, Christa; Eloranta, Jyrki J.; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A.

2012-01-01

183

Association of liver X receptors (LXRs) genetic variants to gallbladder cancer susceptibility.  

PubMed

Liver X receptors (LXRs) ? and ? are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the family of nuclear receptors. LXRs play role in control of lipid homeostasis, glucose metabolism, inflammation, and proliferation. LXRs are expressed in gallbladder cholangiocytes and recent studies have shown that LXR-? (-/-) Mice exhibit an estrogen-dependent gallbladder carcinogenesis. However, there are no studies reported in humans. Therefore, using case-control design in the present study, we have evaluated the associations of LXR-? (rs7120118) and LXR-? (rs35463555 and rs2695121) genetic variants with gallbladder cancer (GBC) susceptibility in 400 cases and 200 controls. Genotypes were determined by TaqMan probes. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS and SNPstats. In silico analysis was performed using Bioinformatics tools (F-SNP, FAST-SNP). LXR-? genotypes (rs35463555) [GA + AA] and (rs2695121) [TC + CC] were associated with risk of GBC [OR = 1.46, p = 0.03; OR = 1.52, p = 0.01, respectively] as compared to healthy controls whereas LXR-? (rs7120118) was not associated with GBC risk. LXR-? haplotype [Ars35463555-Crs2695121] showed statistical significant association with GBC [OR = 5.0, p = 0.03]. On stratification based on gender, LXR-? [GA + AA] and [TC + CC] genotypes were found to be significantly associated in females GBC patients [OR = 1.5, p = 0.04; OR = 1.7, p = 0.005, respectively]. The LXR-? [TC + CC] associated with GBC patients with gallstones [OR; 1.8, p = 0.002]. The genetic risk by LXR-? was not modulated by tobacco consumption or age of onset. In silico analysis using FAST-SNP showed "Low-medium risk" by LXR-? (rs2695121) T > C variation. Our results suggest that LXR-? polymorphisms influence gallbladder cancer susceptibility through estrogen and gallstone-dependent pathways. PMID:23838803

Sharma, Kiran Lata; Misra, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ashok; Mittal, Balraj

2013-12-01

184

Tumor Necrosis Factor B (TNFB) Genetic Variants and Its Increased Expression Are Associated with Vitiligo Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Genetic polymorphisms in TNFB are involved in the regulation of its expression and are found to be associated with various autoimmune diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine whether TNFB +252A/G (rs909253) and exon 3 C/A (rs1041981) polymorphisms are associated with vitiligo susceptibility, and expression of TNFB and ICAM1 affects the disease onset and progression. We have earlier reported the role of TNFA in autoimmune pathogenesis of vitiligo, and we now show the involvement of TNFB in vitiligo pathogenesis. The two polymorphisms investigated in the TNFB were in strong linkage disequilibrium and significantly associated with vitiligo. TNFB and ICAM1 transcripts were significantly increased in patients compared to controls. Active vitiligo patients showed significant increase in TNFB transcripts compared to stable vitiligo. The genotype-phenotype analysis revealed that TNFB expression levels were higher in patients with GG and AA genotypes as compared to controls. Patients with the early age of onset and female patients showed higher TNFB and ICAM1 expression. Overall, our findings suggest that the increased TNFB transcript levels in vitiligo patients could result, at least in part, from variations at the genetic level which in turn leads to increased ICAM1 expression. For the first time, we show that TNFB +252A/G and exon 3 C/A polymorphisms are associated with vitiligo susceptibility and influence the TNFB and ICAM1 expression. Moreover, the study also emphasizes influence of TNFB and ICAM1 on the disease progression, onset and gender bias for developing vitiligo. PMID:24312346

Laddha, Naresh C.; Dwivedi, Mitesh; Gani, Amina R.; Mansuri, Mohmmad Shoab; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

2013-01-01

185

Interleukin 17A genetic variations and susceptibility to non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death, in which non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type. Evidence have shown that interleukin 17 (IL-17) greatly involves in human immune responses. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-17 on NSCLC by examining the association between IL-17A genetic polymorphisms and the susceptibility to NSCLC. IL-17A -420A/G and IL-17A -73G/A polymorphisms were detected in 330 NSCLC patients and 382 healthy controls. We found that subjects carrying -73GA genotype or AA genotype had 2.09-fold or 2.52-fold increased risk of NSCLC than those with -73GG genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46 - 2.98, p < 0.001; OR = 2.52, 95% CI, 1.30-4.88, p = 0.005, respectively). However, the IL-17A -420A/G did not reveal any correlation with the cancer. Further investigation showed that prevalence of IL-17A -73GA genotype and A allele were significantly increased in adenocarcinoma patients (OR = 1.75, 95% CI, 1.08-2.86, p = 0.024, OR = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.09-2.28, p = 0.016, respectively). We also evaluated the effect of the polymorphisms on gene expression, and identified that peripheral blood mononuclear cells with IL-17A -73GA and AA genotypes produced significantly higher level of IL-17 than the cells with IL-17A -73GG genotype. Our results suggest that IL-17A -73G/A genetic variations may upregulate IL-17 expression and are associated with increased susceptibility to NSCLC. PMID:25469655

Ma, Qin-Yun; Chen, Ji; Wang, Shao-Hua; Wu, Ning; Hao, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Feng

2015-03-01

186

Integrating mechanistic and polymorphism data to characterize human genetic susceptibility for environmental chemical risk assessment in the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

Response to environmental chemicals can vary widely among individuals and between population groups. In human health risk assessment, data on susceptibility can be utilized by deriving risk levels based on a study of a susceptible population and/or an uncertainty factor may be applied to account for the lack of information about susceptibility. Defining genetic susceptibility in response to environmental chemicals across human populations is an area of interest in the NAS' new paradigm of toxicity pathway-based risk assessment. Data from high-throughput/high content (HT/HC), including -omics (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) technologies, have been integral to the identification and characterization of drug target and disease loci, and have been successfully utilized to inform the mechanism of action for numerous environmental chemicals. Large-scale population genotyping studies may help to characterize levels of variability across human populations at identified target loci implicated in response to environmental chemicals. By combining mechanistic data for a given environmental chemical with next generation sequencing data that provides human population variation information, one can begin to characterize differential susceptibility due to genetic variability to environmental chemicals within and across genetically heterogeneous human populations. The integration of such data sources will be informative to human health risk assessment.

Mortensen, Holly M., E-mail: mortensen.holly@epa.gov [Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, 109 TW Alexander Dr., Mailcode B205-01, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, US EPA, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Mail Code 8623P, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

2013-09-15

187

Integrating mechanistic and polymorphism data to characterize human genetic susceptibility for environmental chemical risk assessment in the 21st century.  

PubMed

Response to environmental chemicals can vary widely among individuals and between population groups. In human health risk assessment, data on susceptibility can be utilized by deriving risk levels based on a study of a susceptible population and/or an uncertainty factor may be applied to account for the lack of information about susceptibility. Defining genetic susceptibility in response to environmental chemicals across human populations is an area of interest in the NAS' new paradigm of toxicity pathway-based risk assessment. Data from high-throughput/high content (HT/HC), including -omics (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) technologies, have been integral to the identification and characterization of drug target and disease loci, and have been successfully utilized to inform the mechanism of action for numerous environmental chemicals. Large-scale population genotyping studies may help to characterize levels of variability across human populations at identified target loci implicated in response to environmental chemicals. By combining mechanistic data for a given environmental chemical with next generation sequencing data that provides human population variation information, one can begin to characterize differential susceptibility due to genetic variability to environmental chemicals within and across genetically heterogeneous human populations. The integration of such data sources will be informative to human health risk assessment. PMID:21291902

Mortensen, Holly M; Euling, Susan Y

2013-09-15

188

APECED: A Paradigm of Complex Interactions between Genetic Background and Susceptibility Factors  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations of a single gene named Autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) which results in a failure of T-cell tolerance. Central tolerance takes place within the thymus and represents the mechanism by which potentially auto-reactive T-cells are eliminated through the negative selection process. The expression of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) in the thymus is a key process in the central tolerance and is driven by the protein encoded by AIRE gene, the transcription factor autoimmune regulator (AIRE). A failure in this process caused by AIRE mutations is thought to be responsible of the systemic autoimmune reactions of APECED. APECED is characterized by several autoimmune endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations and the phenotype is often complex. Although APECED is the paradigm of a monogenic autoimmune disorder, it is characterized by a wide variability of the clinical expression even between siblings with the same genotype, thus implying that additional mechanisms, other than the failure of Aire function, are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Unraveling open issues of the molecular basis of APECED, will help improve diagnosis, management, and therapeutical strategies of this complex disease. PMID:24167503

De Martino, Lucia; Capalbo, Donatella; Improda, Nicola; D’Elia, Federica; Di Mase, Raffaella; D’Assante, Roberta; D’Acunzo, Ida; Pignata, Claudio; Salerno, Mariacarolina

2013-01-01

189

Host Genetic Factors Affect Susceptibility to Norovirus Infections in Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Norovirus (NoV) constitutes the second most common viral pathogen causing pediatric diarrhea after rotavirus. In Africa, diarrhea is a major health problem in children, and yet few studies have been performed regarding NoV. The association of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) and susceptibility to NoV infection is well established in Caucasian populations with non-secretors being resistant to many common NoV strains. No study regarding HBGA and NoV susceptibility has yet been performed in Africa. We collected 309 stool and 208 saliva samples from diarrheal children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; May 2009 to March 2010. NoV was detected using real-time PCR, and genotyped by sequencing. Saliva samples were ABO, Lewis and secretor phenotyped using in house ELISA assays. NoV was detected in 12% (n?=?37) of the samples. The genotype diversity was unusually large; overall the 37 positive samples belonged to 14 genotypes. Only children <2 years of age were NoV positive and the GII.4 NoVs were more frequent in the late dry season (Jan-May). NoV infections were observed less in children with the secretor-negative phenotype or blood group A (OR 0.18; p?=?0.012 and OR 0.31; p?=?0.054; respectively), with two non-secretors infected with genotypes GII.7 and GII.4 respectively. Lewis-negative (Lea?b?) children, representing 32% of the study population, were susceptible to GII, but were not infected with any NoV GI. GII.4 strains preferentially infected children with blood group B whereas secretor-positive children with blood group O were infected with the largest variety of genotypes. This is the first study identifying host genetic factors associated with susceptibility to NoV in an African population, and suggests that while the non-secretor phenotype provides protection; the Lewis b antigen is not necessary for GII infection. PMID:23894502

Nordgren, Johan; Nitiema, Léon W.; Ouermi, Djeneba; Simpore, Jacques; Svensson, Lennart

2013-01-01

190

Genetic polymorphisms of NQO1, CYP1A1 and TPMT and susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

E-print Network

Genetic polymorphisms of NQO1, CYP1A1 and TPMT and susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukemia Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the major pediatric cancer in developed countries. The etiology related to environmental exposures. Keywords Leukemia Á Tunisia Á TPMT Á NQO1 Á CYP1A1 Introduction Acute

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

191

THE IN VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MACROPHAGES TO PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS VARIES BETWEEN GENETICALLY DIVERSE LINES OF PIGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be responsible for financial losses in the swine industry worldwide. It remains undetermined whether genetic variability of the host in susceptibility to PRRSV exists and if this variability can be exploited to help control thi...

192

Experimental transmission of U.S. scrapie agent by nasal, peritoneal and conjunctival routes to genetically susceptible sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. This study documents incubation periods, pathological findings and distribution of abnormal prion proteins (PrP**Sc) by immunohistochemistry in tissues of genetically susceptible sheep inoculated with U.S. sheep scr...

193

Genetic susceptibility for human familial essential hypertension in a region of homology with blood pressure linkage on rat chromosome 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension is a significant risk factor for heart attack and stroke and represents a major public health burden because of its high prevalence (e.g. 15-20% of the European and American populations). Although blood pressure is known to have a strong genetic determi- nation, the genes responsible for susceptibility to essential hypertension are mostly unknown. Loci involved in blood pressure regulation

Cécile Julier; Marc Delépine; Bernard Keavney; Joseph Terwilliger; S. Davis; Thuan Bui; Xavier Jeunemaître; Gilberto Velho; Philippe Froguel; Peter Ratcliffe; Pierre Corvol; Florent Soubrier; G. Mark Lathrop

1997-01-01

194

Genetic variation in complement regulators and susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Objectives Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the commonest cause of blindness in Western populations. Risk is influenced by age, genetic and environmental factors. Complement activation appears to be important in the pathogenesis and associations have been found between AMD and genetic variations in complement regulators such as complement factor H. We therefore investigated other complement regulators for association with AMD. Methods We carried out a case–control study to test for association between AMD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the genes encoding complement factor P (CFP, properdin), CD46 (membrane cofactor protein, MCP), CD55 (decay accelerating factor, DAF) and CD59 (protectin). All cases and controls were examined by an ophthalmologist and had independent grading of fundus photographs to confirm their disease status. Results 20 SNPs were genotyped in 446 cases and 262 controls. For two SNPs with p-values approaching significance additional subjects were genotyped to increase the numbers to 622 cases and 359 controls. There was no evidence of association between AMD and any of the SNPs typed in CFP, CD46, CD55 or CD59. Conclusions In a case–control sample that has shown the well established associations between AMD and variants in CFH, CFB and C3 there was absence of association with SNPs in CFP, CD46, CD55 and CD59. This suggests that these are not important susceptibility genes for AMD. PMID:22024702

Cipriani, Valentina; Matharu, Baljinder K.; Khan, Jane C.; Shahid, Humma; Stanton, Chloe M.; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Bunce, Catey; Clayton, David G.; Moore, Anthony T.; Yates, John R.W.

2012-01-01

195

Genetic variation in the DAOA gene complex: Impact on susceptibility for schizophrenia and on cognitive performance  

PubMed Central

Introduction The genetic region coding for D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) is considered an intriguing susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. However, association studies have often resulted in conflicting findings, and the risk conferring variants and their biological impact remain elusive. Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationship between DAOA variation and schizophrenia, and the influence of DAOA on cognitive performance. Methods We analyzed block structure and association patterns of a ~173 kb region on chromosome 13q33, applying genotype data of 55 SNPs derived from Caucasian North American sample (178 cases, 144 healthy controls). Haplotypes were assigned using the program PHASE and frequencies compared between cases and controls. We applied MANOVA to investigate the relationship between the identified risk haplotype on cognitive performance. Results We identified multiple haplotypes within the region containing the DAOA gene. Of these, one was significantly associated with schizophrenia, being over-represented in schizophrenia versus healthy controls. This haplotype was also associated with one aspect of cognitive performance, semantic fluency. Carriers of the risk haplotype showed better semantic fluency than non-carriers. Conclusions We report a significant effect of DAOA variation on risk for schizophrenia. Moreover, we identified a relationship between DAOA genetic variation and specific aspects of neurocognitive function. As the identified DAOA risk haplotype was associated with better performance on a semantic fluency measure, further work is required to identify the mechanism of DAOA action on CNS function, including the possibility of a role for balanced selection at this locus. PMID:18541412

Opgen-Rhein, Carolin; Lencz, Todd; Burdick, Katherine E.; Neuhaus, Andres H; DeRosse, Pamela; Goldberg, Terry E.; Malhotra, Anil K.

2008-01-01

196

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease: genetic, immunological, and clinical features of inborn errors of IFN-? immunity.  

PubMed

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare condition characterized by predisposition to clinical disease caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria, in otherwise healthy individuals with no overt abnormalities in routine hematological and immunological tests. MSMD designation does not recapitulate all the clinical features, as patients are also prone to salmonellosis, candidiasis and tuberculosis, and more rarely to infections with other intramacrophagic bacteria, fungi, or parasites, and even, perhaps, a few viruses. Since 1996, nine MSMD-causing genes, including seven autosomal (IFNGR1, IFNGR2, STAT1, IL12B, IL12RB1, ISG15, and IRF8) and two X-linked (NEMO, and CYBB) genes have been discovered. The high level of allelic heterogeneity has already led to the definition of 18 different disorders. The nine gene products are physiologically related, as all are involved in IFN-?-dependent immunity. These disorders impair the production of (IL12B, IL12RB1, IRF8, ISG15, NEMO) or the response to (IFNGR1, IFNGR2, STAT1, IRF8, CYBB) IFN-?. These defects account for only about half the known MSMD cases. Patients with MSMD-causing genetic defects may display other infectious diseases, or even remain asymptomatic. Most of these inborn errors do not show complete clinical penetrance for the case-definition phenotype of MSMD. We review here the genetic, immunological, and clinical features of patients with inborn errors of IFN-?-dependent immunity. PMID:25453225

Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

2014-12-01

197

Genetic background modulates impaired excitability of inhibitory neurons in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome.  

PubMed

Dominant loss-of-function mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1 cause Dravet Syndrome, an intractable childhood-onset epilepsy. NaV1.1(+/-) Dravet Syndrome mice in C57BL/6 genetic background exhibit severe seizures, cognitive and social impairments, and premature death. Here we show that Dravet Syndrome mice in pure 129/SvJ genetic background have many fewer seizures and much less premature death than in pure C57BL/6 background. These mice also have a higher threshold for thermally induced seizures, fewer myoclonic seizures, and no cognitive impairment, similar to patients with Genetic Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus. Consistent with this mild phenotype, mutation of NaV1.1 channels has much less physiological effect on neuronal excitability in 129/SvJ mice. In hippocampal slices, the excitability of CA1 Stratum Oriens interneurons is selectively impaired, while the excitability of CA1 pyramidal cells is unaffected. NaV1.1 haploinsufficiency results in increased rheobase and threshold for action potential firing and impaired ability to sustain high-frequency firing. Moreover, deletion of NaV1.1 markedly reduces the amplification and integration of synaptic events, further contributing to reduced excitability of interneurons. Excitability is less impaired in inhibitory neurons of Dravet Syndrome mice in 129/SvJ genetic background. Because specific deletion of NaV1.1 in forebrain GABAergic interneuons is sufficient to cause the symptoms of Dravet Syndrome in mice, our results support the conclusion that the milder phenotype in 129/SvJ mice is caused by lesser impairment of sodium channel function and electrical excitability in their forebrain interneurons. This mild impairment of excitability of interneurons leads to a milder disease phenotype in 129/SvJ mice, similar to Genetic Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus in humans. PMID:25281316

Rubinstein, Moran; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Yu, Frank H; Jones, Christina J; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A

2015-01-01

198

Identification of novel genetic susceptibility loci in African-American lupus patients using a candidate gene association study  

PubMed Central

Objective Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified several disease susceptibility loci in lupus patients. These studies have been largely performed in European-derived and Asian lupus patients. In this study, we examine if some of these same susceptibility loci increase lupus risk in African-American individuals. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms tagging 15 independent lupus susceptibility loci were genotyped in a set of 1,724 lupus patients and 2,024 normal healthy controls of African-American descent. The loci examined included: PTPN22, FCGR2A, TNFSF4, STAT4, CTLA4, PDCD1, PXK, BANK1, MSH5 (HLA region), CFB (HLA region), C8orf13-BLK region, MBL2, KIAA1542, ITGAM, and MECP2/IRAK1. Results We provide the first evidence for genetic association between lupus and five susceptibility loci in African-American patients (C8orf13-BLK, BANK1, TNFSF4, KIAA1542 andCTLA4; P values= 8.0 × 10?6, 1.9 × 10?5, 5.7 × 10?5, 0.00099, 0.0045, respectively). Further, we confirm the genetic association between lupus and five additional lupus susceptibility loci (ITGAM, MSH5, CFB, STAT4, and FCGR2A; P values= 7.5 × 10?11, 5.2 × 10?8, 8.7 × 10?7, 0.0058, and 0.0070, respectively), and provide evidence for a genome-wide significance for the association between ITGAM and MSH5 (HLA region) for the first time in African-American lupus patients. Conclusion These findings provide evidence for novel genetic susceptibility loci for lupus in African-Americans and demonstrate that the majority of lupus susceptibility loci examined confer lupus risk across multiple ethnicities. PMID:21792837

Sanchez, Elena; Comeau, Mary E.; Freedman, Barry I.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle; Reveille, John D.; Vilá, Luis M.; Merrill, Joan T.; Tsao, Betty P.; Kamen, Diane L; Gilkeson, Gary S.; James, Judith A.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Jacob, Chaim O.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Richardson, Bruce C.; Harley, John B.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Sawalha, Amr H.

2011-01-01

199

Background  

E-print Network

Background: Although the outcomes of caustic ingestion differ between children and adults, it is unclear whether such outcomes differ among adults as a function of their age. This retrospective study was performed to ascertain whether the clinical outcomes of caustic ingestion differ significantly between elderly and non-elderly adults. Methods: Medical records of patients hospitalized for caustic ingestion between June 1999 and July 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. Three hundred eighty nine patients between the ages of 17 and 107 years were divided into two groups: non-elderly (ingestion, substance ingested, systemic and gastrointestinal complications, psychological and systemic comorbidities, severity of mucosal injury, and time to expiration. Results: The incidence of psychological comorbidities was higher for the non-elderly group. By contrast, the incidence of systemic comorbidities, the grade of severity of mucosal damage, and the incidence of systemic complications were higher for the elderly group. The percentages of ICU admissions and deaths in the ICU were higher and the cumulative survival rate was lower for the elderly group. Elderly subjects, those with systemic complications had the greatest mortality risk due to caustic ingestion. Conclusions: Caustic ingestion by subjects ?65 years of age is associated with poorer clinical outcomes as compared to subjects < 65 years of age; elderly subjects with systemic complications have the poorest clinical outcomes. The severity of gastrointestinal tract injury appears to have no impact on the survival of elderly subjects.

Jui-min Chang; Nai-jen Liu; Betty Chien-jung Pai; Yun-hen Liu; Ming-hung Tsai; Ching-song Lee; Yin-yi Chu; Chih-chuan Lin; Cheng-tang Chiu; Hao-tsai Cheng

200

Genetic susceptibility to interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in mice induced by vanadium pentoxide (V2O5)  

PubMed Central

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are characterized by injury, inflammation, and scarring of alveoli, leading to impaired function. The etiology of idiopathic forms of ILD is not understood, making them particularly difficult to study due to the lack of appropriate animal models. Consequently, few effective therapies have emerged. We developed an inbred mouse model of ILD using vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), the most common form of a transition metal found in cigarette smoke, fuel ash, mineral ores, and steel alloys. Pulmonary responses to V2O5, including dose-dependent increases in lung permeability, inflammation, collagen content, and dysfunction, were significantly greater in DBA/2J mice compared to C57BL/6J mice. Inflammatory and fibrotic responses persisted for 4 mo in DBA/2J mice, while limited responses in C57BL/6J mice resolved. We investigated the genetic basis for differential responses through genetic mapping of V2O5-induced lung collagen content in BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains and identified significant linkage on chromosome 4 with candidate genes that associate with V2O5-induced collagen content across the RI strains. Results suggest that V2O5 may induce pulmonary fibrosis through mechanisms distinct from those in other models of pulmonary fibrosis. These findings should further advance our understanding of mechanisms involved in ILD and thereby aid in identification of new therapeutic targets.—Walters, D. M., White, K. M., Patel, U., Davis, M. J., Veluci-Marlow, R. M., Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, S. R., Bonner, J. C., Martin, J. R., Gladwell, W., Kleeberger, S. R. Genetic susceptibility to interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in mice induced by vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). PMID:24285090

Walters, Dianne M.; White, Kevin M.; Patel, Ushma; Davis, Martin J.; Veluci-Marlow, Roberta M.; Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Solomon Raju; Bonner, James C.; Martin, Jessica R.; Gladwell, Wes; Kleeberger, Steven R.

2014-01-01

201

Disclosing the disclosure: Factors associated with communicating the results of genetic susceptibility testing for Alzheimer’s disease  

PubMed Central

This study explored the extent to which recipients of genetic susceptibility testing for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) communicated their results to others. It also examined demographic characteristics, along with beliefs about AD, associated with such communication. Participants (N = 271) in a randomized clinical trial involving genetic testing for Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene variants among first-degree relatives of AD patients reported their communication behaviors 6 weeks after the results disclosure. Information on beliefs about AD and genetic testing was collected at baseline. Eighty-two percent of participants receiving APOE genotype information shared their results with someone. Specifically, 64% shared with family members, 51% with spouse or significant others, 35% with friends, and 12% with health care professionals. Greater AD treatment optimism was associated with communicating results to family (OR=1.43), spouse (OR=1.62), friends (OR =1.81), and health care professionals (OR=2.20). Lower perceived risk (OR=0.98) and higher perceived importance of genetics in the development of AD (OR=1.93) were associated with results communication in general. Lower perceived drawbacks of AD genetic testing was associated with results communication to friends (OR=0.65). Beliefs about AD risks and causes, genetic testing, and development of treatments may partly determine the interpersonal communication patterns of genetic susceptibility test results. PMID:20029710

Ashida, Sato; Koehly, Laura M.; Roberts, J. Scott; Chen, Clara A.; Hiraki, Susan; Green, Robert C.

2009-01-01

202

Common variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes do not confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with a complex etiology. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been frequently reported in schizophrenia. Phosphatase and tension homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protease (PARL) are mitochondrial proteins, and genetic variants of these two genes may confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia by influencing mitochondrial function. In this study, we conducted a two-stage genetic association study to test this hypothesis. We genotyped 4 PINK1 and 5 PARL genetic variants and evaluated the potential association of the 9 SNPs with schizophrenia in two independent case-control cohorts of 2510 Han Chinese individuals. No positive association of common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes with schizophrenia was identified in our samples after Bonferroni correction. Re-analysis of the newly updated Psychiatric Genetics Consortium (PGC) data sets confirmed our negative result. Intriguingly, one PINK1 SNP (rs10916832), which showed a marginally significant association in only Hunan samples (P = 0.032), is associated with the expression of a schizophrenia susceptible gene KIF17 according to the expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. Our study indicated that common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes are unlikely to be involved in schizophrenia. Further studies are essential to characterize the role of the PINK1 and PARL genes in schizophrenia. PMID:25354644

Li, Xiao; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Chen; Yi, Zhenghui; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Gong, Wei; Tang, Jinsong; Wang, Dong; Lu, Weihong; Chen, Xiaogang; Fang, Yiru; Yao, Yong-Gang

2015-04-01

203

Genetics and Beyond – The Transcriptome of Human Monocytes and Disease Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Background Variability of gene expression in human may link gene sequence variability and phenotypes; however, non-genetic variations, alone or in combination with genetics, may also influence expression traits and have a critical role in physiological and disease processes. Methodology/Principal Findings To get better insight into the overall variability of gene expression, we assessed the transcriptome of circulating monocytes, a key cell involved in immunity-related diseases and atherosclerosis, in 1,490 unrelated individuals and investigated its association with >675,000 SNPs and 10 common cardiovascular risk factors. Out of 12,808 expressed genes, 2,745 expression quantitative trait loci were detected (P<5.78×10?12), most of them (90%) being cis-modulated. Extensive analyses showed that associations identified by genome-wide association studies of lipids, body mass index or blood pressure were rarely compatible with a mediation by monocyte expression level at the locus. At a study-wide level (P<3.9×10?7), 1,662 expression traits (13.0%) were significantly associated with at least one risk factor. Genome-wide interaction analyses suggested that genetic variability and risk factors mostly acted additively on gene expression. Because of the structure of correlation among expression traits, the variability of risk factors could be characterized by a limited set of independent gene expressions which may have biological and clinical relevance. For example expression traits associated with cigarette smoking were more strongly associated with carotid atherosclerosis than smoking itself. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that the monocyte transcriptome is a potent integrator of genetic and non-genetic influences of relevance for disease pathophysiology and risk assessment. PMID:20502693

Zeller, Tanja; Wild, Philipp; Szymczak, Silke; Rotival, Maxime; Schillert, Arne; Castagne, Raphaele; Maouche, Seraya; Germain, Marine; Lackner, Karl; Rossmann, Heidi; Eleftheriadis, Medea; Sinning, Christoph R.; Schnabel, Renate B.; Lubos, Edith; Mennerich, Detlev; Rust, Werner; Perret, Claire; Proust, Carole; Nicaud, Viviane; Loscalzo, Joseph; Hübner, Norbert; Tregouet, David; Münzel, Thomas; Ziegler, Andreas; Tiret, Laurence

2010-01-01

204

HLA-DRB1*13:01 allele in the genetic susceptibility to colorectal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that HLA-DRB1 alleles reduce or increase the risk of developing ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tumors. However, the role of HLA-DRB1 locus on the susceptibility to develop CRC tumor, in the absence of a history of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether HLA-DRB1 alleles are associated with IBD-independent CRC tumor. HLA-DRB1 allele polymorphisms were identified by sequence-based typing method in 53 CRC patients and 57 sex- and age-matched healthy Caucasian controls. Pearson's chi-squared analysis with Yate's correction or Fisher's exact test with Bonferroni's correction, as appropriate, were used to compare the allele frequency (AF) differences of HLA-DRB1 in patients and controls. A total of 29 HLA-DRB1 alleles were recognized. A detailed study of these alleles allowed to identify DRB1*13:01 and DRB1*11:01 alleles that were significantly associated with an increased and reduced risk to develop CRC tumor, respectively. AF of DRB1*13:01, in CRC patients, was significantly higher than that of healthy controls, even following Bonferroni's correction (p?=?0.029). In contrast, the presence of the DRB1*11:01 allele was negatively associated with CRC tumor as evidenced by the significantly lower AF in CRC patients than that of healthy controls (p?=?0.005). However, following Bonferroni's correction, the AF of DRB*11:01 lost its statistical significance. These results suggest that HLA-DRB1*13:01 allele could be a potential marker for predicting genetic susceptibility to CRC tumor. In contrast, the protective role of DRB1*11:01 remains unclear. PMID:25346274

Aureli, Anna; Canossi, Angelica; Del Beato, Tiziana; Franceschilli, Luana; Buonomo, Oreste; Papola, Franco; De Sanctis, Flavio; Lanzilli, Giulia; Sileri, Pierpaolo; Coppola, Andrea; Caratelli, Sara; Arriga, Roberto; Orlandi, Augusto; Lauro, Davide; Rossi, Piero; Sconocchia, Giuseppe

2015-05-15

205

MicroRNAs related polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Esophageal cancer (EC) is the sixth leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide and the incidence and mortality in China are the highest. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to microRNAs could lead to alteration in microRNA expression and contribute to the susceptibility of cancer. To evaluate the association between microRNA-related SNPs and EC, a case-control study including 381 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 426 gender, age-matched controls was carried out to investigate the genetic susceptibility of five microRNA-related SNPs (rs2910164 in microRNA-146a, rs11614913 in microRNA-196a-2, rs7813 in GEMIN4, rs1595066 and rs16845990 in ErbB4) as well as the interactions of gene-gene and gene-environment in the development of ESCC. Variant homozygote genotype of rs11614913 in microRNA-196a-2 and rs1595066 in ErbB4 were significantly associated with reduced ESCC risk (OR(adjusted): 0.62, 95 % CI: 0.39-0.99 and OR(adjusted): 0.38, 95 % CI: 0.24-0.61). The analysis of haplotypes in ErbB4 gene showed significant increased ESCC risk in G(rs1595066)C(rs16845990) and G(rs1595066)T(rs16845990) haplotypes (OR(adjusted): 1.46, 95 % CI: 1.08-1.99 and OR(adjusted): 1.33, 95 % CI: 1.10-1.62), and inversely reduced ESCC risk in A(rs1595066)C(rs16845990) and A(rs1595066)T(rs16845990) haplotypes with OR (95 % CI) of 0.75 (0.60-0.94) and 0.65 (0.49-0.86), respectively. These findings suggest that the polymorphisms in the microRNA-related genes may affect susceptibility of ESCC in Chinese Han population and the gene-gene interactions play vital roles in the progression on esophageal cancer. Future studies with larger sample and different ethnic populations are required to support and validate our findings. PMID:24916311

Qu, Yanhong; Qu, Honghong; Luo, Manli; Wang, Peng; Song, Chunhua; Wang, Kaijuan; Zhang, Jianying; Dai, Liping

2014-12-01

206

HFE C282Y mutation as a genetic modifier influencing disease susceptibility for chronic myeloproliferative disease.  

PubMed

Iron metabolism has been implicated in carcinogenesis and several studies assessed the potential role of genetic variants of proteins involved in iron metabolism (HFE C282Y, TFR S142G) in different malignancies. Few reports addressed this issue with relation to chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD). The aims of our study were (a) to examine the potential associations of CMPD development with genetic modifiers of iron metabolism in a large cohort of CMPD patients; (b) to examine associations of genetic variants of proteins involved in iron metabolism; and acquired JAK2 V617F mutation with clinical characteristics of CMPD. HFE C282Y was genotyped in 328 CMPD patients and 996 blood donors as controls, HFE H63D, and TFR S142G were tested in CMPD patients and 171 first time blood donors. JAK2 V617F mutation was tested in CMPD patients and in 122 repeated blood donors. Decreased C282Y allele frequency (allele frequency+/-95% confidence interval) was found in the CMPD group (1.8%+/-1.0%) compared with controls (3.4%+/-0.8%; P=0.048). TFR S142G allele frequency was reduced among V617F-negative CMPD patients (34.8%+/-7.6%) compared with controls (47.8%+/-5.4%; P=0.02). The frequency of JAK2 V617F was 75.9% (249 of 328) in the CMPD group. At presentation, elevated hemoglobin levels were found in V617F-positive patients compared with V617F-negative counterparts (P<0.000). Vascular complications (26.6% versus 15.2%; P=0.039) as well as female gender (57.4% versus 41.8%; P=0.019) were more common in V617F-positive patients. We found that HFE C282Y might be associated with a protective role against CMPD. Because chronic iron deficiency or latent anemia may trigger disease susceptibility for CMPD, HFE C282Y positivity may be a genetic factor influencing this effect. PMID:19258483

Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Meggyesi, Nora; Szilvasi, Aniko; Tamaska, Julia; Halm, Gabriella; Lueff, Sandor; Nahajevszky, Sarolta; Egyed, Miklos; Varkonyi, Judit; Mikala, Gabor; Sipos, Andrea; Kalasz, Laszlo; Masszi, Tamas; Tordai, Attila

2009-03-01

207

Influence of genetic susceptibility on the urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine of firefighters  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Oxidative DNA damage has been implicated in carcinogenesis. The DNA damage can be assessed from the urinary excretion of the DNA-repair product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). The factors were investigated that influenced the excretion of urinary 8-OH-dG in 78 firefighters.?METHODS—53 Out of 78 firefighters were exposed to fire within 5 days of the study and 25 were not. 8-OH-dG was measured by ELISA and the distribution of the genotypes of CYP1A1, CYP2E1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 was measured by polymerase chain reaction.?RESULTS—The homozygous wild type frequencies of CYP1A1 MspI, CYP1A1 ile-val, CYP2E1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 were 31.5%, 56.2%, 60.3%, 50.7%, and 53.4%, respectively. The geometric mean of urinary 8-OH-dG was 14.1 ng/mg creatinine in more active firefighters and 12.3 ng/mg creatinine in non-exposed and less active subjects. Significantly increased concentrations of urinary 8-OH-dG were found to be associated with cigarette smoking, and 14% of the variation of 8-OH-dG was explained by cigarettes smoked per day. The CYP1A1 MspI, CYP1A1 ile-val, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms were not found to be significantly associated with the urinary excretion of 8-OH-dG. However, the subjects carrying the CYP2E1 mutant type excreted higher concentrations of 8-OH-dG and there was a marginally significant interaction of GSTT1 with firefighting activity. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that smoking was the strongest predictor of excretion of 8-OH-dG. Age, body mass index, and firefighting activity were not significant predictive factors for urinary 8-OH-dG.?CONCLUSION—Smoking and CYP2E1 gene polymorphism may be important factors in carcinogenesis and the GSTT1 positive genotype may be a genetic susceptibility factor in firefighters who are exposed regularly to various chemical carcinogens.???Keywords: firefighters; 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; susceptibility PMID:10810125

Hong, Y.; Park, H.; Ha, E.

2000-01-01

208

The joint effects of background selection and genetic recombination on local gene genealogies.  

PubMed

Background selection, the effects of the continual removal of deleterious mutations by natural selection on variability at linked sites, is potentially a major determinant of DNA sequence variability. However, the joint effects of background selection and genetic recombination on the shape of the neutral gene genealogy have proved hard to study analytically. The only existing formula concerns the mean coalescent time for a pair of alleles, making it difficult to assess the importance of background selection from genome-wide data on sequence polymorphism. Here we develop a structured coalescent model of background selection with recombination and implement it in a computer program that efficiently generates neutral gene genealogies for an arbitrary sample size. We check the validity of the structured coalescent model against forward-in-time simulations and show that it accurately captures the effects of background selection. The model produces more accurate predictions of the mean coalescent time than the existing formula and supports the conclusion that the effect of background selection is greater in the interior of a deleterious region than at its boundaries. The level of linkage disequilibrium between sites is elevated by background selection, to an extent that is well summarized by a change in effective population size. The structured coalescent model is readily extendable to more realistic situations and should prove useful for analyzing genome-wide polymorphism data. PMID:21705759

Zeng, Kai; Charlesworth, Brian

2011-09-01

209

The Joint Effects of Background Selection and Genetic Recombination on Local Gene Genealogies  

PubMed Central

Background selection, the effects of the continual removal of deleterious mutations by natural selection on variability at linked sites, is potentially a major determinant of DNA sequence variability. However, the joint effects of background selection and genetic recombination on the shape of the neutral gene genealogy have proved hard to study analytically. The only existing formula concerns the mean coalescent time for a pair of alleles, making it difficult to assess the importance of background selection from genome-wide data on sequence polymorphism. Here we develop a structured coalescent model of background selection with recombination and implement it in a computer program that efficiently generates neutral gene genealogies for an arbitrary sample size. We check the validity of the structured coalescent model against forward-in-time simulations and show that it accurately captures the effects of background selection. The model produces more accurate predictions of the mean coalescent time than the existing formula and supports the conclusion that the effect of background selection is greater in the interior of a deleterious region than at its boundaries. The level of linkage disequilibrium between sites is elevated by background selection, to an extent that is well summarized by a change in effective population size. The structured coalescent model is readily extendable to more realistic situations and should prove useful for analyzing genome-wide polymorphism data. PMID:21705759

Zeng, Kai; Charlesworth, Brian

2011-01-01

210

Longevity effect of IGF-1R(+/-) mutation depends on genetic background-specific receptor activation.  

PubMed

Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling regulates lifespan in mice. The modulating effects of genetic background gained much attention because it was shown that life-prolonging effects in Snell dwarf and GH receptor knockout vary between mouse strains. We previously reported that heterozygous IGF-1R inactivation (IGF-1R(+/-) ) extends lifespan in female mice on 129/SvPas background, but it remained unclear whether this mutation produces a similar effect in other genetic backgrounds and which molecules possibly modify this effect. Here, we measured the life-prolonging effect of IGF-1R(+/-) mutation in C57BL/6J background and investigated the role of insulin/IGF signaling molecules in strain-dependent differences. We found significant lifespan extension in female IGF-1R(+/-) mutants on C57BL/6J background, but the effect was smaller than in 129/SvPas, suggesting strain-specific penetrance of longevity phenotypes. Comparing GH/IGF pathways between wild-type 129/SvPas and C57BL/6J mice, we found that circulating IGF-I and activation of IGF-1R, IRS-1, and IRS-2 were markedly elevated in 129/SvPas, while activation of IGF pathways was constitutively low in spontaneously long-lived C57BL/6J mice. Importantly, we demonstrated that loss of one IGF-1R allele diminished the level of activated IGF-1R and IRS more profoundly and triggered stronger endocrine feedback in 129/SvPas background than in C57BL/6J. We also revealed that acute oxidative stress entails robust IGF-1R pathway activation, which could account for the fact that IGF-1R(+/-) stress resistance phenotypes are fully penetrant in both backgrounds. Together, these results provide a possible explanation why IGF-1R(+/-) was less efficient in extending lifespan in C57BL/6J compared with 129/SvPas. PMID:23898955

Xu, Jie; Gontier, Géraldine; Chaker, Zayna; Lacube, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle; Holzenberger, Martin

2014-02-01

211

Multilocus spacer analysis revealed highly homogeneous genetic background of Asian type of Borrelia miyamotoi.  

PubMed

Borrelia miyamotoi, a member of the relapsing fever group borreliae, was first isolated in Japan and subsequently found in Ixodes ticks in North America, Europe and Russia. Currently, there are three types of B. miyamotoi: Asian or Siberian (transmitted mainly by Ixodes persulcatus), European (Ixodesricinus) and American (Ixodesscapularis and Ixodespacificus). Despite the great genetic distances between B. miyamotoi types, isolates within a type are characterised by an extremely low genetic variability. In particular, strains of B. miyamotoi of Asian type, isolated in Russia from the Baltic sea to the Far East, have been shown to be identical based on the analysis of several conventional genetic markers, such as 16S rRNA, flagellin, outer membrane protein p66 and glpQ genes. Thus, protein or rRNA - coding genes were shown not to be informative enough in studying genetic diversity of B. miyamotoi within a type. In the present paper, we have attempted to design a new multilocus technique based on eight non-coding intergenic spacers (3686bp in total) and have applied it to the analysis of intra-type genetic variability of ?. miyamotoi detected in different regions of Russia and from two tick species, I. persulcatus and Ixodespavlovskyi. However, even though potentially the most variable loci were selected, no genetic variability between studied DNA samples was found, except for one nucleotide substitution in two of them. The sequences obtained were identical to those of the reference strain FR64b. Analysis of the data obtained with the GenBank sequences indicates a highly homogeneous genetic background of B. miyamotoi from the Baltic Sea to the Japanese Islands. In this paper, a hypothesis of clonal expansion of B. miyamotoi is discussed, as well as possible mechanisms for the rapid dissemination of one B. miyamotoi clone over large distances. PMID:25697887

Mukhacheva, Tatyana A; Salikhova, Irina I; Kovalev, Sergey Y

2015-04-01

212

Identification of New Genetic Susceptibility Loci for Breast Cancer Through Consideration of Gene-Environment Interactions  

PubMed Central

Genes that alter disease risk only in combination with certain environmental exposures may not be detected in genetic association analysis. By using methods accounting for gene-environment (G × E) interaction, we aimed to identify novel genetic loci associated with breast cancer risk. Up to 34,475 cases and 34,786 controls of European ancestry from up to 23 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were included. Overall, 71,527 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), enriched for association with breast cancer, were tested for interaction with 10 environmental risk factors using three recently proposed hybrid methods and a joint test of association and interaction. Analyses were adjusted for age, study, population stratification, and confounding factors as applicable. Three SNPs in two independent loci showed statistically significant association: SNPs rs10483028 and rs2242714 in perfect linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 21 and rs12197388 in ARID1B on chromosome 6. While rs12197388 was identified using the joint test with parity and with age at menarche (P-values = 3 × 10?07), the variants on chromosome 21 q22.12, which showed interaction with adult body mass index (BMI) in 8,891 postmenopausal women, were identified by all methods applied. SNP rs10483028 was associated with breast cancer in women with a BMI below 25 kg/m2 (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.15–1.38) but not in women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or higher (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.72–1.11, P for interaction = 3.2 × 10?05). Our findings confirm comparable power of the recent methods for detecting G × E interaction and the utility of using G × E interaction analyses to identify new susceptibility loci. PMID:24248812

Schoeps, Anja; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Dunning, Alison M.; Milne, Roger L.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Andrulis, Irene; Brenner, Hermann; Behrens, Sabine; Orr, Nicholas; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Li, Jingmei; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Knight, Julia; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna M.; Dumont, Martine; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Moisse, Matthieu; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Spurdle, Amanda; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Malats, Núria; Arias Perez, JoséI.; Benítez, Javier; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Truong, Théresè; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Braaf, Linde; Atsma, Femke; van den Broek, Alexandra J.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Cox, Angela; Simard, Jacques; Giles, Graham G.; Lambrechts, Diether; Mannermaa, Arto; Brauch, Hiltrud; Guénel, Pascal; Peto, Julian; Fasching, Peter A.; Hopper, John; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Couch, Fergus; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny

2014-01-01

213

The BOADICEA model of genetic susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several genes conferring susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer, notably BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified. The majority of the familial aggregation of breast cancer is, however, not explained by these genes. We have previously derived, using segregation analysis, a susceptibility model (BOADICEA, Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm) in which susceptibility to these genes

A C Antoniou; P P D Pharoah; P Smith; D F Easton

2004-01-01

214

HLA-A*31 as a marker of genetic susceptibility to sepsis  

PubMed Central

Objective The HLA haplotype has been associated with many autoimmune diseases, but no associations have been described in sepsis. This study aims to investigate the HLA system as a possible marker of genetic sepsis susceptibility. Methods This is a prospective cohort study including patients admitted to an intensive care unit and healthy controls from a list of renal transplant donors. Patients with less 18 years of age; pregnant or HIV positive patients; those with metastatic malignancies or receiving chemotherapy; or with advanced liver disease; or with end-of-life conditions were excluded. The DNA was extracted from the whole blood and HLA haplotypes determined using MiliPlex® technology. Results From October 2010 to October 2012, 1,121 patients were included (1,078 kidney donors, 20 patients admitted with severe sepsis and 23 with septic shock). HLA-A*31 positive subjects had increased risk of developing sepsis (OR 2.36, 95%CI 1.26-5.35). Considering a p value <0.01, no other significant association was identified. Conclusion HLA-A*31 expression is associated to risk of developing sepsis. PMID:24553509

da Silva, Fabiano Pinheiro; Preuhs Filho, Germano; Finger, Eduardo; Barbeiro, Hermes Vieira; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Torggler Filho, Francisco; Panajotopoulos, Nicolas; Velasco, Irineu Tadeu; Kalil, Jorge; de Souza, Heraldo Possolo; da Cruz Neto, Luiz Monteiro; Rodrigues, Hélcio

2013-01-01

215

The Population Structure of Acinetobacter baumannii: Expanding Multiresistant Clones from an Ancestral Susceptible Genetic Pool  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of hospital infections caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains are of increasing concern worldwide. Although it has been reported that particular outbreak strains are geographically widespread, little is known about the diversity and phylogenetic relatedness of A. baumannii clonal groups. Sequencing of internal portions of seven housekeeping genes (total 2,976 nt) was performed in 154 A. baumannii strains covering the breadth of known diversity and including representatives of previously recognized international clones, and in 19 representatives of other Acinetobacter species. Restricted amounts of diversity and a star-like phylogeny reveal that A. baumannii is a genetically compact species that suffered a severe bottleneck in the recent past, possibly linked to a restricted ecological niche. A. baumannii is neatly demarcated from its closest relative (genomic species 13TU) and other Acinetobacter species. Multilocus sequence typing analysis demonstrated that the previously recognized international clones I to III correspond to three clonal complexes, each made of a central, predominant genotype and few single locus variants, a hallmark of recent clonal expansion. Whereas antimicrobial resistance was almost universal among isolates of these and a novel international clone (ST15), isolates of the other genotypes were mostly susceptible. This dichotomy indicates that antimicrobial resistance is a major selective advantage that drives the ongoing rapid clonal expansion of these highly problematic agents of nosocomial infections. PMID:20383326

Diancourt, Laure; Passet, Virginie; Nemec, Alexandr; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Brisse, Sylvain

2010-01-01

216

Genetic susceptibility to irritant-induced acute lung injury in mice.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that genetic variability can influence irritant-induced lung injury and inflammation. To begin identifying genes controlling susceptibility to inhaled irritants, seven inbred mouse strains were continuously exposed to nickel sulfate (NiSO(4)), polytetrafluoroethylene, or ozone (O(3)), and survival time was recorded. The A/J (A) mouse strain was sensitive, the C3H/He (C3) strain was intermediate, and the C57BL/6 (B6) strain was resistant to NiSO(4)-induced acute lung injury. The B6AF(1) offspring were also resistant. The strain sensitivity pattern for NiSO(4) exposure was similar to that of polytetrafluoroethylene or ozone (O(3)). Pulmonary pathology was comparable for A and B6 mice. In the A strain, 15 microg/m(3) of NiSO(4) produced 20% mortality. The strain sensitivity patterns for lavage fluid proteins (B6 > C3 > A) and neutrophils (A >/= B6 > C3) differed from those for acute lung injury. This phenotype discordance suggests that these traits are not causally linked (i.e., controlled by independent arrays of genes). As in acute lung injury, B6C3F(1) offspring exhibited phenotypes (lavage fluid proteins and neutrophils) resembling those of the resistant parental strain. Agreement of acute lung injury strain sensitivity patterns among irritants suggested a common mechanism, possibly oxidative stress, and offspring resistance suggested that sensitivity is inherited as a recessive trait. PMID:10956633

Wesselkamper, S C; Prows, D R; Biswas, P; Willeke, K; Bingham, E; Leikauf, G D

2000-09-01

217

The genetics of multiple sclerosis: principles, background and updated results of the United Kingdom systematic genome screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Genetic susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is implicated on the basis of classical family studies and phenotype analyses. The only reproducible legacy from the candidate gene approach has been the discovery of population associations with alleles of the major histocompatibility complex. Systematic genome scanning has since been applied using a panel of anonymous markers to identify areas of linkage in

Jeremy Chataway; Robert Feakes; Francesca Coraddu; Julia Gray; Jackie Deans; Mary Fraser; Neil Robertson; Simon Broadley; Hywel Jones; David Clayton; Peter Goodfellow; Stephen Sawcer; Alastair Compston

1998-01-01

218

Genetic susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and human leukocyte antigen class II polymorphism. The role of shared conformational determinants.  

PubMed

Genetic susceptibility for rheumatoid arthritis has been associated with both human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR4 and HLA-DR1, depending on the ethnic origin of the population under study. Furthermore, various subtypes of DR4 exist, only some of which appear to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis. DNA sequence analysis of the DR-beta chain genes encoding the DR4 subtypes as well as DR1 has led to the observation that similar third hypervariable region sequences are found on rheumatoid arthritis-associated DR-beta chain alleles. The data indicate that third hypervariable region sequence polymorphisms strongly influence T cell recognition as well as risk for rheumatoid arthritis. This has led to the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility for rheumatoid arthritis is due to a group of similar third hypervariable region sequences that may share conformational determinants important in antigen presentation and/or immune regulation. PMID:3059797

Gregersen, P K; Silver, J; Winchester, R J

1988-12-23

219

Chromosome Fragments in DICTYOSTELIUM DISCOIDEUM Obtained from Parasexual Crosses between Strains of Different Genetic Background  

PubMed Central

The first aneuploid strains of Dictyostelium discoideum have been unambiguously characterized, using cytological and genetic analysis. Three independently isolated, but genetically similar, fragment chromosomes have been observed in segregants from diploids formed between haploid strains derived from the NC4 and V12 isolates of D. discoideum. Once generated, the fragment chromosomes, all of which have V12-derived centromeres, can be maintained in a NC4 genetic background. Genetic evidence is consistent with the view that all three fragment chromosomes studied encompass the region from the centromere to the whiA locus of linkage group II and terminate in the interval between whiA and acrA. From cytological studies, one of the fragment chromosomes consists of approximately half of linkage group II.—We observed no deleterious effect on viability or asexual fruiting-body formation in either haploid or diploid strains carrying an additional incomplete chromosome and hence are disomic or trisomic, respectively, for part of linkage group II. The incomplete chromosome is lost at a frequency of 2 to 3% from disomic and trisomic strains, but surprisingly this loss is not increased in the presence of the haploidizing agent, benlate. A new locus (clyA), whose phenotype is altered colony morphology, is assigned to the region of linkage group II encompassed by the fragment chromosome. PMID:17249037

Williams, Keith L.; Robson, Gillian E.; Welker, Dennis L.

1980-01-01

220

The genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes may be modulated by obesity status: implications for association studies  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that a portion of the heterogeneity amongst previous replication studies may be due to a variable proportion of obese subjects in case-control designs, we assessed the association of genetic variants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in large groups of obese and non-obese subjects. Methods We genotyped RETN, KCNJ11, HNF4A, HNF1A, GCK, SLC30A8, ENPP1, ADIPOQ, PPARG, and TCF7L2 polymorphisms in 1,283 normoglycemic (NG) and 1,581 T2D obese individuals as well as in 3,189 NG and 1,244 T2D non-obese subjects of European descent, allowing us to examine T2D risk over a wide range of BMI. Results Amongst non-obese individuals, we observed significant T2D associations with HNF1A I27L [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, P = 0.04], GCK -30G>A (OR = 1.23, P = 0.01), SLC30A8 R325W (OR = 0.87, P = 0.04), and TCF7L2 rs7903146 (OR = 1.89, P = 4.5 × 10-23), and non-significant associations with PPARG Pro12Ala (OR = 0.85, P = 0.14), ADIPOQ -11,377C>G (OR = 1.00, P = 0.97) and ENPP1 K121Q (OR = 0.99, P = 0.94). In obese subjects, associations with T2D were detected with PPARG Pro12Ala (OR = 0.73, P = 0.004), ADIPOQ -11,377C>G (OR = 1.26, P = 0.02), ENPP1 K121Q (OR = 1.30, P = 0.003) and TCF7L2 rs7903146 (OR = 1.30, P = 1.1 × 10-4), and non-significant associations with HNF1A I27L (OR = 0.96, P = 0.53), GCK -30G>A (OR = 1.15, P = 0.12) and SLC30A8 R325W (OR = 0.95, P = 0.44). However, a genotypic heterogeneity was only found for TCF7L2 rs7903146 (P = 3.2 × 10-5) and ENPP1 K121Q (P = 0.02). No association with T2D was found for KCNJ11, RETN, and HNF4A polymorphisms in non-obese or in obese individuals. Conclusion Genetic variants modulating insulin action may have an increased effect on T2D susceptibility in the presence of obesity, whereas genetic variants acting on insulin secretion may have a greater impact on T2D susceptibility in non-obese individuals. PMID:18498634

Cauchi, Stéphane; Nead, Kevin T; Choquet, Hélène; Horber, Fritz; Potoczna, Natascha; Balkau, Beverley; Marre, Michel; Charpentier, Guillaume; Froguel, Philippe; Meyre, David

2008-01-01

221

Cardiac Teratogenicity in Mouse Maternal Phenylketonuria: Defining phenotype parameters and genetic background influences  

PubMed Central

Maternal phenylketonuria (MPKU) is a syndrome including cardiovascular malformations (CVMs), microcephaly, intellectual impairment, and small for gestational age, caused by in-utero exposure to elevated serum phenylalanine (Phe) due to PKU in the mother. It is becoming a public health concern as more women with PKU reach child bearing age. Although a mouse model of PKU, BTBR Pahenu2, has been available for 20 years, it has not been well utilized for studying MPKU. We used this model to delineate critical parameters in Phe cardiovascular teratogenicity and study the effect of genetic background. Dosing and timing experiments were performed with the BTBR Pahenu2 mouse. A dose response curve was noted, with CVM rates at maternal serum Phe levels <360 ?M (control), 360 – 600 ?M (low), 600 – 900 ?M (mid), and >900?M (high) of 11.86%, 16.67%, 30.86%, and 46.67% respectively. A variety of CVMs were noted on the BTBR background, including double outlet right ventricle (DORV), aortic arch artery (AAA)abnormalities, and ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Timed exposure experiments identified a teratogenic window from embryonic day 8.5-13.5, with higher rates of conotruncal and valve defects occurring in early exposure time and persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) and aortic arch branching abnormalities occurring with late exposure. Compared to the BTBR strain, N10+ Pahenu2 congenics on the C3H/HeJ background had higher rates of CVMs in general and propensity to left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) malformations, while the C57B/L6 background had similar CVM rates but predominately AAA abnormalities. We have delineated key parameters of Phe cardiovascular teratogenicity, demonstrated the utility of this MPKU model on different mouse strains, and shown how genetic background profoundly affects the phenotype. PMID:22951387

Seagraves, Nikki J.; McBride, Kim L.

2012-01-01

222

Genetic network identifies novel pathways contributing to atherosclerosis susceptibility in the innominate artery  

PubMed Central

Background Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, results from both genetic and environmental factors. Methods In the current study we take a systems-based approach using weighted gene co-expression analysis to identify a candidate pathway of genes related to atherosclerosis. Bioinformatic analyses are performed to identify candidate genes and interactions and several novel genes are characterized using in-vitro studies. Results We identify 1 coexpression module associated with innominate artery atherosclerosis that is also enriched for inflammatory and macrophage gene signatures. Using a series of bioinformatics analysis, we further prioritize the genes in this pathway and identify Cd44 as a critical mediator of the atherosclerosis. We validate our predictions generated by the network analysis using Cd44 knockout mice. Conclusion These results indicate that alterations in Cd44 expression mediate inflammation through a complex transcriptional network involving a number of previously uncharacterized genes. PMID:25115202

2014-01-01

223

A flexible computational framework for detecting, characterizing, and interpreting statistical patterns of epistasis in genetic studies of human disease susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting, characterizing, and interpreting gene–gene interactions or epistasis in studies of human disease susceptibility is both a mathematical and a computational challenge. To address this problem, we have previously developed a multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method for collapsing high-dimensional genetic data into a single dimension (i.e. constructive induction) thus permitting interactions to be detected in relatively small sample sizes. In

Jason H. Moore; Joshua C. Gilbert; Chia-Ti Tsai; Fu-Tien Chiang; Todd Holden; Nate Barney; Bill C. White

2006-01-01

224

Meta-analysis of genetic association studies supports a contribution of common variants to susceptibility to common disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association studies offer a potentially powerful approach to identify genetic variants that influence susceptibility to com- mon disease1-4, but are plagued by the impression that they are not consistently reproducible5,6. In principle, the inconsis- tency may be due to false positive studies, false negative stud- ies or true variability in association among different populations4-8. The critical question is whether false

Kirk E. Lohmueller; Celeste L. Pearce; Malcolm Pike; Eric S. Lander; Joel N. Hirschhorn

2003-01-01

225

ENPP1\\/PC1 K121Q polymorphism and genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in North Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic susceptibility may be responsible for high prevalence of type 2 diabetes worldwide. A common missense single nucleotide\\u000a polymorphism, K121Q in the ectoenzyme nucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase (ENPP1) gene, has recently been associated with type 2 diabetes in Italian, South Indian, and American populations. The objective\\u000a of this study was to investigate the possible role of K121Q polymorphism in ENPP1 gene

Jasvinder Singh BhattiG; G. K. Bhatti; S. S. Mastana; S. Ralhan; A. Joshi; R. Tewari

2010-01-01

226

Personal history of diabetes, genetic susceptibility to diabetes, and risk of brain glioma: a pooled analysis of observational studies  

PubMed Central

Background Brain glioma is a relatively rare and fatal malignancy in adulthood with few known risk factors. Some observational studies have reported inverse associations between diabetes and subsequent glioma risk, but possible mechanisms are unclear. Methods We conducted a pooled analysis of original data from five nested case-control studies and two case-control studies from the U.S. and China that included 962 glioma cases and 2,195 controls. We examined self-reported diabetes history in relation to glioma risk, as well as effect modification by seven glioma risk-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also examined the associations between 13 diabetes risk-associated SNPs, identified from genome-wide association studies, and glioma risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Results We observed a 42% reduced risk of glioma for individuals with a history of diabetes (OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.40–0.84). The association did not differ by sex, study design, or after restricting to glioblastoma, the most common histological sub-type. We did not observe any significant per-allele trends among the 13 diabetes-related SNPs examined in relation to glioma risk. Conclusion These results support an inverse association between diabetes history and glioma risk. The role of genetic susceptibility to diabetes cannot be excluded, and should be pursued in future studies together with other factors that might be responsible for the diabetes-glioma association. Impact These data suggest the need for studies that can evaluate, separately, the association between type 1 and type 2 diabetes and subsequent risk of adult glioma. PMID:24220915

Kitahara, Cari M.; Linet, Martha S.; Brenner, Alina V.; Wang, Sophia S.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Wang, Zhaoming; Inskip, Peter D.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Braganza, Melissa Z.; Carreón, Tania; Feychting, Maria; Gaziano, J. Michael; Peters, Ulrike; Purdue, Mark P.; Ruder, Avima M.; Sesso, Howard D.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Waters, Martha A.; White, Emily; Zheng, Wei; Hoover, Robert N.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hartge, Patricia; Rajaraman, Preetha

2013-01-01

227

Investigating the viability of genetic screening/testing for RA susceptibility using combinations of five confirmed risk loci  

PubMed Central

Objective. Five loci—the shared epitope (SE) of HLA-DRB1, the PTPN22 gene, a locus on 6q23, the STAT4 gene and a locus mapping to the TRAF1/C5 genetic region—have now been unequivocally confirmed as conferring susceptibility to RA. The largest single effect is conferred by SE. We hypothesized that combinations of susceptibility alleles may increase risk over and above that of any individual locus alone. Methods. We analysed data from 4238 RA cases and 1811 controls, for which genotypes were available at all five loci. Results. Statistical analysis identified eight high-risk combinations conferring an odds ratio >6 compared with carriage of no susceptibility variants and, interestingly, 10% population controls carried a combination conferring high risk. All high-risk combinations included SE, and all but one contained PTPN22. Statistical modelling showed that a model containing only these two loci could achieve comparable sensitivity and specificity to a model including all five. Furthermore, replacing SE (which requires full subtyping at the HLA-DRB1 gene) with DRB1*1/4/10 carriage resulted in little further loss of information (correlation coefficient between models = 0.93). Conclusions. This represents the first exploration of the viability of population screening for RA and identifies several high-risk genetic combinations. However, given the population incidence of RA, genetic screening based on these loci alone is neither sufficiently sensitive nor specific at the current time. PMID:19741008

McClure, Annie; Lunt, Mark; Eyre, Steve; Ke, Xiayi; Thomson, Wendy; Hinks, Anne; Bowes, John; Gibbons, Laura; Plant, Darren; Wilson, Anthony G.; Marinou, Ioanna; Morgan, Ann W.; Emery, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne J.; Reid, David M.; Wordsworth, Paul; Harrison, Pille; Worthington, Jane

2009-01-01

228

Genetic modifiers of Lepr{sup fa} associated with variability in insulin production and susceptibility to NIDDM  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to identify the genetic basis for susceptibility to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus within the context of obesity, we generated 401 genetically obese Lepr{sup fa}/Lepr{sup fa} F2 WKY13M intercross rats that demonstrated wide variation in multiple phenotypic measures related to diabetes, including plasma glucose concentration, percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin concentration, and pancreatic islet morphology. Using selective genotyping genome scanning approaches, we have identified three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on Chr. 1 (LOD 7.1 for pancreatic morpholology), Chr. 12 (LOD 5.1 for body mass index and LOD 3.4 for plasma glucose concentration), and Chr. 16 (P < 0.001 for genotype effect on plasma glucose concentration). The obese F2 progeny demonstrated sexual dimorphism for these traits, with increased diabetes susceptibility in the males appearing at approximately 6 weeks of age, as sexual maturation occurred. For each of the QTLs, the linked phenotypes demonstrated sexual dimorphism (more severe affection in males). The QTL on Chr. 1 maps to a region vicinal to that previously linked to adiposity in studies of diabetes susceptibility in the nonobese Goto-Kakizaki rat, which is genetically closely related to the Wistar counterstrain we employed. Several candidate genes, including tubby (tub), multigenic obesity 1 (Mob1), adult obesity and diabetes (Ad), and insulin-like growth factor-2 (Igf2), map to murine regions homologous to the QTL region identified on rat Chr. 1. 60 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Chung, W.K.; Zheng, M.; Chua, M. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others] [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States); and others

1997-05-01

229

The Flowering Repressor SVP Underlies a Novel Arabidopsis thaliana QTL Interacting with the Genetic Background  

PubMed Central

The timing of flowering initiation is a fundamental trait for the adaptation of annual plants to different environments. Large amounts of intraspecific quantitative variation have been described for it among natural accessions of many species, but the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying this genetic variation are mainly being determined in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. To find novel A. thaliana flowering QTL, we developed introgression lines from the Japanese accession Fuk, which was selected based on the substantial transgression observed in an F2 population with the reference strain Ler. Analysis of an early flowering line carrying a single Fuk introgression identified Flowering Arabidopsis QTL1 (FAQ1). We fine-mapped FAQ1 in an 11 kb genomic region containing the MADS transcription factor gene SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP). Complementation of the early flowering phenotype of FAQ1-Fuk with a SVP-Ler transgen demonstrated that FAQ1 is SVP. We further proved by directed mutagenesis and transgenesis that a single amino acid substitution in SVP causes the loss-of-function and early flowering of Fuk allele. Analysis of a worldwide collection of accessions detected FAQ1/SVP-Fuk allele only in Asia, with the highest frequency appearing in Japan, where we could also detect a potential ancestral genotype of FAQ1/SVP-Fuk. In addition, we evaluated allelic and epistatic interactions of SVP natural alleles by analysing more than one hundred transgenic lines carrying Ler or Fuk SVP alleles in five genetic backgrounds. Quantitative analyses of these lines showed that FAQ1/SVP effects vary from large to small depending on the genetic background. These results support that the flowering repressor SVP has been recently selected in A. thaliana as a target for early flowering, and evidence the relevance of genetic interactions for the intraspecific evolution of FAQ1/SVP and flowering time. PMID:23382706

Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

2013-01-01

230

Evolutionary concepts in ecotoxicology: tracing the genetic background of differential cadmium sensitivities in invertebrate lineages.  

PubMed

In many toxicological and ecotoxicological studies and experimental setups, the investigator is mainly interested in traditional parameters such as toxicity data and effects of toxicants on molecular, cellular or physiological functions of individuals, species or statistical populations. It is clear, however, that such approaches focus on the phenotype level of animal species, whilst the genetic and evolutionary background of reactions to environmental toxicants may remain untold. In ecotoxicological risk assessment, moreover, species sensitivities towards pollutants are often regarded as random variables in a statistical approach. Beyond statistics, however, toxicant sensitivity of every species assumes a biological significance, especially if we consider that sensitivity traits have developed in lineages of species with common evolutionary roots. In this article, the genetic and evolutionary background of differential Cd sensitivities among invertebrate populations and species and their potential of adaptation to environmental Cd exposure will be highlighted. Important evolutionary and population genetic concepts such as genome structure and their importance for evolutionary adaptation, population structure of affected individuals, as well as micro and macroevolutionary mechanisms of Cd resistance in invertebrate lineages will be stressed by discussing examples of work from our own laboratory along with a review of relevant literature data and a brief discussion of open questions along with some perspectives for further research. Both, differences and similarities in Cd sensitivity traits of related invertebrate species can only be understood if we consider the underlying evolutionary processes and genetic (or epigenetic) mechanisms. Keeping in mind this perception can help us to better understand and interpret more precisely why the sensitivity of some species or species groups towards a certain toxicant (or metal) may be ranked in the lower or higher range of species sensitivity distributions. Hence, such a perspective will transcend a purely statistical view of the sensitivity distributions concept, and will enhance ecotoxicology in many respects. PMID:23576190

Dallinger, Reinhard; Höckner, Martina

2013-07-01

231

Persistence of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations Associated with Fitness Costs and Viral Genetic Backgrounds  

PubMed Central

Transmission of drug-resistant pathogens presents an almost-universal challenge for fighting infectious diseases. Transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) can persist in the absence of drugs for considerable time. It is generally believed that differential TDRM-persistence is caused, at least partially, by variations in TDRM-fitness-costs. However, in vivo epidemiological evidence for the impact of fitness costs on TDRM-persistence is rare. Here, we studied the persistence of TDRM in HIV-1 using longitudinally-sampled nucleotide sequences from the Swiss-HIV-Cohort-Study (SHCS). All treatment-naïve individuals with TDRM at baseline were included. Persistence of TDRM was quantified via reversion rates (RR) determined with interval-censored survival models. Fitness costs of TDRM were estimated in the genetic background in which they occurred using a previously published and validated machine-learning algorithm (based on in vitro replicative capacities) and were included in the survival models as explanatory variables. In 857 sequential samples from 168 treatment-naïve patients, 17 TDRM were analyzed. RR varied substantially and ranged from 174.0/100-person-years;CI=[51.4, 588.8] (for 184V) to 2.7/100-person-years;[0.7, 10.9] (for 215D). RR increased significantly with fitness cost (increase by 1.6[1.3,2.0] per standard deviation of fitness costs). When subdividing fitness costs into the average fitness cost of a given mutation and the deviation from the average fitness cost of a mutation in a given genetic background, we found that both components were significantly associated with reversion-rates. Our results show that the substantial variations of TDRM persistence in the absence of drugs are associated with fitness-cost differences both among mutations and among different genetic backgrounds for the same mutation. PMID:25798934

Böni, Jürg; Yerly, Sabine; Klimkait, Thomas; Aubert, Vincent; Scherrer, Alexandra U.; Shilaih, Mohaned; Hinkley, Trevor; Petropoulos, Christos; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

2015-01-01

232

Genetic Susceptibility to Cancer: the Role of Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes  

PubMed Central

Context Continuing advances in genotyping technologies and the inclusion of DNA collection in observational studies have resulted in an increasing number of genetic association studies. Objective To evaluate the overall progress and contribution of candidate gene association studies to current understanding of the genetic susceptibility to cancer. Data Sources We systematically examined the results of meta- and pooled analyses for genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk published through March 2008. Study Selection We identified 161 meta- and pooled analyses, encompassing 18 cancer sites and 99 genes. Analyses had to meet the following criteria: 1) at least 500 cases, 2) cancer risk as outcome, 3) not focused on HLA genetic markers, and 4) published in English. Data Extraction Information on cancer site, gene name, variant, point estimate and 95% confidence interval, allelic frequency, number of studies and cases, tests of study heterogeneity and publication bias were extracted by one investigator and reviewed by other investigators. Results These 161 analyses evaluated 344 gene-variant/cancer associations and included on average 7.3 studies and 3,551 cases (range: 508–19,729 cases) per investigated association. The summary OR for 98 (28%) statistically significant associations (p-value <0.05) were further evaluated by estimating the false-positive report probability (FPRP) at a given prior probability and statistical power. At a prior probability level of 0.001 and statistical power to detect an OR of 1.5, thirteen gene-variant/cancer associations remained noteworthy (FPRP<0.2). Assuming a very low prior probability of 0.000001, similar to a probability assumed for a randomly selected SNP in a genome-wide association study, and statistical power to detect an OR of 1.5, four associations were considered noteworthy as denoted by a FPRP value < 0.2: 1) GSTM1 null and bladder cancer (OR:1.5, 95% CI: 1.3–1.6, p-value=1.9×10?14), 2) NAT2 slow acetylator and bladder cancer (OR: 1.46, 95% CI:1.26–1.68, p-value=2.5×10?7), 3) MTHFR C677T and gastric cancer (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.31–1.77, p-value=4.9×10?8), and 4) GSTM1 null and acute leukemia (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.14–1.25, p-value=8.6×10?15). When the OR used to determine statistical power was lowered to 1.2, two of the four noteworthy associations remained so: GSTM1 null with bladder cancer and acute leukemia. Conclusions Phase II enzymes, which are key enzymes involved in the detoxification and excretion of carcinogens (and particularly deletion of GSTM1), were among the most consistent and highly significant associations. PMID:18505952

Dong, Linda M; Potter, John D; White, Emily; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Cardon, Lon R; Peters, Ulrike

2009-01-01

233

Genetic polymorphisms of interleukin-16 are associated with susceptibility to primary knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-16 (IL-16) polymorphisms have been associated with various disease states, and its activity is dysregulated in synovial fibroblasts of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the association between genetic polymorphisms in the gene encoding IL-16 and susceptibility to primary knee osteoarthritis was investigated in the Chinese Han population. The study included 228 unrelated patients, half of whom presented with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA); the remainder was healthy individuals. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL16 in these patients. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square goodness-of-fit test, Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) equilibrium, linkage disequilibrium analysis, and logistic regression analysis. The genotype distributions of three IL16 SNPs, rs11556218, rs4778889, and rs4072111, were found to be in line with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium criteria (P > 0.05). The single-factor logistic regression analysis showed that, compared with the T/T genotype, the T/G genotype decreased the risk of primary knee OA in rs11556218 (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.18~0.82) and, compared with the C/C genotype, the C/T genotype increased the risk of primary knee OA in rs4072111 (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.07~3.59). There was linkage disequilibrium between rs4778889 and rs11556218 (D= 0.592, r2 = 0.213). Finally, logistic regression analysis showed that compared to haplotype TTC, the TTT haplotype was associated with an increased risk of primary knee OA (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.09-4.98); however, the GCC haplotype was associated with a reduced risk of primary knee OA (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.12-0.93). Thus, the genetic polymorphisms rs11556218, rs4778889, and rs4072111 in the gene encoding IL-16 are associated with primary knee OA in Chinese Han population.

Liu, Zhibao; Ma, Li; Qiu, Shenqiang; Jia, Tanghong

2015-01-01

234

Genetic polymorphisms of interleukin-16 are associated with susceptibility to primary knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Interleukin-16 (IL-16) polymorphisms have been associated with various disease states, and its activity is dysregulated in synovial fibroblasts of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the association between genetic polymorphisms in the gene encoding IL-16 and susceptibility to primary knee osteoarthritis was investigated in the Chinese Han population. The study included 228 unrelated patients, half of whom presented with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA); the remainder was healthy individuals. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL16 in these patients. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square goodness-of-fit test, Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) equilibrium, linkage disequilibrium analysis, and logistic regression analysis. The genotype distributions of three IL16 SNPs, rs11556218, rs4778889, and rs4072111, were found to be in line with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium criteria (P > 0.05). The single-factor logistic regression analysis showed that, compared with the T/T genotype, the T/G genotype decreased the risk of primary knee OA in rs11556218 (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.18~0.82) and, compared with the C/C genotype, the C/T genotype increased the risk of primary knee OA in rs4072111 (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.07~3.59). There was linkage disequilibrium between rs4778889 and rs11556218 (D= 0.592, r(2) = 0.213). Finally, logistic regression analysis showed that compared to haplotype TTC, the TTT haplotype was associated with an increased risk of primary knee OA (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.09-4.98); however, the GCC haplotype was associated with a reduced risk of primary knee OA (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.12-0.93). Thus, the genetic polymorphisms rs11556218, rs4778889, and rs4072111 in the gene encoding IL-16 are associated with primary knee OA in Chinese Han population. PMID:25785145

Liu, Zhibao; Ma, Li; Qiu, Shenqiang; Jia, Tanghong

2015-01-01

235

The relationship between genetic variability and the susceptibility of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails to Schistosoma mansoni infection.  

PubMed

In the present study, Biomphalaria snails collected from five Egyptian governorates (Giza, Fayoum, Kafr El-Sheikh, Ismailia and Damietta), as well as reference control Biomphalaria alexandrina snails from the Schistosome Biological Supply Center (SBSC) (Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Egypt), were subjected to species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify the collected species. All of the collected snails were found to be B. alexandrina and there was no evidence of the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR assays showed different fingerprints with varying numbers of bands for the first generation (F?) of B. alexandrina snail populations (SBSC, Giza, Fayoum, Kafr El-Sheikh, Ismailia and Damietta). The primer OPA-1 produced the highest level of polymorphism and amplified the greatest number of specific bands. The estimated similarity coefficients among the B. alexandrina populations based on the RAPD-PCR profiles ranged from 0.56 (between SBSC and Ismailia snails) to 0.72 (between Ismailia and Kafr El-Sheikh snails). Experimental infection of the F? of progeny from the collected snails with Schistosoma mansoni (SBSC strain) showed variable susceptibility rates ranging from 15% in the Fayoum snail group to 50.3% in SBSC snails. A negative correlation was observed between the infection rates in the different snail groups and the distances separating their corresponding governorates from the parasite source. The infection rates of the snail groups and their similarity coefficients with SBSC B. alexandrina snails were positively correlated. The variations in the rates of infection of different B. alexandrina groups with S. mansoni, as well as the differences in the similarity coefficients among these snails, are dependent not only on the geographical distribution of the snails and the parasite, but also on the genetic variability of the snails. Introduction of this variability into endemic areas may reduce the ability of the parasite to infect local hosts and consequently reduce schistosomiasis epidemiology. PMID:22510827

Mohamed, Azza H; El-Din, Ahmed T Sharaf; Mohamed, Ahmed M; Habib, Mohamed R

2012-05-01

236

Genetic variations in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and susceptibility to ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine which plays critical roles in regulating host immune responses. Researches have shown that MCP-1 may greatly participate in the development of different cancers. In the current study, we investigated the effect of MCP-1 on ovarian cancer by examining the association between MCP-1 genetic polymorphisms and the susceptibility to ovarian cancer. MCP-1 -2158A/G and MCP-1 -362C/G polymorphisms were examined in ovarian cancer patients and healthy controls by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results showed that percentages of MCP-1 -2158GG genotype and G allele were significantly higher in ovarian cancer patients than in controls (odd ratio (OR)?=?1.87; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.19-2.76; P?=?0.012 and OR?=?1.47; 95 % CI, 1.11-1.79; P?=?0.003; data were adjusted for age and smoking status). The MCP-1 -362GG genotype also revealed increased number in patients. Stratification analyses presented that ovarian cancer cases with serous-papillary type had significantly increased percentage of -362GG genotype than those with other types (13.1 versus 5.0 %, P?=?0.032; data were adjusted for age and smoking status). Also, we evaluated the relation between these two polymorphisms and serum level of MCP-1. We identified that the subjects with MCP-1 -2158AG and GG genotypes had clearly increased serum level of MCP-1 than those with AA genotype. These data suggest that MCP-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. PMID:25234717

Li, Li; Zhang, Jinshan; Weng, Xin; Wen, Ge

2015-01-01

237

Overlapping genetic susceptibility variants between three autoimmune disorders: rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Genome wide association studies, replicated by numerous well powered validation studies, have revealed a large number of loci likely to play a role in susceptibility to many multifactorial diseases. It is now well established that some of these loci are shared between diseases with similar aetiology. For example, a number of autoimmune diseases have been associated with variants in the PTPN22, TNFAIP3 and CTLA4 genes. Here we have attempted to define overlapping genetic variants between rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes (T1D) and coeliac disease (CeD). Methods We selected eight SNPs previously identified as being associated with CeD and six T1D-associated SNPs for validation in a sample of 3,962 RA patients and 3,531 controls. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassArray platform and comparison of genotype and allele frequencies between cases and controls was undertaken. A trend test P-value < 0.004 was regarded as significant. Results We found statistically significant evidence for association of the TAGAP locus with RA (P = 5.0 × 10-4). A marker at one other locus, C1QTNF6, previously associated with T1D, showed nominal association with RA in the current study but did not remain statistically significant at the corrected threshold. Conclusions In exploring the overlap between T1D, CeD and RA, there is strong evidence that variation within the TAGAP gene is associated with all three autoimmune diseases. Interestingly a number of loci appear to be specific to one of the three diseases currently studied suggesting that they may play a role in determining the particular autoimmune phenotype at presentation. PMID:20854658

2010-01-01

238

An Image-Based Genetic Assay Identifies Genes in T1D Susceptibility Loci Controlling Cellular Antiviral Immunity in Mouse  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of complex diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D), derives from interactions between host genetics and environmental factors. Previous studies have suggested that viral infection plays a significant role in initiation of T1D in genetically predisposed individuals. T1D susceptibility loci may therefore be enriched in previously uncharacterized genes functioning in antiviral defense pathways. To identify genes involved in antiviral immunity, we performed an image-based high-throughput genetic screen using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against 161 genes within T1D susceptibility loci. RAW 264.7 cells transduced with shRNAs were infected with GFP-expressing herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and fluorescent microscopy was performed to assess the viral infectivity by fluorescence reporter activity. Of the 14 candidates identified with high confidence, two candidates were selected for further investigation, Il27 and Tagap. Administration of recombinant IL-27 during viral infection was found to act synergistically with interferon gamma (IFN-?) to activate expression of type I IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines, and to enhance the activities of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Consistent with a role in antiviral immunity, Tagap-deficient macrophages demonstrated increased viral replication, reduced expression of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, and decreased production of IFN-?. Taken together, our unbiased loss-of-function genetic screen identifies genes that play a role in host antiviral immunity and delineates roles for IL-27 and Tagap in the production of antiviral cytokines. PMID:25268627

Liao, Juan; Jijon, Humberto B.; Kim, Ira R.; Goel, Gautam; Doan, Aivi; Sokol, Harry; Bauer, Hermann; Herrmann, Bernhard G.; Lassen, Kara G.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

2014-01-01

239

Genetic Predictions of Prion Disease Susceptibility in Carnivore Species Based on Variability of the Prion Gene Coding Region  

PubMed Central

Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE) during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD) remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC) largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrPC protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo) and pine marten (Martes martes) were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter. PMID:23236380

Stewart, Paula; Campbell, Lauren; Skogtvedt, Susan; Griffin, Karen A.; Arnemo, Jon M.; Tryland, Morten; Girling, Simon; Miller, Michael W.; Tranulis, Michael A.; Goldmann, Wilfred

2012-01-01

240

Genetic predictions of prion disease susceptibility in carnivore species based on variability of the prion gene coding region.  

PubMed

Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE) during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD) remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C)) largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrP(C) protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo) and pine marten (Martes martes) were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter. PMID:23236380

Stewart, Paula; Campbell, Lauren; Skogtvedt, Susan; Griffin, Karen A; Arnemo, Jon M; Tryland, Morten; Girling, Simon; Miller, Michael W; Tranulis, Michael A; Goldmann, Wilfred

2012-01-01

241

Genetic Background Drives Transcriptional Variation in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Human iPS cells have been generated using a diverse range of tissues from a variety of donors using different reprogramming vectors. However, these cell lines are heterogeneous, which presents a limitation for their use in disease modeling and personalized medicine. To explore the basis of this heterogeneity we generated 25 iPS cell lines under normalised conditions from the same set of somatic tissues across a number of donors. RNA-seq data sets from each cell line were compared to identify the majority contributors to transcriptional heterogeneity. We found that genetic differences between individual donors were the major cause of transcriptional variation between lines. In contrast, residual signatures from the somatic cell of origin, so called epigenetic memory, contributed relatively little to transcriptional variation. Thus, underlying genetic background variation is responsible for most heterogeneity between human iPS cell lines. We conclude that epigenetic effects in hIPSCs are minimal, and that hIPSCs are a stable, robust and powerful platform for large-scale studies of the function of genetic differences between individuals. Our data also suggest that future studies using hIPSCs as a model system should focus most effort on collection of large numbers of donors, rather than generating large numbers of lines from the same donor. PMID:24901476

de Brito, Miguel Cardoso; Bradley, Allan; Vallier, Ludovic; Gaffney, Daniel

2014-01-01

242

Genetic Background Can Result in a Marked or Minimal Effect of Gene Knockout (GPR55 and CB2 Receptor) in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Models of Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Endocannabinoids and some phytocannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid one (TRPV1) receptor and the orphan G protein receptor fifty-five (GPR55). Studies using C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 (Cnr2tm1Zim) CB2 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice have demonstrated an immune-augmenting effect in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis. However, other EAE studies in Biozzi ABH mice often failed to show any treatment effect of either CB2 receptor agonism or antagonism on inhibition of T cell autoimmunity. The influence of genetic background on the induction of EAE in endocannabinoid system-related gene knockout mice was examined. It was found that C57BL/6.GPR55 knockout mice developed less severe disease, notably in female mice, following active induction with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide. In contrast C57BL/6.CB2 (Cnr2Dgen) receptor knockout mice developed augmented severity of disease consistent with the genetically and pharmacologically-distinct, Cnr2tm1Zim mice. However, when the knockout gene was bred into the ABH mouse background and EAE induced with spinal cord autoantigens the immune-enhancing effect of CB2 receptor deletion was lost. Likewise CB1 receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid one knockout mice on the ABH background demonstrated no alteration in immune-susceptibility, in terms of disease incidence and severity of EAE, in contrast to that reported in some C57BL/6 mouse studies. Furthermore the immune-modulating influence of GPR55 was marginal on the ABH mouse background. Whilst sedative doses of tetrahydrocannabinol could induce immunosuppression, this was associated with a CB1 receptor rather than a CB2 receptor-mediated effect. These data support the fact that non-psychoactive doses of medicinal cannabis have a marginal influence on the immune response in MS. Importantly, it adds a note of caution for the translational value of some transgenic/gene knockout and other studies on low-EAE susceptibility backgrounds with inconsistent disease course and susceptibility. PMID:24130809

Jackson, Samuel J.; Tanner, Carolyn; Ross, Ruth A.; Michael, Gregory J.; Selwood, David L.; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

2013-01-01

243

Genetic background influences murine prostate gene expression: implications for cancer phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer of the prostate is influenced by both genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The identification of genes capable of modulating cancer development has the potential to unravel disease heterogeneity and aid diagnostic and prevention strategies. To this end, mouse models have been developed to isolate the influences of individual genetic lesions in the context of consistent genotypes and environmental exposures. However, the normal prostatic phenotypic variability dictated by a genetic background that is potentially capable of influencing the process of carcinogenesis has not been established. Results In this study we used microarray analysis to quantify transcript levels in the prostates of five commonly studied inbred mouse strains. We applied a multiclass response t-test and determined that approximately 13% (932 genes) exhibited differential expression (range 1.3-190-fold) in any one strain relative to other strains (false discovery rate ?10%). Expression differences were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, or immunohistochemistry for several genes previously shown to influence cancer progression, such as Psca, Mmp7, and Clusterin. Analyses of human prostate transcripts orthologous to variable murine prostate genes identified differences in gene expression in benign epithelium that correlated with the differentiation state of adjacent tumors. For example, the gene encoding apolipoprotein D, which is known to enhance resistance to cell stress, was expressed at significantly greater levels in benign epithelium associated with high-grade versus low-grade cancers. Conclusion These studies support the concept that the cellular, tissue, and organismal context contribute to oncogenesis and suggest that a predisposition to a sequence of events leading to pathology may exist prior to cancer initiation. PMID:17577413

Bianchi-Frias, Daniella; Pritchard, Colin; Mecham, Brigham H; Coleman, Ilsa M; Nelson, Peter S

2007-01-01

244

Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility  

PubMed Central

To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, East Asian, South Asian, and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed significant excess in directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven novel T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterisation of complex trait loci, and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry. PMID:24509480

2014-01-01

245

Study of Associated Genetic Variants in Indian Subjects Reveals the Basis of Ethnicity Related Differences in Susceptibility to Venous Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

The genetic variants linked with the susceptibility of individuals to VTE are well known; however, the studies explaining the ethnicity based difference in susceptibility to VTE are limited. Present study assesses mutations in six candidate genes contributing to the etiology of VTE in Indian subjects. The study comprised 93 VTE patients and 102 healthy controls. A PCR-RFLP based analysis was performed for nine mutations in the following genes associated with VTE: favtor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), fibrinogen-beta, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and methylene tetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR). All the subjects were found to be monomorphic for FVL 1691G/A, prothrombin 20210G/A and TFPI ?536C/T mutations. The mutation in the MTHFR gene (677C/T) was observed only in patients. Contrarily, higher frequency of mutation in the PAI-1 ?844G/A and the fibrinogen-? ?455G/A was observed in controls in comparison to the patients. This study suggests that the PAI-1 ?844G/A and fibrinogen-? ?455G/A could be protective variants against VTE in Indians. While MTHFR 677C/T mutation was found to be associated, in contrast to other populations, the established genetic variants FVL 1691G/A, prothrombin 20210G/A, and TFPI ?536C/T may not be associated with VTE in Indians thus revealing the basis of ethnicity related differences in susceptibility of Indians to VTE. PMID:25349733

Kumari, Babita; Srivastava, Swati; Chatterjee, Tathagat; Vardhan, Rig; Tyagi, Tarun; Gupta, Neha; Sahu, Anita; Chandra, Khem; Ashraf, Mohammad Zahid

2014-01-01

246

Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility.  

PubMed

To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry. PMID:24509480

Mahajan, Anubha; Go, Min Jin; Zhang, Weihua; Below, Jennifer E; Gaulton, Kyle J; Ferreira, Teresa; Horikoshi, Momoko; Johnson, Andrew D; Ng, Maggie C Y; Prokopenko, Inga; Saleheen, Danish; Wang, Xu; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Adair, Linda S; Almgren, Peter; Atalay, Mustafa; Aung, Tin; Baldassarre, Damiano; Balkau, Beverley; Bao, Yuqian; Barnett, Anthony H; Barroso, Ines; Basit, Abdul; Been, Latonya F; Beilby, John; Bell, Graeme I; Benediktsson, Rafn; Bergman, Richard N; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Burtt, Noël; Cai, Qiuyin; Campbell, Harry; Carey, Jason; Cauchi, Stephane; Caulfield, Mark; Chan, Juliana C N; Chang, Li-Ching; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Charpentier, Guillaume; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Chia, Kee-Seng; Chidambaram, Manickam; Chines, Peter S; Cho, Nam H; Cho, Young Min; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Collins, Francis S; Cornelis, Marylin C; Couper, David J; Crenshaw, Andrew T; van Dam, Rob M; Danesh, John; Das, Debashish; de Faire, Ulf; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Dimas, Antigone S; Dina, Christian; Doney, Alex S; Donnelly, Peter J; Dorkhan, Mozhgan; van Duijn, Cornelia; Dupuis, Josée; Edkins, Sarah; Elliott, Paul; Emilsson, Valur; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Escobedo, Jorge; Esko, Tonu; Eury, Elodie; Florez, Jose C; Fontanillas, Pierre; Forouhi, Nita G; Forsen, Tom; Fox, Caroline; Fraser, Ross M; Frayling, Timothy M; Froguel, Philippe; Frossard, Philippe; Gao, Yutang; Gertow, Karl; Gieger, Christian; Gigante, Bruna; Grallert, Harald; Grant, George B; Grrop, Leif C; Groves, Chrisropher J; Grundberg, Elin; Guiducci, Candace; Hamsten, Anders; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hara, Kazuo; Hassanali, Neelam; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hayward, Caroline; Hedman, Asa K; Herder, Christian; Hofman, Albert; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Hovingh, Kees; Hreidarsson, Astradur B; Hu, Cheng; Hu, Frank B; Hui, Jennie; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Sarah E; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Hydrie, Zafar I; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Islam, Muhammed; Isomaa, Bo; Jackson, Anne U; Jafar, Tazeen; James, Alan; Jia, Weiping; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Jonsson, Anna; Jowett, Jeremy B M; Kadowaki, Takashi; Kang, Hyun Min; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kao, Wen Hong L; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kato, Norihiro; Katulanda, Prasad; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Kirkka M; Kelly, Ann M; Khan, Hassan; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Young Jin; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kong, Augustine; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Kraft, Peter; Kravic, Jasmina; Kristensen, Malene M; Krithika, S; Kumar, Ashish; Kumate, Jesus; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kwak, Soo Heon; Laakso, Markku; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Langford, Cordelia; Lawrence, Robert; Leander, Karin; Lee, Jen-Mai; Lee, Nanette R; Li, Man; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Yun; Liang, Junbin; Liju, Samuel; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lindholm, Eero; Liu, Ching-Ti; Liu, Jian Jun; Lobbens, Stéphane; Long, Jirong; Loos, Ruth J F; Lu, Wei; Luan, Jian'an; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Ma, Ronald C W; Maeda, Shiro; Mägi, Reedik; Männisto, Satu; Matthews, David R; Meigs, James B; Melander, Olle; Metspalu, Andres; Meyer, Julia; Mirza, Ghazala; Mihailov, Evelin; Moebus, Susanne; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mohlke, Karen L; Morris, Andrew D; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Bill; Nakamura, Jiro; Nakashima, Eitaro; Navarro, Pau; Ng, Peng-Keat; Nica, Alexandra C; Nilsson, Peter M; Njølstad, Inger; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohnaka, Keizo; Ong, Twee Hee; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Pankow, James S; Park, Kyong Soo; Parkin, Melissa; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peltonen, Leena; Perry, John R B; Peters, Annette; Pinidiyapathirage, Janini M; Platou, Carl G; Potter, Simon; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Radha, Venkatesan; Rallidis, Loukianos; Rasheed, Asif; Rathman, Wolfgang; Rauramaa, Rainer; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rayner, N William; Rees, Simon D; Rehnberg, Emil; Ripatti, Samuli; Robertson, Neil; Roden, Michael; Rossin, Elizabeth J; Rudan, Igor; Rybin, Denis; Saaristo, Timo E; Salomaa, Veikko; Saltevo, Juha; Samuel, Maria; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Scott, James; Scott, Laura J; Scott, Robert A; Segrè, Ayellet V; Sehmi, Joban; Sennblad, Bengt; Shah, Nabi; Shah, Sonia; Shera, A Samad; Shu, Xiao Ou; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sigur?sson, Gunnar; Sijbrands, Eric; Silveira, Angela; Sim, Xueling; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Small, Kerrin S; So, Wing Yee; Stan?áková, Alena; Stefansson, Kari; Steinbach, Gerald; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Sun, Qi; Suo, Chen

2014-03-01

247

Unifying Genetic Canalization, Genetic Constraint, and Genotype-by-Environment Interaction: QTL by Genomic Background by Environment Interaction of Flowering Time in Boechera stricta  

PubMed Central

Natural populations exhibit substantial variation in quantitative traits. A quantitative trait is typically defined by its mean and variance, and to date most genetic mapping studies focus on loci altering trait means but not (co)variances. For single traits, the control of trait variance across genetic backgrounds is referred to as genetic canalization. With multiple traits, the genetic covariance among different traits in the same environment indicates the magnitude of potential genetic constraint, while genotype-by-environment interaction (GxE) concerns the same trait across different environments. While some have suggested that these three attributes of quantitative traits are different views of similar concepts, it is not yet clear, however, whether they have the same underlying genetic mechanism. Here, we detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing the (co)variance of phenological traits in six distinct environments in Boechera stricta, a close relative of Arabidopsis. We identified nFT as the QTL altering the magnitude of phenological trait canalization, genetic constraint, and GxE. Both the magnitude and direction of nFT's canalization effects depend on the environment, and to our knowledge, this reversibility of canalization across environments has not been reported previously. nFT's effects on trait covariance structure (genetic constraint and GxE) likely result from the variable and reversible canalization effects across different traits and environments, which can be explained by the interaction among nFT, genomic backgrounds, and environmental stimuli. This view is supported by experiments demonstrating significant nFT by genomic background epistatic interactions affecting phenological traits and expression of the candidate gene, FT. In contrast to the well-known canalization gene Hsp90, the case of nFT may exemplify an alternative mechanism: Our results suggest that (at least in traits with major signal integrators such as flowering time) genetic canalization, genetic constraint, and GxE may have related genetic mechanisms resulting from interactions among major QTL, genomic backgrounds, and environments. PMID:25340779

Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Anderson, Jill T.; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2014-01-01

248

Unifying genetic canalization, genetic constraint, and genotype-by-environment interaction: QTL by genomic background by environment interaction of flowering time in Boechera stricta.  

PubMed

Natural populations exhibit substantial variation in quantitative traits. A quantitative trait is typically defined by its mean and variance, and to date most genetic mapping studies focus on loci altering trait means but not (co)variances. For single traits, the control of trait variance across genetic backgrounds is referred to as genetic canalization. With multiple traits, the genetic covariance among different traits in the same environment indicates the magnitude of potential genetic constraint, while genotype-by-environment interaction (GxE) concerns the same trait across different environments. While some have suggested that these three attributes of quantitative traits are different views of similar concepts, it is not yet clear, however, whether they have the same underlying genetic mechanism. Here, we detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing the (co)variance of phenological traits in six distinct environments in Boechera stricta, a close relative of Arabidopsis. We identified nFT as the QTL altering the magnitude of phenological trait canalization, genetic constraint, and GxE. Both the magnitude and direction of nFT's canalization effects depend on the environment, and to our knowledge, this reversibility of canalization across environments has not been reported previously. nFT's effects on trait covariance structure (genetic constraint and GxE) likely result from the variable and reversible canalization effects across different traits and environments, which can be explained by the interaction among nFT, genomic backgrounds, and environmental stimuli. This view is supported by experiments demonstrating significant nFT by genomic background epistatic interactions affecting phenological traits and expression of the candidate gene, FT. In contrast to the well-known canalization gene Hsp90, the case of nFT may exemplify an alternative mechanism: Our results suggest that (at least in traits with major signal integrators such as flowering time) genetic canalization, genetic constraint, and GxE may have related genetic mechanisms resulting from interactions among major QTL, genomic backgrounds, and environments. PMID:25340779

Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Anderson, Jill T; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2014-10-01

249

Sensitivity to hepatotoxicity due to epigallocatechin gallate is affected by genetic background in diversity outbred mice.  

PubMed

Consumer use of herbal and dietary supplements has recently grown in the United States and, with increased use, reports of rare adverse reactions have emerged. One such supplement is green tea extract, containing the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which has been shown to be hepatotoxic at high doses in animal models. The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network has identified multiple patients who have experienced liver injury ascribed to green tea extract consumption and the relationship to dose has not been straightforward, indicating that differences in sensitivity may contribute to the adverse response in susceptible people. The Diversity Outbred (DO), a genetically heterogeneous mouse population, provides a potential platform for study of interindividual toxicity responses to green tea extract. Within the DO population, an equal exposure to EGCG (50?mg/kg; daily for three days) was found to be tolerated in the majority of mice; however, a small fraction of the animals (16%; 43/272) exhibited severe hepatotoxicity (10-86.8% liver necrosis) that is analogous to the clinical cases. The data indicate that the DO mice may provide a platform for informing risk of rare, adverse reactions that may occur in consumer populations upon ingestion of concentrated herbal products. PMID:25446466

Church, Rachel J; Gatti, Daniel M; Urban, Thomas J; Long, Nanye; Yang, Xi; Shi, Qiang; Eaddy, J Scott; Mosedale, Merrie; Ballard, Shawn; Churchill, Gary A; Navarro, Victor; Watkins, Paul B; Threadgill, David W; Harrill, Alison H

2015-02-01

250

Genetic differential susceptibility in literacy-delayed children: a randomized controlled trial on emergent literacy in kindergarten.  

PubMed

In this randomized controlled trial, 508 5-year-old kindergarten children participated, of whom 257 were delayed in literacy skills because they belonged to the lowest quartile of a national standard literacy test. We tested the hypothesis that some children are more susceptible to school-entry educational interventions than their peers due to their genetic makeup, and thus whether the dopamine receptor D4 gene moderated intervention effects. Children were randomly assigned to a control condition or one of two interventions involving computer programs tailored to the literacy needs of delayed pupils: Living Letters for alphabetic knowledge and Living Books for text comprehension. Effects of Living Books met the criteria of differential susceptibility. For carriers of the dopamine receptor D4 gene seven-repeat allele (about one-third of the delayed group), the Living Books program was an important addition to the common core curriculum in kindergarten (effect size d = 0.56), whereas the program did not affect the other children (d = -0.09). The same seven-repeat carriers benefited more from Living Letters than did the noncarriers, as reflected in effect sizes of 0.63 and 0.34, respectively, although such differences did not fulfill the statistical criteria for differential susceptibility. The implications of differential susceptibility for education and regarding the crucial question "what works for whom?" are discussed. PMID:25640831

Plak, Rachel D; Kegel, Cornelia A T; Bus, Adriana G

2015-02-01

251

A matrilineal genetic legacy from the last glacial maximum confers susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely reported in schizophrenia patients. To dissect the matrilineal structure of Han Chinese with or without schizophrenia and to decipher the maternal influence and evolutionary history of schizophrenia, a total of 1212 schizophrenia patients and 1005 matched healthy controls, all of Han Chinese origin, were recruited in Hunan Province, China. We classified haplogroup for each individual based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variations and compared the haplogroup distribution pattern between cases and controls. Haplogroup B5a presented a higher frequency in cases than in controls (P = 0.02, OR = 1.67, 95% CI = [1.09, 2.56]), and this result could be confirmed by permutation analysis. Age estimation of haplogroup B5a in cases revealed a much younger age than that of controls, which was coincident with the Northern Hemisphere deglaciation at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. Analysis of complete mtDNA in five patients belonging to haplogroup B5a showed that this background effect might be caused by haplogroup-defining variants m.8584G>A and m.10398A>G. Our results showed that matrilineal risk factor for schizophrenia had an ancient origin and might acquire a predisposing effect on schizophrenia due to the environment change and/or orchestration with other nuclear genetic factors appeared recently in human evolutionary history. PMID:25064678

Zhang, Wen; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, A-Mei; Peng, Min-Sheng; Xie, Hai-Bing; Tan, Liwen; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Chen, Xiaogang; Yao, Yong-Gang

2014-07-20

252

Genetic background and GxE interactions modulate the penetrance of a naturally occurring wing mutation in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Many genes involved in producing complex traits are incompletely penetrant. One such example is vesiculated, an X-linked gene in Drosophila melanogaster that results in wing defects. To examine the genetic architecture of a complex trait (wings containing vesicles), we placed a naturally occurring variant into multiple autosomal backgrounds and quantified penetrance and expressivity at a range of developmental temperatures. We found significant epistasis, genotype-by-environment interactions, and maternal effects. Sex and temperature effects were modulated by genetic background. The severity of wing phenotypes also varied across different genetic backgrounds, and expressivity was positively correlated with penetrance. We also found evidence of naturally segregating suppressors of vesiculated. These suppressors were present on both the second and third chromosomes, and complex interactions were observed. Taken together, these findings indicate that multiple genetic and environmental factors modulate the phenotypic effects of a naturally occurring vesiculated allele. PMID:24002866

Lachance, Joseph; Jung, Lawrence; True, John R

2013-11-01

253

Gene-environment interactions in determining differences in genetic susceptibility to cancer in subsites of the head and neck.  

PubMed

Genetic differences in susceptibility to cancer in subsites of the head and neck were investigated in a case-control study involving 750 cases of cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, or pharynx, and an equal number of healthy controls. The prevalence of variant genotypes of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1B1, 2E1, or glutathione-S-transferase M1 (null) in cases suggests that polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) modify cancer risk within subsites of the head and neck. Tobacco or alcohol use was found to increase the risk in cases of laryngeal, pharyngeal, or oral cavity cancers. Interaction between genetic variation in DMEs and tobacco smoke (or smoking) exposures conferred significant risk for laryngeal cancer. Likewise, strong associations of the polymorphic genotypes of DMEs with cases of pharyngeal and oral cavity cancer who were tobacco chewers or alcohol users demonstrate that gene-environment interactions may explain differences in genetic susceptibility for cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, and pharynx. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:313-321, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25399842

Maurya, Shailendra S; Katiyar, Tridiv; Dhawan, Ankur; Singh, Sudhir; Jain, Swatantra K; Pant, Mohan C; Parmar, Devendra

2015-04-01

254

Transgenic Expression of the Activating Natural Killer Receptor Ly49H Confers Resistance to Cytomegalovirus in Genetically Susceptible Mice  

PubMed Central

Natural resistance to infection with mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is controlled by a dominant locus, Cmv1. Cmv1 is linked to the Ly49 family of natural killer receptors on distal chromosome 6. While some studies localized Cmv1 as distal to the Ly49 gene cluster, genetic and functional analysis identified Ly49h as a pivotal factor in resistance to MCMV. The role of these two independent genomic domains in MCMV resistance was evaluated by functional complementation using transgenesis of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) in genetically susceptible mice. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of the transgenic animals traced the resistance gene to a single region spanning the Ly49h gene. The appearance of the Ly49H protein in NK cells of transgenic mice coincided with the emergence of MCMV resistance, and there was a threshold Ly49H protein level associated with full recovery. Finally, transgenic expression of Ly49H in the context of either of the two independent susceptibility alleles, Cmv1sBALB or Cmv1sFVB, conferred resistance to MCMV infection. These results demonstrate that Ly49h is necessary and sufficient to confer MCMV resistance, and formally demonstrate allelism between Cmv1 and Ly49h. This panel of transgenic animals provides a unique resource to study possible pleiotropic effect of Cmv1. PMID:12591908

Lee, Seung-Hwan; Zafer, Ahmed; de Repentigny, Yves; Kothary, Rashmi; Tremblay, Michel L.; Gros, Philippe; Duplay, Pascale; Webb, John R.; Vidal, Silvia M.

2003-01-01

255

Mupirocin-induced mutations in ileS in various genetic backgrounds of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Topical mupirocin is widely used for the decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers. We evaluated the capacity of various MRSA clonotypes to develop mutations in the ileS gene associated with low-level mupirocin resistance. Twenty-four mupirocin-sensitive MRSA isolates from a variety of genotypes (determined by a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat assay) were selected. Mupirocin MICs were determined by Etest. The isolates were then incubated in subinhibitory concentrations of mupirocin for 7 to 14 days. Repeat MIC determinations and sequencing of the ileS gene were then performed. Doubling times of isolates exposed to mupirocin and of unexposed isolates were compared. We found that exposure to mupirocin led to rapid induction of low-level resistance (MICs of 8 to 24 ?g/ml) in 11 of 24 (46%) MRSA isolates. This phenomenon was observed in strains with diverse genetic backgrounds. Various mutations were detected in 18 of 24 (75%) MRSA isolates. Acquisition of mutations appeared to be a stepwise process during prolonged incubation with the drug. Among the five isolates exhibiting low-level resistance and the highest MICs, four tested sensitive after incubation in the absence of mupirocin but there was no reversion to the susceptible wild-type primary sequence. Resistance was not associated with significant fitness cost, suggesting that MRSA strains with low-level mupirocin resistance may have a selective advantage in facilities where mupirocin is commonly used. Our findings emphasize the importance of the judicious use of this topical agent and the need to closely monitor for the emergence of resistance. PMID:25122856

Lee, Andie S; Gizard, Yann; Empel, Joanna; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Harbarth, Stephan; François, Patrice

2014-10-01

256

Mupirocin-Induced Mutations in ileS in Various Genetic Backgrounds of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Topical mupirocin is widely used for the decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers. We evaluated the capacity of various MRSA clonotypes to develop mutations in the ileS gene associated with low-level mupirocin resistance. Twenty-four mupirocin-sensitive MRSA isolates from a variety of genotypes (determined by a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat assay) were selected. Mupirocin MICs were determined by Etest. The isolates were then incubated in subinhibitory concentrations of mupirocin for 7 to 14 days. Repeat MIC determinations and sequencing of the ileS gene were then performed. Doubling times of isolates exposed to mupirocin and of unexposed isolates were compared. We found that exposure to mupirocin led to rapid induction of low-level resistance (MICs of 8 to 24 ?g/ml) in 11 of 24 (46%) MRSA isolates. This phenomenon was observed in strains with diverse genetic backgrounds. Various mutations were detected in 18 of 24 (75%) MRSA isolates. Acquisition of mutations appeared to be a stepwise process during prolonged incubation with the drug. Among the five isolates exhibiting low-level resistance and the highest MICs, four tested sensitive after incubation in the absence of mupirocin but there was no reversion to the susceptible wild-type primary sequence. Resistance was not associated with significant fitness cost, suggesting that MRSA strains with low-level mupirocin resistance may have a selective advantage in facilities where mupirocin is commonly used. Our findings emphasize the importance of the judicious use of this topical agent and the need to closely monitor for the emergence of resistance. PMID:25122856

Lee, Andie S.; Gizard, Yann; Empel, Joanna; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Harbarth, Stephan

2014-01-01

257

The value of animal models in predicting genetic susceptibility to complex diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a long time, genetic studies of complex diseases were most successfully conducted in animal models. However, the field of genetics is now rapidly evolving, and human genetics has also started to produce strong candidate genes for complex diseases. This raises the question of how to continue gene-finding attempts in animals and how to use animal models to enhance our

Emma Ahlqvist; Malin Hultqvist; Rikard Holmdahl

2009-01-01

258

1998 Oxford University Press 13931398Human Molecular Genetics, 1998, Vol. 7, No. 9 Genome-wide search for asthma susceptibility loci in  

E-print Network

-wide search for asthma susceptibility loci in a founder population Carole Ober*, Nancy J. Cox1, Mark Abney, Stephanie Willadsen and Rodney Parry3 and the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma Department that are likely to be genetically heterogeneous. To identify genes that influence asthma and asthma

Abney, Mark

259

Association of the tumour necrosis factor ? ?308 but not the interleukin 10 ?627 promoter polymorphism with genetic susceptibility to primary sclerosing cholangitis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown aetiology. Abnormalities in immune regulation and genetic associations suggest that PSC is an immune mediated disease. Several polymorphisms within the tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) promoter genes have been described which influence expression of these cytokines. This study examines the possible association between polymorphisms at the ?308 and ?627 positions in the TNF-? and IL-10 promoter genes, respectively, and susceptibility to PSC.?METHODS—TNF-? ?308 genotypes were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 160 PSC patients from Norway and the UK compared with 145 ethnically matched controls. IL-10 ?627 genotypes were studied by PCR in 90 PSC patients compared with 84 ethnically matched controls.?RESULTS—A total of 16% of Norwegian PSC patients and 12% of British PSC patients were homozygous for the TNF2 allele compared with 3% and 6% of respective controls. The TNF2 allele was present in 60% of PSC patients versus 30% of controls (ORcombined data=3.2 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.8-4.5); pcorr=10?5). The association between the TNF2 allele and susceptibility to PSC was independent of the presence of concurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the PSC patients; 61% of PSC patients without IBD had TNF2 compared with 30% of controls (ORcombined data=3.2 (95% CI 1.2-9.0); pcorr=0.006 ). There was no difference in the ?627 IL-10 polymorphism distributions between patients and controls in either population. The increase in TNF2 allele in PSC patients only occurs in the presence of DRB1*0301 (DR3) and B8. In the combined population data, DRB1*0301 showed a stronger association with susceptibility to PSC than both the TNF2 and B8 alleles (ORcombined data=3.8, pcorr=10?6 v ORcombined data=3.2, pcorr=10?5 v ORcombined data =3.41, pcorr=10?4, respectively).?CONCLUSIONS—This study identified a significant association between possession of the TNF2 allele, a G?A substitution at position ?308 in the TNF-? promoter, and susceptibility to PSC. This association was secondary to the association of PSC with the A1-B8-DRB1*0301-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 haplotype. No association was found between the IL-10 ?627 promoter polymorphism and PSC.???Keywords: primary sclerosing cholangitis; tumour necrosis factor; interleukin 10; genetic polymorphism PMID:11454808

Mitchell, S; Grove, J; Spurkland, A; Boberg, K; Fleming, K; Day, C; Schrumpf, E; Chapman, R; the, E

2001-01-01

260

Genetic variation for susceptibility to storm-induced stem breakage in Solidago altissima: The role of stem height and morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While storms can have obvious ecological impacts on plants, plants' potential to respond evolutionarily to selection for increased resistance to storm damage has received little study. We took advantage of a thunderstorm with strong wind and hail to examine genetic variation for resistance to stem breakage in the herbaceous perennial Solidago altissima. The storm broke the apex of nearly 10% of 1883 marked ramets in a common-garden plot containing 26 genets of S. altissima. Plant genets varied 20-fold in resistance to breakage. Stem height was strongly correlated with resistance to breakage, with taller stems being significantly more susceptible. A stem's growth form (erect versus nodding) had no detectable effect on its resistance to breakage. Therefore, we rejected the hypothesis that a function of the nodding, or "candy-cane," morphology is protection of the apex from storm damage. The significant genetic variation in S. altissima for stem breakage suggests that this plant has the capacity to respond to selection imposed by storms - particularly through changes in mean stem height. Tradeoffs between breakage resistance and competition for light and pollinators may act to maintain a large amount of genetic variation in stem height.

Wise, Michael J.; Abrahamson, Warren G.

2010-07-01

261

Changes to perceptions of the pros and cons of genetic susceptibility testing after APOE genotyping for Alzheimer disease risk  

PubMed Central

Purpose Perceptions about the pros and cons of genetic susceptibility testing are among the best predictors of test utilization. How actual testing changes such perceptions has yet to be examined. Methods In a clinical trial, first-degree relatives of patients with Alzheimer disease received genetic risk assessments for Alzheimer disease including APOE disclosure. Participants rated 11 possible benefits associated with genetic testing (pros) and 10 risks or limitations (cons) before genetic risk disclosure and again 12 months afterward. Results Pros were rated higher than cons at baseline (3.53 vs. 1.83, P < 0.001) and at 12 months after risk disclosure (3.33 vs. 1.88, P < 0.001). Ratings of pros decreased during the 12-month period (3.33 vs. 3.53, P < 0.001). Ratings of cons did not change (1.88 vs. 1.83, P = 0.199) except for a three-item discrimination subscale which increased (2.07 vs. 1.92, P = 0.012). Among specific pros and cons, three items related to prevention and treatment changed the most. Conclusion The process of APOE genetic risk assessment for Alzheimer disease sensitizes some to its limitations and the risks of discrimination; however, 1-year after disclosure, test recipients still consider the pros to strongly outweigh the cons. PMID:21270636

Christensen, Kurt D.; Roberts, J. Scott; Uhlmann, Wendy R.; Green, Robert C.

2011-01-01

262

Hürthle Cells Predict Hypothyroidism in Interferon-? Transgenic Mice of Different Genetic Backgrounds  

PubMed Central

Hürthle cells have long been described in Hashimoto thyroiditis but remain of undetermined significance. We have previously shown that Hürthle cells and hypothyroidism develop in C57BL/6J mice expressing interferon-? (IFN?) in the thyroid. To assess the influence of genetic backgrounds on Hürthle cell development, we crossed C57BL/6J IFN? transgenic mice to 14 strains and analyzed thyroid histopathology and function in a cohort of 389 mice (225 transgenic and 164 wild type) using a multiple linear regression model that also included strain, sex, genotype, and major histocompatibility complex haplotype. We then queried the Johns Hopkins surgical pathology electronic archive for “Hashimoto” and/or “thyroiditis” keywords, reviewed the reports, and reexamined the Hashimoto slides. Hürthle cells were markedly affected by the genetic background: they were prominent and associated with hypothyroidism in the C57BL/6J, C57BL/6ByJ, C57BL/10J, C57BLKS/J, C57L/J, C58/J, and BPN/3J IFN? transgenic strains, whereas they are mild or absent in the BPH/2J, BPL/1J, LP/J, CBA/J, Balb/cJ, DBA/1J, and NOD/ShiLtJ strains. Hürthle cells were the strongest predictor of hypothyroidism after adjusting for all the other covariates in the regression model. Interestingly, transgenic mice of the BPL/1J, DBA/1J, and NOD/ShiLtJ strains developed a marked accumulation of intrathyroidal brown adipocytes that was significantly associated with improved thyroid function. Hürthle cells were mentioned in 23% of the Hashimoto reports but increased to 79% upon our slide review. This study reports a novel association of Hürhtle cells and brown adipocytes on thyroid function that should prompt a reconsideration of their significance and role in pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:22719056

Iwama, Shintaro; De Remigis, Alessandra; Bishop, Justin A.; Kimura, Hiroaki J.

2012-01-01

263

NOS2 Variants Reveal a Dual Genetic Control of Nitric Oxide Levels, Susceptibility to Plasmodium Infection, and Cerebral Malaria  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is a proposed component of malaria pathogenesis, and the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS2) has been associated to malaria susceptibility. We analyzed the role of NOS2 polymorphisms on NO bioavailability and on susceptibility to infection, Plasmodium carrier status and clinical malaria. Two distinct West African sample collections were studied: a population-based collection of 1,168 apparently healthy individuals from the Príncipe Island and a hospital-based cohort of 269 Angolan children. We found that two NOS2 promoter single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles associated to low NO plasma levels in noninfected individuals were also associated to reduced risk of pre-erythrocytic infection as measured anti-CSP antibody levels (6.25E–04 < P < 7.57E–04). In contrast, three SNP alleles within the NOS2 cistronic region conferring increased NO plasma levels in asymptomatic carriers were strongly associated to risk of parasite carriage (8.00E–05 < P < 7.90E–04). Notwithstanding, three SNP alleles in this region protected from cerebral malaria (7.90E–4 < P < 4.33E–02). Cohesively, the results revealed a dual regimen in the genetic control of NO bioavailability afforded by NOS2 depending on the infection status. NOS2 promoter variants operate in noninfected individuals to decrease both NO bioavailability and susceptibility to pre-erythrocytic infection. Conversely, NOS2 cistronic variants (namely, rs6505469) operate in infected individuals to increase NO bioavailability and confer increased susceptibility to unapparent infection but protect from cerebral malaria. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that NO anti-inflammatory properties impact on different steps of malaria pathogenesis, explicitly by favoring infection susceptibility and deterring severe malaria syndromes. PMID:24379293

Trovoada, Maria de Jesus; Martins, Madalena; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Sambo, Maria do Rosário; Fernandes, Ana B.; Antunes Gonçalves, Lígia; Borja, Artur; Moya, Roni; Almeida, Paulo; Costa, João; Marques, Isabel; Macedo, M. Paula; Coutinho, António; Narum, David L.

2014-01-01

264

Genetic Polymorphisms in CYP2E1: Association with Schizophrenia Susceptibility and Risperidone Response in the Chinese Han Population  

PubMed Central

Background CYP2E1 is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, which is involved in the metabolism and activation of both endobiotics and xenobiotics. The genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 gene (Chromosome 10q26.3, Accession Number NC_000010.10) are reported to be related to the development of several mental diseases and to be involved in the clinical efficacy of some psychiatric medications. We investigated the possible association of CYP2E1 polymorphisms with susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Chinese Han Population as well as the relationship with response to risperidone in schizophrenia patients. Methods In a case-control study, we identified 11 polymorphisms in the 5' flanking region of CYP2E1 in 228 schizophrenia patients and 384 healthy controls of Chinese Han origin. From among the cases, we chose 130 patients who had undergone 8 weeks of risperidone monotherapy to examine the relationship between their response to risperidone and CYP2E1 polymorphisms. Clinical efficacy was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Results Statistically significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies were found between cases and controls at rs8192766 (genotype p?=?0.0048, permutation p?=?0.0483) and rs2070673 (allele: p?=?0.0018, permutation p?=?0.0199, OR?=?1.4528 95%CI?=?1.1487–1.8374; genotype: p?=?0.0020, permutation p?=?0.0225). In addition, a GTCAC haplotype containing 5 SNPs (rs3813867, rs2031920, rs2031921, rs3813870 and rs2031922) was observed to be significantly associated with schizophrenia (p?=?7.47E-12, permutation p<0.0001). However, no association was found between CYP2E1 polymorphisms/haplotypes and risperidone response. Conclusions Our results suggest that CYP2E1 may be a potential risk gene for schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. However, polymorphisms of the CYP2E1 gene may not contribute significantly to individual differences in the therapeutic efficacy of risperidone. Further studies in larger groups are warranted to confirm our results. PMID:22606226

Wei, Zhiyun; Shen, Lu; Xiong, Yuyu; Wu, Xi; Niu, Jiamin; Han, Xia; Tian, Zhengan; Yang, Lun; Feng, Guoyin; He, Lin; Qin, Shengying

2012-01-01

265

Population Genetics of GYPB and Association Study between GYPB*S/s Polymorphism and Susceptibility to P. falciparum Infection in the Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

Background Merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum invade through several pathways using different RBC receptors. Field isolates appear to use a greater variability of these receptors than laboratory isolates. Brazilian field isolates were shown to mostly utilize glycophorin A-independent invasion pathways via glycophorin B (GPB) and/or other receptors. The Brazilian population exhibits extensive polymorphism in blood group antigens, however, no studies have been done to relate the prevalence of the antigens that function as receptors for P. falciparum and the ability of the parasite to invade. Our study aimed to establish whether variation in the GYPB*S/s alleles influences susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum in the admixed population of Brazil. Methods Two groups of Brazilian Amazonians from Porto Velho were studied: P. falciparum infected individuals (cases); and uninfected individuals who were born and/or have lived in the same endemic region for over ten years, were exposed to infection but have not had malaria over the study period (controls). The GPB Ss phenotype and GYPB*S/s alleles were determined by standard methods. Sixty two Ancestry Informative Markers were genotyped on each individual to estimate admixture and control its potential effect on the association between frequency of GYPB*S and malaria infection. Results GYPB*S is associated with host susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum; GYPB*S/GYPB*S and GYPB*S/GYPB*s were significantly more prevalent in the in the P. falciparum infected individuals than in the controls (69.87% vs. 49.75%; P<0.02). Moreover, population genetics tests applied on the GYPB exon sequencing data suggest that natural selection shaped the observed pattern of nucleotide diversity. Conclusion Epidemiological and evolutionary approaches suggest an important role for the GPB receptor in RBC invasion by P. falciparum in Brazilian Amazons. Moreover, an increased susceptibility to infection by this parasite is associated with the GPB S+ variant in this population. PMID:21283638

Amaral, Daphne R. T.; Costa, Daiane C.; Furlani, Natália G.; Zuccherato, Luciana W.; Machado, Moara; Reid, Marion E.; Zalis, Mariano G.; Rossit, Andréa R.; Santos, Sidney E. B.; Machado, Ricardo L.; Lustigman, Sara

2011-01-01

266

Contribution of NTRK2 to the genetic susceptibility to anorexia nervosa, harm avoidance and minimum body mass index.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are eating disorders (ED) with complex genetic and environmental components. Genetic studies and animal models support the participation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the vulnerability to AN and BN. We investigated the genetic contribution of the BDNF-specific receptor neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (NTRK2) to the susceptibility to ED. We have screened the entire NTRK2 gene in 91 patients with ED and have identified 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A population-based association study with six SNPs from the NTRK2 locus was performed in 164 ED patients and 121 controls. Significant evidence of association for markers -69C>G and IVS13+40G>A was detected. We also observed a strong association between the C-A-insC haplotype (-69/IVS13+40/2784-2785) and binge-eating/purging AN (ANP, P=0.006; OR=2.27), and a reduced frequency of haplotype G-A-delCl in BN patients (P=0.034; OR=0.6). The analysis of ED-related phenotypes revealed a clear association between NTRK2, high scores of Harm avoidance measured by the temperament and character inventory (TCI-R; P=0.003) and minimum body mass index (minBMI; P<0.001). Our data support a contribution of NTRK2 to the genetic susceptibility of ED, mainly ANP, and ED-related phenotypic traits, such as Harm avoidance and minBMI. PMID:15838534

Ribases, M; Gratacos, M; Badia, A; Jimenez, L; Solano, R; Vallejo, J; Fernandez-Aranda, F; Estivill, X

2005-09-01

267

Genetic variants near TIMP3 and high-density lipoproteinassociated loci influence susceptibility to  

E-print Network

, MI 48109; b Ophthalmology and Human Genetics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104; c Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55906; d Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan

Abecasis, Goncalo

268

Resistance of the target islet tissue to autoimmune destruction contributes to genetic susceptibility in Type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes occurs when self-reactive T lymphocytes destroy the insulin-producing islet ? cells of the pancreas. The defects causing this disease have often been assumed to occur exclusively in the immune system. We present evidence that genetic variation at the Idd9 diabetes susceptibility locus determines the resilience of the targets of autoimmunity, the islets, to destruction. Susceptible islets exhibit hyper-responsiveness to inflammatory cytokines resulting in enhanced cell death and increased expression of the death receptor Fas. Fas upregulation in ? cells is mediated by TNFR2, and colocalization of TNFR2 with the adaptor TRAF2 in NOD ? cells is altered. TNFR2 lies within the candidate Idd9 interval and the diabetes-associated variant contains a mutation adjacent to the TRAF2 binding site. A component of diabetes susceptibility may therefore be determined by the target of the autoimmune response, and protective TNFR2 signaling in islets inhibit early cytokine-induced damage required for the development of destructive autoimmunity. This article was reviewed by Matthiasvon Herrath, HaraldVon Boehmer, and Ciriaco Piccirillo (nominated by Ethan Shevach). PMID:17254331

Hill, Natasha J; Stotland, Aleksandr; Solomon, Michelle; Secrest, Patrick; Getzoff, Elizabeth; Sarvetnick, Nora

2007-01-01

269

Legal and ethical issues in genetic testing and counseling for susceptibility to breast, ovarian and colon cancer.  

PubMed

The prediction of susceptibility to heritable breast, ovarian and colon cancer raises important legal and ethical concerns. Health care professionals have a duty to disclose sufficient information to enable patients to make informed decisions. They must also safeguard the confidentiality of patient data. These duties may come into conflict if a positive finding in one patient implies that family members are also at risk. A legal distinction is made between a breach of confidentiality and the legitimate sharing of information in a patient's interest or to prevent harm to a third party. Physicians also have a fiduciary duty to warn. Other issues concern the legal liability assumed by genetic counsellors, whose disclosures may influence decisions about childbearing, for example, and the risk of socioeconomic discrimination faced by people with a known genetic susceptibility. Traditional ethical orientations and principals may be applied to these and other questions, but feminist ethics will likely have particular importance in the development of an ethical stance toward testing and counseling for heritable breast and ovarian cancer. PMID:8634959

Dickens, B M; Pei, N; Taylor, K M

1996-03-15

270

Genetic mapping of a major susceptibility locus for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy on chromosome 15q  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epilepsies are a group of disorders characterised by recurrent seizures caused by episodes of abnormal neuronal hyperexcitability involving the brain. Up to 60 million people are affected worldwide and genetic factors may contribute to the aetiology in up to 40% of patients. The most common human genetic epilepsies display a complex pattern of inheritance. These are categorised as idiopathic

Frances V. Elmslie; Michele Rees; Magali P. Williamson; Michael Kerr; Marianne J. Kjeldsen; Kiang An Pang; Anders Sundqvist; Mögens L. Friis; David Chadwick; Alan Richens; Athanasios Covanis; Manuela Santos; Alexis Arzimanoglou; Chrysostomos P. Panayiotopoulos; David Curtis; William P. Whitehouse; R. Mark Gardiner

1997-01-01

271

Genetic susceptibility to lung cancer—light at the end of the tunnel?  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is one of the most common and deadliest cancers in the world. The major socio-environmental risk factor involved in the development of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. Additionally, there are multiple genetic factors, which may also play a role in lung cancer risk. Early work focused on the presence of relatively prevalent but low-penetrance alterations in candidate genes leading to increased risk of lung cancer. Development of new technologies such as genomic profiling and genome-wide association studies has been helpful in the detection of new genetic variants likely involved in lung cancer risk. In this review, we discuss the role of multiple genetic variants and review their putative role in the risk of lung cancer. Identifying genetic biomarkers and patterns of genetic risk may be useful in the earlier detection and treatment of lung cancer patients. PMID:23349013

Christiani, David C.

2013-01-01

272

HLA and celiac disease susceptibility: new genetic factors bring open questions about the HLA influence and gene-dosage effects.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder triggered after gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible individuals. The major genetic determinants are HLA-DQA1*05 and HLA-DQB1*02, which encode the DQ2 heterodimer. These alleles are commonly inherited in cis with DRB1*03?01, which is associated with numerous immune-related disorders, in some cases contributing with a different amount of risk depending on the haplotype context. We aimed at investigating those possible differences involving DRB1*03?01-carrying haplotypes in CD susceptibility. A family (274 trios) and a case-control sample (369 CD cases/461 controls) were analyzed. DRB1*03?01-carrying individuals were classified according to the haplotype present (ancestral haplotype (AH) 8.1, AH 18.2 or non-conserved haplotype) after genotyping of HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -B8, TNF -308, TNF -376 and the TNFa and TNFb microsatellites. We observe that the AH 8.1 confers higher risk than the remaining DRB1*03?01-carrying haplotypes, and this effect only involves individuals possessing a single copy of DQB1*02. CD risk for these individuals is similar to the one conferred by inherit DQA1*05 and DQB1*02 in trans. It seems that an additional CD susceptibility factor is present in the AH 8.1 but not in other DRB1*03?01-carrying haplotypes. This factor could be shared with individuals possessing DQ2.5 trans, according to the similar risk observed in those two groups of individuals. PMID:23119005

Medrano, Luz María; Dema, Bárbara; López-Larios, Arturo; Maluenda, Carlos; Bodas, Andrés; López-Palacios, Natalia; Figueredo, M Ángeles; Fernández-Arquero, Miguel; Núñez, Concepción

2012-01-01

273

HLA and Celiac Disease Susceptibility: New Genetic Factors Bring Open Questions about the HLA Influence and Gene-Dosage Effects  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder triggered after gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible individuals. The major genetic determinants are HLA-DQA1*05 and HLA-DQB1*02, which encode the DQ2 heterodimer. These alleles are commonly inherited in cis with DRB1*03?01, which is associated with numerous immune-related disorders, in some cases contributing with a different amount of risk depending on the haplotype context. We aimed at investigating those possible differences involving DRB1*03?01-carrying haplotypes in CD susceptibility. A family (274 trios) and a case-control sample (369 CD cases/461 controls) were analyzed. DRB1*03?01-carrying individuals were classified according to the haplotype present (ancestral haplotype (AH) 8.1, AH 18.2 or non-conserved haplotype) after genotyping of HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -B8, TNF -308, TNF -376 and the TNFa and TNFb microsatellites. We observe that the AH 8.1 confers higher risk than the remaining DRB1*03?01-carrying haplotypes, and this effect only involves individuals possessing a single copy of DQB1*02. CD risk for these individuals is similar to the one conferred by inherit DQA1*05 and DQB1*02 in trans. It seems that an additional CD susceptibility factor is present in the AH 8.1 but not in other DRB1*03?01-carrying haplotypes. This factor could be shared with individuals possessing DQ2.5 trans, according to the similar risk observed in those two groups of individuals. PMID:23119005

Medrano, Luz María; Dema, Bárbara; López-Larios, Arturo; Maluenda, Carlos; Bodas, Andrés; López-Palacios, Natalia; Figueredo, M. Ángeles; Fernández-Arquero, Miguel; Núñez, Concepción

2012-01-01

274

Genetic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (sun. F. asiatica) isolates from fish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in a wide variety of freshwater, brackish and marine fish. Due to the emergent nature of this bacterium, established protocols to measure antimicrobial susceptibility ...

275

Genetic variability among the brown rust resistant and susceptible genotypes of sugarcane by RAPD technique  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brown leaf rust in sugarcane is caused by Puccinia melanocephala (Syd. & P. Syd.), which is major cause of cultivar withdrawal. We attempted to analyze the RAPD diversity of two discrete phenotypic classes i.e. rust resistant (R) and rust susceptible (S) of six commercially available sugarcane elite...

276

Blood chimerism confounds genetic relative susceptibility testing for classical scrapie in sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep targeted for eradication in the U.S. Susceptibility of sheep to classical scrapie is linked with certain polymorphisms in the prion protein gene (PRNP), such as disease resistance associated with homozygosity for arginine at codon 171 (R1...

277

Analysis of a p53 Mutation Associated with Cancer Susceptibility for Biochemistry and Genetic Laboratory Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have devised and implemented a module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of a p53 polymorphism associated with cancer susceptibility. First, students collected a drop of peripheral blood cells using a sterile sting and then used FTA cards to extract the genomic DNA. The p53 region is then PCR…

Soto-Cruz, Isabel; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

2009-01-01

278

Genetic mapping of genes for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pears.  

PubMed

Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We identified the exact positions and linkage groups (LGs) of the genes for susceptibility to black spot in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars 'Osa Nijisseiki' (gene Ani) and 'Nansui' (gene Ana). Segregation of susceptibility and resistance fitted the expected ratio of 1:1 in progeny of 'Nansui' but showed a slight distortion in progeny of 'Osa Nijisseiki'. We mapped the genes for susceptibility to black spot in both populations using a genome scanning approach. The simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers CH04h02 and CH03d02 showed tight linkage to Ani and Ana. Although Ani and Ana are derived from different sources, both genes are located at the top region of LG 11. Information about the positions of the susceptibility genes and the molecular markers linked to them will be useful for marker-assisted selection in pear breeding programs. PMID:17893733

Terakami, S; Adachi, Y; Iketani, H; Sato, Y; Sawamura, Y; Takada, N; Nishitani, C; Yamamoto, T

2007-08-01

279

Genetic background of HSH in three Polish families and a patient with an X;9 translocation.  

PubMed

Hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia (HSH) is a rare inherited disease, characterised by neurological symptoms, such as tetany, muscle spasms and seizures, due to hypocalcemia. It has been suggested that HSH is genetically heterogeneous, but only one causative gene, TRPM6, on chromosome 9 has so far been isolated. We have now studied the genetic background of HSH in four Polish patients belonging to three families, and a HSH patient carrying an apparently balanced X;9 translocation. The translocation patient has long been considered as an example of the X-linked form of HSH. We identified six TRPM6 gene mutations, of which five were novel, in the Polish patients. All the alterations were either nonsense/splicing or missense mutations. The clinical picture of the patients was similar to the HSH patients reported earlier. No genotype-phenotype correlation could be detected. Sequencing did not reveal any TRPM6 or TRPM7 gene mutations in the female HSH patient with an X;9 translocation. Isolation of the translocation breakpoint showed that the chromosome 9 specific breakpoint mapped within satellite III repeat sequence. The X-chromosomal breakpoint was localised to the first intron of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene, VEGFD. No other sequence alterations were observed within the VEGFD gene. Even though the VEGFD gene was interrupted by the X;9 translocation, it seems unlikely that VEGFD is causing the translocation patient's HSH-like phenotype. Furthermore, re-evaluation of patient's clinical symptoms suggests that she did not have a typical HSH. PMID:16267500

Jalkanen, Reetta; Pronicka, Ewa; Tyynismaa, Henna; Hanauer, Andre; Walder, Roxanne; Alitalo, Tiina

2006-01-01

280

Host Genetic Background Impacts Disease Outcome During Intrauterine Infection with Ureaplasma parvum  

PubMed Central

Ureaplasma parvum, an opportunistic pathogen of the human urogenital tract, has been implicated in contributing to chorioamnionitis, fetal morbidity, and fetal mortality. It has been proposed that the host genetic background is a critical factor in adverse pregnancy outcome as sequela to U. parvum intra-amniotic infection. To test this hypothesis we assessed the impact of intrauterine U. parvum infection in the prototypical TH1/M1 C57BL/6 and TH2/M2 BALB/c mouse strain. Sterile medium or U. parvum was inoculated into each uterine horn and animals were evaluated for intra-amniotic infection, fetal infection, chorioamnionitis and fetal pathology at 72 hours post-inoculation. Disease outcome was assessed by microbial culture, in situ detection of U. parvum in fetal and utero-placental tissues, grading of chorioamnionitis, and placental gene expression of IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, S100A8, and S100A9. Placental infection and colonization rates were equivalent in both strains. The in situ distribution of U. parvum in placental tissues was also similar. However, a significantly greater proportion of BALB/c fetuses were infected (P<0.02). C57BL/6 infected animals predominantly exhibited mild to moderate chorioamnionitis (P<0.0001), and a significant reduction in placental expression of IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, S100A8, and S100A9 compared to sham controls (P<0.02). Conversely, severe protracted chorioamnionitis with cellular necrosis was the predominant lesion phenotype in BALB/c mice, which also exhibited a significant increase in placental expression of IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, S100A8, and S100A9 (P<0.01). Fetal pathology in BALB/c was multi-organ and included brain, lung, heart, liver, and intestine, whereas fetal pathology in C57BL/6 was only detected in the liver and intestines. These results confirm that the host genetic background is a major determinant in ureaplasmal induced chorioamnionitis with fetal infection and fetal inflammatory response. PMID:22952869

von Chamier, Maria; Allam, Ayman; Brown, Mary B.; Reinhard, Mary K.; Reyes, Leticia

2012-01-01

281

Genetic basis of HIV-1 resistance and susceptibility: an approach to understand correlation between human genes and HIV-1 infection.  

PubMed

HIV infection is the serious medical and public health issue of present generation. By 2005, it has already infected a cumulative total of more than sixty million people worldwide and the number of HIV positive cases are rising day by day. India is currently estimated to have about 5.1 million infected persons with HIV-1 or AIDS (second only to South Africa) and this number could increase to 24 million in the next ten years. This pandemic situation of the AIDS stimulated a plethora of longitudinal cohort studies which are designed to document medical heterogeneity as well as to mitigate the factors that regulate the HIV-1 infection, disease progression and the immune defenses. In recent years these genetic studies have led to the discovery of various MHC and non MHC encoded genes, which directly or indirectly influence the susceptibility and resistance to HIV infection and AIDS. These genes and their mutated forms and their products which play a major role in determining the susceptibility or resistance to HIV-1 infection and AIDS. These genes have been categorized into MHC or non MHC encoded genes. The MHC encoded genes which determine HIV resistance or susceptibility are HLA-B57, HLA-B58, HLA-B27, HLA-Bw4 and HLA-A11 in Southeast Asians. On the other hand, non MHC encoded genes are CCR5, CCR2, RANTES, CXCL12, CXCR6, CCL3L1, Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and interferon gamma. The site specific mutations in these genes determine the susceptibility or resistance to HIV-1 infection and AIDS. In future the study of host genes in relation to HIV-1 infection may provide the researchers to develop newer chemotherapeutic approaches to prevent or cure HIV-1 infection effectively. PMID:16999022

Kumar, Vijay; Prakash, O; Manpreet, S; Sumedh, G; Medhi, B

2006-09-01

282

Identification of Genetic Susceptibility Loci for Colorectal Tumors in a Genome-wide Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND & AIMS Heritable factors contribute to the development of colorectal cancer. Identifying the genetic loci associated with colorectal tumor formation could elucidate the mechanisms of pathogenesis. METHODS We conducted a genome-wide association study that included 14 studies, 12,696 cases of colorectal tumors (11,870 cancer, 826 adenoma), and 15,113 controls of European descent. The 10 most statistically significant, previously unreported findings were followed up in 6 studies; these included 3056 colorectal tumor cases (2098 cancer, 958 adenoma) and 6658 controls of European and Asian descent. RESULTS Based on the combined analysis, we identified a locus that reached the conventional genome-wide significance level at less than 5.0 × 10?8: an intergenic region on chromosome 2q32.3, close to nucleic acid binding protein 1 (most significant single nucleotide polymorphism: rs11903757; odds ratio [OR], 1.15 per risk allele; P = 3.7 × 10?8). We also found evidence for 3 additional loci with P values less than 5.0 × 10?7: a locus within the laminin gamma 1 gene on chromosome 1q25.3 (rs10911251; OR, 1.10 per risk allele; P = 9.5 × 10?8), a locus within the cyclin D2 gene on chromosome 12p13.32 (rs3217810 per risk allele; OR, 0.84; P = 5.9 × 10?8), and a locus in the T-box 3 gene on chromosome 12q24.21 (rs59336; OR, 0.91 per risk allele; P = 3.7 × 10?7). CONCLUSIONS In a large genome-wide association study, we associated polymorphisms close to nucleic acid binding protein 1 (which encodes a DNA-binding protein involved in DNA repair) with colorectal tumor risk. We also provided evidence for an association between colorectal tumor risk and polymorphisms in laminin gamma 1 (this is the second gene in the laminin family to be associated with colorectal cancers), cyclin D2 (which encodes for cyclin D2), and T-box 3 (which encodes a T-box transcription factor and is a target of Wnt signaling to ?-catenin). The roles of these genes and their products in cancer pathogenesis warrant further investigation. PMID:23266556

Peters, Ulrike; Jiao, Shuo; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Baron, John A.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bézieau, Stéphane; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Caan, Bette J.; Campbell, Peter T.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Lin S.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Coetzee, Simon G.; Conti, David V.; Curtis, Keith R.; Duggan, David; Edwards, Todd; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Hunter, David J.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Jee, Sun Ha; Jenkins, Mark A.; Jia, Wei-Hua; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Küry, Sébastien; Lacroix, Andrea Z.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Laurie, Cecelia A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lemire, Mathieu; Levine, David; Lindor, Noralane M.; Liu, Yan; Ma, Jing; Makar, Karen W.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Newcomb, Polly A.; Potter, John D.; Prentice, Ross L.; Qu, Conghui; Rohan, Thomas; Rosse, Stephanie A.; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Shrubsole, Martha; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Slattery, Martha L.; Taverna, Darin; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; White, Emily; Xiang, Yongbing; Zanke, Brent W.; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Ben; Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Li

2013-01-01

283

Meta-analysis of susceptibility of woody plants to loss of genetic diversity through habitat fragmentation.  

PubMed

Shrubs and trees are assumed less likely to lose genetic variation in response to habitat fragmentation because they have certain life-history characteristics such as long lifespans and extensive pollen flow. To test this assumption, we conducted a meta-analysis with data on 97 woody plant species derived from 98 studies of habitat fragmentation. We measured the weighted response of four different measures of population-level genetic diversity to habitat fragmentation with Hedge's d and Spearman rank correlation. We tested whether the genetic response to habitat fragmentation was mediated by life-history traits (longevity, pollination mode, and seed dispersal vector) and study characteristics (genetic marker and plant material used). For both tests of effect size habitat fragmentation was associated with a substantial decrease in expected heterozygosity, number of alleles, and percentage of polymorphic loci, whereas the population inbreeding coefficient was not associated with these measures. The largest proportion of variation among effect sizes was explained by pollination mechanism and by the age of the tissue (progeny or adult) that was genotyped. Our primary finding was that wind-pollinated trees and shrubs appeared to be as likely to lose genetic variation as insect-pollinated species, indicating that severe habitat fragmentation may lead to pollen limitation and limited gene flow. In comparison with results of previous meta-analyses on mainly herbaceous species, we found trees and shrubs were as likely to have negative genetic responses to habitat fragmentation as herbaceous species. We also found that the genetic variation in offspring was generally less than that of adult trees, which is evidence of a genetic extinction debt and probably reflects the genetic diversity of the historical, less-fragmented landscape. PMID:22044646

Vranckx, Guy; Jacquemyn, Hans; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

2012-04-01

284

Behavioral deficits in an Angelman syndrome model: effects of genetic background and age.  

PubMed

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with disruption of maternally inherited UBE3A (ubiquitin protein ligase E3A) expression. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for AS. Mouse lines with loss of maternal Ube3a (Ube3a(m-/p+)) recapitulate multiple aspects of the clinical AS profile, including impaired motor coordination, learning deficits, and seizures. Thus, these genetic mouse models could serve as behavioral screens for preclinical efficacy testing, a critical component of drug discovery for AS intervention. However, the severity and consistency of abnormal phenotypes reported in Ube3a(m-/p+) mice can vary, dependent upon age and background strain, which is problematic for the detection of beneficial drug effects. As part of an ongoing AS drug discovery initiative, we characterized Ube3a(m-/p+) mice on either a 129S7/SvEvBrd-Hprt(b-m2) (129) or C57BL/6J (B6) background across a range of functional domains and ages to identify reproducible and sufficiently large phenotypes suitable for screening therapeutic compounds. The results from the study showed that Ube3a(m-/p+) mice have significant deficits in acquisition and reversal learning in the Morris water maze. The findings also demonstrated that Ube3a(m-/p+) mice exhibit motor impairment in a rotarod task, hypoactivity, reduced rearing and marble-burying, and deficient fear conditioning. Overall, these profiles of abnormal phenotypes can provide behavioral targets for evaluating effects of novel therapeutic strategies relevant to AS. PMID:23295389

Huang, Hsien-Sung; Burns, Andrew J; Nonneman, Randal J; Baker, Lorinda K; Riddick, Natallia V; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Riday, Thorfinn T; Yashiro, Koji; Philpot, Benjamin D; Moy, Sheryl S

2013-04-15

285

Behavioral deficits in an Angelman syndrome model: Effects of genetic background and age  

PubMed Central

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with disruption of maternally inherited UBE3A (ubiquitin protein ligase E3A) expression. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for AS. Mouse lines with loss of maternal Ube3a (Ube3am–/p+) recapitulate multiple aspects of the clinical AS profile, including impaired motor coordination, learning deficits, and seizures. Thus, these genetic mouse models could serve as behavioral screens for preclinical efficacy testing, a critical component of drug discovery for AS intervention. However, the severity and consistency of abnormal phenotypes reported in Ube3am–/p+ mice can vary, dependent upon age and background strain, which is problematic for the detection of beneficial drug effects. As part of an ongoing AS drug discovery initiative, we characterized Ube3am–/p+ mice on either a 129S7/SvEvBrd-Hprtb-m2 (129) or C57BL/6J (B6) background across a range of functional domains and ages to identify reproducible and sufficiently large phenotypes suitable for screening therapeutic compounds. The results from the study showed that Ube3am–/p+ mice have significant deficits in acquisition and reversal learning in the Morris water maze. The findings also demonstrated that Ube3am–/p+ mice exhibit motor impairment in a rotarod task, hypoactivity, reduced rearing and marble-burying, and deficient fear conditioning. Overall, these profiles of abnormal phenotypes can provide behavioral targets for evaluating effects of novel therapeutic strategies relevant to AS. PMID:23295389

Huang, Hsien-Sung; Burns, Andrew J.; Nonneman, Randal J.; Baker, Lorinda K.; Riddick, Natallia V.; Nikolova, Viktoriya D.; Riday, Thorfinn T.; Yashiro, Koji; Philpot, Benjamin D.; Moy, Sheryl S.

2013-01-01

286

Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69:327340, 2001 A Genomewide Screen for Autism Susceptibility Loci  

E-print Network

and Development, Columbia University, New York; 4 Laboratory of Statistical Genetics, The Rockefeller University and reprints: Dr. T. Conrad Gilliam, Columbia Genome Center, 1150 St. Nicholas Avenue, Room 508, New York, NY

Nyholt, Dale R.

287

Physical activity reduces genetic susceptibility to increased central systolic pressure augmentation: a study of female twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWe sought to examine associations between the augmentation index (AI) and metabolic, adiposity, and lifestyle factors, independent of genetic influences, and to determine whether gene-environment interactions modulate these relationships.

Jerry R Greenfield; Katherine Samaras; Lesley V Campbell; Arthur B Jenkins; Paul J Kelly; Tim D Spector; Christopher S Hayward

2003-01-01

288

Effects of Vendor and Genetic Background on the Composition of the Fecal Microbiota of Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

The commensal gut microbiota has been implicated as a determinant in several human diseases and conditions. There is mounting evidence that the gut microbiota of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) similarly modulates the phenotype of mouse models used to study human disease and development. While differing model phenotypes have been reported using mice purchased from different vendors, the composition and uniformity of the fecal microbiota in mice of various genetic backgrounds from different vendors is unclear. Using culture-independent methods and robust statistical analysis, we demonstrate significant differences in the richness and diversity of fecal microbial populations in mice purchased from two large commercial vendors. Moreover, the abundance of many operational taxonomic units, often identified to the species level, as well as several higher taxa, differed in vendor- and strain-dependent manners. Such differences were evident in the fecal microbiota of weanling mice and persisted throughout the study, to twenty-four weeks of age. These data provide the first in-depth analysis of the developmental trajectory of the fecal microbiota in mice from different vendors, and a starting point from which researchers may be able to refine animal models affected by differences in the gut microbiota and thus possibly reduce the number of animals required to perform studies with sufficient statistical power. PMID:25675094

Ericsson, Aaron C.; Davis, J. Wade; Spollen, William; Bivens, Nathan; Givan, Scott; Hagan, Catherine E.; McIntosh, Mark; Franklin, Craig L.

2015-01-01

289

Effects of vendor and genetic background on the composition of the fecal microbiota of inbred mice.  

PubMed

The commensal gut microbiota has been implicated as a determinant in several human diseases and conditions. There is mounting evidence that the gut microbiota of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) similarly modulates the phenotype of mouse models used to study human disease and development. While differing model phenotypes have been reported using mice purchased from different vendors, the composition and uniformity of the fecal microbiota in mice of various genetic backgrounds from different vendors is unclear. Using culture-independent methods and robust statistical analysis, we demonstrate significant differences in the richness and diversity of fecal microbial populations in mice purchased from two large commercial vendors. Moreover, the abundance of many operational taxonomic units, often identified to the species level, as well as several higher taxa, differed in vendor- and strain-dependent manners. Such differences were evident in the fecal microbiota of weanling mice and persisted throughout the study, to twenty-four weeks of age. These data provide the first in-depth analysis of the developmental trajectory of the fecal microbiota in mice from different vendors, and a starting point from which researchers may be able to refine animal models affected by differences in the gut microbiota and thus possibly reduce the number of animals required to perform studies with sufficient statistical power. PMID:25675094

Ericsson, Aaron C; Davis, J Wade; Spollen, William; Bivens, Nathan; Givan, Scott; Hagan, Catherine E; McIntosh, Mark; Franklin, Craig L

2015-01-01

290

Genetic Background Modulates lncRNA-Coordinated Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation  

PubMed Central

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of diverse cell functions and processes. However, the relevance of lncRNAs in the cell and tissue response to ionizing radiation has not yet been characterized. Here we used microarray profiling to determine lncRNA and mRNA expression in mammary glands of BALB/c and SPRET/EiJ mice after low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) exposure. We found that unirradiated mammary tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of 290 lncRNAs. LDIR exposure (10?cGy) induced a significant change in the expression of many lncRNAs. The vast majority of lncRNAs identified to be differentially expressed after LDIR in either BALB/c or SPRET/EiJ had a significantly correlated expression pattern with at least one LDIR responsive mRNA. Functional analysis revealed that the response to LDIR in BALB/c mice is highly dynamic with enrichment for genes involved in tissue injury, inflammatory responses, and mammary gland development at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after LDIR, respectively. Our study demonstrates that genetic background strongly influences the expression of lncRNAs and their response to radiation and that lncRNAs may coordinate the tissue response to LDIR exposure via regulation of coding mRNAs. PMID:25802832

Tang, Jonathan; Huang, Yurong; Nguyen, David H.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Snijders, Antoine M.; Mao, Jian-Hua

2015-01-01

291

Fitness cost due to herbicide resistance may trigger genetic background evolution.  

PubMed

This article investigates the possible existence of mechanisms counterbalancing the negative pleiotropic effects on development and reproduction that are conferred by alleles responsible for herbicide resistance in the weed Alopecurus myosuroides. We considered three herbicide-resistant, mutant acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) alleles, Leu1781, Asn2041, and Gly2078, found in eight resistant populations. Of these, Gly2078 is the only allele with a known fitness cost. We compared plants homozygous for wild-type ACCase alleles that were siblings of plants carrying a given mutant resistant ACCase allele with plants from three populations where resistance did not evolve. In each of two series of experiments, we measured germination dynamics, seedling vigor, plant height, vegetative biomass, and seed production. The wild-type siblings of plants carrying Gly2078 performed better in the field, on average, than wild-type plants that were sibling of plants carrying other mutant ACCase alleles, and particularly those carrying Leu1781. We propose that rapid evolution of the genetic background of plants from the populations where the Gly2078 allele originally arose could partially counterbalance Gly2078 fitness cost, enhancing the spread of the resistant genotypes. PMID:25255698

Darmency, Henri; Menchari, Yosra; Le Corre, Valérie; Délye, Christophe

2015-01-01

292

Genetically Determined Susceptibility of Fischer 344 Rats to Propylnitrosourea- induced Thymic Lymphomas1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administration of propylnitrosourea p.o. by our protocol in duced a high incidence of hematolymphatic neoplasms in all six rat strains studied. Remarkable strain differences in susceptibility to thymic lymphomas were observed. The incidence of thymic lymphomas was high in Fischer 344 (98%) and Wistar\\/Furth (71%) but low in Sprague-Dawley (29%), ACI\\/Ms (23%), Donryu (24%), and Long-Evans (10%) strains. Segregation of

Hayase Shisa; Hiroshi Hiai

293

Prenatal exposure of mice to the human liver carcinogen aflatoxin B1 reveals a critical window of susceptibility to genetic change.  

PubMed

It has become axiomatic that critical windows of susceptibility to genotoxins exist and that genetic damage in utero may be a trigger for later life cancers. Data supporting this critical window hypothesis are remarkably few. This study provides a quantitative bridge between DNA damage by the liver carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) during prenatal development and the risk of later life genetic disease. AFB1 was given to pregnant C57BL/6J mice, carrying F1 gestation day 14 (GD14) embryos of the B6C3F1 genotype. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) using aflatoxin-(15) N5 -guanine adduct standards afforded measurement of the AFB1 -N(7) -Gua and AFB1 -FAPY adducts 6-hr post dosing in liver DNA of mothers and embryos. A parallel cohort gave birth and the livers of the F1 were analyzed for mutations in the gpt gene at 3 and 10 weeks of age. The data revealed mutational spectra dominated by G:C to T:A mutations in both the mother and offspring that are characteristic of AFB1 and distinct from background. It was shown that adducts in GD14 embryos were 20-fold more potent inducers of mutagenesis than adducts in parallel-dosed adults. This sensitivity enhancement correlated with Ki67 staining of the liver, reflecting the proliferative potential of the tissue. Taken together, these data provide insight into the relative genetic risks of prenatal and adult exposures to AFB1 . Early life exposure, especially during the embryonic period, is strikingly more mutagenic than treatment later in life. Moreover the data provide a baseline against which risk prevention strategies can be evaluated. PMID:25070670

Chawanthayatham, Supawadee; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Egner, Patricia A; Groopman, John D; Wogan, Gerald N; Croy, Robert G; Essigmann, John M

2015-03-15

294

Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, emm type distribution and genetic diversity of Streptococcus pyogenes recovered in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for a variety of infectious diseases and immunological complications. In this study, 91 isolates of S. pyogenes recovered from oropharynx secretions were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was 15.4%, which is higher than previous reports from this area, while 20.9% of the isolates were not susceptible to tetracycline. The macrolide resistance phenotypes were cMLSB (10) and iMLSB (4). The ermB gene was predominant, followed by the ermA gene. Thirty-two emm types and subtypes were found, but five (emm1, emm4, emm12, emm22, emm81) were detected in 48% of the isolates. Three new emm subtypes were identified (emm1.74, emm58.14, emm76.7). There was a strong association between emm type and PFGE clustering. A variety of PFGE profiles as well as emm types were found among tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant isolates, demonstrating that antimicrobial resistant strains do not result from the expansion of one or a few clones. This study provides epidemiological data that contribute to the development of suitable strategies for the prevention and treatment of such infections in a poorly studied area. PMID:25410998

Arêas, Glauber P; Schuab, Rôde BB; Neves, Felipe PG; Barros, Rosana R

2014-01-01

295

Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genetic Characterisation of Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolated from Malaysian Patients  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Ceftazidime (CAZ), the synthetic ?-lactam, is normally used as the first-line antibiotic therapy for treatment of melioidosis. However, acquired CAZ resistance can develop in vivo during treatment with CAZ, leading to mortality if therapy is not switched to a different antibiotic(s) in a timely manner. In this study, susceptibilities of 81 B. pseudomallei isolates to nine different antimicrobial agents were determined using the disk diffusion method, broth microdilution test and Etest. Highest percentage of susceptibility was demonstrated to CAZ, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, meropenem, imipenem, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Although these drugs demonstrated the highest percentage of susceptibility in B. pseudomallei, the overall results underline the importance of the emergence of resistance in this organism. PCR results showed that, of the 81 B. pseudomallei, six multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates carried bpeB, amrB, and BPSS1119 and penA genes. Genotyping of the isolates using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed six different PCR fingerprinting patterns generated from the six MDR isolates clusters (A) and eight PCR fingerprinting patterns generated for the remaining 75 non-MDR isolates clusters (B). PMID:25379514

Khosravi, Yalda; Mariappan, Vanitha; Ng, Shet-Lee

2014-01-01

296

Teaching molecular genetics: Chapter 1—Background principles and methods of molecular biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this first chapter of the series Teaching molecular genetics, an introduction to molecular genetics is presented. We describe the structure of DNA and genes and explain in detail the central dogma of molecular biology, that is, the flow of genetic information from DNA via RNA to polypeptide (protein). In addition, several basic and frequently used general molecular tools, such

Nine V. A. M. Knoers; Leo A. H. Monnens

2006-01-01

297

XRCC1 and XPD genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to age-related cataract: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective This meta-analysis aimed to determine the relationships between XRCC1 Arg399Gln (rs25487 G>A) and XPD Lys751Gln (rs1052559 A>C) polymorphisms and susceptibility to age-related cataract. Methods Medline (1966–2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), EMBASE (1980–2013), CINAHL (1982–2013), Web of Science (1945–2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM; 1982–2013) were searched without language restrictions. Various combinations of the keywords and MeSH terms were used to screen for potentially relevant studies, specifically “genetic polymorphisms” or “SNPs” or “variation” or “single nucleotide polymorphism” or “polymorphism” or “mutation” or “variant”; “X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1” or “Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D Protein” or “X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1” or “Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D Protein” or “XPD” or “Xeroderma Pigmentosum Complementation Group D Protein” or “ERCC2” or “XRCC1” or “XRCC1 DNA repair protein”; and “Cataract” or “ Membranous Cataract” or “ Pseudoaphakia.” Meta-analyses were conducted using Stata 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Results Six independent case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Our results indicated that the association between the genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 Arg399Gln G>A and XPD Lys751Gln A>C and increased susceptibility to age-related cataracts was statistically significant (XRCC1 Arg399Gln: OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.17–1.44, p<0.001; XPD Lys751Gln: OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.12–1.40, p<0.001, respectively). Ethnicity-stratified analysis indicated that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln G>A polymorphism was correlated with the development and progression of age-related cataract in China, India, and Turkey in the allele model and the dominant model. For the XPD Lys751Gln A>C variant, the association with the pathogenesis of age-related cataract in China and Turkey in the allele model and the dominant model was investigated. Conclusions The association of XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms with age-related cataract susceptibility observed in our meta-analyses supports the view that XRCC1 and XPD may play important roles in susceptibility to age-related cataract.

Chi, Xin-Xin; Liu, You-Yu; Shi, Su-Ning; Cong, Zhuang; Liang, Yu-Qing

2015-01-01

298

Genetic Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity: Follow-Up of Findings from Genome-Wide Association Studies  

PubMed Central

Elucidating the underlying genetic variations influencing various complex diseases is one of the major challenges currently facing clinical genetic research. Although these variations are often difficult to uncover, approaches such as genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been successful at finding statistically significant associations between specific genomic loci and disease susceptibility. GWAS has been especially successful in elucidating genetic variants that influence type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity/body mass index (BMI). Specifically, several GWASs have confirmed that a variant in transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) confers risk for T2D, while a variant in fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) confers risk for obesity/BMI; indeed both of these signals are considered the most statistically associated loci discovered for these respective traits to date. The discovery of these two key loci in this context has been invaluable for providing novel insight into mechanisms of heritability and disease pathogenesis. As follow-up studies of TCF7L2 and FTO have typically lead the way in how to follow up a GWAS discovery, we outline what has been learned from such investigations and how they have implications for the myriad of other loci that have been subsequently reported in this disease context. PMID:24719615

Basile, Kevin J.; Johnson, Matthew E.; Xia, Qianghua; Grant, Struan F. A.

2014-01-01

299

Impact of Gene Patents and Licensing Practices on Access to Genetic Testing for Inherited Susceptibility to Cancer: Comparing Breast and Ovarian Cancers to Colon Cancers  

PubMed Central

Genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer can be compared to similar testing for colorectal cancer as a “natural experiment.” Inherited susceptibility accounts for a similar fraction of both cancers and genetic testing results guide decisions about options for prophylactic surgery in both sets of conditions. One major difference is that in the United States, Myriad Genetics is the sole provider of genetic testing, because it has sole control of relevant patents for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes whereas genetic testing for familial colorectal cancer is available from multiple laboratories. Colorectal cancer-associated genes are also patented, but they have been nonexclusively licensed. Prices for BRCA1 and 2 testing do not reflect an obvious price premium attributable to exclusive patent rights compared to colorectal cancer testing, and indeed Myriad’s per unit costs are somewhat lower for BRCA1/2 testing than testing for colorectal cancer susceptibility. Myriad has not enforced patents against basic research, and negotiated a Memorandum of Understanding with the National Cancer Institute in 1999 for institutional BRCA testing in clinical research. The main impact of patenting and licensing in BRCA compared to colorectal cancer is the business model of genetic testing, with a sole provider for BRCA and multiple laboratories for colorectal cancer genetic testing. Myriad’s sole provider model has not worked in jurisdictions outside the United States, largely because of differences in breadth of patent protection, responses of government health services, and difficulty in patent enforcement. PMID:20393305

Cook-Deegan, Robert; DeRienzo, Christopher; Carbone, Julia; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Heaney, Christopher; Conover, Christopher

2011-01-01

300

Impact of gene patents and licensing practices on access to genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to cancer: comparing breast and ovarian cancers with colon cancers.  

PubMed

Genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer can be compared with similar testing for colorectal cancer as a "natural experiment." Inherited susceptibility accounts for a similar fraction of both cancers and genetic testing results guide decisions about options for prophylactic surgery in both sets of conditions. One major difference is that in the United States, Myriad Genetics is the sole provider of genetic testing, because it has sole control of relevant patents for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, whereas genetic testing for familial colorectal cancer is available from multiple laboratories. Colorectal cancer-associated genes are also patented, but they have been nonexclusively licensed. Prices for BRCA1 and 2 testing do not reflect an obvious price premium attributable to exclusive patent rights compared with colorectal cancer testing, and indeed, Myriad's per unit costs are somewhat lower for BRCA1/2 testing than testing for colorectal cancer susceptibility. Myriad has not enforced patents against basic research and negotiated a Memorandum of Understanding with the National Cancer Institute in 1999 for institutional BRCA testing in clinical research. The main impact of patenting and licensing in BRCA compared with colorectal cancer is the business model of genetic testing, with a sole provider for BRCA and multiple laboratories for colorectal cancer genetic testing. Myriad's sole-provider model has not worked in jurisdictions outside the United States, largely because of differences in breadth of patent protection, responses of government health services, and difficulty in patent enforcement. PMID:20393305

Cook-Deegan, Robert; DeRienzo, Christopher; Carbone, Julia; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Heaney, Christopher; Conover, Christopher

2010-04-01

301

Minority mating advantage of certain eye color mutants of Drosophila melanogaster . III. Female discrimination and genetic background  

Microsoft Academic Search

A repetition of certain experiments done 2 years previously with two eye color mutants,brown andscarlet, inDrosophila melanogaster was undertaken to reconfirm results; however, initial tests revealed that strains or conditions had changed so that females were less discriminating. Testing was undertaken with changes in genetic background and certain laboratory conditions, with single females courted by equal numbers of two eye

Eliot B. Spiess

1982-01-01

302

Genetic-Background Modulation of Core and Variable Autistic-Like Symptoms in Fmr1 Knock-Out Mice  

PubMed Central

Background No animal models of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with good construct validity are currently available; using genetic models of pathologies characterized by ASD-like deficits, but with known causes, may be therefore a promising strategy. The Fmr1-KO mouse is an example of this approach, modeling Fragile X syndrome, a well-known genetic disorder presenting ASD symptoms. The Fmr1-KO is available on different genetic backgrounds (FVB versus C57BL/6), which may explain some of the conflicting results that have been obtained with these mutants up till now. Methods Fmr1 KO and their wild-type littermates on both the FVB and C57BL/6 genetic backgrounds were examined on a battery of tests modeling the clinical symptoms of ASD, including the triad of core symptoms (alterations in social interaction and communication, presence of repetitive behaviors), as well as the secondary symptoms (disturbances in sensori-motor reactivity and in circadian patterns of activity, epileptic events). Results Fmr1-KO mice displayed autistic-like core symptoms of altered social interaction and occurrence of repetitive behaviors with additional hyperactivity. The genetic background modulated the effects of the Fmr1 deletion and it appears that the C57BL/6 background may be more suitable for further research on core autistic-like symptoms. Conclusions The Fmr1-mouse line does not recapitulate all of the main core and secondary ASD symptoms, but still can be useful to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying specific ASD-like endophenotypes. PMID:21364941

Pietropaolo, Susanna; Guilleminot, Aurélie; Martin, Benoît; D'Amato, Francesca R.; Crusio, Wim E.

2011-01-01

303

Resistance to Early-Life Stress in Mice: Effects of Genetic Background and Stress Duration  

PubMed Central

Early-life stress can induce marked behavioral and physiological impairments in adulthood including cognitive deficits, depression, anxiety, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Although robust rat models of early-life stress exist there are few established effective paradigms in the mouse. Genetic background and protocol parameters used are two critical variables in such model development. Thus we investigated the impact of two different early-life stress protocols in two commonly used inbred mouse strains. C57BL/6 and innately anxious BALB/c male mice were maternally deprived 3?h daily, either from postnatal day 1 to 14 (protocol 1) or 6 to 10 (protocol 2). Animals were assessed in adulthood for cognitive performance (spontaneous alternation behavior test), anxiety [open-field, light/dark box (L/DB), and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests], and depression-related behaviors (forced swim test) in addition to stress-sensitive physiological changes. Overall, the results showed that early-life stressed mice from both strains displayed good cognitive ability and no elevations in anxiety. However, paradoxical changes occurred in C57BL/6 mice as the longer protocol (protocol 1) decreased anxiety in the L/DB and increased exploration in the EPM. In BALB/c mice there were also limited effects of maternal separation with both separation protocols inducing reductions in stress-induced defecation and protocol 1 reducing the colon length. These data suggest that, independent of stress duration, mice from both strains were on the whole resilient to the maladaptive effects of early-life stress. Thus maternal separation models of brain–gut axis dysfunction should rely on either different stressor protocols or other strains of mice. PMID:21519375

Savignac, Hélène M.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

2011-01-01

304

Common genetic variation in multiple metabolic pathways influences susceptibility to low HDL-cholesterol and coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

A low level of HDL-C is the most common plasma lipid abnormality observed in men with established coronary heart disease (CHD). To identify allelic variants associated with susceptibility to low HDL-C and CHD, we examined 60 candidate genes with key roles in HDL metabolism, insulin resistance, and inflammation using samples from the Veterans Affairs HDL Intervention Trial (VA-HIT; cases, n = 699) and the Framingham Offspring Study (FOS; controls, n = 705). VA-HIT was designed to examine the benefits of HDL-raising with gemfibrozil in men with low HDL-C (?40 mg/dl) and established CHD. After adjustment for multiple testing within each gene, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) significantly associated with case status were identified in the genes encoding LIPC (rs4775065, P < 0.0001); CETP (rs5882, P = 0.0002); RXRA (rs11185660, P = 0.0021); ABCA1 (rs2249891, P = 0.0126); ABCC6 (rs150468, P = 0.0206; rs212077, P = 0.0443); CUBN (rs7893395, P = 0.0246); APOA2 (rs3813627, P = 0.0324); SELP (rs732314, P = 0.0376); and APOC4 (rs10413089, P = 0.0425). Included among the novel findings of this study are the identification of susceptibility alleles for low HDL-C/CHD risk in the genes encoding CUBN and RXRA, and the observation that genetic variation in SELP may influence CHD risk through its effects on HDL. PMID:20855565

Peloso, Gina M; Demissie, Serkalem; Collins, Dorothea; Mirel, Daniel B; Gabriel, Stacey B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Robins, Sander J; Schaefer, Ernst J; Brousseau, Margaret E

2010-12-01

305

Genetic Susceptibility, Colony Size, and Water Temperature Drive White-Pox Disease on the Coral Acropora palmata  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of coral diseases are one of the greatest threats to reef corals in the Caribbean, yet the mechanisms that lead to coral diseases are still largely unknown. Here we examined the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-pox disease on Acropora palmata coral colonies of known genotypes. We took a Bayesian approach, using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation algorithms, to examine which covariates influenced the presence of white-pox disease over seven years. We showed that colony size, genetic susceptibility of the coral host, and high-water temperatures were the primary tested variables that were positively associated with the presence of white-pox disease on A. palmata colonies. Our study also showed that neither distance from previously diseased individuals, nor colony location, influenced the dynamics of white-pox disease. These results suggest that white-pox disease was most likely a consequence of anomalously high water temperatures that selectively compromised the oldest colonies and the most susceptible coral genotypes. PMID:25372835

Muller, Erinn M.; van Woesik, Robert

2014-01-01

306

Vascular endothelial growth factor genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration in Tunisian population  

PubMed Central

Purpose Three VEGF SNPs (?2578) C/A, (+405) G/C and (+936) C/T were investigated in Tunisian exudative AMD patients in order to determine their association with the disease susceptibility and their influence to intravitreal bevacizumab therapy response. Methods 145 AMD patients and 207 age-matched controls were included. 68 patients were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab. SNPs genotyping were performed using direct sequencing. The serum VEGF was assayed by ELISA (R&D). Results The (+405) CC and (+936) TT genotypes were higher in AMD patients than in controls (p?=?5?×?10?6 and p?=?0.021, respectively). The mean plasma levels of VEGF were statistically higher in AMD patients (84.22 pg/ml) than in controls (15 pg/ml). Three months after bevacizumab treatment, 52 patients (85.6%) were classified as good responders (GR) and 16 (14.4%) as poor responders (PR). The mean plasmatic-VEGF levels in GR patients was higher (86.61?±?80.30 pg/ml) than in PR patients (47.12?±?45.74 pg/ml) (p?=?0.086). The patients with genotype homozygous TT (+936) would be PR compared to those carrying CT and CC genotypes. Whereas, those with AA (?2578) genotype would be GR compared with others genotypes (p?=?0.014; p?=?0.042 respectively). Conclusions Our results show that VEGF genetic variants may contribute to the susceptibility to neovascular AMD in Tunisian patients. PMID:25165559

2014-01-01

307

Genetic susceptibility, colony size, and water temperature drive white-pox disease on the coral Acropora palmata.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of coral diseases are one of the greatest threats to reef corals in the Caribbean, yet the mechanisms that lead to coral diseases are still largely unknown. Here we examined the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-pox disease on Acropora palmata coral colonies of known genotypes. We took a Bayesian approach, using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation algorithms, to examine which covariates influenced the presence of white-pox disease over seven years. We showed that colony size, genetic susceptibility of the coral host, and high-water temperatures were the primary tested variables that were positively associated with the presence of white-pox disease on A. palmata colonies. Our study also showed that neither distance from previously diseased individuals, nor colony location, influenced the dynamics of white-pox disease. These results suggest that white-pox disease was most likely a consequence of anomalously high water temperatures that selectively compromised the oldest colonies and the most susceptible coral genotypes. PMID:25372835

Muller, Erinn M; van Woesik, Robert

2014-01-01

308

Genetic Variants Associated with Arsenic Susceptibility: Study of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase, Arsenic (+3) Methyltransferase, and Glutathione S-Transferase Omega Genes  

PubMed Central

Background Individual variability in arsenic metabolism may underlie individual susceptibility toward arsenic-induced skin lesions and skin cancer. Metabolism of arsenic proceeds through sequential reduction and oxidative methylation being mediated by the following genes: purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1), and omega 2 (GSTO2). PNP functions as arsenate reductase; As3MT methylates inorganic arsenic and its metabolites; and both GSTO1 and GSTO2 reduce the metabolites. Alteration in functions of these gene products may lead to arsenic-specific disease manifestations. Objectives To find any probable association between arsenicism and the exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the above-mentioned arsenic-metabolizing genes, we screened all the exons in those genes in an arsenic-exposed population. Methods Using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we screened the exons in 25 cases (individuals with arsenic-induced skin lesions) and 25 controls (individuals without arsenic-induced skin lesions), both groups drinking similar arsenic-contaminated water. The exonic SNPs identified were further genotyped in a total of 428 genetically unrelated individuals (229 cases and 199 controls) for association study. Results Among four candidate genes, PNP, As3MT, GSTO1, and GSTO2, we found that distribution of three exonic polymorphisms, His20His, Gly51Ser, and Pro57Pro of PNP, was associated with arsenicism. Genotypes having the minor alleles were significantly overrepresented in the case group: odds ratio (OR) = 1.69 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08–2.66] for His20His; OR = 1.66 [95% CI, 1.04–2.64] for Gly51Ser; and OR = 1.67 [95% CI, 1.05–2.66] for Pro57Pro. Conclusions The results indicate that the three PNP variants render individuals susceptible toward developing arsenic-induced skin lesions. PMID:18414634

De Chaudhuri, Sujata; Ghosh, Pritha; Sarma, Nilendu; Majumdar, Papiya; Sau, Tanmoy Jyoti; Basu, Santanu; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Ray, Kunal; Giri, Ashok K.

2008-01-01

309

5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate-amygdala interactions: a genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carriers of the short allele of a functional 5? promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene have increased anxiety-related temperamental traits, increased amygdala reactivity and elevated risk of depression. Here, we used multimodal neuroimaging in a large sample of healthy human subjects to elucidate neural mechanisms underlying this complex genetic association. Morphometrical analyses showed reduced gray matter volume in short-allele

Lukas Pezawas; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg; Emily M Drabant; Beth A Verchinski; Karen E Munoz; Bhaskar S Kolachana; Michael F Egan; Venkata S Mattay; Ahmad R Hariri; Daniel R Weinberger

2005-01-01

310

Aedes aegypti in Brazil: genetically differentiated populations with high susceptibility to dengue and yellow fever viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aedes aegypti was eliminated from Brazil in 1955, but re-infested the country in the 1970s. Dengue outbreaks have occurred since 1981 and became endemic in several cities in Brazil after 1986. Urban yellow fever has not occurred since 1942, and only jungle yellow fever cases have been reported. A population genetic analysis using isoenzyme variation combined with an evaluation of

R Lourenço-de-Oliveira; M Vazeille; A. M. B de Filippis; A. B Failloux

2004-01-01

311

Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ovine lentiviruses cause incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative diseases that affect millions of sheep worldwide. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been recently associated with lentivirus infections in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the two most common TMEM1...

312

Genetic variability in the tumor necrosis factor-lymphotoxin region influences susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed Central

The major histocompatibility complex class III tumor necrosis factor-lymphotoxin (TNF-LT) region (6p21.3) was investigated as a possible susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inheritance of five TNF microsatellite markers was determined in 50 multiplex families. Overall, 47 different haplotypes were observed. One of these, the TNF a6, b5, c1, d3, e3 (H1) haplotype, was present in 35.3% of affected, but in only 20.5% of unaffected, individuals (P < .005). This haplotype accounted for 21.5% of the parental haplotypes transmitted to affected offspring and only 7.3% not transmitted to affected offspring (P = .0003). The TNF a6 and TNF c1 alleles were individually associated with RA (P = .0005 and .0008, respectively), as were the HLA-DRB1 "shared epitope" (SE) (P = .0001) and HLA-DRB1*0401 (P = .0018). Both univariate and bivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed significant effects of TNF c1 and SE in increasing risk to RA (P < .001). Stratification by the presence of SE indicated an independent effect of the TNFc1 allele (P = .0003) and the HLA A1, B8, DR3 extended haplotype (always TNFa2, b3, c1, d1, e3) (P = .0027) in SE heterozygotes, while the H1 haplotype was associated with RA in SE homozygotes (P = .0018). The TNF-LT region appears to influence susceptibility to RA, distinct from HLA-DR. PMID:8751869

Mulcahy, B.; Waldron-Lynch, F.; McDermott, M. F.; Adams, C.; Amos, C. I.; Zhu, D. K.; Ward, R. H.; Clegg, D. O.; Shanahan, F.; Molloy, M. G.; O'Gara, F.

1996-01-01

313

Evaluation of Genetic Susceptibility to Childhood Allergy and Asthma in an African American Urban Population  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Asthma and allergy represent complex phenotypes, which disproportionately burden ethnic minorities in the United States. Strong evidence for genomic factors predisposing subjects to asthma/allergy is available. However, methods to utilize this information to identify ...

314

Testing the role of genetic background in parallel evolution using the comparative experimental evolution of antibiotic resistance.  

PubMed

Parallel evolution is the independent evolution of the same phenotype or genotype in response to the same selection pressure. There are examples of parallel molecular evolution across divergent genetic backgrounds, suggesting that genetic background may not play an important role in determining the outcome of adaptation. Here, we measure the influence of genetic background on phenotypic and molecular adaptation by combining experimental evolution with comparative analysis. We selected for resistance to the antibiotic rifampicin in eight strains of bacteria from the genus Pseudomonas using a short term selection experiment. Adaptation occurred by 47 mutations at conserved sites in rpoB, the target of rifampicin, and due to the high diversity of possible mutations the probability of within-strain parallel evolution was low. The probability of between-strain parallel evolution was only marginally lower, because different strains substituted similar rpoB mutations. In contrast, we found that more than 30% of the phenotypic variation in the growth rate of evolved clones was attributable to among-strain differences. Parallel molecular evolution across strains resulted in divergent phenotypic evolution because rpoB mutations had different effects on growth rate in different strains. This study shows that genetic divergence between strains constrains parallel phenotypic evolution, but had little detectable impact on the molecular basis of adaptation in this system. PMID:25228081

Vogwill, Tom; Kojadinovic, Mila; Furió, Victoria; MacLean, R Craig

2014-12-01

315

Testing the Role of Genetic Background in Parallel Evolution Using the Comparative Experimental Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance  

PubMed Central

Parallel evolution is the independent evolution of the same phenotype or genotype in response to the same selection pressure. There are examples of parallel molecular evolution across divergent genetic backgrounds, suggesting that genetic background may not play an important role in determining the outcome of adaptation. Here, we measure the influence of genetic background on phenotypic and molecular adaptation by combining experimental evolution with comparative analysis. We selected for resistance to the antibiotic rifampicin in eight strains of bacteria from the genus Pseudomonas using a short term selection experiment. Adaptation occurred by 47 mutations at conserved sites in rpoB, the target of rifampicin, and due to the high diversity of possible mutations the probability of within-strain parallel evolution was low. The probability of between-strain parallel evolution was only marginally lower, because different strains substituted similar rpoB mutations. In contrast, we found that more than 30% of the phenotypic variation in the growth rate of evolved clones was attributable to among-strain differences. Parallel molecular evolution across strains resulted in divergent phenotypic evolution because rpoB mutations had different effects on growth rate in different strains. This study shows that genetic divergence between strains constrains parallel phenotypic evolution, but had little detectable impact on the molecular basis of adaptation in this system. PMID:25228081

Vogwill, Tom; Kojadinovic, Mila; Furió, Victoria; MacLean, R. Craig

2014-01-01

316

A Systems Genetics Approach Identifies CXCL14, ITGAX, and LPCAT2 as Novel Aggressive Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Genes  

PubMed Central

Although prostate cancer typically runs an indolent course, a subset of men develop aggressive, fatal forms of this disease. We hypothesize that germline variation modulates susceptibility to aggressive prostate cancer. The goal of this work is to identify susceptibility genes using the C57BL/6-Tg(TRAMP)8247Ng/J (TRAMP) mouse model of neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed in transgene-positive (TRAMPxNOD/ShiLtJ) F2 intercross males (n?=?228), which facilitated identification of 11 loci associated with aggressive disease development. Microarray data derived from 126 (TRAMPxNOD/ShiLtJ) F2 primary tumors were used to prioritize candidate genes within QTLs, with candidate genes deemed as being high priority when possessing both high levels of expression-trait correlation and a proximal expression QTL. This process enabled the identification of 35 aggressive prostate tumorigenesis candidate genes. The role of these genes in aggressive forms of human prostate cancer was investigated using two concurrent approaches. First, logistic regression analysis in two human prostate gene expression datasets revealed that expression levels of five genes (CXCL14, ITGAX, LPCAT2, RNASEH2A, and ZNF322) were positively correlated with aggressive prostate cancer and two genes (CCL19 and HIST1H1A) were protective for aggressive prostate cancer. Higher than average levels of expression of the five genes that were positively correlated with aggressive disease were consistently associated with patient outcome in both human prostate cancer tumor gene expression datasets. Second, three of these five genes (CXCL14, ITGAX, and LPCAT2) harbored polymorphisms associated with aggressive disease development in a human GWAS cohort consisting of 1,172 prostate cancer patients. This study is the first example of using a systems genetics approach to successfully identify novel susceptibility genes for aggressive prostate cancer. Such approaches will facilitate the identification of novel germline factors driving aggressive disease susceptibility and allow for new insights into these deadly forms of prostate cancer. PMID:25411967

Andreas, Jonathan; Patel, Shashank J.; Zhang, Suiyuan; Chines, Peter; Elkahloun, Abdel; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Crawford, Nigel P. S.

2014-01-01

317

Response to Dietary Phosphate Deficiency is Affected by Genetic Background in Growing Pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concern over the environmental impact of phosphate (P) excretion from pig production has led to reduced dietary P supplementation. To examine how genetics influence P utilization, 94 gilts sired by 2 genetic lines (PIC337 and PIC280) were fed either a P adequate diet (PA) or a 20% P deficient diet ...

318

Genetic Analysis of Susceptibility to Spontaneous and UV-Induced Carcinogenesis in Xiphophorus Hybrid Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xiphophorus interspecies hybrids provide genetically controlled models of tumor formation. Spontaneous melanomas form in first-generation backcross (BC1) hybrids produced from backcrossing F1 hybrids derived from the platyfish X. maculatus Jp 163 A and the swordtail X. helleri to the X. helleri parental strain (the Gordon-Kosswig hybrid cross). Nodular melanomas originate in the dorsal fin from cells constituting the spotted dorsal

Rodney S. Nairn; Steven Kazianis; Luis Della Coletta; David Trono; Andrew P. Butler; Ronald B. Walter; Donald C. Morizot

2001-01-01

319

CXCL12 and TP53 genetic polymorphisms as markers of susceptibility in a Brazilian children population with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).  

PubMed

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric malignancy. Genetic polymorphisms in the 3'UTR region of the CXCL12 (rs1801157) and TP53 codon 72 (rs1042522) genes may contribute to susceptibility to childhood ALL because they affect some important processes, such as metastasis regulation and tumor suppression. Thus the objective of the present study was to detect the frequency of two genetic polymorphisms in ALL patients and controls and to add information their impact on genetic susceptibility and prognosis. The CXCL12 and TP53 polymorphisms were tested in 54 ALL child patients and in 58 controls by restriction fragment length polymerase chain reaction and allelic specific chain reaction techniques, respectively. The frequencies of both allelic variants were higher in ALL patients than in the controls and indicated a positive association: OR = 2.44; 95 % CI 1.05-5.64 for CXCL12 and OR = 2.20; 95 % CI 1.03-4.70 for TP53. Furthermore, when the two genetic variants were analyzed together, they increased significantly more than fivefold the risk of this neoplasia development (OR = 5.24; 95 % CI 1.39-19.75), indicating their potential as susceptibility markers for ALL disease and the relevance of the allelic variant combination to increased risk of developing malignant tumors. Future studies may indicate a larger panel of genes involved in susceptibility of childhood ALL and other hematological neoplasias. PMID:23653000

de Lourdes Perim, Aparecida; Guembarovski, Roberta Losi; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; Lopes, Leandra Fiori; Ariza, Carolina Batista; Amarante, Marla Karine; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli; de Oliveira, Karen Brajão; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

2013-07-01

320

Dense genotyping of immune-related susceptibility loci reveals new insights into the genetics of psoriatic arthritis  

PubMed Central

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis and, despite the larger estimated heritability for PsA, the majority of genetic susceptibility loci identified to date are shared with psoriasis. Here, we present results from a case–control association study on 1,962 PsA patients and 8,923 controls using the Immunochip genotyping array. We identify eight loci passing genome-wide significance, secondary independent effects at three loci and a distinct PsA-specific variant at the IL23R locus. We report two novel loci and evidence of a novel PsA-specific association at chromosome 5q31. Imputation of classical HLA alleles, amino acids and SNPs across the MHC region highlights three independent associations to class I genes. Finally, we find an enrichment of associated variants to markers of open chromatin in CD8+ memory primary T cells. This study identifies key insights into the genetics of PsA that could begin to explain fundamental differences between psoriasis and PsA. PMID:25651891

Bowes, John; Budu-Aggrey, Ashley; Huffmeier, Ulrike; Uebe, Steffen; Steel, Kathryn; Hebert, Harry L.; Wallace, Chris; Massey, Jonathan; Bruce, Ian N.; Bluett, James; Feletar, Marie; Morgan, Ann W.; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Donohoe, Gary; Morris, Derek W.; Helliwell, Philip; Ryan, Anthony W.; Kane, David; Warren, Richard B.; Korendowych, Eleanor; Alenius, Gerd-Marie; Giardina, Emiliano; Packham, Jonathan; McManus, Ross; FitzGerald, Oliver; McHugh, Neil; Brown, Matthew A.; Ho, Pauline; Behrens, Frank; Burkhardt, Harald; Reis, Andre; Barton, Anne

2015-01-01

321

The 12p13.33/RAD52 Locus and Genetic Susceptibility to Squamous Cell Cancers of Upper Aerodigestive Tract  

PubMed Central

Genetic variants located within the 12p13.33/RAD52 locus have been associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Here, within 5,947 UADT cancers and 7,789 controls from 9 different studies, we found rs10849605, a common intronic variant in RAD52, to be also associated with upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) squamous cell carcinoma cases (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.15, p = 6x10?4). We additionally identified rs10849605 as a RAD52 cis-eQTL inUADT(p = 1x10?3) and LUSC (p = 9x10?4) tumours, with the UADT/LUSC risk allele correlated with increased RAD52 expression levels. The 12p13.33 locus, encompassing rs10849605/RAD52, was identified as a significant somatic focal copy number amplification in UADT(n = 374, q-value = 0.075) and LUSC (n = 464, q-value = 0.007) tumors and correlated with higher RAD52 tumor expression levels (p = 6x10?48 and p = 3x10?29 in UADT and LUSC, respectively). In combination, these results implicate increased RAD52 expression in both genetic susceptibility and tumorigenesis of UADT and LUSC tumors. PMID:25793373

Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Oliver, Javier; Timofeeva, Maria N.; Gaborieau, Valérie; Johansson, Mattias; Chabrier, Amélie; Wozniak, Magdalena B.; Brenner, Darren R.; Vallée, Maxime P.; Anantharaman, Devasena; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Thakker, Nalin S.; Conway, David I.; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Eluf-Neto, José; Boffetta, Paolo; Garrote, Leticia Fernández; Serraino, Diego; Lener, Marcin; Jaworowska, Ewa; Lubi?ski, Jan; Boccia, Stefania; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja A.; Mahimkar, Manoj B.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Franceschi, Silvia; Byrnes, Graham; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.

2015-01-01

322

A Preliminary Study of Genetic Factors That Influence Susceptibility to Bovine Tuberculosis in the British Cattle Herd  

PubMed Central

Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to Mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis have been reported in several species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) impacts greatly the UK cattle industry, yet genetic predispositions have yet to be identified. We therefore used a candidate gene approach to study 384 cattle of which 160 had reacted positively to an antigenic skin test (‘reactors’). Our approach was unusual in that it used microsatellite markers, embraced high breed diversity and focused particularly on detecting genes showing heterozygote advantage, a mode of action often overlooked in SNP-based studies. A panel of neutral markers was used to control for population substructure and using a general linear model-based approach we were also able to control for age. We found that substructure was surprisingly weak and identified two genomic regions that were strongly associated with reactor status, identified by markers INRA111 and BMS2753. In general the strength of association detected tended to vary depending on whether age was included in the model. At INRA111 a single genotype appears strongly protective with an overall odds ratio of 2.2, the effect being consistent across nine diverse breeds. Our results suggest that breeding strategies could be devised that would appreciably increase genetic resistance of cattle to bTB (strictly, reduce the frequency of incidence of reactors) with implications for the current debate concerning badger-culling. PMID:21533277

Driscoll, Erin E.; Hoffman, Joseph I.; Green, Laura E.; Medley, Graham F.; Amos, William

2011-01-01

323

KCNA5 gene is not confirmed as a systemic sclerosis-related pulmonary arterial hypertension genetic susceptibility factor  

PubMed Central

Introduction Potassium voltage-gated channel shaker-related subfamily member 5 (KCNA5) is implicated in vascular tone regulation, and its inhibition during hypoxia produces pulmonary vasoconstriction. Recently, a protective association of the KCNA5 locus with systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was reported. Hence, the aim of this study was to replicate these findings in an independent multicenter Caucasian SSc cohort. Methods The 2,343 SSc cases (179 PAH positive, confirmed by right-heart catheterization) and 2,690 matched healthy controls from five European countries were included in this study. Rs10744676 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was genotyped by using a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Results Individual population analyses of the selected KCNA5 genetic variant did not show significant association with SSc or any of the defined subsets (for example, limited cutaneous SSc, diffuse cutaneous SSc, anti-centromere autoantibody positive and anti-topoisomerase autoantibody positive). Furthermore, pooled analyses revealed no significant evidence of association with the disease or any of the subsets, not even the PAH-positive group. The comparison of PAH-positive patients with PAH-negative patients showed no significant differences among patients. Conclusions Our data do not support an important role of KCNA5 as an SSc-susceptibility factor or as a PAH-development genetic marker for SSc patients. PMID:23270786

2012-01-01

324

Dense genotyping of immune-related susceptibility loci reveals new insights into the genetics of psoriatic arthritis.  

PubMed

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis and, despite the larger estimated heritability for PsA, the majority of genetic susceptibility loci identified to date are shared with psoriasis. Here, we present results from a case-control association study on 1,962 PsA patients and 8,923 controls using the Immunochip genotyping array. We identify eight loci passing genome-wide significance, secondary independent effects at three loci and a distinct PsA-specific variant at the IL23R locus. We report two novel loci and evidence of a novel PsA-specific association at chromosome 5q31. Imputation of classical HLA alleles, amino acids and SNPs across the MHC region highlights three independent associations to class I genes. Finally, we find an enrichment of associated variants to markers of open chromatin in CD8(+) memory primary T cells. This study identifies key insights into the genetics of PsA that could begin to explain fundamental differences between psoriasis and PsA. PMID:25651891

Bowes, John; Budu-Aggrey, Ashley; Huffmeier, Ulrike; Uebe, Steffen; Steel, Kathryn; Hebert, Harry L; Wallace, Chris; Massey, Jonathan; Bruce, Ian N; Bluett, James; Feletar, Marie; Morgan, Ann W; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Donohoe, Gary; Morris, Derek W; Helliwell, Philip; Ryan, Anthony W; Kane, David; Warren, Richard B; Korendowych, Eleanor; Alenius, Gerd-Marie; Giardina, Emiliano; Packham, Jonathan; McManus, Ross; FitzGerald, Oliver; McHugh, Neil; Brown, Matthew A; Ho, Pauline; Behrens, Frank; Burkhardt, Harald; Reis, Andre; Barton, Anne

2015-01-01

325

Common Variants of KCNJ10 Are Associated with Susceptibility and Anti-Epileptic Drug Resistance in Chinese Genetic Generalized Epilepsies  

PubMed Central

To explore genetic mechanism of genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs) is challenging because of their complex heritance pattern and genetic heterogeneity. KCNJ10 gene encodes Kir4.1 channels and plays a major role in modulating resting membrane potentials in excitable cells. It may cause GGEs if mutated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible association between KCNJ10 common variants and the susceptibility and drug resistance of GGEs in Chinese population. The allele-specific MALDI–TOF mass spectrometry method was used to assess 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of KCNJ10 in 284 healthy controls and 483 Chinese GGEs patients including 279 anti-epileptic drug responsive patients and 204 drug resistant patients. We found the rs6690889 TC+TT genotypes were lower frequency in the GGEs group than that in the healthy controls (6.7% vs 9.5%, p = 0.01, OR = 0.50[0.29–0.86]). The frequency of rs1053074 G allele was lower in the childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) group than that in the healthy controls (28.4% vs 36.2%, p = 0.01, OR = 0.70[0.53–0.93]). The frequency of rs12729701 G allele and AG+GG genotypes was lower in the CAE group than that in the healthy controls (21.2% vs 28.4%, p = 0.01, OR = 0.74[0.59–0.94] and 36.3% vs 48.1%, p = 0.01, OR = 0.83[0.72–0.96], respectively). The frequency of rs12402969 C allele and the CC+CT genotypes were higher in the GGEs drug responsive patients than that in the drug resistant patients (9.3% vs 5.6%, OR = 1.73[1.06–2.85], p = 0.026 and 36.3% vs 48.1%, p = 0.01, OR = 0.83[0.72–0.96], respectively). This study identifies potential SNPs of KCNJ10 gene that may contribute to seizure susceptibility and anti-epileptic drug resistance. PMID:25874548

Guo, Yong; Yan, Kui Po; Qu, Qiang; Qu, Jian; Chen, Zi Gui; Song, Tao; Luo, Xiang-Ying; Sun, Zhong-Yi; Bi, Chang-Long; Liu, Jin-Fang

2015-01-01

326

Genetic Differences in Transcript Responses to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Identify Tissue Functions Associated with Breast Cancer Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

High dose ionizing radiation (IR) is a well-known risk factor for breast cancer but the health effects after low-dose (LD, <10 cGy) exposures remain highly uncertain. We explored a systems approach that compared LD-induced chromosome damage and transcriptional responses in strains of mice with genetic differences in their sensitivity to radiation-induced mammary cancer (BALB/c and C57BL/6) for the purpose of identifying mechanisms of mammary cancer susceptibility. Unirradiated mammary and blood tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of DNA repair, tumor suppressor, and stress response genes. LD exposures of 7.5 cGy (weekly for 4 weeks) did not induce detectable genomic instability in either strain. However, the mammary glands of the sensitive strain but not the resistant strain showed early transcriptional responses involving: (a) diminished immune response, (b) increased cellular stress, (c) altered TGF?-signaling, and (d) inappropriate expression of developmental genes. One month after LD exposure, the two strains showed opposing responses in transcriptional signatures linked to proliferation, senescence, and microenvironment functions. We also discovered a pre-exposure expression signature in both blood and mammary tissues that is predictive for poor survival among human cancer patients (p?=?0.0001), and a post-LD-exposure signature also predictive for poor patient survival (p<0.0001). There is concordant direction of expression in the LD-exposed sensitive mouse strain, in biomarkers of human DCIS and in biomarkers of human breast tumors. Our findings support the hypothesis that genetic mechanisms that determine susceptibility to LD radiation induced mammary cancer in mice are similar to the tissue mechanisms that determine poor-survival in breast cancer patients. We observed non-linearity of the LD responses providing molecular evidence against the LNT risk model and obtained new evidence that LD responses are strongly influenced by genotype. Our findings suggest that the biological assumptions concerning the mechanisms by which LD radiation is translated into breast cancer risk should be reexamined and suggest a new strategy to identify genetic features that predispose or protect individuals from LD-induced breast cancer. PMID:23077491

Snijders, Antoine M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Bhatnagar, Sandhya; Duru, Nadire; Han, Ju; Hu, Zhi; Mao, Jian-Hua; Gray, Joe W.; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

327

Role of genetic variant A-204C of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in susceptibility to gallbladder cancer.  

PubMed

Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) usually arises in the background of gallstone disease. Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is a rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol catabolism and bile acid synthesis. A-204C genetic polymorphism in CYP7A1 may influence gene expression and thus affect the risk of gallstone disease and GBC. We aimed to study the association of A-204C variation of CYP7A1 gene promoter polymorphism in GBC patients, gallstone patients and healthy subjects. The study included 141 histopathologically proven GBC patients, ultrasonographically proven 185 symptomatic gallstone patients and 200 gallstone-free healthy subjects. Genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP method. CYP7A1 A-204C genotypes in control population were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The CC genotype conferred marginally significant risk for gallstone disease (p=0.051; OR=1.54; 95% CI=0.9-3.4). In GBC patients, the CYP7A1 A-204C polymorphism conferred high risk for GBC at genotype (p=0.005; OR=2.78; 95% CI: 1.3-5.6) as well as allele levels (p=0.008; OR=1.58 and 95% CI: 1.1-2.2). After stratification of GBC patients on the basis of presence or absence of gallstones, CC genotype imparted higher risk for GBC without stones (p=0.002; OR=4.44: 95% CI=1.7-11.3). The association of the polymorphism with GBC was more pronounced in female GBC patients, and also in cancer patients who developed GBC at advanced age. The CC genotype of CYP7A1 is an independent genetic risk factor for GBC but plays a modest role in susceptibility to gallstone disease. The GBC pathogenesis by CYP7A1 polymorphism appears to be independent of gallstone pathway and probably involves genotoxicity due to lipid peroxidation mechanisms. PMID:18178499

Srivastava, Anvesha; Pandey, Sachchida Nand; Choudhuri, Gourdas; Mittal, Balraj

2008-05-01

328

Associations of Genetic Variants in the PSCA, MUC1 and PLCE1 Genes with Stomach Cancer Susceptibility in a Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Several genetic variants including PSCA rs2294008 C>T and rs2976392 G>A, MUC1 rs4072037 T>C, and PLCE1 rs2274223 A>G have shown significant association with stomach cancer risk in the previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Methods To evaluate associations of these SNPs in the Han Chinese, an independent hospital based case-control study was performed by genotyping these four polymorphisms in a total of 692 stomach cancer cases and 774 healthy controls acquired by using frequency matching for age and gender. False-positive report probability (FPRP) analysis was also performed to validate all statistically significant findings. Results In the current study, significant association with stomach cancer susceptibility was observed for all the four polymorphisms of interest. Specifically, a significant increased stomach cancer risk was associated with PSCA rs2294008 (CT vs. CC: adjusted OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.07–1.74, and CT/TT vs.CC: adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.03–1.63), PSCA rs2976392 (AG vs. GG: adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.65, and AG/AA vs. GG: adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.00–1.59), or PLCE1 rs2274223 (AG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.15–1.90, and AG/GG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.14–1.84), respectively. In contrast, MUC1 rs4072037 was shown to decrease the cancer risk (CT vs. TT: adjusted OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.60–0.98). Patients with more than one risk genotypes had significant increased risk to develop stomach cancer (adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.03–1.64), when compared with those having 0–1 risk genotypes. Stratified analysis indicated that the increased risk was more pronounced in younger subjects, men, ever smokers, smokers with pack years ? 27, patients with high BMI, or non-cardia stomach cancer. Conclusions This study substantiated the associations between four previous reported genetic variants and stomach cancer susceptibility in an independent Han Chinese population. Further studies with larger sample size and different ethnicities are warranted to validate our findings. PMID:25658482

Sun, Hongwei; Wu, Xiaoli; Wu, Fang; Li, Ying; Yu, Zhengping; Chen, Xiangrong; Chen, Yunzhi; Yang, Wenjun

2015-01-01

329

Genetic variants of vitamin D receptor and susceptibility to ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a potential candidate for cardiovascular disease. To date the genetic association of VDR with ischemic stroke has not been explored. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the association between VDR gene variants and ischemic stroke in Asian Indian population. Overall, 557 subjects were investigated that included 313 ischemic stroke patients and 244 control subjects. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms of the VDR gene termed as Fok I, Apa I, Taq I and Bsm I were genotyped by using PCR-RFLP method. The genotype distribution of Bsm I polymorphism was found to deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in control subjects, and hence excluded from the study. Apa I and Taq I polymorphisms were not found to be associated with ischemic stroke. However, presence of ff genotype of Fok I was found to confer 2.97-fold risk of ischemic stroke (95% CI=1.16-7.63, P=0.02) as compared to FF genotype. This association was found to be independent of various demographic and important biochemical covariates including age, gender, smoking, alcohol intake, BMI, and serum glucose, lipid profile, insulin and HOMA-IR, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and plasma NOx levels [OR=2.27, 95% CI=1.25-4.09, P=0.01]. However, adjustment for lipid metabolites attenuated the genetic association [OR=1.68, 95% CI=0.75-3.78, P=0.21]. Fok I polymorphism was also found to be associated with total cholesterol levels; ff genotype carriers were found to have significantly higher cholesterol levels (203.56 ± 30.50mg/dl) as compared to FF carriers (177.38 ± 47.90 mg/dl) (P=0.04). On stratification by gender the genetic association between Fok I polymorphism and ischemic stroke remained significant in females only (OR=2.28, 95% CI=1.15-4.53, P=0.02). This genetic association was also found to attenuate on adjustment with lipid variables. In the present study we could associate the only known functional polymorphism of VDR i.e., Fok I, with ischemic stroke in a gender specific manner. Adjustment with lipid variables was found to attenuate this association indicating that impaired lipid metabolism may be the underlying mechanism of action of this polymorphism which leads to an increase in the risk of ischemic stroke. Further larger scale validations in other population are warranted in other population. PMID:25498546

Prabhakar, Puttachandra; Majumdar, Vijaya; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Christopher, Rita

2015-01-01

330

The role of genetic breast cancer susceptibility variants as prognostic factors  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-wide association studies identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated these and 62 other SNPs for their prognostic relevance. Confirmed BC risk SNPs rs17468277 (CASP8), rs1982073 (TGFB1), rs2981582 (FGFR2), rs13281615 (8q24), rs3817198 (LSP1), rs889312 (MAP3K1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs13387042 (2q35), rs4973768 (SLC4A7), rs6504950 (COX11) and rs10941679 (5p12) were genotyped for 25 853 BC patients with the available follow-up; 62 other SNPs, which have been suggested as BC risk SNPs by a GWAS or as candidate SNPs from individual studies, were genotyped for replication purposes in subsets of these patients. Cox proportional hazard models were used to test the association of these SNPs with overall survival (OS) and BC-specific survival (BCS). For the confirmed loci, we performed an accessory analysis of publicly available gene expression data and the prognosis in a different patient group. One of the 11 SNPs, rs3803662 (TOX3) and none of the 62 candidate/GWAS SNPs were associated with OS and/or BCS at P<0.01. The genotypic-specific survival for rs3803662 suggested a recessive mode of action [hazard ratio (HR) of rare homozygous carriers=1.21; 95% CI: 1.09–1.35, P=0.0002 and HR=1.29; 95% CI: 1.12–1.47, P=0.0003 for OS and BCS, respectively]. This association was seen similarly in all analyzed tumor subgroups defined by nodal status, tumor size, grade and estrogen receptor. Breast tumor expression of these genes was not associated with prognosis. With the exception of rs3803662 (TOX3), there was no evidence that any of the SNPs associated with BC susceptibility were associated with the BC survival. Survival may be influenced by a distinct set of germline variants from those influencing susceptibility. PMID:22532573

Fasching, Peter A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Cox, Angela; Nevanlinna, Heli; Bojesen, Stig E.; Karn, Thomas; Broeks, Annegien; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; van 't Veer, Laura J.; Udo, Renate; Dunning, Alison M.; Greco, Dario; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Shah, Mitul; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Sherman, Mark; Lissowska, Jolanta; Seynaeve, Caroline; Huijts, Petra E.A.; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ekici, Arif B.; Rauh, Claudia; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Mulligan, Anna-Marie; Glendon, Gord; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Eilber, Ursula; Nickels, Stefan; Dörk, Thilo; Schiekel, Maria; Bremer, Michael; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W.M.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Couch, Fergus J.; Stevens, Kristen N.; Olson, Janet E.; Kosel, Matthew; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Miron, Alexander; John, Esther M.; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Lambrechts, Diether; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Hatse, Sigrid; van Limbergen, Erik; Benitez, Javier; Milne, Roger L.; Zamora, M. Pilar; Pérez, José Ignacio Arias; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peissel, Bernard; Loris, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Rajaraman, Preetha; Schonfeld, Sara J.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Devilee, Peter; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Slamon, Dennis J.; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.

2012-01-01

331

The role of genetic breast cancer susceptibility variants as prognostic factors.  

PubMed

Recent genome-wide association studies identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated these and 62 other SNPs for their prognostic relevance. Confirmed BC risk SNPs rs17468277 (CASP8), rs1982073 (TGFB1), rs2981582 (FGFR2), rs13281615 (8q24), rs3817198 (LSP1), rs889312 (MAP3K1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs13387042 (2q35), rs4973768 (SLC4A7), rs6504950 (COX11) and rs10941679 (5p12) were genotyped for 25 853 BC patients with the available follow-up; 62 other SNPs, which have been suggested as BC risk SNPs by a GWAS or as candidate SNPs from individual studies, were genotyped for replication purposes in subsets of these patients. Cox proportional hazard models were used to test the association of these SNPs with overall survival (OS) and BC-specific survival (BCS). For the confirmed loci, we performed an accessory analysis of publicly available gene expression data and the prognosis in a different patient group. One of the 11 SNPs, rs3803662 (TOX3) and none of the 62 candidate/GWAS SNPs were associated with OS and/or BCS at P<0.01. The genotypic-specific survival for rs3803662 suggested a recessive mode of action [hazard ratio (HR) of rare homozygous carriers=1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35, P=0.0002 and HR=1.29; 95% CI: 1.12-1.47, P=0.0003 for OS and BCS, respectively]. This association was seen similarly in all analyzed tumor subgroups defined by nodal status, tumor size, grade and estrogen receptor. Breast tumor expression of these genes was not associated with prognosis. With the exception of rs3803662 (TOX3), there was no evidence that any of the SNPs associated with BC susceptibility were associated with the BC survival. Survival may be influenced by a distinct set of germline variants from those influencing susceptibility. PMID:22532573

Fasching, Peter A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Cox, Angela; Nevanlinna, Heli; Bojesen, Stig E; Karn, Thomas; Broeks, Annegien; van Leeuwen, Flora E; van't Veer, Laura J; Udo, Renate; Dunning, Alison M; Greco, Dario; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Shah, Mitul; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Sherman, Mark; Lissowska, Jolanta; Seynaeve, Caroline; Huijts, Petra E A; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ekici, Arif B; Rauh, Claudia; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Andrulis, Irene L; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Mulligan, Anna-Marie; Glendon, Gord; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Eilber, Ursula; Nickels, Stefan; Dörk, Thilo; Schiekel, Maria; Bremer, Michael; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Hooning, Maartje J; Martens, John W M; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Couch, Fergus J; Stevens, Kristen N; Olson, Janet E; Kosel, Matthew; Cross, Simon S; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Reed, Malcolm W R; Miron, Alexander; John, Esther M; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Lambrechts, Diether; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Hatse, Sigrid; van Limbergen, Erik; Benitez, Javier; Milne, Roger L; Zamora, M Pilar; Pérez, José Ignacio Arias; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peissel, Bernard; Loris, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Rajaraman, Preetha; Schonfeld, Sara J; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Devilee, Peter; Beckmann, Matthias W; Slamon, Dennis J; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Figueroa, Jonine D; Humphreys, Manjeet K; Easton, Douglas F; Schmidt, Marjanka K

2012-09-01

332

A Rare Truncating BRCA2 Variant and Genetic Susceptibility to Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer.  

PubMed

Deleterious BRCA2 genetic variants markedly increase risk of developing breast cancer. A rare truncating BRCA2 genetic variant, rs11571833 (K3326X), has been associated with a 2.5-fold risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma but only a modest 26% increase in breast cancer risk. We analyzed the association between BRCA2 SNP rs11571833 and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk with multivariable unconditional logistic regression adjusted by sex and combinations of study and country for 5942 UADT squamous cell carcinoma case patients and 8086 control patients from nine different studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. rs11571833 was associated with UADT cancers (odds ratio = 2.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.89 to 3.38, P = 3x10(-10)) and was present in European, Latin American, and Indian populations but extremely rare in Japanese populations. The association appeared more apparent in smokers (current or former) compared with never smokers (P het = .026). A robust association between a truncating BRCA2 variant and UADT cancer risk suggests that treatment strategies orientated towards BRCA2 mutations may warrant further investigation in UADT tumors. PMID:25838448

Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Anantharaman, Devasena; Timofeeva, Maria N; Gaborieau, Valérie; Chabrier, Amélie; Vallée, Maxime P; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Thakker, Nalin S; Conway, David I; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Eluf-Neto, José; Boffetta, Paolo; Fernández Garrote, Leticia; Polesel, Jerry; Lener, Marcin; Jaworowska, Ewa; Lubi?ski, Jan; Boccia, Stefania; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja A; Mahimkar, Manoj B; Matsuo, Keitaro; Franceschi, Silvia; Byrnes, Graham; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D

2015-05-01

333

Genome-Wide Identification of Susceptibility Alleles for Viral Infections through a Population Genetics Approach  

PubMed Central

Viruses have exerted a constant and potent selective pressure on human genes throughout evolution. We utilized the marks left by selection on allele frequency to identify viral infection-associated allelic variants. Virus diversity (the number of different viruses in a geographic region) was used to measure virus-driven selective pressure. Results showed an excess of variants correlated with virus diversity in genes involved in immune response and in the biosynthesis of glycan structures functioning as viral receptors; a significantly higher than expected number of variants was also seen in genes encoding proteins that directly interact with viral components. Genome-wide analyses identified 441 variants significantly associated with virus-diversity; these are more frequently located within gene regions than expected, and they map to 139 human genes. Analysis of functional relationships among genes subjected to virus-driven selective pressure identified a complex network enriched in viral products-interacting proteins. The novel approach to the study of infectious disease epidemiology presented herein may represent an alternative to classic genome-wide association studies and provides a large set of candidate susceptibility variants for viral infections. PMID:20174570

Fumagalli, Matteo; Pozzoli, Uberto; Cagliani, Rachele; Comi, Giacomo P.; Bresolin, Nereo

2010-01-01

334

High-density genetic mapping identifies new susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Using the Immunochip custom SNP array, which was designed for dense genotyping of 186 loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we analyzed 11,475 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (cases) of European ancestry and 15,870 controls for 129,464 markers. We combined these data in a meta-analysis with GWAS data from additional independent cases (n = 2,363) and controls (n = 17,872). We identified 14 new susceptibility loci, 9 of which were associated with rheumatoid arthritis overall and five of which were specifically associated with disease that was positive for anticitrullinated peptide antibodies, bringing the number of confirmed rheumatoid arthritis risk loci in individuals of European ancestry to 46. We refined the peak of association to a single gene for 19 loci, identified secondary independent effects at 6 loci and identified association to low-frequency variants at 4 loci. Bioinformatic analyses generated strong hypotheses for the causal SNP at seven loci. This study illustrates the advantages of dense SNP mapping analysis to inform subsequent functional investigations. PMID:23143596

Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Diogo, Dorothée; Lee, Annette; Barton, Anne; Martin, Paul; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Stahl, Eli; Viatte, Sebastien; McAllister, Kate; Amos, Christopher I; Padyukov, Leonid; Toes, Rene E M; Huizinga, Tom W J; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Westra, Harm-Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Hu, Xinli; Sandor, Cynthia; de Bakker, Paul I W; Davila, Sonia; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Heng, Khai Koon; Andrews, Robert; Edkins, Sarah; Hunt, Sarah E; Langford, Cordelia; Symmons, Deborah; Concannon, Pat; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S; Deloukas, Panos; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Ärlsetig, Lisbeth; Martin, Javier; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Plenge, Robert M; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K; Worthington, Jane

2012-12-01

335

PARAOXONASE 1 (PON1) AS A GENETIC DETERMINANT OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ORGANOPHOSPHATE TOXICITY  

PubMed Central

Paraoxonase (PON1) is an A-esterase capable of hydrolyzing the active metabolites (oxons) of a number of organophosphorus (OP) insecticides such as parathion, diazinon and chlorpyrifos. PON1 activity is highest in liver and in plasma. Human PON1 displays two polymorphisms in the coding region (Q192R and L55M) and several polymorphisms in the promoter and the 3’-UTR regions. The Q192R polymorphism imparts differential catalytic activity toward some OP substrates, while the polymorphism at position –108 (C/T) is the major contributor of differences in the levels of PON1 expression. Both contribute to determining an individual's PON1 “status”. Animal studies have shown that PON1 is an important determinant of OP toxicity. Administration of exogenous PON1 to rats or mice protects them from the toxicity of specific OPs. PON1 knockout mice display a high sensitivity to the toxicity of diazoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon, but not of paraoxon. In vitro catalytic efficiencies of purified PON192 alloforms for hydrolysis of specific oxon substrates accurately predict the degree of in vivo protection afforded by each isoform. Evidence is slowly emerging that a low PON1 status may increase susceptibility to OP toxicity in humans. Low PON1 activity may also contribute to the developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of OPs, as shown by animal and human studies. PMID:22884923

Costa, Lucio G.; Giordano, Gennaro; Cole, Toby B.; Marsillach, Judit; Furlong, Clement E.

2012-01-01

336

Protective effect of isoprinosine in genetically susceptible BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major.  

PubMed Central

The effects of an immunopotentiating drug Inosine Pranobex (isoprinosine) were investigated in an experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis model. The highly susceptible BALB/c mice treated orally with isoprinosine developed significantly delayed onset of disease when infected with Leishmania major compared to untreated mice. The drug itself is not toxic to the parasite up to millimolar levels in vitro. The increase in resistance to L. major infection is accompanied by a marked decrease in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio and the leishmanial antigen-specific proliferative response of the spleen cells of isoprinosine-treated mice compared to untreated mice. There was a significant increase in the production of IFN-gamma but a decrease in the secretion of IL-3 and IL-4 by the spleen cells of isoprinosine-treated mice in response to concanavalin A with or without L. major infection compared to untreated controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the level of IL-2 production by the spleen cells between mice with or without isoprinosine treatment. These data are consistent with the interpretation that isoprinosine potentiates the resistance to leishmanial infection by up-regulating the host-protective Th1 cells and down-regulating the disease-promoting Th2 cells or, alternatively, by increasing CD8+ T-cell function. PMID:1718853

Cillari, E; Dieli, M; Lo Campo, P; Sireci, G; Caffarelli, A; Maltese, E; Millott, S; Milano, S; Liew, F Y

1991-01-01

337

Genetic background of IL10 ?\\/? mice alters host–pathogen interactions with Campylobacter jejuni and influences disease phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that particular genetic backgrounds enhance rates of colonization, increase severity of enteritis, and allow for extraintestinal spread when inbred IL-10?\\/? mice are infected with pathogenic C. jejuni. Campylobacter jejuni stably colonized C57BL\\/6 and NOD mice, while congenic strains lacking IL-10 developed typhlocolitis following colonization that mimicked human campylobacteriosis. However, IL-10 deficiency alone was not necessary for the presence

L. S. Mansfield; J. S. Patterson; B. R. Fierro; A. J. Murphy; V. A. Rathinam; J. J. Kopper; N. I. Barbu; T. J. Onifade; J. A. Bell

2008-01-01

338

Effects of genetic background and environment on QTLs and epistasis for rice (Oryza sativa L.) panicle number  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double-haploid (DH) population and a recombinant inbred (RI) line population, derived from a cross between a tropical japonica variety, Azucena, as male parent and two indica varieties, IR64 and IR1552, as female parents respectively, were used in both field and pot experiments for detecting QTLs\\u000a and epistasis for rice panicle number in different genetic backgrounds and different environments. Panicle

C. Y. Liao; P. Wu; B. Hu; K. K. Yi

2001-01-01

339

Genetic context determines susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation in a mouse pigmentary glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: DBA\\/2J (D2) mice develop an age-related form of glaucoma. Their eyes progressively develop iris pigment dispersion and iris atrophy followed by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Mutant alleles of the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 genes are necessary for the iris disease, but it is unknown whether alleles of other D2 gene(s) are necessary for the distinct

Michael G Anderson; Richard T Libby; Mao Mao; Ioan M Cosma; Larry A Wilson; Richard S Smith; Simon WM John

2006-01-01

340

Genetic Background Strongly Modifies the Severity of Symptoms of Hirschsprung Disease, but Not Hearing Loss in Rats Carrying Ednrbsl Mutations  

PubMed Central

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is thought to result as a consequence of multiple gene interactions that modulate the ability of enteric neural crest cells to populate the developing gut. However, it remains unknown whether the single complete deletion of important HSCR-associated genes is sufficient to result in HSCR disease. In this study, we found that the null mutation of the Ednrb gene, thought indispensable for enteric neuron development, is insufficient to result in HSCR disease when bred onto a different genetic background in rats carrying Ednrbsl mutations. Moreover, we found that this mutation results in serious congenital sensorineural deafness, and these strains may be used as ideal models of Waardenburg Syndrome Type 4 (WS4). Furthermore, we evaluated how the same changed genetic background modifies three features of WS4 syndrome, aganglionosis, hearing loss, and pigment disorder in these congenic strains. We found that the same genetic background markedly changed the aganglionosis, but resulted in only slight changes to hearing loss and pigment disorder. This provided the important evidence, in support of previous studies, that different lineages of neural crest-derived cells migrating along with various pathways are regulated by different signal molecules. This study will help us to better understand complicated diseases such as HSCR and WS4 syndrome. PMID:21915282

Dang, Ruihua; Torigoe, Daisuke; Suzuki, Sari; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Moritoh, Kanako; Sasaki, Nobuya; Agui, Takashi

2011-01-01

341

A pathway-based analysis provides additional support for an immune-related genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 1–2% in people >60 and 3–4% in people >80. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have now implicated significant evidence for association in at least 18 genomic regions. We have studied a large PD-meta analysis and identified a significant excess of SNPs (P < 1 × 10?16) that are associated with PD but fall short of the genome-wide significance threshold. This result was independent of variants at the 18 previously implicated regions and implies the presence of additional polygenic risk alleles. To understand how these loci increase risk of PD, we applied a pathway-based analysis, testing for biological functions that were significantly enriched for genes containing variants associated with PD. Analysing two independent GWA studies, we identified that both had a significant excess in the number of functional categories enriched for PD-associated genes (minimum P = 0.014 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moreover, 58 categories were significantly enriched for associated genes in both GWA studies (P < 0.001), implicating genes involved in the ‘regulation of leucocyte/lymphocyte activity’ and also ‘cytokine-mediated signalling’ as conferring an increased susceptibility to PD. These results were unaltered by the exclusion of all 178 genes that were present at the 18 genomic regions previously reported to be strongly associated with PD (including the HLA locus). Our findings, therefore, provide independent support to the strong association signal at the HLA locus and imply that the immune-related genetic susceptibility to PD is likely to be more widespread in the genome than previously appreciated. PMID:23223016

Holmans, Peter; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Lesley; Sharma, Manu; Vedernikov, Alexey; Buchel, Finja; Sadd, Mohamad; Bras, Jose M.; Bettella, Francesco; Nicolaou, Nayia; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Mittag, Florian; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Schulte, Claudia; Durr, Alexandra; Guerreiro, Rita; Hernandez, Dena; Brice, Alexis; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Majamaa, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W.; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B.; Nalls, Michael A.; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R.; Williams, Nigel M.; Arepalli, Sampath; Barker, Roger; Barrett, Jeffrey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Berendse, Henk W.; Berg, Daniela; Bhatia, Kailash; de Bie, Rob M.A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Bloem, Bas; Brice, Alexis; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; Bonin, Michael; Bras, Jose M.; Brockmann, Kathrin; Brooks, Janet; Burn, David J.; Charlesworth, Gavin; Chen, Honglei; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Chong, Sean; Clarke, Carl E.; Cookson, Mark R.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Corvol, Jen-Christophe; Counsell, Carl; Damier, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean Francois; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Deuschl, Günther; Dexter, David T.; van Dijk, Karin D.; Dillman, Allissa; Durif, Frank; Durr, Alexandra; Edkins, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan R.; Foltynie, Thomas; Gao, Jianjun; Gardner, Michelle; Gasser, Thomas; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goate, Alison; Gray, Emma; Guerreiro, Rita; Gústafsson, Ómar; Hardy, John; Harris, Clare; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heutink, Peter; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Hofman, Albert; Hollenbeck, Albert; Holmans, Peter; Holton, Janice; Hu, Michele; Huber, Heiko; Hudson, Gavin; Hunt, Sarah E.; Huttenlocher, Johanna; Illig, Thomas; Langford, Cordelia; Lees, Andrew; Lesage, Suzanne; Lichtner, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Lopez, Grisel; Lorenz, Delia; Martinez, Maria; McNeill, Alisdair; Moorby, Catriona; Moore, Matthew; Morris, Huw; Morrison, Karen E.; Moskvina, Valentina; Mudanohwo, Ese; Nalls, Michael A.; Pearson, Justin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Pétursson, Hjörvar; Plagnol, Vincent; Pollak, Pierre; Post, Bart; Potter, Simon; Ravina, Bernard; Revesz, Tamas; Riess, Olaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rizzu, Patrizia; Ryten, Mina; Saad, Mohamad; Sawcer, Stephen; Schapira, Anthony; Scheffer, Hans; Sharma, Manu; Shaw, Karen; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Shoulson, Ira; Schulte, Claudia; Sidransky, Ellen; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Colin; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Stefánsson, Kári; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockton, Joanna D.; Sveinbjornsdottir, Sigurlaug; Talbot, Kevin; Tanner, Carlie M.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Tison, François; Trabzuni, Daniah; Traynor, Bryan J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Velseboer, Daan; Vidailhet, Marie; Walker, Robert; van de Warrenburg, Bart; Wickremaratchi, Mirdhu; Williams, Nigel; Williams-Gray, Caroline H.; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Wood, Nicholas

2013-01-01

342

Outdoor Air Pollution, Genetic Susceptibility, and Asthma Management: Opportunities for Intervention to Reduce the Burden of Asthma  

PubMed Central

Outdoor air pollution at levels occurring in many urban areas around the world has substantial adverse effects on health. Children in general, and children with asthma in particular, are sensitive to the adverse effects of outdoor air pollutants, including ozone, nitrogen oxides, and respirable particulate matter. A growing number of studies also show that children living in environments near traffic have increased risks of new-onset asthma, asthma symptoms, exacerbations, school absences, and asthma-related hospitalizations. The large population of children exposed to high levels of outdoor air pollutants and the substantial risks for adverse health effects present unexploited opportunities to reduce the burden of asthma. Because the evidence indicates significant adverse effects of air pollution at current levels, there is clearly a need to reduce levels of regulated pollutants such as ozone, as well as unregulated pollutants in tailpipe emissions from motor vehicles. Achieving this long-term goal requires the active involvement of physicians and medical providers to ensure that the health of children is at the top of the list of competing priorities for regulatory policy decision-making. Clinical approaches include treatment to control asthma and patient education to reduce adverse effects of the disease. Reduction in exposures also can be approached at a policy level through changes in schools and school bus operations. Beyond clinical and public health approaches to reduce exposure, another strategy to be used before clean air goals are met is to decrease the susceptibility of children to air pollution. Emerging research indicates that dietary supplementation for individuals with low antioxidant levels is one promising approach to reducing susceptibility to air pollution. A second approach involves induction of enzymatic antioxidant defenses, especially for individuals with at-risk genetic variants of key antioxidant enzymes. PMID:19221160

Gilliland, Frank D.

2009-01-01

343

Genetic influences on plasma CFH and CFHR1 concentrations and their role in susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

It is a longstanding puzzle why non-coding variants in the complement factor H (CFH) gene are more strongly associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) than functional coding variants that directly influence the alternative complement pathway. The situation is complicated by tight genetic associations across the region, including the adjacent CFH-related genes CFHR3 and CFHR1, which may themselves influence the alternative complement pathway and are contained within a common deletion (CNP147) which is associated with protection against AMD. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through a protective effect of low plasma CFHR1 concentrations, high plasma CFH or both. We examined the triangular relationships of CFH/CFHR3/CFHR1 genotype, plasma CFH or CFHR1 concentrations and AMD susceptibility in combined case–control (1256 cases, 1020 controls) and cross-sectional population (n = 1004) studies and carried out genome-wide association studies of plasma CFH and CFHR1 concentrations. A non-coding CFH SNP (rs6677604) and the CNP147 deletion were strongly correlated both with each other and with plasma CFH and CFHR1 concentrations. The plasma CFH-raising rs6677604 allele and raised plasma CFH concentration were each associated with AMD protection. In contrast, the protective association of the CNP147 deletion with AMD was not mediated by low plasma CFHR1, since AMD-free controls showed increased plasma CFHR1 compared with cases, but it may be mediated by the association of CNP147 with raised plasma CFH concentration. The results are most consistent with a regulatory locus within a 32 kb region of the CFH gene, with a major effect on plasma CFH concentration and AMD susceptibility. PMID:23873044

Ansari, Morad; Mckeigue, Paul M.; Skerka, Christine; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Vitart, Veronique; Polasek, Ozren; Armbrecht, Ana-Maria; Yates, John R.W.; Vatavuk, Zoran; Bencic, Goran; Kolcic, Ivana; Oostra, Ben A.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Campbell, Susan; Stanton, Chloe M.; Huffman, Jennifer; Shu, Xinhua; Khan, Jane C.; Shahid, Humma; Harding, Simon P.; Bishop, Paul N.; Deary, Ian J.; Moore, Anthony T.; Dhillon, Baljean; Rudan, Pavao; Zipfel, Peter F.; Sim, Robert B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F.

2013-01-01

344

Genetic basis of differences in myxospore count between whirling disease-resistant and -susceptible strains of rainbow trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used a quantitative genetics approach and estimated broad sense heritability (h2b) of myxospore count and the number of genes involved in myxospore formation to gain a better understanding of how resistance to Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite responsible for whirling disease, is inherited in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. An M. cerebralis-resistant strain of rainbow trout, the German Rainbow (GR), and a wild, susceptible strain of rainbow trout, the Colorado River Rainbow (CRR), were spawned to create 3 intermediate crossed populations (an F1 cross, F2 intercross, and a B2 backcross between the F1 and the CRR). Within each strain or cross, h2b was estimated from the between-family variance of myxospore counts using full-sibling families. Estimates of h2b and average myxospore counts were lowest in the GR strain, F1 cross, and F2 intercross (h2b = 0.34, 0.42, and 0.34; myxospores fish?1 = 275, 9566, and 45780, respectively), and highest in the B2 backcross and CRR strain (h2b = 0.93 and 0.89; myxospores fish?1 = 97865 and 187595, respectively). Comparison of means and a joint-scaling test suggest that resistance alleles arising from the GR strain are dominant to susceptible alleles from the CRR strain. Resistance was retained in the intermediate crosses but decreased as filial generation number increased (F2) or backcrossing occurred (B2). The estimated number of segregating loci responsible for differences in myxospore count in the parental strains was 9 ± 5. Our results indicate that resistance to M. cerebralis is a heritable trait within these populations and would respond to either artificial selection in hatcheries or natural selection in the wild.

Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Schisler, George J.; Antolin, Michael F.

2012-01-01

345

Genetic Susceptibility to Anthracycline-Related Congestive Heart Failure in Survivors of Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors are at increased risk for developing congestive heart failure (CHF), primarily due to pre-HCT exposure to anthracyclines. We examined the association between the development of CHF after HCT and polymorphisms in 16 candidate genes involved in anthracycline metabolism, iron homeostasis, anti-oxidant defence, and myocardial remodelling. A nested case-control study design was used. Cases (post-HCT CHF) were identified from 2,950 patients who underwent HCT between 1988 and 2007 at City of Hope and had survived ?1 year. This cohort formed the sampling frame for selecting controls (without CHF) matched on: age, race/ethnicity, cumulative anthracycline exposure, stem cell source (allogeneic, autologous), and length of follow-up. Seventy-seven cases with pre-HCT germline DNA and 178 controls were genotyped. Multivariate analysis revealed that the odds of CHF was higher in females (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.9, p<0.01), individuals with pre-HCT chest radiation (OR=4.7, p=0.05), hypertension (OR=2.9, p=0.01), and with variants of genes coding for the NAD(P)H-oxidase subunit RAC2 (rs13058338, 7508T?A; OR=2.8, p<0.01), HFE (rs1799945, 63C?G; OR=2.5, p=0.05) or the doxorubicin efflux transporter ABCC2 (rs8187710, 1515G?A; OR=4.3, p<0.01). A combined (clinical and genetic) CHF predictive model performed better (area under the curve [AUC], 0.79) than the genetic (AUC=0.67) or the clinical (AUC=0.69) models alone. PMID:23927520

Armenian, Saro H.; Ding, Yan; Mills, George; Sun, Canlan; Venkataraman, Kalyanasundaram; Wong, F. Lennie; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Senitzer, David; Wang, Shirong; Forman, Stephen J.; Bhatia, Smita

2013-01-01

346

Identifying Genetic Susceptibility to Sensitization to Cephalosporins in Health Care Workers  

PubMed Central

Exposure to cephalosporins could cause occupational allergic diseases in health care workers (HCWs). We evaluated the prevalence of serum specific IgE and IgG antibodies to cephalosporin-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate and to identify potential genetic risk factors associated with sensitization to cephalosporins in exposed HCWs. The study population consisted of 153 HCWs who had been exposed to antibiotics in a single university hospital and 86 unexposed healthy controls. A questionnaire survey of work-related symptoms (WRS) was administered. A skin-prick test (SPT) was performed, and serum-specific IgE and IgG antibodies to 3 commonly prescribed cephalosporins were measured by ELISA. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the candidate genes related to IgE sensitization were genotyped. The prevalence of WRS to cephalosporins was 2.6%. The prevalence rates of serum-specific IgE and IgG antibodies to cephalosporins were 20.3% and 14.7%, respectively. The Fc?R1?-109T > C polymorphism was significantly associated with IgE sensitization to cephalosporins in HCWs (P = 0.036, OR = 3.553; CI, 1.324-9.532). The in vitro functional assay demonstrated that the T allele of Fc?R1?-109T had greater promoter activity than did the C allele (P < 0.001). The Fc?R1?-109T > C polymorphism may be a potential genetic risk factor for increased IgE sensitization to cephalosporins. PMID:23166408

Nam, Young-Hee; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Jin, Hyun Jung; Hwang, Eui-Kyung; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Ye, Young-Min

2012-01-01

347

Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characterisation of oxytetracycline-resistant Edwardsiella tarda isolated from diseased eels.  

PubMed

Edwardsiellosis is one of the most important bacterial diseases in eels. Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) isolates (n=94) from diseased eels were screened against the eight most commonly used antimicrobial agents in aquaculture in Taiwan. These isolates were highly susceptible to ampicillin, amoxicillin, florfenicol, oxolinic acid and flumequine. In total, 20 of the 94 (21.3 per cent) isolates tested were resistant to oxytetracycline (OTC). Among the 20 tetracycline-resistant E. tarda isolates, tet(A) was the predominant resistance determinant and was detected in 100 per cent of the isolates, whereas 90 per cent of these isolates carried the tet(M) determinant. The efflux pump inhibitor omeprazole reduced the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of OTC for these isolates by twofold to eightfold, suggesting that an intact efflux pump, presumably encoded by tet(A), is required for high-level tetracycline resistance. Real-time PCR experiments showed that increased expression levels of tet(A) and tet(R) could contribute to OTC resistance. Southern blot hybridisation also confirmed that the 20 OTC-resistant E. tarda isolates all carried the TetA determinant on a plasmid that is approximately 50 or 70?kb in size, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) showed that the tet(A) gene was located on an 8-10?kb EcoRI fragment in all of these plasmids. The same plasmid type and RFLP patterns were detected across different farms in the same region, but differences in their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were observed. This suggests a possible role for horizontal spreading and local transmission of the plasmid in the OTC-resistant E. tarda population of eels from two different geographic origins. PMID:24958553

Lo, D Y; Lee, Y J; Wang, J H; Kuo, H C

2014-08-30

348

Effects of Genetic Susceptibility for Type 2 Diabetes on the Evolution of Glucose Homeostasis Traits Before and After Diabetes Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of genetic susceptibility on evolution toward type 2 diabetes (T2D) by analyzing time trajectories of fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA2%S]), and ?-cell secretion (HOMA2%B) in a large nondiabetic cohort. We also examined whether baseline HbA1c modified the effect of genetic predisposition on the time trajectories. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Time trajectories were drawn in 4,744 participants from the French Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (D.E.S.I.R.) cohort based on samples collected every 3 years over a 9-year follow-up. Trajectories were analyzed according to the TCF7L2 common variant, a family history of T2D, and a combination of at-risk alleles from nine T2D-associated genes. RESULTS There was a marked decrease in HOMA2%B in parallel to a steep increase in HbA1c over the 3 years before incident diabetes, which was not influenced by genetic predisposition when considered alone. However, after the onset of T2D, the TCF7L2 at-risk variant was associated with a greater decrease in HOMA2%B. There was a joint effect of a family history of T2D with the presence of the TCF7L2 risk allele with a greater rise in HbA1c conferred by the coexistence of a family history and the T risk allele. An HbA1c ?5.7% at baseline was associated with a greater increase in both glycemia and HbA1c levels in the presence of a combination of diabetes at-risk alleles. CONCLUSIONS After incident T2D, TCF7L2 at-risk variants were associated with a faster decrease in ?-cell function compared with those with the CC genotype. There was a joint effect of family history of T2D and TCF7L2 risk variant on the rise in glycemia and the decrease in insulin secretion at the end of follow-up, suggesting the joint influence of the combination of diabetes genetic predisposition with familial factors on the evolution of glycemia over time. PMID:21911746

Gautier, Alain; Roussel, Ronan; Lange, Céline; Piguel, Xavier; Cauchi, Stéphane; Vol, Sylviane; Froguel, Philippe; Balkau, Beverley; Bonnet, Fabrice

2011-01-01

349

Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides  

SciTech Connect

Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme involved in the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) by hydrolyzing the bioactive oxons. Polymorphisms of the PON1 gene are responsible for variation in the expression and catalytic activity of PON1 enzyme. In the present study, we have determined (a) the prevalence of two common PON1 polymorphisms, (b) the activity of PON1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, and (c) the influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes variation on DNA damage in workers exposed to OPs. We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The results revealed that PON1 activity toward paraoxon (179.19 {+-} 39.36 vs. 241.52 {+-} 42.32 nmol/min/ml in controls) and phenylacetate (112.74 {+-} 17.37 vs. 134.28 {+-} 25.49 {mu}mol/min/ml in controls) was significantly lower in workers than in control subjects (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the distribution of genotypes and allelic frequencies of PON1{sub 192}QR (Gln/Arg) and PON1{sub 55}LM (Leu/Met) in workers and control subjects (p > 0.05). The PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was found to be significantly higher in the R/R (Arg/Arg) genotypes than Q/R (Gln/Arg) and lowest in Q/Q (Gln/Gln) genotypes in both workers and control subjects (p < 0.001). For PON1{sub 55}LM (Leu/Met), PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was observed to be higher in individuals with L/L (Leu/Leu) genotypes and lowest in individuals with M/M (Met/Met) genotypes in both groups (p < 0.001). No influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes was seen on the activity of acetylcholinesterase and arylesterase. The DNA damage was observed to be significantly higher in workers than in control subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the individuals who showed least paraoxonase activity i.e., those with (Q/Q [Gln/Gln] and M/M [Met/Met]) genotypes showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to other isoforms in workers exposed to OPs (p < 0.05). The results indicate that the individuals with PON1 Q/Q and M/M genotypes are more susceptible toward genotoxicity. In conclusion, the study suggests wide variation in enzyme activities and DNA damage due to polymorphisms in PON1 gene, which might have an important role in the identification of individual risk factors in workers occupationally exposed to OPs.

Singh, Satyender [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control, 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Kumar, Vivek [Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095 (India); Thakur, Sachin [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control, 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Presently at, Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900 (United States); Banerjee, Basu Dev [Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095 (India); Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control, 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Pasha, Syed Tazeen [National Programme for Prevention and Control of Fluorosis, DGHS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, Nirman Bhavan, New Delhi 110011 (India); Jain, Sudhir Kumar [Centre for Epidemiology and Parasitic Diseases, National Centre for Disease Control, 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Ichhpujani, Rattan Lal [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control, 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); National Programme for Prevention and Control of Fluorosis, DGHS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, Nirman Bhavan, New Delhi 110011 (India); Rai, Arvind, E-mail: arvindrai.nicd@gmail.com [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control, 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India)

2011-04-15

350

Genetic variation in the HLA region is associated with susceptibility to herpes zoster  

PubMed Central

Herpes zoster, commonly referred to as shingles, is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV). VZV initially manifests as chicken pox, most commonly in childhood, can remain asymptomatically latent in nerve tissues for many years and often re-emerges as shingles. Although reactivation may be related to immune suppression, aging and female sex, most inter-individual variability in re-emergence risk has not been explained to date. We performed a genome-wide association analyses in 22?981 participants (2280 shingles cases) from the electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network. Using Cox survival and logistic regression, we identified a genomic region in the combined and European ancestry groups that has an age of onset effect reaching genome-wide significance (P>1.0 × 10?8). This region tags the non-coding gene HCP5 (HLA Complex P5) in the major histocompatibility complex. This gene is an endogenous retrovirus and likely influences viral activity through regulatory functions. Variants in this genetic region are known to be associated with delay in development of AIDS in people infected by HIV. Our study provides further suggestion that this region may have a critical role in viral suppression and could potentially harbor a clinically actionable variant for the shingles vaccine. PMID:25297839

Crosslin, D R; Carrell, D S; Burt, A; Kim, D S; Underwood, J G; Hanna, D S; Comstock, B A; Baldwin, E; de Andrade, M; Kullo, I J; Tromp, G; Kuivaniemi, H; Borthwick, K M; McCarty, C A; Peissig, P L; Doheny, K F; Pugh, E; Kho, A; Pacheco, J; Hayes, M G; Ritchie, M D; Verma, S S; Armstrong, G; Stallings, S; Denny, J C; Carroll, R J; Crawford, D C; Crane, P K; Mukherjee, S; Bottinger, E; Li, R; Keating, B; Mirel, D B; Carlson, C S; Harley, J B; Larson, E B; Jarvik, G P

2015-01-01

351

Genetic variation in the HLA region is associated with susceptibility to herpes zoster.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster, commonly referred to as shingles, is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV). VZV initially manifests as chicken pox, most commonly in childhood, can remain asymptomatically latent in nerve tissues for many years and often re-emerges as shingles. Although reactivation may be related to immune suppression, aging and female sex, most inter-individual variability in re-emergence risk has not been explained to date. We performed a genome-wide association analyses in 22,981 participants (2280 shingles cases) from the electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network. Using Cox survival and logistic regression, we identified a genomic region in the combined and European ancestry groups that has an age of onset effect reaching genome-wide significance (P>1.0 × 10(-8)). This region tags the non-coding gene HCP5 (HLA Complex P5) in the major histocompatibility complex. This gene is an endogenous retrovirus and likely influences viral activity through regulatory functions. Variants in this genetic region are known to be associated with delay in development of AIDS in people infected by HIV. Our study provides further suggestion that this region may have a critical role in viral suppression and could potentially harbor a clinically actionable variant for the shingles vaccine. PMID:25297839

Crosslin, D R; Carrell, D S; Burt, A; Kim, D S; Underwood, J G; Hanna, D S; Comstock, B A; Baldwin, E; de Andrade, M; Kullo, I J; Tromp, G; Kuivaniemi, H; Borthwick, K M; McCarty, C A; Peissig, P L; Doheny, K F; Pugh, E; Kho, A; Pacheco, J; Hayes, M G; Ritchie, M D; Verma, S S; Armstrong, G; Stallings, S; Denny, J C; Carroll, R J; Crawford, D C; Crane, P K; Mukherjee, S; Bottinger, E; Li, R; Keating, B; Mirel, D B; Carlson, C S; Harley, J B; Larson, E B; Jarvik, G P

2015-01-01

352

Genetic Diversity and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Associated with Sheep Abortion in the United States and Great Britain  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. Historically, genetically diverse Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (named SA) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the United States. Whether clone SA was present in earlier U.S. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the United States are unknown. Here, we analyzed 54 C. jejuni isolates collected from U.S. sheep abortions at different time periods and compared them with 42 C. jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion during 2002 to 2008 in Great Britain, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Although clone SA (ST-8) was present in the early U.S. isolates, it was not as tetracycline resistant (19% versus 100%) or predominant (66% versus 91%) as it was in the late U.S isolates. In contrast, C. jejuni isolates from Great Britain were genetically diverse, comprising 19 STs and lacking ST-8. PFGE and CGH analyses of representative strains further confirmed the population structure of the abortion isolates. Notably, the Great Britain isolates were essentially susceptible to most tested antibiotics, including tetracycline, while the late U.S. isolates were universally resistant to this antibiotic, which could be explained by the common use of tetracyclines for control of sheep abortions in the United States but not in Great Britain. These results suggest that the dominance of clone SA in sheep abortions is unique to the United States, and the use of tetracyclines may have facilitated selection of this highly pathogenic clone. PMID:24648552

Wu, Zuowei; Sippy, Rachel; Plummer, Paul; Vidal, Ana; Newell, Diane; Zhang, Qijing

2014-01-01

353

Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep.  

PubMed

The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. PMID:25179226

Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Nolan, Patrick M

2015-01-01

354

Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep?  

PubMed Central

The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. PMID:25179226

Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Nolan, Patrick M.

2015-01-01

355

Mitochondrial genetic background in Ghanaian patients with primary open-angle glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Prevalence rates for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) are significantly higher in Africans than in European or Asians. It has been reported recently that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages of African origin, excluding L2, conferred susceptibility to POAG in Saudi Arabia. This prompted us to test the role of mtDNA haplogroups in the incidence of POAG in the Ghanaian population who has a high frequency of L2 lineages. Methods DNA was extracted from two independent cohorts of clinically diagnosed POAG patients (n=373) and healthy controls (n=451). All patients and controls were from Accra and Tema (the southern region of Ghana). The hypervariable region-I (HVS-I) and coding regions comprising mtDNA haplogroup diagnostic polymorphisms were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and sequenced in all patients and controls and the haplotypes obtained were assorted into haplogroups and their frequencies compared between cohorts. Results No statistically significant differences were found in mtDNA haplogroup frequencies between POAG patients and matched controls in this cohort for the various mtDNA haplogroups tested. Conclusions In this Ghanaian cohort, mtDNA haplogroups do not seem to confer susceptibility to POAG. PMID:22876121

Hauser, Michael A.; Mohamed, Gamal; Liu, Yutao; Gibson, Jason; Gonzalez, Ana M.; Akafo, Stephen; Allingham, R. Rand

2012-01-01

356

Susceptibility of carnivore hosts to strains of canine distemper virus from distinct genetic lineages.  

PubMed

Using the complete haemagglutinin (HA) gene and partial phosphoprotein (P) gene we investigated the genotype of canine distemper virus (CDV) strains recovered from two wildlife species in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated significant differences between the strains from raccoons Procyon lotor (family Procyonidae) obtained in 2007 and strains from red foxes Vulpes vulpes (family Canidae) obtained in 2008. The raccoon strains belonged to the CDV European wildlife lineage whereas the red fox strains belonged to the CDV Europe lineage. We combined our genetic sequence data with published data from 138 CDV stains worldwide to investigate the proposed importance of amino acid substitutions in the SLAM binding region of the CDV HA protein at position 530 (G/E to R/D/N) and 549 (Y to H) to the spread of domestic dog-adapted CDV strains to other carnivores. We found no evidence that amino acid 530 was strongly affected by host species. Rather, site 530 was conserved within CDV lineages, regardless of host species. Contrary to expectation, strains from non-dog hosts did not exhibit a bias towards the predicted substitution Y549H. Wild canid hosts were more frequently infected by strains with 549Y, a pattern similar to domestic dogs. Non-canid strains showed no significant bias towards either H or Y at site 549, although there was a trend towards 549H. Significant differences between the prevalence of 549Y and 549H in wild canid strains and non-canid strains suggests a degree of virus adaptation to these categories of host. PMID:22024346

Nikolin, Veljko M; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Michler, Frank-Uwe F; Wolf, Peter; East, Marion L

2012-04-23

357

Genetic polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes and susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatic injury.  

PubMed

We examined the relationships between N-transacetylase 2 (NAT2), cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 enzyme, glutathione S-transferase M1, T1 (GSTM1/GSTT1) gene polymorphisms, and anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatic injury (ADIH). A one-to-one matched case-control study was carried out using clinical data. NAT2, CYP2E1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms were identified in 173 pairs of research subjects. Statistical analysis was performed to determine risk factors of ADIH. The results showed that low body mass index and alcohol consumption were risk factors of ADIH, with odds ratios of 6.852 and 3.203, respectively. The frequencies of NAT2 slow acetylator, CYP2E1 -1259G>C, -1019C>T wild-type, and the GSTM1 null genotype were higher in the case group than in the control group, with odds ratios of 2.260, 2.696, 4.714, and 2.440, respectively. GSTT1 was not found to be related to ADIH. Interactive analysis showed that NAT2 slow acetylator and the GSTM1 null genotype were mutually synergistic, while an antagonistic relationship was observed between the CYP2E1 wild-type genotype and the other 3 genetic types. The risks of hepatic injury were higher after anti-tuberculosis therapy in patients carrying the NAT2 slow acetylator, CYP2E1 -1259G>C, -1019C>T wild-type, and GSTM1 null genotype. PMID:25501156

Feng, F M; Guo, M; Chen, Y; Li, S M; Zhang, P; Sun, S F; Zhang, G S

2014-01-01

358

Evidence for the contribution of genetic variations in regulator of G protein signaling 9 to the genetic susceptibility of heroin dependence.  

PubMed

Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are responsible for the rapid turnoff of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways. RGS9?2, a brain?specific splice variant of the RGS9 gene, is highly expressed in the striatum but lowly expressed in the periaqueductal gray and spinal cord, which mediate various actions of morphine and other opiates. In order to identify the markers that contribute to the genetic susceptibility of heroin dependence, the potential association between heroin dependence and 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs8077696, rs8070231, rs2292593, rs2292592, rs9916525, rs1122079, rs4790953, rs1530351, rs4791230 and rs2869577 of the RGS9 gene was evaluated using the MassARRAY system. The present study recruited 425 heroin?dependent patients and 205 healthy controls. The results revealed that two SNPs (rs1530351 and rs4791230) located in the promoter region of the RGS9 gene, were significantly associated with heroin dependence (P<0.05). The frequency of the C allele in rs1530351 (?2=8.031, P=0.005, OR=2.079, 95% CI=1.241?3.483) and the G allele in rs4791230 (?2=7.360, P=0.007, OR=2.021, 95% CI=1.205?3.389) in the heroin?dependent patients was significantly higher than that in the controls. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium was observed in three blocks (D'>0.9) and significantly less T?A haplotypes (?2=4.867, P=0.027, OR=0.442, 95% CI=0.210?0.929) were identified in the heroin?dependent patients, suggesting that they may exhibit protective effects against heroin dependence. These findings indicate a role for RGS9 gene polymorphisms in heroin dependence and may be informative for future genetic or biological studies on heroin dependence. PMID:25591550

Zhu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Hongbo

2015-05-01

359

Genetic moderation of interpersonal psychotherapy efficacy for low-income mothers with major depressive disorder: implications for differential susceptibility.  

PubMed

Genetic moderation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) efficacy for economically disadvantaged women with major depressive disorder was examined. Specifically, we investigated whether genotypic variation in corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) and the linked polymorphic region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderated effects of IPT on depressive symptoms over time. We also tested genotype moderation of IPT mechanisms on social adjustment and perceived stress. Non-treatment-seeking urban women at or below the poverty level with infants were recruited from the community (N = 126; M age = 25.33 years, SD = 4.99; 54.0% African American, 22.2% Caucasian, and 23.8% Hispanic/biracial) and randomized to individual IPT or Enhanced Community Standard groups. The results revealed that changes in depressive symptoms over time depended on both intervention group and genotypes (5-HTTLPR and CRHR1). Moreover, multiple-group path analysis indicated that IPT improved depressive symptoms, increased social adjustment, and decreased perceived stress at posttreatment among women with the 0 copies of the CRHR1 TAT haplotype only. Finally, improved social adjustment at postintervention significantly mediated the effect of IPT on reduced depressive symptoms at 8 months postintervention for women with 0 copies of the TAT haplotype only. Post hoc analyses of 5-HTTLPR were indicative of differential susceptibility, albeit among African American women only. PMID:25640828

Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L; Handley, Elizabeth D

2015-02-01

360

Adolescent Medical Providers' Willingness to Recommend Genetic Susceptibility Testing for Nicotine Addiction and Lung Cancer Risk to Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective?To examine the influences of disease, lifestyle, and other factors on adolescent medical providers’ willingness to recommend genetic susceptibility testing (GST).?Method?Providers attending a national conference completed a self-report survey (n = 232) about their willingness to recommend hypothetical GSTs, differentiated by disease (nicotine addiction/lung cancer), patient lifestyle (nonsmoker/smoker), and other contextual factors.?Results?Compared to recommending GST unconditionally, providers were more willing to recommend GST with parental/patient consent/assent, and in the presence of a preexisting illness and substance abuse history. Compared to offering nicotine addiction GST to a nonsmoker, providers were more willing to offer this type of testing to a smoker and were more willing to offer GST for lung cancer regardless of patient lifestyle.?Conclusions?Providers’ willingness to recommend GSTs is sensitive to many factors. Efforts to integrate GST into adolescent preventive care likely will need to address these and other influences on provider behavior. PMID:18687733

Luta, George; Peshkin, Beth N.; Abraham, Anisha; Walker, Leslie R.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

2009-01-01

361

Myeloperoxidase G-463A polymorphism and lung cancer: a HuGE genetic susceptibility to environmental carcinogens pooled analysis.  

PubMed

Myeloperoxidase is a phase I metabolic enzyme that converts the metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene from tobacco smoke into highly reactive epoxides. A polymorphism in the promoter region of myeloperoxidase (463G-->A) has been found to be inversely associated with lung cancer; differences in the association with age and gender have been suggested. We conducted a pooled analysis of individual data from 10 studies (3688 cases and 3874 controls) from the Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens database. The odds ratio for lung cancer was 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.80-0.97) for the AG variant of myeloperoxidase G-463A polymorphism, and 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.88) for the AA variant after adjusting for smoking, age, gender, and ethnicity. The inverse association between lung cancer and myeloperoxidase G-463A polymorphism was equally found in males and females (odds ratio for the AA genotype 0.73 [95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.96] and 0.67 [95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.98], respectively), without differences in the association according to age in the two genders. The myeloperoxidase G-463A polymorphism was significantly protective in "ever" smokers but not in "never" smokers. Myeloperoxidase is a key enzyme in tobacco-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:17304047

Taioli, Emanuela; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Cascorbi, Ingolf; Cajas-Salazar, Nohelia; Dally, Heike; Fong, Kwun M; Larsen, Jill E; Le Marchand, Loic; London, Stephanie J; Risch, Angela; Spitz, Margaret R; Stucker, Isabelle; Weinshenker, Brian; Wu, Xifeng; Yang, Ping

2007-02-01

362

Genetic Moderation of Interpersonal Psychotherapy Efficacy for Low-Income Mothers with Major Depressive Disorder: Implications for Differential Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Genetic moderation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) efficacy for economically disadvantaged women with major depressive disorder was examined. Specifically, we investigated whether genotypic variation in corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) and the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) moderated effects of IPT on depressive symptoms over time. We also tested genotype moderation of IPT mechanisms social adjustment and perceived stress. Non-treatment seeking urban women at or below the poverty level with infants were recruited from the community (N = 126; M age = 25.33; SD = 4.99; 54.0% African-American, 22.2% Caucasian, and 23.8% Hispanic/biracial) and randomized to individual IPT or enhanced community standard (ECS). Results revealed that changes in depressive symptoms over time depended on both intervention group and genotypes (5-HTTLPR and CRHR1). Moreover, multiple-group path analysis indicated that IPT improved depressive symptoms, increased social adjustment and decreased perceived stress at post-treatment among women with the 0 copies of the CRHR1 TAT haplotype only. Finally, improved social adjustment at post-intervention significantly mediated the effect of IPT on reduced depressive symptoms at 8 months post-intervention for women 0 copies of the TAT haplotype only. Post-hoc analyses of 5-HTTLPR were indicative of differential susceptibility, albeit among African-American women only. PMID:25640828

Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.; Handley, Elizabeth D.

2015-01-01

363

Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low Dose & Low Dose-Rate Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Our laboratory has, among other things, developed and used the gamma H2AX focus assay and other chromosomal and cell killing assays to show that differences in this DNA double strand break (dsb) related response can be clearly and distinctly demonstrated for cells which are mildly hyper-radiosensitive such as those associated with A-T heterozygosity. We have found this level of mild hypersensitivity for cells from some 20 to 30 % of apparently normal individuals and from apparently normal parents of Retinoblastoma patients. We found significant differences in gene expression in somatic cells from unaffected parents of Rb patients as compared with normal controls, suggesting that these parents may harbor some as yet unidentified genetic abnormality. In other experiments we sought to determine the extent of differences in normal human cellular reaponses to radiation depending on their irradiation in 2D monolayer vs 3D organized acinar growth conditions. We exmined cell reproductive death, chromosomal aberration induction, and the levels of ?-H2AX foci in cells after single acute gamma-ray doses and immediately after 20 hours of irradiation at a dose rate of 0.0017 Gy/min. We found no significant differences in the dose-responses of these cells under the 2D or 3D growth conditions. While this does not mean such differences cannot occur in other situations, it does mean that they do not generally or necessarily occur. In another series of studies in collaboration with Dr Chuan Li, with supprt from this current grant. We reported a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. In yet another collaboration with Dr, B. Chen with funds from this grant, the relative radiosensitivity to cell killing as well as chromosomal instability of 13 DNA-PKcs site-directed mutant cell lines (defective at phosphorylation sites or kinase activity) were examined after exposure of synchronized G1 cells to 137Cs c rays. DNA-PKcs mutant cells defective in phosphorylation at multiple sites withinthe T2609 cluster or within the PI3K domain displayed extreme radiosensitivity. Cells defective at the S2056 cluster or T2609 single site alone were only mildly radiosensitive, but cells defective at even one site in both the S2056 and T2609 clusters were maximally radiosensitive. Thus a synergism between the capacity for phosphorylation at the S2056 and T2609 clusterswas found to be critical for induction of radiosensitivity.

Bedford, Joel

2014-04-18

364

Sardinians Genetic Background Explained by Runs of Homozygosity and Genomic Regions under Positive Selection  

PubMed Central

The peculiar position of Sardinia in the Mediterranean sea has rendered its population an interesting biogeographical isolate. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic population structure, as well as to estimate Runs of Homozygosity and regions under positive selection, using about 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in 1077 Sardinian individuals. Using four different methods - fixation index, inflation factor, principal component analysis and ancestry estimation - we were able to highlight, as expected for a genetic isolate, the high internal homogeneity of the island. Sardinians showed a higher percentage of genome covered by RoHs>0.5 Mb (FRoH%0.5) when compared to peninsular Italians, with the only exception of the area surrounding Alghero. We furthermore identified 9 genomic regions showing signs of positive selection and, we re-captured many previously inferred signals. Other regions harbor novel candidate genes for positive selection, like TMEM252, or regions containing long non coding RNA. With the present study we confirmed the high genetic homogeneity of Sardinia that may be explained by the shared ancestry combined with the action of evolutionary forces. PMID:24651212

Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Fiorito, Giovanni; Ortu, Maria Francesca; Rosa, Fabio; Guarrera, Simonetta; Pardini, Barbara; Cusi, Daniele; Frau, Francesca; Barlassina, Cristina; Troffa, Chiara; Argiolas, Giuseppe; Zaninello, Roberta; Fresu, Giovanni; Glorioso, Nicola; Piazza, Alberto; Matullo, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

365

Genetic variation and significant association of polymorphism rs7700944?G>A of TIM-4 gene with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in Chinese Han and Hui populations.  

PubMed

The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domains 1 (TIM-1) and 3 (TIM-3) have been shown to be associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in many ethnicities. In this study, we investigated the rs7700944 polymorphism of the intron region of TIM-4 gene in Chinese Han and Hui populations, with and without RA in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China. Our results demonstrated genetic variations of the TIM-4 gene, along with significantly different distributions of genotypes and alleles at rs7700944 site in these two populations, with or without RA (P < 0.01). In addition, a strong association between the polymorphism with RA susceptibility was found in the studies of Chinese Han and Hui ethnic groups (P < 0.01), although the risk genotype contributed to RA susceptibility was different between the Han and Hui groups (P < 0.01). The AG was the risk genotype for RA in Han population, while GG was the risk genotype at rs7700944 site of TIM-4 gene in Hui ethnicity. In addition to the genotype, the risk alleles of this single nucleotide polymorphism for RA in these two populations were also different, individuals with A allele was more susceptible to RA in Chinese Han [odds ratio (OR) = 1.930; 95% CI 1.412, 2.636; P < 0.01], but the risk allele in Hui was G in this study (OR = 1.823; 95% CI 1.330, 2.498; P < 0.01). These findings strongly suggest that polymorphism of rs7700944 of TIM-4 may be a potential genetic variant among distinguished populations, as well as an important genetic factor associated with the RA susceptibility in many ethnicities. PMID:22353209

Xu, J; Yang, Y; Liu, X; Wang, Y

2012-10-01

366

Incorporating Biomarkers of Exposure and Genetic Susceptibility Into Smoking Cessation Treatment: Effects on Smoking-Related Cognitions, Emotions, and Behavior Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the authors report on the short-term impact of incorporating biomarker feedback about exposure and genetic susceptibility into minimal-contact quit-smoking counseling (QSC). Four hundred and twenty-seven smokers were randomized to 1 of 3 treatments: (a) QSC, (b) QSC + exposure biomarker feedback (EBF) about carbon monoxide in exhaled breath, or (b) QSC + EBF + biomarker feedback about

Caryn Lerman; Karen Gold; Janet Audrain; Ting Hsiang Lin; Neal R. Boyd; C. Tracy Orleans; Ben Wilfond; Greg Louben; Neil Caporaso

1997-01-01

367

RET and PHOX2B Genetic Polymorphisms and Hirschsprung's Disease Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Many publications have evaluated the correlation between RET, PHOX2B polymorphisms and Hirschsprung's disease with conflicting results. We performed this meta-analysis to clarify the association of RET, PHOX2B polymorphisms with HSCR. Methods We searched Pubmed, Elsevier Science Direct, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Chinese Biomedical database, Google scholar. The combined odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI was calculated to estimate the strength of the association. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. Results In total, 16 studies concerning RET and 4 studies concerning PHOX2B were included in the meta-analysis. The effects of five polymorphisms of RET (rs1800858, rs1800860, rs1800861, rs10900297, rs2435357) and one polymorphism (rs28647582) of PHOX2B were evaluated. We found a significant correlation between RET polymorphisms and HSCR. For rs1800858, the overall ORs (95% CI) of the A versus G, AA versus GG, AA/AG versus GG and AA versus GG/AG were 3.81 (2.28–6.35); 8.36 (3.45–20.25); 3.59 (1.83–7.02); and 6.60 (3.66–11.89). For rs1800861, the comparison of subjects in the G versus T, GG versus TT, GG/TG versus TT and GG versus TT/TG were 2.85(1.81–4.47); 5.38(2.68–10.80); 3.07(2.17–4.34) and 4.14(1.84–9.30) respectively. For rs10900297, the comparison results showed statistically significant. (ORC versus A?=?5.05,95%CI?=?4.16–6.13; ORCC versus AA?=?9.73, 95%CI?=?5.94–15.94; ORCC/AC versus AA?=?5.31, 95%CI?=?3.27–6.82; ORCC versus AC/AA?=?7.06,95%CI?=?5.60–8.91.) But, for rs1800860, the GG/GA versus AA did not reach statistical association (OR?=?3.77, 95% CI?=?0.94–15.07) and the G versus A, GG versus AA, GG versus GA/AA were 2.23 (1.60–3.11);4.56 (1.14–18.27); 2.38 (1.66–3.43) respectively. For rs2435357, the T versus C, TT versus CC, TT/TC versus CC and TT versus CC/TC were 4.53 (3.27–6.27); 11.44 (5.67–23.10); 4.04 (2.92–5.57), and 9.01(5.25–15.46).The single polymorphism of PHOX2B gene wasn't related to the risk for HSCR. Conclusions This meta-analysis shows a significant association between RET polymorphisms and HSCR. PMID:24651702

Yuan, Xu; Ren, Ling-ling; Shen, Juan; Zhang, Hai-yan

2014-01-01

368

In Vitro Matured Oocytes Are More Susceptible than In Vivo Matured Oocytes to Mock ICSI Induced Functional and Genetic Changes  

PubMed Central

Background Concerns regarding the safety of ICSI have been intensified recently due to increased risk of birth defects in ICSI born children. A