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1

L'expression culture de l'information : quelle pertinence, quels enjeux ?  

E-print Network

1 L'expression « culture de l'information » : quelle pertinence, quels enjeux ? Alain CHANTE MCF en....................................................................................................................2 LA CULTURE COMME ?RUDITION, COMME PATRIMOINE SOCIAL, COMME ?TAT D..................................................................... 6 LA CULTURE DE L'INFORMATION : M?TA-CONNAISSANCES, CULTURE DE L'APPRENANCE OU TERRITOIRE D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Sources of geologic and hydrologic information pertinent to ground-water resources in Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes sources of geologic and hydrologic information useful to water managers and others involved in the investigation, appraisal, development, and protection of ground-water resources in Rhode Island. The geographic scope of the report includes Rhode Island and small adjoining areas of Massachusetts and Connecticut, where drainage basins are shared with these States. The information summarized is found in maps and reports prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and published by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by the State of Rhode Island. Information sources are presented in maps and tables. Reference maps show drainage divides, town lines, and the 7.5-minute grid of latitude and longitude for the State. Maps show availability of surficial geologic maps, bedrock geologic maps, and ground-water studies by 7.5-minute quadrangle, and show availability of ground-water studies by drainage basin, subbasin, and special study area. Sources of geologic and hydrologic information for the thirty-seven 7.5-minute quadrangles covering Rhode Island have been compiled based on the following information categories: surficial geology, bedrock geology, subsurface materials, altitude of bedrock surface, water-table altitudes, water-table contours, saturated thickness, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, drainage divides, recharge areas, ground-water reservoirs, induced infiltration, and ground-water quality. A table for each of the 37 quadrangles lists the major categories of information available for that quadrangle, provides references to the publications in which the information can be found, and indicates the format, scale, and other pertinent attributes of the information. A table organized by report series gives full citations for publications prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey pertaining to the geology and hydrology of Rhode Island. To facilitate location of information for particular municipalities, a table lists cities and towns in the State and the quadrangles that cover each municipality.

Trench, Elaine C.

1995-01-01

3

Pertinence of the internship  

E-print Network

1 Art.1 Curricular internship Art.2 Objectives Art.3 Timing and Duration Art.4 Choice of Employer Art.5 Pertinence of the internship Art.6 Internship Search GRADUATE INTERNSHIP GUIDELINES Faculties and in Economics a period of practical training or work experience, herein referred to as `internship', is one

Krause, Rolf

4

Background Information 1. What are stem cells?  

E-print Network

Background Information 1. What are stem cells? 2. What might stem cell research achieve? 3. Why we need to continue research using embryonic stem cells? 4. Time taken for discoveries 5. Examples of stem cell therapies in clinical trials 6. Patentability of human embryonic stem cell therapies 7. Creation

Rambaut, Andrew

5

Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

1953-01-01

6

Associate Director Information Services at SHS since 2012 Educational Background  

E-print Network

Information Technology / Health Informatics Healthcare Information Security Professional Membership and Involvement Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Interests Horology, as a semiChip Colby Associate Director Information Services at SHS since 2012 Educational Background

Tullos, Desiree

7

Division of Undergraduate Education Reviewer Background Information Form  

NSF Publications Database

... information is retained for future reference in selecting reviewers. The information requested on ... of all information is entirely voluntary. The purpose of this background information is to assist in ...

8

Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child  

MedlinePLUS

... Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child Series Title Factsheets for Families Author(s) Child Welfare Information Gateway Year Published 2012 Email Order (Free) Print ( ...

9

Sleep physiology and pathology: pertinence to psychiatry.  

PubMed

Sleep should not be considered a behavioural state characterized by brain inertia; instead, it is a highly dynamic process involving numerous brainstem areas and all physiological systems of the body. Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for sleep regulation has considerably advanced since the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, about half a century ago. Based on standardized electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic and electromyographic features, two distinct main states periodically alternating throughout the night have been identified: REM and non-REM sleep; the latter is further distinguished into stages 1, 2, 3 and 4. Computerized analysis of sleep recordings yielded more detailed information on sleep physiology and pathology. Although still preliminary, neuroimaging studies promise to elucidate the functional alterations of neuronal substrates during sleep. Regarding sleep disorders, which account for a substantial individual and socio-economic burden, considerable progress has been achieved in terms of their classification, assessment, clinical diagnosis and treatment. Specific sleep disorders within the three major categories, that is, 'dysomnias', 'parasomnias', and 'sleep disorders associated with mental, neurologic, or other medical conditions', exhibit characteristic clinical features; sleep laboratory recordings considerably assist to definitely diagnose several among them. Pertinence of sleep medicine for psychiatrists is obvious, taking into consideration that psychiatric disorders account for the largest diagnostic group of patients with sleep problems. In fact, the basics of this interdisciplinary field should be of special concern both to medical students and clinicians of diverse backgrounds who are interested in acquiring the necessary skills to globally and comprehensively understand and eventually effectively treat their patients. PMID:16194793

Soldatos, Constantin R; Paparrigopoulos, Thomas J

2005-08-01

10

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Breast CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the materials cited below.

11

Background information on the SSC project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning.

1991-01-01

12

American Memory: Background Papers and Content Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this site, newly updated and reorganized, the Library of Congress continues to share its experience in the digitization of images, text, maps, sound files, and movies. In addition to American Memory White papers (some previously described in the August 7, 1998 Scout Report), which are technical papers based on the experience gained during the American Memory Pilot Project, the site also includes a variety of resources to help any library or institution embarking on a digitizing project, such as sample Requests for Proposals (RFPs) for scanning and text conversion services, the National Digital Library Project Planning checklist, final reports, workshop proceedings, and recommendations. Also included are some background readings produced outside the Library of Congress on the concept of creating digital library collections.

13

Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

Schulte, Roger R.

1987-01-01

14

29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAMOA 511.11 Pertinent data. Among the types of data which may be considered pertinent...average hourly earnings or wage structure, provisions of collective...balance sheets; and (e) Data bearing on proper...

2010-07-01

15

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information  

E-print Network

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepared by Joel. Introduction_______________________________________________ 1 1.1. Goals of the IMRC's Smog Check Evaluation for the IMRC Smog Check Evaluation _________________ 2 3. Evaluation Process

Denver, University of

16

Student Performance Standards and Testing Programs: Background Information for Legislators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides Minnesota legislators with background information on establishing state educational standards and periodic testing to measure student progress. Scientific management, the accountability movement, and the basic education movement were educational trends of the 1970's providing pressure on states to set standards to improve

Sutter, Joel A.; Rice, Elizabeth V.

17

29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...11 Pertinent data. Among the types of data which may be considered...Employment and labor conditions...hours of work, labor turnover, absenteeism...Comparative production costs in American Samoa...sheets; and (e) Data bearing on...

2011-07-01

18

29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.  

...11 Pertinent data. Among the types of data which may be considered...Employment and labor conditions...hours of work, labor turnover, absenteeism...Comparative production costs in American Samoa...sheets; and (e) Data bearing on...

2014-07-01

19

78 FR 79418 - Agency Information Collection Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...designee provide pertinent information for easy record retrieval allowing for increased...processing. Pertinent information includes the requester's...designees pertinent information for easy record retrieval; (5) Annual...

2013-12-30

20

Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services: Speak Out. Conference Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as background material for the 1978 Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services, this document provides information in six areas of concern for Ohio libraries: (1) library and information services--library users, library collections, special user needs; (2) public awareness--definition, current status, suggestions for

Ohio State Library, Columbus.

21

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Simultaneous Confidence Intervals with more  

E-print Network

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Outline Bounds Illustrations Women's Health Initiative #12;Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence

Stark, Philip B.

22

Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the importance of fuel properties in design of aircraft fuel systems the present report has been prepared to provide information on the characteristics of current jet fuels. In addition to information on fuel properties, discussions are presented on fuel specifications, the variations among fuels supplied under a given specification, fuel composition, and the pertinence of fuel composition and physical properties to fuel system design. In some instances the influence of variables such as pressure and temperature on physical properties is indicated. References are cited to provide fuel system designers with sources of information containing more detail than is practicable in the present report.

Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, R R

1953-01-01

23

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

24

78 FR 54246 - Agency Emergency Information Collection Reinstatement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...designee provide pertinent information for easy record retrieval allowing for increased...processing. Pertinent information includes the requester's...designees pertinent information for easy record retrieval; (5) Annual...

2013-09-03

25

The Graphic Information Research Unit: Background and Recent Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses projects of the Graphic Information Research Unit at the Royal College of Art (England), which relates to the legibility of scientific and technical information. Summarizes the Unit's survey of problems in providing adequate guiding in libraries and museums, and reports two studies of Computer Output Microfilm library catalogues. (GT)

Reynolds, Linda

1979-01-01

26

Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.  

PubMed

Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses. PMID:24807935

Kerren, Andreas

2013-01-01

27

BACKGROUND INFORMATION New York State Data Exchange Project  

E-print Network

and carry out a plan to design, develop, test, and implement a Data Exchange System based on the CDC Public and time. Real-time data flow will enable joint decision support, professional collaboration, and rapid Health Information Network Messaging System (PHINMS) and the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA

28

Nursing research: historical background and teaching information strategies.  

PubMed Central

The expansion of research-based literature is one of the foremost goals of the nursing profession. Linked to this goal are the utilization and further development of nursing libraries. This paper discusses some historical factors that have influenced nursing literature. It presents a model for teaching graduate nursing students the relationship between research and library information skills. PMID:3518840

Sarkis, J M; Conners, V L

1986-01-01

29

Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

Rosenblatt, D.H.

1996-11-01

30

$100,000 Prize Jackpot. Call Now! Identifying the Pertinent Features of SMS Spam  

E-print Network

$100,000 Prize Jackpot. Call Now! Identifying the Pertinent Features of SMS Spam Henry Tan, Nazli@cs.georgetown.edu, nazli@cs.georgetown.edu, msherr@cs.georgetown.edu ABSTRACT Mobile SMS spam is on the rise]: Information Search and Retrieval--Information filtering General Terms Algorithms, Experimentation Keywords SMS

31

Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nat

32

Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very nearly the speed of light. Optical studies of a December 1997 burst (GRB 971214) indicated a distance for it of nearly 12 billion light-years. With distances known, astronomers could calculate the amount of energy released during the explosion. The answers were astounding. GRB 970508, in a mere 15 seconds, released nearly ten times more energy than our Sun will release in its entire, 10-billion-year lifetime. GRB 971214, for one or two seconds, outshone the entire rest of the universe. These energies ruled out many of the numerous theories for the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts that had arisen over the previous three decades. Many answers about the origins of Gamma Ray Bursts and the physics of the fireballs will come from radio telescopes. The VLA, with its combination of sensitivity and resolving power, "has a unique role to play in deciphering GRB fireball physics," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. First, radio astronomers can see the GRB fireball far longer than it is visible at other wavelengths. A Gamma Ray Burst is visible in the gamma rays for typically seconds or minutes, in X-rays for days, and in visible light for weeks, based on the past year's experience. "With radio telescopes, we can see the fireballs for months, gaining new information every day," said Greg Taylor, also of NRAO in Socorro. "Also, at other wavelengths, they see the emission only as it is rapidly getting weaker. At radio wavelengths, we can study the emission as it rises in strength, peaks, then slowly decays." In addition, radio observations can measure the size of the fireball. "Only radio telescopes can measure the size, and we can do it in three different ways," Frail said. These techniques involve studying the scintillation, or "twinkling" of the radio emission; absorption characteristics of the emission; and, for bright, energetic afterglows, direct measurements of sizes can be made through the great resolving power of continent-wide radio telescope arrays such as t

33

Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

2014-05-01

34

THERMAL RADIATION The type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinentThe type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinent  

E-print Network

THERMAL RADIATION The type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinentThe type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinent to heat transfer is the thermal radiation emitted as a result of the strength of these activities at the microscopic level, and the rate of thermal radiation emission increases

Kostic, Milivoje M.

35

Clinical Pertinence Metric Enables Hypothesis-Independent Genome-Phenome Analysis for Neurologic Diagnosis.  

PubMed

We describe an "integrated genome-phenome analysis" that combines both genomic sequence data and clinical information for genomic diagnosis. It is novel in that it uses robust diagnostic decision support and combines the clinical differential diagnosis and the genomic variants using a "pertinence" metric. This allows the analysis to be hypothesis-independent, not requiring assumptions about mode of inheritance, number of genes involved, or which clinical findings are most relevant. Using 20 genomic trios with neurologic disease, we find that pertinence scores averaging 99.9% identify the causative variant under conditions in which a genomic trio is analyzed and family-aware variant calling is done. The analysis takes seconds, and pertinence scores can be improved by clinicians adding more findings. The core conclusion is that automated genome-phenome analysis can be accurate, rapid, and efficient. We also conclude that an automated process offers a methodology for quality improvement of many components of genomic analysis. PMID:25156663

Segal, Michael M; Abdellateef, Mostafa; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Hilbush, Brian S; De La Vega, Francisco M; Tromp, Gerard; Williams, Marc S; Betensky, Rebecca A; Gleeson, Joseph

2014-08-24

36

29 CFR Appendix A to 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

...Information A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3 Labor Regulations Relating...3, App. A Appendix A to 1605.2 and 1605.3Background Information...conduct of Trans World Airlines' business, and would therefore, exceed the duty to...

2014-07-01

37

29 CFR Appendix A to 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Information A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3 Labor Regulations Relating...3, App. A Appendix A to 1605.2 and 1605.3Background Information...conduct of Trans World Airlines' business, and would therefore, exceed the duty to...

2011-07-01

38

29 CFR Appendix A to 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Information A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3 Labor Regulations Relating...3, App. A Appendix A to 1605.2 and 1605.3Background Information...conduct of Trans World Airlines' business, and would therefore, exceed the duty to...

2012-07-01

39

29 CFR Appendix A to 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Information A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3 Labor Regulations Relating...3, App. A Appendix A to 1605.2 and 1605.3Background Information...conduct of Trans World Airlines' business, and would therefore, exceed the duty to...

2013-07-01

40

29 CFR Appendix A to 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Information A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3 Labor Regulations Relating...3, App. A Appendix A to 1605.2 and 1605.3Background Information...conduct of Trans World Airlines' business, and would therefore, exceed the duty to...

2010-07-01

41

Students Seeking Access to Four-Year Institutions: Community College Transfers [Background Information].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides background information for a hearing by the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education and Outreach on December 3, 1997. The Introduction presents the Committee announcement, press release, agenda, information about transfer efforts in California, facts and figures about the community colleges, and the text of

Moore, Jamillah

42

A moving ship detection based on edge information of single image and background subtraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship detection based on video is important in the application of surveillance and marine safety, the detection results of tradition methods, such as background subtraction, have much noise because of background noise such as ocean wave. In this paper we present a simple but efficient method for ship detection, It is based on the edge information of single image and movement information of multi images. Firstly, detect those movement pixels used the background subtraction to the video image, and the distance transformation is operation on the difference images; Secondly, we detect the edge of video image used Canny detector , and morphological operation on the edge image, lastly, eliminate the movement pixels if their distance transformation value is bigger than the threshold. The experimental results demonstrate that is efficient to eliminate the background noise and detect the real target.

Shi, Tingyan; Yang, Lichun; Liu, Zhicheng

2013-10-01

43

Identification and summary characterization of materials potentially requiring vitrification: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This document contains background information for the Workshop in general and the presentation entitled `Identification and Summary Characterization of Materials Potentially Requiring Vitrification` that was given during the first morning of the workshop. summary characteristics of 9 categories of US materials having some potential to be vitrified are given. This is followed by a 1-2 page elaborations for each of these 9 categories. References to more detailed information are included.

Croff, A.G.

1996-05-13

44

Indirect Costs of Research Background Information Prepared by the Research Services Office  

E-print Network

compliance activities and support from the Research Ethics Office, animal care facilities, the BiohazardsIndirect Costs of Research Background Information Prepared by the Research Services Office at the Request of the University Research Policy Committee January 2014 With the change to the distribution

MacMillan, Andrew

45

The Making of Meaning in Societies: Semiotic & Information-Theoretic Background  

E-print Network

The Making of Meaning in Societies: Semiotic & Information-Theoretic Background to the Evolution ethology, linguistics, semiotics, and evolution are surveyed. Innateness, individual learning, and social. Semiotics provides an insightful approach to un- derstanding meaning in terms of a relational (rather than

Nehaniv, Chrystopher

46

Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program  

SciTech Connect

We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

Reader, J.

2013-06-11

47

Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plans purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programsthe Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

2014-12-01

48

Overview of groundwater and surface water standards pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an overview of groundwater- and surface water-related laws, regulations, agreements, guidance documents, Executive Orders, and DOE orders pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This document is a summary and is intended to help readers understand which regulatory requirements may apply to their particular circumstances. However, the document is not intended to be used in lieu of applicable regulations. Unless otherwise noted, the information in this report reflects a summary and evaluation completed July 1, 1995. This document is considered a Living Document, and updates on changing laws and regulations will be provided.

Lundahl, A.L.; Williams, S.; Grizzle, B.J.

1995-09-01

49

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

50

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information  

SciTech Connect

Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

Wang, Gen-sheng; /Case Western Reserve U.

2005-01-01

51

Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background  

E-print Network

We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

Misao Sasaki; Dong-han Yeom

2014-04-06

52

Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background  

E-print Network

We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

Sasaki, Misao

2014-01-01

53

Unraveling the molecular targets pertinent to junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis using the Adjudin-induced germ cell depletion model  

PubMed Central

During spermatogenesis, extensive restructuring takes place at the SertoliSertoli and Sertoligerm cell interface, which is regulated via intriguing interactions among cytokines, proteases, protease inhibitors, kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors. This in turn determines the steady-state levels of integral membrane proteins at the cell junctions. We sought to further expand these observations using the Adjudin model. Adjudin is a potential male contraceptive that targets Sertoligerm cell adhesion, causing exfoliation of spermatids and spermatocytes, but not spermatogonia, from the seminiferous epithelium. This model thus provides the means to identify crucial regulatory molecules and signaling pathways pertinent to junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis. In this study, genome-wide expression profiling of rat testes after treatment with Adjudin at the time of extensive junction restructuring was performed. Differentially regulated genes, such as cytokines, proteases, protease inhibitors, cell junction-associated proteins, and transcription factors pertinent to junction restructuring were identified. These data were consistent with earlier findings; however, much new information was obtained which has been deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus data repository website: http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/geo/ with Accession number: GSE5131. The primary signaling events pertinent to junction restructuring in the testis induced by Adjudin were also delineated using bioinformatics. These findings were also consistent with recently published reports. The identified molecular signatures or targets pertinent to junction dynamics in the testis as reported herein, many of which have not been investigated, thus offer a framework upon which the regulation of junction restructuring events at the SertoliSertoli and Sertoligerm cell interface pertinent to spermatogenesis can be further studied. PMID:17332525

Xia, Weiliang; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

2009-01-01

54

76 FR 67182 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...felony convictions, and parties prohibited from receiving federal contracts. (2) Drug tests are for the presence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP). Contractors shall maintain records of all background...

2011-10-31

55

The Effects of Background Information and Syntactic Cues in Reading French Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared two groups of intermediate/advanced L2 French learners on a reading comprehension test when presented with or without background knowledge of the text. This study also compared intermediate and intermediate/advanced L2 French learners' reading comprehension when presented with increasing syntactic complexity. The results of

Garrott, Carl L.

2009-01-01

56

Testing hypotheses about the genetic background of individuals and populations using ancestry-informative markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing hypotheses about the genetic background of individuals and populations is equivalent to comparing models of parental admixture. Formally, the strength of evi- dence favouring one model over another is given by the Bayes factor (ratio of marginal likelihoods). We have extended the ADMIXMAP program to calculate Bayes factors between dierent models of parental admixture, and demonstrate applications to in-

Paul M. McKeigue; David O'Donnell; Clive J. Hoggart; Ray Fysh; Gerome Breen; Camila Guindalini

57

Are racial differences in patient-physician cancer communication and information explained by background, predisposing, and enabling factors?  

PubMed

Research shows that African Americans tend to have poorer and less informative patient-physician communication than Whites. We analyzed survey data from 248 African American and 244 White cancer patients to examine whether this disadvantage could be explained by race variability on several other variables commonly reported to affect communication. These variables were organized into background, enabling, and predisposing factors, based on the Precede-Proceed Model. Multivariate regressions were used to test whether race differences in communication and information variables persisted after successively controlling for background, enabling, and predisposing factors. African American patients had higher interpersonal communication barriers than Whites, but this difference did not persist after controlling for background factors. African Americans also had higher unmet information needs and were less likely to receive the name of a cancer expert. These differences persisted after controlling for all other factors. Future research should focus on the informational disadvantages of African American patients and how such disadvantages may affect cancer treatment decisions. PMID:20432108

Manfredi, Clara; Kaiser, Karen; Matthews, Alicia K; Johnson, Timothy P

2010-04-01

58

Background information and technological tests of hard X-ray detectors .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard X-ray detectors for astronomical observations are currently being designed with advanced background rejection capabilities, based on high level of pixelisation and on fast signal processing. The development of such devices, based on room temperature semiconductor such as CdTe or CdZnTe comes through extensive testing programs normally based on ground campaigns, using radioactive sources, X-ray tubes and particle beam accelerators. These methods show their limits, however, especially for the measurements of the response to the different types of hadrons. Firtsly, we briefly review the knowledge of the primary sources of background and of the different radiation environments both for space and balloon altitudes, for which typical fluxes/rates are given. Then, we discuss how flying prototypes on high altitude balloons can greatly help to test the detector performance in an environment almost as severe as the conditions found in orbit, with detectors responding at very similar rates.

Natalucci, L.; Caroli, E.; Quadrini, E.; Del Sordo, S.; Ubertini, P.

59

Background information and technological tests of hard X-ray detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard X-ray detectors for astronomical observations are currently being designed with advanced background rejection capabilities, based on high level of pixelisation and on fast signal processing. The development of such devices, based on room temperature semiconductor such as CdTe or CdZnTe comes through extensive testing programs normally based on ground campaigns, using radioactive sources, X-ray tubes and particle beam accelerators.

L. Natalucci; E. Caroli; E. Quadrini; S. Del Sordo; P. Ubertini

2008-01-01

60

Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

Kuvich, Gary

2006-05-01

61

I. BACKGROUND U.S. Federal Government Interagency Committee on Government Information TERMS OF REFERENCE  

E-print Network

to establish the Interagency Committee on Government Information (ICGI). The ICGI was established on June 17, 2003. Pursuant to section 207 of the Act, the ICGI will: consult with interested communities; conduct studies and submit recommendations to the Director of OMB and the Archivist of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); and share effective practices for access to, dissemination of, and retention of Federal information. To meet these requirements of the E-Government Act, ICGI operates under the Terms of Reference presented here. II. ORGANIZATION The ICGI consists of an Executive Committee, comprised of representatives of the NARA, the offices of the Chief Information Officers (CIOs) of Federal agencies, and other relevant officers from the executive branch. Pursuant to the Act, the ICGI may also include representatives of the Federal legislative and judicial branches. III. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE The ICGIs executive committee, which operates under the direction of the CIO Council, has overall responsibility for the requirements specified in section 207 of the E-Government Act. The OMB Director or designee chairs the ICGI executive committee. In addition to the OMB Chair, the ICGI executive committee includes the executive sponsor of each ICGI working group and a Co-Chair from the CIO Council. The ICGI executive committee can create and delegate work to subordinate working groups. IV. ICGI WORKING GROUPS Initially there are three ICGI working groups-- Categorization of Information

unknown authors

62

Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions.  

PubMed

The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers, this paper explores the perceived benefits and drawbacks of such technologies. The aim is to identify factors that influence consumers' perceptions of such technologies, and furthermore to advise the agri-food business on issues that they should consider prior to the implementation of such technologies in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies that provide traceability. PMID:19631704

Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

2009-12-01

63

Enhanced community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information.  

PubMed

Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework. PMID:24247657

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi

2013-01-01

64

Enhanced Community Structure Detection in Complex Networks with Partial Background Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework.

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi

2013-11-01

65

Background Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Country Background Notes, distributed on the DOSBACK list, are updated periodically and include information on US bilateral relations with foreign countries and on their governments, political conditions, and foreign relations. You can expect the DOSBACK list to generate about 3-4 email messages per month. Via DOSBACK you will receive the full-text version of newly released Background Notes. Archives of these two lists are also available at the Department of State Foreign Affairs Network (DOSFAN) gopher at the University of Illinois-Chicago.

66

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2011-07-01

67

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2012-07-01

68

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2013-07-01

69

Strategic Plan Background Information  

E-print Network

; a department retreat facilitated by Debbie McDonald, West Virginia State 4-H Program Leader; the work of a task Communities Model Targeting Life Skills Model Factors Defining Major RCE 4-H Youth Development Programs Adopted by the Department of 4-H Youth Development 12-16-03 Cooperating Agencies: Rutgers, The State

Goodman, Robert M.

70

Background Information for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

2001-01-01

71

Mononucleosis Background Information  

E-print Network

the respiratory system, the liver, and the lymphatic system. It is most often caused by the Epstein-Barr virus to a cold, tonsillitis or digestive disturbances. Blood tests are usually delayed until the second week

Suzuki, Masatsugu

72

Background Error Covariance Estimation Using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory.SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume

2014-01-01

73

Developing Metacognitive Behaviour in Physical Education Classes: The Use of Task-Pertinent Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in motor learning and sport pedagogy has shown that task-pertinent learning strategies enhance the learning and performance of self-paced motor tasks. Strategy research has typically been conducted under laboratory conditions in which artificial self-paced tasks were executed under well-controlled conditions. The purpose of this study was

Lidor, Ronnie

2004-01-01

74

Ghoti papers Ghoti aims to serve as a forum for stimulating and pertinent ideas. Ghoti publishes  

E-print Network

Ghoti Ghoti papers Ghoti aims to serve as a forum for stimulating and pertinent ideas. Ghoti insight of concepts, issues and research agendas. All Ghoti contributions will be selected by the editors and Conservation Physiology Laboratory, Department of Biology and Institute of Environmental Science, Carleton

Miami, University of

75

Malignant Melanoma With Neural Differentiation: An Exceptional Case Report and Brief Review of the Pertinent Literature  

PubMed Central

The term neurotropic melanoma has been used to refer to malignant melanoma with associated infiltration of nerve or neural differentiationthat is, melanoma cells exhibiting cytological characteristics of nerve cells. Historically, neurotropic melanoma has generally been discussed within the context of desmoplastic melanoma. We report an exceptional case of melanoma notable for a very well-differentiated neural component that was contiguous with obvious overlying melanoma. After careful consideration of all pertinent histological features, the overall diagnostic impression was that of melanoma with associated malignant neurotization. We have not encountered a previously reported case with such a well-differentiated neural component. The following article details our exceptional case of melanoma with malignant neurotization and presents a discussion of the differential diagnosis and brief review of the pertinent literature. PMID:23782676

Su, Albert; Dry, Sarah M.; Binder, Scott W.; Said, Jonathan; Shintaku, Peter; Sarantopoulos, G. Peter

2014-01-01

76

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent...Submitters' Rights 152.95 Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent...compliance for a data requirement by citation of all studies in the Agency's files...

2010-07-01

77

Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a 'Y' junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re-entry survey, and routine surveys around the crater lip did not identify alpha contamination. Background information includes several radiological surveys conducted after these two tests. The MULLET area has been surveyed frequently. The early surveys indicate the area as both contaminated and containing buried radioactive material. A survey conducted in 1970 found the radiological/chemical piping partially intact, including the 'Y' junction, and shows two runs of intact piping running past the U2am crater lip. The survey focused on the piping system itself and detected alpha contamination from 4 counts per minute (cpm) to 900,000 cpm. The highest value was at a pipe flange between a dirt pile and a dirt berm within the current site fence line. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. A 1972 survey was essentially a repeat of the 1970 survey; however, it does not show the 'Y' junction nor does it show piping extending past the U2am crater lip. It also shows a new fence line separating the radiological/chemical piping from the U2am crater area with all piping within the fence. Alpha contamination was detected on pipe flanges during the survey, but alpha contamination was not detected on the dirt pile or the dirt berm. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. Additional surveys were conducted in 1986, 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996. One of the surveys focused on determining the extent of soil contamination around GZ. An alpha contamination plume extending approximately 200 feet south of GZ was detected in a swath approximately 100 feet wide. The maximum measurement was 15,000 cpm alpha. All surveys show the piping within the fence line. Recent surveys (2007 and 2008) were performed around the current fence line by the demarcation group. No removable contamination was identified during these surveys. In late 2008, a visual inspection of the site was conducted by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Restoration group. All piping is within the fence line. Photos taken during this site visit are attached.

none,

2012-06-26

78

Background Study and Proposals for Development of Information Provision in Science and Technology in Ethiopia. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provision of information for research and development in science and technology in Ethiopia was studied by 50 participants in a seminar on evaluation and analysis of a national information policy and plan. Policy makers and planners, users, producers and suppliers of information, information specialists, and representatives of Unesco (United

Schwarz, Stephan; Winkel, Annette

79

Dynamics, control and sensor issues pertinent to robotic hands for the EVA retriever system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic dynamics, sensor, control, and related artificial intelligence issues pertinent to smart robotic hands for the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever system are summarized and discussed. These smart hands are to be used as end effectors on arms attached to manned maneuvering units (MMU). The Retriever robotic systems comprised of MMU, arm and smart hands, are being developed to aid crewmen in the performance of routine EVA tasks including tool and object retrieval. The ultimate goal is to enhance the effectiveness of EVA crewmen.

Mclauchlan, Robert A.

1987-01-01

80

Experimental investigations of a uranium plasma pertinent to a self-sustaining plasma source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is pertinent to the realization of a self-sustained fissioning plasma for applications such as nuclear propulsion, closed cycle MHD power generation using a plasma core reactor, and heat engines such as the nuclear piston engine, as well as the direct conversion of fission energy into optical radiation (nuclear pumped lasers). Diagnostic measurement methods and experimental devices simulating plasma core reactor conditions are discussed. Studies on the following topics are considered: (1) ballistic piston compressor (U-235); (2) high pressure uranium plasma (natural uranium); (3) sliding spark discharge (natural uranium); (4) fission fragment interaction (He-3 and U-235); and (5) nuclear pumped lasers (He-3 and U-235).

Schneider, R. T.

1971-01-01

81

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

...in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152.95 Protection...AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Satisfaction of Data Requirements and Protection of Data Submitters' Rights 152.95 Citation...

2014-07-01

82

2003 --Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT-BACKGROUND COLOR  

E-print Network

on black (WB), light blue on dark blue (B), or teal on black (TB). They then studied two Web pages2003 -- Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT.hanna@matrikon.com Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of different web page text

Missouri-Rolla, University of

83

Hurricane Backgrounder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides basic information on hurricanes. topics include the definition of hurricane , where they are likely to form, and their potential for damage, including high winds, heavy rainfall, flooding, tornadoes, and microbursts. There is also an illustration showing the Saffir-Simpson scale for classifying hurricane intensity, information on naming hurricanes, and a set of links to additional information.

2007-12-12

84

Background & Publications  

E-print Network

Home Background & Projects Calendar Publications Staff Directory Station Videos Links Search Northern Michigan FruitNet 2008 Weekly Update NW Michigan Horticultural Research Station Nikki Rothwell maggot from growers. European red mites and two-spotted spider mites have reached threshold levels

85

Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

1985-06-01

86

Body Functions and Structures Pertinent to Infrared Thermography-Based Access for Clients with Severe Motor Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infrared thermography has been recently proposed as an access technology for individuals with disabilities, but body functions and structures pertinent to its use have not been documented. Seven clients (2 adults, 5 youth) with severe disabilities and their primary caregivers participated in this study. All clients had a Gross Motor Functional

Memarian, Negar; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.; Chau, Tom

2011-01-01

87

CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Declarative Knowledge; Technical Skills): Students will demonstrate use of critical methods together with mastery of pertinent declarative  

E-print Network

, and mechanical correctness. CRITICAL THINKING (Analytical Skills; Creative Skills): Students will have of critical methods together with mastery of pertinent declarative knowledge in formal essays as they analyze. Essays are expected to exhibit mature creative and analytical thinking, and an ability to create

Fernandez, Eduardo

88

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the aerospace manufacturing and rework industry: Background information for promulgated standards -- Addendum. Final report  

SciTech Connect

On September 1, 1995, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated national emission standards for hazardous air pollutant (NESHAP) emissions from major sources in the aerospace industry. These final standards implemented Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (the Act). Amendments to the final rule were promulgated on March 27, 1998. Also on March 27, 1998, the EPA proposed additional amendments to the final rule. Nineteen comment letters were submitted by representatives from fifteen companies or organizations, consisting of general aviation rework and manufacturing facilities, paint arrestor and filtration product manufacturers, filter testing laboratories, major aerospace (equipment) manufacturers, and industry trade associations. This document is an addendum to volume 2 of National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for the Aerospace Industry -- Background Information for Promulgated Standards, July 1995.

NONE

1998-07-01

89

Background Error Covariance Estimation using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation into the GEOS-5 Coupled Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory. SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele M.; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume; Koster, Randal D. (Editor)

2014-01-01

90

Markle Foundation: The Task Force on National Security in the Information Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main feature of this Web site is the report titled "Protecting America's Freedom in the Information Age," released in October 2002. It examines how to effectively use information technology to collect and analyze information pertinent to national security. The report states that current government practices are insufficient in this area, and it is laden with recommendations for improving the situation. The task force's final findings and views are expressed in the first part of the report, some analyses of various working groups are given in the second part, and the final part is a collection of background research articles. Other sections of the site mainly constitute supporting documents for the report.

91

32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Industrial Security Manual relating to the...released by oral, visual, or documentary...for the oral and visual disclosure of...Industrial Security Manual are met. ...disclosure of oral and visual classified information...Industrial Security Manual are...

2011-07-01

92

Background: Extratropical Cyclones and NWP  

E-print Network

Chapter 2 Background: Extratropical Cyclones and NWP 2.1 Introduction This chapter provides background information about extratropical cyclones, numerical weather prediction (NWP) and ensemble prediction. It is organised as follows. Section 2.2 discusses extratropical cyclones and begins with a brief

Froude, Lizzie

93

29 CFR 1601.6 - Submission of information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commission shall receive information concerning alleged...person. Where the information discloses that...for an inquiry into individual or systematic discrimination...with any pertinent information, should be submitted...nearest District, Field, Area, or Local...

2013-07-01

94

29 CFR 1601.6 - Submission of information.  

...Commission shall receive information concerning alleged...person. Where the information discloses that...for an inquiry into individual or systematic discrimination...with any pertinent information, should be submitted...nearest District, Field, Area, or Local...

2014-07-01

95

29 CFR 1601.6 - Submission of information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commission shall receive information concerning alleged...person. Where the information discloses that...for an inquiry into individual or systematic discrimination...with any pertinent information, should be submitted...nearest District, Field, Area, or Local...

2012-07-01

96

29 CFR 1601.6 - Submission of information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commission shall receive information concerning alleged...person. Where the information discloses that...for an inquiry into individual or systematic discrimination...with any pertinent information, should be submitted...nearest District, Field, Area, or Local...

2010-07-01

97

29 CFR 1601.6 - Submission of information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commission shall receive information concerning alleged...person. Where the information discloses that...for an inquiry into individual or systematic discrimination...with any pertinent information, should be submitted...nearest District, Field, Area, or Local...

2011-07-01

98

Studying the specific features pertinent to combustion of chars obtained from coals having different degrees of metamorphism and biomass chars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Better conditions for igniting low-reaction coal (anthracite) can be obtained, higher fuel burnout ratio can be achieved, and the problem of shortage of a certain grade of coal can be solved by firing coal mixtures and by combusting coal jointly with solid biomass in coal-fired boilers. Results from studying the synergetic effect that had been revealed previously during the combustion of coal mixtures in flames are presented. A similar effect was also obtained during joint combustion of coal and wood in a flame. The kinetics pertinent to combustion of char mixtures obtained from coals characterized by different degrees of metamorphism and the kinetics pertinent to combustion of wood chars were studied on the RSK-1D laboratory setup. It was found from the experiments that the combustion rate of char mixtures obtained from coals having close degrees of metamorphism is equal to the value determined as a weighted mean rate with respect to the content of carbon. The combustion rate of char mixtures obtained from coals having essentially different degrees of metamorphism is close to the combustion rate of more reactive coal initially in the process and to the combustion rate of less reactive coal at the end of the process. A dependence of the specific burnout rate of carbon contained in the char of two wood fractions on reciprocal temperature in the range 663833 K is obtained. The combustion mode of an experimental sample is determined together with the reaction rate constant and activation energy.

Bestsennyi, I. V.; Shchudlo, T. S.; Dunaevskaya, N. I.; Topal, A. I.

2013-12-01

99

The diffuse UV background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffuse radiation field in the UV (900-3,000 A) affects the structure of galactic molecular clouds and conveys important information concerning the physical characteristics and spatial distribution of gas and dust in the universe. Continuum emission in this range is probably dominated by interstellar dust scattering in our galaxy. For view directions and angular resolutions allowing observations in the rifts between galactic dust clouds, the background due to the integrated light of spiral galaxies may be detected, providing important information on their structure and evolution. The redshifted emission from an intergalactic medium may be observable in the regions between nearby bright galaxies. Present observations provide weak constraints on the radiation field required to ionize the intergalactic medium at the level required by the Gunn-Peterson test.

Paresce, F.; Jakobsen, P.

1980-01-01

100

Primer on Durability of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Review of Pertinent Factors  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide a primer on the environmental effects that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant concrete structures. As concrete ages, changes in its properties will occur as a result of continuing microstructural changes (i.e., slow hydration, crystallization of amorphous constituents, and reactions between cement paste and aggregates), as well as environmental influences. These changes do not have to be detrimental to the point that concrete will not be able to meet its performance requirements. Concrete, however, can suffer undesirable changes with time because of improper specifications, a violation of specifications, or adverse performance of its cement paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either physical or chemical attack. Contained in this report is a discussion on concrete durability and the relationship between durability and performance, a review of the historical perspective related to concrete and longevity, a description of the basic materials that comprise reinforced concrete, and information on the environmental factors that can affect the performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Commentary is provided on the importance of an aging management program.

Naus, Dan J [ORNL

2007-02-01

101

Inherited glaucoma in DBA/2J mice: pertinent disease features for studying the neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

The glaucomas are neurodegenerative diseases involving death of retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve head excavation. A major risk factor for this neurodegeneration is a harmfully elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Human glaucomas are typically complex, progressive diseases that are prevalent in the elderly. Family history and genetic factors are clearly important in human glaucoma. Mouse studies have proven helpful for investigating the genetic and mechanistic basis of complex diseases. We previously reported inherited, age-related progressive glaucoma in DBA/2J mice. Here, we report our updated findings from studying the disease in a large number of DBA/2J mice. The period when mice have elevated IOP extends from 6 months to 16 months, with 8-9 months representing an important transition to high IOP for many mice. Optic nerve degeneration follows IOP elevation, with the majority of optic nerves being severely damaged by 12 months of age. This information should help with the design of experiments, and we present the data in a manner that will be useful for future studies of retinal ganglion cell degeneration and optic neuropathy. PMID:16332275

Libby, Richard T; Anderson, Michael G; Pang, Iok-Hou; Robinson, Zachary H; Savinova, Olga V; Cosma, I Mihai; Snow, Amy; Wilson, Lawriston A; Smith, Richard S; Clark, Abbot F; John, Simon W M

2005-01-01

102

The University of Oklahoma Background Check Authorization (updated 02/05/2013) Hiring department completes this section. Incomplete information will delay the hiring process.  

E-print Network

The University of Oklahoma Background Check Authorization (updated 02/05/2013) Hiring department Medical Resident Volunteer Other, Describe: APPLICANT MUST READ AND SIGN The University of Oklahoma to the Standard Pre-Employment Screening. I understand that the University of Oklahoma may utilize the services

Oklahoma, University of

103

The EvolutionIntelligent Design Debate: A Meaningful Context for Teaching the Nature of Science in Information Literacy. Part 1: Historical Background and Philosophical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although absent from the ACRL Information Literacy Standards for Science and Technology, the ability to distinguish between what is and is not science is an essential component of information literacy. Addressing this question requires the librarian to introduce concepts such as the nature of science, its realm, rules, and limits, as well as the nature of pseudoscience and nonscience before

Claudia Lascar; Loren D. Mendelsohn

2011-01-01

104

77 FR 64376 - Information Collection Activities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...December 18, 2012. ADDRESSES: Direct all comments to Marilyn Levitt, Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street SW., Washington...pertinent collection. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marilyn Levitt at levittm@stb.dot.gov or (202) 245-0269....

2012-10-19

105

Backgrounds Data Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) is the designated archive for backgrounds data collected by Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) programs, some of which include ultraviolet sensors. Currently, the BDC holds ultraviolet data from the IBSS, UVPI, UVLIM, and FUVCAM sensors. The BDC will also be the prime archive for Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) data and is prepared to negotiate with program managers to handle other datasets. The purpose of the BDC is to make data accessible to users and to assist them in analyzing it. The BDC maintains the Science Catalog Information Exchange System (SCIES) allowing remote users to log in, read or post notices about current programs, search the catalogs for datasets of interest, and submit orders for data. On-site facilities are also available for the analysis of data, and consist of VMS and UNIX workstations with access to software analysis packages such as IDL, IRAF, and Khoros. Either on-site or remotely, users can employ the BDC-developed graphical user interface called the Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) to generate catalog queries and to display and analyze data. SCIES and VISTA permit nearly complete access to BDC services and capabilities without the need to be physically present at the data center.

Snyder, William A.; Gursky, Herbert; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Lucke, Bob L.; Dorland, Bryan N.; Kessel, R. A.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.

1994-09-01

106

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Background. Based on available fire incident information, engineering analysis of the probable fire scenarios, and laboratory tests...or deaths. Presently available information indicates that fires may occur where cellulose...

2010-01-01

107

Wetlands in the Lake Champlain region of Vermont: Present and future threats to the resource. Boundary determination and background information for the EPA's proposed advanced identification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

EPA Region 1 Wetlands Protections Section is planning an Advanced Identification Project for the Lake Champlain Region of Vermont. 'Advanced Identification' refers to the two authorities EPA can utilize under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act to protect wetlands in advance of permit applications. In Vermont, a combined activities-based Advanced Identification of Sites (AIS) and Advance 404(c) project is proposed. This study determines the boundaries for the Advanced Identification action. It discusses the criteria developed to evaluate watershed considerations and both present and future threats to the resource. All towns in four counties bordering Lake Champlain were evaluated with regard to location in watershed, wetland acreage, wetland loss, population projections, historical growth trends, tax information, and housing stock estimates. Based on the criteria listed above, the towns selected are experiencing the types of growth pressures that will lead to continued wetland loss. EPA plans to restrict work at especially valuable sites with this area using Advance 404(c).

Borre, M.A.

1988-11-01

108

Background Subtraction Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background subtraction is a commonly used class of techniques for segmenting out objects of interest in a scene for applications such as surveillance. This paper surveys a repre- sentative sample of the published techiques for background subtraction, and analyses them with respect to three important attributes: foreground detection; background maintenance; and postprocessing.

Alan M. McIvor

109

Impact of the U.S. National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS) on Building Energy Performance Simulation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS) started the development of the National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS). Its goal is to define standard sets of data required to describe any given building in necessary detail so that any given AECO industry discipline application can find needed data at any point in the building lifecycle. This will include all data that are used in or are pertinent to building energy performance simulation and analysis. This paper describes the background that lead to the development of NBIMS, its goals and development methodology, its Part 1 (Version 1.0), and its probable impact on building energy performance simulation and analysis.

Bazjanac, Vladimir

2007-08-01

110

Health Information Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of health information technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 14 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 6 units specific to the occupation of emergency medical technician. The following

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

111

The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

1992-01-01

112

Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the relic of the early phases of the expanding universe, is bright, full of information, and difficult to measure. Along with the recession of galaxies and the primordial nucleosynthesis, it is one of the strongest signs that the Hot Big Bang Model of the universe is correct. It is brightest around 2 mm wavelength, has a temperature of T_{cmb} = 2.72548 0.00057 K, and has a blackbody spectrum within 50 parts per million. Its spatial fluctuations (around 0.01% on 1{}^{circ } scales) are possibly the relics of quantum mechanical processes in the early universe, modified by processes up to the decoupling at a redshift of about 1,000 (when the primordial plasma became mostly transparent). In the cold dark matter (DM) model with cosmic acceleration (? CDM), the fluctuation statistics are consistent with the model of inflation and can be used to determine other parameters within a few percent, including the Hubble constant, the ? constant, the densities of baryonic and dark matter, and the primordial fluctuation amplitude and power spectrum slope. In addition, the polarization of the fluctuations reveals the epoch of reionization at a redshift approximately twice that determined from the Gunn-Peterson trough due to optically thick Lyman ? absorption in QSO spectra. It is of historic importance, and a testament to the unity of theory and experiment, that we now have a standard model of cosmology that is consistent with all of the observations.Current observational challenges include (1) improvement of the spectrum distortion measurements, especially at long wavelengths, where the measured background is unexpectedly bright; (2) the search for the B-mode polarization (the divergence-free part of the polarization map), arising from propagating gravitational waves; and (3) the extension of fluctuation measurements to smaller angular scales. Much more precise spectrum observations near 2 mm are likely and would test some very interesting theories. Current theoretical challenges include explanation of the dark matter and dark energy; understanding, estimating, and removing the interference of foreground sources that limit the measurements of the CMB; detailed understanding of the influence of nonequilibrium processes on the decoupling and reionization phases; and searches for signs of the second order or exotic processes (e.g., isocurvature fluctuations, cosmic strings, non-Gaussian fluctuations). At this writing, we await the cosmological results of the Planck mission.

Mather, John; Hinshaw, Gary; Page, Lyman

113

The Cosmic Background Explorer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

1990-01-01

114

20 CFR 404.1930 - Disclosure of information.  

...404.1930 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...governed by pertinent provisions of the Social Security Act, the Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act, the Tax Reform Act, and other related...

2014-04-01

115

20 CFR 404.1930 - Disclosure of information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...404.1930 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...governed by pertinent provisions of the Social Security Act, the Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act, the Tax Reform Act, and other related...

2010-04-01

116

20 CFR 404.1930 - Disclosure of information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...404.1930 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...governed by pertinent provisions of the Social Security Act, the Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act, the Tax Reform Act, and other related...

2012-04-01

117

20 CFR 404.1930 - Disclosure of information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...404.1930 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...governed by pertinent provisions of the Social Security Act, the Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act, the Tax Reform Act, and other related...

2013-04-01

118

20 CFR 404.1930 - Disclosure of information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...404.1930 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...governed by pertinent provisions of the Social Security Act, the Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act, the Tax Reform Act, and other related...

2011-04-01

119

Illuminating the Background: Topics in Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmic microwave background provides a wealth of information about the origin and history of the universe. The statistics of the anisotropy and the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, among other things, can tell us about the distribution of matter, the redshift of reionization, and the nature of the primordial uctuations. From the lensing of cosmic microwave background due to intervening matter, we can extract information about neutrinos and the equation of state of dark energy. A measurement of the large angular scale B-mode polarization has been called the "smoking gun" of in ation, a theory that describes a possible early rapid expansion of the universe. The focus of current experiments is to measure this B-mode polarization, while several experiments, such as POLARBEAR, are also looking to measure the lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This dissertation will discuss several different topics in cosmic microwave background polarization research. I will make predictions for future experiments and I will also show analysis for two current experiments, POLARBEAR and BICEP. I will show how beam systematics affect the measurement of cosmological parameters and how well we must limit these systematics in order to get unbiased constraints on cosmological parameters for future experiments. I will discuss a novel way of using the temperature-polarization cross correlation to constrain the amount of inflationary gravitational waves. Through Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, I will determine how well future experiments will be able to constrain the neutrino masses and their degeneracy parameters. I will show results from current data analysis and calibration being done on the Cedar Flat deployment for the POLARBEAR experiment which is currently being constructed in the Atacama desert in Chile. Finally, I will analyze the claim of detection of cosmological birefringence in the BICEP data and show that there is reason to believe it is due to systematic effects in the data.

Miller, Nathan J.

120

Background music reactive games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the concept of games that react to their background music. Instead of limiting the player to a fixed set of songs, the background music can be any song chosen from the player's own music collection. Due to the relative simplicity of such existing game titles, we wanted to explore the potential of the concept more

Juha Arrasvuori; Jukka Holm

2010-01-01

121

Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

Mello Koch, Robert de [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

2009-01-15

122

Health and Well-Being in Old Age: The Pertinence of a Gender Mainstreaming Approach in Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The demographic and societal changes of the past decades, such as longevity and improvements in public health, have created new and often very distinct realities for men and women. However, these diversities have only marginally and fragmentally been the topic of research endeavours. There is a growing awareness of the societal phenomenon feminization of old age, yet the topic

Pasqualina Perrig-Chiello; Sara Hutchison

2010-01-01

123

Background information on high voltage fields.  

PubMed Central

The increased demand for power has led to higher voltages for overhead transmission lines. Environmentalists, governmental agencies, and some members of the scientific community have questioned if past biological effects research and experience with lower voltage lines provide adequate bases for predicting the possible health and environmental effects of the higher voltage lines. Only a small amount of work has been done to explore the possible effects, especially long term effects, of the exposure of biological systems to electric fields from transmission lines. Research in Western Europe and the United States has not identified any prompt or acute effects other than spark and electric discharge and no permanent effects. Contrasted with this are the studies of workers in Soviet and Spanish high voltage switchyards that report effects, such as excitability, headaches, drowsiness, fatique, and nausea, that are not found in Soviet line maintenance workers. The results of current and planned research, supported by both U.S. Government agencies and the private sector, should resolve a number of the present uncertanties and provide answers for the many questions concerning potential effects. PMID:598346

Janes, D E

1977-01-01

124

The cosmic neutrino background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

Dar, Arnon

1991-01-01

125

Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal Bureau

Fagnoni, Cynthia

126

The GLAST Background Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J. F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.

2007-07-01

127

The Cosmic Background Radiation  

E-print Network

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and anisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the update of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle Properties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

1997-11-08

128

IR-background database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) has recently performed systematic measurements in order to establish an IR-background database. It will be used for a wide range of applications and provide a basis for the modeling of IR-background properties of Swedish terrain. Experimental data like this is also necessary for the validation of methods and programs for synthetic IR-scene simulation. The

Claes Nelsson; Paer Nilsson; Roland Lindell; Emma Bernhardsson

2001-01-01

129

Cosmic Microwave Background  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the cosmic microwave background to understand why it permeates the universe and why it peaks as microwave radiation. Students should be able to explain that the origin of the background radiation is the uniform thermal radiation of the big bang and that the radiation produced was evenly distributed around the small early universe, causing it to permeate today's universe. This activity is part of the Cosmic Times teachers guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1965 Cosmic Times Poster.

130

The Cosmic Background Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

1990-01-01

131

The cosmic microwave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

Silk, Joseph

1991-01-01

132

Radioactive Decay 1. Background  

E-print Network

Radioactive Decay 1. Background It is well known that many nuclei are unstable and are transformed into other nuclear species by means of either alpha decay or beta decay. The rate at which those radioactive on the number N of radioactive nuclei in the sample and also on the probability for each nucleus to decay

Elster, Charlotte

133

Country background Forest history  

E-print Network

33 Country background Forest history During the Gallo-Roman period (1st­4th century AD), forests this proportion decreased dramatically to only 15­17 % of the land area. This residual forest was then severely Colbert's Forest Ordinance was instituted in 1669 a gradual restoration took place. High forests produced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

David Smith Academic background  

E-print Network

David Smith Academic background Ph.D. in Mathematics (Algebra), Université de Sherbrooke, Canada project program (I. Assem, F. Bergeron, C. Reutenauer, D. Smith) $132,000 ($44,000 per year for 3 years. Schiffler and D. Smith, Friezes, strings and cluster variables, to appear in Glasgow Mathematcal Journal. 2

135

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing  

E-print Network

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

Rambaut, Andrew

136

Local microwave background radiation  

E-print Network

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos Soares

2014-11-13

137

Readability of patient information booklets for women with breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing accurate information, in both verbal and written formats, is seen as an important component of patient care. For individuals diagnosed with cancer, acquiring information may be a particularly pertinent issue in terms of coping with the disease. Numerous information booklets are available for people with cancer which aim to provide information on various aspects of care and treatment. This

Kinta Beaver; Karen Luker

1997-01-01

138

Cosmic Microwave Background Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in ell -space are consistent with a Delta T flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the

J. Richard Bond

1998-01-01

139

The cosmic microwave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

Silk, Joseph

1989-01-01

140

75 FR 48642 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Tag Recapture Card  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Comment Request; Tag Recapture Card AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric...II. Method of Collection The recapture cards will be sent out to the constituents who will fill in the cards with the pertinent information when...

2010-08-11

141

Targets, backgrounds, and discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present volume discusses a model-based aircraft identification technique, target intensity and angle scintillations, spatiotemporal nonstationary scene generation, an overview of the Strategic Scene Generation Model (SSGM), nuclear backgrounds for SSGM, and an atmospheric and transmittance code for 50-300 km altitudes. Also discussed are a data base for airborne target signatures, the auroral module of the Strategic High Altitude Radiance Code, and the 3D characteristics of underexpanded and overexpanded rectangular jets. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

Accetta, J. S.; Kelley, G. H.

142

Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of

American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

143

Model-based target and background characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to now most approaches of target and background characterization (and exploitation) concentrate solely on the information given by pixels. In many cases this is a complex and unprofitable task. During the development of automatic exploitation algorithms the main goal is the optimization of certain performance parameters. These parameters are measured during test runs while applying one algorithm with one parameter set to images that constitute of image domains with very different domain characteristics (targets and various types of background clutter). Model based geocoding and registration approaches provide means for utilizing the information stored in GIS (Geographical Information Systems). The geographical information stored in the various GIS layers can define ROE (Regions of Expectations) and may allow for dedicated algorithm parametrization and development. ROI (Region of Interest) detection algorithms (in most cases MMO (Man- Made Object) detection) use implicit target and/or background models. The detection algorithms of ROIs utilize gradient direction models that have to be matched with transformed image domain data. In most cases simple threshold calculations on the match results discriminate target object signatures from the background. The geocoding approaches extract line-like structures (street signatures) from the image domain and match the graph constellation against a vector model extracted from a GIS (Geographical Information System) data base. Apart from geo-coding the algorithms can be also used for image-to-image registration (multi sensor and data fusion) and may be used for creation and validation of geographical maps.

Mueller, Markus; Krueger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert

2000-07-01

144

Holography for Schrodinger backgrounds  

E-print Network

We discuss holography for Schrodinger solutions of both topologically massive gravity in three dimensions and massive vector theories in (d+1) dimensions. In both cases the dual field theory can be viewed as a d-dimensional conformal field theory (two dimensional in the case of TMG) deformed by certain operators that respect the Schrodinger symmetry. These operators are irrelevant from the viewpoint of the relativistic conformal group but they are exactly marginal with respect to the non-relativistic conformal group. The spectrum of linear fluctuations around the background solutions corresponds to operators that are labeled by their scaling dimension and the lightcone momentum k_v. We set up the holographic dictionary and compute 2-point functions of these operators both holographically and in field theory using conformal perturbation theory and find agreement. The counterterms needed for holographic renormalization are non-local in the v lightcone direction.

Monica Guica; Kostas Skenderis; Marika Taylor; Balt van Rees

2010-08-11

145

Background sources in optical communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characterization and measurement of background radiation relevant to optical communications system performance is addressed. The necessary optical receiver parameters are described, and radiometric concepts required for the calculation of collected background power are developed. The most important components of optical background power are discussed, and their contribution to the total collected background power in various communications scenarios is examined.

Vilnrotter, V. A.

1983-01-01

146

Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN) is dedicated to improving Earth system literacy through increased communication and collaboration among providers of informal Earth system education. The collection is designed for museum professionals (educators, exhibits designers, developers) as a resource of ideas, tools, traveling exhibits and online materials. The resources are web portals to organizations providing substantial informal Earth system science education. They describe educational programming, resources and exhibits that are pertinent to an informal educator.

147

Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN) is dedicated to improving Earth system literacy through increased communication and collaboration among providers of informal Earth system education. The collection is designed for museum professionals (educators, exhibits designers, developers) as a resource of ideas, tools, traveling exhibits and online materials. The resources are web portals to organizations providing substantial informal Earth system science education. They describe educational programming, resources and exhibits that are pertinent to an informal educator.

2007-04-03

148

X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

1996-01-01

149

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE Background  

E-print Network

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE INDIVIDUAL Background: Pregnant women are considered to be a 'higher risk group' for swine flu. This means that for a small minority of cases, complications could workplace adjustments regarding swine flu, it is your responsibility to inform Occupational Health

Davies, Christopher

150

Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

E-print Network

Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Yasin Memari, March 2007 The CMB radiation is completely characterized by its temperature anisotropy and polarization in each direction the polarization information of the CMB to break some of the degenerecies that exist between some combinations

Tittley, Eric

151

CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND FOR INFORMED DECISION-MAKING Stephen E. Schwartz in climate change. Global mean surface temperature is higher today than it's been for at least a millennium Climate Research Unit, East Anglia UK #12;INDICATIONS OF SYSTEMATIC WARMING IN RECENT YEARS The 1990s were

Schwartz, Stephen E.

152

THEMIS GEONS Background Science and Users Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a user's guide that contains background science and technology information for the Geomagnetic Event Observatory Network by Students program, or GEONS. Learners can review the role that terrestrial magnetism plays in shaping a number of important Earth systems. The guide also explains the basic operating principles behind magnetometers, particularly the magnetometer system used in the GEONS program.

153

Historical Background and Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty and twenty years after the two books published by Einar Tandberg-Hanssen (Solar prominences (Geophysics and astrophysics monographs), Vol. 12. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1974; The nature of solar prominences, astrophysics and space science library, Vol. 199. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995) on solar prominences, it is time to update our knowledge and understanding of these fascinating solar structures. After a brief history which overviews first eclipse observations (drawings and then photography), spectrographic, coronagraphic and later on polarimetric measurements, the chapter presents samples of the most spectacular results of the last two decades, obtained whether from space or on the ground. It discusses the contents of the book in order to encourage the reader to dip into the following 17 chapters which provide comprehensive and detailed observations, information about the methods used, and interpretation of the results on the basis of the latest theoretical and modelling works.

Vial, Jean-Claude

154

Background/Criminal History Check Disclosure Notice and Release Authorization  

E-print Network

Background/Criminal History Check Disclosure Notice and Release Authorization EXTENSION VOLUNTEER. The University may obtain background information, such as criminal history information pursuant to OSU STANDARDS. The University or a law enforcement agency will prepare or assemble criminal reports, educational history

Tullos, Desiree

155

Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coleridge's famous line about water everywhere without a drop to drink may serve as a useful metaphor for the contemporary design studio. Engulfed within a sea of information, where does the designer look for references? This paper outlines the results of an ongoing research project entitled 'Interactive Multimedia within the Design Studio' (grant awarded by FAPEMIG - Fundao de Amparo

Philip Rhodes

1991-01-01

156

The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention Citation: Hall, R. and Hanna, P. (2004), The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention, Behaviour & Information Technology, forthcoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text\\/background color combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioral intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four color-combination conditions. Major findings were: a) Colors with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater

Richard H. Hall

157

Beam induced backgrounds: CDF experience  

SciTech Connect

We summarize the experiences of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in the presence of backgrounds originating from the counter circulating beams in the Fermilab Tevatron. These backgrounds are measured and their sources identified. Finally, we outline the strategies employed to reduce the effects of these backgrounds on the experiment.

Tesarek, R.J.; /Fermilab

2008-05-01

158

Background issues for defensive interceptors  

SciTech Connect

Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal motions and backgrounds give signal to clutter ratios too low to be useful. Clutter leakage due to line-of-sight drift can be reduced by stabilizing the line of sight around the background clutter itself. Current interceptors have detector arrays large enough for operation independent of nuclear backgrounds in their fields of view. 6 refs., 2 figs.

Canavan, G.H.

1991-03-01

159

Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km - 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRlS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

Bernacki, Bruce; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean; Jordan, David; Kulisek, Jonathan; Stewart, Trevor; Seifert, Carolyn

2014-06-01

160

10 CFR 50.34 - Contents of applications; technical information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...final safety analysis report shall include information that describes...presents the design bases and...a safety analysis of the structures, systems, and components...A final analysis and evaluation of the design and performance...structures, systems, and components...pertinent information...

2010-01-01

161

Summary of Information Relating to Gust Loads on Airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Available information on gust structure, airplane reactions, and pertinent operating statistics has been examined. This report attempts to coordinate this information with reference to the prediction of gust loads on airplanes. The material covered represents research up to October 1947. (author)

Donely, Philip

1950-01-01

162

Neutral Pion Background Analysis at STAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory takes measurements of polarized proton collisions which can then be used to extract cross sections and spin asymmetries. The Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EEMC) in STAR allows measurements of electromagnetic particles in the forward direction, 1information about the gluon contribution to the proton's spin. The 0? cross section is an important supporting measurement to verify our signal reconstruction and the background characterization for the 0? asymmetry. In order to measure the 0? cross section and asymmetry, the backgrounds must be well understood (such as those from photon conversions and reconstruction errors where one photon reconstructs as two clusters). Efforts toward the 0? cross section and asymmetry measurements and, specifically, those to understand 0? backgrounds will be discussed.

Clark, Adam

2012-10-01

163

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil  

E-print Network

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil Hundreds of indigenous people demonstrated at the National Congress in Brasilia, capital of Brazil, following the announcement in the 1990s in the midst of extensive protests in Brazil and around the world. On February 8, an indigenous

Milchberg, Howard

164

Background Check Summary Type Needs background check if began  

E-print Network

form. Background check is required if, 2) Upon receipt of form, HR BGC emails candidate a link Check Coordinator receives outcome; if candidate meets Yale policy, HR BGC notifies primary department; completes a Postdoc/Postgrad Background Check Request Form. 5) Upon receipt of this form, HR BGC emails

Haller, Gary L.

165

Background  

E-print Network

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the airways. The primary risk factor for COPD is cigarette smoking; other risk factors include long-term exposure to environmental lung irritants and certain genetic conditions. 1 COPD is also found to be associated with significant comorbidities, including heart disease, kidney disease, asthma, and arthritis, as well as various types of cancer. 2 A large-scale study, using electronic primary care records of more than 1.2 million patients, found that COPD was associated with significantly higher odds of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus. 3 There is growing evidence to suggest that systemic inflammation is potentially a common pathway for multiple chronic conditions found among adults with COPD. 4 COPD can adversely affect ones quality of life (QoL). Depression has often been associated with COPD. In an observational study of 35,722 patients with COPD, the incidence rate of new-onset diagnoses of depression was significantly higher in the COPD group, compared to the COPD-free group. 5 Sleeping difficulties and physical inactivity are also common among those with COPD. 6,7 The aim of this report is to enumerate the prevalence and risk of secondary chronic diseases, and poor quality of life, among North Carolina adults with COPD.

unknown authors

2011-01-01

166

Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was made of the UF6 fueled gas core reactor as a function of cavity reactor criticality and fluid mechanics tests, investigations of uranium optical emission spectra, and radiant heat transfer power plant studies. Data are also given on nuclear and thermodynamic cycle analysis.

1976-01-01

167

Background  

E-print Network

Requirement to control a team of 5-a-side soccer playing robots Due to camera and communication time delays it is very difficult to control a mobile robot moving faster than 1 m/sec Robots currently use an independent term PID controller Investigate FLCs as an alternative

unknown authors

168

Background  

Cancer.gov

Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls provide the highest quality, least biased dietary data. Traditional 24-hour recalls, however, are expensive and impractical for large-scale research because they rely on trained interviewers and multiple administrations to estimate usual intakes. As a result, researchers often make use of food frequency questionnaires, which are less expensive but contain substantial error.

169

Cosmic Superstring Scattering in Backgrounds  

E-print Network

We generalize the calculation of cosmic superstring reconnection probability to non-trivial backgrounds. This is done by modeling cosmic strings as wound tachyon modes in the 0B theory, and the spacetime effective action is then used to couple this to background fields. Simple examples are given including trivial and warped compactifications. Generalization to $(p,q)$ strings is discussed.

Mark G. Jackson

2006-08-22

170

Background reduction in cryogenic detectors  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

2005-04-01

171

Background events in microchannel plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements have been made to assess the characteristics and origins of background events in microchannel plates (MCPs). An overall background rate of about 0.4 events/sq cm persec has been achieved consistently for MCPs that have been baked and scrubbed. The temperature and gain of the MCPs are found to have no significant effect on the background rate. Detection of 1.46-MeV gamma rays from the MCP glass confirms the presence of K-40, with a concentration of 0.0007 percent, in MCP glass. It is shown that beta decay from K-40 is sufficient to cause the background rate and spectrum observed. Anticoincidence measurements indicate the the background rate caused by cosmic ray interactions is small (less than 0.016 events/sq cm per sec).

Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Wargelin, B.

1988-01-01

172

Direction Dependent Background Fitting for the Fermi GBM Data  

E-print Network

We present a method for determining the background of Fermi GBM GRBs using the satellite positional information and a physical model. Since the polynomial fitting method typically used for GRBs is generally only indicative of the background over relatively short timescales, this method is particularly useful in the cases of long GRBs or those which have Autonomous Repoint Request (ARR) and a background with much variability on short timescales. We give a Direction Dependent Background Fitting (DDBF) method for separating the motion effects from the real data and calculate the duration (T90 and T50, as well as confidence intervals) of the nine example bursts, from which two resulted an ARR. We also summarize the features of our method and compare it qualitatively with the official GBM Catalogue. Our background filtering method uses a model based on the physical information of the satellite position. Therefore, it has many advantages compared to previous methods. It can fit long background intervals, remove all...

Szcsi, Dorottya; Kbori, Jzsef; Horvth, Istvn; Balzs, Lajos G

2013-01-01

173

Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments  

E-print Network

Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10^-5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

B. Majorovits; I. Abt; M. Laubenstein; O. Volynets

2011-05-18

174

Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility  

SciTech Connect

The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3? muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Wang, B. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-08-08

175

Harnessing the Power of Education Research Databases with the Pearl-Harvesting Methodological Framework for Information Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital technologies enable the storage of vast amounts of information, accessible with remarkable ease. However, along with this facility comes the challenge to find pertinent information from the volumes of nonrelevant information. The present article describes the pearl-harvesting methodological framework for information retrieval. Pearl

Sandieson, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Lori C.; Sandieson, Rachel M.; Zimmerman, Walter

2010-01-01

176

Adult Education Information and Referral Hot-Line. Adult Education Special Project. Final Report, July 1980-June 1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A toll-free adult education information and referral hotline provided information and referral services to approximately 1500 adults in Region IX in Texas from September 1980 to June 1981. Adult education co-ops and testing centers forwarded pertinent program information (class schedules, General Educational Development testing information) to the

Morgan, Jim

177

Maintenance and Development of the California Manpower Management Information System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California Manpower Management Information System (CMMIS) Project reported here was done to provide a means of coordinating manpower supply and demand information with pertinent demographic information which will enable state, regional, and local agencies to fulfill various legislative mandates and legal responsibilities. This report covers

Ventura County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

178

14 CFR 1203.200 - Background and discussion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false...Background and discussion. 1203.200 Section 1203.200 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY...

2013-01-01

179

14 CFR 1203.200 - Background and discussion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false...Background and discussion. 1203.200 Section 1203.200 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY...

2010-01-01

180

14 CFR 1203.200 - Background and discussion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false...Background and discussion. 1203.200 Section 1203.200 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY...

2012-01-01

181

Cosmic MicrowaveCosmic Microwave Background RadiationBackground Radiation  

E-print Network

27, 2006 The HorizonThe Horizon lightlight ­­ and indeed any informationand indeed any information.Dobbs@McGill.ca ­ Oct 27, 2006 EM SpectrumEM Spectrum Matt.Dobbs@McGill.ca ­ Oct 27, 2006 different information is encoded in different bands.different information is encoded in different bands. radiowavesradiowaves: i

Ronis, David M.

182

Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2005 and 2006 School Years. National Goals for Schooling. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. First Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to implement changes required by Education Ministers to enrolment forms (and associated data collection and storage processes). This is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the "National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." The

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2004

2004-01-01

183

Heritage Learners in the Chinese Language Classroom: Home Background  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies from information-processing and language comprehension research have reported that background knowledge facilitates reading and writing. By comparing Chinese language development of heritage students who had home background in Chinese language and culture with those who did not, this study found that heritage learners did significantly

Xiao, Yun

2006-01-01

184

Darkling Beetle Life Cycle Background  

E-print Network

Darkling Beetle Life Cycle Background: Metamorphosis is a process the juvenile stage to the adult stage. The Darkling Beetle (Tenebrio molitor) undergoes a complete, or holometabolous, metamorphosis. Adult beetles reproduce sexually and lay

Rose, Michael R.

185

Analysis of the XRS background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background counts on the XRS Calorimeter spectrometer of Astro-E2 have several sources, including primary cosmic rays and secondary particles interacting with the pixels and with the silicon structure of the array. After rejecting events coincident between pixels or between a pixel and the anti-coincidence detector behind the calorimeter array, the residual background on the ground in the 0.1 - 10 keV band is 1e-3 counts/s (8e-3 counts/s/sq cm). We will present the details of the ground background events and the rejection criteria required lo remove them while minimizing deadtime. We will also present preliminary analysis of the in-orbit background.

Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Boyce, K. R.; Brown, G. V.; Cottam, J.; Fujimoto, R.; Furusho, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; McCammon, D.; Mitsuda, K.

2005-01-01

186

Low background techniques in XMASS  

SciTech Connect

The XMASS project aims to detect pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, neutrino-less double beta decay, and dark matter searches using ultra-pure liquid xenon. The first stage of XMASS project is concentrated on dark matter searches using 800 kg liquid xenon detector which requires low background and low threshold. Several techniques applied to XMASS detector for low background will be presented.

Takeda, Atsushi [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, University of Tokyo, 456 Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida, Gifu, 506-1205 (Japan)

2011-04-27

187

Rocket observations of the diffuse ultraviolet background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the experiment reported here was to obtain additional information on the absolute intensity level and spatial variation of the diffuse ultraviolet background and thereby gain insight into the origin of this radiation. The experiment used three ultraviolet sensitive photometers placed in the focal plane of a 95-cm, f/2.8 normal incidence telescope flown on board an Aries sounding rocket. The measured intensities clearly refute the hypothesis of an isotropic background, the intensities of the high galactic latitude being definitely lower than the intensities seen at intermediate latitudes. Moreover, the count rates in all three channels along the slow scan exhibit local enhancements as well as an overall trend. In general, the spatial variations exhibited by the data correlate with the line of sight of neutral hydrogen column density as determined from 21-cm radio observations. This fact demonstrates that there is a galactic component to the diffuse ultraviolet radiation field.

Jakobsen, P.; Bowyer, S.; Kimble, R.; Jelinsky, P.; Grewing, M.; Kraemer, G.; Wulf-Mathies, C.

1984-01-01

188

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE): Emergency support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Mission will measure the diffuse radiation from the universe in the wavelength band 1 micron to 9.6 mm. The band includes the 3 K cosmic background radiation, the known relic of the primeval cosmic explosion. The COBE satellite will be launched from the Western Space and Missile Center (EWSMC) via a Delta launch vehicle into a circular parking orbit of about 300 km. COBE will be placed into a 900-km altitude circular orbit. Coverage will be provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN) for COBE emergencies that would prevent communications via the normal channels of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Emergency support will be provided by the DSN 26-m subnetwork. Information is given in tabular form for DSN network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, and command.

Stanford, R.; Mattson, R.

1991-01-01

189

START Background Report START, September 2013 1 BACKGROUND REPORT  

E-print Network

-Shabaab, terrorism in Kenya, and extended attacks involving hostages in barricade situations. AL-SHABAAB Since: Global Terrorism Database #12;START Background Report © START, September 2013 2 Bombing/ Explosion 38/ Infrastructure Attack 2.37% Hijacking 0.36% Al-Shabaab Attack Types, 2007-2012 (n=548) Source: Global Terrorism

Hill, Wendell T.

190

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

Silk, Joseph

1992-01-01

191

SUBJECT: Employee Hazard Communication 1.0 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE  

E-print Network

1 SUBJECT: Employee Hazard Communication 1.0 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Various chemicals present of a Hazard Communication Program intended to provide the information and training needed to inform (OSHA) establishes rules for safety in the workplace. One of these rules is called the "Hazard

192

Raman background photobleaching as a possible method of cancer diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetics of photobleaching of background in Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of plant toxins ricin and ricin agglutinin, ricin binding subunit, and normal and malignant human blood serum were measured. For the excitation of the spectra cw and pulsed laser radiation were used. The spectra of Raman background change upon laser irradiation. Background intensity is lower for the samples with small molecular weight. The cyclization of amino acid residues in the toxin molecules as well as in human blood serum can be a reason of the Raman background. The model of the background photobleaching is proposed. The differences in photobleaching kinetics in the cases of cw and pulsed laser radiation are discussed. It is shown that Raman background photobleaching can be very informative for cancer diagnostics.

Brandt, Nikolai N.; Brandt, Nikolai B.; Chikishev, Andrey Y.; Gangardt, Mihail G.; Karyakina, Nina F.

2001-06-01

193

Extending the Information Commons: From Instructional Testbed to Internet2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's conceptualization of an Information Commons (IC) is revisited and elaborated in reaction to Bailey and Tierney's article. The IC's role as testbed for instructional support and knowledge discovery is explored, and progress on pertinent research is reviewed. Prospects for media-rich learning environments relate the IC to the

Beagle, Donald

2002-01-01

194

Cultural Backgrounds and Textual Appropriation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines interviews with 46 undergraduates to explore if participants with differing language and cultural backgrounds view plagiarism or textual appropriation primarily as a) a language problem because of a lack of words of one's own, or b) a cultural challenge as a result of either some first language (L1) cultural training to

Shi, Ling

2006-01-01

195

Simulation of HEAO 3 background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91 [2], nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database [3], and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) [4] using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, ?-, ?+, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both ?- and ?+. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

Graham, B. L.; Phlips, B. F.; Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.

1997-05-01

196

Simulation of HEAO 3 background  

SciTech Connect

A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91, nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database, and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, {beta}{sup -}, {beta}{sup +}, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both {beta}{sup -} and {beta}{sup +}. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

Graham, B. L. [George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Phlips, B. F. [USRA, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia (United States)

1997-05-10

197

Background subtraction techniques: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background subtraction is a widely used approoch for detecting moving objects @om static cameras. Mony different methods have been proposed over the recent years and both the novice and the exprt can be confused about iheir benefits and limitations. In order to overcome this problem, this poper provides a review of ihe main methods and an original categorisotion based on

Massimo Piccardi

2004-01-01

198

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, provides an overview of how scientists are working to explain the origin of the universe. Specifically, it discusses the two major theories about the origin of the universe (Big Bang and Steady State), the search for microwave background radiation, and the discovery of the first observational evidence to support the Big Bang theory.

199

Climate Change The Physical Background  

E-print Network

Climate Change ­ The Physical Background Andreas Sterl KNMI · Basics of the climate system/18) #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11.10.2007 Observed climate change #12;Andreas Sterl · Anthropogenic influence · Projected changes & impact #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11

Haak, Hein

200

Shark Fact or Fiction? Background  

E-print Network

Shark Fact or Fiction? Background: This is a fun classroom activity based on the basic biology in conjunction with the presentation. Materials: Shark Fact of Fiction activity sheet and answer key for the educator. Classroom Activity: · Pass out the "Shark Fact or Fiction" handout to students. · Have

Watson, Craig A.

201

Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background  

E-print Network

- 1 - Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background: Over the last 20 years, hurricane research at AOML has focused on improved scientific understanding of hurricanes and of tropical meteorology scientific goals for AOMLs hurricane research derive from the U.S. Weather Research Programs (USWRP

202

The cosmic infrared background experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extragalactic background, based on absolute measurements reported by DIRBE and IRTS at 1.2 and 2.2 ?m, exceeds the brightness derived from galaxy counts by up to a factor 5. Furthermore, both DIRBE and the IRTS report fluctuations in the near-infrared sky brightness that appear to have an extra-galactic origin, but are larger than expected from local ( z = 1-3) galaxies. These observations have led to speculation that a new class of high-mass stars or mini-quasars may dominate primordial star formation at high-redshift ( z 10-20), which, in order to explain the excess in the near-infrared background, must be highly luminous but produce a limited amount of metals and X-ray photons. Regardless of the nature of the sources, if a significant component of the near-infrared background comes from first-light galaxies, theoretical models generically predict a prominent near-infrared spectral feature from the redshifted Lyman cutoff, and a distinctive fluctuation power spectrum. We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7? to 2, where a first-light galaxy signature is expected to peak, over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rocket flight CIBER has sensitivity to probe fluctuations 100 fainter than IRTS/DIRBE, with sufficient resolution to remove local-galaxy correlations. By jointly observing regions of the sky studied by Spitzer and ASTRO-F, CIBER will build a multi-color view of the near-infrared background, accurately assessing the contribution of local ( z = 1-3) galaxies to the observed background fluctuations, allowing a deep and comprehensive survey for first-light galaxy background fluctuations. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for a redshifted Lyman cutoff feature between 0.8 and 2.0 ?m. The high-resolution spectrometer will trace zodiacal light using the intensity of scattered Fraunhofer lines, providing an independent measurement of the zodiacal emission and a new check of DIRBE zodiacal dust models. The combination will systematically search for the infrared excess background light reported in near-infrared DIRBE/IRTS data, compared with the small excess reported at optical wavelengths.

Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki

2006-03-01

203

Mineral-resource assessments in Alaska; background information to accompany maps and reports about the geology and undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the Mount Katmai Quadrangle and adjacent parts of the Naknek and Afognak quadrangles, Alaska Peninsula  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic and geochemical field studies were carded out from 1983 to 1987 in the Mount Katmai l?x2 ? quadrangle and adjoining region, at the northeast end of the Alaska Peninsula. The region is nearly entirely within Katmai National Park and Preserve and has had almost no mineral production, so prior to this study there were few data by which to assess the mineral potential of the region. This report describes the folio of publications that have resulted from the study: geologic maps, geochemical results, fossil identifications, radiometric rock ages, and an assessment of the undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the region. The Katmai region is inferred to potentially have three types of undiscovered mineral deposits: porphyry copper (molybdenum), precious-metal vein, and hot-springs gold. These deposit types occur elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar geologic units. Evidence suggesting their occurrence in the Katmai region is the presence of trace amounts of metals typically associated with these kinds of deposits in bedrock of certain tracts and in sediments of streams draining those tracts. Magma to provide heat, fractures to provide pathways for mineralizing fluids, and altered rock are required by genetic models of these deposit types. Such features do occur in the Katmai tracts. Confirmation of any mineral deposit in the Katmai region requires detailed follow-up sampling and acquisition of subsurface information, which is beyond the scope of this study. However, producing porphyry deposits are unknown elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar rocks, so if any such deposits occur in the Katmai region, they are likely to be few in number. Conversely, vein deposits are typically small in size so there may be several of such deposits. The properties and thermal history of the sedimentary rocks that could serve as reservoirs for oil or gas are unfavorable in adjacent regions. Thus the potential of the Katmai region for producible quantities of fossil fuels is low. In theory the region has shallow concentrations of geothermal fluids, but specific evidence for their presence is obscured by heavy precipitation and cold young rocks or deposits. Small volumes of coal occur at tidewater sites on the Pacific coast.

Riehle, J.R.; Church, S.E.; Detterman, R.L.; Miller, J.W.

1994-01-01

204

Aggregations from using inadvertent social information: a form of ideal habitat selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social information in breeding site selection has received extensive study; however, few attempts have been made to link this process to pre-existing models. We examine the importance of social information to three pertinent models of habitat selection that describe breeding aggregations and spatial patterns: 1) the ideal despotic distribution (IDD) which considers conspecific competition and habitat availability, 2) the perceptual

Joseph J. Nocera; Graham J. Forbes; Luc-Alain Giraldeau

2009-01-01

205

Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) now detected, and confirmed by several independent experiments, the next goal is to characterize accurately its statistical properties. In these lecture notes we review the physical motivation for pursuing CMB polarization and the basic statistical properties of the polarization fields. We then discuss some of the key aspects of the analysis of CMB polarization data, focusing on the additional complications that arise compared to temperature data due to the tensor character of the polarization field.

Challinor, A.

206

Cosmic microwave background polarization analysis  

E-print Network

With polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) now detected, and confirmed by several independent experiments, the next goal is to characterise accurately its statistical properties. In these lecture notes we review the physical motivation for pursuing CMB polarization, and the basic statistical properties of the polarization fields. We then discuss some of the key aspects of the analysis of CMB polarization data, focusing on the additional complications that arise compared to temperature data due to the tensor character of the polarization field.

Anthony Challinor

2005-02-04

207

Quantum chromodynamics in background fields  

SciTech Connect

We try to build a framework for quantum chromodynamics in background fields. The nonvanishing vacuum condensates are described by the classical fields, while the corresponding quantum fields are quantized in the Furry representation and the physical states are defined in the physical QCD vacuum. The complete quark and gluon propagators are discussed in this framework and running condensate parameters are introduced by the renormalization requirement. A modified Callan-Symanzik equation is derived by taking account of the nonperturbative corrections.

Huang, T.; Huang, Z.

1989-02-15

208

Quantum chromodynamics in background fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We try to build a framework for quantum chromodynamics in background fields. The nonvanishing vacuum condensates are described by the classical fields, while the corresponding quantum fields are quantized in the Furry representation and the physical states are defined in the physical QCD vacuum. The complete quark and gluon propagators are discussed in this framework and running condensate parameters are introduced by the renormalization requirement. A modified Callan-Symanzik equation is derived by taking account of the nonperturbative corrections.

Huang, Tao; Huang, Zheng

1989-02-01

209

Superspace geometry for supermembrane backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct part of the superspace vielbein and tensor gauge field in terms of the component fields of 11-dimensional on-shell supergravity. The result can be utilized to describe supermembranes and corresponding matrix models for Dirichlet particles in non-trivial supergravity backgrounds to second order in anticommuting coordinates. We exhibit the ?-invariance of the corresponding supermembrane action, which at this order holds

Bernard de Wit; Kasper Peeters; Jan Plefka

1998-01-01

210

Ice absorption toward background stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of ice absorption between 5-20 ?m toward background stars as part of the Cores to Disks (c2d) Legacy program (Evans et al. 2003). Molecules such as H2O, CO2, HCOOH, NH3, CH3OH, and NH4+ have bands in this wavelength region. Absorption from H2O bands at 6 and 13 ?m is observed toward all sources. We detect strong CO2 absorption toward CK 2, a background star with high extinction in the Serpens dark cloud. The abundance of CO2 with respect to H2O is 30-40%, similar to what is observed toward protostars. Also, at 6.8 ?m, CK 2 shows a feature which may be due to NH4+ . Other sources with lower extinction, such as Elias 13 and Elias 16 in the Taurus dark cloud, do not show this feature. By probing different lines of sight, we can learn how ice composition varies with extinction. The abundances found toward background stars are then compared to abundances observed toward protosatars.

Knez, Claudia; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Kessler-Silacci, Jacqueline; Evans, Neal J., II; Augereau, Jean-Charles; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Brown, Joanna; Geers, Vincent; Jrgensen, Jes K.; Lahuis, Fred

211

Informal Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of informal learning on young children in the course of their play activities is discussed. A major objective is to emphasize that informal learning can help lay the base for multiculturalism in elementary education. It enables children from different cultural backgrounds to relate to and understand each other through play activities

Randall, Robert S.

212

Background reionization history from omniscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurements of the 21-cm brightness temperature fluctuations from the neutral hydrogen at the Epoch of Reionization should inaugurate the next generation of cosmological observables. In this respect, many works have concentrated on the disambiguation of the cosmological signals from the dominant reionization foregrounds. However, even after perfect foregrounds removal, our ignorance on the background reionization history can significantly affect the cosmological parameter estimation. In particular, the interdependence between the hydrogen ionized fraction, the baryon density and the optical depth to the redshift of observation induce nontrivial degeneracies between the cosmological parameters that have not been considered so far. Using a simple but consistent reionization model, we revisit their expected constraints for a futuristic giant 21-cm omniscope by using for the first time Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods on multiredshift full sky simulated data. Our results agree well with the usual Fisher matrix analysis on the three-dimensional flat sky power spectrum but only when the above-mentioned degeneracies are kept under control. In the opposite situation, Fisher results can be inaccurate. We show that these conditions can be fulfilled by combining cosmic microwave background measurements with multiple observation redshifts probing the beginning of the Epoch of Reionization. This allows a precise reconstruction of the total optical depth, reionization duration and maximal spin temperature. Finally, we discuss the robustness of these results in presence of unresolved ionizing sources. Although most of the standard cosmological parameters remain weakly affected, we find a significant degradation of the background reionization parameter estimation in presence of nuisance ionizing sources.

Clesse, Sbastien; Lopez-Honorez, Laura; Ringeval, Christophe; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Tytgat, Michel H. G.

2012-12-01

213

Direct Imaging of Exoplanets Without Background Subtraction: Implications for ELTs  

E-print Network

The ultra-high contrast capability required to form images of other solar systems is arguably the highest-profile challenge in astronomy today. The current high-contrast imaging efforts all require background subtraction to separate the planetary image from the image of the host star. Background estimation is difficult due to the presence of non-common path aberrations (NCPAs) that change with time. The only major source of information that is not being utilized by current efforts is the random encoding of the planetary image and the NCPAs by the atmosphere on millisecond time-scales. Here, a method that utilizes this information in order to avoid background subtraction altogether is proposed. This new paradigm will allow simultaneous estimation of the time-dependent NCPAs and the planetary image via rigorous statistical inference procedures. These procedures are fully compatible with other information sources, such as diurnal field rotation and spectral diversity. Given the open-ended nature of the backgroun...

Frazin, Richard A

2015-01-01

214

Teaching about natural background radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

2013-07-01

215

Computerized background-oriented schlieren  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A schlieren measurement technique based on computer evaluation of image variations due to refractive index variations in the propagation medium is presented; in what follows, this concept is referred to as the "background-oriented schlieren" (BOS) method. The differences between BOS and other optical techniques for refractive index measurement are the governing role of numerical methods, the extremely small amount of optical equipment, the high accuracy, the bidirectional sensitivity, the fast evaluation, and the missing field limitations. The principle of the method is the numerical comparison of a schlieren distorted and an undistorted image of a deliberate background. The method has become usable in practice owing to the immense progress in computing power and to newly developed fast-correlation algorithms. The extension of this method to space resolving techniques is possible. Some experimental studies show the applicability. Examples are a mixing turbulent jet, a supersonic jet, a shed vortex, and the sound wave of a gun shot. These few results underline the encouraging prospect for the future applicability of this technique. The BOS method offers not only the possibility of qualitative and quantitative schlieren investigations but also has the potential to determine density fields by integration of the measured gradient fields.

Meier, G. E. A.

2002-06-01

216

Video coding with dynamic background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

2013-12-01

217

[Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

Silk, Joseph

1998-01-01

218

Korean Basic Course: Area Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

219

Cosmic Infrared Background and Early Stellar Populations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmic infrared background (CIB) contains information about galaxy luminosities over the entire history of the Universe and can be a powerful diagnostic of the early populations otherwise inaccessible to telescopic studies. Its measurements are very difficult because of the strong IR foregrounds from the Solar system and the Galaxy. Nevertheless, substantial recent progress in measuring the CIB and its structure has been made. The measurements now allow to set significant constraints on early galaxy evolution and, perhaps, even detect the elusive Population III era. We discuss briefly the theory behind the CIB, review the latest measurements of the CIB and its structure, and discuss their implications for detecting and/or constraining the first stars and their epochs.

Kashlinsky, A.

2005-01-01

220

Bayesian Analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background! Experiments designed to map the microwave sky are returning a flood of data (time streams of instrument response as a beam is swept over the sky) at several different frequencies (from 30 to 900 GHz), all with different resolutions and noise properties. The resulting analysis challenge is to estimate, and quantify our uncertainty in, the spatial power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background given the complexities of "missing data", foreground emission, and complicated instrumental noise. Bayesian formulation of this problem allows consistent treatment of many complexities including complicated instrumental noise and foregrounds, and can be numerically implemented with Gibbs sampling. Gibbs sampling has now been validated as an efficient, statistically exact, and practically useful method for low-resolution (as demonstrated on WMAP 1 and 3 year temperature and polarization data). Continuing development for Planck - the goal is to exploit the unique capabilities of Gibbs sampling to directly propagate uncertainties in both foreground and instrument models to total uncertainty in cosmological parameters.

Jewell, Jeffrey

2007-01-01

221

Recognizing foreground-background interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can the background affect a foreground target in distant, low-quality imagery? If it does, it might occur in our mind, or perhaps it may represent a snapshot of our early vision. An affirmative answer, one way or another, may affect our current understanding of this phenomena and potentially for related applications. How can we be sure about this in the psycho-physical sense? We begin with the physiology of our brain's homeostasis, of which an isothermal equilibrium is characterized by the minimum of Helmholtz isothermal Free Energy: A = U - T0S >= 0, where T0 = 37C, the Boltzmann Entropy S = KB1n(W), and U is the unknown internal energy to be computed.

Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

2010-04-01

222

Gauging the cosmic microwave background  

E-print Network

We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behaviour of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behaviour. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behaviour. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

J. P. Zibin; Douglas Scott

2008-08-14

223

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

224

Low background aspects of GERDA  

SciTech Connect

The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-04-27

225

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

226

Backgrounder: Council on Foreign Relations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations provides a number of services for the general public, and in the past they have offered up public discussions, forums, and other outreach activities. In addition, they offer the "Backgrounders" series, which offer succinct explanations of current political and economic issues. First-time users can visit the "Most Recent" area to peruse the latest piece, or they can click on the "Daily Analysis" or "Daily Brief" sections. The profiles cover everything from the role of delegates in the U.S. presidential nominating process to understanding Kenya's politics. Also, visitors can click on complementary materials, such as podcasts, interactive features, and online debates. Finally, visitors can also search for specific materials via the search engine offered here.

227

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found that spectral distortions at the 3-sigma level near the peak of the blackbody spectrum, although inconsistent with the predicted distortions due to Compton scattering in the early universe, are elegantly interpreted in terms of radiation from an early, pregalactic generation of massive stars which had been thermalized by a modest amount of dust at high redshift. The quadrupole anisotropy at the 4-sigma level is most simply interpreted in terms of the large-scale structure of the universe.

Silk, J.

1981-01-01

228

Deleterious background selection with recombination  

SciTech Connect

An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Hudson, R.R. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kaplan, N.L. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-12-01

229

Cosmic microwave?background?theory  

PubMed Central

A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in ?-space are consistent with a ?T flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are ?(10?5)2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at ? ? 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted ? cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on ? and moderate constraints on ?tot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant. PMID:9419321

Bond, J. Richard

1998-01-01

230

Harrah Excellence in Innovation Award AWARD BACKGROUND & INFORMATION  

E-print Network

innovative approaches have contributed significantly to business excellence. The distinguished innovations may include, but are not limited to: · transforming a business; · changing a business model describing how the business innovation is created and the business outcome(s): · A cover page · Individuals

Ahmad, Sajjad

231

Fiscal Year 2007 Budget Summary and Background Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four years after the enactment of the "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)," the revolutionary changes to the education system called for by President Bush are almost implemented. States have put in place rigorous new accountability systems and will implement reading and math assessments covering all students in grades 3-8 by the end of the current

US Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

232

Background information and SOPs | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Search site CENTERS Arizona State University Cornell University Dana-Farber Cancer Institute H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute Johns Hopkins University Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Methodist Hospital Research Institute Northwestern

233

STUDENT SOURCES -BACKGROUND INFORMATION Title Grade Rating Source  

E-print Network

******* http://www.fws.gov/southwest/es/mexicanwolf/ Mexican Wolf Reintroduction 11-G ******* http://www.azgfd.gov/wolf.php Red Wolf 6-12 **** http://www.npca.org/wildlife_protection/wildlife_facts/redwolf.html Mexican Grey://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/coyotes/coyotes.html Red Wolf Recovery 9-12, U ****** http://www.fws.gov/redwolf/index.html Mexican Wolf Recovery 11-12, U

Packard, Jane M.

234

Predictors of Informal Health Payments: The Example from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the factors that can affect informal health payments in Turkey, which is pertinent given that Turkey\\u000a has been undergoing and considering a series of reforms in the health sector. This paper aims to examine the predictors of\\u000a informal payments in Turkey. The study surveyed a random sample of 3,727 people in a medium-sized city, of whom

Hacer zgen; Bayram Sahin; Paolo Belli; Mehtap Tatar; Peter Berman

2010-01-01

235

Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA): Learning Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA) provides this page of learning resources useful for information technology courses. Most of these materials fall under the category of course outlines and syllabi. Topics include cyber ethics, forensic accounting, disaster recovery, security awareness, wireless security, VOIP security and other pertinent subjects to this field. Users are encouraged to visit the center's site and create a free login to view these and other learning resources.

236

Non-parametric Model for Background Subtraction  

E-print Network

Non-parametric Model for Background Subtraction Ahmed Elgammal, David Harwood, Larry Davis Computer,harwood,lsdg@umiacs.umd.edu Abstract. Background subtraction is a method typically used to seg- ment moving regions in image sequences a novel non-parametric background model and a background subtraction approach. The model can handle

Jacobs, David

237

Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Data analysis for the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be complicated by the huge number of sources in the LISA band. In the frequency band {approx}10{sup -4}-2x10{sup -3} Hz, galactic white dwarf binaries (GWDBs) are sufficiently dense in frequency space that it will be impossible to resolve most of them, and ''confusion noise'' from the unresolved Galactic binaries will dominate over instrumental noise in determining LISA's sensitivity to other sources in that band. Confusion noise from unresolved extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) could also contribute significantly to LISA's total noise curve. To date, estimates of the effect of LISA's confusion noise on matched-filter searches and their detection thresholds have generally approximated the noise as Gaussian, based on the central limit theorem. However in matched-filter searches, the appropriate detection threshold for a given class of signals may be located rather far out on the tail of the signal-to-noise probability distribution, where a priori it is unclear whether the Gaussian approximation is reliable. Using the Edgeworth expansion and the theory of large deviations, we investigate the probability distribution of the usual matched-filter detection statistic, far out on the tail of the distribution. We apply these tools to four somewhat idealized versions of LISA data searches: searches for EMRI signals buried in GWDB confusion noise, and searches for massive black hole binary signals buried in (i) GWDB noise, (ii) EMRI noise, and (iii) a sum of EMRI noise and Gaussian noise. Assuming reasonable short-distance cutoffs in the populations of confusion sources (since the very closest and hence strongest sources will be individually resolvable), modifications to the appropriate detection threshold, due to the non-Gaussianity of the confusion noise, turn out to be quite small for realistic cases. The smallness of the correction is partly due to the fact that these three types of sources evolve on quite different time scales, so no single background source closely resembles any search template. We also briefly discuss other types of LISA searches where the non-Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds could perhaps have a much greater impact on search reliability and efficacy.

Racine, Etienne [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Cutler, Curt [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

2007-12-15

238

Nonrelativistic superparticle in a curved background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a component formulation, we construct the supersymmetric action for a superparticle in a three-dimensional Newton-Cartan supergravity background and clarify its symmetries. Our construction proceeds by first constructing the superparticle in a flat background. Next, by boosting up the background symmetries, we replace in a first step the flat background by a Galilean supergravity background. In a second step the Galilean supergravity background is replaced by a Newton-Cartan supergravity background. We extend our results by adding a supersymmetric cosmological constant and compare the nonrelativistic superparticle with the relativistic ?-symmetric three-dimensional superparticle.

Bergshoeff, Eric; Gomis, Joaquim; Kova?evi?, Marija; Parra, Lorena; Rosseel, Jan; Zojer, Thomas

2014-09-01

239

The Diffuse Extreme Ultraviolet Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of the diffuse EUV background towards 138 different directions using the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) have been combined into a spectrum from 150A to 730A and represent an effective exposure of 18 million seconds. There is no significant evidence of any non-local line flux in the resultant spectrum such as that from a hot coronal plasma. These results are inconsistent with the Wisconsin C and B broad-band surveys assuming the source is a logT = 5.8 - 6.1 hot plasma in ionization equilibrium with solar abundances, confirming the previous result of Jelinksy, Vallerga and Edelstein) (hereafter Paper 1) using an observation along the ecliptic with the same instrument. To make these results consistent with the previous broad-band surveys, the plasma responsible for the emission must either be depleted in Fe by a factor of approximately 6, be behind an absorbing slab of neutral H with a column of 2 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, or not be in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE). One such non-CIE model (Breitswerdt and Schmutzier) that explains the soft x-ray results is also inconsistent with this EUV data.

Vallerga, John; Slavin, Jonathan

1996-01-01

240

[Psychosocial background in sterility patients].  

PubMed

150 childless couples from the infertility clinic of the department of gynecology and obstetrics, University of Graz, received a questionnaire. Psychosocial factors and special problems of childless marriage represented the background at which the investigation was aimed. Of special interest were the reactions of the male partner regarding the andrological investigation within the gynecological department. The patients were confronted by a total of 41 questions. 15 of them were equal for both partners, whereas the male partner had to answer 11 additional questions. The questionnaire concerned problems such as interactions of the couple, motivations for the desire of children, psychosomatics, andrological investigation within the gynecological department and the organization of the andrological outpatient section. 72% of the questionnaires were returned. More than 50% of the sterile couples preferred to attend the infertility clinic together. 26% felt restrictions in their sexual behaviour due to the unrealized desire of children, 48% expected an improvement in their partnership if they could have children. 98% considered their childless marriage as a problem of both partners. The desire to set up a family ranks first on the list of motivations. The evaluation of the questionnaire yielded valuable results for the infertility clinic and especially for the andrological department. 72% of the andrological patients did not feel embarrassed by being evaluated and treated in a women's department. 63% preferred to attend the andrological department jointly with their wife. PMID:6557979

Pusch, H

1983-11-01

241

Managing Information On Technical Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical Requirements Analysis and Control Systems/Initial Operating Capability (TRACS/IOC) computer program provides supplemental software tools for analysis, control, and interchange of project requirements so qualified project members have access to pertinent project information, even if in different locations. Enables users to analyze and control requirements, serves as focal point for project requirements, and integrates system supporting efficient and consistent operations. TRACS/IOC is HyperCard stack for use on Macintosh computers running HyperCard 1.2 or later and Oracle 1.2 or later.

Mauldin, Lemuel E., III; Hammond, Dana P.

1993-01-01

242

Non-parametric Model for Background Subtraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background subtraction is a method typically used to segment moving regions in image sequences taken from a static camera\\u000a by comparing each new frame to a model of the scene background. We present a novel non-parametric background model and a background\\u000a subtraction approach. The model can handle situations where the background of the scene is cluttered and not completely static

Ahmed M. Elgammal; David Harwood; Larry S. Davis

2000-01-01

243

Cosmic Infrared Background and Early Galaxy Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cosmic infrared background (CIB) reflects the sum total of galactic luminosities integrated over the entire age of the universe. From its measurement the red-shifted starlight and dust-absorbed and re-radiated starlight of the CIB can be used to determine (or constrain) the rates of star formation and metal production as a function of time and deduce information about objects at epochs currently inaccessible to telescopic studies. This review discusses the state of current CIB measurements and the (mostly space-based) instruments with which these measurements have been made, the obstacles (the various foreground emissions) and the physics behind the CIB and its structure. Theoretical discussion of the CIB levels can now be normalized to the standard cosmological model narrowing down theoretical uncertainties. We review the information behind and theoretical modeling of both the mean (isotropic) levels of the CIB and their fluctuations. The CIB is divided into three broad bands: near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and far-IR (FIR). For each of the bands we review the main contributors to the CIB flux and the epochs at which the bulk of the flux originates. We also discuss the data on the various quantities relevant for correct interpretation of the CIB levels: the star-formation history, the present-day luminosity function measurements, resolving the various galaxy contributors to the CIB, etc. The integrated light of all galaxies in the deepest NIR galaxy counts to date fails to match the observed mean level of the CIB, probably indicating a significant high-redshift contribution to the CIB. Additionally, Population III stars should have left a strong and measurable signature via their contribution to the CIB anisotropies for a wide range of their formation scenarios, and measuring the excess CIB anisotropies coming from high z would provide direct information on the epoch of the first stars.

Kashlinsky, Alexander

2005-01-01

244

Increasing Educational Efficiency Through Technology (Commission Discussion and Background Materials).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program schedule and background information for Indiana Commission for Higher Education-sponsored discussion of the use of educational technology to increase educational effeciency are presented. The four major topics of discussion to illustrate the uses and advantages/disadvantages of audio, video, and computing technologies are as follows:

Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.

245

Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)

Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

1988-01-01

246

[Background and characteristics of migration to urban areas in Java].  

PubMed

A review of urbanization trends in Java, Indonesia, is presented, with the focus on the background and characteristics of migrants to urban areas. Comparisons are made between the characteristics of laborers in the informal sector (housemaids) and those of factory workers, and between migrants from rural areas and those from other urban areas. (summary in ENG) PMID:12157859

Kawamoto, I

1985-06-01

247

A Brief Version of the Family Background Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is lengthy, the Family Background Questionnaire (FBQ) provides reliable behaviorally specific family history information. Results from reliability and validity analyses suggest that a brief version of this instrument that assesses parental responsiveness, child maltreatment, and parental substance abuse would provide a useful screening

Melchert, Timothy P.; Kalemeera, Augustine

2009-01-01

248

2007 Yerkes Summer Institute Mapping Background 1 Introduction to Mapping  

E-print Network

Background 2 describing, its scale approaches one. There are pros and cons to any choice of scale for a map" is often paired with words like "exploration" or "discovery", but what kinds of things do you associate that it is depicting. Large-scale maps fit information about a large area into a small space (such as a road map

Collar, Juan I.

249

Energy development: The environmental tradeoffs. Volume 4: Background papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background information directly relevant to the analysis of environmental tradeoffs among the different measures to increase U.S. energy supply is presented. Subject areas covered include: Technological Overview; Social Impacts of Energy Development in a Rural Area: A Case Example of Western Coal Development; Water Availability and Consumption for Energy; Water Pollution Potential of Energy Conversion Processes; and Air Pollution Impacts

M. D. Levine; R. V. Steele; I. W. Yabroff

1975-01-01

250

Political Correctness: Background, Perspective, and Implications for Student Affairs Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information about the Political Correctness debate, encourages student affairs administrators to reflect on their own perceptions and actions, offers ideas and suggestions about the debate, and explores the debate's implications for student affairs staff. Is intended to promote both individual reflection and group discussions

Forney, Deanna S.

1996-01-01

251

Ris-R-1376(EN) 3D Background  

E-print Network

Risø-R-1376(EN) 3D Background Aerodynamics using CFD Niels N. Sørensen Risø National Laboratory the aerodynamics of the blades are therefore not the main focus of the project. Even though we do not focus on the aerodynamic damping, information of the aerodynamics of the blades are still needed to predict realistic

252

Background Material on National Instructional Television, Bloomington, Ind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six separate pieces of information comprise this packet of background material on the National Instructional Television Center (NIT). Two brief descriptive statements provide an overview of the history and current operation of NIT and a summary of the consortium concept as it has been utilized by the Center to produce three series of

National Instructional Television Center, Bloomington, IN.

253

TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the TIMSS 2011 background variables. Background questionnaire adaptations

Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

2013-01-01

254

PIRLS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background variables. Background

Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Drucker, Kathleen T., Ed.

2013-01-01

255

Informed consent.  

PubMed

Disclosure of information prior to consent is a very complex area of medical ethics. On the surface it would seem to be quite clear cut, but on closer inspection the scope for 'grey areas' is vast. In practice, however, it could be argued that the number of cases that result in complaint or litigation is comparatively small. However, this does not mean that wrong decisions or unethical scenarios do not occur. It would seem that in clinical practice these ethical grey areas concerning patients' full knowledge of their condition or treatment are quite common. One of the barometers for how much disclosure should be given prior to consent could be the feedback obtained from the patients. Are they asking relevant questions pertinent to their condition and do they show a good understanding of the options available? This should be seen as a positive trait and should be welcomed by the healthcare professionals. Ultimately it gives patients greater autonomy and the healthcare professional can expand and build on the patient's knowledge as well as allay fears perhaps based on wrongly held information. Greater communication with the patient would help the healthcare professional pitch their explanations at the right level. Every case and scenario is different and unique and deserves to be treated as such. Studies have shown that most patients can understand their medical condition and treatment provided communication has been thorough (Gillon 1996). It is in the patients' best interests to feel comfortable with the level of disclosure offered to them. It can only foster greater trust and respect between them and the healthcare profession which has to be mutually beneficial to both parties. PMID:16939165

Steevenson, Grania

2006-08-01

256

Sources of Information on Medical Geography  

PubMed Central

Adequate research in the peripheral field of medical geography requires familiarity with the literature of medicine, geography, and other environmentally oriented fields. The pertinent literature of the two primary disciplines, as well as that of anthropology, nutrition, and human bioclimatology, is surveyed from a bibliographical point of view. A brief review of historical sources is presented, followed by a discussion of the contemporary organizations, both international and national, active in the field. Emphasis is placed on the publishing programs and projects, maps, atlases, symposia, reports, and other literature sponsored or stimulated by these organizations. Regional bibliographical surveys for East Africa, India, and the Soviet Union are also noted. Pertinent aspects of bibliographies, indexes, abstracts, library card catalogs and accession lists, and other resources are listed, with emphasis on the various subject headings and other approaches to them. Throughout, the sources of information are approached from a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary viewpoint. PMID:5329543

Mullins, Lynn S.

1966-01-01

257

Comparing Cosmic Microwave Background Datasets  

E-print Network

To extract reliable cosmic parameters from cosmic microwave background datasets, it is essential to show that the data are not contaminated by residual non-cosmological signals. We describe general statistical approaches to this problem, with an emphasis on the case in which there are two datasets that can be checked for consistency. A first visual step is the Wiener filter mapping from one set of data onto the pixel basis of another. For more quantitative analyses we develop and apply both Bayesian and frequentist techniques. We define the ``contamination parameter'' and advocate the calculation of its probability distribution as a means of examining the consistency of two datasets. The closely related ``probability enhancement factor'' is shown to be a useful statistic for comparison; it is significantly better than a number of chi-squared quantities we consider. Our methods can be used: internally (between different subsets of a dataset) or externally (between different experiments); for observing regions that completely overlap, partially overlap or overlap not at all; and for observing strategies that differ greatly. We apply the methods to check the consistency (internal and external) of the MSAM92, MSAM94 and Saskatoon Ring datasets. From comparing the two MSAM datasets, we find that the most probable level of contamination is 12%, with no contamination only 1.05 times less probable, and 100% contamination strongly ruled out at over 2 X 10^5 times less probable. From comparing the 1992 MSAM flight with the Saskatoon data we find the most probable level of contamination to be 50%, with no contamination only 1.6 times less probable and 100% contamination 13 times less probable. [Truncated

L. Knox; J. R. Bond; A. H. Jaffe; M. Segal; D. Charbonneau

1998-03-23

258

Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect  

PubMed Central

The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 14 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring. PMID:25400572

Dekerle, Marie; Boulenger, Vronique; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

2014-01-01

259

Image segmentation by background extraction refinements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image segmentation method refining background extraction in two phases is presented. In the first phase, the method detects homogeneous-background blocks and estimates the local background to be extracted throughout the image. A block is classified homogeneous if its left and right standard deviations are small. The second phase of the method refines background extraction in nonhomogeneous blocks by recomputing the shoulder thresholds. Rules that predict the final background extraction are derived by observing the behavior of successive background statistical measurements in the regions under the presence of dark and/or bright object pixels. Good results are shown for a number of outdoor scenes.

Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Mitchell, O. Robert

1990-01-01

260

Gravitational clustering in Static and Expanding Backgrounds  

E-print Network

A brief summary of several topics in the study of gravitational many body problem is given. The discussion covers both static backgrounds (applicable to astrophysical systems) as well as clustering in an expanding background (relevant for cosmology)

T. Padmanabhan

2003-08-28

261

NEUR 99: Senior Research and Senior Honors in Neuroscience Information and Timetable/Deadlines  

E-print Network

will be useful when writing the introduction to the senior thesis. Course requirements for 2nd semester of SeniorNEUR 99: Senior Research and Senior Honors in Neuroscience Information and Timetable, students will write a paper that reviews the literature in the scientific field pertinent to their research

Fraden, Seth

262

Infectious Agent Identification Cards Infectious agent identification cards contain information on pathogens that are used in  

E-print Network

Infectious Agent Identification Cards Infectious agent identification cards contain information on pathogens that are used in research facilities on campus. These cards are meant to aid medical personnel. As such they should be carried on the person of all personnel who work with these agents. Each card contains pertinent

Rose, Michael R.

263

Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial )  

E-print Network

Module 9 Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial ) · sources of background radiation · various risk models. · estimating risk and on the sources of background radiation, both of risk at low doses. #12;Risk Models (absolute, relative, and time-dependent relative risk models

Massey, Thomas N.

264

Disruptive coloration and background pattern matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective camouflage renders a target indistinguishable from irrelevant background objects. Two interrelated but logically distinct mechanisms for this are background pattern matching (crypsis) and disruptive coloration: in the former, the animal's colours are a random sample of the background; in the latter, bold contrasting colours on the animal's periphery break up its outline. The latter has long been proposed as

Innes C. Cuthill; Martin Stevens; Jenna Sheppard; Tracey Maddocks; C. Alejandro Prraga; Tom S. Troscianko

2005-01-01

265

Target and background simulation for seeker scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements of several target and background situations for a specific target projector system are examined to determine how to present the proper output to the system under test. Consideration is given to both a uniform cold (high altitude) background and a warmer (low altitude) varying background. Target requirements took into account high and low altitude, single or multiple angles,

Mary G. Turner; William L. Wolfe

1992-01-01

266

Worst-Case Background Knowledge in Privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work has shown the necessity of considering an attacker's background knowledge when reasoning about privacy in data publishing. However, in practice, the data publisher does not know what background knowledge the attacker possesses. Thus, it is important to consider the worst-case. In this paper, we initiate a formal study of worst-case background knowledge. We propose a language that can

David Martin; Daniel Kifer; Ashwin Machanavajjhala; Johannes Gehrke; Joseph Halpern

2007-01-01

267

City, State RE: Criminal History Background Check  

E-print Network

Date Name Address City, State RE: Criminal History Background Check Dear Candidate: I am pleased/College/Division/Department of YY. This position requires a criminal history background check for final candidates. In order of a criminal background check a final hiring decision will be made. As you can understand, we are motivated

Saldin, Dilano

268

Sources of the radio background considered  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate different scenarios for the origin of the extragalactic radio background. The surface brightness of the background, as reported by the Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission 2 (ARCADE 2) collaboration, is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters

J. Singal; L. Stawarz; A. Lawrence; V. Petrosian

2010-01-01

269

Current status of federal involvement in US aquaculture. Background paper  

SciTech Connect

The United States lacks a strong national aquaculture policy and supporting federal presence. Over the years, levels and focii of agency involvement in aquaculture development have shifted in response to legislation and its differing interpretations. The National Aquaculture Act (NAA), the primary piece of aquaculture-related legislation, is slated for reauthorization of the NAA and related legislation is the federal role in research and regulation of this emerging industry. Congress requested this Background Paper to provide information on technology issues of immediate importance to the U.S. aquaculture industry. This is a companion piece to the Background Paper on Selected Technology Issues in U.S. Aquaculture.

NONE

1995-09-01

270

Probing Inflation via Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been a rich source of information about the early Universe. Detailed measurements of its spectrum and spatial distribution have helped solidify the Standard Model of Cosmology. However, many questions still remain. Standard Cosmology does not explain why the early Universe is geometrically flat, expanding, homogenous across the horizon, and riddled with a small anisotropy that provides the seed for structure formation. Inflation has been proposed as a mechanism that naturally solves these problems. In addition to solving these problems, inflation is expected to produce a spectrum of gravitational waves that will create a particular polarization pattern on the CMB. Detection of this polarized signal is a key test of inflation and will give a direct measurement of the energy scale at which inflation takes place. This polarized signature of inflation is expected to be -9 orders of magnitude below the 2.7 K monopole level of the CMB. This measurement will require good control of systematic errors, an array of many detectors having the requisite sensitivity, and a reliable method for removing polarized foregrounds, and nearly complete sky coverage. Ultimately, this measurement is likely to require a space mission. To this effect, technology and mission concept development are currently underway.

Chuss, David T.

2008-01-01

271

Accelerator related background in the CMS detector at LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complete calculations of the accelerator related background in the muon spectrometer of the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented. The simulations have been performed with the STRUCT multi-turn tracking code and the MARS and FLUKA cascade codes taking into account latest information of the LHC lattice, vacuum conditions, beam cleaning system and the shielding and layout of the CMS experiment. Beam loss distributions in the interaction regions and their vicinities and their contribution to the background levels in the muon spectrometer of CMS are analyzed. The studies show that hadronic and electromagnetic components of machine background are efficiently suppressed by the proposed CMS shielding. High energy muons penetrate through the shielding, but in positions of significance they do not contribute more than a few percent compared to the background generated by the pp-collisions. It is anticipated that the relative contribution of accelerator background will be higher during the first years of operation, but will drop down with the LHC performance evolution. The obtained results concerning the machine background and the efficiency of the proposed shielding are rather generic and can be directly applied to the ATLAS detector.

Drozhdin, A. I.; Huhtinen, M.; Mokhov, N. V.

1996-02-01

272

Probe brane dynamics on cosmological brane backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the dynamics of a single probe brane on various cosmological brane backgrounds. The on-shell condition of the static probe brane leads to the supersymmetric intersection rules for static BPS configurations, though the cosmological backgrounds do not preserve any supersymmetries. This is a remarkable feature associated with the cosmological backgrounds because in the static background the on-shell condition of the static brane gives no constraint on the brane configuration. Furthermore, it follows that under this condition there is no velocity-independent force for the probe brane even on the cosmological backgrounds.

Uzawa, Kunihito; Yoshida, Kentaroh

2014-11-01

273

Full length background papers can be found at globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/news-events/malaria-elimination-background-paper-series Ideal surveillance for malaria elimination  

E-print Network

APRIL 2014 Full length background papers can be found at globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/news-events/malaria-elimination-background-paper-series Ideal surveillance for malaria elimination key messages what does surveillance for malaria elimination entail? Surveillance for malaria control aims to estimate the burden of malaria and inform population

Mullins, Dyche

274

Cosmic Gamma-ray Background Radiation  

E-print Network

The cosmic gamma-ray background radiation is one of the most fundamental observables in the gamma-ray band. Although the origin of the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation has been a mystery for a long time, the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has recently measured it at 0.1-820 GeV and revealed that the cosmic GeV gamma-ray background is composed of blazars, radio galaxies, and star-forming galaxies. However, Fermi still leaves the following questions. Those are dark matter contribution, origins of the cosmic MeV gamma-ray background, and the connection to the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino events. In this proceeding, I will review the current understandings of the cosmic gamma-ray background and discuss future prospects of cosmic gamma-ray background radiation studies. I also briefly review the current status of cosmic infrared/optical background radiation studies.

Inoue, Yoshiyuki

2014-01-01

275

Improved Upper Limits on the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from 20092010 LIGO and Virgo Data  

E-print Network

Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the Universe that is ...

Aasi, J.

276

Background subtraction approach based on independent component analysis.  

PubMed

In this work, a new approach to background subtraction based on independent component analysis is presented. This approach assumes that background and foreground information are mixed in a given sequence of images. Then, foreground and background components are identified, if their probability density functions are separable from a mixed space. Afterwards, the components estimation process consists in calculating an unmixed matrix. The estimation of an unmixed matrix is based on a fast ICA algorithm, which is estimated as a Newton-Raphson maximization approach. Next, the motion components are represented by the mid-significant eigenvalues from the unmixed matrix. Finally, the results show the approach capabilities to detect efficiently motion in outdoors and indoors scenarios. The results show that the approach is robust to luminance conditions changes at scene. PMID:22219704

Jimnez-Hernndez, Hugo

2010-01-01

277

OTTER experiments pertinent to CADE-10  

SciTech Connect

This Argonne report serves as a companion to our CADE-10 paper. To fulfill promises made in that paper, we include here detailed proofs in clause notation, input files compatible with OTTER, and explanations for our choice of approach. We also include certain of the original and unpublished proofs (of Winker) that answered four open questions, two in equivalent calculus and two in the R-calculus. The organization parallels that of our CADE-10 paper. 34 refs.

Wos, L.; Winker, S.; McCune, W.; Overbeek, R.; Lusk, E.; Stevens, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Butler, R. (University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL (USA))

1991-02-01

278

Pertinent issues in pretransplant recipient workup  

PubMed Central

Renal transplantation is recognized as the treatment of choice in most patients with end-stage renal disease. The evaluation of the candidate for kidney transplantation has been the recent subject of clinical practice guidelines published by the European Renal Association- European Dialysis Transplant Association and the American Society of Transplantation. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature for urological evaluation and treatment of patients prior to renal transplantation. In India, urologists are involved in evaluating not only the genitourinary problems but also vascular access and, vascular anatomy and pathology especially related to major pelvic vessels. Hence, evaluation of the transplant recipient should include assessment of vascular access for hemodialysis, access for peritoneal dialysis, assessment of pelvic vessels to which renal allograft vessels need to be anastomosed and genitourinary system. In addition, review of the serological tests for infective viral diseases like hepatitis and human immunodeficiency viruses should always be done before starting clinical evaluation. A note of the evaluation performed by other specialists like nephrologist, cardiologist, endocrinologist, pulmonologist, anesthetist etc. should always be reviewed. PMID:19718331

Modi, Pranjal

2007-01-01

279

[Melatonin, a pertinent prototype for therapeutic innovation].  

PubMed

Melatonin fulfils most of the requirements of a typical lead compound for rational drug design. We have rationally modified each of its structural features with a view to clarifying their role in drug-receptor interactions (affinity and activity) and to obtain agonist and antagonist ligands which could be used as pharmacological tools and/or as drugs. Molecular modelling studies allow us to propose a pharmacophore model. The naphthalenic bioisostere of melatonin (agomelatin) is currently under clinical (phase II) evaluation and two other compounds have been selected for development. PMID:9921034

Lesieur, D; Leclerc, V; Chavatte, P; Marot, C; Renard, P; Guardiola-Lemaitre, B

1998-01-01

280

29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Employment and labor conditions and trends...and fringe benefits, changes in average hourly earnings...agreements, hours of work, labor turnover, absenteeism...similar factors; (b) Market conditions and trends...mainland, including changes in the volume and...

2013-07-01

281

29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Employment and labor conditions and trends...and fringe benefits, changes in average hourly earnings...agreements, hours of work, labor turnover, absenteeism...similar factors; (b) Market conditions and trends...mainland, including changes in the volume and...

2012-07-01

282

Using multiple perspectives to suppress information and complexity  

SciTech Connect

Dissemination of battlespace information involves getting information to particular warfighters that is both useful and in a form that facilitates the tasks of those particular warfighters. There are two issues which motivate this problem of dissemination. The first issue deals with disseminating pertinent information to a particular warfighter. This can be thought of as information suppression. The second issue deals with facilitating the use of the information by tailoring the computer interface to the specific tasks of an individual warfighter. This can be thought of as interface complexity suppression. This paper presents a framework for suppressing information using an object-based knowledge representation methodology. This methodology has the ability to represent knowledge and information in multiple perspectives. Information can be suppressed by creating a perspective specific to an individual warfighter. In this way, only the information pertinent and useful to a warfighter is made available to that warfighter. Information is not removed, lost, or changed, but spread among multiple perspectives. Interface complexity is managed in a similar manner. Rather than have one generalized computer interface to access all information, the computer interface can be divided into interface elements. Interface elements can then be selected and arranged into a perspective-specific interface. This is done in a manner to facilitate completion of tasks contained in that perspective. A basic battlespace domain containing ground and air elements and associated warfighters is used to exercise the methodology.

Kelsey, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)]|[New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (US). Computer Science Dept.; Webster, R.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Hartley, R.T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (US). Computer Science Dept.

1998-09-01

283

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

1989-01-01

284

Thermal inflation and the gravitational wave background  

SciTech Connect

We consider the impact of thermal inflation-a short, secondary period of inflation that can arise in supersymmetric scenarios-on the stochastic gravitational wave background. We show that while the primordial inflationary gravitational wave background is essentially unchanged at cosmic microwave background scales, it is massively diluted at solar system scales and would be unobservable by a Big Bang Observer (BBO) style experiment. Conversely, bubble collisions at the end of thermal inflation can generate a new stochastic background. We calculate the likely properties of the bubbles created during this phase transition, and show that the expected amplitude and frequency of this signal would fall within the BBO range.

Easther, Richard; Giblin Jr, John T [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lim, Eugene A [ISCAP and Physics Department, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States)] [ISCAP and Physics Department, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Park, Wan-Il; Stewart, Ewan D, E-mail: richard.easther@yale.edu, E-mail: john.giblin@yale.edu, E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com, E-mail: wipark@muon.kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: stewart@hep.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2008-05-15

285

Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

Not Available

1993-04-01

286

Background nitrogen concentrations in fresh waters in Denmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative information on the background loading of nitrogen is important when establishing the pressure-impact pathway for Danish springs, streams, lakes and estuaries The background nitrogen loading thus determines present day lowest nitrogen loadings without influence from point sources and agriculture but includes present day atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. We have mapped the background concentration of nitrogen in Danish soil water, springs and streams based on monitoring in one soil water station (1990-2010), 11 springs, 7 small streams draining undisturbed catchments (1990-2010) and 19 streams draining small undisturbed catchments (2004-11). The concentration of ammonium-N (NH4+) and organic N was found to be nearly constant within six major landscape types in Denmark, respectively, 0.05 mg 0.06 mg N L-1 and 0.53 mg 0.29 mg N L-1. On contrary, the concentration of nitrate-nitrite-N (NO3- + NO2-) was found to vary between 0.06-0.83 mg N L-1 within the six landscape types. We have also time series of background total nitrogen concentrations from 7 small undisturbed catchments covering the period 1990-2010. No significant trends have been observed for total nitrogen concentrations from these streams during the period 1990-2010. The measured average nitrate-N concentrations in streams has been modelled against dominant landscape geology and a 5x5 km grid map of Denmark showing background concentrations of nitrate-N and total N has been produced. This map has been used during the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive as a baseline for estimating background nitrogen losses to surface waters in Denmark. Thus, the average annual background loss of total nitrogen amounts to 13,000 tonnes N or 20% of the total loading of nitrogen from the Danish land to sea during the period 2005-2009.

Windolf, Jrgen; Bgestrand, Jens; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Kronvang, Brian

2013-04-01

287

A search for natural bioactive compounds in Bolivia through a multidisciplinary approach. Part IV. Is a new haem polymerisation inhibition test pertinent for the detection of antimalarial natural products?  

PubMed

The search for new antimalarial agents in plant crude extracts using traditional screening tests is time-consuming and expensive. New in vitro alternative techniques, based on specific metabolic or enzymatic process, have recently been developed to circumvent testing of antimalarial activity in parasite culture. The haem polymerisation inhibition test (HPIA) was proposed as a possible routine in vitro assay for the detection of antimalarial activity in natural products. A total of 178 plant extracts from the Pharmacopeia of the Bolivian ethnia Tacana, were screened for their ability to inhibit the polymerisation of haematin. Five extracts from Aloysia virgata (Ruz & Pavn) A.L. Jussieu (Verbenaceae), Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae), Caesalpinia pluviosa D.C. (Caesalpiniaceae), Mascagnia stannea (Griseb) Nied. (Malpighiaceae) and Trichilia pleenea (Adr. Jussieu) (Meliaceae) demonstrated more than 70% inhibition of haematin polymerisation at 2.5 mg/ml. The extracts were also tested for antimalarial activity in culture against F32 strain (chloroquine-sensitive) and D2 strain (chloroquine-resistant) of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo against P. berghei. The extract from Caesalpinia pluviosa was the only one that showed activity in HPIA and in the classical test in culture. The accuracy and pertinence of HPIA, applied to natural products is discussed. PMID:11025165

Baelmans, R; Deharo, E; Bourdy, G; Muoz, V; Quenevo, C; Sauvain, M; Ginsburg, H

2000-11-01

288

Massive Gravity in Curved Cosmological Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the physical propagating modes in a massive gravity model in curved cosmological backgrounds, which we have found as classical solutions in our previous paper. We show that, generically, there exist such the cosmological background solutions consistent with the equations of motion where we assume the ghost condensation ansatzes. Using the (1 + 3)-parametrization of the metric fluctuations with

Masahiro Maeno; Ichiro Oda

2009-01-01

289

Estimation of background levels of contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples from hazardous waste site investigations frequently come from two or more statistical populations. Assessment of background levels of contaminants can be a significant problem. This problem is being investigated at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas. This paper describes a statistical approach for assessing background levels from a dataset. The elevated values that

Anita Singh; Ashok K. Singh; George Flatman

1994-01-01

290

The GENIUS Project- Background and Technical Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of GENIUS as a dark matter detector is discussed. A study was performed to demonstrate the good behaviour of the proposed detector design of naked HPGe-crystals in liquid nitrogen. The expected background components were simulated and are discussed in some detail.With the obtained background GENIUS could cover a large part of the favoured MSSM parameter-space.

Baudis, L.; Heusser, G.; Majorovits, B.; Ramachers, Y.; Strecker, H.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.

291

Experiences with active cosmic background suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant source of background in a bare germanium gamma-ray detector is natural radiation originating from potassium, uranium, and thorium decay in the laboratory environment and from cosmic rays. Most of the background is removed by surrounding the detector with lead shielding, which is commonly 20 cm thick. In a well-shielded detector, the largest contributor to the integral counting rate

R. M. Lindstrom; G. P. Lamaze

1994-01-01

292

Does Cultural Background Affect Volunteering Behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative investigation is to help nonprofit organizations which rely heavily on the support of volunteers increase the effectiveness of their marketing by accounting for differences in cultural background among community members. It was conducted in the multi?cultural Australian context and included 79 participants from different cultural backgrounds. Findings indicate that as a whole, cultural groups differ

Melanie Randle; Sara Dolnicar

2009-01-01

293

Target and background simulation for seeker scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

As seeker technology improves, the demands on the scenarios presented in a laboratory environment become more stringent. It becomes more necessary to provide representative dynamic backgrounds and targets rather than rely only on computer simulations. For a specific target projector system we are investigating the requirement of several target and background situations to determine how to present the proper output

Mary G. Turner; William L. Wolfe

1993-01-01

294

Real-Time Discriminative Background Subtraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the problem of segmenting foreground objects in live video when background scene tex- tures change over time. In particular, we formulate background subtraction as minimizing a penalized instantaneous risk func- tionalyielding a local online discriminative algorithm that can quickly adapt to temporal changes. We analyze the algo- rithm's convergence, discuss its robustness to nonstationarity, and provide an

Li Cheng; Minglun Gong; Dale Schuurmans; Terry Caelli

2011-01-01

295

Algorithms: Background Amotz Bar-Noy  

E-print Network

Bar-Noy (CUNY) Algorithms: Background Fall 2012 2 / 56 #12;The Pythagorean Theorem c b a Theorem: c2) Algorithms: Background Fall 2012 6 / 56 #12;Prime Numbers Theorem: There are infinitely many prime numbers, then a new prime is found. Otherwise, Q is a product of two or more primes. The Fundamental Theorem

Bar-Noy, Amotz

296

Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and near-infrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo.

Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W.; Girard, Emily J.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

2014-07-01

297

Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging.  

PubMed

Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and nearinfrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo. PMID:25027002

Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W; Girard, Emily J; Nelson, Leonard Y; Seibel, Eric J

2014-07-01

298

How Adolescents Use Technology for Health Information: Implications for Health Professionals from Focus Group Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescents present many challenges in providing them effective preventive services and health care. Yet, they are typically the early adopters of new technology (eg, the Internet). This creates important opportunities for engaging youths via eHealth. Objective To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents. Methods Using an inductive qualitative research design, 27 focus groups were conducted in Ontario, Canada. The 210 participants (55% female, 45% male; median age 16 years) were selected to reflect diversity in age, sex, geographic location, cultural identity, and risk. An 8-person team analyzed and coded the data according to major themes. Results Study participants most-frequently sought or distributed information related to school (89%), interacting with friends (85%), social concerns (85%), specific medical conditions (67%), body image and nutrition (63%), violence and personal safety (59%), and sexual health (56%). Finding personally-relevant, high-quality information was a pivotal challenge that has ramifications on the depth and types of information that adolescents can find to answer their health questions. Privacy in accessing information technology was a second key challenge. Participants reported using technologies that clustered into 4 domains along a continuum from highly-interactive to fixed information sources: (1) personal communication: telephone, cell phone, and pager; (2) social communication: e-mail, instant messaging, chat, and bulletin boards; (3) interactive environments: Web sites, search engines, and computers; and (4) unidirectional sources: television, radio, and print. Three emerging roles for health professionals in eHealth include: (1) providing an interface for adolescents with technology and assisting them in finding pertinent information sources; (2) enhancing connection to youths by extending ways and times when practitioners are available; and (3) fostering critical appraisal skills among youths for evaluating the quality of health information. Conclusions This study helps illuminate adolescent health-information needs, their use of information technologies, and emerging roles for health professionals. The findings can inform the design and more-effective use of eHealth applications for adolescent populations. PMID:14713660

Biscope, Sherry; Poland, Blake; Goldberg, Eudice

2003-01-01

299

Application of Monte Carlo algorithms to the Bayesian analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power spectrum estimation and evaluation of associated errors in the presence of incomplete sky coverage; nonhomogeneous, correlated instrumental noise; and foreground emission are problems of central importance for the extraction of cosmological information from the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

Jewell, J.; Levin, S.; Anderson, C. H.

2004-01-01

300

Background of SIFs and Stress Indices for Moment Loadings of Piping Components  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information, references, and equations for twenty-four piping components (thirteen component SIFs and eleven component stress indices) that justify the values or expressions for the SIFs and indices.

E. A. Wais; E. C. Rodabaugh

2005-06-15

301

Sources of the Radio Background Considered  

SciTech Connect

We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

2011-08-22

302

Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation  

SciTech Connect

Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.

Burr, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

303

Exploiting background knowledge in automated discovery  

SciTech Connect

Prior work in automated scientific discovery has been successful in finding patterns in data, given that a reasonably small set of mostly relevant features is specified. The work described in this paper places data in the context of large bodies of background knowledge. Specifically, data items are connected to multiple databases of background knowledge represented as inheritance networks. The system has made a practical impact on botanical toxicology research, which required linking examples of cases of plant exposures to databases of botanical, geographical, and climate background knowledge.

Aronis, J.M.; Buchanan, B.G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Provost, F.J. [NYNEX Science and Technology, White Plains, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

304

Low background physics at the Kimballton Mine  

SciTech Connect

The Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) is home to several experiments. One consists to two HPGe detectors designed to screen candidate materials to be used in low-background experiments for radioactivity. Analysis techniques, including our efficiency calculations will be presented. We have also deployed a customized BEGe (Broad Energy Germanium) detector in a low-background cryostat. This paper will focus on the shield design, detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a detector in a low-background environment.

MacMullin, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-04-27

305

ARCADE Detection of an Extragalactic Radio Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sometimes when we look for one thing we stumble on something else. The Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE) was designed to measure the blackbody spectrum of the cosmic microwave background to search for spectral distortions related to the epoch of reionization. Instead, the July 2006 flight found evidence for an extragalactic radio background with amplitude six times brighter than the expected contribution from faint radio sources. The author discusses the ARCADE instrument and the evidence for an extragalactic radio background.

Kogut, Alan J.

2009-01-01

306

Background considerations for SuperCDMS  

SciTech Connect

Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 10{sup ?46} cm{sup 2} for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

Cooley, J. [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Collaboration: SuperCDMS Collaboration

2013-08-08

307

Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus  

SciTech Connect

The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

Fritz, Brad G.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

2014-12-18

308

Partnering industry to develop clinical information systems.  

PubMed

Over the past six months, the nursing team from the Department of Health's Informatics Directorate has been working with colleagues in industry to promote and share learning and understanding of issues surrounding the nursing profession. Team members were asked among other things to identify key questions senior nursing colleagues and suppliers should ask one another when considering the implementation of a new system for recording clinical information and extracting pertinent data. This article aims to encourage collaborative working and understanding of the importance of senior nurse involvement in choosing and delivering the right system for staff and patients. PMID:23008903

Hughes, Victoria; Hamer, Susan

2012-09-01

309

Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2013-08-08

310

16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.  

...CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CB BASE STATION ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES 1402.2 Background...contacted powerlines with CB base station and outside TV antennas while putting these antennas up or taking...

2014-01-01

311

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

...PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION 1404.2 Background. ...that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed too close...that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed even...

2014-01-01

312

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION 1404.2 Background. ...that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed too close...that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed even...

2013-01-01

313

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION 1404.2 Background. ...that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed too close...that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed even...

2011-01-01

314

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION 1404.2 Background. ...that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed too close...that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed even...

2012-01-01

315

32 CFR 770.42 - Background.  

...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

2014-07-01

316

32 CFR 770.42 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

2011-07-01

317

32 CFR 770.17 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

2011-07-01

318

32 CFR 770.17 - Background.  

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

2014-07-01

319

32 CFR 770.42 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

2012-07-01

320

32 CFR 770.17 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

2013-07-01

321

32 CFR 770.17 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

2012-07-01

322

32 CFR 770.42 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

2013-07-01

323

High-energy radiation background in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation environment of near-earth space and its effects on biological and hardware systems are examined in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to particle interactions and propagation, data bases, instrument background and dosimetry, detectors and experimental progress, biological effects, and future needs and strategies. Particular attention is given to angular distributions and spectra of geomagnetically trapped protons in LEO, bremsstrahlung production by electrons, nucleon-interaction data bases for background estimates, instrumental and atmospheric background lines observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, the GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica, space protons and brain tumors, a new radioprotective antioxidative agent, LEO radiation measurements on the Space Station, and particle-background effects on the Hubble Space Telescope and the Lyman FUV Spectroscopic Explorer.

Rester, A. C., Jr. (editor); Trombka, J. I. (editor)

1989-01-01

324

Counseling Battered Women from Fundamentalist Christian Backgrounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines biblical issues (spouse roles, separation and divorce, forgiveness, faith) that are of concern to battered women from fundamentalist Christian backgrounds. Offers counselors suggestions on how to address them. (Author/ABL)

Whipple, Vicky

1988-01-01

325

28 CFR 23.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking, trafficking in stolen property, gambling, extortion, smuggling, bribery, and corruption of public officials often...

2010-07-01

326

28 CFR 23.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking, trafficking in stolen property, gambling, extortion, smuggling, bribery, and corruption of public officials often...

2013-07-01

327

28 CFR 23.2 - Background.  

...Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking, trafficking in stolen property, gambling, extortion, smuggling, bribery, and corruption of public officials often...

2014-07-01

328

28 CFR 23.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking, trafficking in stolen property, gambling, extortion, smuggling, bribery, and corruption of public officials often...

2012-07-01

329

28 CFR 23.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking, trafficking in stolen property, gambling, extortion, smuggling, bribery, and corruption of public officials often...

2011-07-01

330

36 CFR 401.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01... 401.3 Section 401.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE... 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals,...

2010-07-01

331

Target and background simulation for seeker scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements of several target and background situations for a specific target projector system are examined to determine how to present the proper output to the system under test. Consideration is given to both a uniform cold (high altitude) background and a warmer (low altitude) varying background. Target requirements took into account high and low altitude, single or multiple angles, exhaust plumes, and possible countermeasures. It is recommended that a separate, special purpose simulator based on a single mirror for uniform cold backgrounds should be built for limited but important situations. A surface that provides radiation only by reflection using a very cold radiator is proposed for radiative transfer. The very cold radiator contributes only a designed amount of radiation controlled by baffling.

Turner, Mary G.; Wolfe, William L.

332

14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

2010-01-01

333

14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

2013-01-01

334

14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

2012-01-01

335

14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

2011-01-01

336

14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.  

...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

2014-01-01

337

36 CFR 401.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental...service of American Armed Forces that participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were...

2012-07-01

338

36 CFR 401.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental...service of American Armed Forces that participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were...

2011-07-01

339

36 CFR 401.3 - Background.  

...MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental...service of American Armed Forces that participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were...

2014-07-01

340

36 CFR 401.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental...service of American Armed Forces that participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were...

2013-07-01

341

New directions in Background Independent Quantum Gravity  

E-print Network

We discuss the meaning of background independence in quantum theories of gravity where geometry and gravity are emergent and illustrate the possibilities using the framework of quantum causal histories.

Fotini Markopoulou

2007-03-20

342

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2013-07-01

343

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2010-07-01

344

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2014-01-01

345

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2012-01-01

346

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2011-01-01

347

Darkling Beetle Life Cycle Key Background  

E-print Network

Darkling Beetle Life Cycle Key Background: Metamorphosis is a process the juvenile stage to the adult stage. The Darkling Beetle (Tenebrio molitor) undergoes a complete, or holometabolous, metamorphosis. Adult beetles reproduce sexually and lay

Rose, Michael R.

348

32 CFR 770.42 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

2010-07-01

349

32 CFR 770.17 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

2010-07-01

350

Background Reading: Ethical Perspectives and Theories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides short background reading describing values, morals, and ethics, as well as these perspectives: Moral Rules and Duties, Outcomes, Virtues, Principles, and Care/Feminist.

2008-01-01

351

47 CFR 201.0 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

2010-10-01

352

25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 556.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GAMING LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR...management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation. (a) A tribe shall...

2010-04-01

353

25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 556.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GAMING LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR...management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation. (a) A tribe shall...

2011-04-01

354

25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 556.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GAMING LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR...management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation. (a) A tribe shall...

2012-04-01

355

23 CFR 777.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT 777.3 Background...1977 Comp., p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A, 1 Preservation of the Nation's Wetlands, emphasize the important...

2013-04-01

356

23 CFR 777.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT 777.3 Background...1977 Comp., p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A, 1 Preservation of the Nation's Wetlands, emphasize the important...

2010-04-01

357

23 CFR 777.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT 777.3 Background...1977 Comp., p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A, 1 Preservation of the Nation's Wetlands, emphasize the important...

2012-04-01

358

23 CFR 777.3 - Background.  

...ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT 777.3 Background...1977 Comp., p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A, 1 Preservation of the Nation's Wetlands, emphasize the important...

2014-04-01

359

23 CFR 777.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT 777.3 Background...1977 Comp., p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A, 1 Preservation of the Nation's Wetlands, emphasize the important...

2011-04-01

360

Complex Visibilities of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies  

E-print Network

We study the complex visibilities of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies that are observables in interferometric observations of the cosmic microwave background, using the multipole expansion methods commonly adopted in analyzing single-dish experiments. This allows us to recover the properties of the visibilities that is obscured in the flat-sky approximation. Discussions of the window function, multipole resolution, instrumental noise, pixelization, and polarization are given.

Kin-Wang Ng

2000-09-18

361

The pregalactic cosmic gravitational wave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution. The spectral region of cosmically generated and cosmically limited radiation is, at long periods, P greater than 1 year, in contrast to more recent cosmological sources, which have P approx. 10 to 10(exp -3).

Matzner, Richard A.

1989-01-01

362

Gravitational wave background from binary systems  

SciTech Connect

Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter {Omega}(f), commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, {Omega}(f) is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the frequencies of all existing and planned detectors. A semi-analytical formula for {Omega}(f) is derived in the case of stellar binaries (containing white dwarfs, neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes). Besides a realistic expectation of the level of background, upper and lower limits are given, to account for the uncertainties in some astrophysical parameters such as binary coalescence rates. One interesting result concerns all current and planned ground-based detectors (including the Einstein Telescope). In their frequency range, the background of binaries is resolvable and only sporadically present. In other words, there is no stochastic background of binaries for ground-based detectors.

Rosado, Pablo A. [Albert Einstein Institute, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2011-10-15

363

Inflation and the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a pedagogical review of inflation and the cosmic microwave background. I describe how a short period of accelerated expansion can replace the special initial conditions of the standard big bang model. I also describe the development of CMBology: the study of the cosmic microwave background. This cool (3 K) new cosmological tool is an increasingly precise rival and complement to many other methods in the race to determine the parameters of the Universe: its age, size, composition and detailed evolution.

Lineweaver, Charles H.

2005-06-01

364

Sources of the Radio Background Considered  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate different scenarios for the origin of the extragalactic radio\\u000abackground. The surface brightness of the background, as reported by the ARCADE\\u000a2 collaboration, is several times higher than that which would result from\\u000acurrently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background\\u000afrom diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium,\\u000apreviously unrecognized flux from low

J. Singal; L. Stawarz; A. Lawrence; V. Petrosian

2009-01-01

365

Background fitting of Fermi GBM observations  

E-print Network

The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) detects gamma-rays in the energy range 8 keV - 40 MeV. We developed a new background fitting process of these data, based on the motion of the satellite. Here we summarize this method, called Direction Dependent Background Fitting (DDBF), regarding the GBM triggered catalog. We also give some preliminary results and compare the duration parameters with the 2-years Fermi Burst Catalog.

Szcsi, Dorottya; Kbori, Jzsef; Balzs, Lajos G; Horvth, Istvn

2013-01-01

366

Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise  

PubMed Central

It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity. PMID:25426029

Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.; Xiao, Zhongju

2014-01-01

367

Numerical scene simulation for cloudy atmospheric background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for cloud scene simulation are analyzed and studied based on the properties of real cloud edge and distribution of the atmospheric background radiance. A new method is proposed to simulate cloud scene by means of the fractal geometry algorithm after effects of clouds on the atmospheric background radiation are analyzed. Firstly, spectral radiance of cloudless and cloudy atmospheric background is respectively calculated according to the radiative transfer theory. Secondly, a simulation method for cloud edge is developed based on the improved random generator after studying the properties of real cloud edge and self-similar character of the fractal principle. Finally, an algorithm implemented to create cloud texture is designed by employing the radiance distribution of cloudy atmospheric background, quadric random method and Diamond-Square interpolation. All 2-D atmospheric background radiance within given view filed has been computed with the mixed modified delta-Eddington approximation method. Some numerical scenes for cloudy atmospheric background are triumphantly simulated with the radiative transfer theory and the fractal geometry algorithm.

Yang, Chunping; Zhang, Yan; Kang, Meilin; Guo, Jing; Wu, Jian

2009-10-01

368

Simbol-X background simulation activities  

E-print Network

Using the Geant4 toolkit, a Monte-Carlo code to simulate the detector background of the Simbol-X focal plane instrument has been developed with the aim to optimize the design of the instrument. Structural design models of the mirror and detector satellites have been built and used as baseline for our simulations, to evaluate the different background contributions that must be taken into account to determine the sensitivity of the Simbol-X detectors. We work towards a simulation based background and mass model which can be used before and during the mission. For different material compositions, material thicknesses, locations etc. the response of the instrument to the diffuse cosmic hard X-ray background and to the cosmic proton induced background have been calculated. As a result we present estimates of the background count rate expected in the low and high energy detector, and anti-coincidence rates. The effect of induced radioactivity in the detector and shielding materials and soft proton scattering in the mirror shells are also under study.

R. Chipaux; U. Briel; A. Bulgarelli; L. Foschini; E. Kendziorra; C. Klose; M. Kuster; P. Laurent; C. Tenzer

2008-02-26

369

Background Assay and Rejection in DRIFT  

E-print Network

The DRIFT-IId dark matter detector is a m$^3$-scale low-pressure TPC with directional sensitivity to WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. Its primary backgrounds were due to alpha decays from contamination on the central cathode. Efforts to reduce these backgrounds led to replacing the 20 \\mu m wire central cathode with one constructed from 0.9 \\mu m aluminized mylar, which is almost totally transparent to alpha particles. Detailed modeling of the nature and origin of the remaining backgrounds led to an in-situ, ppt-sensitive assay of alpha decay backgrounds from the central cathode. This led to further improvements in the thin-film cathode resulting in over 2 orders of magnitude reduction in backgrounds compared to the wire cathode. Finally, the addition of O$_2$ to CS$_2$ gas was found to produce multiple species of electronegative charge carriers, providing a method to determine the absolute position of nuclear recoils and reject all known remaining backgrounds while retaining a high efficiency for nuclear recoil detection.

Jeff Brack; Ed Daw; Alexei Dorofeev; Anthony Ezeribe; Jean-Luc Gauvreau; Michael Gold; John Harton; Randy Lafler; Robert Lauer; Eric R. Lee; Dinesh Loomba; John Matthews; Eric H. Miller; Alissa Monte; Alex Murphy; Sean Paling; Nguyen Phan; Steve Sadler; Andrew Scarff; Daniel Snowden-Ifft; Neil Spooner; Sam Telfer; Daniel Walker; Matt Williams; Leonid Yuriev

2014-04-08

370

Motion influences the perception of background lightness  

PubMed Central

Uniform backgrounds appear lighter or darker when elements containing luminance gradients move across them, a phenomenon first presented by Ko Nakamura at the 2010 Illusion Contest in Japan. We measured the apparent lightness of the background with a configuration where the grey background was overlaid with moving square patches of vertically oriented luminance gradient. For black-to-grey gradients, the background appeared lighter when the black edges were leading than when they were trailing. For white-to-grey gradients, the background appeared darker when the white edges were leading than when they were trailing. For white-to-black gradients, the background appeared darker with a white edge leading and lighter with a dark edge leading, but the effects were weaker. These results demonstrate that lightness contrast can be modulated by the direction of motion of the inducing patterns. The smooth gradient is essential, because the effect disappeared when the black-to-white gradient was replaced with the binary black and white pattern. We speculate that asymmetry in the processing of a temporal gradient with increasing and decreasing contrast, as proposed to explain the Rotating Snakes illusion (Murakami, Kitaoka, & Ashida, 2006, Vision Research, 46, 24212431), might be the basis for this effect. PMID:25165515

Ashida, Hiroshi; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.

2014-01-01

371

Clinical research before informed consent.  

PubMed

Clinical research with patient-subjects was routinely conducted without informed consent for research participation prior to 1966. The aim of this article is to illuminate the moral climate of clinical research at this time, with particular attention to placebo-controlled trials in which patient-subjects often were not informed that they were participating in research or that they might receive a placebo intervention rather than standard medical treatment or an experimental treatment for their condition. An especially valuable window into the thinking of clinical investigators about their relationship with patient-subjects in the era before informed consent is afforded by reflection on two articles published by psychiatric researchers in 1966 and 1967, at the point of transition between clinical research conducted under the guise of medical care and clinical research based on consent following an invitation to participate and disclosure of material information about the study. Historical inquiry relating to the practice of clinical research without informed consent helps to put into perspective the moral progress associated with soliciting consent following disclosure of pertinent information; it also helps to shed light on an important issue in contemporary research ethics: the conditions under which it is ethical to conduct clinical research without informed consent. PMID:25109093

Miller, Franklin G

2014-06-01

372

The Ethical Role of Information in Sustainable Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of sustainable communities, or sustainable development, focuses on the ethical role of information in fostering sustainable environmental development. Topics include background information, developments in information technology, permaculture in the area of horticulture and information ethics, information ethics models, hardware

Lockway, Larry

1995-01-01

373

THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT  

SciTech Connect

The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Suzuki, K., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

2013-08-15

374

Geochemical background--concept and reality.  

PubMed

The definitions and use of the term 'background' in exploration and environmental geochemistry are reviewed. Based on data from two subcontinental-scale geochemical mapping projects, it is shown that trying to define 'a background' for a large area is fraught with problems. It is demonstrated that background may change from area to area within a region and between regions. Although global averages are of general use, no specific global background levels of elements, for example in soils, can be defined, at best regional or local operational estimates can be made, though with caveats. Using background estimates based on concentrations in deeper soil levels to judge element concentrations in upper soil horizons (e.g., the TOP/BOT-ratio) can lead to severe misinterpretations if natural biogeochemical soil formation processes are ignored. Because of large natural variations in element concentrations in, for example soils, even the establishment of maximum admissible concentration based on ecotoxicological investigations is a difficult exercise. Organisms may become adapted to natural differences. Furthermore, there are challenges in converting the concentrations of the soluble substances used in ecotoxicological studies to appropriate levels in solid phase material, for example soils, analysed by commonly employed acid digestion procedures. Toxicological thresholds may thus also need to consider a spatial component that is presently neglected. PMID:15890388

Reimann, Clemens; Garrett, Robert G

2005-11-01

375

A review on natural background radiation  

PubMed Central

The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly 232Th and 238U series, and their decay products, as well as 40K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

2013-01-01

376

The Background Field Approximation in (quantum) cosmology  

E-print Network

We analyze the Hamilton-Jacobi action of gravity and matter in the limit where gravity is treated at the background field approximation. The motivation is to clarify when and how the solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation lead to the Schr\\"odinger equation in a given background. To this end, we determine when and how the total action, solution of the constraint equations of General Relativity, leads to the HJ action for matter in a given background. This is achieved by comparing two neighboring solutions differing slightly in their matter energy content. To first order in the change of the 3-geometries, the change of the gravitational action equals the integral of the matter energy evaluated in the background geometry. Higher order terms are governed by the ``susceptibility'' of the geometry. These classical properties also apply to quantum cosmology since the conditions which legitimize the use of WKB gravitational waves are concomitant with those governing the validity of the background field approximation.

R. Parentani

1998-03-12

377

Optical and infrared backgrounds from the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sum total of the energy released by the earliest era of star formation should show up today within the diffuse extragalactic background light (EBL), its signature peaking in the near-infrared. There is considerable controversy over estimates of the average EBL per steradian at optical and infrared wavelengths, over measurements of background fluctuations, and over the interpretation of the measurements. Resolving this controversy is important because the EBL constrains the history of galaxy evolution. The fluctuations and their colors may also contain important information about Population III stars and the earliest era of star formation. We compare number counts from recent galaxy surveys, correcting for their differing passbands. With some assumptions about galaxy sizes and surface-brightness profiles, we account for the light missed in standard photometric estimates, integrating the resulting corrected counts to estimate the total EBL due to resolved galaxies as well as undetected galaxies. We then present an analysis of background fluctuations in observations of the HUDF, the GOODS field, and the CANDELS fields obtained with WFC3. The fluctuation signal provides a constraint on the slope of galaxy counts fainter than the levels of individual detection, as well as their typical angular sizes. The color dependence of the fluctuations provides a constraint on the redshift distribution of these very faint sources. The spatial and spectral information from these anisotropies, even in their non-detection, provide valuable information about the era of reionization, when the first stars and galaxies formed. Via various analysis tools such as power spectra and P(D) fitting, best-fit models to faint sources can be obtained.

Dolch, Timothy

378

Background error covariance estimation for atmospheric CO2 data assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

any data assimilation framework, the background error covariance statistics play the critical role of filtering the observed information and determining the quality of the analysis. For atmospheric CO2 data assimilation, however, the background errors cannot be prescribed via traditional forecast or ensemble-based techniques as these fail to account for the uncertainties in the carbon emissions and uptake, or for the errors associated with the CO2 transport model. We propose an approach where the differences between two modeled CO2 concentration fields, based on different but plausible CO2 flux distributions and atmospheric transport models, are used as a proxy for the statistics of the background errors. The resulting error statistics: (1) vary regionally and seasonally to better capture the uncertainty in the background CO2 field, and (2) have a positive impact on the analysis estimates by allowing observations to adjust predictions over large areas. A state-of-the-art four-dimensional variational (4D-VAR) system developed at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is used to illustrate the impact of the proposed approach for characterizing background error statistics on atmospheric CO2 concentration estimates. Observations from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite "IBUKI" (GOSAT) are assimilated into the ECMWF 4D-VAR system along with meteorological variables, using both the new error statistics and those based on a traditional forecast-based technique. Evaluation of the four-dimensional CO2 fields against independent CO2 observations confirms that the performance of the data assimilation system improves substantially in the summer, when significant variability and uncertainty in the fluxes are present.

Chatterjee, Abhishek; Engelen, Richard J.; Kawa, Stephan R.; Sweeney, Colm; Michalak, Anna M.

2013-09-01

379

Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background: Are These Guys Serious?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) could contain the oldest information in the universe, dating from an inflationary epoch just after the Big Bang. Detecting this signal presents an experimental challenge, as it is both faint and hidden behind complicated foregrounds. The rewards, however, are great, as a positive detection would not only establish inflation as a physical reality but also provide a model-independent measurement of the relevant energy scale. I will present the scientific motivation behind measurements of the CMB polarization and discuss how recent experimental progress could lead to a detection in the not-very-distant future.

Kogut, Alan

2007-01-01

380

Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator  

E-print Network

The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

Cuesta, C; Aguayo, E; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Combs, D C; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fast, J E; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guiseppe, V E; Gusev, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Hegai, A; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; MacMullin, J; MacMullin, S; Martin, R D; Meijer, S; Mertens, S; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Phillips, D G; Poon, A W P; Pushkin, K; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Ronquest, M C; Schubert, A G; Shanks, B; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Thompson, J; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Young, A R; Yu, C H; Yumatov, V

2014-01-01

381

Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator  

E-print Network

The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

C. Cuesta; N. Abgrall; E. Aguayo; F. T. Avignone III; A. S. Barabash; F. E. Bertrand; M. Boswell; V. Brudanin; M. Busch; D. Byram; A. S. Caldwell; Y-D. Chan; C. D. Christofferson; D. C. Combs; C. Cuesta; J. A. Detwiler; P. J. Doe; Yu. Efremenko; V. Egorov; H. Ejiri; S. R. Elliott; J. E. Fast; P. Finnerty; F. M. Fraenkle; A. Galindo-Uribarri; G. K. Giovanetti; J. Goett; M. P. Green; J. Gruszko; V. E. Guiseppe; K. Gusev; A. L. Hallin; R. Hazama; A. Hegai; R. Henning; E. W. Hoppe; S. Howard; M. A. Howe; K. J. Keeter; M. F. Kidd; O. Kochetov; S. I. Konovalov; R. T. Kouzes; B. D. LaFerriere; J. Leon; L. E. Leviner; J. C. Loach; J. MacMullin; S. MacMullin; R. D. Martin; S. Meijer; S. Mertens; M. Nomachi; J. L. Orrell; C. O'Shaughnessy; N. R. Overman; D. G. Phillips II; A. W. P. Poon; K. Pushkin; D. C. Radford; J. Rager; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; E. Romero-Romero; M. C. Ronquest; A. G. Schubert; B. Shanks; T. Shima; M. Shirchenko; K. J. Snavely; N. Snyder; A. M. Suriano; J. Thompson; V. Timkin; W. Tornow; J. E. Trimble; R. L. Varner; S. Vasilyev; K. Vetter; K. Vorren; B. R. White; J. F. Wilkerson; C. Wiseman; W. Xu; E. Yakushev; A. R. Young; C. H. Yu; V. Yumatov

2014-05-06

382

Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background  

E-print Network

The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects, between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background is investigated, by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density there is focusing and subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed.

Mattias Marklund; Gert Brodin; Lennart Stenflo

2003-10-17

383

Low-background direct readout array performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation of an integrated array of antimony-doped silicon detectors is described. The spectral range of extrinsic silicon-integrated arrays useful for low-background IR astronomical applications is extended to about 31 microns with this development. The 58 x 62-element array is accessed by a direct readout multiplexer. The device is evaluated with a flexible microcomputer-based drive and readout electronics system in a low-background test dewar. Acceptance testing indicates single-pixel NEPs in the mid-10 to the -18th W/sq rt Hz range, and good global uniformity statistics.

Goebel, J. H.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Mccreight, C. R.; Anderson, G. M.

1986-01-01

384

Sideband mixing in intense laser backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron propagator in a laser background has been shown to be made up of a series of sideband poles. In this paper we study this decomposition by analysing the impact on the sidebands of the residual gauge freedom in the Volkov solution. We show that these gauge transformations do not alter the location of the poles although the wave function renormalisation is gauge dependent. Our identification of the propagator from the diagonal part of the two-point function in the laser background is maintained but we show that the sideband structures mix under residual gauge transformations.

Lavelle, Martin; McMullan, David

2014-12-01

385

Tachyon Backgrounds in 2D String Theory  

E-print Network

We consider the construction of tachyonic backgrounds in two-dimensional string theory, focusing on the Sine-Liouville background. This can be studied in two different ways, one within the context of collective field theory and the other via the formalism of Toda integrable systems. The two approaches are seemingly different. The latter involves a deformation of the original inverted oscillator potential while the former does not. We perform a comparison by explicitly constructing the Fermi surface in each case, and demonstrate that the two apparently different approaches are in fact equivalent.

Sera Cremonini

2005-07-25

386

Granularity of the Diffuse Background Observed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

First results are reported from a program for measuring the field-to-field fluctuation level of the cosmic diffuse background by using differences between the two background positions of each deep exposure with the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE) instrument on the Remote X Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). With 8 million live seconds accumulated to date a fluctuation level on the 15-25 keV band is observed which is consistent with extrapolations from the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory-1 (HEAO-1) measurements. Positive results are expected eventually at higher energies. Models of (active galactic nuclei) AGN origin will eventually be constrained by this program.

Gruber, D. E.; MacDonald, D.; Rothschild, R. E.; Boldt, E.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Fabian, A. C.

1995-01-01

387

Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is argued that the 'surface of last scattering' of the observed microwave background radiation corresponds to the distribution of dust in galaxies or protogalaxies with a temperature of about 110 K at the epoch corresponding to Z roughly equal to 40. This is in contrast with the plasma temperature of over 3,000 K at an earlier epoch (Z greater than about 1,000), as given by the canonical model of big bang cosmologies. In view of this, the claim that the microwave background radiation lends strong support to hot big bang cosmologies is without foundation.

Alfven, H.; Mendis, A.

1977-01-01

388

Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

1988-01-01

389

Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

1992-01-01

390

Possible manifestations of the graviton background  

E-print Network

Possible effects are considered which would be caused by a hypothetical superstrong interaction of photons or massive bodies with single gravitons of the graviton background. If full cosmological redshift magnitudes are caused by the interaction, then the luminosity distance in a flat non-expanding universe as a function of redshift is very similar to the specific function which fits supernova cosmology data by Riess et al. From another side, in this case every massive body, slowly moving relatively to the background, would experience a constant acceleration, proportional to the Hubble constant, of the same order as a small additional acceleration of Pioneer 10, 11.

Michael A. Ivanov

2002-06-06

391

A calculated background correction method for XRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A special type of glass discsprepared of sodium tetraborate with varying concentrations of only one elementare used for the calibration of XRF spectrometers. The same glass discs are used for the determination of background influence coefficients F i,j which makes it possible to calculate the background signal in the unknown samples concerning the analyte ( i) when only the characteristic radiation from the interfering elements ( j) are measured together with the i-signal on a blank disc of pure sodium tetraborate. The determination of strontium is used as an example.

Srensen, Ib

392

Massive Gravity in Ads and Minkowski Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review some interesting features of massive gravity in two maximally symmetric backgrounds: Anti de Sitter space and Minkowski space. While massive gravity in AdS can be seen as a spontaneously broken, UV safe theory, no such interpretation exists yet in the flat-space case. Here, I point out the problems encountered in trying to find such completion, and possible mechanisms

M. Porrati

2004-01-01

393

Koenderink filters and the Microwave Background  

E-print Network

We introduce Koenderink filters as novel tools for statistical cosmology. Amongst several promising applications, they provide a test for the Gaussianity of random fields. We focus on this application and present some preliminary results from an analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB).

Schmalzing, J

1997-01-01

394

WMAP: Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site discusses the cosmic microwave background, radiation left over from the Big Bang. Particular emphasis is upon tiny fluctuations in the temperature of the radiation, which are believed to reflect fluctuations in the density of matter in the early universe.

395

MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND 2.1 Geometry  

E-print Network

12 Chapter 2 MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND 2.1 Geometry The formalization of geometry began valuable presenta- tions of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry are given by Bonola [14], Coxeter [25 of geometry to a minimal number of required assumptions from which all other true statements may be derived

Waterloo, University of

396

Family Background, Ethnicity, and Urban Delinquency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a pilot study of about 400 public high school students in Chicago, four innovative approaches are employed to deal with previous research problems arising from the study of juvenile delinquency: specific, proximal measures of social background, multiple indexes of delinquency, anonymous self-reports of delinquency incidence, and parametric

Walberg, Herbert J.; And Others

1974-01-01

397

COMMUNITY FOREST MANAGEMENT Background Paper for  

E-print Network

1 COMMUNITY FOREST MANAGEMENT Background Paper for: The United Nations Forum on Forests Secretariat UNFF9: "Forests for People, Livelihoods and Poverty Eradication" Prepared by: Thida Sam, Research-based forest management, to facilitate discussion at the ninth session of the United Nations Forum on Forests

398

Tuberculosis Exposure Control 1.0 BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

1 Tuberculosis Exposure Control 1.0 BACKGROUND Since 1985, the rate of new cases of tuberculosis, more than 26,000 new cases of active tuberculosis were reported in the US. In New York City alone, 3,700 cases of active tuberculosis were reported in 1991. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease that causes

de Lijser, Peter

399

Carbon Management and Implementation Plan 1. Background  

E-print Network

Carbon Management and Implementation Plan 1. Background Energy security and the increasing their part in this and set a carbon target to deliver a 43% reduction in carbon emissions on 2005 levels to the College if it meets the requirements of CIF2 of which delivering carbon reductions through a carbon

Chittka, Lars

400

String propagation in gravitational wave backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Conformal Field Theory of the current algebra of the centrally extended 2-d Euclidean group is analyzed. Its representations can be written in terms of four free fields (without background charge) with signature (-+++). We construct all irreducible representations of the current algebra with unitary base out of the free fields and their orbifolds. This is used to investigate the

Elias Kiritsis; Costas Kounnas

1994-01-01

401

Gravitational Wave Background from Phantom Superinflation  

E-print Network

Recently, the early superinflation driven by phantom field has been proposed and studied. The detection of primordial gravitational wave is an important means to know the state of very early universe. In this brief report we discuss in detail the gravitational wave background excited during the phantom superinflation.

Yun-Song Piao

2006-01-27

402

Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204

Tiruneh, Gizachew

2013-01-01

403

Background Modeling and Subtraction of Dynamic Scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background modeling and subtraction is a core compo- nent in motion analysis. The central idea behind such mod- ule is to create a probabilistic representation of the static scene that is compared with the current input to perform subtraction. Such approach is efficient when the scene to be modeled refers to a static structure with limited perturba- tion. In this

Antoine Monnet; Anurag Mittal; Nikos Paragios; Visvanathan Ramesh

2003-01-01

404

ESTIMATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples from hazardous waste site investigations frequently come from two or more statistical populations. Assessment of "background" levels of contaminants can be a significant problem. This problem is being investigated at the US EPA's EMSL in Las Vegas. This paper describes a ...

405

Sobolev Spaces Autumn 2014 Background Lebesgue Measure.  

E-print Network

Sobolev Spaces ­ Autumn 2014 ­ Background Lebesgue Measure. An interval (rectangle) N n=1(an, bn) in RN has volume N n=1(bn - an). S RN has zero Lebesgue measure if, for every > 0, S can be covered by a countable collection of rectangles of total volume less than . The Lebesgue measurable sets in RN

Sivaloganathan, J.

406

Sobolev Spaces Autumn 2008 Background Lebesgue Measure.  

E-print Network

Sobolev Spaces ­ Autumn 2008 ­ Background Lebesgue Measure. An interval (rectangle) N n=1(an, bn) in RN has volume N n=1(bn - an). S RN has zero Lebesgue measure if, for every > 0, S can be covered by a countable collection of rectangles of total volume less than . The Lebesgue measurable sets in RN

Burton, Geoffrey R.

407

Adaptive Background Defogging with Foreground Decremental Preconditioned  

E-print Network

, 9] proposed the state-of-the-art dark channel prior for es- timating image transmissions which of the further higher level video analysis. Image haze/fog removal techniques have been researched for more than of vision-based analysis such as foreground/background segmen- tation. However, haze/fog removal has never

Wong, Kenneth K.Y.

408

BIMA observations of possible microwave background sources  

E-print Network

We present sensitive upper limits on the 90 GHz flux of known radio and infrared sources in regions associated with possible cosmic microwave background fluctuations at 0.5--1 degree scales. Specifically we look at the MAX GUM region and the region of strongest fluctuation in the MSAM scan. None of the known sources can account for the levels of anisotropy seen.

Lawrence M. Chernin; Douglas Scott

1994-08-05

409

2013 National Geothermal Student Competition Background  

E-print Network

1 2013 National Geothermal Student Competition Background: The 2013 National Geothermal Student, is designed to advance the understanding of geothermal energy as a valued resource by promoting innovation to engage students in a collaborative exercise to develop a business plan for developing a geothermal

Carrington, Emily

410

Background estimation in nonlinear image restoration  

E-print Network

Background estimation in nonlinear image restoration Geert M. P. van Kempen Central Analytical August 23, 1999; accepted November 8, 1999 One of the essential ways in which nonlinear image restoration algorithms differ from linear, convolution-type image restoration filters is their capability to restrict

van Vliet, Lucas J.

411

THE TEMPERATURE OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer data are independently recalibrated using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data to obtain a cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature of 2.7260 +- 0.0013. Measurements of the temperature of the CMB are reviewed. The determination from the measurements from the literature is CMB temperature of 2.72548 +- 0.00057 K.

Fixsen, D. J. [University of Maryland, Goddard Space Flight Center, MD (United States)

2009-12-20

412

20 CFR 410.700 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review...Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977 broadens...

2010-04-01

413

20 CFR 410.700 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review...Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977 broadens...

2011-04-01

414

Realtime background subtraction from dynamic scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problem of moving object detection. More precisely, it addresses the difficult scenarios where background scene textures in the video might change over time. In this paper, we formulate the problem mathematically as minimizing a constrained risk functional motivated from the large margin principle. It is a generalization of the one class support vector machines (1-SVMs) to

Li Cheng; Minglun Gong

2009-01-01

415

Background Material Important Questions about Magnetism  

E-print Network

Background Material Important Questions about Magnetism: 1) What is Magnetism?Magnetism is a force or repulsion due to charge is called the electric force. But what about magnetism, is there a fundamental property of some matter that makes things magnetic? The answer is: "sort of." Electric current

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

416

28 CFR 25.3 - System information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...information. 25.3 Section 25.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System 25.3 System information. (a) There is...

2010-07-01

417

Reference Work--Background and Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The friends and colleagues of Clarissa Gadiel used this publication which deals with problems which were close to her heart and to which she gave much thought as of means of perpetuating her memory. The publication includes the following papers: "Information Education at the Grassroots," by Hans Wellisch; "Reference Work in Library and Information

Israel Society of Special Libraries and Information Centres, Tel Aviv.

418

Reusing Ontological Background Knowledge in Semantic Wikis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of approaches have been developed for combining wikis with semantic technologies. Many semantic wikis focus on enabling users to specify properties and relationships of individual elements. Complex schema in- formation is typically not edited by the wiki user. Nevertheless, semantic wikis could benefit from taking existing schema information into account, and to allow users to specify additional information

Denny Vrandecic; Markus Krtzsch

2006-01-01

419

Backgrounder Applied Research and Commercialization Initiative  

E-print Network

pressure that are affecting a large population in North America and the world. More information of companies with manufacturing presence in North America, Europe and Asia, manufactures components for wear and sustainable growth. More information is available at http://www.stellite.com/ #12;2 Endetec Endetec

Ellis, Randy

420

Medical information retrieval and WWW browsers at Mayo.  

PubMed Central

Medical information retrieval from "Master Sheet" entries specially indexed for research retrieval has been part of the Mayo culture since 1909. Providing easy to use and universally available WWW access to these and other patient information databases at Mayo via browsers, shines a bright light on issues of privacy and confidentiality, user authentication, need to know, data transmission security, and technical details of interfacing disparate databases on a spectrum of platforms to many types of workstations using a variety of browsers. We review our recent experience, and generalize pertinent issues. PMID:8563423

Chute, C. G.; Crowson, D. L.; Buntrock, J. D.

1995-01-01

421

Information Structures and Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how undergraduates seek information across various information structures. Taking part in an interview, fifteen students of diverse backgrounds described their information seeking. The findings pointed to several issues relating to the underlying structures of information resources. Suggestions are made for structural

Lee, Hur-Li

2008-01-01

422

Projects to expand fuel sources in Eastern states: An update of Information Circular 8725. Survey of Planned or proposed coal mines, coal and noncoal conversion plants, electric generating plants, oil refineries, uranium enrichment facilities, and related infrastructure, in states east of the Mississippi River (as of July 1977)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tables listing the name, location and other pertinent data concerning certain fuel-related projects are presented. Information on projects involving the proposed or planned development of fuel resources, as well as the development of storage, transportation, and conversion facilities is included. Of the total 535 projects for which information is provided, 429 concern coal mines and electric generating plants. Bibtex entry

D. C. Benson; F. J. Doyle

1978-01-01

423

Supersymmetric Backgrounds and Generalised Special Holonomy  

E-print Network

We define intrinsic torsion in generalised geometry and use it to introduce a new notion of generalised special holonomy. We then consider generic warped supersymmetric flux compactifications of M theory and Type II of the form $\\mathbb{R}^{D-1,1}\\times M$. Using the language of $E_{d(d)}\\times\\mathbb{R}^+$ generalised geometry, we show that, for $D\\geq 4$, preserving minimal supersymmetry is equivalent to the manifold $M$ having generalised special holonomy and list the relevant holonomy groups. We conjecture that this result extends to backgrounds preserving any number of supersymmetries. As a prime example, we consider $\\mathcal{N}=1$ in $D=4$. The corresponding generalised special holonomy group is $SU(7)$, giving the natural M theory extension to the notion of a $G_2$ manifold, and, for Type II backgrounds, reformulating the pure spinor $SU(3)\\times SU(3)$ conditions as an integrable structure.

Coimbra, Andr; Waldram, Daniel

2014-01-01

424

Measuring anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrino capture on tritium has emerged as a promising method for detecting the cosmic neutrino background (C ? B ). We show that relic neutrinos are captured most readily when their spin vectors are antialigned with the polarization axis of the tritium nuclei and when they approach along the direction of polarization. As a result, C ? B observatories may measure anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino velocity and spin distributions by polarizing the tritium targets. A small dipole anisotropy in the C ? B is expected due to the peculiar velocity of the lab frame with respect to the cosmic frame and due to late-time gravitational effects. The PTOLEMY experiment, a tritium observatory currently under construction, should observe a nearly isotropic background. This would serve as a strong test of the cosmological origin of a potential signal. The polarized-target measurements may also constrain nonstandard neutrino interactions that would induce larger anisotropies and help discriminate between Majorana versus Dirac neutrinos.

Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Tully, Christopher G.

2014-10-01

425

Polarization Observations with the Cosmic Background Imager  

E-print Network

Polarization observations of the cosmic microwave background with the Cosmic Background Imager from September 2002 to May 2004 provide a significant detection of the E-mode polarization and reveal an angular power spectrum of polarized emission showing peaks and valleys that are shifted in phase by half a cycle relative to those of the total intensity spectrum. This key agreement between the phase of the observed polarization spectrum and that predicted based on the total intensity spectrum provides support for the standard model of cosmology, in which dark matter and dark energy are the dominant constituents, the geometry is close to flat, and primordial density fluctuations are predominantly adiabatic with a matter power spectrum commensurate with inflationary cosmological models.

A. C. S. Readhead; S. T. Myers; T. J. Pearson; J. L. Sievers; B. S. Mason; C. R. Contaldi; J. R. Bond; R. Bustos; P. Altamirano; C. Achermann; L. Bronfman; J. E. Carlstrom; J. K. Cartwright; S. Casassus; C. Dickinson; W. L. Holzapfel; J. M. Kovac; E. M. Leitch; J. May; S. Padin; D. Pogosyan; M. Pospieszalski; C. Pryke; R. Reeves; M. C. Shepherd; S. Torres

2004-09-23

426

Blackfolds in (anti)-de Sitter backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We construct different neutral blackfold solutions in Anti-de Sitter and de Sitter background spacetimes in the limit where the cosmological constant is taken to be much smaller than the horizon size. This includes a class of blackfolds with horizons that are products of odd-spheres times a transverse sphere, for which the thermodynamic stability is also studied. Moreover, we exhibit a specific case in which the same blackfold solution can describe different limiting black hole spacetimes therefore illustrating the geometric character of the blackfold approach. Furthermore, we show that the higher-dimensional Kerr-(Anti)-de Sitter black hole allows for ultraspinning regimes in the same limit under consideration and demonstrate that this is correctly described by a pancaked blackfold geometry. We also give evidence for the possibility of saturating the rigidity theorem in these backgrounds.

Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A. [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej, 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

2011-04-15

427

A Comptonization model for the submillimeter background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new measurement of the submillimeter portion of the cosmic microwave background by Matsumoto et al. (1988) indicates that there may be a large excess of energy over that of a blackbody spectrum of temperature 2.74 K. Several models are presented with cosmological heat sources which produce Compton y-distortions large enough to fit the submillimeter background. The models adopt generic forms for these heat sources in terms of the expansion rate and the energy density of other forms of matter in the universe. A specific realization of the models in terms of a decaying vacuum is presented. Unique thermal histories are predicted in which the universe does not globally recombine. A rise in the spectrum at long wavelengths due to free-free emission of the hot intergalactic medium is predicted, and the accompanying mu-distortions are estimated.

Bartlett, James G.; Silk, Joseph

1990-01-01

428

The background field method on the lattice  

E-print Network

The background field method has been used successfully to determine hadron electromagnetic polarizabilities. Recently questions have been raised regarding the proper way to deal with the electric field on the lattice. In this paper, we show how the presence of a background electric field affects the quark hopping matrix. We use this formulation to carry out simulations on quenched configurations, and we present the results for neutron electric polarizability for pion masses as low as $500\\MeV$. We find that the polarizability is roughly constant for the quark masses considered, $\\alpha\\sim 1.5 \\times 10^{-4} \\fm^3$. While the polarizability is positive, it is significantly smaller than the experimental value due to the fact that the quark masses used are too large.

Andrei Alexandru; Frank X. Lee

2008-10-16

429

Coherent structures and modeling: Some background comments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coherent structures are discussed as a sequence of events (identifiable motions) in the flow which convert significant amounts of mechanical energies of the mean flow stream, into turbulent fluctuations. The use of structure information in modeling is also discussed.

Kline, S. J.

1987-01-01

430

32 CFR 264.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Technical Information for Defense Purposes with Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The agreements, which...

2012-07-01

431

Massive Gravity in Ads and Minkowski Backgrounds  

E-print Network

I review some interesting features of massive gravity in two maximally symmetric backgrounds: Anti de Sitter space and Minkowski space. While massive gravity in AdS can be seen as a spontaneously broken, UV safe theory, no such interpretation exists yet in the flat-space case. Here, I point out the problems encountered in trying to find such completion, and possible mechanisms to overcome them.

M. Porrati

2004-09-16

432

Semiconductor Bolometers Give Background-Limited Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiconductor bolometers that are capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation over most or all of the infrared spectrum and that give background-limited performance at operating temperatures from 20 to 300 K have been invented. The term background-limited performance as applied to a bolometer, thermopile, or other infrared detector signifies that the ability to detect infrared signals that originate outside the detector is limited primarily by thermal noise attributable to the background radiation generated external to the bolometer. The signal-to-noise ratios and detectivities of the bolometers and thermopiles available prior to this invention have been lower than those needed for background-limited performance by factors of about 100 and 10, respectively. Like other electrically resistive bolometers, a device according to the invention exhibits an increase in electrical resistance when heated by infrared radiation. Depending on whether the device is operated under the customary constant- current or constant-voltage bias, the increase in electrical resistance can be measured in terms of an increase in voltage across the device or a decrease in current through the device, respectively. In the case of a semiconductor bolometer, it is necessary to filter out visible and shorter-wavelength light that could induce photoconductivity and thereby counteract all or part of the desired infrared- induced increase in resistance. The basic semiconductor material of a bolometer according to the invention is preferably silicon doped with one or more of a number of elements, each of which confers a different variable temperature coefficient of resistance. Suitable dopants include In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, As, P, and Sb. The concentration of dopant preferably lies in the range between 0.1 and 1,000 parts per billion.

Goebel, John; McMurray, Robert

2006-01-01

433

Planck Oscillators in the Background Dark Energy  

E-print Network

We consider a model for an underpinning of the universe: there are oscillators at the Planck scale in the background dark energy. Starting from a coherent array of such oscillators it is possible to get a description from elementary particles to Black Holes including the usual Hawking-Beckenstein theory. There is also a description of Gravitation in the above model which points to a unified description with electromagnetism.

Burra G. Sidharth

2009-12-08

434

Teacher Background: The Dancing Lights Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dancing Lights: Exploring the Aurora through Art and Writing is a science-in-literacy program about the aurora. Students in grades 3-5 write and illustrate their perceptions, ideas, and facts pertaining to auroral science. This short educator background primer was based upon interactions with teachers during Dancing Lights workshops and is meant as a quick guide to the science of the aurora.

435

Radio brightness distribution within cosmic background fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The angular fluctuations delta T in the microwave background temperature constitute a random process. Calculations are performed for the number of 'pips' above a base level that might be produced by primordial scalar density perturbations or gravitational waves. The flux density expected for typical pips is determined, as well as the mean solid angle subtended by a pip that would exceed a level three times the dispersion in delta T.

Sazhin, M. V.

1985-08-01

436

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

437

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

1998-11-10

438

Planck Oscillators in the Background Dark Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a model for an underpinning of the universe: there are oscillators at the Planck scale in the background dark energy. Starting from a coherent array of such oscillators it is possible to get a description from elementary particles to Black Holes including the usual Hawking-Beckenstein theory. There is also a description of Gravitation in the above model which points to a unified description with electromagnetism.

Sidharth, B. G.

2010-10-01

439

Background light measurements at the DUMAND site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient light intensities at the DUMAND site, west of the island of Hawaii were measured around the one photoelectron level. Throughout the water column between 1,500m and 4,700m, a substantial amount of stimulateable bioluminescence is observed with a ship suspended detector. But non-stimulated bioluminescence level is comparable, or less than, K40 background, when measured with a bottom tethered detector typical of a DUMAND optical module.

Aoki, T.; Kitamura, T.; Matsuno, S.; Mitsui, K.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Cady, D. R.; Learned, J. G.; Oconnor, D.; McMurdo, M.

1985-08-01

440

Backgrounder - caHUB.Cancer.Gov  

Cancer.gov

Biospecimens are materials taken from the human body, such as tissue, blood, and urine that can be used for cancer diagnosis and analysis. Biobanks are repositories or "libraries" where these biological materials, along with any associated clinical, pathological, or molecular information, are managed, stored, and distributed. Biospecimens are critical to cancer research because they contain an extraordinary amount of biological information, written in the language of cells, genes, and proteins that can identify the biological characteristics of cancer cells over time.

441

Mode coupling evolution in arbitrary inflationary backgrounds  

E-print Network

The evolution of high order correlation functions of a test scalar field in arbitrary inflationary backgrounds is computed. Whenever possible, exact results are derived from quantum field theory calculations. Taking advantage of the fact that such calculations can be mapped, for super-horizon scales, into those of a classical system, we express the expected correlation functions in terms of classical quantities, power spectra, Green functions, that can be easily computed in the long-wavelength limit. Explicit results are presented that extend those already known for a de Sitter background. In particular the expressions of the late time amplitude of bispectrum and trispectrum, as well as the whole high-order correlation structure, are given in terms of the expansion factor behavior. When compared to the case of a de Sitter background, power law inflation and chaotic inflation induced by a massive field are found to induce high order correlation functions the amplitudes of which are amplified by almost one order of magnitude. These results indicate that the dependence of the related non-Gaussian parameters - such as f_NL - on the wave-modes is at percent level.

Francis Bernardeau

2010-11-25

442

NOAA's Drought Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Drought Information Center metasite serves as a gateway to NOAA's (and other) online resources on drought and climate conditions. From the US Drought Monitor (current assessment of drought status), to the Palmer Drought Severity Index, to paleo perspectives on North American drought, this site covers background information, current updates, and future predictions on droughts.

443

Information Hiding: Sharing Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity about cryptographic techniques illustrates a situation where information is shared, and yet none of it is revealed. A group of learners will calculate their average age without anyone revealing their own age. Use this activity to introduce learners to cryptographic protocols and internet security/privacy issues. Variations, extensions, background information, and further reading suggestions are included in the PDF.

Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike

1998-01-01

444

Learning to rank diversified results for biomedical information retrieval from multiple features  

PubMed Central

Background Different from traditional information retrieval (IR), promoting diversity in IR takes consideration of relationship between documents in order to promote novelty and reduce redundancy thus to provide diversified results to satisfy various user intents. Diversity IR in biomedical domain is especially important as biologists sometimes want diversified results pertinent to their query. Methods A combined learning-to-rank (LTR) framework is learned through a general ranking model (gLTR) and a diversity-biased model. The former is learned from general ranking features by a conventional learning-to-rank approach; the latter is constructed with diversity-indicating features added, which are extracted based on the retrieved passages' topics detected using Wikipedia and ranking order produced by the general learning-to-rank model; final ranking results are given by combination of both models. Results Compared with baselines BM25 and DirKL on 2006 and 2007 collections, the gLTR has 0.2292 (+16.23% and +44.1% improvement over BM25 and DirKL respectively) and 0.1873 (+15.78% and +39.0% improvement over BM25 and DirKL respectively) in terms of aspect level of mean average precision (Aspect MAP). The LTR method outperforms gLTR on 2006 and 2007 collections with 4.7% and 2.4% improvement in terms of Aspect MAP. Conclusions The learning-to-rank method is an efficient way for biomedical information retrieval and the diversity-biased features are beneficial for promoting diversity in ranking results. PMID:25560088

2014-01-01

445

Spectral observations of the extreme ultraviolet background.  

PubMed

A grazing incidence spectrometer was designed to measure the diffuse extreme ultraviolet background. It was flown on a sounding rocket, and data were obtained on the diffuse background between 80 and 650 angstroms. These are the first spectral measurements of this background below 520 angstroms. Several emission features were detected, including interplanetary He I 584 angstroms emission and geocoronal He II 304 angstroms emission. Other features observed may originate in a hot ionized interstellar gas, but if this interpretation is correct, gas at several different temperatures is present. The strongest of these features is consistent with O V emission at 630 angstroms. This emission, when combined with upper limits for other lines, restricts the temperature of this component to 5.5 < log T < 5.7, in agreement with temperatures derived from O VI absorption studies. A power-law distribution of temperatures is consistent with this feature only if the power-law coefficient is negative, as is predicted for saturated evaporation of clouds in a hot medium. In this case, the O VI absorption data confine the filling factor of the emission of f < or = 4% and the pressure to more than 3.7 x 10(4) cm-3 K, substantially above ambient interstellar pressure. Such a pressure enhancement has been predicted for clouds undergoing saturated evaporation. Alternatively, if the O V emission covers a considerable fraction of the sky, it would be a major source of ionization. A feature centered at about 99 angstroms is well fitted by a cluster of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX lines from gas at log T = 6.6-6.8. These results are consistent with previous soft X-ray observations with low-resolution detectors. A feature found near 178 angstroms is consistent with Fe X and Fe XI emission from gas at log T = 6; this result is consistent with results from experiments employing broad-band soft X-ray detectors. PMID:11538706

Labov, S E; Bowyer, S

1991-04-20

446

Stokes Parameters in Cosmic Microwave Background Measurements  

E-print Network

We compute numerically the scalar- and tensor-mode induced Stokes parameters of the cosmic microwave background, by taking into account the basis rotation effects. It is found that the tensor contribution to the polarization power spectrum get enhanced and dominates over the scalar contribution for low multipoles in a universe with or without recombination. Furthermore, we show that all full-sky averaged two-point cross-correlation functions of the Stokes parameters vanish. We thus comment on the cross-correlation between the anisotropy and polarization of the CMB, and calculate the expected signal to noise ratio for the polarization experiment underway.

Ka Lok Ng; Kin-Wang Ng

1996-05-23

447

Magnetic Moment of Neutrino in Statistical Background  

E-print Network

We calculate the magnetic moment of Dirac type of neutrinos in hot and dense background for different ranges of temperature and chemical potential. The properties of neutrinos are studied in the strong magnetic field where the chemical potential of particles is high enough to have more particles than the antiparticles. We show that in this situation, Weyl neutrino seems to explain the neutrino coupling with the magnetic field due to its effective mass which can couple with the magnetic field directly. We also investigate the electromagnetic properties of Weyl neutrino due to its effective mass developed in the strong magnetic field.

Samina S. Masood

2012-03-11

448

Signatures of a hidden cosmic microwave background.  

PubMed

If there is a light Abelian gauge boson gamma' in the hidden sector its kinetic mixing with the photon can produce a hidden cosmic microwave background (HCMB). For meV masses, resonant oscillations gamma<-->gamma' happen after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) but before CMB decoupling, increasing the effective number of neutrinos Nnu(eff) and the baryon to photon ratio, and distorting the CMB blackbody spectrum. The agreement between BBN and CMB data provides new constraints. However, including Lyman-alpha data, Nnu(eff) > 3 is preferred. It is tempting to attribute this effect to the HCMB. The interesting parameter range will be tested in upcoming laboratory experiments. PMID:18851438

Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

2008-09-26

449

Ponderable soliton stars and cosmic background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory is developed to describe the possible perturbations of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) by radiation from ponderable soliton stars in the early universe. Since the temperature of such stars is in the range of 10 to the 6th K, thermalization of their emitted radiation is possible. Two models are considered: one in which thermalization is ignored and one in which decoupling from thermalization is considered as a sudden process. The expected perturbation of the CBR is probably less than 1 percent and is largely around the short-wavelength end, in the form of point radio sources. This result is consistent with the most recent COBE measurements.

Chiu, Hong-Yee

1990-01-01

450

Dips in the diffuse supernova neutrino background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scalar (fermion) dark matter with mass in the MeV range coupled to ordinary neutrinos and another fermion (scalar) is motivated by scenarios that establish a link between radiatively generated neutrino masses and the dark matter relic density. With such a coupling, cosmic supernova neutrinos, on their way to us, could resonantly interact with the background dark matter particles, giving rise to a dip in their redshift-integrated spectra. Current and future neutrino detectors, such as Super-Kamiokande, LENA and Hyper-Kamiokande, could be able to detect this distortion.

Farzan, Yasaman; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio

2014-06-01

451

Dips in the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background  

E-print Network

Scalar (fermion) dark matter with mass in the MeV range coupled to ordinary neutrinos and another fermion (scalar) is motivated by scenarios that establish a link between radiatively generated neutrino masses and the dark matter relic density. With such a coupling, cosmic supernova neutrinos, on their way to us, could resonantly interact with the background dark matter particles, giving rise to a dip in their redshift-integrated spectra. Current and future neutrino detectors, such as Super-Kamiokande, LENA and Hyper-Kamiokande, could be able to detect this distortion.

Yasaman Farzan; Sergio Palomares-Ruiz

2014-01-27

452

Quantum treatment of neutrino in background matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the need of elaboration of the quantum theory of the spin light of neutrino in matter (SL?), we have studied in more detail the exact solutions of the Dirac equation for neutrinos moving in background matter. These exact neutrino wavefunctions form a basis for a rather powerful method of investigation of different neutrino processes in matter, which is similar to the Furry representation of quantum electrodynamics in external fields. Within this method we also derive the corresponding Dirac equation for an electron moving in matter and consider the electromagnetic radiation ('spin light of electron in matter', (SLe)) that can be emitted by the electron in this case.

Studenikin, A. I.

2006-05-01

453

New physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

I review the present status of the Cosmic Microwave Background, with some emphasis on the current and future implications for particle physics. Conclusions are: gravitational instability in a dark matter dominated universe grew today's structure; the Universe remained neutral until z<~50; the CMB power spectrum peaks at 150<~l<~350; the large-scale structure of spacetime appears to be simple; something like inflation is something like proven; we will learn a great deal about cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics from MAP and Planck.

Douglas Scott

1999-11-17

454

Beam Delivery WG Summary: Optics, Collimation & Background  

SciTech Connect

The presented paper partially summarizes the work of the Beam Delivery working group (WG4) at Snowmass, concentrating on status of optics, layout, collimation, and background. The strawman layout with 2 interaction regions was recommended at the first ILC workshop at KEK in November 2004. Two crossing-angle designs were included in this layout. The design of the ILC BDS has evolved since the first ILC workshop. The progress on the BDS design and extraction line design has been reviewed and the design issues were discussed during the optics and layout session at the Snowmass.

Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jackson, F.; /Daresbury; Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab; Kuroda, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Seryi, A.A.; /SLAC

2006-01-20

455

Emergence of oscillons in an expanding background  

SciTech Connect

We consider a (1+1) dimensional scalar field theory that supports oscillons, which are localized, oscillatory, stable solutions to nonlinear equations of motion. We study this theory in an expanding background and show that oscillons now lose energy, but at a rate that is exponentially small when the expansion rate is slow. We also show numerically that a universe that starts with (almost) thermal initial conditions will cool to a final state where a significant fraction of the energy of the universe--on the order of 50%--is stored in oscillons. If this phenomenon persists in realistic models, oscillons may have cosmological consequences.

Farhi, E.; Guth, A. H.; Iqbal, N. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Graham, N. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); Rosales, R. R. [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Stamatopoulos, N. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)

2008-04-15

456

An Introduction to the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site presents a basic introduction to the cosmic background radiation and cosmology. It includes terms, graphs, and animations to present the key principles and ideas of cosmology, the expansion of the universe, properties of light, the history of the universe since the Big Bang, inflation, the curvature of spacetime, and its implications on the fate of the universe. The presentation ends with a review of the terms and a list of links to other resources. This material is based on a public presentation by the author.

Hu, Wayne

2013-11-28

457

Gluon polarization tensor in color magnetic background  

E-print Network

In SU(2) gluodynamics we calculate the gluon polarization tensor in an Abelian homogeneous magnetic field in one-loop order in the Lorentz background field gauge. It turned out to be non transversal and consisting of ten tensor structures and corresponding form factors - four in color neutral and six in color charged sector. Seven tensor structures are transversal, three are not. The non transversal parts are obtained by explicit calculation. We represent the form factors in terms of double parametric integrals which can be computed numerically. Some examples are provided and possible applications are discussed.

M. Bordag; V. Skalozub

2005-07-14

458

A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

PubMed

The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the Universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole Ipeak = (197 +/- 6), with an amplitude delta T200 = (69 +/- 8) microK. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favoured by standard inflationary models. PMID:10801117

de Bernardis P; Ade; Bock; Bond; Borrill; Boscaleri; Coble; Crill; De Gasperis G; Farese; Ferreira; Ganga; Giacometti; Hivon; Hristov; Iacoangeli; Jaffe; Lange; Martinis; Masi; Mason; Mauskopf; Melchiorri; Miglio; Montroy; Netterfield

2000-04-27

459

A Flat Universe from High-Resolution Maps of the Cosmic MicrowaveBackground Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K Cosmic Microwave Background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole {ell}{sub peak} = (197 {+-} 6), with an amplitude DT{sub 200} = (69 {+-} 8){mu}K. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favored by standard inflationary scenarios.

de Bernardis, P.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill,J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Crill, B.P.; De Gasperis, G.; Farese, P.C.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mason,P.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Melchiorri, A.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield,C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Pogosyan, D.; Prunet, S.; Rao, S.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Sforna, D.; Vittorio, N.

2000-04-28

460

CRCHD - Patient Navigation Information: Publications, Web Sites, and Applications  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD - Patient Navigation Information: Publications, Web Sites, and Applications Back to CRCHD Ongoing Research PNP Background Patient Navigation Information Patient Navigation Concept What Are Patient Navigators? Patient Navigation

461

The Epistemological Background of our Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major objectives of the long-term strategy in promoting a scientific discipline into the education sphere may be the following : A permanent presence of the discipline inside the general education A good harmonisation with other disciplines (at least the scientific ones) A maximal efficiency of its presence as a required discipline Before any practical approaches (social, administrative, or any other), it is required (necessary) that the promoters of any discipline formulate and underline its cognitive and formative contribution. This can be done only by starting with the epistemological statute of the discipline and its pedagogical implications. Defining the epistemological statute, as well as the requirements of an optimal communication among the options concerning the orientation (re-orientation) of educational strategies, brings forth the necessity of analysing some fundamental concepts, with epistemological characters. Even if it seems to be known by everyone, usually the concepts are not taken into account with their real importance. The fundamental concept we refer to herein constitute a real "conceptual network" who, "volens-nolens", is the epistemological background for any strategy of education relative to science. Being conscious of the importance of the epistemological background will permit the modification of the beginning and the references used in defining the strategy of education in (through) astronomy.

Birlan, M.; Vass, G.; Teleanu, C.

2006-08-01

462

Natural radiation background in metropolitan Taipei.  

PubMed

A high-pressure ionization chamber was used to measure the natural background radiation in metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. during a period in 1987-1988. The average exposure rate was 27.55 x 10(-10) C kg-1 h-1 including cosmic radiation, but the radon contribution was excluded. Scintillation survey meter, gamma-ray spectroscopy for soil samples, in-situ measurement with a NaI(Tl) detector coupled to a portable multichannel analyzer, instrumental neutron activation analysis of rock samples, and even thermoluminescent dosimeters were used as complementary measuring devices. Areas of higher radiation background were detected. They are the radium-bearing Peitou stones, an unusual occurrence of uraniferous zone at Sanhsia, and uranium precipitation in the glassy olivine basalt in a tea field at Tachi. All these areas are located in suburban sites of Taipei. Three types of building in Taipei City were selected for radon detection. No significantly elevated level of radon was detected, since Taipei is located in a semitropical area where ventilation of buildings is not a problem. PMID:1941767

Weng, P S; Chu, T C; Chen, C F

1991-06-01

463

Electromagnetic polarizabilities: Lattice QCD in background fields  

SciTech Connect

Chiral perturbation theory makes definitive predictions for the extrinsic behavior of hadrons in external electric and magnetic fields. Near the chiral limit, the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pions, kaons, and nucleons are determined in terms of a few well-known parameters. In this limit, hadrons become quantum mechanically diffuse as polarizabilities scale with the inverse square-root of the quark mass. In some cases, however, such predictions from chiral perturbation theory have not compared well with experimental data. Ultimately we must turn to first principles numerical simulations of QCD to determine properties of hadrons, and confront the predictions of chiral perturbation theory. To address the electromagnetic polarizabilities, we utilize the background field technique. Restricting our attention to calculations in background electric fields, we demonstrate new techniques to determine electric polarizabilities and baryon magnetic moments for both charged and neutral states. As we can study the quark mass dependence of observables with lattice QCD, the lattice will provide a crucial test of our understanding of low-energy QCD, which will be timely in light of ongoing experiments, such as at COMPASS and HI gamma S.

W. Detmold, B.C. Tiburzi, A. Walker-Loud

2012-04-01

464

The Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1988 the UCSB Cosmology Group has performed a number of measurements of the degree scale structure in the Cosmic Background Radiation. These include 3 South Pole expeditions in 1989, 91 and 94. and 8 balloon flights using SIS, HEMTs and bolometer based detectors. We will present a summary of these measurements focusing onthe recent results. In addition, we will describe the recent flight of HACME, a balloon- borne experiment to map CMB anisotropies with 0.75 degree angular resolution over several hundred square degrees. This experiment is a prototype for our next generation CMB experiment, the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST). BEAST will feature a 2 m diameter carbon fiber composite primary mirror for high angular resolution and a sensitive array of ultra-low noise HEMT amplifiers at 30, 40, and 90 GHz. BEAST is designed for an Antarctic long duration balloon flight allowing an observing time of order two weeks. This experiment will provide an unprecedented combination of sensitivty and angular resolution across a significant region of sky.

Seiffert, M.

1996-12-01

465

Energy loss in a fluctuating hydrodynamical background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently it has become apparent that event-by-event fluctuations in the initial state of hydrodynamical modeling of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are crucial in order to understand the full centrality dependence of the elliptic flow coefficient v2. In particular, in central collisions the density fluctuations play a major role in generating the spatial eccentricity in the initial state. This raises the question to what degree high-PT physics, in particular leading-parton energy loss, which takes place in the background of an evolving medium, is sensitive to the presence of the event-by-event density fluctuations in the background. In this work, we report results for the effects of fluctuations on the nuclear modification factor RAA in both central and noncentral sNN=200 GeV Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Two different types of energy-loss models, a radiative model and an elastic model, are considered. In particular, we study the dependence of the results on the assumed spatial size of the density fluctuations and discuss the angular modulation of RAA with respect to the event plane.

Renk, Thorsten; Holopainen, Hannu; Auvinen, Jussi; Eskola, Kari

2012-04-01

466

Role of genetic background in induced instability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genomic instability is effectively induced by ionizing radiation. Recently, evidence has accumulated supporting a relationship between genetic background and the radiation-induced genomic instability phenotype. This is possibly due to alterations in proteins responsible for maintenance of genomic integrity or altered oxidative metabolism. Studies in human cell lines, human primary cells, and mouse models have been performed predominantly using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, or high doses of low LET radiation. The interplay between genetics, radiation response, and genomic instability has not been fully determined at low doses of low LET radiation. However, recent studies using low doses of low LET radiation suggest that the relationship between genetic background and radiation-induced genomic instability may be more complicated than these same relationships at high LET or high doses of low LET radiation. The complexity of this relationship at low doses of low LET radiation suggests that more of the population may be at risk than previously recognized and may have implications for radiation risk assessment.

Kadhim, Munira A.; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

467

Measurements of the cosmic background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maps of the large scale structure (theta is greater than 6 deg) of the cosmic background radiation covering 90 percent of the sky are now available. The data show a very strong 50-100 sigma (statistical error) dipole component, interpreted as being due to our motion, with a direction of alpha = 11.5 + or - 0.15 hours, sigma = -5.6 + or - 2.0 deg. The inferred direction of the velocity of our galaxy relative to the cosmic background radiation is alpha = 10.6 + or - 0.3 hours, sigma = -2.3 + or - 5 deg. This is 44 deg from the center of the Virgo cluster. After removing the dipole component, the data show a galactic signature but no apparent residual structure. An autocorrelation of the residual data, after substraction of the galactic component from a combined Berkeley (3 mm) and Princeton (12 mm) data sets, show no apparent structure from 10 to 180 deg with a rms of 0.01 mK(sup 2). At 90 percent confidence level limit of .00007 is placed on a quadrupole component.

Lubin, P.; Villela, T.

1987-01-01

468

New window into stochastic gravitational wave background.  

PubMed

A stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) would gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons. We correct the results provided in existing literature for modifications to the CMB polarization power spectra due to lensing by gravitational waves. Weak lensing by gravitational waves distorts all four CMB power spectra; however, its effect is most striking in the mixing of power between the E mode and B mode of CMB polarization. This suggests the possibility of using measurements of the CMB angular power spectra to constrain the energy density (?(GW)) of the SGWB. Using current data sets (QUAD, WMAP, and ACT), we find that the most stringent constraints on the present ?(GW) come from measurements of the angular power spectra of CMB temperature anisotropies. In the near future, more stringent bounds on ?(GW) can be expected with improved upper limits on the B modes of CMB polarization. Any detection of B modes of CMB polarization above the expected signal from large scale structure lensing could be a signal for a SGWB. PMID:23368112

Rotti, Aditya; Souradeep, Tarun

2012-11-30

469

DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane  

DOEpatents

A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

Caldwell, Karin D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chu, Tun-Jen (Salt Lake City, UT); Pitt, William G. (Orem, UT)

1992-01-01

470

Diffraction, chopping, and background subtraction for LDR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) will be an extremely sensitive infrared telescope if the noise due to the photons in the large thermal background is the only limiting factor. For observations with a 3 arcsec aperture in a broadband at 100 micrometers, a 20-meter LDR will emit 10(exp 12) per second, while the photon noise limited sensitivity in a deep survey observation will be 3,000 photons per second. Thus the background subtraction has to work at the 1 part per billion level. Very small amounts of scattered or diffracted energy can be significant if they are modulated by the chopper. The results are presented for 1-D and 2-D diffraction calculations for the lightweight, low-cost LDR concept that uses an active chopping quaternary to correct the wavefront errors introduced by the primary. Fourier transforms were used to evaluate the diffraction of 1 mm waves through this system. Unbalanced signals due to dust and thermal gradients were also studied.

Wright, Edward L.

1988-01-01

471

The Beta Cage: Screening Low Radioactive Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beta cage is a proposed multi-wire proportional chamber that will be the most sensitive device available to screen low-energy (200 keV) betas emitted at rates as low as 10-5 counts keV^1 cm-2 day-1 (of order 10-4 Bq/m^2). The expected sensitivity and details of the construction and commissioning of its prototype chamber are presented. The prototype beta cage is a 50x50x25 cm frame gridded by stacked wire planes contained in a chamber of gas. To reduce background, the chamber contains only enough mass to stop betas of interest. Samples are placed beneath the grid; the wires multiply the betas and collect their electron avalanche. Readouts allow discrimination of its events from background and determination of the beta (or alpha) source. The beta cage has potential use in carbon or tritium dating, with ^3H/^1H sensitivity of 10-20 and ^ 14C/ ^12C sensitivity of 10-18. Its design was motivated by CDMS, whose sensitivity to the dark matter candidate WIMPs is currently limited by low-energy beta contamination.

Poinar, K.; Akerib, D.; Grant, D.; Schnee, R.; Shutt, T.; Golwala, S.; Ahmed, Z.

2006-10-01

472

Radioactivity Backgrounds in ZEPLIN-III  

E-print Network

We examine electron and nuclear recoil backgrounds from radioactivity in the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment at Boulby. The rate of low-energy electron recoils in the liquid xenon WIMP target is 0.75$\\pm$0.05 events/kg/day/keV, which represents a 20-fold improvement over the rate observed during the first science run. Energy and spatial distributions agree with those predicted by component-level Monte Carlo simulations propagating the effects of the radiological contamination measured for materials employed in the experiment. Neutron elastic scattering is predicted to yield 3.05$\\pm$0.5 nuclear recoils with energy 5-50 keV per year, which translates to an expectation of 0.4 events in a 1-year dataset in anti-coincidence with the veto detector for realistic signal acceptance. Less obvious background sources are discussed, especially in the context of future experiments. These include contamination of scintillation pulses with Cherenkov light from Compton electrons and from $\\beta$ activity internal to photomultipliers, which can increase the size and lower the apparent time constant of the scintillation response. Another challenge is posed by multiple-scatter $\\gamma$-rays with one or more vertices in regions that yield no ionisation. If the discrimination power achieved in the first run can be replicated, ZEPLIN-III should reach a sensitivity of $\\sim 1 \\times 10^{-8}$ pb$\\cdot$year to the scalar WIMP-nucleon elastic cross-section, as originally conceived.

H. M. Araujo; D. Yu. Akimov; E. J. Barnes; V. A. Belov; A. Bewick; A. A. Burenkov; V. Chepel. A. Currie; L. DeViveiros; B. Edwards; C. Ghag; A. Hollingsworth; M. Horn; G. E. Kalmus; A. S. Kobyakin; A. G. Kovalenko; V. N. Lebedenko; A. Lindote; M. I. Lopes; R. Luscher; P. Majewski; A. StJ. Murphy. F. Neves; S. M. Paling; J. Pinto da Cunha; R. Preece; J. J. Quenby; L. Reichhart; P. R. Scovell; C. Silva; V. N. Solovov; N. J. T. Smith; P. F. Smith; V. N. Stekhanov; T. J. Sumner; C. Thorne; R. J. Walker

2011-08-12

473

Calculation of neutron background for underground experiments  

E-print Network

New generation dark matter experiments aim at exploring the 10e-9 - 10e-10 pb cross-section region for the WIMP-nucleon scalar interactions. Neutrons produced in the detector components are one of the main factors that can limit detector sensitivity. Estimation of the background from this source then becomes a crucial task for designing future large-scale detectors. Energy spectra and production rates for neutrons coming from radioactive contamination are required for all materials in and around the detector. In order to estimate neutron yields and spectra, the cross-sections of (a,n) reactions and probabilities of transitions to different excited states should be known. Cross-sections and transition probabilities have been calculated using Empire2.19 for several isotopes, and for some isotopes, a comparison with the experimental data is shown. The results have been used to calculate the neutron spectra from materials using the code Sources4A. Neutron background event rates from some detector components in a hypothetical dark matter detector based on Ge crystals have been estimated. Some requirements for the radiopurity of the materials have been deduced from the results of these simulations.

V. Tomasello; V. A. Kudryavtsev; M. Robinson

2008-07-05

474

Radioactivity backgrounds in ZEPLIN-III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine electron and nuclear recoil backgrounds from radioactivity in the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment at Boulby. The rate of low-energy electron recoils in the liquid xenon WIMP target is 0.75 0.05 events/kg/day/keV, which represents a 20-fold improvement over the rate observed during the first science run. Energy and spatial distributions agree with those predicted by component-level Monte Carlo simulations propagating the effects of the radiological contamination measured for materials employed in the experiment. Neutron elastic scattering is predicted to yield 3.05 0.5 nuclear recoils with energy 5-50 keV per year, which translates to an expectation of 0.4 events in a 1 yr dataset in anti-coincidence with the veto detector for realistic signal acceptance. Less obvious background sources are discussed, especially in the context of future experiments. These include contamination of scintillation pulses with Cherenkov light from Compton electrons and from ? activity internal to photomultipliers, which can increase the size and lower the apparent time constant of the scintillation response. Another challenge is posed by multiple-scatter ?-rays with one or more vertices in regions that yield no ionisation. If the discrimination power achieved in the first run can be replicated, ZEPLIN-III should reach a sensitivity of 1 10-8pb yr to the scalar WIMP-nucleon elastic cross-section, as originally conceived.

Arajo, H. M.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Barnes, E. J.; Belov, V. A.; Bewick, A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Chepel, V.; Currie, A.; Deviveiros, L.; Edwards, B.; Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A.; Horn, M.; Kalmus, G. E.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Lebedenko, V. N.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Lscher, R.; Majewski, P.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Neves, F.; Paling, S. M.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Preece, R.; Quenby, J. J.; Reichhart, L.; Scovell, P. R.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Smith, N. J. T.; Smith, P. F.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Sumner, T. J.; Thorne, C.; Walker, R. J.

2012-03-01

475

Adaptive contour-based statistical background subtraction method for moving target detection in infrared video sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust contour-based statistical background subtraction method for detection of non-uniform thermal targets in infrared imagery is presented. The foremost step of the method comprises of generation of background frame using statistical information of an initial set of frames not containing any targets. The generated background frame is made adaptive by continuously updating the background using the motion information of the scene. The background subtraction method followed by a clutter rejection stage ensure the detection of foreground objects. The next step comprises of detection of contours and distinguishing the target boundaries from the noisy background. This is achieved by using the Canny edge detector that extracts the contours followed by a k-means clustering approach to differentiate the object contour from the background contours. The post processing step comprises of morphological edge linking approach to close any broken contours and finally flood fill is performed to generate the silhouettes of moving targets. This method is validated on infrared video data consisting of a variety of moving targets. Experimental results demonstrate a high detection rate with minimal false alarms establishing the robustness of the proposed method.

Akula, Aparna; Khanna, Nidhi; Ghosh, Ripul; Kumar, Satish; Das, Amitava; Sardana, H. K.

2014-03-01

476

Tracking Video Objects in Cluttered Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for tracking video ob- ject which is based on an hybrid strategy. This strategy uses both object and region information to solve the corre- spondence problem. Low level descriptors are exploited to track object's regions and to cope with track management issues. Appearance and disappearance of objects, splitting and partial occlusions are resolved through interactions be-

Andrea Cavallaro; Olivier Steiger; Touradj Ebrahimi

2005-01-01

477

../fusion/templates/mapguide/maroon/css/maroon_fusion.css background-image: url(../images/background.gif);  

E-print Network

../fusion/templates/mapguide/maroon/css/maroon_fusion.css body { background-image: url: #500000; ../fusion/templates/mapguide/maroon/css/maroon_fusion.css #FileMenu { background-image: urlPanelTitle { background-image: url(../images/fileMenuBackground.gif); background-color: #ad1b25; Note: it appears the .gif

Ahmad, Sajjad

478

Evaluation of Background Mercury Concentrations in the SRS Groundwater System  

SciTech Connect

Mercury analyses associated with the A-01 Outfall have highlighted the importance of developing an understanding of mercury in the Savannah River Site groundwater system and associated surface water streams. This activity is critical based upon the fact that the EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for this constituent is 0.012mg/L, a level that is well below conventional detection limits of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L. A first step in this process is obtained by utilizing the existing investment in groundwater mercury concentrations (20,242 records) maintained in the SRS geographical information management system (GIMS) database. Careful use of these data provides a technically defensible initial estimate for total recoverable mercury in background and contaminated SRS wells.

Looney, B.B.

1999-03-03

479

Quantum Field Theory on Curved Backgrounds a Primer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Goal of this paper is to introduce the algebraic approach to quantum field theory on curved backgrounds. Based on a set of axioms, first written down by Haag and Kastler, this method consists of a two-step procedure. In the first one, it is assigned to a physical system a suitable algebra of observables, which is meant to encode all algebraic relations among observables, such as commutation relations. In the second step, one must select an algebraic state in order to recover the standard Hilbert space interpretation of a quantum system. As quantum field theories possess infinitely many degrees of freedom, many unitarily inequivalent Hilbert space representations exist and the power of such approach is the ability to treat them all in a coherent manner. We will discuss in detail the algebraic approach for free fields in order to give the reader all necessary information to deal with the recent literature, which focuses on the applications to specific problems, mostly in cosmology.

Benini, Marco; Dappiaggi, Claudio; Hack, Thomas-Paul

2013-07-01

480

Measurements of Worldwide Radioxenon Backgrounds - The "EU" Project  

SciTech Connect

Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), radioactive xenon (radioxenon) measurements are one of the principle techniques used to detect nuclear underground nuclear explosions, and specifically, the presence of one or more radioxenon isotopes allows one to determine whether a suspected event was a nuclear explosion or originated from an innocent source. During the design of the International Monitoring System (IMS), which was designed as the verification mechanism for the Treaty, it was determined that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide. At the time of the design of the IMS, however, very few details about the background of the xenon isotopes was known and it is now recognized that the backgrounds were probably evolving anyhow. This paper lays out the beginning of a study of the worldwide concentrations of xenon isotopes that can be used to detect nuclear explosions and several sources that also release radioxenons, and will have to be accounted for during analysis of atmospheric levels. Although the global concentrations of the xenon isotopes are the scope of a much larger activity that could span over several years, this study measures radioxenon concentrations in locations where there was either very little information or there was a unique opportunity to learn more about emissions from known sources. The locations where radioxenon levels were measured and reported are included.

Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Forrester, Joel B.; Haas, Derek A.; Hansen, Randy R.; Keller, Paul E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lidey, Lance S.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Payne, Rosara F.; Saey, Paul R.; Thompson, Robert C.; Woods, Vincent T.; Williams, Richard M.

2009-09-24

481

Enhancing access to health information in Africa: a librarian's perspective.  

PubMed

In recent years, tremendous progress has been made toward providing health information in Africa, in part because of technological advancements. Nevertheless, ensuring that information is accessible, comprehensible, and usable remains problematic, and there remain needs in many settings to address issues such as computer skills, literacy, and the infrastructure to access information. To determine how librarians might play a more strategic role in meeting information needs of health professionals in Africa, the author reviewed key components of information systems pertinent to knowledge management for the health sector, including access to global online resources, capacity to use computer technology for information retrieval, information literacy, and the potential for professional networks to play a role in improving access to and use of information. The author concluded that, in regions that lack adequate information systems, librarians could apply their knowledge and skills to facilitate access and use by information seekers. Ensuring access to and use of health information can also be achieved by engaging organizations and associations working to enhance access to health information, such as the Association for Health Information and Libraries in Africa. These groups can provide assistance through training, dissemination, information repackaging, and other approaches known to improve information literacy. PMID:22724668

Gathoni, Nasra

2012-01-01

482

Background suppression techniques in germanium detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new generation of astrophysical gamma ray spectrometers employing germanium solid state detectors for precise energy measurement are currently being planned for spaceflight in the late 1990's and the early 21st century. Because the observations of weak celestial sources are carried out in an intense radiation environment, the key objective of instrument design is to find ways to reduce the background. The current state of the knowledge in this field is reviewed and the new hardware techniques under design and test are discussed. Many of these techniques have already been flight tested on balloon platforms. Recent results from some of these tests are presented. By carefully applying these techniques it should be possible to achieve sensitivities that are factors of 3 to 10 better than would be obtained for a conventional instrument of similar weight.

Gehrels, Neil; Cheung, Cynthia

1992-01-01

483

The soft X-ray diffuse background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maps of the diffuse X-ray background intensity covering essentially the entire sky with approx. 7 deg spatial resolution are presented for seven energy bands. The data were obtained on a series of ten sounding rocket flights conducted over a seven-year period. The different nature of the spatial distributions in different bands implies at least three distinct origins for the diffuse X-rays, none of which is well-understood. At energies or approx. 2000 eV, an isotropic and presumably extraglalactic 500 and 1000 eV, an origin which is at least partially galactic seems called for. At energies 284 eV, the observed intensity is anticorrelated with neutral hydrogen column density, but we find it unlikely that this anticorrelation is simply due to absorption of an extragalactic or halo source.

Mccammon, D.; Burrows, D. N.; Sanders, W. T.; Kraushaar, W. L.

1982-01-01

484

Sinuous antennas for cosmic microwave background polarimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers to be used in the focal planes of telescopes mapping Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies. These detectors will be both dual-polarized and ultra-wide band, each containing several frequency channels. Arrays of such detectors could realize mapping speeds nearly an order of magnitude higher than previously deployed technology while naturally facilitating foreground removal. For such detectors to be useful, the antennas must have a high gain and a low cross-polarization. We have designed a novel modification of DuHamel's Sinuous antenna that couples to a contacting lens and is driven by integrated microstrip feed-lines. The integrated feed lines allow the antenna to interface with microstrip circuits and bolometers in a way that is planar and scalable to kilo-pixel arrays. We have demonstrated the polarization and beam properties with scale model antennas that operate at 1-12 GHz.

O'Brient, Roger; Edwards, Jennifer; Arnold, Kam; Engargiola, Greg; Holzapfel, William; Lee, Adrian T.; Myers, Michael; Quealy, Erin; Rebeiz, Gabriel; Richards, Paul; Spieler, Helmuth; Tran, Huan

2008-07-01

485

Systematic Distortion in Cosmic Microwave Background Maps  

E-print Network

To minimize instrumentally induced systematic errors, cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments measure temperature differences across the sky using paires of horn antennas, temperature map is recovered from temperature differences obtained in sky survey through a map-making procedure. To inspect and calibrate residual systematic errors in recovered temperature maps is important as most previous studies of cosmology are based on these maps. By analyzing pixel-ring couping and latitude dependence of CMB temperatures, we find notable systematic deviation from CMB Gaussianity in released Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) maps. The detected deviation is hard to explain by any process in the early universe and can not be ignored for a precision cosmology study.

Liu, Hao

2008-01-01

486

Systematic Distortion in Cosmic Microwave Background Maps  

E-print Network

To minimize instrumentally induced systematic errors, cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments measure temperature differences across the sky using paires of horn antennas, temperature map is recovered from temperature differences obtained in sky survey through a map-making procedure. To inspect and calibrate residual systematic errors in recovered temperature maps is important as most previous studies of cosmology are based on these maps. By analyzing pixel-ring couping and latitude dependence of CMB temperatures, we find notable systematic deviation from CMB Gaussianity in released Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) maps. The detected deviation is hard to explain by any process in the early universe and can not be ignored for a precision cosmology study.

Hao Liu; Ti-Pei Li

2009-05-02

487

Polarization of the cosmic background radiation  

SciTech Connect

The results and technique of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation are discussed. The ground-based experiment utilizes a single horn (7/sup 0/ beam width) Dicke-type microwave polarimeter operating at 33 GHz (9.1 mm). Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. = 38/sup 0/N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. = 12/sup 0/S) show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. For the 38/sup 0/ declination data the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component is 0.3 mK for the average and 12 and 24 hour periods. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits.

Lubin, P.M.

1980-03-01

488

DBI Galileon inflation in background SUGRA  

E-print Network

We introduce a model of potential driven DBI Galileon inflation in background N=1,D=4 SUGRA. Starting from D4-$\\bar{D4}$ brane-antibrane in the bulk N=2,D=5 SUGRA including quadratic Gauss-Bonnet corrections, we derive an effective N=1,D=4 SUGRA by dimensional reduction, that results in a Coleman-Weinberg type Galileon potential. We employ this potential in modeling inflation and in subsequent study of primordial quantum fluctuations for scalar and tensor modes. Further, we estimate the major observable parameters in both de Sitter (DS) and beyond de Sitter (BDS) limits and confront them with recent observational data from WMAP7 by using the publicly available code CAMB.

Choudhury, Sayantan

2013-01-01

489

[The psychosocial background of sterile patients].  

PubMed

The psychosocial background of 300 childless couples from the Infertility Clinic of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Graz, was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and statistical analysis of data from their files. Points of special interest were problems such as interactions of the couple, motivations for the desire of children, psychosomatics, andrological investigation within the gynecological department, sexual habits and motivation and compliance concerning investigations and treatment. 72% of the questionnaires were returned. 50% of the sterile couples preferred to attend the infertility clinic together. 26% felt restrictions in their sexual behaviour due to the unrealized desire of children, 48% expected improvements in their partnership if they could have children. Compliance of male partners concerning the regular intake of prescribed medicaments was 83%, 63% accepted to stop smoking in cases of pathospermia. PMID:2802686

Pusch, H H; Urdl, W; Walcher, W

1989-01-01

490

Star background cancellation for deep space surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In deep space surveillance missions that use high-sensitivity IR sensor systems, satellite targets must be detected among a background scene of thousands of stars. Data stream processing must provide early rejection in the processing stages of the star scene to allow target detection and to meet the downlink data transmission capacity constraint. This paper describes two star-elimination techniques and analyzes their performance: a multicolor elimination concept and a moving target indicator (MTI) technique. Multicolor elimination methods are found to reduce the star scene to a star leakage rate of about 39 stars/sq deg; the MTI technique is found to reduce the star scene to a dramatically low star leakage rate of less than 0.05 stars/sq deg.

Johnson, C. R.; Sentovich, M. F.; Ho, C. Q.

1981-03-01

491

Pairing in the cosmic neutrino background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model of a superfluid neutrino background in the Universe is developed, and the consequences of mechanical destruction of the superfluid state are reviewed. A hydrodynamic approach is used to examine the possibility of a superfluid state of matter, and the existence of magnetic fields is noted to be sufficient to create a mixed state from the superconductivity of the superfluid state. Further discussion is given to the vortex generated by the rotation of the Universe and the Hawking-Collins parameter for a limitation on the universal rotation is shown to lie within bounds which allow a large value for the neutrino mass. The same Hawking-Collins parameter is also found to be large enough to discount the presence of a superfluid state.

Alonso, V.; Chela-Flores, J.; Paredes, R.

1982-02-01

492

Quality and safety education: foreground and background.  

PubMed

Since 1988, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), through its School of Medicine, Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, and Division of Public Health, has committed to the development and implementation of quality improvement and safety education as a formal part of its health professions curriculum. Faculty moved quality and safety education from the "background" of implicit learning to the "foreground" of established curriculum. The transformation has affected not only course content but also many academic careers in the process. This article highlights 3 of the many quality and safety education activities that have evolved at the CWRU: the graduate-level course on quality improvement, medical student education, and doctoral education. Based on these activities, 4 key elements are presented as essential for a successful and sustainable quality and safety education program: quality improvement role models and champions, strong academic-practice partnerships, a variety of educational modalities, and a supportive learning environment. PMID:19609184

Dolansky, Mary A; Singh, Mamta K; Neuhauser, Duncan B

2009-01-01

493

Galaxy clusters and microwave background anisotropy  

E-print Network

Previous estimates of the microwave background anisotropies produced by freely falling spherical clusters are discussed. These estimates are based on the Swiss-Cheese and Tolman-Bondi models. It is proved that these models give only upper limits to the anisotropies produced by the observed galaxy clusters. By using spherically symmetric codes including pressureless matter and a hot baryonic gas, new upper limits are obtained. The contributions of the hot gas and the pressureless component to the total anisotropy are compared. The effects produced by the pressure are proved to be negligible; hence, estimations of the cluster anisotropies based on N-body simulations are hereafter justified. After the phenomenon of violent relaxation, any realistic rich cluster can only produce small anisotropies with amplitudes of order $10^{-7}$. During the rapid process of violent relaxation, the anisotropies produced by nonlinear clusters are expected to range in the interval $(10^{-6},10^{-5})$. The angular scales of these anisotropies are discussed.

V. Quilis; J. M. Ibanez; D. Saez

1995-07-08

494

Physics of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), especially of its frequency spectrum and its anisotropies, both in temperature and in polarization, have played a key role in the development of modern cosmology and of our understanding of the very early universe. We review the underlying physics of the CMB and how the primordial temperature and polarization anisotropies were imprinted. Possibilities for distinguishing competing cosmological models are emphasized. The current status of CMB experiments and experimental techniques with an emphasis toward future observations, particularly in polarization, is reviewed. The physics of foreground emissions, especially of polarized dust, is discussed in detail, since this area is likely to become crucial for measurements of the B modes of the CMB polarization at ever greater sensitivity.

Bucher, Martin

2015-01-01

495

Ultra-Low Background Measurements using AMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current-generation experiments studying rare processes such as neu- trino and dark matter interactions require ultra-low levels of radioactive background. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) shows promise in achieving the ultra-low sensitivity required for detector material selec- tion. One project interested in such techniques is SNO+, which proposes to modify the existing SNO detector to study low-energy solar neutrinos as well as other neutrino properties via double-beta decay using a liquid scintillator called linear alkylbenzene (LAB). Due to the lower energy threshold of the detector, the present materials need to be reevaluated for concentrations of ^40K. Ultra-pure copper cathodes as well as sam- ples of materials to be used in the detector have been prepared at Idaho State University and Idaho National Laboratory. These materials are being tested for levels of ^40K at the Notre Dame AMS facility. Results from the first set of measurements will be discussed.

Robertson, Daniel J.; Baker, John D.; Collon, Philippe; Heise, Jaret; Keeter, Kara J.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Tatar, Ed; Taylor, Charles

2008-05-01

496

Speech Recognition in Natural Background Noise  

PubMed Central

In the real world, human speech recognition nearly always involves listening in background noise. The impact of such noise on speech signals and on intelligibility performance increases with the separation of the listener from the speaker. The present behavioral experiment provides an overview of the effects of such acoustic disturbances on speech perception in conditions approaching ecologically valid contexts. We analysed the intelligibility loss in spoken word lists with increasing listener-to-speaker distance in a typical low-level natural background noise. The noise was combined with the simple spherical amplitude attenuation due to distance, basically changing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, our study draws attention to some of the most basic environmental constraints that have pervaded spoken communication throughout human history. We evaluated the ability of native French participants to recognize French monosyllabic words (spoken at 65.3 dB(A), reference at 1 meter) at distances between 11 to 33 meters, which corresponded to the SNRs most revealing of the progressive effect of the selected natural noise (?8.8 dB to ?18.4 dB). Our results showed that in such conditions, identity of vowels is mostly preserved, with the striking peculiarity of the absence of confusion in vowels. The results also confirmed the functional role of consonants during lexical identification. The extensive analysis of recognition scores, confusion patterns and associated acoustic cues revealed that sonorant, sibilant and burst properties were the most important parameters influencing phoneme recognition. . Altogether these analyses allowed us to extract a resistance scale from consonant recognition scores. We also identified specific perceptual consonant confusion groups depending of the place in the words (onset vs. coda). Finally our data suggested that listeners may access some acoustic cues of the CV transition, opening interesting perspectives for future studies. PMID:24260183

Meyer, Julien; Dentel, Laure; Meunier, Fanny

2013-01-01

497

The microwave background anisotropies:?Observations  

PubMed Central

Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiationfingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 ?K fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universethe decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century. PMID:9419320

Wilkinson, David

1998-01-01

498

The Social Nature of Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how a philosophical analysis of the moral value of information can help librarians rethink some aspects of their professional values, especially their commitment to neutrality. Discusses the historical background of allowing fiction into library collections; the impact of technology; the moral character of information; and information,

Alfino, Mark; Pierce, Linda

2001-01-01

499

Background estimation in a wide-field background-limited instrument such as Fermi GBM  

E-print Network

The supporting instrument on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is a wide-field gamma-ray monitor composed of 14 individual scintillation detectors, with a field of view which encompasses the entire unocculted sky. Primarily designed as transient monitors, the conventional method for background determination with GBM-like instruments is to time interpolate intervals before and after the source as a polynomial. This is generally sufficient for sharp impulsive phenomena such as Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) which are characterised by impulsive peaks with sharp rises, often highly structured, and easily distinguishable against instrumental backgrounds. However, smoother long lived emission, such as observed in solar flares and some GRBs, would be difficult to detect in a background-limited instrument using this method. We present here a description of a technique which uses the rates from adjacent days when the satellite has approximately the same geographical footprint to dis...

Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael

2012-01-01

500

A Review of the Major Issues and Problems of Welfare Reform; A Background Paper Developed for the Community Services Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This background paper was developed for the Community Services Administration (CSA) in order to provide background information concerning welfare reform. It examines possible public assistance strategies, such as the following: (1) broad-based cash transfer (negative income tax, wage rate subsidies, demogrants, and family allowances), (2)

Technical Assistance Research Programs, Inc., Washington, DC.