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1

L'expression culture de l'information : quelle pertinence, quels enjeux ?  

E-print Network

1 L'expression « culture de l'information » : quelle pertinence, quels enjeux ? Alain CHANTE MCF en....................................................................................................................2 LA CULTURE COMME ?RUDITION, COMME PATRIMOINE SOCIAL, COMME ?TAT D..................................................................... 6 LA CULTURE DE L'INFORMATION : M?TA-CONNAISSANCES, CULTURE DE L'APPRENANCE OU TERRITOIRE D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

An instrumentation system for gathering information pertinent to the performance of an adaptive cruise control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data acquisition system (DAS) installed in the ACC-equipped vehicles is designed to collect, process, and store both numerical and video data files using two on-board computers to quantify aspects of the driving process that are pertinent to the control of speed and clearance gap relative to the closest preceding vehicle. The data are collected and stored on a trip-per-trip

M. Hagan; P. Fancher; S. Bogard; R. Ervin; Z. Bareket

1997-01-01

3

Etude de la pertinence de critres de recherche en recherche d'informations sur  

E-print Network

in answer personalisation. The system is evaluated by human participants in the domain of television. When viewers choose a programme to watch on television, the characteristics of the programme effect; Preferences; Characteristic Relevance; Television. MOTS-CL?S: recherche d'informations, personnalisation de

Hammerton, James

4

BACKGROUND INFORMATION October 4, 2004  

E-print Network

their health. Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange, Atlanta (HELIX-Atlanta) is an effort to build an EPHT network in five Metropolitan Atlanta counties (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinnett counties). The following activities are examples of how information from the HELIX-Atlanta Network could

5

Pertinence of the internship  

E-print Network

1 Art.1 Curricular internship Art.2 Objectives Art.3 Timing and Duration Art.4 Choice of Employer Art.5 Pertinence of the internship Art.6 Internship Search GRADUATE INTERNSHIP GUIDELINES Faculties and in Economics a period of practical training or work experience, herein referred to as `internship', is one

Krause, Rolf

6

Background Information 1. What are stem cells?  

E-print Network

Background Information 1. What are stem cells? 2. What might stem cell research achieve? 3. Why we need to continue research using embryonic stem cells? 4. Time taken for discoveries 5. Examples of stem of Embryonic cell lines 8. Fertility Research using human embryos and blastocysts 1. What are stem cells? Stem

Rambaut, Andrew

7

Employment and Training Legislation-1968; Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume supplied background information for employment and training legislation for the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare of the United States Senate for 1968. It includes: (1) excerpts from reports and recommendations of national committees and commissions on civil disorders, rural poverty, technology and automation, food and fiber, and

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

8

Italian Basic Course: Area Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement to the Basic Course in Italian developed by the Defense Language Institute provides area background information on a variety of topics. They include: (1) housing and servants, (2) dining and a glossary of gastronomic terminology, (3) driving in Italy, and (4) relations with the police. The appendix contains material on: the Italian

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

9

Organizational performance and regulatory compliance as measured by clinical pertinence indicators before and after implementation of anesthesia information management system (AIMS).  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that electronic medical records (EMR) can lead to a greater reduction of medical errors and better adherence to regulatory compliance than paper medical records (PMR). In order to assess the organizational performance and regulatory compliance, we tracked different clinical pertinence indicators (CPI) in our anesthesia information management system (AIMS) for 5 years. These indicators comprised of the protocols from the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP), elements of performance (EP) from The Joint Commission (TJC), and guidelines from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). A comprehensive AIMS was initiated and the CPI were collected from October 5, 2009 to December 31, 2010 (EMR period) and from January 1, 2006 to October 4, 2009 (PMR period). Fourteen CPI were found to be common between the EMR and PMR periods. Based on the statistical analysis of the 14 common CPI, there was a significant increase (p?

Choi, Clark K; Saberito, Darlene; Tyagaraj, Changa; Tyagaraj, Kalpana

2014-01-01

10

Division of Undergraduate Education Reviewer Background Information Form  

NSF Publications Database

... information is retained for future reference in selecting reviewers. The information requested on ... of all information is entirely voluntary. The purpose of this background information is to assist in ...

11

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Colon CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the descriptive manuscript cited below.

12

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Breast CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the materials cited below.

13

Indirect Costs of University Research: Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is intended to provide a solid base of information about the treatment of indirect university research costs in various jurisdictions and to highlight some of the factors that have contributed to increased interest in the issues surrounding the funding of indirect costs of research. University research in Ontario has continued to evolve

Voet, Tony Vander

14

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information  

E-print Network

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepared by Joel. Introduction_______________________________________________ 1 1.1. Goals of the IMRC's Smog Check Evaluation for the IMRC Smog Check Evaluation _________________ 2 3. Evaluation Process

Denver, University of

15

UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information  

E-print Network

1 UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information: Re-employment compensation position. Re-employment compensation is a federal-state partnership based upon federal law but it is administered at the state level. Re-employment compensation is a temporary, partial wage replacement

Wu, Shin-Tson

16

Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

1981-01-01

17

Acquisition of background and technical information and class trip planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instructors who are very familiar with a study area, as well as those who are not, find the field trip information acquisition and planning process speeded and made more effective by organizing it in stages. The stage follow a deductive progression: from the associated context region, to the study area, to the specific sample window sites, and from generalized background information on the study region to specific technical data on the environmental and human use systems to be interpreted at each site. On the class trip and in the follow up laboratory, the learning/interpretive process are at first deductive in applying previously learned information and skills to analysis of the study site, then inductive in reading and interpreting the landscape, imagery, and maps of the site, correlating them with information of other samples sites and building valid generalizations about the larger study area, its context region, and other (similar and/or contrasting) regions.

Mackinnon, R. M.; Wake, W. H.

1981-01-01

18

Wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing industry - background information for proposed standards  

SciTech Connect

A Standard of Performance for the control of emissions from wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing facilities is being proposed under authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. This standard would apply to new, modified, or reconstructed wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing lines that utilize the rotary spin forming process and that commence construction on or after the date of proposal of the regulation. This document contains background information and environmental and economic impact assessments of the regulatory alternatives considered in developing the proposed standard. 79 references, 280 tables.

Not Available

1983-12-01

19

Community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constrained clustering has been well-studied in the unsupervised learning society. However, how to encode constraints into community structure detection, within complex networks, remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised learning framework for community structure detection. This framework implicitly encodes the must-link and cannot-link constraints by modifying the adjacency matrix of network, which can also be regarded as de-noising the consensus matrix of community structures. Our proposed method gives consideration to both the topology and the functions (background information) of complex network, which enhances the interpretability of the results. The comparisons performed on both the synthetic benchmarks and the real-world networks show that the proposed framework can significantly improve the community detection performance with few constraints, which makes it an attractive methodology in the analysis of complex networks.

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

2013-02-01

20

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Simultaneous Confidence Intervals with more  

E-print Network

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Outline Bounds Illustrations Women's Health Initiative #12;Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence

Stark, Philip B.

21

Building Digital Collections: Technical Information and Background Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced on May 9, this newly updated site from the Library of Congress National Digital Library Program (NDLP) documents "technical activities relating to the procedures and practices employed by the NDLP, and its precursor American Memory Program, over the past decade." Of use to anyone involved in digital library projects, the highlight of the site is probably the Building Digital Collections section, which links to the technical documents (included with most American Memory Collections) describing how the collection was digitized and what technology was used. The site also contains descriptions of technical practices, workflow production, and a selection of background papers.

22

Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

Rosenblatt, D.H.

1996-11-01

23

Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nat

24

Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very nearly the speed of light. Optical studies of a December 1997 burst (GRB 971214) indicated a distance for it of nearly 12 billion light-years. With distances known, astronomers could calculate the amount of energy released during the explosion. The answers were astounding. GRB 970508, in a mere 15 seconds, released nearly ten times more energy than our Sun will release in its entire, 10-billion-year lifetime. GRB 971214, for one or two seconds, outshone the entire rest of the universe. These energies ruled out many of the numerous theories for the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts that had arisen over the previous three decades. Many answers about the origins of Gamma Ray Bursts and the physics of the fireballs will come from radio telescopes. The VLA, with its combination of sensitivity and resolving power, "has a unique role to play in deciphering GRB fireball physics," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. First, radio astronomers can see the GRB fireball far longer than it is visible at other wavelengths. A Gamma Ray Burst is visible in the gamma rays for typically seconds or minutes, in X-rays for days, and in visible light for weeks, based on the past year's experience. "With radio telescopes, we can see the fireballs for months, gaining new information every day," said Greg Taylor, also of NRAO in Socorro. "Also, at other wavelengths, they see the emission only as it is rapidly getting weaker. At radio wavelengths, we can study the emission as it rises in strength, peaks, then slowly decays." In addition, radio observations can measure the size of the fireball. "Only radio telescopes can measure the size, and we can do it in three different ways," Frail said. These techniques involve studying the scintillation, or "twinkling" of the radio emission; absorption characteristics of the emission; and, for bright, energetic afterglows, direct measurements of sizes can be made through the great resolving power of continent-wide radio telescope arrays such as t

25

78 FR 54246 - Agency Emergency Information Collection Reinstatement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...designee provide pertinent information for easy record retrieval allowing for increased...processing. Pertinent information includes the requester's...designees pertinent information for easy record retrieval; (5) Annual...

2013-09-03

26

Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

2014-05-01

27

Students Seeking Access to Four-Year Institutions: Community College Transfers [Background Information].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides background information for a hearing by the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education and Outreach on December 3, 1997. The Introduction presents the Committee announcement, press release, agenda, information about transfer efforts in California, facts and figures about the community colleges, and the text of

Moore, Jamillah

28

Information Loss Paradox Tested on Chiral Fermion Coupled to a Background Dilatonic Field  

E-print Network

A model where chiral boson is coupled to a background dilatonic field is considered to study the s-wave scattering of fermion by a back ground dilatonic black hole. Unlike the conclusion drawn in \\cite{MIT} it is found that the presence of chiral fermion does not violate unitarity and information remains preserved. Regularization plays a crucial role on the information paradox.

Anisur Rahaman

2006-07-24

29

Are Disciplinary Distinctions Pertinent to Multicultural Education?: A View from Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I ask whether disciplinary distinctions are pertinent to multicultural education. Are pedagogical prescriptions aimed at providing access and success to students of diverse backgrounds equally applicable across domains? I review cross-cultural cognitive research to depict defunct deficit and extant pluralistic approaches to

Tabak, Iris

2005-01-01

30

A moving ship detection based on edge information of single image and background subtraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship detection based on video is important in the application of surveillance and marine safety, the detection results of tradition methods, such as background subtraction, have much noise because of background noise such as ocean wave. In this paper we present a simple but efficient method for ship detection, It is based on the edge information of single image and movement information of multi images. Firstly, detect those movement pixels used the background subtraction to the video image, and the distance transformation is operation on the difference images; Secondly, we detect the edge of video image used Canny detector , and morphological operation on the edge image, lastly, eliminate the movement pixels if their distance transformation value is bigger than the threshold. The experimental results demonstrate that is efficient to eliminate the background noise and detect the real target.

Shi, Tingyan; Yang, Lichun; Liu, Zhicheng

2013-10-01

31

Ohio's Literacy Situation. Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services for Literacy. Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by participants in the Ohio Preconference and the 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services (WHCLIS), this background paper on one of the three major WHCLIS themes examines Ohio's literacy problem and reviews the state's current literacy programs and funding sources. Definitions of terms, a brief history of

Luther, Barbara

32

Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

1982-03-01

33

Part 1: Background Information Part 1 will cover APEX Scope, Phases, Process, "How we got here",  

E-print Network

APEX Part 1: Background Information · Part 1 will cover APEX Scope, Phases, Process, "How we got for the Chamber Technology that might: 1. In the near-term: enable plasma experiments to more fully achieve, particulate bed, spray cooling, liquid walls, etc.) External Events: Snowmass and its impact - The physics

California at Los Angeles, University of

34

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2009Operating System Concepts 8th Edition, Lecture 15: Background Information  

E-print Network

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009Operating System Concepts ­ 8th Edition, Lecture 15: Background Information for the VMWare ESX Memory Management paper #12;14.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009OperatingKB of data each. How much physical memory needed with shared pages? #12;14.3 Silberschatz, Galvin

Iamnitchi, Adriana

35

THERMAL RADIATION The type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinentThe type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinent  

E-print Network

THERMAL RADIATION The type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinentThe type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinent to heat transfer is the thermal radiation emitted as a result is above absolute zero. Everything around us constantlyy emits thermal radiation. 5 The electromagnetic

Kostic, Milivoje M.

36

Pili prove pertinent to enterococcal endocarditis  

PubMed Central

Enterococcus faecalis is an important agent of endocarditis and urinary tract infections, which occur frequently in hospitals. Antimicrobial therapy is complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant strains, which contribute significantly to mortality associated with E. faecalis infection. In this issue of the JCI, Nallapareddy and colleagues report that E. faecalis produces pili on its surface and that these proteinaceous fibers are used for bacterial adherence to host tissues and for the establishment of biofilms and endocarditis (see the related article beginning on page 2799). This information may enable new vaccine strategies for the prevention of E. faecalis infections. PMID:17016552

Budzik, Jonathan M.; Schneewind, Olaf

2006-01-01

37

Distinguishing vegetation from soil background information. [by gray mapping of Landsat MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In aircraft and satellite multispectral scanner data, soil background signals are superimposed on or intermingled with information about vegetation. A procedure which accounts for soil background would, therefore, make a considerable contribution to an operational use of Landsat and other spectral data for monitoring the productivity of range, forest, and crop lands. A description is presented of an investigation which was conducted to obtain information for the development of such a procedure. The investigation included a study of the soil reflectance that supplies the background signal of vegetated surfaces. Landsat data as recorded on computer compatible tapes were used in the study. The results of the investigation are discussed, taking into account a study reported by Kauth and Thomas (1976). Attention is given to the determination of Kauth's plane of soils, sun angle effects, vegetation index modeling, and the evaluation of vegetation indexes. Graphs are presented which show the results obtained with a gray mapping technique. The technique makes it possible to display plant, soil, water, and cloud conditions for any Landsat overpass.

Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.

1977-01-01

38

The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Silver City 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, New Mexico and Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Silver City 1 ? x 2 ? quadrangle, consisting of about 20,650 km2 in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona, has been investigated by a multidisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing its mineral resource potential. The results of this investigation are in a folio of 21 maps that contain detailed information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral deposits, and potential mineral resources of the quadrangle. This Circular provides background information on the various studies and integrates the component maps. It contains an extensive selected bibliography pertinent to the geology and mineral deposits of the quadrangle. The quadrangle has produced more than $3.5 billion in mineral products since about 1850 and contains significant resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, iron, manganese-iron, zeolite minerals, and possibly tin and tungsten.

Richter, Donald H.; Houser, B. B.; Watts, K. C.; Klein, D. P.; Sharp, W. N.; Drewes, Harald; Hedlund, D. C.; Raines, G. L.; Hassemer, J. R.

1987-01-01

39

The use of prior information for extracting the post-edge background.  

PubMed

A new method for extracting the post-edge background mu0 is proposed, the method of Bayesian smoothing. A further evolution of the smoothing spline method is considered as well. Both techniques are capable to take into account prior information about the peculiarities on the mu0. In addition, since the Bayesian approach works in terms of the posterior probability density functions, it contains a natural way to determine the errors of the mu0 construction, which has always been an unresolvable problem for any other method. Even with use of the prior information, which narrows the posterior probabilities, the errors of mu0 are shown to be larger than the experimental noise. PMID:11512751

Klementev, K V

2001-03-01

40

Leading Court Decision Pertinent to Public School Desegregation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises eight federal court decisions pertinent to public school desegregation: (1) "Brown v. Board of Education," 347 U.S. 483 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (2) "Bolling v. Sharpe," 374 U.S. 497 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (3) "Brown v.

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

41

Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program  

SciTech Connect

We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

Reader, J.

2013-06-11

42

Background information on high temperature insulation for liquid-immersed power transformers  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the availability of insulation materials having a higher temperature rating than cellulose had led to the design of high temperature power transformers for specialized applications where size and weight are important considerations. Such applications include traction transformers, mobile transformers, and power transformers with special loading requirements. Even through such equipment has been in use for many years, there are presently no standards which address high temperature materials in liquid-immersed transformers. Recognizing this deficiency, the IEEE Transformers Committee has established a Working Group to investigate what standards or guides could be formulated. As a first step, the Working Group has prepared this state-of-the-art paper to document background information on the materials and their application. It is hoped that discussion of this paper will help to establish future directions for standards.

Not Available

1994-10-01

43

2003 --Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT-BACKGROUND COLOR  

E-print Network

and the other consisted of information on a fictitious TV/DVD player. After studying each page they completed that the relationship between font/background color combinations and outcomes is complex and often inconsistent with web background (negative text) is almost as good. Although the contrast ratio is the same as for positive text

Missouri-Rolla, University of

44

Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information  

SciTech Connect

This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

None

1980-11-01

45

Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background  

E-print Network

We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

Misao Sasaki; Dong-han Yeom

2014-04-06

46

The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

1992-01-01

47

All Student Background Information (Calculus-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete this questionnaire. The information you provide will help  

E-print Network

. Computer Science D. Engineering E. Mathematics 32. A. Pre-medical B. Physics/Astrophysics C. Social ScienceAll Student Background Information (Calculus-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete this questionnaire. The information you provide will help the Physics Department evaluate the usefulness

Minnesota, University of

48

Peelle's pertinent puzzle using the Monte Carlo technique  

SciTech Connect

We try to understand the long-standing problem of the Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) using the Monte Carlo technique. We allow the probability density functions to be any kind of form to assume the impact of distribution, and obtain the least-squares solution directly from numerical simulations. We found that the standard least squares method gives the correct answer if a weighting function is properly provided. Results from numerical simulations show that the correct answer of PPP is 1.1 {+-} 0.25 if the common error is multiplicative. The thought-provoking answer of 0.88 is also correct, if the common error is additive, and if the error is proportional to the measured values. The least squares method correctly gives us the most probable case, where the additive component has a negative value. Finally, the standard method fails for PPP due to a distorted (non Gaussian) joint distribution.

Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burr, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

49

Background for Builders--Related Science and Trade Information for the Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primarily intended for instructors but also useful to students, this guide provides a set of lessons (interlaced with humorous phrases and cartoons) for teaching fundamental information for the building trades. Each lesson contains objectives, related information, and a review or summary. Unit I is a brief, humorous message to the student on the

Lucas, Joseph

50

Fluctuation Analysis of the Far-Infrared Background - Information from the Confusion  

E-print Network

We are investigating to what extent one can use a P(D) analysis to extract number counts of unclustered sources from maps of the far infrared background. Currently available such maps, and those expected to emerge in near future are dominated by confusion noise due to poor resolution. We simulate background maps with an underlying two slope model for N(S) and we find that in an experiment of FIRBACK type we can extract the high flux slope with an error of few percent while other parameters are not so well constrained. We find, however, that in a SIRTF type experiment all parameters of this N(S) model can be extracted with errors of only few percent.

Yasmin Friedmann; Francois Bouchet

2003-10-28

51

Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

Sutter, S. L.

1982-05-01

52

Student Background Information (Algebra-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete this questionnaire. The information you provide will help  

E-print Network

Student Background Information (Algebra-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete high school math class you completed? a Algebra b Geometry or Trigonometry c Pre-calculus, Functions completed prior to taking this course? a I have not taken a college math class b Algebra, Geometry

Minnesota, University of

53

Ground-water protection standards for inactive uranium tailings sites (40 CFR 192): Background information for final rule. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Final Background Information Document summarizes the information and data considered by the Agency in developing the ground-water protection standards. The report presents a brief description of the Title II ground water standard and how it can be used to develop the Title I rulemaking. A description of the 24 designated uranium-tailings sites and their current status in the DOE remedial-action program is included as well as a detailed analysis of the available data on the ground water in the vicinity of 14 of the 24 sites. It also describes different methods that can be used for the restoration of ground water and the costs of using these restoration methods.

Not Available

1989-03-01

54

Mononucleosis Background Information  

E-print Network

or drinks, and by coughing or sneezing. The incubation period (time from exposure to symptoms) is 4 to 6. · No contact sports or strenuous exercise for at least 6 weeks. Trauma to the abdomen may possibly rupture

Suzuki, Masatsugu

55

Background Information for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

2001-01-01

56

Mars Background Information General Information  

E-print Network

as fuel, oxygen or potable water. The Mars Exploration Rovers are will look for evidence of liquid water The atmosphere on Mars is mostly carbon dioxide and at very low pressure. This poses several problems relief than Moon or Earth Elevation range: +27 km (Olympus Mons) to -4km (Hellas Basin) No Liquid water

Dennis, Robert G.

57

78 FR 79418 - Agency Information Collection Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pertinent information for easy record retrieval allowing for increased efficiencies and quicker processing. Pertinent information...respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES:...

2013-12-30

58

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2013-07-01

59

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2010-07-01

60

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2011-07-01

61

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2012-07-01

62

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was established in the fall of 1995, with the cooperation and financial support of  

E-print Network

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was established in the fall in their quest for higher education. This free book rental scholarship program assists students each semester intersession for utilization in spring 2013. This free book rental scholarship program is administered

de Lijser, Peter

63

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was estab-lished in the fall of 1995, with the cooperation and financial support of Titan  

E-print Network

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was estab- lished in the fall for utilization in fall 2014. This free book rental scholarship program is administered by theAssociated Students in their quest for higher education. This free book rental scholarship program assists students each semester

de Lijser, Peter

64

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was established in the fall of 1995, with the cooperation and financial support of  

E-print Network

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was established in the fall in their quest for higher education. This free book rental scholarship program assists students each semester for utilization in spring 2014. This free book rental scholarship program is administered by the Associated

de Lijser, Peter

65

Limites et pertinence de la guerre juste face au terrorisme et aux nouvelles guerres  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to examine the pertinence as well as the limits of the just war theory in order to apprehend the ethical issues raised by contemporary forms of political violence. Terrorism is undoubtedly an extreme case of political violence that puts to the test the theoretical and practical relevance of jus ad bellum and jus in bello principles. From

Ryoa Chung

2009-01-01

66

The WG will also serve to audit the implementation of the pertinent  

E-print Network

requirements and assess- ment. In addition, the rule addresses tower crane hazards, addresses the useThe WG will also serve to audit the implementation of the pertinent requirements for crane, five young men and one brave woman, traveled to Louisville, KY to meet and discuss rigging and crane

US Army Corps of Engineers

67

Seeing oneself in one's choices: Construal level and self-pertinence of electoral and consumer decisions  

E-print Network

Seeing oneself in one's choices: Construal level and self-pertinence of electoral and consumer to advertisements appealing to their desired self-concept (in Study 3) than to product quality. These findings innumerable decisions that can be inter- preted in myriad ways. Consumer purchases, for instance, can be based

Freitas, Antonio L.

68

Research Methodologies Pertinent to the Study of Schooling Effects: A Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A broad spectrum of methodologies pertinent to studies of schooling effects are reviewed. Methodological issues and problems are addressed according to a three-dimensional conceptual framework: (1) indicators of schooling effects; (2) study approaches; and (3) units of analysis. Problems and uses of status attainment and difference scores as

Rim, Eui-Do; Coller, Alan R.

69

Hurricane Backgrounder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides basic information on hurricanes. topics include the definition of hurricane , where they are likely to form, and their potential for damage, including high winds, heavy rainfall, flooding, tornadoes, and microbursts. There is also an illustration showing the Saffir-Simpson scale for classifying hurricane intensity, information on naming hurricanes, and a set of links to additional information.

2007-12-12

70

Background Use of Sensitive Information to Aid in Analysis of Non-sensitive Data on Threats and Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the 9-11 commissions recommendations on a different way of organizing intelligence activities of the United States\\u000a was to unify the effort in information sharing across the Intelligence Community. Challenges include the need to deal with\\u000a information that is geographically distributed and held in compartmented repositories having restricted access. A demonstrated\\u000a need to know is required before the data

Richard A. Smith

2005-01-01

71

Malignant Melanoma With Neural Differentiation: An Exceptional Case Report and Brief Review of the Pertinent Literature  

PubMed Central

The term neurotropic melanoma has been used to refer to malignant melanoma with associated infiltration of nerve or neural differentiationthat is, melanoma cells exhibiting cytological characteristics of nerve cells. Historically, neurotropic melanoma has generally been discussed within the context of desmoplastic melanoma. We report an exceptional case of melanoma notable for a very well-differentiated neural component that was contiguous with obvious overlying melanoma. After careful consideration of all pertinent histological features, the overall diagnostic impression was that of melanoma with associated malignant neurotization. We have not encountered a previously reported case with such a well-differentiated neural component. The following article details our exceptional case of melanoma with malignant neurotization and presents a discussion of the differential diagnosis and brief review of the pertinent literature. PMID:23782676

Su, Albert; Dry, Sarah M.; Binder, Scott W.; Said, Jonathan; Shintaku, Peter; Sarantopoulos, G. Peter

2014-01-01

72

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry-background information for proposed air emission standards. Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, and semi-chemical mills. Interim final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being proposed for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. The document provides technical background information and analyses used in the development of the proposed pulp and paper NESHAP. It covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills. Effluent guideline limitations for pulp and paper mills are being developed concurrently under the Clean Water Act. Technical information used for the development of effluent guideline limitations is in separate documents.

Not Available

1993-10-01

73

An Information System for the Council of Educational Facility Planners International Membership Information Network. Volume 1: Background Report and Implementation Models. Volume 2: Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to assist the Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFP/I) in planning for the establishment of an information system for its members and other stakeholders who need information on educational facilities. The report focuses on the major activities to be accomplished and the issues to be considered when

Hruday, Connie; And Others

74

Experimental investigations of a uranium plasma pertinent to a self-sustaining plasma source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is pertinent to the realization of a self-sustained fissioning plasma for applications such as nuclear propulsion, closed cycle MHD power generation using a plasma core reactor, and heat engines such as the nuclear piston engine, as well as the direct conversion of fission energy into optical radiation (nuclear pumped lasers). Diagnostic measurement methods and experimental devices simulating plasma core reactor conditions are discussed. Studies on the following topics are considered: (1) ballistic piston compressor (U-235); (2) high pressure uranium plasma (natural uranium); (3) sliding spark discharge (natural uranium); (4) fission fragment interaction (He-3 and U-235); and (5) nuclear pumped lasers (He-3 and U-235).

Schneider, R. T.

1971-01-01

75

Evaluation of development toxicity data: a discussion of some pertinent factors and a proposal  

SciTech Connect

There is currently no well-accepted standard method for evaluation of developmental toxicity data. This paper presents one approach to the evaluation of developmental toxicity data. The authors initially identify some pertinent factors that influence the interpretation of animal data and summarize the literature pertaining to these factors. Such factors include the quality and quantity of data and the relationship between maternal and developmental toxicity. They proceed with a discussion of quantitative assessment of data and propose schemes for qualitative and quantitative developmental hazard assessments.

Hart, W.L.; Reynolds, R.C.; Krasavage, W.J.; Ely, T.S.; Bell, R.H.; Raleigh, R.L.

1988-03-01

76

Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information  

MedlinePLUS

... botanical dietary supplements? Disclaimer Can botanicals be dietary supplements? To be classified as a dietary supplement , a ... use in capsules or tablets. Are botanical dietary supplements standardized? Standardization is a process that manufacturers may ...

77

76 FR 80209 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Change in Reporting Requirements and New Information Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requirements and New Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...other pertinent information, the marketing policy provides...objectives of the marketing order, the information collected...

2011-12-23

78

76 FR 48742 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Change in Reporting Requirements and New Information Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requirements and New Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...other pertinent information, the marketing policy provides...objectives of the marketing order, the information collected...

2011-08-09

79

Regularities pertinent to formation of hydraulic nonuniformities at the outlet from the reactor plant header system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintaining the preset distribution of coolant mass flow rate at the outlet from the header system organized as a back turn with lateral admission of coolant to the header and central removal of coolant from it is one of the conditions essential for securing reliable and efficient operation of a reactor plant. In the header system, coolant passes through the annular lateral channel formed by the vessel and central barrel, after which it enters into the header, changes the motion direction in it, and goes out through the channels of the grid placed in the central barrel. The results obtained from experimental investigations of the hydrodynamics in the header system flow paths carried out on models with flat and cylindrical shapes are presented. A previously unknown regularity pertinent to formation of hydraulic irregularities at the header system outlet is revealed, and semi-empirical correlations for determining the coolant mass flow rate distribution at the header system outlet are obtained. The regularity connected with formation of hydrodynamic nonuniformities at the header system outlet lies in the fact that the position of the maximum coolant velocity at the grid outlet coincides with the position of the maximum velocity in the core of the incident jet attacking the grid, and that the maximal average coolant velocity in the grid holes is proportional to the average coolant velocity in the incident jet.

Gabrianovich, B. N.; Del'nov, V. N.

2014-05-01

80

Definition of pertinent parameters for the evaluation of articular cartilage repair tissue with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate articular cartilage repair tissue after biological cartilage repair, we propose a new technique of non-invasive, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and define a new classification system. For the definition of pertinent variables the repair tissue of 45 patients treated with three different techniques for cartilage repair (microfracture, autologous osteochondral transplantation, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation) was analyzed 6 and

Stefan Marlovits; Gabriele Striessnig; Christoph T. Resinger; Silke M. Aldrian; Vilmos Vecsei; Herwig Imhof; Siegfried Trattnig

2004-01-01

81

Body Functions and Structures Pertinent to Infrared Thermography-Based Access for Clients With Severe Motor Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared thermography has been recently proposed as an access technology for individuals with disabilities, but body functions and structures pertinent to its use have not been documented. Seven clients (2 adults, 5 youth) with severe disabilities and their primary caregivers participated in this study. All clients had a Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) level of 5, but each possessed

Negar Memarian; Anastasios N. Venetsanopoulos; Tom Chau

2011-01-01

82

Selective exposure to and acquisition of information from educational television programs as a function of appeal and tempo of background music  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Exp I with 30 1st and 2nd graders, an educational program that contained no background music, appealing music of fast tempo, or unappealing music of slow tempo competed against 2 other programs. Appealing music of fast tempo produced exposure time significantly above the levels associated with the no-music control and the program with unappealing background music of slow tempo.

Jacob J. Wakshlag; Raymond Reitz; Dolf Zillmann

1982-01-01

83

Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization  

E-print Network

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is our richest source of cosmological information; the standard cosmological model was largely established thanks to study of the temperature anisotropies. By the end of the decade, the Planck satellite will close this important chapter and move us deeper into the new frontier of polarization measurements. Numerous ground--based and balloon--borne experiments are already forging into this new territory. Besides providing new and independent information on the primordial density perturbations and cosmological parameters, polarization measurements offer the potential to detect primordial gravity waves, constrain dark energy and measure the neutrino mass scale. A vigorous experimental program is underway worldwide and heading towards a new satellite mission dedicated to CMB polarization.

James G. Bartlett

2006-01-25

84

General Model for Cortical Capillary Networks and an Investigation on Pertinent Functional Reactivity to the Different Blood Inflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The cerebrocortical capillary circulations are irregular, tortuous which leads to difficulties in measuring the pertinent\\u000a hemodynamic parameters. To achieve such a task and better understand the functional response of terminal cerebrovascular beds\\u000a to the different input flows, a generic computational model is required. The approach developed here is capable of simulating\\u000a a cerebral capillary network of any part of the

Navid Safaeian; Tim David; Mathieu Sellier

85

The University of Oklahoma Background Check Authorization (updated 02/05/2013) Hiring department completes this section. Incomplete information will delay the hiring process.  

E-print Network

for termination of past employment, financial/credit history, criminal history records from any criminal justice to substantiate their qualifications for employment. Criminal background checks will be conducted in addition (including the Social Security Administration and the Immigration & Naturalization Service) subject to state

Oklahoma, University of

86

The EvolutionIntelligent Design Debate: A Meaningful Context for Teaching the Nature of Science in Information Literacy. Part 1: Historical Background and Philosophical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although absent from the ACRL Information Literacy Standards for Science and Technology, the ability to distinguish between what is and is not science is an essential component of information literacy. Addressing this question requires the librarian to introduce concepts such as the nature of science, its realm, rules, and limits, as well as the nature of pseudoscience and nonscience before

Claudia Lascar; Loren D. Mendelsohn

2011-01-01

87

Markle Foundation: The Task Force on National Security in the Information Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main feature of this Web site is the report titled "Protecting America's Freedom in the Information Age," released in October 2002. It examines how to effectively use information technology to collect and analyze information pertinent to national security. The report states that current government practices are insufficient in this area, and it is laden with recommendations for improving the situation. The task force's final findings and views are expressed in the first part of the report, some analyses of various working groups are given in the second part, and the final part is a collection of background research articles. Other sections of the site mainly constitute supporting documents for the report.

88

Implementation frameworks and MSW curricula: encouraging pursuit and use of model pertinent data.  

PubMed

Graduate preparation of social workers and the infrastructure of service delivery too often limit the pursuit and use of data to inform practice. We review literature addressing student and practitioner motivation and interests, as well as masters-level social work curriculum content. This establishes a context for presentation of Masters in Social Work (MSW) student evaluations of program implementation at 34 field placement sites throughout the greater Kansas City region. Their evaluations focus through frameworks identified by the National Implementation Research Network to examine patterns of implementation and program data usage. Based on student lessons learned, we suggest MSW curricula revision to foster student and program appreciation and use of data. PMID:24405143

Bertram, Rosalyn M; King, Kelli; Pederson, Rachel; Nutt, Justin

2014-01-01

89

Studying the specific features pertinent to combustion of chars obtained from coals having different degrees of metamorphism and biomass chars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Better conditions for igniting low-reaction coal (anthracite) can be obtained, higher fuel burnout ratio can be achieved, and the problem of shortage of a certain grade of coal can be solved by firing coal mixtures and by combusting coal jointly with solid biomass in coal-fired boilers. Results from studying the synergetic effect that had been revealed previously during the combustion of coal mixtures in flames are presented. A similar effect was also obtained during joint combustion of coal and wood in a flame. The kinetics pertinent to combustion of char mixtures obtained from coals characterized by different degrees of metamorphism and the kinetics pertinent to combustion of wood chars were studied on the RSK-1D laboratory setup. It was found from the experiments that the combustion rate of char mixtures obtained from coals having close degrees of metamorphism is equal to the value determined as a weighted mean rate with respect to the content of carbon. The combustion rate of char mixtures obtained from coals having essentially different degrees of metamorphism is close to the combustion rate of more reactive coal initially in the process and to the combustion rate of less reactive coal at the end of the process. A dependence of the specific burnout rate of carbon contained in the char of two wood fractions on reciprocal temperature in the range 663833 K is obtained. The combustion mode of an experimental sample is determined together with the reaction rate constant and activation energy.

Bestsennyi, I. V.; Shchudlo, T. S.; Dunaevskaya, N. I.; Topal, A. I.

2013-12-01

90

Fifty Percent Law: Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides background information about a statute that affects the fiscal operation of California community colleges. The Fifty Percent Law (Education Code 84362) requires "there shall be expended each fiscal year for payment of salaries of classroom instructors by a community college district, 50 percent of the district's current expense

Community Coll. League of California, Sacramento.

91

The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

1991-01-01

92

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry -- Background information for promulgated air emission standards: Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, semi-chemical, mechanical, and secondary and non-wood fiber mills. Final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being promulgated for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. This background information document provides technical information and analyses used in the development of the promulgated pulp and paper NESHAP, and contains responses to comments from the proposed rule. This document covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills (i.e., mills that combine on-site production of both pulp and paper).

NONE

1997-10-01

93

Cosmic Microwave Background Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Probing whether space is curved or flat, cosmologists have been searching for clues in ripples in the universe's microwave background left from the big bang. These tutorials explain the cosmic microwave background for neophytes, as well as more advanced readers.

Hu, Wayne

2003-10-10

94

Building Background Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

2014-01-01

95

USE OF PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODELS TO QUANTIFY THE IMPACT OF HUMAN AGE AND INTERINDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY PERTINENT TO RISK (FINAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This final report, Use of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models to Quantify the Impact of Human Age and Interindividual Differences in Physiology and Biochemistry Pertinent to Risk Final R...

96

4.4 RELEVANCE AND SIGNIFICANCE This proposal addresses the following published topic areas pertinent to the 14.3 Animal Manure  

E-print Network

pertinent to the 14.3 Animal Manure Management program: (a) Determination of the effects of animal manure and implementation of alternative waste treatment technologies and alternative animal production systems

Kentucky, University of

97

Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1) measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s), and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2) better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

Yanagisawa, Chiaki

2014-06-01

98

The Background of PER People: A Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from a survey given to about 50 PER community members were analyzed to determine the backgrounds of the members. The type of college attended, the type of graduate school, when they chose physics, when they chose PER, and other interesting background information will be presented. Also presented will be gender analyses of background differences. Remarkably little difference in background was found between men and women in the sample.

McCullough, Laura

2006-12-01

99

Background Check Presentation  

E-print Network

·July 1, 2012 ­ The UNM Division of Human Resources engaged in an RFP process to identify a NationalBackground Check Presentation Kim Herron-Singleton, Recruitment & UNMTemps Services Manager #12 check website to include BC and FP processes and resources · New background check request e-mail box

New Mexico, University of

100

Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

SciTech Connect

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of volcanic aerosol is over 30% faster than one would obtain without this correction. At background, the aerosol size distribution is found to remain remarkably constant between the tropopause and an altitude of approx.25 km, with a sudden transition to a distribution dominated by smaller particles above this altitude. The observations, in some respects, compare favorably with equilibrium one-dimensional stratospheric aerosol models and thus to some extent support the concept of relatively inert tropospheric sulfurous gases, such as carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide, as the main background stratospheric aerosol sulfur source. Models which incorporate sulfur chemistry are apparently not able to predict the observed variation of particle size with altitude. The 2-year background period is not long enough in itself to establish long-term trends. The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in May 1980 has considerably disrupted the background stratospheric aerosol which will probably not recover for several years. A comparison of the 1978--79 observations with Junge's original measurements made some 20 years earlier, also during a period void of volcanic perturbations, does not preclude a long-term increase in the background stratospheric aerosol level.

Hofmann, D.J.; Rosen, J.M.

1981-01-01

101

Diffuse Background Radiation  

E-print Network

A new determination of the upper limit to the cosmic diffuse background radiation, at ~110 nm, of 300 photons s-1 cm-2 sr-1 nm-1, is placed in the context of diffuse background measurements across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, including new optical, infrared, visible, and gamma-ray background measurements. The possibility that observed excess diffuse visible radiation is due to redshifted cosmological Lyman alpha recomination radiation is explored. Also, a new standard of units for the display of spectra is advocated.

Richard C. Henry

1999-03-18

102

The Cosmic Background Radiation  

E-print Network

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and anisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the update of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle Properties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

1997-11-08

103

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J. F. [University of Denver (United States); Atwood, W. [University of California at Santa Cruz (United States); Burnett, T. [University of Washington (United States); Grove, E. [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Longo, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)-Pisa (Italy); McEnery, J.; Ritz, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Mizuno, T. [Hiroshima University (Japan)

2007-07-12

104

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J.F.; /Denver U.; Atwood, W.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Burnett, T.; /Washington U., Seattle; Grove, E.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Longo, F.; /INFN, Pisa; McEnery, J.; /NASA, Goddard; Mizuno, T.; /Hiroshima U.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

2007-10-17

105

Introduction 1 Background 1  

E-print Network

squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). The grey squirrel was introduced to Britain in the late 19 th century populations in Northern Ireland. Background The red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) was once ubiquitous

106

Background Studies for EXIST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results from a study of the trapped proton and electron background for several orbital inclinations and altitudes. This study includes time dependent effects. In addition we describe a 3 component cosmic background model developed at the University of Southampton, UK. The three components are cosmic diffuse gamma rays, atmospheric albedo gamma rays, and cosmic ray protons. We present examples of how this model was applied to BATSE and discuss its application to EXIST.

Wilson, Colleen A.; Pendleton, G. N.; Fishman, G. J.

2004-01-01

107

Background character research for synthetical performance of thermal imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background is assumed to be uniform usually for evaluating the performance of thermal imaging systems, however the impact of background cannot be ignored for target acquisition in reality, background character is important research content for thermal imaging technology. A background noise parameter 𝜎 was proposed in MRTD model and used to describe background character. Background experiments were designed, and some typical backgrounds (namely lawn background, concrete pavement background, trees background and snow background) character were analyzed by 𝜎. MRTD including 𝜎 was introduced into MRTD-Channel Width (CW) model, the impact of above typical backgrounds for target information quantity were analyzed by MRTD-CW model with background character. Target information quantity for different backgrounds was calculated by MRTD-CW, and compared with that of TTP model. A target acquisition performance model based on MRTD-CW with background character will be research in the future.

Chen, Song-lin; Wang, Ji-hui; Wang, Xiao-wei; Jin, Wei-qi

2014-05-01

108

2. Social, ethical, and economic background  

E-print Network

­ and social problems ­ such as crime and abuse ­ influence society" David Keil Information Technology2. Social, ethical, and economic background David Keil Information Technology and Society 1/12 David Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 135 Information Technology and Society Topic 2: Social

Keil, David M.

109

January 7, 2002 Background Information on  

E-print Network

responsible for the dominance of matter over anti-matter in the known universe. In addition, this research may The basic constituents of matter. The innermost secrets of matter and energy are being probed ever more deeply by high energy physics experiments. These particles under study compose all matter, and the laws

110

Water Watch Program Overview. Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lakes, streams, and wetlands serve many purposes for the people of the state of Kentucky and are necessary and valued elements of its natural resources. The Water Watch program promotes individual responsibility for a common resource, educates people about the use and protection of local water resources, provides recreational opportunities through

Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

111

On Background Independence  

E-print Network

This paper concerns what Background Independence itself is (as opposed to some particular physical theory that is background independent). The notions presented mostly arose from a layer-by-layer analysis of the facets of the Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity. Part of this coincides with two relational postulates which are thus identified as classical precursors of two of the facets of the Problem of Time. These are furthemore tied to the forms of each of the GR Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Other aspects of Background Independence include the algebraic closure of these constraints, expressing physics in terms of beables, foliation independence as implemented by refoliation invariance, the reconstruction of spacetime from space. The final picture is that Background Independence - a philosophically desirable and physically implementable feature for a theory to have - has the facets of the Problem of Time among its consequences. Thus these arise naturally and are problems to be resolved, as opposed to avoided `by making one's physics background-dependent in order not to have these problems'. This serves as a selection criterion that limits the use of a number of model arenas and physical theories.

Edward Anderson

2013-10-05

112

Supersymmetric heterotic string backgrounds  

E-print Network

We present the main features of the solution of the gravitino and dilatino Killing spinor equations derived in hep-th/0510176 and hep-th/0703143 which have led to the classification of geometric types of all type I backgrounds. We then apply these results to the supersymmetric backgrounds of the heterotic string. In particular, we solve the gaugino Killing spinor equation together with the other two Killing spinor equations of the theory. We also use our results to classify all supersymmetry conditions of ten-dimensional gauge theory.

Ulf Gran; George Papadopoulos; Diederik Roest

2007-06-29

113

Cosmological Gravitational Wave Backgrounds  

E-print Network

An overview is presented of possible cosmologically distant sources of gravitational wave backgrounds, especially those which might produce detectable backgrounds in the LISA band between 0.1 and 100 mHz. Examples considered here include inflation-amplified vacuum fluctuations in inflaton and graviton fields, bubble collisions in first-order phase transitions, Goldstone modes of classical self-ordering scalars, and cosmic strings and other gauge defects. Characteristic scales and basic mechanisms are reviewed and spectra are estimated for each of these sources. The unique impact of a LISA detection on fundamental physics and cosmology is discussed.

Craig J. Hogan

1998-09-28

114

Cosmic background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and\\u000aanisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the\\u000aupdate of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle\\u000aProperties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

2000-01-01

115

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing  

E-print Network

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

Rambaut, Andrew

116

David Smith Academic background  

E-print Network

David Smith Academic background Ph.D. in Mathematics (Algebra), Université de Sherbrooke, Canada project program (I. Assem, F. Bergeron, C. Reutenauer, D. Smith) $132,000 ($44,000 per year for 3 years. Schiffler and D. Smith, Friezes, strings and cluster variables, to appear in Glasgow Mathematcal Journal. 2

117

INDIAN BACKGROUNDS Patuxent Wildlife  

E-print Network

of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 138 #12;#12;INDIAN BACKGROUNDS of the Patuxent Wildlife Research of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 138 #12; Exhibit the Indian hunted with spear and arrow to supply the necessities of life--food, clothing, and shelter

118

Local microwave background radiation  

E-print Network

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos S. L. Soares

2006-07-11

119

Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal Bureau

Fagnoni, Cynthia

120

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Characteristics, Volume II. Part 3B. SOC Numbers 7700 to 9900. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee provides

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

121

POLYFLOW theoretical background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the scope of the 1990-04 lecture series on computational fluid dynamics, a finite element program is described. POLYFLOW was designed for the analysis of industrial processes dominated by nonlinear viscous phenomena and viscoelastic effects. It is based on the general principles of continuum mechanics, together with phenomenological or kinetic theoretical models for describing the rheological behavior of the fluid. The theoretical background, necessary to understand the models, and numerical techniques used in POLYFLOW, are provided. The governing equations, their finite element formulations and the solution procedures are summarized.

Crochet, M. J.

122

The Iron Line Background  

E-print Network

We investigate the presence of iron line emission among faint X-ray sources identified in the 1Ms Chandra Deep Field South and in the 2Ms Chandra Deep Field North. Individual source spectra are stacked in seven redshift bins over the range z=0.5-4. We find that iron line emission is an ubiquitous property of X-ray sources up to z~3. The measured line strengths are in good agreement with those expected by simple pre-Chandra estimates based on X-ray background synthesis models. The average rest frame equivalent width of the iron line does not show significant changes with redshift.

Marcella Brusa; Roberto Gilli; Andrea Comastri

2005-01-25

123

Presentation 1: Background  

Cancer.gov

The Objectives of this presentation are to explain why, and a bit about how, the new rules were developed; to describe the Hematopoietic Working Group; to provide some general information about the Hematopoietic Working Group and its membership, and the objectives of the Working Group.

124

Progress of Merit Scholars: Does Religious Background Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to determine whether the career progress of Merit Scholars was significantly related to their early religious backgrounds. Information about religious backgrounds and post-college religious preferences was obtained from 1,324 students who received Merit awards in 1956 and 1957. Other information concerning: family background,

Watley, Donivan J.; Kaplan, Rosalyn

125

Health Information Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of health information technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 14 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 6 units specific to the occupation of emergency medical technician. The following

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

126

Pertinence conomique de la norme IFRS 3 phase 1 Une analyse des dprciations du goodwill par les entreprises franaises sur la priode 2000-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cet article propose de mesurer la pertinence conomique de la norme IFRS 3 imposant des tests de dprciation du goodwill en lieu et place de l'amortissement systmatique de celui-ci. Pour cela, la raction du march franais l'annonce de 75 dprciations de goodwill sur la priode 2000-2004 est examine. L'annonce de ces dprciations provoque un impact significativement ngatif sur la

Marc Feuilloley; Patrick Sentis

2006-01-01

127

Impact of the U.S. National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS) on Building Energy Performance Simulation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS) started the development of the National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS). Its goal is to define standard sets of data required to describe any given building in necessary detail so that any given AECO industry discipline application can find needed data at any point in the building lifecycle. This will include all data that are used in or are pertinent to building energy performance simulation and analysis. This paper describes the background that lead to the development of NBIMS, its goals and development methodology, its Part 1 (Version 1.0), and its probable impact on building energy performance simulation and analysis.

Bazjanac, Vladimir

2007-08-01

128

Information Systems Administration. Course Seven. Information Systems Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course is the seventh of seven in the Information Systems curriculum. The purpose of this capstone course is to build on skills acquired in the earlier courses. Emphasis is placed on realistic situations and challenges that exist in the automated office and for which information systems technology and skills are pertinent. These components

O'Neil, Sharon Lund; Everett, Donna R.

129

Conceptual Background to Radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) conceives the radio spectrum as primarily a resource for telecommunications. Indeed most applications of radio are for communications and other radio services, particularly the Radio Astronomy Service, are deemed to be `pretend'communication serviceas for spectrum amnagement purposes. The language of Radio Spectrum Management is permeated by the terminology ofcommunications, some derived from the physics of radio and some from aspects of information theory. This contribution touches on all the essential concepts of radiocommunications which the author thinks should be the common mental equipment of the Spectrum Manager. The fundamental capacity of a communication channel is discussed in terms of the degrees of freedom and bandwidth of a signal, and the signal to noise ratio. It is emphasized that an information bearing signal is inherently unpredictable, and must, at some level, be discontinuous. This has important consequences for the form of its power spectrum. The effect of inserting filters is discussed particularly with regard to constant amplitude signals and, in the context of non-linear power amplifiers, the phenomenon of`sideband recovery'. All the common generic forms of modulation are discussed including the very different case of `no-modulation' which applies in all forms of passive remote sensing. Whilst all are agreed that the radio spectrum should be used `efficiently', there is no quantitative measure of spectral efficiency which embraces all relevant aspects of spectral usage. These various aspects are dicussed. Finally a brief outline of some aspects of antennae are reviewed. It is pointed out that the recent introduction of so-called `active antennnae', which have properties unlike traditional passive antennae, has confused the interpretation of those ITU Radio Regulations which refer to antennae.

Ponsonby, J. E. B.

2004-06-01

130

Integrable Background Geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ?-manifold, determines a (k+?)-dimensional geometry (k+??4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ?-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+?)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(?) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(?^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently , degenerate or null reductions have attracted increased interest. Two of these reductions and their gauge theories (arguably, the two most significant) are also described.

Calderbank, David M. J.

2014-03-01

131

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil  

E-print Network

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil Hundreds of indigenous. According to MAR data, several violent incidents against landowners, miners and others have been observed groups worldwide #12;MAR Background Report About the Minorities at Risk Project The Minorities at Risk

Milchberg, Howard

132

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: The Revolution in Bahrain  

E-print Network

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: The Revolution in Bahrain Unrest in Tunisia, Egypt forces. MAR data also reports that social services in Shi'a neighborhoods are inferior to those in Sunni of ethnic groups worldwide #12;MAR Background Report In Bahrain, the freedom of press and expression

Milchberg, Howard

133

X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

1996-01-01

134

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE Background  

E-print Network

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE INDIVIDUAL Background: Pregnant women are considered to be a 'higher risk group' for swine flu. This means that for a small minority of cases, complications could workplace adjustments regarding swine flu, it is your responsibility to inform Occupational Health

Davies, Christopher

135

Background issues for defensive interceptors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal...

G. H. Canavan

1991-01-01

136

Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds  

E-print Network

Chapter 3 Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds New physics is often discovered by pushing of the low energies involved. There are many radioactive elements that have decays at lower energies which;Chapter 3: Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds 104 the rate of background. High-energy neutrino

137

REPORT NO. 5 background material  

E-print Network

REPORT NO. 5 background material for the development of radiation protection standards July 1964 Staff Report of the FEDERAL RADIATION COUNCIL #12;REPORT NO. 5 background material for the development INTRODUCTION This report contains background material used in the development of guidance for Federal agencies

138

Molecules in the mirror: how SERS backgrounds arise from the quantum method of images Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional derivation of eqn (5). See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp00093e Click here for additional data file.  

PubMed Central

The Raman coupling of light to molecular vibrations is strongly modified when they are placed near a plasmonic metal surface, with the appearance of a strong broad continuum background in addition to the normal surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peaks. Using a quantum method of images approach, we produce a simple but quantitative explanation of the inevitable presence of the background, due to the resistive damping of the image molecule. This model thus suggests new strategies for enhancing the SERS peak to background ratio. PMID:24584480

Barnett, Stephen M.; Harris, Nadine

2014-01-01

139

The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention Citation: Hall, R. and Hanna, P. (2004), The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention, Behaviour & Information Technology, forthcoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text\\/background color combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioral intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four color-combination conditions. Major findings were: a) Colors with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater

Richard H. Hall

140

Background  

E-print Network

This Provisional PDF corresponds to the article as it appeared upon acceptance. Fully formatted PDF and full text (HTML) versions will be made available soon. Embryonic diapause in humans: time to consider?

Grazyna E Ptak; Jacek A Modlinski; Grazyna E Ptak; Jacek A Modlinski; Pasqualino Loi

2013-01-01

141

Background  

E-print Network

Obligate intracellular bacteria commonly have much reduced genome sizes compared to their nearest free-living relatives. One reason for this is reductive evolution: the loss of genes rendered non-essential due to the intracellular habitat. This can occur because of the presence of orthologous genes in the host, combined with the ability of the bacteria to import the protein or metabolite products of the host genes. In this article we take a look at three such bacteria whose genomes have been fully sequenced. Buchnera is an endosymbiont of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, the relationship between these two organisms being so essential that neither can reproduce in the absence of the other. Rickettsia prowazekii is the causative agent of louse-borne typhus in humans and Mycobacterium leprae infection of humans leads to leprosy. Both of these human pathogens have fastidious growth requirements, which has made them very difficult to

Comp Funct Genom; Jo Wixon

142

Background  

E-print Network

OCA is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by hypopigmentation and abnormalities related to ocular development. Mutations in genes regulating melanin-biosynthesis cause four classical types of OCA (OCA 1-4). The clinical spectrum of OCA often depends on the pigmentation threshold of a patient, highlighting the importance of ethnic- specific SNPs. We aimed to understand the molecular bases of OCA in India, where it is one of the four major causes of childhood blindness. Materials and methods Blood samples were collected from OCA patients and family members, mostly from eastern and southern India. Seven pigmentation related genes were screened for variations. Relevant non-synonymous changes in tyrosinase (TYR) were functionally validated. Eighteen SNPs from three OCA genes were genotyped in 552 normal individuals covering various ethnic groups of India. Results Our data suggest that defects in TYR cause albinism in 58 % (36/62) of the cases [1] (and unpublished data; see Figure 1). Functional assays with missense mutations proved that none of mutants are enzymatically active and are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum [1]. Screening of the remaining cases (43%) revealed OCA2 to be the second common locus followed by SLC45A2 [2] (Figure 1). Evaluation of SNPs in TYR, OCA2 and SLC45A2 in normal population suggested definitive bias for some of the SNPs towards specific populations.

Kunal Ray; Mainak Sengupta; Moumita Chaki; Maitreyee Mondal; Swapan Samanta

143

Background  

Cancer.gov

Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls provide the highest quality, least biased dietary data. Traditional 24-hour recalls, however, are expensive and impractical for large-scale research because they rely on trained interviewers and multiple administrations to estimate usual intakes. As a result, researchers often make use of food frequency questionnaires, which are less expensive but contain substantial error.

144

Background  

Cancer.gov

The discovery that proteins and peptides are "leaked" by tumors into clinically accessible bodily fluids such as blood has led to the possibility of diagnosing cancer at an early stage or monitoring response to treatment by collecting these fluids and testing for the presence of cancer-related biomarkers. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) are examples of blood-borne cancer protein biomarkers that are currently being used in the clinic.

145

Case Study: On a Deep-tow Piggy Back system, DAI-PACK - Pertinent information is coordinates, but tool is even more important -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep submergence vehicles bring us closer to the target we want to see in better resolution. It is difficult to obtain very detailed scale seafloor or sub-bottom structure profiling by a conventional surface-towed survey system, in which the horizontal spatial resolution in data obtained is poor because of the great distance between the sensors and the targets (seafloor/sub-bottom). To improve this horizontal resolution of the profiling, we have been developing and using deep-tow profiling systems for more than two decades at the Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. In our presentation we show our latest tool for the deep-sea mapping, named DAI-PACK (Deep-sea Acoustic Imaging Package) system, which has been tested and used in fields for more than four years now. It is not easy, however, to bring the tool deep and to maneuver and keep the towing altitude sufficiently close to the seafloor. To overcome this problem, we made the system work stand-alone and also made it portable in size and weight to be accommodated to ROVs (Remotely Operated Vehicle) or manned submersibles. We have chosen two sensors to be installed in the system, i.e. (1) deep-sea side-scan sonar and (2) deep-sea sub-bottom profiler. All components except sensors are packaged in an aluminum pressure sphere, which can be installed as a piggy back payload on many vehicles available today. From our recent experiments using the DAI-PACK on several vehicles, e.g. ROVs (the Hyper Dolphin in '03~'06, the ROPOS in '04, the Kaiko7000II in '06), and HOV (Shinkai6500 in '04, '05), we have learned several pros and cons regarding the use of the DSVs. We can discuss on the topics, such as (1) noise problem of the vehicles; ROVs were more noisy than Shinkai6500, (2) importance and need of good positioning of the vehicles;any DSVs we have used have not been installed a navigation system good enough to be collocated with the imagery data of the DAI-PACK, and (3) usefulness of sub-bottom profiling, based on real good/bad data we have collected. We haven't had a chance to use AUVs yet, but we can discuss about the advantage/disadvantage of using AUVs to some extent as well.

Kisimoto, K.; Joshima, M.; Nishimura, K.

2006-12-01

146

Coordination, microprotonation equilibria and conformational changes of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate with pertinence to its biological function.  

PubMed

Within all the eukaryotic cells there is an important group of biomolecules that has been potentially related to signalling functions: the myo-inositol phosphates (InsPs). In nature, the most abundant member of this family is the so called InsP6 (phytate, L(12-)), for which our group has strived in the past to elucidate its intricate chemical behaviour. In this work we expand on our earlier findings, shedding light on the inframolecular details of its protonation and complexation processes. We evaluate systematically the chemical performance of InsP6 in the presence and absence of alkali and alkaline earth metal ions, through (31)P NMR measurements, in a non-interacting medium and over a wide pH range. The analysis of the titration curves by means of a model based on the cluster expansion method allows us to describe in detail the distribution of the different protonated microspecies of the ligand. With the aid of molecular modelling tools, we assess the energetic and geometrical characteristics of the protonation sequence and the conformational transition suffered by InsP6 as the pH changes. By completely characterizing the protonation pattern, conformation and geometry of the metal complexes, we unveil the chemical and structural basis behind the influence that the physiologically relevant cations, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) have over the phytate chemical reactivity. This information is essential in the process of gaining reliable structural knowledge about the most important InsP6 species in the in vitro and in vivo experiments, and how these features modulate their probable biological functions. PMID:25058574

Veiga, Nicols; Torres, Julia; Macho, Israel; Gmez, Kerman; Gonzlez, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos

2014-10-14

147

Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km - 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRlS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

Bernacki, Bruce; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean; Jordan, David; Kulisek, Jonathan; Stewart, Trevor; Seifert, Carolyn

2014-06-01

148

Background modeling for the GERDA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The neutrinoless double beta (0???) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0??? decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ??} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and ? emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut fr Physik, Mnchen (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fr Physik, Mnchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

2013-08-08

149

New Technology for Libraries. A Layman's Guide to Reducing Public Library Costs and Improving Services through Scientific Methods and Tools. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of background papers for the White House Conference, explores the potential of new technologies to improve library services while reducing library costs. Separate subsections describe the application of technology to the following library functions: acquisitions, catalogs and cataloging, serials control, circulation

Weisbrod, David L.

150

FAMILY BACKGROUND OF RURAL YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FAMILY BACKGROUNDS OF RURAL YOUTH ARE DISCUSSED. THE BACKGROUND PROVIDED BY THE FAMILY HAS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADJUSTMENT OF RURAL YOUTH IN AN URBANIZED, HIGHLY TECHNICAL SOCIETY. THE BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF RURAL AREAS INFLUENCE THE RATE OF SOCIAL CHANGE, THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FAMILY AS A SOCIAL UNIT, AND THE ORIENTATION TOWARD LEGAL

COPP, JAMES H.

151

Lattice QCD in Background Fields  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

2009-06-01

152

Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital De Kijvelanden, were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for

Wim Labree; Henk Nijman; Hjalmar van Marle; Eric Rassin

2010-01-01

153

Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3? muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO2 for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

Thomas, K. J.; Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Norman, E. B.; Wang, B. S.; Hurley, D. L.

2013-08-01

154

Information systems in food safety management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information systems are concerned with data capture, storage, analysis and retrieval. In the context of food safety management they are vital to assist decision making in a short time frame, potentially allowing decisions to be made and practices to be actioned in real time.Databases with information on microorganisms pertinent to the identification of foodborne pathogens, response of microbial populations to

T. A. McMeekin; J. Baranyi; J. Bowman; P. Dalgaard; M. Kirk; T. Ross; S. Schmid; M. H. Zwietering

2006-01-01

155

TAX FILING INFORMATION FOR NONRESIDENT ALIENS  

E-print Network

TAX FILING INFORMATION FOR NONRESIDENT ALIENS The tax filing information supplied here is being to be a complete representation of all the income tax regulations pertinent to students, faculty, staff and other not provide tax advice, the University disclaims all liability from the misinterpretation or misuse

Saldin, Dilano

156

Meghan Miller Background and Significance  

E-print Network

1 Meghan Miller Background and Significance Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent variable pathological symptoms from one individual to the next, representing a continual spectrum rather within the autism spectrum include Asperger, Fragile X, Angelman, Rett, Williams, Prader

Gleeson, Joseph G.

157

Nongeometric fluxes as supergravity backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We consider examples of D=4 string theory vacua which, although globally nongeometric, admit a local description in terms of D=10 supergravity backgrounds. We analyze such backgrounds and find that the supersymmetry spinors vary nontrivially along the internal manifold, reproducing the interpolating supergravity solutions found by Frey and Grana. Finally, we propose a simple, local expression for nongeometric fluxes in terms of the internal spinors of the compactification.

Marchesano, Fernando [ASC, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Munich (Germany); Schulgin, Waldemar [Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

2007-08-15

158

How do hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background estimate their language skills and their comprehension of medical information - a prospective cross-sectional study and comparison to native patients in Germany to assess the language barrier and the need for translation  

PubMed Central

Background Today more than two million people with Turkish migration background live in Germany making them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Data concerning language skills and the perception of medical information in hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background (T) are scarce. Our study is the first to gather quantitative information on this important subject. Methods T and hospitalised German patients without migration background (G) of our university hospital were prospectively included into a cross-sectional study and completed a questionnaire - each group in the appropriate language (T: Turkish, G: German). Results 121T and 121G were included. Groups significantly differed in age (T: 44.9??17.8, G: 56.9??16.7y) and proportion of males (T: 37.2, G: 54.5%) but not regarding the proportion of college graduates (T: 19.3, G: 15.7%). The majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74% of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73% speak German at work. 74.4% of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as average or better while 25.6% reported it as very bad or bad. 10.7% of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physicians information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3% of T estimated their reception of the physicians information to be average or worse. 43.3% of T had the impression that it would have helped them much or very much to be aided by an interpreter at the hospital. The information transmitted while giving informed consent to invasive medical procedure was judged to be mostly or completely sufficient by the majority of T (76%) and G (89.8%). In this setting 37 of 96T (38.5%) reported being helped by an interpreter in most cases (64.9%) a family member. Conclusion Although the majority of patients with Turkish migration background have spent most of their lives in Germany (28.94??10.41y) a large part of this population has limited German language skills and difficulties obtaining medical information when hospitalised. PMID:23710582

2013-01-01

159

Detector Background at Muon Colliders  

SciTech Connect

Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

160

Background music and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance. PMID:20865993

Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

2010-06-01

161

Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coleridge's famous line about water everywhere without a drop to drink may serve as a useful metaphor for the contemporary design studio. Engulfed within a sea of information, where does the designer look for references? This paper outlines the results of an ongoing research project entitled 'Interactive Multimedia within the Design Studio' (grant awarded by FAPEMIG - Fundao de Amparo

Philip Rhodes

1991-01-01

162

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE): Emergency support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Mission will measure the diffuse radiation from the universe in the wavelength band 1 micron to 9.6 mm. The band includes the 3 K cosmic background radiation, the known relic of the primeval cosmic explosion. The COBE satellite will be launched from the Western Space and Missile Center (EWSMC) via a Delta launch vehicle into a circular parking orbit of about 300 km. COBE will be placed into a 900-km altitude circular orbit. Coverage will be provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN) for COBE emergencies that would prevent communications via the normal channels of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Emergency support will be provided by the DSN 26-m subnetwork. Information is given in tabular form for DSN network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, and command.

Stanford, R.; Mattson, R.

1991-01-01

163

Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN) is dedicated to improving Earth system literacy through increased communication and collaboration among providers of informal Earth system education. The collection is designed for museum professionals (educators, exhibits designers, developers) as a resource of ideas, tools, traveling exhibits and online materials. The resources are web portals to organizations providing substantial informal Earth system science education. They describe educational programming, resources and exhibits that are pertinent to an informal educator.

2007-04-03

164

Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

Behrends, Ehrhard

2004-05-01

165

Educational Attainment and Family Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the effect of aspects of family background, such as family income and parental education, on the educational attainment of persons born from 1967 to 1972. Family income is measured at different periods of a child's life to separate long-term versus short-term effects of family income on educational choices. We find that permanent income matters to a certain

Arild Aakvik; Kjell Gunnar Salvanes; Kjell Vaage

2005-01-01

166

Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background  

E-print Network

- 1 - Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background: Over the last 20 years, hurricane research at AOML has focused on improved scientific understanding of hurricanes and of tropical meteorology scientific goals for AOMLs hurricane research derive from the U.S. Weather Research Programs (USWRP

167

Wormhole on the Lobachevsky background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The exact spherical symmetric static solution of Rosen like equations of the bi metric theory is investigated. The background metric is not flat, but curved, with the Lobachevsky spatial sections and 'cosmic time' c(sup 2) d t(sup 2). There are two branch...

M. N. Tentyukov

1994-01-01

168

Shark Fact or Fiction? Background  

E-print Network

Shark Fact or Fiction? Background: This is a fun classroom activity based on the basic biology of sharks. This goes well with the enclosed Project Shark Awareness PowerPoint and should be used in conjunction with the presentation. Materials: Shark Fact of Fiction activity sheet and answer key

Watson, Craig A.

169

A Little Background Music, Please.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background music could be used to provide a pleasant beginning for the school day, to help keep students quiet and relaxed in the school cafeteria at lunchtime, and to provide a midafternoon lift for bored and tired children. The most effective music pleases children without overly exciting them through jarring rhythms and loud dynamics. (nine

Giles, Martha Mead

1991-01-01

170

Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster

Hansen, Janet S.

2008-01-01

171

Teaching about Natural Background Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also

Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

2013-01-01

172

Modeling Dense Stellar Systems: Background  

E-print Network

I provide some background about recent efforts made in modeling dense stellar systems, within the context of the MODEST initiative. During the last four years, we have seen more than fifteen MODEST workshops, with an attendance between twenty and a hundred participants, and topics ranging from very specialized discussions to rather general overviews.

Piet Hut

2006-10-07

173

Quantization by cosmic background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that various modes in the cosmic background radiation field may account for the discrete properties exhibited by small systems. In particular, this view is applied to the 1, 2-, and 3-D oscillators and the hydrogen atom, systems which were treated by Schrodinger in his first papers on quantum mechanics. The usual energy formulas for the above systems

James T. Dehn

1989-01-01

174

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, provides an overview of how scientists are working to explain the origin of the universe. Specifically, it discusses the two major theories about the origin of the universe (Big Bang and Steady State), the search for microwave background radiation, and the discovery of the first observational evidence to support the Big Bang theory.

175

Conductivity in an anisotropic background  

SciTech Connect

By using the gauge/gravity duality, we investigate the dual field theories of the anisotropic backgrounds, which are exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with a Liouville potential. When we turn on the bulk gauge field fluctuation A{sub x} with a nontrivial dilaton coupling, the AC conductivity of this dual field theory is proportional to the frequency with an exponent depending on parameters of the anisotropic background. In some parameter regions, we find that this conductivity can have the negative exponent like the strange metal. In addition, we also investigate another U(1) gauge field fluctuation, which is not coupled with a dilaton field. We classify all possible conductivities of this system and find that the exponent of the conductivity is always positive.

Lee, Bum-Hoon [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Siyoung [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Pang, Da-Wei; Park, Chanyong [Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15

176

Quantization by cosmic background radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is suggested that various modes in the cosmic background radiation field may account for the discrete properties exhibited by small systems. In particular, this view is applied to the 1, 2-, and 3-D oscillators and the hydrogen atom, systems which were treated by Schrodinger in his first papers on quantum mechanics. The usual energy formulas for the above systems are derived using this point of view, together with some indication of how transition probabilities might also be calculated. A connection between de Broglie's associated wave and a free mass moving in the cosmic background is also discussed. Analogs of the uncertainty and correspondence principles are briefly mentioned as are some of the implications this view might have for interpreting quantum theory. In this view particles and waves are separate, interacting entities and not complementary aspects of the same thing.

Dehn, James T.

1989-05-01

177

Superspace geometry for supermembrane backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct part of the superspace vielbein and tensor gauge field in terms of the component fields of 11-dimensional on-shell supergravity. The result can be utilized to describe supermembranes and corresponding matrix models for Dirichlet particles in non-trivial supergravity backgrounds to second order in anticommuting coordinates. We exhibit the ?-invariance of the corresponding supermembrane action, which at this order holds

Bernard de Wit; Kasper Peeters; Jan Plefka

1998-01-01

178

Emergent Supersymmetry in Warped Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that quantum mechanical supersymmetries are emerged in Kaluza-Klein spectrum of linearized gravity in several warped backgrounds as a consequence of higher-dimensional general coordinate invariance. These emergent supersymmetries play an essential role for the spectral structure of braneworld gravity. We show that for the case of braneworld models with two codimension-1 branes the spectral pattern is completely determined only through the supersymmetries.

Nagasawa, Tomoaki; Ohya, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Sakamoto, Makoto

2011-07-01

179

Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital "De Kijvelanden", were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for other severe crimes. Apart from DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, family backgrounds, level of education, treatment history, intelligence (WAIS scores), and PCL-R scores were included in the comparisons. Furthermore, the apparent motives for the arson offences were explored. It was found that arsonists had more often received psychiatric treatment, prior to committing their index offence, and had a history of severe alcohol abuse more often in comparison to the controls. The arsonists turned out to be less likely to suffer from a major psychotic disorder. Both groups did not differ significantly on the other variables, among which the PCL-R total scores and factor scores. Exploratory analyses however, did suggest that arsonists may differentiate from non-arsonists on three items of the PCL-R, namely impulsivity (higher scores), superficial charm (lower scores), and juvenile delinquency (lower scores). Although the number of arsonists with a major psychotic disorder was relatively low (28%), delusional thinking of some form was judged to play a role in causing arson crimes in about half of the cases (52%). PMID:20434774

Labree, Wim; Nijman, Henk; van Marle, Hjalmar; Rassin, Eric

2010-01-01

180

The Sunyaev-Zeldovich Background  

E-print Network

The cosmic background due to the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect is expected to be the largest signal at mm and cm wavelengths at a resolution of a few arcminutes. We investigate some simple statistics of SZ maps and their scaling with the normalization of the matter power spectrum, sigma_8, as well as the effects of the unknown physics of the intracluster medium on these statistics. We show that the SZ background provides a significant background for SZ cluster searches, with the onset of confusion occurring around 10^{14} h^{-1} solar masses in a cosmology-dependent way, where confusion is defined as typical errors in recovered flux larger than 20%. The confusion limit, corresponds to the mass at which there are roughly ten clusters per square degree, with this number nearly independent of cosmology and cluster gas physics. Typical errors grow quickly as lower mass objects are included in the catalog. We also point out that there is nothing in particular about the rms of the filtered map that makes it especially well-suited for capturing aspects of the SZ effect, and other indicators of the one-point SZ probability distribution function are at least as well suited for the task. For example, the full width at half maximum of the one point probability distribution has a field-to-field scatter that is about 60% that of the rms. The simplest statistics of SZ maps are largely unaffected by cluster physics such aspreheating, although the impact of preheating is clear by eye in the maps.Studies aimed at learning about the physics of the intracluster medium will apparently require more specialized statistical indicators.

Gilbert Holder; Ian G. McCarthy; Arif Babul

2007-02-27

181

High background photon counting lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photon counting with lidar returns is usually limited to low light levels, while wide dynamic range is achieved by counting for long times. The broad emission spectrum of inexpensive high-power semiconductor lasers makes receiver filters pass too much background light for traditional photon counting in daylight. Very high speed photon counting is possible, however, at more than 500 MHz which allows the construction of eyesafe lidar operating in the presence of bright clouds. Detector improvements are possible to count to 20 GHz producing a single shot dynamic range of ten decades.

Lentz, W. J.

1992-01-01

182

Selected Information on the Statistics Profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pertinent information on statisticians available from previous studies and ASA publications is here reviewed and summarized. Sources include ASA's Schools Offering Degrees in Statistics, Amstat News articles, and surveys performed by the American Mathematical Society. In addition, results of a recent salary survey on biopharmaceutical statisticians is summarized and compared with salaries of academic biostatisticians. A longitudinal review of the

Boris Iglewicz

1998-01-01

183

SUBJECT: Employee Hazard Communication 1.0 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE  

E-print Network

, all of the topics addressed in the Employee Hazard Communication Program. The Environmental Health1 SUBJECT: Employee Hazard Communication 1.0 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Various chemicals present of a Hazard Communication Program intended to provide the information and training needed to inform

184

Rocket observations of the diffuse ultraviolet background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the experiment described was to obtain information on the absolute intensity and spatial variation of the diffuse ultraviolet background and thereby gain insight into the origin of this radiation. The instrument consisted of three ulraviolet broad band photometers placed in the focal plane of a 95cm, f/2.8 normal incidence telescope flown onboard an Aries sounding rocket. The effective wavelengths of the three channels were wavelength 1590A, wavelength 1710A and wavelength 2135A. Absolute intensity measurements are presented for directions toward high galactic latitudes and along a 50.5 deg scan path at an intermediate latitude of b approximately 50. The fully reduced data indicate that the absolute intensity of the diffuse ultraviolet background is relatively high. The median observed intensities in the three channels are 2090 photons/(s sq cm sr A) at 2135A, 990 photons/(s sq cm sr A) at 1710 A and 810 photons/(s sq cm sr A) at 1590A. Based on laboratory and in-flight calibrations, the overall accuracy of these absolute intensities is expected to be better than 25%. The target intensities in all three chanels are shown to display significant large scale, as well as small scale, spatial variation and to correlate with line of sight neutral hydrogen column density as determined from 21 cm radio observations. These results are in accord with the conclusions of several previous investigations and demonstrate that there is a galactic component to the diffuse ultraviolet background. As to the origin of this galactic emission, it is shown that the observed relationship between background intensity and hydrogen column is reasonable quantitative agreement with that expcted from scattering of galactic plante starlight off high latitude interstellar grains.

Jakobsen, P.

185

[Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

Silk, Joseph

1998-01-01

186

Building Better Career Futures: Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource booklet, one of the three components that make up the Building Better Career Futures (BBCF) program, provides information on theories and approaches of BBCF; articles on themes of the program; and group activities addressing the specific career development outcomes of BBCF. This booklet is organized into four parts. The first part,

Bezanson, Lynne; Hopkins, Sareena

187

Gauging the cosmic microwave background  

E-print Network

We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behaviour of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behaviour. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behaviour. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

J. P. Zibin; Douglas Scott

2008-08-14

188

Deleterious background selection with recombination  

SciTech Connect

An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Hudson, R.R. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kaplan, N.L. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-12-01

189

Backgrounder: Council on Foreign Relations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations provides a number of services for the general public, and in the past they have offered up public discussions, forums, and other outreach activities. In addition, they offer the "Backgrounders" series, which offer succinct explanations of current political and economic issues. First-time users can visit the "Most Recent" area to peruse the latest piece, or they can click on the "Daily Analysis" or "Daily Brief" sections. The profiles cover everything from the role of delegates in the U.S. presidential nominating process to understanding Kenya's politics. Also, visitors can click on complementary materials, such as podcasts, interactive features, and online debates. Finally, visitors can also search for specific materials via the search engine offered here.

190

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

191

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1996-06-11

192

Gauged vortices in a background  

E-print Network

We discuss the statistical mechanics of a gas of gauged vortices in the canonical formalism. At critical self-coupling, and for low temperatures, it has been argued that the configuration space for vortex dynamics in each topological class of the abelian Higgs model approximately truncates to a finite-dimensional moduli space with a Kaehler structure. For the case where the vortices live on a 2-sphere, we explain how localisation formulas on the moduli spaces can be used to compute explicitly the partition function of the vortex gas interacting with a background potential. The coefficients of this analytic function provide geometrical data about the Kaehler structures, the simplest of which being their symplectic volume (computed previously by Manton using an alternative argument). We use the partition function to deduce simple results on the thermodynamics of the vortex system; in particular, the average height on the sphere is computed and provides an interesting effective picture of the ground state.

Nuno M. Romo

2005-03-02

193

Gauging the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect

We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behavior of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behavior. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behavior. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

Zibin, J. P.; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2008-12-15

194

Low background aspects of GERDA  

SciTech Connect

The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-04-27

195

The microwave background anisotropies: Observations  

PubMed Central

Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiationfingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 ?K fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universethe decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century. PMID:9419320

Wilkinson, David

1998-01-01

196

Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Data analysis for the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be complicated by the huge number of sources in the LISA band. In the frequency band {approx}10{sup -4}-2x10{sup -3} Hz, galactic white dwarf binaries (GWDBs) are sufficiently dense in frequency space that it will be impossible to resolve most of them, and ''confusion noise'' from the unresolved Galactic binaries will dominate over instrumental noise in determining LISA's sensitivity to other sources in that band. Confusion noise from unresolved extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) could also contribute significantly to LISA's total noise curve. To date, estimates of the effect of LISA's confusion noise on matched-filter searches and their detection thresholds have generally approximated the noise as Gaussian, based on the central limit theorem. However in matched-filter searches, the appropriate detection threshold for a given class of signals may be located rather far out on the tail of the signal-to-noise probability distribution, where a priori it is unclear whether the Gaussian approximation is reliable. Using the Edgeworth expansion and the theory of large deviations, we investigate the probability distribution of the usual matched-filter detection statistic, far out on the tail of the distribution. We apply these tools to four somewhat idealized versions of LISA data searches: searches for EMRI signals buried in GWDB confusion noise, and searches for massive black hole binary signals buried in (i) GWDB noise, (ii) EMRI noise, and (iii) a sum of EMRI noise and Gaussian noise. Assuming reasonable short-distance cutoffs in the populations of confusion sources (since the very closest and hence strongest sources will be individually resolvable), modifications to the appropriate detection threshold, due to the non-Gaussianity of the confusion noise, turn out to be quite small for realistic cases. The smallness of the correction is partly due to the fact that these three types of sources evolve on quite different time scales, so no single background source closely resembles any search template. We also briefly discuss other types of LISA searches where the non-Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds could perhaps have a much greater impact on search reliability and efficacy.

Racine, Etienne [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Cutler, Curt [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

2007-12-15

197

Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background: Theory  

E-print Network

Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I ouline some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The specturm of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions.

Scott Dodelson

1997-02-14

198

Cosmic Infrared Background and Early Stellar Populations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmic infrared background (CIB) contains information about galaxy luminosities over the entire history of the Universe and can be a powerful diagnostic of the early populations otherwise inaccessible to telescopic studies. Its measurements are very difficult because of the strong IR foregrounds from the Solar system and the Galaxy. Nevertheless, substantial recent progress in measuring the CIB and its structure has been made. The measurements now allow to set significant constraints on early galaxy evolution and, perhaps, even detect the elusive Population III era. We discuss briefly the theory behind the CIB, review the latest measurements of the CIB and its structure, and discuss their implications for detecting and/or constraining the first stars and their epochs.

Kashlinsky, A.

2005-01-01

199

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

2013-11-07

200

The Diffuse Extreme Ultraviolet Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of the diffuse EUV background towards 138 different directions using the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) have been combined into a spectrum from 150A to 730A and represent an effective exposure of 18 million seconds. There is no significant evidence of any non-local line flux in the resultant spectrum such as that from a hot coronal plasma. These results are inconsistent with the Wisconsin C and B broad-band surveys assuming the source is a logT = 5.8 - 6.1 hot plasma in ionization equilibrium with solar abundances, confirming the previous result of Jelinksy, Vallerga and Edelstein) (hereafter Paper 1) using an observation along the ecliptic with the same instrument. To make these results consistent with the previous broad-band surveys, the plasma responsible for the emission must either be depleted in Fe by a factor of approximately 6, be behind an absorbing slab of neutral H with a column of 2 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, or not be in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE). One such non-CIE model (Breitswerdt and Schmutzier) that explains the soft x-ray results is also inconsistent with this EUV data.

Vallerga, John; Slavin, Jonathan

1996-01-01

201

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, Narbe [University of Texas

2013-11-01

202

MERTIS: shutterless background signal removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MERTIS (MERcury Thermal infrared Imaging Spectrometer) is an advanced infrared remote sensing instrument that is part of the ESA mission BepiColombo to planet Mercury. The enabling technology that allows sending the first spectrometer for the thermal infrared spectral range to Mercury is an uncooled microbolometer. One of the challenges is the calibration of the instrument. Radiometric and spectroscopic breadboard models of MERTIS were used to develop proper calibration methods. In the context of the calibration we are reporting on the ongoing efforts to separate non-scene and scene signal portions from each other. The non-scene signal portion is contained in the raw image data sets and is usually the dominating signal contribution. The conventional method to measure the non-scene signal contributions using a shutter or spaceview and perform a time-interpolation is compared to an approach using linear pixel-to-pixel relations in which information from the outer regions of the image matrix is used for the estimation of the non-scene signal components of the inner regions where additional scene signal components exist. The results of both methods are discussed in terms of noise or errors of the extracted scene information. The proposed method could be used without further instrument modifications offering a functional redundancy which is important to keep alive the MERTIS operation in the case of a breakdown of the mechanically stressed high-speed shutter device.

Suberlich, Thomas; Paproth, Carsten; Helbert, Jrn

2010-09-01

203

Background radiation from fission pulses  

SciTech Connect

Extensive source terms for beta, gamma, and neutrons following fission pulses are presented in various tabular and graphical forms. Neutron results from a wide range of fissioning nuclides (42) are examined and detailed information is provided for four fuels: /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 239/Pu; these bracket the range of the delayed spectra. Results at several cooling (decay) times are presented. For ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. spectra, only /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu results are given; fission-product data are currently inadequate for other fuels. The data base consists of all known measured data for individual fission products extensively supplemented with nuclear model results. The process is evolutionary, and therefore, the current base is summarized in sufficient detail for users to judge its quality. Comparisons with recent delayed neutron experiments and total ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. decay energies are included. 27 refs., 47 figs., 9 tabs.

England, T.R.; Arthur, E.D.; Brady, M.C.; LaBauve, R.J.

1988-05-01

204

Density measurements using near-field background-oriented Schlieren  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification of the constant correction factor in the known equations of the background-oriented Schlieren is presented in order to be applicable to the near-field. Near-Field background-oriented Schlieren has the advantage over standard background-oriented Schlieren of being able to obtain reliable density distributions for set-ups in which the background pattern is placed directly behind the investigated flow field. It is proven that the modified correction factor depends solely on the distance between the background pattern and the flow field and on the external shape of the investigated flow field itself. The proof of principle and the accuracy of the proposed technique are obtained by the simulation of a 2D density variation with the use of glass wedge prism. The measurement of the whole-field density information of a supersonic underexpanded free jet is presented as an example that confirms the theoretical predictions.

van Hinsberg, N. P.; Rsgen, T.

2014-04-01

205

42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED...EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM...Among the types of illnesses for which...

2010-10-01

206

Background Information MSE-ISU Program Self Study Report  

E-print Network

.................................................................................................72 Table 3. Faculty Workload Summary................................................................................................................................42 5. Faculty ..........................................................................................................73 Table 4. Faculty Analysis

Lin, Zhiqun

207

LANL-IPF responses to isotopes workshop background information survey  

SciTech Connect

Responses to the following are provided: (A) Which isotopes do you (company, agency, university, community) currently use in your activities or distribute (repackage) to end-users? (B) Describe generally what these isotopes are used for, i.e. the science or application. (C) Which isotope(s) do you anticipate may have significant future increase in demand. Identify the isotope(s), its priority, possible chemical form and for what purpose it would be used. (D) Are there other isotopes that you might use but are currently unavilable or not available in difficient quantities? If so, please identify this isotope, from whom have you tired to obtain it and for what prupose would it be used. (E) Do you have any specific issues with respect to the purity, availability, reliability of supply, etc. of isotopes at present?

Nortier, Francois Meiring [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

208

42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION...

2011-10-01

209

42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION...

2012-10-01

210

42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION...

2013-10-01

211

Semi-Supervised Clustering with Partial Background Information Haibin Cheng  

E-print Network

moderate overlapping features with the unlabeled data. We formulate this as a constrained optimization improve the quality of clustering results with limited labeled examples. 1 Introduction The topic of semi. For example, in computational biology, analysts are often interested in the clustering of genes or proteins

Tan, Pang-Ning

212

Background Check Information College of Nursing Advisement Center  

E-print Network

listed below have the same county. If your current address has a different county than your previous address you must pay $41.00. If you are from any of the counties in the below tables you have additional fees. Please check the counties and add the appropriate fee to your total amount. Additional fees may

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

213

US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions  

SciTech Connect

A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

1984-03-01

214

Harrah Excellence in Innovation Award AWARD BACKGROUND & INFORMATION  

E-print Network

innovative approaches have contributed significantly to business excellence. The distinguished innovations may include, but are not limited to: · transforming a business; · changing a business model describing how the business innovation is created and the business outcome(s): · A cover page · Individuals

Ahmad, Sajjad

215

Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child  

MedlinePLUS

... Training Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies ... System reform Training Workforce Systemwide Assessment Courts Cultural competence Domestic violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & policies ...

216

Geographic Population, Weather, and Vegetation Background Information on Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rio de Janeiro and the surrounding region differ from the majority of the great metropolises by virtue of the diversified character of their terrain formation. The most impressive contrast here is the one represented by lowland consisting of formerly swam...

1966-01-01

217

Nonrelativistic superparticle in a curved background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a component formulation, we construct the supersymmetric action for a superparticle in a three-dimensional Newton-Cartan supergravity background and clarify its symmetries. Our construction proceeds by first constructing the superparticle in a flat background. Next, by boosting up the background symmetries, we replace in a first step the flat background by a Galilean supergravity background. In a second step the Galilean supergravity background is replaced by a Newton-Cartan supergravity background. We extend our results by adding a supersymmetric cosmological constant and compare the nonrelativistic superparticle with the relativistic ?-symmetric three-dimensional superparticle.

Bergshoeff, Eric; Gomis, Joaquim; Kova?evi?, Marija; Parra, Lorena; Rosseel, Jan; Zojer, Thomas

2014-09-01

218

Non-parametric Model for Background Subtraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background subtraction is a method typically used to segment moving regions in image sequences taken from a static camera\\u000a by comparing each new frame to a model of the scene background. We present a novel non-parametric background model and a background\\u000a subtraction approach. The model can handle situations where the background of the scene is cluttered and not completely static

Ahmed M. Elgammal; David Harwood; Larry S. Davis

2000-01-01

219

Harnessing the Power of Education Research Databases with the Pearl-Harvesting Methodological Framework for Information Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital technologies enable the storage of vast amounts of information, accessible with remarkable ease. However, along with this facility comes the challenge to find pertinent information from the volumes of nonrelevant information. The present article describes the pearl-harvesting methodological framework for information retrieval. Pearl

Sandieson, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Lori C.; Sandieson, Rachel M.; Zimmerman, Walter

2010-01-01

220

Interferometry of background acoustic-gravity waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to acoustic-gravity waves generated in the ocean and atmosphere by strong transient events such as earthquakes and tsunamis, there exists a certain background level of acoustic-gravity waves. Because of their large free path length and a wide spatial distribution of the wave sources, background acoustic-gravity waves form a diffuse (but not necessarily isotropic), random wave field. Wave fields generated by uncorrelated sources are known to retain finite correlation at ranges large compared to the wavelength and spatial dimensions of the random wave sources. A technique known as noise (or wave) interferometry has been shown in seismology, helioseismology, acoustics, and other fields to be an effective tool for retrieving information about the deterministic propagation environment and the random wave field from two-point cross-correlation functions of diffuse noise. Here, we apply wave interferometry to acoustic-gravity waves in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The primary dataset analyzed in this study was obtained by 30 differential pressure gauges deployed from January 2009 to February 2010 on the seafloor offshore the South Island of New Zealand in the course of the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) Seismic Experiment [Yang, Z., A. Sheehan, J. A. Collins, and G. Laske (2012), The character of seafloor ambient noise recorded offshore New Zealand: Results from the MOANA ocean bottom seismic experiment, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q10011]. By applying time-reversal ideas to processing of cross-correlations of random wave fields, we have developed a compressed cross-correlation function technique to compensate for wave dispersion in evaluating the cross-correlation function of a random wave field. When applied to the seafloor pressure data, the technique drastically reduces the signal averaging times necessary for emergence of deterministic features and allows for accurate passive measurements of wave travel times and directivity. The reduction in the averaging time makes it possible to study dynamics on the acoustic-gravity wave field and helps to identify specific wave types that contribute to observed pressure variations. We will discuss implications of the seafloor measurements for observations of acoustic-gravity waves in air above the ocean and feasibility of extending the wave interferometry to other modalities of observation of background acoustic-gravity waves, including ionospheric radio sounding performed with Dynasonde systems.

Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Godin, Oleg A.; Sheehan, Anne F.

2013-04-01

221

Verification and Trust: Background Investigations Preceding Faculty Appointment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many employers in the United States have been initiating or expanding policies requiring background checks of prospective employees. The ability to perform such checks has been abetted by the growth of computerized databases and of commercial enterprises that facilitate access to personal information. Employers now have ready access to public

Academe, 2004

2004-01-01

222

Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)

Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

1988-01-01

223

Increasing Educational Efficiency Through Technology (Commission Discussion and Background Materials).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program schedule and background information for Indiana Commission for Higher Education-sponsored discussion of the use of educational technology to increase educational effeciency are presented. The four major topics of discussion to illustrate the uses and advantages/disadvantages of audio, video, and computing technologies are as follows:

Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.

224

Partition function based analysis of cosmic microwave background maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an alternative method to analyse cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. We base our analysis on the study of the partition function. This function is used to examine the CMB maps, making use of the different information embedded at different scales and moments. Using the partition function in a likelihood analysis in two dimensions (Q_rms-PS, n), we find the

J. M. Diego; E. Martnez-Gonzlez; J. L. Sanz; Silvia Mollerach; Vicent J. Martnez

1999-01-01

225

Gravitational clustering in Static and Expanding Backgrounds  

E-print Network

A brief summary of several topics in the study of gravitational many body problem is given. The discussion covers both static backgrounds (applicable to astrophysical systems) as well as clustering in an expanding background (relevant for cosmology)

T. Padmanabhan

2003-08-28

226

Identifying and collecting pertinent medical records for centralized abstraction in a multi-center randomized clinical trial: The model used by the American College of Radiology arm of the National Lung Screening Trial  

PubMed Central

Background In clinical trials and epidemiologic studies, information on medical care utilization and health outcomes is often obtained from medical records. For multi-center studies, this information may be gathered by personnel at individual sites or by staff at a central coordinating center. We describe the process used to develop a HIPAA-compliant centralized process to collect medical record information for a large multi-center cancer screening trial. Methods The framework used to select, request, and track medical records incorporated a participant questionnaire with unique identifiers for each medical provider. De-identified information from the questionnaires was sent to the coordinating center indexed by these identifiers. The central coordinating center selected specific medical providers for abstraction and notified sites using these identifiers. The site personnel then linked the identifiers with medical provider information. Staff at the sites collected medical records and provided them for central abstraction. Results Medical records were successfully obtained and abstracted to ascertain information on outcomes and health care utilization in a study with over 18,000 study participants. Collection of records required for outcomes related to positive screening examinations and lung cancer diagnosis exceeded 90%. Collection of records for all aims was 87.32%. Conclusions We designed a successful centralized medical record abstraction process that may be generalized to other research settings, including observational studies. The coordinating center received no identifying data. The process satisfied requirements imposed by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and concerns of site institutional review boards with respect to protected health information. PMID:22982342

Gareen, Ilana F.; Sicks, JoRean; Adams, Amanda; Moline, Denise; Coffman-Kadish, Nancy

2012-01-01

227

Survey of the Target Audience for the Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS), with a Review of Pertinent Research Studies. A Report to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide information on the target audience for the Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS), a television series being developed by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, interviews were conducted with a small national sample of potential viewers. The main focus of the study was an examination of the social-psychological aspects of a decision

Center for Urban Education, New York, NY.

228

Motivation and Background Upgrades to GS2  

E-print Network

Motivation and Background Upgrades to GS2 Benchmarks Other Studies Conclusions Upgrades of GS2 Jessica A. Baumgaertel Effects of stellarator geometry on gyrokinetic turbulence #12;Motivation and Background Upgrades to GS2 Benchmarks Other Studies Conclusions Outline 1 Motivation and Background 2

Hammett, Greg

229

Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect  

PubMed Central

The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 14 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring. PMID:25400572

Dekerle, Marie; Boulenger, Vronique; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

2014-01-01

230

Handwritten character recognition using background analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a low-cost handwritten character recognizer. It is constituted by three modules: the `acquisition' module, the `binarization' module, and the `core' module. The core module can be logically partitioned into six steps: character dilation, character circumscription, region and `profile' analysis, `cut' analysis, decision tree descent, and result validation. Firstly, it reduces the resolution of the binarized regions and detects the minimum rectangle (MR) which encloses the character; the MR partitions the background into regions that surround the character or are enclosed by it, and allows it to define features as `profiles' and `cuts;' a `profile' is the set of vertical or horizontal minimum distances between a side of the MR and the character itself; a `cut' is a vertical or horizontal image segment delimited by the MR. Then, the core module classifies the character by descending along the decision tree on the basis of the analysis of regions around the character, in particular of the `profiles' and `cuts,' and without using context information. Finally, it recognizes the character or reactivates the core module by analyzing validation test results. The recognizer is largely insensible to character discontinuity and is able to detect Arabic numerals and English alphabet capital letters. The recognition rate of a 32 X 32 pixel character is of about 97% after the first iteration, and of over 98% after the second iteration.

Tascini, Guido; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

1993-04-01

231

Probing Inflation via Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been a rich source of information about the early Universe. Detailed measurements of its spectrum and spatial distribution have helped solidify the Standard Model of Cosmology. However, many questions still remain. Standard Cosmology does not explain why the early Universe is geometrically flat, expanding, homogenous across the horizon, and riddled with a small anisotropy that provides the seed for structure formation. Inflation has been proposed as a mechanism that naturally solves these problems. In addition to solving these problems, inflation is expected to produce a spectrum of gravitational waves that will create a particular polarization pattern on the CMB. Detection of this polarized signal is a key test of inflation and will give a direct measurement of the energy scale at which inflation takes place. This polarized signature of inflation is expected to be -9 orders of magnitude below the 2.7 K monopole level of the CMB. This measurement will require good control of systematic errors, an array of many detectors having the requisite sensitivity, and a reliable method for removing polarized foregrounds, and nearly complete sky coverage. Ultimately, this measurement is likely to require a space mission. To this effect, technology and mission concept development are currently underway.

Chuss, David T.

2008-01-01

232

MACSIMS : multiple alignment of complete sequences information management system  

PubMed Central

Background In the post-genomic era, systems-level studies are being performed that seek to explain complex biological systems by integrating diverse resources from fields such as genomics, proteomics or transcriptomics. New information management systems are now needed for the collection, validation and analysis of the vast amount of heterogeneous data available. Multiple alignments of complete sequences provide an ideal environment for the integration of this information in the context of the protein family. Results MACSIMS is a multiple alignment-based information management program that combines the advantages of both knowledge-based and ab initio sequence analysis methods. Structural and functional information is retrieved automatically from the public databases. In the multiple alignment, homologous regions are identified and the retrieved data is evaluated and propagated from known to unknown sequences with these reliable regions. In a large-scale evaluation, the specificity of the propagated sequence features is estimated to be >99%, i.e. very few false positive predictions are made. MACSIMS is then used to characterise mutations in a test set of 100 proteins that are known to be involved in human genetic diseases. The number of sequence features associated with these proteins was increased by 60%, compared to the features available in the public databases. An XML format output file allows automatic parsing of the MACSIM results, while a graphical display using the JalView program allows manual analysis. Conclusion MACSIMS is a new information management system that incorporates detailed analyses of protein families at the structural, functional and evolutionary levels. MACSIMS thus provides a unique environment that facilitates knowledge extraction and the presentation of the most pertinent information to the biologist. A web server and the source code are available at . PMID:16792820

Thompson, Julie D; Muller, Arnaud; Waterhouse, Andrew; Procter, Jim; Barton, Geoffrey J; Plewniak, Frdric; Poch, Olivier

2006-01-01

233

Why the Information Highway? Lessons from Open & Distance Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Containing practical applications supported by pertinent theory and analysis, this book is designed for educators navigating the information highway. The 13 chapters are divided into three sections--emerging issues, case studies, and analysis--and are as follows: (1) "Distinctions in Distance: Is Distance Education an Obsolete Term?" (M. Haughey);

Roberts, Judith M., Ed.; Keough, Erin M., Ed.

234

Information needs: Perceived and real for state decisionmakers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing techniques provide important information for land and water use planning organizations in order to assess coastal developments and their impact on water resources, sediment transport, erosion, and marine biology. Political expediency requires pertinent data acquisition and data dissemination to local populations for coastal zone management decision making.

Schwartz, A. R.; Spirou, C.; Kier, W.; Tetley, M.

1975-01-01

235

PIRLS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background variables. Background

Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Drucker, Kathleen T., Ed.

2013-01-01

236

TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the TIMSS 2011 background variables. Background questionnaire adaptations

Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

2013-01-01

237

Multisensory Integration With a Head-Mounted Display: Background Visual Motion and Sound Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess how background visual motion and the relative movement of sound affect a head-mounted display (HMD) wearers performance at a task requiring integration of auditory and visual information. Background: HMD users are often mobile. A commercially available speaker in a fixed location delivers auditory information affordably to the HMD user. However, previous

William J. Harrison; Matthew B. Thompson; Penelope M. Sanderson

2010-01-01

238

The Effect of Background Music on Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The research of Dr. Anne Savan considers the effects of background music on the coordination of pupils with special educational\\u000a needs and emotional and behavioural difficulties. Previous research has shown that background music has an effect on certain\\u000a physiological and biochemical pathways in pupils with special educational needs and emotional and behavioural difficulties.\\u000a When background music is played during practical

Anne Savan

239

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

1989-01-01

240

Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide unique constraints on cosmological models, i.e. on the content, history, and evolution of the Universe. I discuss the latest measurements of the spectral and spatial properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Recent measurements from NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, and from balloon-borne and ground-based platforms, are summarized and their cosmological implications are discussed.

C. L. Bennett

1994-08-12

241

Background Check Consent Statement This Background Check Consent Statement documents your consent for Indiana University to obtain a background  

E-print Network

for Indiana University to obtain a background check from a consumer reporting agency consisting of a criminal. Indiana University requires a background check for the following individuals: 1) new employees in any position; 2) any employee, student, or volunteer affiliated with Indiana University who will be working

Zhou, Yaoqi

242

Thermal inflation and the gravitational wave background  

SciTech Connect

We consider the impact of thermal inflation-a short, secondary period of inflation that can arise in supersymmetric scenarios-on the stochastic gravitational wave background. We show that while the primordial inflationary gravitational wave background is essentially unchanged at cosmic microwave background scales, it is massively diluted at solar system scales and would be unobservable by a Big Bang Observer (BBO) style experiment. Conversely, bubble collisions at the end of thermal inflation can generate a new stochastic background. We calculate the likely properties of the bubbles created during this phase transition, and show that the expected amplitude and frequency of this signal would fall within the BBO range.

Easther, Richard; Giblin Jr, John T [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lim, Eugene A [ISCAP and Physics Department, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States)] [ISCAP and Physics Department, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Park, Wan-Il; Stewart, Ewan D, E-mail: richard.easther@yale.edu, E-mail: john.giblin@yale.edu, E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com, E-mail: wipark@muon.kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: stewart@hep.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2008-05-15

243

Simulation of Experimental Background using FLUKA  

SciTech Connect

In November 1997, Experiment T423 began acquiring data with the intentions of understanding the energy spectra of high-energy neutrons generated in the interaction of electrons with lead. The following describes a series of FLUKA simulations studying (1) particle yields in the absence of all background; (2) the background caused from scattering in the room; (3) the effects of the thick lead shielding which surrounded the detector; (4) the sources of neutron background created in this lead shielding; and (5) the ratio of the total background to the ideal yield. In each case, particular attention is paid to the neutron yield.

Rokni, Sayed

1999-05-11

244

A Thermal Graviton Background from Extra Dimensions  

E-print Network

Inflationary cosmology predicts a low-amplitude graviton background across a wide range of frequencies. This Letter shows that if one or more extra dimensions exist, the graviton background may have a thermal spectrum instead, dependent on the fundamental scale of the extra dimensions. The energy density is shown to be significant enough that it can affect nucleosynthesis in a substantial way. The possibility of direct detection of a thermal graviton background using the 21-cm hydrogen line is discussed. Alternative explanations for the creation of a thermal graviton background are also examined.

E. R. Siegel; J. N. Fry

2005-03-07

245

Background subtraction using probabilistic event weights  

E-print Network

Background treatment is crucial to extract physics from precision experiments. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to assign each event a signal probability. This could then be used to weight the event's contribution to the likelihood during fitting. To illustrate the effect of this method, we test it with MC samples. The consistence between the constructed background and the background from MC truth shows that the background subtraction method with probabilistic event weights is feasible in partial wave analysis at BES III.

Yadi Wang; Beijiang Liu; Xiaoyan Shen; Ziping Zhang

2014-01-27

246

What Are Careers Officers Thinking Of? How Information Cues Are Selected and Used in Careers Interviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the information-seeking practices of career counselors during career interviews. Outlines sensitive areas for career guidance counselors, and describes a research project that examined the types of information career counselors found pertinent. The findings, although based on very limited research, raise some issues of relevance to the

Clarke, Hilary

1994-01-01

247

Background subtraction approach based on independent component analysis.  

PubMed

In this work, a new approach to background subtraction based on independent component analysis is presented. This approach assumes that background and foreground information are mixed in a given sequence of images. Then, foreground and background components are identified, if their probability density functions are separable from a mixed space. Afterwards, the components estimation process consists in calculating an unmixed matrix. The estimation of an unmixed matrix is based on a fast ICA algorithm, which is estimated as a Newton-Raphson maximization approach. Next, the motion components are represented by the mid-significant eigenvalues from the unmixed matrix. Finally, the results show the approach capabilities to detect efficiently motion in outdoors and indoors scenarios. The results show that the approach is robust to luminance conditions changes at scene. PMID:22219704

Jimnez-Hernndez, Hugo

2010-01-01

248

Supermembrane actions for Gaiotto-Maldacena backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We write down the supermembrane actions for M-theory backgrounds dual to general N=2 four-dimensional superconformal field theories. The actions are given to all orders in fermions and are in a particular ?-gauge. When an extra U(1) isometry is present, our actions reduce to ?-gauge fixed Green-Schwarz actions for the corresponding Type IIA backgrounds.

Stefa?ski, Bogdan

2014-06-01

249

Real-Time Discriminative Background Subtraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the problem of segmenting foreground objects in live video when background scene tex- tures change over time. In particular, we formulate background subtraction as minimizing a penalized instantaneous risk func- tionalyielding a local online discriminative algorithm that can quickly adapt to temporal changes. We analyze the algo- rithm's convergence, discuss its robustness to nonstationarity, and provide an

Li Cheng; Minglun Gong; Dale Schuurmans; Terry Caelli

2011-01-01

250

Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial )  

E-print Network

population. · A relative risk of less than 1 indicates a protective benefit. #12;Risk Comparison · In a study10-4 /rem-1Probability of a fatal cancer (10-4 rem-1) Tissues and organs #12;Risk Factor of LifeModule 9 Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial ) · sources of background

Massey, Thomas N.

251

Revised Aug, 2013 CRIMINAL BACKGROUND CHECK PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

will be retained in the Recruitment file with Human Resources. HR Liaison for the department will be blind copied the background check is cleared by Recruitment and the hiring packet has been approved by Human Resources background checks normally require additional processing time. In addition, delays may occur when Recruitment

Van Stryland, Eric

252

Simulation of Experimental Background using FLUKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 1997, Experiment T423 began acquiring data with the intentions of understanding the energy spectra of high-energy neutrons generated in the interaction of electrons with lead. The following describes a series of FLUKA simulations studying (1) particle yields in the absence of all background; (2) the background caused from scattering in the room; (3) the effects of the thick

Rokni; Sayed

1999-01-01

253

Cosmic Microwave Background: The New Cosmology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This AstroBulletin article takes an in-depth look at the newest technology and instruments used to study the Cosmic Microwave Background. The site includes text and a seven minute video. There are links to three essays: "What Is the Cosmic Microwave Background?", "Antarctica: A Hotbed of Cold-Weather Research" and "DASI Does It."

254

Gifted Students from Low-Education Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gifted children from low-education backgrounds often experience barriers to educational and career success. This article reviews the growing body of literature regarding gifted students from low-education backgrounds and the related literature on the challenges and characteristics of first-generation college students. A mother and daughter

Gibbons, Melinda M.; Pelchar, Taylor K.; Cochran, Jeff L.

2012-01-01

255

Learning logic programs with structured background knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient learnability of restricted classes of logic programs is studied in the PAC framework of computational learning theory. We develop the product homomorphism method, which gives polynomial PAC learning algorithms for a nonrecursive Horn clause with function-free ground background knowledge, if the background knowledge satisfies some structural properties. The method is based on a characterization of the concept that

Tams Horvth; Gyrgy Turn

2001-01-01

256

Understanding Cancer Series: Patient's Genetic Background  

Cancer.gov

While attention must be paid to the changes discovered within the genomic profile of a cancerous growth, equal attention must be paid to the intrinsic genetic background of each patient. Cancer does not develop in a vacuum, but within a patient, and each patient's distinctive genetic background results from both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

257

Full length background papers can be found at globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/news-events/malaria-elimination-background-paper-series Ideal surveillance for malaria elimination  

E-print Network

APRIL 2014 Full length background papers can be found at globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/news-events/malaria-elimination-background-paper-series Ideal surveillance for malaria elimination key messages what does surveillance for malaria elimination entail? Surveillance for malaria control aims to estimate the burden of malaria and inform population

Mullins, Dyche

258

Background modeling and object tracking using multi-spectral sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a multi-spectral video surveillance system. Improved background modeling and appearance-based object tracking are proposed with both signal-level and decision-level multi-spectral information fusion. In addition to modeling observations in each spectral channel by a typical pixel-level mixture-of-Gaussian-based model, we also model high level factors such as confidence of each modality, motion, object area, and lighting with

Cheng-Yao Chen; Wayne Wolf

2006-01-01

259

The National School Lunch Program: Background, Trends, and Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is the Nations second largest food and nutrition assistance program. In 2006, it operated in over 101,000 public and nonprofit private schools and provided over 28 million low-cost or free lunches to children on a typical school day at a Federal cost of $8 billion for the year. This report provides background information on

Katherine L. Ralston; Constance Newman; Annette L. Clauson; Joanne F. Guthrie; Jean C. Buzby

2008-01-01

260

Pertinent spatio-temporal scale of observation to understand sediment yield control factors in the Andean Region: the case of the Santa River (Peru)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydro-sedimentology development is a great challenge in Peru due to limited data as well as sparse and confidential information. Consequently, little is known at present about the relationship between the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO), precipitation, runoff, land use and the sediment transport dynamics. The aim of this paper is to bridge this gap in order to quantify and understand the signal of magnitude and frequency of the sediment fluxes from the central western Andes; also, to identify the main erosion control factor and its relevance. The Tablachaca River (3132 km2) and the Santa River (6815 km2), two mountainous Andean catchments that are geographically close to each other, both showed similar statistical daily rainfall and discharge variability but high contrast in sediment yield (SY). In order to investigate which factors are of importance, the continuous water discharge and hourly suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) of the Santa River were studied. Firstly, the specific sediment yield (SSY) at the continental Andes range scale for the Pacific side is one of the highest amounts (2204 t km2 yr-1). Secondly, no relationship between the water discharge (Q) and El Nio/La Ni a events is found over a 54 yr time period. However, the Santa Basin is highly sensitive during mega Nios (1982-1983 and 1997-1998). Lastly, dispersed micro-mining and mining activity in specific lithologies are identified as the major factors that control the high SSY. These remarks make the Peruvian coast key areas for future research on Andean sediment rates.

Morera, S. B.; Condom, T.; Vauchel, P.; Guyot, J.-L.; Galvez, C.; Crave, A.

2013-01-01

261

Lorentz invariant ensembles of vector backgrounds  

E-print Network

We consider gauge field theories in the presence of ensembles of vector backgrounds. While Lorentz invariance is explicitely broken in the presence of any single background, here, the Lorentz invariance of the theory is restored by averaging over a Lorentz invariant ensemble of backgrounds, i.e. a set of background vectors that is mapped onto itself under Lorentz transformations. This framewkork is used to study the effects of a non-trivial but Lorentz invariant vacuum structure or mass dimension two vector condensates by identifying the background with a shift of the gauge field. Up to now, the ensembles used in the literature comprise configurations corresponding to non-zero field tensors together with such with vanishing field strength. We find that even when constraining the ensembles to pure gauge configurations, the usual high-energy degrees of freedom are removed from the spectrum of asymptotic states in the presence of said backgrounds in euclidean and in Minkowski space. We establish this result not only for the propagators to all orders in the background and otherwise at tree level but for the full propagator.

Dennis D. Dietrich; Stefan Hofmann

2005-06-22

262

Background Rejection for the MAJORANA Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MAJORANA project is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment based on the use of high purity, enriched, ^76Ge crystals housed in ultra low background Cu cryostats as both the source ans the detector. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the experiment, the collaboration is currently building a demonstrator consisting of up to 30 kg of enriched High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors and 10 kg of natural HPGe detectors. These detectors, which will take a P-type Point Contact (PPC) geometry, are designed to maximise performance in terms of energy resolution and background rejection efficacy. In order to achieve the background goal of 1 count per tonne-year in a 4 keV wide region of interest around the 2039 keV neutrinoless double beta decay Q-value, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will be constructed using ultra-clean materials and will employ sophisticated background rejection techniques. One such technique, which is key to achieving this background goal, is the ability to distinguish between single-site events from neutrinoless double beta decay and multiple-site events resulting from background gamma rays. This will be achieved through analysis of the digitised signal response of the HPGe detectors. The physics goals of the MAJORANA experiment will be discussed, along with the roles played by digital electronics and digital pulse processing techniques. Details of key background rejection algorithms will also be presented.

Cooper, Reynold

2011-10-01

263

Discrete-Source Backgrounds in Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmological backgrounds can be decomposed into a component originating from diffuse emission, and one produced by a collection of discrete sources. The object of the present thesis is the study of the properties of the discrete component and the exploration of several of its cosmological applications. In chapter 1, an overview of the study of discrete-source backgrounds is presented. In addition, a description of the cosmic X-ray and radio-source backgrounds, of the effect of gravitational lensing by clusters, and of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect is provided. The soft X-Ray Background is now known to originate primarily from discrete sources. In chapter 2, we study the two-point correlation function between the X-Ray Background and galaxy catalogs, and develop a direct two-dimensional formalism to interpret its angular dependence. This allows us to measure the mean X-ray flux of optical galaxies and to probe faint diffuse X-ray emission. Gravitational lensing can affect extragalactic backgrounds by altering the apparent density and flux distributions of their constituting sources. In chapter 3, the effect of gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies on the X-Ray background is discussed. By considering the particular case of the cluster A1689, we show that the lensing-induced depletion in the number of detectable sources should be observable by the future X-ray mission AXAF. In chapter 4, we show that gravitational lensing causes a systematic deficit in the residual intensity of the radio-source background, after subtraction of detectable sources. If not corrected for, this can lead to an overestimation of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich temperature decrement in the Cosmic Microwave Background, and to an underestimation of subsequent determination of the Hubble constant. Conclusions and natural extensions of this thesis are summarized in chapter 5.

Refregier, Alexandre

1997-10-01

264

Sources of the Radio Background Considered  

SciTech Connect

We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

2011-08-22

265

Public Information Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the time of their creation, public information films created by the British government after World War II may have been seen as overly didactic and pedestrian in their approach to filmmaking. Fifty years on, they are most correctly seen as a fascinating way to gain some insight into this particular moment in British history. The National Archives has created this website which contains several dozen of these public information films that deal with such diverse subjects as public health, a trip on a London bus, and the Berlin airlift. Before delving into the films, visitors may wish to peruse a timeline of pertinent events during the years 1945 to 1951 and also read about the austere conditions around much of the United Kingdom during the period.

266

Gravitational wave background from rotating neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background of gravitational waves produced by the ensemble of rotating neutron stars (which includes pulsars, magnetars, and gravitars) is investigated. A formula for ?(f) (a function that is commonly used to quantify the background, and is directly related to its energy density) is derived, without making the usual assumption that each radiating system evolves on a short time scale compared to the Hubble time; the time evolution of the systems since their formation until the present day is properly taken into account. Moreover, the formula allows one to distinguish the different parts of the background: the unresolvable (which forms a stochastic background or confusion noise, since the waveforms composing it cannot be either individually observed or subtracted out of the data of a detector) and the resolvable. Several estimations of the background are obtained, for different assumptions on the parameters that characterize neutron stars and their population. In particular, different initial spin period distributions lead to very different results. For one of the models, with slow initial spins, the detection of the background by present or planned detectors can be rejected. However, other models do predict the detection of the background, that would be unresolvable, by the future ground-based gravitational wave detector ET. A robust upper limit for the background of rotating neutron stars is obtained; it does not exceed the detection threshold of two cross-correlated Advanced LIGO interferometers. If gravitars exist and constitute more than a few percent of the neutron star population, then they produce an unresolvable background that could be detected by ET. Under the most reasonable assumptions on the parameters characterizing a neutron star, the background is too faint to be detected. Previous papers have suggested neutron star models in which large magnetic fields (like the ones that characterize magnetars) induce big deformations in the star, which produce a stronger emission of gravitational radiation. Considering the most optimistic (in terms of the detection of gravitational waves) of these models, an upper limit for the background produced by magnetars is obtained; it could be detected by ET, but not by BBO or DECIGO. Simple approximate formulas to characterize both the total and the unresolvable backgrounds are given for the ensemble of rotating neutron stars, and, for completion, also for the ensemble of binary star systems.

Rosado, Pablo A.

2012-11-01

267

Background considerations for SuperCDMS  

SciTech Connect

Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 10{sup ?46} cm{sup 2} for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

Cooley, J. [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Collaboration: SuperCDMS Collaboration

2013-08-08

268

XMM-Newton EPIC in orbit background  

E-print Network

We briefly describe the methods used in compiling a set of high galactic latitude background data. The characteristics and limitations of the data which affect their use as a template for analysing extended objects are described. We briefly describe a spectral fitting analysis of the data which reveals a normalisation for the extragalactic background of 11.4 keV / sq cm / s / sr, which implies the fraction of hard X-ray background presently resolved by various Chandra observations is towards the lower limit of their estimates.

D. H. Lumb

2002-03-18

269

Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and near-infrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo.

Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W.; Girard, Emily J.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

2014-07-01

270

Detection of a small target in infrared images based on a multiband background model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main Infrared Search and Track systems (IRST) purpose is to realize optimal discrimination between true targets and background clutter (false alarm). In such single band systems, background prediction is frequently used for detecting small targets. However, detection performances are strongly influenced by background gurgitation. The method based on maximum background model can reduce this kind of influence. But present background prediction methods choose background pixels around the prediction pixel from every direction, as a result, background pixels around the target will be 'poisoned' by target, and contrast will be greatly reduced accordingly. Threshold chosen to detect the target in the predicted residual image will decrease, and this will result in too many false targets and increase false alarms. For the small targets detection in IR images, a method of background prediction based on multi-band background model is proposed. For the purpose of removing the target poison, an improved rule of selecting background pixels according to the certain spectral difference between the expected target and background has been developed in this method. The use of this information is based on theoretical spectral radiance discrimination in LWIR and MWIR bands, between targets and backgrounds. When the current spectral parameter matches spectral background response, the current pixel is judged as a background pixel, and involve in background prediction operation, otherwise, it is judged as a target pixel, and will not involve in this operation. The multi-band background model, which improves the performance of small targets detection, eliminates the effect of target on the background prediction, achieves more accurate prediction of background, and increases the contrast of target and background. This is a significant development to the background prediction algorithm by extending to multi-band domain. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the algorithm in this paper.

Huang, Xi; Zhang, Jian-qi

2005-01-01

271

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2010-07-01

272

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2012-01-01

273

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2013-07-01

274

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2011-01-01

275

Background Reading: Ethical Perspectives and Theories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides short background reading describing values, morals, and ethics, as well as these perspectives: Moral Rules and Duties, Outcomes, Virtues, Principles, and Care/Feminist.

2008-01-01

276

Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields  

SciTech Connect

We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields.

William Detmold, Brian C. Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

2010-02-01

277

16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING APPLIANCES-NOTIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE AND TECHNICAL DATA 1406.2 Background. (a...disclose a number of incidents involving coal and wood burning...

2010-01-01

278

Cognitive abilities, sociocultural background and academic achievement.  

PubMed

The influence of students' sociocultural background on academic achievement is a well established fact. Research also points out that sociocultural background is related to students' cognitive abilities and these have an effect on their academic achievement. However, the mediator role of cognitive abilities on the relationship between sociocultural background and academic achievement is less well known. A structural equation model that represents these relationships was tested in a sample (N= 728) of Portuguese junior high school students. Multigroup analysis of the model showed the importance of the cognitive ability mediation effect between sociocultural background and academic achievement in the 7th and 9th grades, but not in the 8th grade. This difference may be the result of the academic transition experienced in the 7th and 9th grades in the Portuguese educational system, which requires parents' higher involvement in school. PMID:22047860

Diniz, Antnio; Dias Pocinho, Margarida; Silva Almeida, Leandro

2011-11-01

279

25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 556.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GAMING LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR...management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation. (a) A tribe shall...

2010-04-01

280

32 CFR 770.49 - Background.  

...INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington 770.49 Background. (a) Puget Sound Naval Shipyard is a major naval ship...interruption. Additionally, most of Puget Sound Naval Shipyard is dedicated to heavy...

2014-07-01

281

32 CFR 732.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General 732.1 Background. ...Navy or Marine Corps member receives authorized care from other than a Navy treatment facility, care is under the cognizance of the...

2011-07-01

282

High-energy radiation background in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation environment of near-earth space and its effects on biological and hardware systems are examined in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to particle interactions and propagation, data bases, instrument background and dosimetry, detectors and experimental progress, biological effects, and future needs and strategies. Particular attention is given to angular distributions and spectra of geomagnetically trapped protons in LEO, bremsstrahlung production by electrons, nucleon-interaction data bases for background estimates, instrumental and atmospheric background lines observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, the GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica, space protons and brain tumors, a new radioprotective antioxidative agent, LEO radiation measurements on the Space Station, and particle-background effects on the Hubble Space Telescope and the Lyman FUV Spectroscopic Explorer.

Rester, A. C., Jr. (editor); Trombka, J. I. (editor)

1989-01-01

283

32 CFR 770.27 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii 770.27 Background. ...Navy over its installations in Hawaii, it is essential that entry onto...all naval installations in the State of Hawaii by Commander-in-Chief,...

2010-07-01

284

40 CFR 105.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is...

2010-07-01

285

32 CFR 763.3 - Background.  

...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING...ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii 763.3 Background. (a) Kaho'olawe Island is used by the armed forces of...

2014-07-01

286

Hidden Markov Models for background clutter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a target acquisition performance model for an electro-optical imaging system is seriously affected by the description of the target and background characteristics at present. Based on the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), a different clutter metric is proposed to quantify the influence of background on target detection in this article. It first simulates the process of recording a target in the human brain by optimizing the HMM parameters to represent the target as far as possible. And then the background clutter is defined to be the similarity, estimated by the computed model parameters, between the target and background. Finally, the newly proposed clutter metric is applied to the Search2 database, and the experiment results prove its superiority to other metrics.

Li, Qian; Yang, Cui; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Zhang, Dong-Yang

2013-07-01

287

The cosmic X-ray background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present knowledge about the overall spectrum of the isotropic extragalactic background of electromagnetic radiation is summarized. The role of the HEAO program is discussed. Spectral measurements from HEAO are examined.

Boldt, Elihu A.

1987-01-01

288

Counseling Battered Women from Fundamentalist Christian Backgrounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines biblical issues (spouse roles, separation and divorce, forgiveness, faith) that are of concern to battered women from fundamentalist Christian backgrounds. Offers counselors suggestions on how to address them. (Author/ABL)

Whipple, Vicky

1988-01-01

289

25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.  

...INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES...investigation for each primary management official and for each key...request from each primary management official and from each key...chapter. (b) If, in the course of a background...

2014-04-01

290

IIB backgrounds with five-form flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate all N=2 supersymmetric IIB supergravity backgrounds with non-vanishing five-form flux. The Killing spinors have stability subgroups Spin(7)?R8, SU(4)?R8 and G2. In the SU(4)?R8 case, two different types of geometry arise depending on whether the Killing spinors are generic or pure. In both cases, the backgrounds admit a null Killing vector field which leaves invariant the SU(4)?R8 structure, and

U. Gran; J. Gutowski; G. Papadopoulos

2008-01-01

291

The pregalactic cosmic gravitational wave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution. The spectral region of cosmically generated and cosmically limited radiation is, at long periods, P greater than 1 year, in contrast to more recent cosmological sources, which have P approx. 10 to 10(exp -3).

Matzner, Richard A.

1989-01-01

292

Gravitational wave background from binary systems  

SciTech Connect

Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter {Omega}(f), commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, {Omega}(f) is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the frequencies of all existing and planned detectors. A semi-analytical formula for {Omega}(f) is derived in the case of stellar binaries (containing white dwarfs, neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes). Besides a realistic expectation of the level of background, upper and lower limits are given, to account for the uncertainties in some astrophysical parameters such as binary coalescence rates. One interesting result concerns all current and planned ground-based detectors (including the Einstein Telescope). In their frequency range, the background of binaries is resolvable and only sporadically present. In other words, there is no stochastic background of binaries for ground-based detectors.

Rosado, Pablo A. [Albert Einstein Institute, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2011-10-15

293

Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

Willshire, K. F.

1984-01-01

294

Scientific Explanation Seminar Background Notes (1/25/11) 1 Scientific Explanation --Background Notes  

E-print Network

a less general "law" (Kepler's) is explained (subsumed) by more general laws (Newton's). � In order a bunch of salient background readings on the website � These background notes are, basically, the first 2

Fitelson, Branden

295

Pilot Performance With Predictive System Status Information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, the benefits of predictive information have not been quantitatively demonstrated. The study described here attempted to identify and quantify these benefits if they existed. In this simulator experiment, three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and four initial times to an alert (1 minute, 5 minutes, 15 minutes, and ETA+ 45 minutes) were found to affect when subjects accomplished certain actions, such as accessing pertinent checklists, declaring emergencies, diverting, and calling the flight attendant and dispatch.

Trujillo, Anna C.

1997-01-01

296

The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 mum. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps

M. G. Hauser; R. G. Arendt; T. Kelsall; E. Dwek; N. Odegard; J. L. Weiland; H. T. Freudenreich; W. T. Reach; R. F. Silverberg; S. H. Moseley; Y. C. Pei; P. Lubin; J. C. Mather; R. A. Shafer; G. F. Smoot; R. Weiss; D. T. Wilkinson; E. L. Wright

1998-01-01

297

Background matrix subtraction (BMS): A novel background removal algorithm for GPR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background noise is a common type of coherent noise that severely compromises the integrity of the high-resolution images provided by ground penetrating radar survey. Several existing techniques employ different approaches to attenuate background noise. In this study, we present the background matrix subtraction (BMS) as an alternative technique to remove horizontal background noise and we compare its efficiency to that of the conventional background removal technique. Instead of calculating an average trace that is subtracted from the GPR data in the conventional background removal methods, the BMS technique is based on calculating a complete background matrix of the same size of the GPR section. The background matrix is created through a series of windowing, sample exclusion, weighting, and iteration. This series of processes guarantees that the background matrix is least affected by target response and is composed purely of horizontal background noise. The computed background matrix is then subtracted from the GPR data to remove horizontal events. Results of experiments conducted on both synthetic and real GPR data show that the BMS technique yields better results than the commonly used background removal technique.

Rashed, Mohamed; Harbi, Hussein

2014-07-01

298

The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method to solve the Killing spinor equations of 11-dimensional supergravity based on a description of spinors in terms of forms and on the Spin(1, 10) gauge symmetry of the supercovariant derivative. We give the canonical form of Killing spinors for backgrounds preserving two supersymmetries, N = 2, provided that one of the spinors represents the orbit of Spin(1, 10) with stability subgroup SU(5). We directly solve the Killing spinor equations of N = 1 and some N = 2, N = 3 and N = 4 backgrounds. In the N = 2 case, we investigate backgrounds with SU(5) and SU(4) invariant Killing spinors and compute the associated spacetime forms. We find that N = 2 backgrounds with SU(5) invariant Killing spinors admit a timelike Killing vector and that the space transverse to the orbits of this vector field is a Hermitian manifold with an SU(5)-structure. Furthermore, N = 2 backgrounds with SU(4) invariant Killing spinors admit two Killing vectors, one timelike and one spacelike. The space transverse to the orbits of the former is an almost Hermitian manifold with an SU(4)-structure. The spacelike Killing vector field leaves the almost complex structure invariant. We explore the canonical form of Killing spinors for backgrounds preserving more than two supersymmetries, N > 2. We investigate a class of N = 3 and N = 4 backgrounds with SU(4) invariant spinors. We find that in both cases the space transverse to a timelike vector field is a Hermitian manifold equipped with an SU(4)-structure and admits two holomorphic Killing vector fields. We also present an application to M-theory Calabi Yau compactifications with fluxes to one dimension.

Gillard, J.; Gran, U.; Papadopoulos, G.

2005-03-01

299

The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds  

E-print Network

We propose a new method to solve the Killing spinor equations of eleven-dimensional supergravity based on a description of spinors in terms of forms and on the Spin(1,10) gauge symmetry of the supercovariant derivative. We give the canonical form of Killing spinors for N=2 backgrounds provided that one of the spinors represents the orbit of Spin(1,10) with stability subgroup SU(5). We directly solve the Killing spinor equations of N=1 and some N=2, N=3 and N=4 backgrounds. In the N=2 case, we investigate backgrounds with SU(5) and SU(4) invariant Killing spinors and compute the associated spacetime forms. We find that N=2 backgrounds with SU(5) invariant Killing spinors admit a timelike Killing vector and that the space transverse to the orbits of this vector field is a Hermitian manifold with an SU(5)-structure. Furthermore, N=2 backgrounds with SU(4) invariant Killing spinors admit two Killing vectors, one timelike and one spacelike. The space transverse to the orbits of the former is an almost Hermitian manifold with an SU(4)-structure and the latter leaves the almost complex structure invariant. We explore the canonical form of Killing spinors for backgrounds with extended, N>2, supersymmetry. We investigate a class of N=3 and N=4 backgrounds with SU(4) invariant spinors. We find that in both cases the space transverse to a timelike vector field is a Hermitian manifold equipped with an SU(4)-structure and admits two holomorphic Killing vector fields. We also present an application to M-theory Calabi-Yau compactifications with fluxes to one-dimension.

Joe Gillard; Ulf Gran; George Papadopoulos

2004-10-13

300

Holographic backgrounds from D-brane probes  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the derivation of holographic backgrounds from the field theory side, without using any supergravity equations of motion. Instead, we rely on the addition of probe D-branes to the stack of D-branes generating the background. From the field theory description of the probe branes, one can compute an effective action for the probes (in a suitable low-energy/near-horizon limit) by integrating out the background branes. Comparing this action with the generic probe D-brane action then allows to determine the holographic background dual to the considered field theory vacuum. In the first part, the required pre-requisites of field and string theory are recalled and this strategy to derive holographic backgrounds is explained in more detail on the basic case of D3-branes in flat space probed by a small number of D-instantons. The second part contains our original results, which have already appeared in arXiv:1301.3738, arXiv:1301.7062 and arXiv:1312.0621. We first derive the duals to three conti...

Moskovic, Micha

2014-01-01

301

IIB backgrounds with five-form flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate all N=2 supersymmetric IIB supergravity backgrounds with non-vanishing five-form flux. The Killing spinors have stability subgroups Spin(7)?R, SU(4)?R and G. In the SU(4)?R case, two different types of geometry arise depending on whether the Killing spinors are generic or pure. In both cases, the backgrounds admit a null Killing vector field which leaves invariant the SU(4)?R structure, and an almost complex structure in the directions transverse to the lightcone. In the generic case, the twist of the vector field is trivial but the almost complex structure is non-integrable, while in the pure case the twist is non-trivial but the almost complex structure is integrable and associated with a relatively balanced Hermitian structure. The G backgrounds admit a time-like Killing vector field and two spacelike closed one-forms, and the seven directions transverse to these admit a co-symplectic G structure. The Spin(7)?R backgrounds are pp-waves propagating in an eight-dimensional manifold with holonomy Spin(7). In addition we show that all the supersymmetric solutions of simple five-dimensional supergravity with a time-like Killing vector field, which include the AdS black holes, lift to SU(4)?R pure Killing spinor IIB backgrounds. We also show that the LLM solution is associated with a co-symplectic co-homogeneity one G manifold which has principal orbit SS.

Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

2008-07-01

302

A review on natural background radiation  

PubMed Central

The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly 232Th and 238U series, and their decay products, as well as 40K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

2013-01-01

303

A review on natural background radiation.  

PubMed

The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly (232)Th and (238)U series, and their decay products, as well as (40)K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

2013-01-01

304

Contacts & Information Sources  

Cancer.gov

PLCO Background Information about PLCO Sponsoring Organization Participants/Eligibility PLCO Extended Follow-Up Etiology and Early Marker Studies Cancer Data Access System PLCO Publications Contacts & Information Sources PLCO participants who

305

Sources of Information on Medical Geography  

PubMed Central

Adequate research in the peripheral field of medical geography requires familiarity with the literature of medicine, geography, and other environmentally oriented fields. The pertinent literature of the two primary disciplines, as well as that of anthropology, nutrition, and human bioclimatology, is surveyed from a bibliographical point of view. A brief review of historical sources is presented, followed by a discussion of the contemporary organizations, both international and national, active in the field. Emphasis is placed on the publishing programs and projects, maps, atlases, symposia, reports, and other literature sponsored or stimulated by these organizations. Regional bibliographical surveys for East Africa, India, and the Soviet Union are also noted. Pertinent aspects of bibliographies, indexes, abstracts, library card catalogs and accession lists, and other resources are listed, with emphasis on the various subject headings and other approaches to them. Throughout, the sources of information are approached from a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary viewpoint. PMID:5329543

Mullins, Lynn S.

1966-01-01

306

Charting the New Frontier of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization  

E-print Network

The anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background are a gold mine for cosmology and fundamental physics. ESA's Planck satellite should soon extract all information from the temperature vein but will be limited concerning the measurement of the degree of polarization of the anisotropies. This polarization information allows new independent tests of the standard cosmological paradigm, improves knowledge of cosmological parameters and last but not least is the best window available for constraining the physics of the very early universe, particularly the expected background of primordial gravitational waves. But exploiting this vein will be a challenge, since the sensitivity required is {\\em at least} 10 times better than what Planck might achieve at best, with the necessary matching level of control of all systematics effects, both instrumental and astrophysical (foregrounds). We here recall the cosmological context and the case for CMB polarization studies. We also briefly introduce the SAMPAN project, a design study at CNES that aims at detecting the primoridal gravitational wave background for a tensor to scalar ratio T/S as small as 0.001.

F. R. Bouchet; A. Benoit; Ph. Camus; F. X. Desert; M. Piat; N. Ponthieu

2005-10-14

307

Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise  

PubMed Central

It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity.

Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.; Xiao, Zhongju

2014-01-01

308

Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator  

E-print Network

The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

Cuesta, C; Aguayo, E; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Combs, D C; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fast, J E; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guiseppe, V E; Gusev, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Hegai, A; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; MacMullin, J; MacMullin, S; Martin, R D; Meijer, S; Mertens, S; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Phillips, D G; Poon, A W P; Pushkin, K; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Ronquest, M C; Schubert, A G; Shanks, B; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Thompson, J; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Young, A R; Yu, C H; Yumatov, V

2014-01-01

309

Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator  

E-print Network

The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

C. Cuesta; N. Abgrall; E. Aguayo; F. T. Avignone III; A. S. Barabash; F. E. Bertrand; M. Boswell; V. Brudanin; M. Busch; D. Byram; A. S. Caldwell; Y-D. Chan; C. D. Christofferson; D. C. Combs; C. Cuesta; J. A. Detwiler; P. J. Doe; Yu. Efremenko; V. Egorov; H. Ejiri; S. R. Elliott; J. E. Fast; P. Finnerty; F. M. Fraenkle; A. Galindo-Uribarri; G. K. Giovanetti; J. Goett; M. P. Green; J. Gruszko; V. E. Guiseppe; K. Gusev; A. L. Hallin; R. Hazama; A. Hegai; R. Henning; E. W. Hoppe; S. Howard; M. A. Howe; K. J. Keeter; M. F. Kidd; O. Kochetov; S. I. Konovalov; R. T. Kouzes; B. D. LaFerriere; J. Leon; L. E. Leviner; J. C. Loach; J. MacMullin; S. MacMullin; R. D. Martin; S. Meijer; S. Mertens; M. Nomachi; J. L. Orrell; C. O'Shaughnessy; N. R. Overman; D. G. Phillips II; A. W. P. Poon; K. Pushkin; D. C. Radford; J. Rager; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; E. Romero-Romero; M. C. Ronquest; A. G. Schubert; B. Shanks; T. Shima; M. Shirchenko; K. J. Snavely; N. Snyder; A. M. Suriano; J. Thompson; V. Timkin; W. Tornow; J. E. Trimble; R. L. Varner; S. Vasilyev; K. Vetter; K. Vorren; B. R. White; J. F. Wilkerson; C. Wiseman; W. Xu; E. Yakushev; A. R. Young; C. H. Yu; V. Yumatov

2014-05-06

310

Background reflectance effects in Landsat data.  

PubMed

A regression analysis was performed on Landsat MSS data to investigate the dependence of object radiance on the radiance of adjacent areas. The object radiance is increased by a path radiance component attributed to forward scattering in the atmosphere after reflection of solar radiation from the object background. Inclusion of average radiance of a few concentric rings with object reflectance in the regression model for satellite-measured radiance improves the least-squares fit at all sites tested. Multiple regression analysis indicates that radiance of an object is significantly affected by reflectance of background objects up to 500 m away. PMID:20401017

Dana, R W

1982-11-15

311

Noise correlations in cosmic microwave background experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many analysis of microwave background experiments neglect the correlation of noise in different frequency of polarization channels. We show that these correlations, should they be present, can lead to serve misinterpretation of an experiment. In particular, correlated noise arising from either electronics or atmosphere may mimic a cosmic signal. We quantify how the likelihood function for a given experiment varies with noise correlation, using both simple analytic models and actual data. For a typical microwave background anisotropy experiment, noise correlations at the level of 1% of the overall noise can seriously reduce the significance of a given detection.

Dodelson, Scott; Kosowsky, Arthur; Myers, Steven T.

1995-01-01

312

The homogeneity theorem for supergravity backgrounds  

E-print Network

We prove the strong homogeneity conjecture for eleven- and ten-dimensional (Poincar\\'e) supergravity backgrounds. In other words, we show that any backgrounds of 11-dimensional, type I/heterotic or type II supergravity theories preserving a fraction greater than one half of the supersymmetry of the underlying theory are necessarily locally homogeneous. Moreover we show that the homogeneity is due precisely to the supersymmetry, so that at every point of the spacetime one can find a frame for the tangent space made out of Killing vectors constructed out of the Killing spinors.

Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jos

2012-01-01

313

The homogeneity theorem for supergravity backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove the strong homogeneity conjecture for eleven- and ten-dimensional (Poincar) supergravity backgrounds. In other words, we show that any backgrounds of 11- dimensional, type I/heterotic or type II supergravity theories preserving a fraction ? >1/2 of the supersymmetry of the underlying theory are necessarily locally homogeneous. Moreover we show that the homogeneity is due precisely to the supersymmetry, so that at every point of the spacetime one can find a frame for the tangent space made out of Killing vectors constructed out of the Killing spinors.

Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jos; Hustler, Noel

2012-10-01

314

The homogeneity theorem for supergravity backgrounds  

E-print Network

We prove the strong homogeneity conjecture for eleven- and ten-dimensional (Poincar\\'e) supergravity backgrounds. In other words, we show that any backgrounds of 11-dimensional, type I/heterotic or type II supergravity theories preserving a fraction greater than one half of the supersymmetry of the underlying theory are necessarily locally homogeneous. Moreover we show that the homogeneity is due precisely to the supersymmetry, so that at every point of the spacetime one can find a frame for the tangent space made out of Killing vectors constructed out of the Killing spinors.

Jos Figueroa-O'Farrill; Noel Hustler

2012-08-02

315

Possible manifestations of the graviton background  

E-print Network

Possible effects are considered which would be caused by a hypothetical superstrong interaction of photons or massive bodies with single gravitons of the graviton background. If full cosmological redshift magnitudes are caused by the interaction, then the luminosity distance in a flat non-expanding universe as a function of redshift is very similar to the specific function which fits supernova cosmology data by Riess et al. From another side, in this case every massive body, slowly moving relatively to the background, would experience a constant acceleration, proportional to the Hubble constant, of the same order as a small additional acceleration of Pioneer 10, 11.

Michael A. Ivanov

2000-05-04

316

Elastic lattice in an incommensurate background  

SciTech Connect

We study a harmonic triangular lattice, which relaxes in the presence of an incommensurate short-wavelength potential. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the elastic lattice exhibits only short-ranged translational correlations, despite the absence of defects in either lattice. Extended orientational order, however, persists in the presence of the background. Translational correlation lengths exhibit approximate power-law dependence upon cooling rate and background strength. Our results may be relevant to Wigner crystals, atomic monolayers on crystals surfaces, and flux-line and magnetic bubble lattices.

Dickman, R.; Chudnovsky, E.M. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States))

1995-01-01

317

Geodesics and Newton's Law in Brane Backgrounds  

E-print Network

In brane world models our universe is considered as a brane imbedded into a higher dimensional space. We discuss the behaviour of geodesics in the Randall-Sundrum background and point out that free massive particles cannot move along the brane only. The brane is repulsive, and matter will be expelled from the brane into the extra dimension. This is rather undesirable, and hence we study an alternative model with a non-compact extra dimension, but with an attractive brane embedded into the higher dimensional space. We study the linearized gravity equations and show that Newton's gravitational law is valid on the brane also in the alternative background.

W. Mueck; K. S. Viswanathan; I. V. Volovich

2000-02-16

318

Cosmology and the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

COBE, planned for launch aboard a Delta rocket, is NASA's first space mission specifically designed to study the diffuse IR and microwave background radiation. COBE has three instruments for performing precision measurements of the spectrum and angular distribution of the 3 K cosmic background radiation and for making an all-sky survey of the diffuse IR emission at wavelengths of 1-300 microns. COBE will carry differential microwave radiameters to search for anisotropies to a sensitivity per 7-deg pixel of 0.15 mK at frequencies of 53 and 90 GHz and of 0.3 mK at 32 GHz.

Boggess, Nancy W.

1989-01-01

319

Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background  

E-print Network

The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects, between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background is investigated, by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density there is focusing and subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed.

Mattias Marklund; Gert Brodin; Lennart Stenflo

2003-05-15

320

Cognitive test performance and background music.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of background music on test performance. In a repeated-measures design 30 undergraduates completed two cognitive tests, one in silence and the other with background music. Analysis suggested that music facilitated cognitive performance compared with the control condition of no music: more questions were completed and more answers were correct. There was no difference in heart rate under the two conditions. The improved performance under the music condition might be directly related to the type of music used. PMID:9450304

Cockerton, T; Moore, S; Norman, D

1997-12-01

321

Neutrino Backgrounds to Dark Matter Searches  

E-print Network

Neutrino coherent scattering cross sections can be as large as 10^{-39} cm^2, while current dark matter experiments have sensitivities to WIMP coherent scattering cross sections five orders of magnitude smaller; future experiments plan to have sensitivities to cross sections as small as 10^{-48} cm^2. With large target masses and few keV recoil energy detection thresholds, neutral current coherent scattering of solar neutrinos becomes an irreducible background in dark matter searches. In the current zero-background analysis paradigm, neutrino coherent scattering will limit the achievable sensitivity to dark matter scattering cross sections, at the level of 10^{-46} cm^2.

Jocelyn Monroe; Peter Fisher

2007-06-20

322

Tachyon Backgrounds in 2D String Theory  

E-print Network

We consider the construction of tachyonic backgrounds in two-dimensional string theory, focusing on the Sine-Liouville background. This can be studied in two different ways, one within the context of collective field theory and the other via the formalism of Toda integrable systems. The two approaches are seemingly different. The latter involves a deformation of the original inverted oscillator potential while the former does not. We perform a comparison by explicitly constructing the Fermi surface in each case, and demonstrate that the two apparently different approaches are in fact equivalent.

Sera Cremonini

2005-07-25

323

Hand Transplantation: Pertinent Data and Future Outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transplantation of composite tissue allografts, such as a hand, offers immense potential in reconstructive surgery. Review of current replantation literature suggests the prospect for significant functional return following hand transplant, provided appropriate patient is selected and allograft rejection is prevented. Experimental studies of limb transplantation in rodents have demonstrated the efficacy of combination therapy using multiple immunosuppressants. However, long-term survival

W. P. Andrew Lee; David W. Mathes

1999-01-01

324

29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.  

...including changes in the volume and value of production, market outlets, price changes, style factors, consumer demand, competitive relationships...marketing factors; (c) Comparative production costs in American Samoa, on the...

2014-07-01

325

Developmental constraints and patterns: some pertinent distinctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper remedies some of the conceptual ambiguity in the union of evolution and development by explicating two key concepts in this disciplinary integration: that of a developmental constraint on evolution and of a developmental pattern or form. The phrases developmental pattern and developmental constraint often mean quite different things to different people in different theoretical contexts. It is intended

David Resnik

1995-01-01

326

29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the presently applicable wage order, including such...past employment, present wage rates and fringe benefits...average hourly earnings or wage structure, provisions...agreements, hours of work, labor turnover, absenteeism...similar factors; (b) Market conditions and...

2010-07-01

327

29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the presently applicable wage order, including such...past employment, present wage rates and fringe benefits...average hourly earnings or wage structure, provisions...agreements, hours of work, labor turnover, absenteeism...similar factors; (b) Market conditions and...

2011-07-01

328

29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the presently applicable wage order, including such...past employment, present wage rates and fringe benefits...average hourly earnings or wage structure, provisions...agreements, hours of work, labor turnover, absenteeism...similar factors; (b) Market conditions and...

2012-07-01

329

29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the presently applicable wage order, including such...past employment, present wage rates and fringe benefits...average hourly earnings or wage structure, provisions...agreements, hours of work, labor turnover, absenteeism...similar factors; (b) Market conditions and...

2013-07-01

330

Background of SIFs and Stress Indices for Moment Loadings of Piping Components  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information, references, and equations for twenty-four piping components (thirteen component SIFs and eleven component stress indices) that justify the values or expressions for the SIFs and indices.

E. A. Wais; E. C. Rodabaugh

2005-06-15

331

Application of Monte Carlo algorithms to the Bayesian analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power spectrum estimation and evaluation of associated errors in the presence of incomplete sky coverage; nonhomogeneous, correlated instrumental noise; and foreground emission are problems of central importance for the extraction of cosmological information from the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

Jewell, J.; Levin, S.; Anderson, C. H.

2004-01-01

332

THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT  

SciTech Connect

The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Suzuki, K., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

2013-08-15

333

Background and motivation Classical projective structures  

E-print Network

Background and motivation Classical projective structures Projective BGG equations and polynomial projective structures Projective BGG equations and polynomial systems based on recent joint work with A of a parabolic geometry, namely classical projective structures. This leads to surprising relations to algebraic

Drmota, Michael

334

Background noise levels in PC home environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was designed and conducted to determine the background noise levels in the home environment. This is an important factor in determining the acoustic performance of the computing devices that go into these environments. A specialized methodology was developed and measurements were carried out in homes in the United States, Sweden, Germany, and China. The sound levels in three rooms in 15-18 homes in each country were collected over 24-h periods. The results indicated that the background noise levels ranged between 30 and 40 dBA across the four countries. Variations in the background noise levels between the different rooms in the homes were minimal. No significant variations were found between home types (detached, semi-detached, and apartment) and community types (urban, suburban). However, European homes were quieter than United States and Chinese homes. The variations between countries were statistically significant. In addition to the background noise levels, the acoustical characteristics of the rooms were measured. The results indicated that the reverberation radius was typically below 1 m and was fairly consistent between geographies.

Doherty, Rina; Salskov, Eric; Corriveau, Philip J.; Sorenson, Paul; Gabel, Doug; Beltman, Willem M.

2005-09-01

335

BIMA observations of possible microwave background sources  

E-print Network

We present sensitive upper limits on the 90 GHz flux of known radio and infrared sources in regions associated with possible cosmic microwave background fluctuations at 0.5--1 degree scales. Specifically we look at the MAX GUM region and the region of strongest fluctuation in the MSAM scan. None of the known sources can account for the levels of anisotropy seen.

Lawrence M. Chernin; Douglas Scott

1994-08-05

336

Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum Estimation using  

E-print Network

the primordial density fluctuations which led to the present day structures (like numerical simulation of non of the spectrum of the background and of the spatial distribution of its effective temperature on the sky. Due as early an epoch as 1 year after the beginning until the present. Limits on spectral distortions from

Souradeep, Tarun

337

Logico-Mathematical Background J. C. Huang  

E-print Network

of Houston #12;©J. C. Huang 2009 Logico-mathematical Background 2 This chapter contains materials useful the social security tax and deduct it from the gross amount." Now suppose that you find an instance of social by the above definition may contain many parentheses and thus not suitable for human consumption. The use

Huang, Jung-Chang

338

Discovering Missing Background Knowledge in Ontology Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic matching determines the mappings between the nodes of two graphs (e.g., ontologies) by computing logical relations (e.g., subsumption) holding among the nodes that correspond seman- tically to each other. We present an approach to deal with the lack of background knowledge in matching tasks by using semantic match- ing iteratively. Unlike previous approaches, where the missing ax- ioms are

Fausto Giunchiglia; Pavel Shvaiko; Mikalai Yatskevich

2006-01-01

339

Disruptive coloration and background pattern matching.  

PubMed

Effective camouflage renders a target indistinguishable from irrelevant background objects. Two interrelated but logically distinct mechanisms for this are background pattern matching (crypsis) and disruptive coloration: in the former, the animal's colours are a random sample of the background; in the latter, bold contrasting colours on the animal's periphery break up its outline. The latter has long been proposed as an explanation for some apparently conspicuous coloration in animals, and is standard textbook material. Surprisingly, only one quantitative test of the theory exists, and one experimental test of its effectiveness against non-human predators. Here we test two key predictions: that patterns on the body's outline should be particularly effective in promoting concealment and that highly contrasting colours should enhance this disruptive effect. Artificial moth-like targets were exposed to bird predation in the field, with the experimental colour patterns on the 'wings' and a dead mealworm as the edible 'body'. Survival analysis supported the predictions, indicating that disruptive coloration is an effective means of camouflage, above and beyond background pattern matching. PMID:15744301

Cuthill, Innes C; Stevens, Martin; Sheppard, Jenna; Maddocks, Tracey; Prraga, C Alejandro; Troscianko, Tom S

2005-03-01

340

20 CFR 410.700 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977...

2010-04-01

341

1. Introduction 1.1. Background  

E-print Network

1. Introduction 1.1. Background Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) has been one of the most prevalent sources of environmental pollution in regions of high mineral extraction activity `'The low pH that characterises most AMD].Aconventional method of dealing with AMD has involved the use of lime which results in neutralisation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

342

NLC interaction region layout and background estimates  

SciTech Connect

The design of the final focus system has been modified since the previous LC workshop in Sitges. The system has a reduced length and the front face of the final focusing quadrupole has been moved back to 4.3 meters from the interaction point. We report the effect of these changes on detector backgrounds.

Gronberg, J; Hertzbach, S S; Keller, L; Markiewicz, T; Maruyama, T

2001-02-01

343

Tuberculosis Exposure Control 1.0 BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

1 Tuberculosis Exposure Control 1.0 BACKGROUND Since 1985, the rate of new cases of tuberculosis, more than 26,000 new cases of active tuberculosis were reported in the US. In New York City alone, 3,700 cases of active tuberculosis were reported in 1991. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease that causes

de Lijser, Peter

344

CARD No. 42 42.A.1 BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

CARD No. 42 Monitoring 42.A.1 BACKGROUND Assurance requirements were included in the disposal of natural and engineered components of the WIPP for many thousands of years (50 FR 38072). Section 194.42 is one of the six assurance requirements in the Compliance Criteria. Section 194.42 specifically

345

The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new method to solve the Killing spinor equations of 11-dimensional supergravity based on a description of spinors in terms of forms and on the Spin(1, 10) gauge symmetry of the supercovariant derivative. We give the canonical form of Killing spinors for backgrounds preserving two supersymmetries, N = 2, provided that one of the spinors represents the orbit

Joe Gillard; Ulf Gran; George Papadopoulos

2005-01-01

346

Background System Overview types Food ingredients  

E-print Network

Background System Overview types Food ingredients fish tuna, squid, octopus, shrimp, salmon meat recommendation while shopping Point a smartphone camera to the food ingredients Select recipe easily by cooking recipe API Though food ingredients and recipe are automatically selected, user can also select

Yanai, Keiji

347

RADARSAT-1 Background Mission global coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

RADARSAT-1 Background Mission signifies baseline acquisitions of the satellite for building various site, time and application-specific data archives. The archives are to be considered benchmarks for global change studies and can be used in such applications as terrain mapping with radargrammetry and interferometry. These acquisitions were part of several coverage types that were undertaken over the past six years of

A. Mahmood

2002-01-01

348

ESTIMATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples from hazardous waste site investigations frequently come from two or more statistical populations. Assessment of "background" levels of contaminants can be a significant problem. This problem is being investigated at the US EPA's EMSL in Las Vegas. This paper describes a ...

349

Policy Regarding Background Checks Revised: April 2009  

E-print Network

, current employees seeking promotional or transfer opportunities, and current employees being assigned new checks. Similarly, faculty promotions that are built into a current position, e.g., academic progression, criminal history and driving record. Background checks shall be required of only the final Candidate

350

On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of \\AdS_4\\times S^7 and find that it is isomorphic to \\mathfrak{osp}(1|32) . We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to \\AdS_4 \\times S^7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jos; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simn, Joan

2009-02-01

351

Cosmic Microwave Background Theory J. Richard Bond  

E-print Network

Cosmic Microwave Background Theory J. Richard Bond CIAR Cosmology Program, Canadian Institute of this enterprise is described. Current band­powers in `­space are consistent with a \\DeltaT flat in frequency­ plosions as a dominant source of large scale struc­ ture. Band­powers at ` ¸ ? 100 suggest the universe

Bond, Dick

352

Geodesics and Newton's law in brane backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In brane world models our universe is considered as a brane embedded into a higher-dimensional space. We discuss the behavior of geodesics in the Randall-Sundrum background and point out that free massive particles cannot stably move along the brane. The brane is repulsive, and matter will be expelled from the brane into the extra dimension. This is undesirable, and hence

W. Mck; K. S. Viswanathan; I. V. Volovich

2000-01-01

353

Statistical Background Subtraction Using Spatial Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractMost statistical background subtraction techniques are based on the analysis of temporal color\\/intensity distribution. However, learning statistics on a series of time frames can be problematic, especially when no frame absent of moving objects is available or when the available memory is not sufficient to store the series of frames needed for learning. In this letter, we propose a spatial

Pierre-marc Jodoin; Max Mignotte; Janusz Konrad

2007-01-01

354

Background Music Generation Using Music Texture Synthesis  

E-print Network

music loops offered by loop sequencing softwares. Because of various limitations such as memory spaceBackground Music Generation Using Music Texture Synthesis Min-Joon Yoo1 , In-Kwon Lee1 , and Jung@ajou.ac.kr Abstract. This paper suggests a method to synthesize a long back- ground music sequence from a given short

Lee, In-Kwon

355

CTF Surface Contamination and External Backgrounds  

E-print Network

Chapter 9 CTF Surface Contamination and External Backgrounds The preceding chapter included a thorough analysis of internal events in the CTF, those happening in the volume of scintillator in the CTF. Recall that surface events are defined as those produced by radioactive materials embedded

356

IRAS observations of the diffuse infrared background  

Microsoft Academic Search

IRAS data reveal bright emission from interplanetary dust which dominates the celestial background at 12, 25, and 60 microns except near the galactic plane. At 100 microns, interplanetary dust emission is prominent only near the ecliptic plane; diffuse galactic emission is found over the rest of the sky. At the galactic poles, the observed brightness implies that A(v) is likely

M. G. Hauser; F. C. Gillett; F. J. Low; T. N. Gautier; C. A. Beichman; H. H. Aumann; G. Neugebauer; B. Baud; N. Boggess; J. P. Emerson

1984-01-01

357

Global Warming and the Microwave Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the work, the importance of assigning the microwave background to the Earth is ad- dressed while emphasizing the consequences for global climate change. Climate mod- els can only produce meaningful forecasts when they consider the real magnitude of all radiative processes. The oceans and continents both contribute to terrestrial emis- sions. However, the extent of oceanic radiation, particularly in

Pierre-Marie Robitaille

2009-01-01

358

Family Background, Ethnicity, and Urban Delinquency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a pilot study of about 400 public high school students in Chicago, four innovative approaches are employed to deal with previous research problems arising from the study of juvenile delinquency: specific, proximal measures of social background, multiple indexes of delinquency, anonymous self-reports of delinquency incidence, and parametric

Walberg, Herbert J.; And Others

1974-01-01

359

Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

2001-05-01

360

Social Background Differences in Early Family Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social background has historically been recognized as a major factor influencing family behavior, though recent work has largely emphasized racial/ethnic influences. Here we use 1994 - 1995 and 2001 - 2002 Add Health data to examine the cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth experience of young women. In a multi state life table context,

Schoen, Robert; Landale, Nancy S.; Daniels, Kimberly; Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice

2009-01-01

361

Computer Software & Intellectual Property. Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This background paper reviews copyright, patent, and trade secret protections as these issues are related to computer software. Topics discussed include current issues regarding legal protection for computer software including the necessity for defining intellectual property, determining what should or should not be protected, commerical piracy,

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

362

Test-Takers' Background, Literacy Activities, and Views of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships among students' background information and their in-school and after-school literacy activities, as well as the relationships between students' background and their views of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT). The results showed that students' literacy activities could be grouped into three

Zheng, Ying; Klinger, Don A.; Cheng, Liying; Fox, Janna; Doe, Christine

2011-01-01

363

University of Washington | Human Resources BACKGROUND REPORT DISCLOSURE AND AUTHORIZATION FORM  

E-print Network

University of Washington | Human Resources BACKGROUND REPORT DISCLOSURE AND AUTHORIZATION FORM this the information on this form carefully. It describes your rights as a consumer. The University of Washington uses Reporting Agency" (CRA) covered by the FCRA. The University of Washington uses the background reports

Eichler, Evan

364

Holographic backgrounds from D-brane probes  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the derivation of holographic backgrounds from the field theory side, without using any supergravity equations of motion. Instead, we rely on the addition of probe D-branes to the stack of D-branes generating the background. From the field theory description of the probe branes, one can compute an effective action for the probes (in a suitable low-energy/near-horizon limit) by integrating out the background branes. Comparing this action with the generic probe D-brane action then allows to determine the holographic background dual to the considered field theory vacuum. In the first part, the required pre-requisites of field and string theory are recalled and this strategy to derive holographic backgrounds is explained in more detail on the basic case of D3-branes in flat space probed by a small number of D-instantons. The second part contains our original results, which have already appeared in arXiv:1301.3738, arXiv:1301.7062 and arXiv:1312.0621. We first derive the duals to three continuous deformations (Coulomb branch, $\\beta$ and non-commutative deformations) of N=4 super-Yang-Mills. We then derive the enhan\\c{c}on mechanism in a simple N=2 quiver gauge theory setup by using a fractional D-instanton as a probe and exploiting recent exact results on the Coulomb branch of N=2 quivers. Finally, we obtain the near-horizon D4-brane geometry by probing the D4-branes with a small number of D0-branes.

Micha Moskovic

2014-09-02

365

IIB backgrounds with five-form flux  

E-print Network

We investigate all N=2 supersymmetric IIB supergravity backgrounds with non-vanishing five-form flux. The Killing spinors have stability subgroups $Spin(7)\\ltimes\\bR^8$, $SU(4)\\ltimes\\bR^8$ and $G_2$. In the $SU(4)\\ltimes\\bR^8$ case, two different types of geometry arise depending on whether the Killing spinors are generic or pure. In both cases, the backgrounds admit a null Killing vector field which leaves invariant the $SU(4)\\ltimes \\bR^8$ structure, and an almost complex structure in the directions transverse to the lightcone. In the generic case, the twist of the vector field is trivial but the almost complex structure is non-integrable, while in the pure case the twist is non-trivial but the almost complex structure is integrable and associated with a relatively balanced Hermitian structure. The $G_2$ backgrounds admit a time-like Killing vector field and two spacelike closed one-forms, and the seven directions transverse to these admit a co-symplectic $G_2$ structure. The $Spin(7)\\ltimes\\bR^8$ backgrounds are pp-waves propagating in an eight-dimensional manifold with holonomy $Spin(7)$. In addition we show that all the supersymmetric solutions of simple five-dimensional supergravity with a time-like Killing vector field, which include the $AdS_5$ black holes, lift to $SU(4)\\ltimes\\bR^8$ pure Killing spinor IIB backgrounds. We also show that the LLM solution is associated with a co-symplectic co-homogeneity one $G_2$ manifold which has principal orbit $S^3\\times S^3$.

U. Gran; J. Gutowski; G. Papadopoulos

2007-05-15

366

Simulating Cosmic Microwave Background maps in multi-connected spaces  

E-print Network

This article describes the computation of cosmic microwave background anisotropies in a universe with multi-connected spatial sections and focuses on the implementation of the topology in standard CMB computer codes. The key ingredient is the computation of the eigenmodes of the Laplacian with boundary conditions compatible with multi-connected space topology. The correlators of the coefficients of the decomposition of the temperature fluctuation in spherical harmonics are computed and examples are given for spatially flat spaces and one family of spherical spaces, namely the lens spaces. Under the hypothesis of Gaussian initial conditions, these correlators encode all the topological information of the CMB and suffice to simulate CMB maps.

Alain Riazuelo; Jean-Philippe Uzan; Roland Lehoucq; Jeffrey Weeks

2002-12-10

367

Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background: Are These Guys Serious?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) could contain the oldest information in the universe, dating from an inflationary epoch just after the Big Bang. Detecting this signal presents an experimental challenge, as it is both faint and hidden behind complicated foregrounds. The rewards, however, are great, as a positive detection would not only establish inflation as a physical reality but also provide a model-independent measurement of the relevant energy scale. I will present the scientific motivation behind measurements of the CMB polarization and discuss how recent experimental progress could lead to a detection in the not-very-distant future.

Kogut, Alan

2007-01-01

368

Serving Citizens with Special Needs. New Libraries Can Enrich Lives and Fulfill Aspirations for the Elderly and the Handicapped, the Functionally Illiterate, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, the Homebound and Inmates of Correctional Institutions. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet describes varieties of public library services and programs geared to fulfilling the information needs of older adults, the physically handicapped, the illiterate, ethnic minorities, and others requiring survival information essentials.

E. N. Layne

1980-01-01

369

ARTEMIS: A Vision for Remote Triage and Emergency Management Information Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of an automated triage and emergency management information system. The prototype system is capable of monitoring and assessing physiological parameters of individuals, transmitting pertinent medical data to and from multiple echelons of medical service, and providing filtered data for command and control applications. The system employs wireless networking, portable computing devices, and reliable messaging technology

Susan P. McGrath; Eliot Grigg; Suzanne Wendelken; George Blike; Michael De Rosa; Aaron Fiske; Robert Gray

370

The Information Revolution, Security, and International Relations: (IR)relevant Theory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is twofold: to analyze the impact of the information revolution on security and to clarify what existing international relations theory can say about this challenge. These pertinent questions are initially addressed by a critical review of past research. This review shows that the concern for security issues is largely confined to a specialist literature on

Johan Eriksson; Giampiero Giacomello

2006-01-01

371

Geometry of all supersymmetric type I backgrounds  

E-print Network

We find the geometry of all supersymmetric type I backgrounds by solving the gravitino and dilatino Killing spinor equations, using the spinorial geometry technique, in all cases. The solutions of the gravitino Killing spinor equation are characterized by their isotropy group in Spin(9,1), while the solutions of the dilatino Killing spinor equation are characterized by their isotropy group in the subgroup Sigma(P) of Spin(9,1) which preserves the space of parallel spinors P. Given a solution of the gravitino Killing spinor equation with L parallel spinors, L = 1,2,3,4,5,6,8, the dilatino Killing spinor equation allows for solutions with N supersymmetries for any 0 spinors, then all parallel spinors are Killing and so there are no backgrounds with N < L supersymmetries.

U. Gran; G. Papadopoulos; D. Roest; P. Sloane

2007-03-15

372

Topology of microwave background fluctuations - Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topological measures are used to characterize the microwave background temperature fluctuations produced by 'standard' scenarios (Gaussian) and by cosmic strings (non-Gaussian). Three topological quantities: total area of the excursion regions, total length, and total curvature (genus) of the isotemperature contours, are studied for simulated Gaussian microwave background anisotropy maps and then compared with those of the non-Gaussian anisotropy pattern produced by cosmic strings. In general, the temperature gradient field shows the non-Gaussian behavior of the string map more distinctively than the temperature field for all topology measures. The total contour length and the genus are found to be more sensitive to the existence of a stringy pattern than the usual temperature histogram. Situations when instrumental noise is superposed on the map, are considered to find the critical signal-to-noise ratio for which strings can be detected.

Gott, J. Richard, III; Park, Changbom; Bies, William E.; Bennett, David P.; Juszkiewicz, Roman

1990-01-01

373

The technical background to standards for shackles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical background to British and international standards for shackles is documented in order to provide a reference for future drafting and revisions of standards. The following are discussed: the stress analysis of shackles, a test program for shackles, the work performed by a working group set up to rationalize the design of cage suspension gear, shackle design formula, the development of International Standards Organization (ISO) standards for shackles, and the development of revised British standards. Under the technical background to the revision of BS3032, the following are considered: marking, material and heat treatment, hardness, mechanical properties, form and dimensions, tolerances, and screw threads. The decisions upon which the revision of the BS3551 were based are described.

Gorley, T. A. E.; Anthony, G. T.

1992-03-01

374

Measuring anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrino capture on tritium has emerged as a promising method for detecting the cosmic neutrino background (C ? B ). We show that relic neutrinos are captured most readily when their spin vectors are antialigned with the polarization axis of the tritium nuclei and when they approach along the direction of polarization. As a result, C ? B observatories may measure anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino velocity and spin distributions by polarizing the tritium targets. A small dipole anisotropy in the C ? B is expected due to the peculiar velocity of the lab frame with respect to the cosmic frame and due to late-time gravitational effects. The PTOLEMY experiment, a tritium observatory currently under construction, should observe a nearly isotropic background. This would serve as a strong test of the cosmological origin of a potential signal. The polarized-target measurements may also constrain nonstandard neutrino interactions that would induce larger anisotropies and help discriminate between Majorana versus Dirac neutrinos.

Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Tully, Christopher G.

2014-10-01

375

Geographical information systems and tropical medicine  

PubMed Central

In terms of their applicability to the field of tropical medicine, geographical information systems (GIS) have developed enormously in the last two decades. This article reviews some of the pertinent and representative applications of GIS, including the use of such systems and remote sensing for the mapping of Chagas disease and human helminthiases, the use of GIS in vaccine trials, and the global applications of GIS for health-information management, disease epidemiology, and pandemic planning. The future use of GIS as a decision-making tool and some barriers to the widespread implementation of such systems in developing settings are also discussed. PMID:20659391

KHAN, O. A.; DAVENHALL, W.; ALI, M.; CASTILLO-SALGADO, C.; VAZQUEZ-PROKOPEC, G.; KITRON, U.; SOARES MAGALHAES, R. J.; CLEMENTS, A. C. A.

2013-01-01

376

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fixtures, or installed too close to the exhaust flues from heat producing devices or apparatus such as furnaces, water heaters, and space heaters. These fires may result in serious injuries or deaths. Presently available information indicates that...

2011-01-01

377

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fixtures, or installed too close to the exhaust flues from heat producing devices or apparatus such as furnaces, water heaters, and space heaters. These fires may result in serious injuries or deaths. Presently available information indicates that...

2012-01-01

378

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fixtures, or installed too close to the exhaust flues from heat producing devices or apparatus such as furnaces, water heaters, and space heaters. These fires may result in serious injuries or deaths. Presently available information indicates that...

2010-01-01

379

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fixtures, or installed too close to the exhaust flues from heat producing devices or apparatus such as furnaces, water heaters, and space heaters. These fires may result in serious injuries or deaths. Presently available information indicates that...

2013-01-01

380

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

...fixtures, or installed too close to the exhaust flues from heat producing devices or apparatus such as furnaces, water heaters, and space heaters. These fires may result in serious injuries or deaths. Presently available information indicates...

2014-01-01

381

The Distribution of Cosmic Radio Background Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey of cosmic radio background radiation at 250 mc using the Ohio State University 96-helix radio telescope are described. The antenna has beam widths of about 1.2 in right ascension and 8 in declination between half-power points. Radio maps, covering about 75 per cent of the sky, are presented in celestial and galactic coordinates. The greater

H. C. Ko

1958-01-01

382

Semiconductor Bolometers Give Background-Limited Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiconductor bolometers that are capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation over most or all of the infrared spectrum and that give background-limited performance at operating temperatures from 20 to 300 K have been invented. The term background-limited performance as applied to a bolometer, thermopile, or other infrared detector signifies that the ability to detect infrared signals that originate outside the detector is limited primarily by thermal noise attributable to the background radiation generated external to the bolometer. The signal-to-noise ratios and detectivities of the bolometers and thermopiles available prior to this invention have been lower than those needed for background-limited performance by factors of about 100 and 10, respectively. Like other electrically resistive bolometers, a device according to the invention exhibits an increase in electrical resistance when heated by infrared radiation. Depending on whether the device is operated under the customary constant- current or constant-voltage bias, the increase in electrical resistance can be measured in terms of an increase in voltage across the device or a decrease in current through the device, respectively. In the case of a semiconductor bolometer, it is necessary to filter out visible and shorter-wavelength light that could induce photoconductivity and thereby counteract all or part of the desired infrared- induced increase in resistance. The basic semiconductor material of a bolometer according to the invention is preferably silicon doped with one or more of a number of elements, each of which confers a different variable temperature coefficient of resistance. Suitable dopants include In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, As, P, and Sb. The concentration of dopant preferably lies in the range between 0.1 and 1,000 parts per billion.

Goebel, John; McMurray, Robert

2006-01-01

383

Sideband Mixing in Intense Laser Backgrounds  

E-print Network

The electron propagator in a laser background has been shown to be made up of a series of sideband poles. In this paper we study this decomposition by analysing the impact of the residual gauge freedom in the Volkov solution on the sidebands. We show that the gauge transformations do not alter the location of the poles. The identification of the propagator from the two-point function is maintained but we show that the sideband structures mix under residual gauge transformations.

Martin Lavelle; David McMullan

2014-07-04

384

Planck Oscillators in the Background Dark Energy  

E-print Network

We consider a model for an underpinning of the universe: there are oscillators at the Planck scale in the background dark energy. Starting from a coherent array of such oscillators it is possible to get a description from elementary particles to Black Holes including the usual Hawking-Beckenstein theory. There is also a description of Gravitation in the above model which points to a unified description with electromagnetism.

Burra G. Sidharth

2009-12-08

385

Gravity multiplet on KS and BB backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the spectra of glueballs on the Klebanov-Strassler background and its extension to the baryonic branch. We numerically calculate the mass spectrum of glueballs from the spin 2 ``gravity'' multiplet, which contains the traceless part of the stress-energy tensor and the transverse part of the U(1) Script R-current. The mass spectra of the corresponding fluctuations in

A. Dymarsky; D. Melnikov

2008-01-01

386

Magnetic Backgrounds from Generalised Complex Manifolds  

E-print Network

The magnetic backgrounds that physically give rise to spacetime noncommutativity are generally treated using noncommutative geometry. In this article we prove that also the theory of generalised complex manifolds contains the necessary elements to generate B-fields geometrically. As an example, the Poisson brackets of the Landau model (electric charges on a plane subject to an external, perperdicularly applied magnetic field) are rederived using the techniques of generalised complex manifolds.

J. M. Isidro

2005-03-04

387

Backgrounder - caHUB.Cancer.Gov  

Cancer.gov

Biospecimens are materials taken from the human body, such as tissue, blood, and urine that can be used for cancer diagnosis and analysis. Biobanks are repositories or "libraries" where these biological materials, along with any associated clinical, pathological, or molecular information, are managed, stored, and distributed. Biospecimens are critical to cancer research because they contain an extraordinary amount of biological information, written in the language of cells, genes, and proteins that can identify the biological characteristics of cancer cells over time.

388

Background complexity affects colour preference in bumblebees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination are typically red. This correlation is usually explained by the assertion that nectar- or pollen-stealing bees are blind to red flowers. However, laboratory studies have shown that bees are capable of locating artificial red flowers and often show no innate preference for blue over red. We hypothesised that these findings might be artefacts of the simplified laboratory environment. Using bumblebees ( Bombus impatiens) that had been trained to visit red and blue artificial flowers, we tested whether colour preference was influenced by complexity of the background on which they were foraging. Many bees were indifferent to flower colour when tested using a uniform green background like those commonly used in laboratory studies, but all bees showed strong colour preferences (usually for blue) when flowers were presented against a photograph of real foliage. Overall, preference for blue flowers was significantly greater on the more realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of hummingbird syndrome flowers can function to reduce bee visits despite the ability of bees to detect red and highlight the need to consider context when drawing inferences about pollinator preferences from laboratory data.

Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D.

2009-08-01

389

Scientific Explanation Seminar Background Notes (2/1/11) 1 Scientific Explanation --More Background Notes  

E-print Network

general facts about all probability models -- the algebraic method. Scientific Explanation Scientific Explanation Seminar Background Notes (2/1/11) 1 ' & $ % Scientific Explanation -- More­R Model Scientific Explanation Seminar Background Notes (2/1/11) 2 ' & $ % Overview of Finite

Fitelson, Branden

390

Spectral observations of the extreme ultraviolet background.  

PubMed

A grazing incidence spectrometer was designed to measure the diffuse extreme ultraviolet background. It was flown on a sounding rocket, and data were obtained on the diffuse background between 80 and 650 angstroms. These are the first spectral measurements of this background below 520 angstroms. Several emission features were detected, including interplanetary He I 584 angstroms emission and geocoronal He II 304 angstroms emission. Other features observed may originate in a hot ionized interstellar gas, but if this interpretation is correct, gas at several different temperatures is present. The strongest of these features is consistent with O V emission at 630 angstroms. This emission, when combined with upper limits for other lines, restricts the temperature of this component to 5.5 < log T < 5.7, in agreement with temperatures derived from O VI absorption studies. A power-law distribution of temperatures is consistent with this feature only if the power-law coefficient is negative, as is predicted for saturated evaporation of clouds in a hot medium. In this case, the O VI absorption data confine the filling factor of the emission of f < or = 4% and the pressure to more than 3.7 x 10(4) cm-3 K, substantially above ambient interstellar pressure. Such a pressure enhancement has been predicted for clouds undergoing saturated evaporation. Alternatively, if the O V emission covers a considerable fraction of the sky, it would be a major source of ionization. A feature centered at about 99 angstroms is well fitted by a cluster of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX lines from gas at log T = 6.6-6.8. These results are consistent with previous soft X-ray observations with low-resolution detectors. A feature found near 178 angstroms is consistent with Fe X and Fe XI emission from gas at log T = 6; this result is consistent with results from experiments employing broad-band soft X-ray detectors. PMID:11538706

Labov, S E; Bowyer, S

1991-04-20

391

Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples.

Not Available

1993-04-01

392

New physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

I review the present status of the Cosmic Microwave Background, with some emphasis on the current and future implications for particle physics. Conclusions are: gravitational instability in a dark matter dominated universe grew today's structure; the Universe remained neutral until z<~50; the CMB power spectrum peaks at 150<~l<~350; the large-scale structure of spacetime appears to be simple; something like inflation is something like proven; we will learn a great deal about cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics from MAP and Planck.

Douglas Scott

1999-11-17

393

Precision Detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Background  

E-print Network

In the standard Big Bang cosmology the canonical value for the ratio of relic neutrinos to CMB photons is 9/11. Within the framework of the Standard Model of particle physics there are small corrections, in sum about 1%, due to slight heating of neutrinos by electron/positron annihilations and finite-temperature QED effects. We show that this leads to changes in the predicted cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies that might be detected by future satellite experiments. NASA's MAP and ESA's PLANCK should be able to test the canonical prediction to a precision of 1% or better and could confirm these corrections.

Robert E. Lopez; Scott Dodelson; Andrew Heckler; Michael S. Turner

1998-03-09

394

Reducing background neutron rates in NERO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental study of neutron rich nuclei can provide important data to better model the production and abundances of heavy elements from the r-process. In order to measure low emission rates of neutrons in certain nuclei, efforts have been made to reduce background rates in NERO (1). Simulations were done to calculate effective passive shielding and testing was carried out to evaluate it. Also, an active shielding system was designed to detect cosmic ray muons in an effort to create a veto in the data acquisition. The results of these efforts are presented here. 1. http://www.nscl.msu.edu/tech/devices/nero/

Pellegrini, Eric

2003-10-01

395

Massive quantum fields in a conical background  

E-print Network

Representations of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac propagators are determined in a $N$ dimensional conical background for massive fields twisted by an arbitrary angle $2\\pi\\sigma$. The Dirac propagator is shown to be obtained from the Klein-Gordon propagator twisted by angles $2\\pi\\sigma\\pm {\\cal D}/2$ where ${\\cal D}$ is the cone deficit angle. Vacuum expectation values are determined by a point-splitting method in the proper time representation of the propagators. Analogies with the Aharonov-Bohm effect are pointed out throughout the paper and a conjecture on an extension to fields of arbitrary spin is given.

E. S. Moreira; Jnr.

1995-02-02

396

Superhorizon perturbations and the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect

Superhorizon perturbations induce large-scale temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) via the Grishchuk-Zel'dovich effect. We analyze the CMB temperature anisotropies generated by a single-mode adiabatic superhorizon perturbation. We show that an adiabatic superhorizon perturbation in a {lambda}CDM universe does not generate a CMB temperature dipole, and we derive constraints to the amplitude and wavelength of a superhorizon potential perturbation from measurements of the CMB quadrupole and octupole. We also consider constraints to a superhorizon fluctuation in the curvaton field, which was recently proposed as a source of the hemispherical power asymmetry in the CMB.

Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Carroll, Sean M.; Kamionkowski, Marc [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 103-33, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2008-10-15

397

IRAS observations of the diffuse infrared background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IRAS data reveal bright emission from interplanetary dust which dominates the celestial background at 12, 25, and 60 microns except near the galactic plane. At 100 microns, interplanetary dust emission is prominent only near the ecliptic plane; diffuse galactic emission is found over the rest of the sky. At the galactic poles, the observed brightness implies that A(v) is likely to be of order 0.1 mag. The angular variation of the zodiacal emission in the ecliptic plane and in the plane at elongation 90 deg, and an annual modulation of the ecliptic pole brightness, are generally consistent with previously determined interplanetary dust distributions.

Hauser, M. G.; Gillett, F. C.; Low, F. J.; Gautier, T. N.; Beichman, C. A.; Aumann, H. H.; Neugebauer, G.; Baud, B.; Boggess, N.; Emerson, J. P.

1984-01-01

398

Dips in the diffuse supernova neutrino background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scalar (fermion) dark matter with mass in the MeV range coupled to ordinary neutrinos and another fermion (scalar) is motivated by scenarios that establish a link between radiatively generated neutrino masses and the dark matter relic density. With such a coupling, cosmic supernova neutrinos, on their way to us, could resonantly interact with the background dark matter particles, giving rise to a dip in their redshift-integrated spectra. Current and future neutrino detectors, such as Super-Kamiokande, LENA and Hyper-Kamiokande, could be able to detect this distortion.

Farzan, Yasaman; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio

2014-06-01

399

Cosmic X-ray background and solitars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the authors has examined the observational consequences of a class of new astronomical objects proposed by Friedberg, Lee and Pang, called solitars which are degenerate vacuum states embedded with particles. A study is made to include finite temperature effect and pair creation. Quark is believed to be the only species that can exist in the interior of solitars. Massive quark solitars are primarily X-ray emitters and may account for the large unexplained thermal component of the cosmic X-ray background.

Chiu, H.-Y.

400

Public Information Use in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Children (Homo sapiens)  

PubMed Central

The discernment of resource quality is pertinent to many daily decisions faced by animals. Public information is a critical information source that promotes quality assessments, attained by monitoring others performance. Here we provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use public information to guide resource selection. Thirty-two chimpanzees were presented with two simultaneous video demonstrations depicting a conspecific acquiring resources at a fast (resource-rich) or slow (resource-poor) rate. Subsequently, subjects selected the resource-rich site above chance expectation. As a comparison, we report evidence of public information use in young children. Investigation of public information use in primates is pertinent, as it can enhance foraging success and potentially facilitate payoff-biased social learning. PMID:24060244

Vale, Gill L.; Flynn, Emma G.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Kendal, Rachel L.

2014-01-01

401

Neutron background characterization of deep underground laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-energy (,) reactions in stellar helium and carbon burning provide the neutrons for the formation of elements beyond iron by the slow neutron capture process. The very low cross sections at stellar energies necessitate the use of high-efficiency detectors as well as measuring in a very low neutron background environment. By going deep underground the neutron flux can be reduced by orders of magnitude compared to surface levels, enabling the measurement of reactions for nuclear astrophysics at previously inaccessible energies. The remaining neutron flux is mostly due to spontaneous fission of ^238U in the cavity walls and (,) reactions induced by ?-particles from the natural radioactivity of the underground environment. Using a portable setup consisting of 4 ^3He counters and polyethylene moderators the DIANA collaboration is conducting neutron background measurements at various deep underground laboratories in the US. We present first results from the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory and the 4100 feet level of the Sanford Undeground Research Facility (SURF). Measurements at other depths in SURF and at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are in planning.

Best, Andreas; Grres, Joachim; Long, Alex; Smith, Karl; Stech, Ed; Wiescher, Michael

2012-10-01

402

Radioactivity Backgrounds in ZEPLIN-III  

E-print Network

We examine electron and nuclear recoil backgrounds from radioactivity in the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment at Boulby. The rate of low-energy electron recoils in the liquid xenon WIMP target is 0.75$\\pm$0.05 events/kg/day/keV, which represents a 20-fold improvement over the rate observed during the first science run. Energy and spatial distributions agree with those predicted by component-level Monte Carlo simulations propagating the effects of the radiological contamination measured for materials employed in the experiment. Neutron elastic scattering is predicted to yield 3.05$\\pm$0.5 nuclear recoils with energy 5-50 keV per year, which translates to an expectation of 0.4 events in a 1-year dataset in anti-coincidence with the veto detector for realistic signal acceptance. Less obvious background sources are discussed, especially in the context of future experiments. These include contamination of scintillation pulses with Cherenkov light from Compton electrons and from $\\beta$ activity internal to photomultipliers, which can increase the size and lower the apparent time constant of the scintillation response. Another challenge is posed by multiple-scatter $\\gamma$-rays with one or more vertices in regions that yield no ionisation. If the discrimination power achieved in the first run can be replicated, ZEPLIN-III should reach a sensitivity of $\\sim 1 \\times 10^{-8}$ pb$\\cdot$year to the scalar WIMP-nucleon elastic cross-section, as originally conceived.

H. M. Araujo; D. Yu. Akimov; E. J. Barnes; V. A. Belov; A. Bewick; A. A. Burenkov; V. Chepel. A. Currie; L. DeViveiros; B. Edwards; C. Ghag; A. Hollingsworth; M. Horn; G. E. Kalmus; A. S. Kobyakin; A. G. Kovalenko; V. N. Lebedenko; A. Lindote; M. I. Lopes; R. Luscher; P. Majewski; A. StJ. Murphy. F. Neves; S. M. Paling; J. Pinto da Cunha; R. Preece; J. J. Quenby; L. Reichhart; P. R. Scovell; C. Silva; V. N. Solovov; N. J. T. Smith; P. F. Smith; V. N. Stekhanov; T. J. Sumner; C. Thorne; R. J. Walker

2011-04-18

403

Radioactivity backgrounds in ZEPLIN-III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine electron and nuclear recoil backgrounds from radioactivity in the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment at Boulby. The rate of low-energy electron recoils in the liquid xenon WIMP target is 0.75 0.05 events/kg/day/keV, which represents a 20-fold improvement over the rate observed during the first science run. Energy and spatial distributions agree with those predicted by component-level Monte Carlo simulations propagating the effects of the radiological contamination measured for materials employed in the experiment. Neutron elastic scattering is predicted to yield 3.05 0.5 nuclear recoils with energy 5-50 keV per year, which translates to an expectation of 0.4 events in a 1 yr dataset in anti-coincidence with the veto detector for realistic signal acceptance. Less obvious background sources are discussed, especially in the context of future experiments. These include contamination of scintillation pulses with Cherenkov light from Compton electrons and from ? activity internal to photomultipliers, which can increase the size and lower the apparent time constant of the scintillation response. Another challenge is posed by multiple-scatter ?-rays with one or more vertices in regions that yield no ionisation. If the discrimination power achieved in the first run can be replicated, ZEPLIN-III should reach a sensitivity of 1 10-8pb yr to the scalar WIMP-nucleon elastic cross-section, as originally conceived.

Arajo, H. M.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Barnes, E. J.; Belov, V. A.; Bewick, A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Chepel, V.; Currie, A.; Deviveiros, L.; Edwards, B.; Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A.; Horn, M.; Kalmus, G. E.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Lebedenko, V. N.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Lscher, R.; Majewski, P.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Neves, F.; Paling, S. M.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Preece, R.; Quenby, J. J.; Reichhart, L.; Scovell, P. R.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Smith, N. J. T.; Smith, P. F.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Sumner, T. J.; Thorne, C.; Walker, R. J.

2012-03-01

404

Electromagnetic polarizabilities: Lattice QCD in background fields  

SciTech Connect

Chiral perturbation theory makes definitive predictions for the extrinsic behavior of hadrons in external electric and magnetic fields. Near the chiral limit, the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pions, kaons, and nucleons are determined in terms of a few well-known parameters. In this limit, hadrons become quantum mechanically diffuse as polarizabilities scale with the inverse square-root of the quark mass. In some cases, however, such predictions from chiral perturbation theory have not compared well with experimental data. Ultimately we must turn to first principles numerical simulations of QCD to determine properties of hadrons, and confront the predictions of chiral perturbation theory. To address the electromagnetic polarizabilities, we utilize the background field technique. Restricting our attention to calculations in background electric fields, we demonstrate new techniques to determine electric polarizabilities and baryon magnetic moments for both charged and neutral states. As we can study the quark mass dependence of observables with lattice QCD, the lattice will provide a crucial test of our understanding of low-energy QCD, which will be timely in light of ongoing experiments, such as at COMPASS and HI gamma S.

W. Detmold, B.C. Tiburzi, A. Walker-Loud

2012-04-01

405

School Uniforms: Background of and Descriptive Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study will examine the pros and cons of implementing a public school uniform policy along with the laws involved. By analyzing and comparing a few school districts which have created a uniform policy, a conclusion can -be made about whether our public schools would have better environments if the students were dressed in uniform. This study includes information on

Paula Roguski

1997-01-01

406

Code of Practice A: Background 4  

E-print Network

in such a way as to promote equality, avoid discrimination and comply with legislation. The Code has been . 1 Further information can be found at http://www.ref.ac.uk 2 The Equality Act 2010 covers the protected characteristics of age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy

Oxford, University of

407

2. Social, ethical, and economic background  

E-print Network

individualism (J. Locke): Each individual has rights to life, health, freedom, property · John Locke: Natural. Bentham, 18th cent.; John Stuart Mill · Act in most useful way to give maximum benefit to greatest number: ­ Life; property (Locke) ­ Autonomy and rationality (Kant) 9David Keil Information Technology and Society

Keil, David M.

408

Text Clustering Based on Background Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text document clustering plays an important role in providing intuitive navigation and browsing mechanisms by organizing large amounts of information into a small number of meaningful clusters. Standard partitional or agglomerative clustering methods efficiently compute results to this end. However, the bag of words representation used for these clustering methods is of- ten unsatisfactory as it ignores relationships between important

Andreas Hotho; Steffen Staab; Gerd Stumme

2003-01-01

409

Background Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

The goal of this Web site is to enable access to existing measures of the food environment and stimulate the development of the next generation of tools. Robust measures of the food environment will strengthen research on the effects of the community-level food environment on individual dietary behavior, inform policymaking, and help reduce the prevalence of obesity through targeted interventions.

410

Double Layered-Background Removal Filter for Detecting Small Infrared Targets in Heterogenous Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting small targets is essential for mitigating the sea-based Infrared search and track (IRST) problem. It is easy to\\u000a detect small targets in homogeneous backgrounds such as the sky. When targets are on the border line of heterogeneous backgrounds\\u000a such as the horizon in the sky and sea surface, solving the problem of detection becomes difficult. This paper presents a

Sungho Kim

2011-01-01

411

Trust evaluation in health information on the World Wide Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of health information on the web is mounting and with the Health 2.0 revolution around the corner, online health promotion and management is becoming a reality. User-generated content is at the core of this revolution and brings to the fore the essential question of trust evaluation, a pertinent problem for health applications in particular. Evolving Web 2.0 health

Sai T. Moturu; Huan Liu; William G. Johnson

2008-01-01

412

Double Layered-Background Removal Filter for Detecting Small Infrared Targets in Heterogenous Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting small targets is essential for mitigating the sea-based Infrared search and track (IRST) problem. It is easy to detect small targets in homogeneous backgrounds such as the sky. When targets are on the border line of heterogeneous backgrounds such as the horizon in the sky and sea surface, solving the problem of detection becomes difficult. This paper presents a novel spatial filtering method, called Double Layered-Background Removal Filter (DL-BRF), for achieving high detection rates and low false alarm rates. DL-BRF consists of a Modified-Mean Subtraction Filter (M-MSF) and a consecutive Local-Directional Background Removal Filter (L-DBRF). M-MSF enhances the target signal and reduces background noise. L-DBRF removes horizontal structures, which upgrade the signal-to-clutter ratio and background suppression factor. L-DBRF used after M-MSF enhances the synergistic performance of horizontal target detection. Additionally, the adaptive Hysteresis threshold-based scheme is a suitable detection method. We validate the superior performance of the proposed method via three types of evaluation tests, including a real test scenario.

Kim, Sungho

2011-01-01

413

Opening Minds in Canada: Background and Rationale  

PubMed Central

Objective: To summarize the background and rationale of the approach taken by the Mental Health Commission of Canadas Opening Minds (OM) Anti-Stigma Initiative. Method: The approach taken by OM incorporates a grassroots, community development philosophy, has clearly defined target groups, uses contact-based education as the central organizing element across interventions, and has a strong evaluative component, so that best practices can be identified, replicated, and disseminated. Contact-based education occurs when people who have experienced a mental illness share their personal story of recovery and hope. Results: OM has acted as a catalyst to develop partnerships between community groups who are undertaking anti-stigma work and an interdisciplinary team of academic researchers in 5 universities who are evaluating the results of these programs. Conclusions: Building partnerships with existing community programs and promoting systematic evaluation using standardized approaches and instruments have contributed to our understanding of best practices in the field of anti-stigma programming.

Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping; Christie, Romie; Dobson, Keith; Kirsh, Bonnie; Knaak, Stephanie; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Lauria-Horner, Bianca; Luong, Dorothy; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Pietrus, Mike; Szeto, Andrew; Whitley, Rob

2014-01-01

414

Background independent quantization and wave propagation  

SciTech Connect

We apply a type of background independent 'polymer' quantization to a free scalar field in a flat spacetime. Using semiclassical states, we find an effective wave equation that is both nonlinear and Lorentz invariance violating. We solve this equation perturbatively for several cases of physical interest, and show that polymer corrections to solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation depend on the amplitude of the field. This leads to an effective dispersion relation that depends on the amplitude, frequency, and shape of the wave packet, and is hence distinct from other modified dispersion relations found in the literature. We also demonstrate that polymer effects tend to accumulate with time for plane-symmetric waveforms. We conclude by discussing the possibility of measuring deviations from the Klein-Gordon equation in particle accelerators or astrophysical observations.

Hossain, Golam Mortuza; Husain, Viqar; Seahra, Sanjeev S. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

2009-08-15

415

Observational constraints on Chaplygin quartessence: Background results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the constraints set by several experiments on the quartessence Chaplygin model (QCM). In this scenario, a single fluid component drives the Universe from a nonrelativistic matter-dominated phase to an accelerated expansion phase behaving, first, like dark matter and in a more recent epoch like dark energy. We consider current data from SNIa experiments, statistics of gravitational lensing, FR IIb radio galaxies, and x-ray gas mass fraction in galaxy clusters. We investigate the constraints from this data set on flat Chaplygin quartessence cosmologies. The observables considered here are dependent essentially on the background geometry, and not on the specific form of the QCM fluctuations. We obtain the confidence region on the two parameters of the model from a combined analysis of all the above tests. We find that the best fit occurs close to the ?CDM limit (?=0). The standard Chaplygin quartessence (?=1) is also allowed by the data, but only at the 2? level.

Makler, Martn; Quinet de Oliveira, Srgio; Waga, Ioav

2003-12-01

416

The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric IIB backgrounds  

E-print Network

We investigate the Killing spinor equations of IIB supergravity for one Killing spinor. We show that there are three types of orbits of Spin(9,1) in the space of Weyl spinors which give rise to Killing spinors with stability subgroups $Spin(7)\\ltimes \\bR^8$, $SU(4)\\ltimes \\bR^8$ and $G_2$. We solve the Killing spinor equations for the $Spin(7)\\ltimes \\bR^8$ and $SU(4)\\ltimes \\bR^8$ invariant spinors, give the fluxes in terms of the geometry and determine the conditions on the spacetime geometry imposed by supersymmetry. In both cases, the spacetime admits a null, self-parallel, Killing vector field. We also apply our formalism to examine a class of $SU(4)\\ltimes \\bR^8$ backgrounds which admit one and two pure spinors as Killing spinors and investigate the geometry of the spacetimes.

U. Gran; J. Gutowski; G. Papadopoulos

2005-01-21

417

Heterotic supersymmetric backgrounds with compact holonomy revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simplify the classification of supersymmetric solutions with compact holonomy of the Killing spinor equations of heterotic supergravity using the field equations and the additional assumption that the 3-form flux is closed. We determine all the fractions of supersymmetry that the solutions preserve and find that there is a restriction on the number of supersymmetries which depends on the isometry group of the background. We examine the geometry of spacetime in all cases. We find that the supersymmetric solutions of heterotic supergravity are associated with a large number of geometric structures which include seven-dimensional manifolds with G2 structure, six-dimensional complex and almost complex manifolds, and four-dimensional hyper-Khler, Khler and anti-self-dual Weyl manifolds.

Papadopoulos, G.

2010-06-01

418

The GMRT: Background, Status, and Upgrades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is based on two presentations made to the LFRU --- a short one in the GTAC session and a longer one in the technical session held at the GMRT. The purpose of the first was to convey to the audience --- largely radio astronomers using the GMRT --- some background relevant to the discussion of what users would like to see at the observatory. The second talk attempted to bring out some of the ground realities governing the current operation and the ongoing upgrade of the GMRT, concentrating on aspects not covered in later talks, and in particular on the `outdoor' aspects involving field work --- the SMEC (for servo, mechanical, electrical, civil) aspects where some features are unique to our location and interaction with the local population. Finally, a brief summary of upgrades to feeds and receivers is given.

Nityananda, R.

2009-09-01

419

Reactor antineutrino background at Gran Sasso  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flux of electron antineutrinos arriving at the Gran Sasso Laboratory underground solar-neutrino detector from the world-total 345 operating nuclear power reactors (total capacity 283 GWe) is estimated theoretically, extending and refining the analysis of Lagage (1985). The total is found to be about 450,000/sq cm s, of which about two thirds originate in reactors in Italy, France, and the FRG. From this result it is inferred that reactor electron antineutrinos become predominant below about 4 MeV when searching for elastic-coherent-scattering of high-energy solar neutrionos and below 8 MeV for diffuse-solar-neutrino background measurements, and that the high-energy tail of the earth antineutrino flux (1-3 MeV) cannot be detected. It is concluded that great efforts to lower the energy threshold of detectors may not be justified.

Lagage, P. O.

1986-04-01

420

The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey  

E-print Network

In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

Price, C Aaron

2012-01-01

421

Observations and Modeling of Seismic Background Noise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The preparation of this report had two purposes. One was to present a catalog of seismic background noise spectra obtained from a worldwide network of seismograph stations. The other purpose was to refine and document models of seismic background noise that have been in use for several years. The second objective was, in fact, the principal reason that this study was initiated and influenced the procedures used in collecting and processing the data. With a single exception, all of the data used in this study were extracted from the digital data archive at the U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). This archive dates from 1972 when ASL first began deploying digital seismograph systems and collecting and distributing digital data under the sponsorship of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). There have been many changes and additions to the global seismograph networks during the past twenty years, but perhaps none as significant as the current deployment of very broadband seismographs by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of California San Diego (UCSD) under the scientific direction of the IRIS consortium. The new data acquisition systems have extended the bandwidth and resolution of seismic recording, and they utilize high-density recording media that permit the continuous recording of broadband data. The data improvements and continuous recording greatly benefit and simplify surveys of seismic background noise. Although there are many other sources of digital data, the ASL archive data were used almost exclusively because of accessibility and because the data systems and their calibration are well documented for the most part. Fortunately, the ASL archive contains high-quality data from other stations in addition to those deployed by the USGS. Included are data from UCSD IRIS/IDA stations, the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) deployed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the TERRAscope network deployed by the California Institute of Technology in cooperation with other institutions. A map showing the approximate locations of the stations used in this study is provided in Figure 1. One might hope for a better distribution of stations in the southern hemisphere, especially Africa and South America, in order to look for regional variations in seismic noise (apart from the major differences between continental, coastal and island sites). Unfortunately, anyone looking for subtle regional variations in seismic noise is probably going to be disappointed by the spectral data presented in this report because much of the station data appear to be dominated by local disturbances caused by instrumental, environmental, cultural, or surf noise. Better instruments and better instrument siting, or a well-funded field program, will be needed before a global isoseismal noise map can be produced. However, by assembling a composite of background noise from a large network of stations, many of the local station variables are masked, and it is possible to create generalized spectral plots of Earth noise for hypothetical quiet and noisy station sites.

Peterson, Jon R.

1993-01-01

422

Geometric background charge: dislocations on capillary bridges  

E-print Network

Recent experiments have shown that colloidal crystals confined to weakly curved capillary bridges introduce groups of dislocations organized into `pleats' as means to relieve the stress caused by the Gaussian curvature of the surface. We consider the onset of this curvature-screening mechanism, by examining the energetics of isolated dislocations and interstitials on capillary bridges with free boundaries. The boundary provides an essential contribution to the problem, akin to a background charge that "neutralizes" the unbalanced integrated curvature of the surface. This makes it favorable for topologically neutral dislocations and groups of dislocations - rather than topologically charged disclinations and scars - to relieve the stress caused by the unbalanced gaussian curvature of the surface. This effect applies to any crystal on a surface with non-vanishing integrated Gaussian curvature and stress-free boundary conditions. We corroborate the analytic results by numerically computing the energetics of a defected lattice of springs confined to surfaces with weak positive and negative curvature

William Irvine; Vincenzo Vitelli

2012-06-19

423

Aquaculture information package  

SciTech Connect

This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

1998-08-01

424

Speech Recognition in Natural Background Noise  

PubMed Central

In the real world, human speech recognition nearly always involves listening in background noise. The impact of such noise on speech signals and on intelligibility performance increases with the separation of the listener from the speaker. The present behavioral experiment provides an overview of the effects of such acoustic disturbances on speech perception in conditions approaching ecologically valid contexts. We analysed the intelligibility loss in spoken word lists with increasing listener-to-speaker distance in a typical low-level natural background noise. The noise was combined with the simple spherical amplitude attenuation due to distance, basically changing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, our study draws attention to some of the most basic environmental constraints that have pervaded spoken communication throughout human history. We evaluated the ability of native French participants to recognize French monosyllabic words (spoken at 65.3 dB(A), reference at 1 meter) at distances between 11 to 33 meters, which corresponded to the SNRs most revealing of the progressive effect of the selected natural noise (?8.8 dB to ?18.4 dB). Our results showed that in such conditions, identity of vowels is mostly preserved, with the striking peculiarity of the absence of confusion in vowels. The results also confirmed the functional role of consonants during lexical identification. The extensive analysis of recognition scores, confusion patterns and associated acoustic cues revealed that sonorant, sibilant and burst properties were the most important parameters influencing phoneme recognition. . Altogether these analyses allowed us to extract a resistance scale from consonant recognition scores. We also identified specific perceptual consonant confusion groups depending of the place in the words (onset vs. coda). Finally our data suggested that listeners may access some acoustic cues of the CV transition, opening interesting perspectives for future studies. PMID:24260183

Meyer, Julien; Dentel, Laure; Meunier, Fanny

2013-01-01

425

The Nature and Effects of Background Aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate, world-wide, long-term measurements of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in continental and remote marine boundary layer reveal an absolute minimum in AOT ( 0.02 at 550 nm and an Angstrom exponent -1) at most low-altitude locations but one. At this AOT magnitude the aerosols could have significant consequences on climate and remote sensing by the direct effect alone. For example, if all the optical thickness is due to aerosol absorption, as sometimes required for surface irradiance closure, an optical thickness of just 0.02 would increase atmospheric absorptance by about 4%, a significant fraction of the approximately 20% absorptance currently assumed for the shortwave. Likewise, satellite sensor calibration by ground-look methods would be severely affected. To better understand the nature of this background aerosol in the remote marine environment (i.e., sources, sinks, and lifetimes), Naval Research Laboratory's dynamic microphysical aerosol model MARBLES has been used with hourly meteorology input provided by COAMPS, the Navy's mesoscale meteorological model. Full specification of boundary layer profiles, including turbulent mixing, boundary layer height, wind speed, humidity, cloud cover, rain rates has been provided along COAMPS derived 10 day back trajectories from specified AERONET (NASA's sunphotometer network) sites. Calculated optical properties are compared with AERONET measurements for selected periods representative of remote background conditions and for several distinct aerosol events. Some comparisons show good agreement, indicating that marine aerosol sources, primarily sea-salt and sulfate, explain the AOT minimum well. Detailed results of calculated vertical aerosol concentration, composition and extinction profiles are provided. Implications will be discussed.

Halthore, R. N.; Caffrey, P. F.

2004-12-01

426

Government-funded ethics in the information economy: The effects of a federal grant on a technical communication graduate curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the information economy, students can benefit from exposure to theories of ethics that are pertinent to such concerns as corporate governance and worker safety. The wisdom of classical and modern ethicists can provide guidance as faculty help students apply the theories to graduate-level course content as varied as visual design, rhetoric, and project management.

Ann S. Jennings

2008-01-01

427

An Introductory Guide to the Selling of Information Products and Services to Agencies of the U.S. Government.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidebook has been developed to provide answers to key marketing questions for organizations in the private sector who sell products and services in the information marketplace. The focus of the guide is on selling to the Government. Copies of pertin...

A. E. Dahlke

1976-01-01

428

../fusion/templates/mapguide/maroon/css/maroon_fusion.css background-image: url(../images/background.gif);  

E-print Network

../fusion/templates/mapguide/maroon/css/maroon_fusion.css body { background-image: url: #500000; ../fusion/templates/mapguide/maroon/css/maroon_fusion.css #FileMenu { background-image: urlPanelTitle { background-image: url(../images/fileMenuBackground.gif); background-color: #ad1b25; Note: it appears the .gif

Ahmad, Sajjad

429

The XMM-Newton EPIC Background and the production of Background Blank Sky Event Files  

E-print Network

We describe in detail the nature of XMM-Newton EPIC background and its various complex components, summarising the new findings of the XMM-Newton EPIC background working group, and provide XMM-Newton background blank sky event files for use in the data analysis of diffuse and extended sources. Blank sky event file data sets are produced from the stacking of data, taken from 189 observations resulting from the Second XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue (2XMMp) reprocessing. The data underwent several filtering steps, using a revised and improved method over previous work, which we describe in detail. We investigate several properties of the final blank sky data sets. The user is directed to the location of the final data sets. There is a final data set for each EPIC instrument-filter-mode combination.

J. A. Carter; A. M. Read

2007-01-08

430

Spent Fuel Background Report Volume I  

SciTech Connect

This report is an overview of current spent nuclear fuel management in the DOE complex. Sources of information include published literature, internal DOE documents, interviews with site personnel, and information provided by individual sites. Much of the specific information on facilities and fuels was provided by the DOE sites in response to the questionnaire for data for spent fuels and facilities data bases. This information is as accurate as is currently available, but is subject to revision pending results of further data calls. Spent fuel is broadly classified into three categories: (a) production fuels, (b) special fuels, and (c) naval fuels. Production fuels, comprising about 80% of the total inventory, are those used at Hanford and Savannah River to produce nuclear materials for defense. Special fuels are those used in a wide variety of research, development, and testing activities. Special fuels include fuel from DOE and commercial reactors used in research activities at DOE sites. Naval fuels are those developed and used for nuclear-powered naval vessels and for related research and development. Given the recent DOE decision to curtail reprocessing, the topic of main concern in the management of spent fuel is its storage. Of the DOE sites that have spent nuclear fuel, the vast majority is located at three sites-Hanford, INEL, and Savannah River. Other sites with spent fuel include Oak Ridge, West Valley, Brookhaven, Argonne, Los Alamos, and Sandia. B&W NESI Lynchburg Technology Center and General Atomics are commercial facilities with DOE fuel. DOE may also receive fuel from foreign research reactors, university reactors, and other commercial and government research reactors. Most DOE spent fuel is stored in water-filled pools at the reactor facilities. Currently an engineering study is being performed to determine the feasibility of using dry storage for DOE-owned spent fuel currently stored at various facilities. Delays in opening the deep geologic repository and the decision to phase out reprocessing of production fuels are extending the need for interim storage. The report describes the basic storage conditions and the general SNF inventory at individual DOE facilities.

Abbott, D.

1994-03-01

431

Cosmic microwave background constraints on multi-connected spherical spaces  

E-print Network

This article describes the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies expected in a closed universe with the topology of a lens space L(p,q) and with density parameter Omega_0 close to 1. It provides the first simulated maps for such spaces along with their corresponding power spectra. In spite of our initial expectations that increasing p (and thus decreasing the size of the fundamental domain) should suppress the quadrupole, we found just the opposite: increasing p elevates the relative power of the low multipoles, for reasons that have since become clear. For Omega_0 = 1.02, an informal ``by eye'' examination of the simulated power spectra suggests that $p$ must be less than 15 for consistency with WMAP's data, while geometric considerations imply that matching circles will exist (potentially revealing the multi-connected topology) only if p > 7. These bounds become less stringent for values of Omega_0 closer to 1.

Jean-Philippe Uzan; Alain Riazuelo; Roland Lehoucq; Jeffrey Weeks

2003-03-26

432

Quantum Field Theory on Curved Backgrounds a Primer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Goal of this paper is to introduce the algebraic approach to quantum field theory on curved backgrounds. Based on a set of axioms, first written down by Haag and Kastler, this method consists of a two-step procedure. In the first one, it is assigned to a physical system a suitable algebra of observables, which is meant to encode all algebraic relations among observables, such as commutation relations. In the second step, one must select an algebraic state in order to recover the standard Hilbert space interpretation of a quantum system. As quantum field theories possess infinitely many degrees of freedom, many unitarily inequivalent Hilbert space representations exist and the power of such approach is the ability to treat them all in a coherent manner. We will discuss in detail the algebraic approach for free fields in order to give the reader all necessary information to deal with the recent literature, which focuses on the applications to specific problems, mostly in cosmology.

Benini, Marco; Dappiaggi, Claudio; Hack, Thomas-Paul

2013-07-01

433

76 FR 79567 - Tribal Background Investigations and Licensing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...resources and technology to make this...background investigation procedures...background investigations, the requirements...to civil, criminal or regulatory investigations or prosecutions...Complete a new...

2011-12-22

434

The large-scale surface brightness distribution of the x ray background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The x-ray background (XRB) and the microwave background are the dominant isotropic radiation fields available for measurement. There was extensive work on trying to determine the physical origin of the background. That is, whether it is due to a superposition of numerous faint well-known sources, such as active galaxies, an early unidentified population of AGN at high redshift, a new population of objects, or to truly diffuse processes or to a superposition of these. However, while of great intrinsic interest, these studies were not aimed at using the XRB to provide the cosmological information that was gleaned from the microwave background. An alternate approach is presented, which uses the available information on the large, greater than 5 deg, scale distribution of the sky flux to see if the XRB can provide such constraints.

Mushotzky, Richard

1991-01-01

435

Background-like nitrate in desert air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric nitrogen cycle is a key process driving the earth's environmental evolution. Current model studies require knowledge of NOx soil emissions from various land types, but desert emissions remain unquantified or are not addressed with high confidence. Our measurements at two observatories in Taklimakan desert during a dust episode showed an approximately stable and dust-independent nitrate in the air. Its concentration estimated from PM2.5, PM10 and TSP samples under non-dust, floating dust and dust storm conditions was 3.81 1.24 ?g m-3, 2.95 0.69 ?g m-3, 4.99 1.71 ?g m-3, respectively, despite the more-than-one-order difference of dust loading. This concentration was much larger than that in remote marine and tropical forest air. Comprehensive investigation revealed a similar presence of nitrate in other desert air. The nitrate was hypothesized to be the consequence of the conversion of NOx released from desert soils. These results indicate a background-like nitrate and active reactions of nitrogen compounds in desert air.

Wu, Feng; Zhang, Daizhou; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Ting; An, Zhisheng

2014-02-01

436

Neutrino lumps and the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect

The interaction between the cosmon and neutrinos may solve the 'why now problem' for dark energy cosmologies. Within growing neutrino quintessence it leads to the formation of nonlinear neutrino lumps. For a test of such models by the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) we estimate the size and time evolution of the gravitational potential induced by these lumps. A population of lumps with size of 100 Mpc or more could lead to observable effects on the CMB anisotropies for low angular momenta. The linear approximation is found to be invalid for the relevant length scales. Quantitative estimates depend strongly on the details of the transition between the linear and nonlinear regimes. In particular, important backreaction effects arise from the nonlinearities of the cosmon interactions. At the present stage the uncertainties of the estimate make it difficult to constrain the parameter space of growing neutrino models. We explicitly discuss scenarios and models that are compatible with the CMB observations.

Pettorino, Valeria [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Wintergerst, Nico [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333 Muenchen (Germany); Amendola, Luca; Wetterich, Christof [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-12-15

437

Ultraviolet background fluctuations with clustered sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a count-in-cells approach to the distribution of ultraviolet background fluctuations that includes source clustering. We demonstrate that an exact expression can be obtained if the clustering of ionizing sources follows the hierarchical ansatz. In this case, the intensity distribution depends solely on their two-point correlation function. We show that the void scaling function of high-redshift mock quasars is consistent with the negative binomial form, before applying our formalism to the description of He II-ionizing fluctuations at the end of helium reionization. The model inputs are the observed quasar luminosity function and two-point correlation at z 3. We find that, for an (comoving) attenuation length ?55 Mpc, quasar clustering contributes less than 30 per cent of the variance of intensity fluctuations so long as the quasar correlation length does not exceed 15 Mpc. We investigate also the dependence of the intensity distribution on the large-scale environment. Differences in the mean He II-ionizing intensity between low- and high-density regions could be a factor of few if the sources are highly clustered. An accurate description of quasar demographics and their correlation with strong absorption systems is required to make more precise predictions.

Desjacques, Vincent; Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Biagetti, Matteo

2014-11-01

438

The superhealing MRL background improves muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Mice from the MRL or superhealing strain have enhanced repair after acute injury to the skin, cornea, and heart. We now tested an admixture of the MRL genome and found that it altered the course of muscle pathology and cardiac function in a chronic disease model of skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mice lacking ?-sarcoglycan (Sgcg), a dystrophin-associated protein, develop muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy similar to their human counterparts with limb girdle muscular dystrophy. With disruption of the dystrophin complex, the muscle plasma membrane becomes leaky and muscles develop increased fibrosis. Methods MRL/MpJ mice were bred with Sgcg mice, and cardiac function was measured. Muscles were assessed for fibrosis and membrane leak using measurements of hydroxyproline and Evans blue dye. Quantitative trait locus mapping was conducted using single nucleotide polymorphisms distinct between the two parental strains. Results Introduction of the MRL genome reduced fibrosis but did not alter membrane leak in skeletal muscle of the Sgcg model. The MRL genome was also associated with improved cardiac function with reversal of depressed fractional shortening and the left ventricular ejection fraction. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic modifiers and found that a region on chromosome 2 was associated with cardiac, diaphragm muscle and abdominal muscle fibrosis. Conclusions These data are consistent with a model where the MRL genome acts in a dominant manner to suppress fibrosis in this chronic disease setting of heart and muscle disease. PMID:23216833

2012-01-01

439

Charged lattice gas with a neutralizing background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a model that was first introduced to describe the ordering of two different types of positive ions in the metal planes of layered hydroxides Ni1-xAlx(OH)2(CO3)x/2?yH2O. The ordering is assumed to occur due to long-range Coulomb interactions, and overall charge neutrality is provided by a negative background representing the hydroxide planes and CO2-3 anions. The previous study was restricted to the ground-state properties. Here we use a Monte Carlo technique to extend the study to finite temperatures. The model predicts that, at some values of the concentration x, the system can exhibit an instability and phase separate. In order to evaluate the precision of these Monte Carlo procedures, we first study a linear chain with finite-range interactions where exact solutions can be obtained using a transfer-matrix method. For a linear chain with infinite-range interactions, we use a devils staircase formalism to obtain the dependence of the energy of the equilibrium configurations on x. Finally we study the two-dimensional triangular lattice using the same Monte Carlo techniques. In spite of its simplicity, the model predicts multiple first-order phase transitions. The model can be useful in applications such as modeling of the ordering of intercalated metal ions in positive electrodes of lithium batteries or in graphite.

Levashov, V. A.; Thorpe, M. F.; Southern, B. W.

2003-06-01

440

WMAP cosmic microwave background data (Rassat+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is currently a debate over the existence of claimed statistical anomalies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), recently confirmed in Planck data. Recent work has focussed on methods for measuring statistical significance, on masks and on secondary anisotropies as potential causes of the anomalies. We investigate simultaneously the method for accounting for masked regions and the foreground integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) signal. We search for trends in different years of WMAP CMB data with different mask treatments. We reconstruct the ISW field due to the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) up to l=5, and we focus on the Axis of Evil (AoE) statistic and even/odd mirror parity, both of which search for preferred axes in the Universe. We find that removing the ISW reduces the significance of these anomalies in WMAP data, though this does not exclude the possibility of exotic physics. In the spirit of reproducible research, all reconstructed maps and codes will be made available for download at http://www.cosmostat.org/anomaliesCMB.html . (3 data files).

Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

2013-08-01

441

Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background  

E-print Network

In this paper we present an exact solution of Einstein's field equations describing the Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background. It is also regarded as an embedded solution that the Schwarzschild black hole is embedded into the dark energy space producing Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole. It is found that the space-time geometry of Schwarzschild-dark energy solution is non-vacuum Petrov type $D$ in the classification of space-times. We study the energy conditions (like weak, strong and dominant conditions) for the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution. We also find that the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution violates the strong energy condition due to the negative pressure leading to a repulsive gravitational force of the matter field in the space-time. It is shown that the time-like vector field for an observer in the Schwarzschild-dark energy space is expanding, accelerating, shearing and non-rotating. We investigate the surface gravity and the area of the horizons for the Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole.

Ngangbam Ishwarchandra; Ng. Ibohal; K. Yugindro Singh

2014-09-27

442

Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background  

E-print Network

In this paper we present an exact solution of Einstein's field equations describing the Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background. It is also regarded as an embedded solution that the Schwarzschild black hole is embedded into the dark energy space producing Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole. It is found that the space-time geometry of Schwarzschild-dark energy solution is non-vacuum Petrov type $D$ in the classification of space-times. We study the energy conditions (like weak, strong and dominant conditions) for the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution. We also find that the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution violates the strong energy condition due to the negative pressure leading to a repulsive gravitational force of the matter field in the space-time. It is shown that the time-like vector field for an observer in the Schwarzschild-dark energy space is expanding, accelerating, shearing and non-rotating. We investigate the surface gravity...

Ishwarchandra, Ngangbam; Singh, K Yugindro

2014-01-01

443

Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an exact solution of Einstein's field equations describing the Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background. It is also regarded as an embedded solution that the Schwarzschild black hole is embedded into the dark energy space producing Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole. It is found that the space-time geometry of Schwarzschild-dark energy solution is non-vacuum Petrov type $D$ in the classification of space-times. We study the energy conditions (like weak, strong and dominant conditions) for the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution. We also find that the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution violates the strong energy condition due to the negative pressure leading to a repulsive gravitational force of the matter field in the space-time. It is shown that the time-like vector field for an observer in the Schwarzschild-dark energy space is expanding, accelerating, shearing and non-rotating. We investigate the surface gravity and the area of the horizons for the Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole.

Ishwarchandra, Ngangbam; Ibohal, N.; Yugindro Singh, K.

2014-10-01

444

K-mouflage cosmology: The background evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the cosmology of K-mouflage theories at the background level. We show that the effects of the scalar field are suppressed at high matter density in the early Universe and only play a role in the late time Universe where the deviations of the Hubble rate from its ?-CDM counterpart can be of the order five percent for redshifts 1?z?5. Similarly, we find that the equation of state can cross the phantom divide in the recent past and even diverge when the effective scalar energy density goes negative and subdominant compared to matter, preserving the positivity of the squared Hubble rate. These features are present in models for which big bang nucleosynthesis is not affected. We analyze the fate of K-mouflage when the nonlinear kinetic terms give rise to ghosts, particle excitations with negative energy. In this case, we find that the K-mouflage theories can only be considered as an effective description of the Universe at low energy below 1 keV. In the safe ghost-free models, we find that the equation of state always diverges in the past and changes significantly by a few percent since z?1.

Brax, Philippe; Valageas, Patrick

2014-07-01

445

Measurements of Worldwide Radioxenon Backgrounds - The "EU" Project  

SciTech Connect

Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), radioactive xenon (radioxenon) measurements are one of the principle techniques used to detect nuclear underground nuclear explosions, and specifically, the presence of one or more radioxenon isotopes allows one to determine whether a suspected event was a nuclear explosion or originated from an innocent source. During the design of the International Monitoring System (IMS), which was designed as the verification mechanism for the Treaty, it was determined that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide. At the time of the design of the IMS, however, very few details about the background of the xenon isotopes was known and it is now recognized that the backgrounds were probably evolving anyhow. This paper lays out the beginning of a study of the worldwide concentrations of xenon isotopes that can be used to detect nuclear explosions and several sources that also release radioxenons, and will have to be accounted for during analysis of atmospheric levels. Although the global concentrations of the xenon isotopes are the scope of a much larger activity that could span over several years, this study measures radioxenon concentrations in locations where there was either very little information or there was a unique opportunity to learn more about emissions from known sources. The locations where radioxenon levels were measured and reported are included.

Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Forrester, Joel B.; Haas, Derek A.; Hansen, Randy R.; Keller, Paul E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lidey, Lance S.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Payne, Rosara F.; Saey, Paul R.; Thompson, Robert C.; Woods, Vincent T.; Williams, Richard M.

2009-09-24

446

General Aviation in Nebraska: Nebraska SATS Project Background Paper No. 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nebraska SATS project is a state-level component of NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). During the next several years the project will examine several different factors affecting SATS implementation in Nebraska. These include economic and taxation issues, public policy issues, airport planning processes, information dissemination strategies, and systemic change factors. This background paper profiles the general aviation system in Nebraska. It is written to provide information about the "context" within which SATS will be pursued. The primary focus is thus on describing and providing background information about the current situation. A secondary focus is on drawing general conclusions about the ability of the current system to incorporate the types of changes implied by SATS. First, some brief information on the U.S. aviation system is provided. The next two sections profile the current general aviation aircraft and pilot base. Nebraska's system of general aviation airports is then described. Within this section of the paper, information is provided on the different types of general aviation airports in Nebraska, airport activity levels and current infrastructure. The fourth major section of the background paper looks at Nebraska's local airport authorities. These special purpose local governments oversee the majority of the general aviation airports in the state. Among the items examined are total expenditures, capital expenditures and planning activities. Next, the paper provides background information on the Nebraska Department of Aeronautics (NDA) and recent Federal funding for general aviation in Nebraska. The final section presents summary conclusions.

Smith, Russell; Wachal, Jocelyn

2000-01-01

447

The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. IV. Cosmological Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct measurement of the extragalactic background light (EBL) can provide important constraints on the integrated cosmological history of star formation, metal and dust production, and the conversion of starlight into infrared emission by dust. In this paper we examine the cosmological implications of the recent detection of the EBL in the 125 to 5000 mum wavelength region by the

E. Dwek; R. G. Arendt; M. G. Hauser; D. Fixsen; T. Kelsall; D. Leisawitz; Y. C. Pei; E. L. Wright; J. C. Mather; S. H. Moseley; N. Odegard; R. Shafer; R. F. Silverberg; J. L. Weiland

1998-01-01

448

Partnering industry to develop clinical information systems.  

PubMed

Over the past six months, the nursing team from the Department of Health's Informatics Directorate has been working with colleagues in industry to promote and share learning and understanding of issues surrounding the nursing profession. Team members were asked among other things to identify key questions senior nursing colleagues and suppliers should ask one another when considering the implementation of a new system for recording clinical information and extracting pertinent data. This article aims to encourage collaborative working and understanding of the importance of senior nurse involvement in choosing and delivering the right system for staff and patients. PMID:23008903

Hughes, Victoria; Hamer, Susan

2012-09-01

449

[Orthorexia nervosa and it's background factors].  

PubMed

The place of orthorexia nervosa (ON)--described by Bratman in 1997--is not clearly defined in the diagnostic systems. However, the increasing number of clinical experiences and research data gives us more and more information about the epidemiology, and the social and individual characteristics of ON. The general population shows a 6.9% prevalence of ON; healthcare professionals are at high risk of ON with the prevalence rate of 35-57.6%. Education, the choice of profession, socioeconomic status and the internalization of the ideals of society are significant factors in the development of ON, while sex, age and body mass index do not seem to be determining variables in this respect. The lack of common criteria and proper research results on ON makes it impossible to generalize data on the general population. Further studies with larger representative samples and assessment instruments with good psychometric properties are necessary to make research data on ON comparable. PMID:23971352

Varga, Mrta; Dukay-Szabo, Szilvia; Try, Ferenc

2013-07-30

450

Primordial Helium And the Cosmic Background Radiation  

E-print Network

The products of primordial nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons are relics from the early evolution of the Universe whose observations probe the standard model of cosmology and provide windows on new physics beyond the standard models of cosmology and of particle physics. In the standard, hot big bang cosmology, long before any stars have formed a significant fraction (~25%) of the baryonic mass in the Universe should be in the form of helium-4 nuclei. Since current 4He observations are restricted to low redshift regions where stellar nucleosynthesis has occurred, observations of high redshift, prestellar 4He would constitute a fundamental test of the hot, big bang cosmology. At recombination, long after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) has ended, the temperature anisotropy spectrum imprinted on the CMB depends on the 4He abundance through its connection to the electron density and the effect of the electron density on Silk damping. Since the relic abundance of 4He is relatively insensitive to the universal density of baryons, but is sensitive to a non-standard, early Universe expansion rate, the primordial mass fraction of 4He, Yp, offers a test of the consistency of the standard models of BBN and the CMB and, provides constraints on non-standard physics. Here, the WMAP seven year data (supplemented by other CMB experiments), which lead to an indirect determination of Yp at high redshift, are compared to the BBN predictions and to the independent, direct observations of 4He in low redshift, extragalactic HII regions. At present, given the very large uncertainties in the CMB-determined primordial 4He abundance (as well as for the helium abundances inferred from H II region observations), any differences between the BBN predictions and the CMB observations are small, at a level < 1.5 sigma.

Gary Steigman

2010-02-18

451

Spectral measurements of the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect

Three experiments have measured the intensity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at wavelengths 4.0, 3.0, and 0.21 cm. The measurement at 4.0 cm used a direct-gain total-power radiometer to measure the difference in power between the zenith sky and a large cryogenic reference target. Foreground signals are measured with the same instrument and subtracted from the zenith signal, leaving the CMB as the residual. The reference target consists of a large open-mouth cryostat with a microwave absorber submerged in liquid helium; thin windows block the radiative heat load and prevent condensation atmospheric gases within the cryostat. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 4.0 cm is 2.59 +- 0.07 K. The measurement at 3.0 cm used a superheterodyne Dicke-switched radiometer with a similar reference target to measure the zenith sky temperature. A rotating mirror allowed one of the antenna beams to be redirected to a series of zenith angles, permitting automated atmospheric measurements without moving the radiometer. A weighted average of 5 years of data provided the thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 3.0 cm of 2.62 +- 0.06 K. The measurement at 0.21 cm used Very Large Array observations of interstellar ortho-formaldehyde to determine the CMB intensity in molecular clouds toward the giant HII region W51A (G49.5-0.4). Solutions of the radiative transfer problem in the context of a large velocity gradient model provided estimates of the CMB temperature within the foreground clouds. Collisional excitation from neutral hydrogen molecules within the clouds limited the precision of the result. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 0.21 cm is 3.2 +- 0.9 K. 72 refs., 27 figs., 38 tabs.

Kogut, A.J.

1989-04-01

452

Primordial helium and the cosmic background radiation  

SciTech Connect

The products of primordial nucleosynthesis, along with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, are relics from the early evolution of the Universe whose observations probe the standard model of cosmology and provide windows on new physics beyond the standard models of cosmology and of particle physics. According to the standard, hot big bang cosmology, long before any stars have formed a significant fraction ( ? 25%) of the baryonic mass in the Universe should be in the form of helium-4 nuclei. Since current observations of {sup 4}He are restricted to low redshift regions where stellar nucleosynthesis has occurred, an observation of high redshift, prestellar, truly primordial {sup 4}He would constitute a fundamental test of the hot, big bang cosmology. At recombination, long after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) has ended, the temperature anisotropy spectrum imprinted on the CMB depends on the {sup 4}He abundance through its connection to the electron density and the effect of the electron density on Silk damping. Since the relic abundance of {sup 4}He is relatively insensitive to the universal density of baryons, but is sensitive to a non-standard, early Universe expansion rate, the primordial mass fraction of {sup 4}He, Yp, offers a test of the consistency of the standard models of BBN and the CMB and, provides constraints on non-standard physics. Here, the WMAP seven year data (supplemented by other CMB experiments), which lead to an indirect determination of Yp at high redshift, are compared to the BBN predictions and to the independent, direct observations of {sup 4}He in low redshift, extragalactic HII regions. At present, given the very large uncertainties in the CMB-determined primordial {sup 4}He abundance (as well as for the helium abundances inferred from HII region observations), any differences between the BBN predictions and the CMB observations are small, at a level ?<1.5?.

Steigman, Gary, E-mail: steigman@mps.ohio-state.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave., Columbus OH 43210-1117 (United States)

2010-04-01

453

[Background of recent JE vaccine issues].  

PubMed

In Japan, more than 5,000 patients were reported in 1950, and there have been less than 10 cases annually since 1992. However, Japanese encephalitis virus caused of Japanese encephalitis (JE) are still existed highly and widely in the country, reported by National Institute of Infectious Diseases with serological examination among domestic pig population. JE immunization had been provided to children as category 1 routine immunization in Japan. However, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (HOHLW) decided not to recommend JE immunization to children as a routine immunization at May 2005. Major reason on this decision was that the Minter of MOHLW certified to pay loss of medical costs for the case of ADEM (acute disseminated encephalomyelopathy) after JE immunization, recognized as adverse events with JE vaccine, although MOHLW stated that the strict scientific evidence was unknown. MOHLW stated also that it is expected Vero cell derived JE vaccine should be replaced with the present mouse brain derived JE vaccine as the next generation, to be able to avoid theoretical possibility of neurological adverse events associated with JE vaccine. Small but increasing number of requests recently to be certified as health injuries on ADEM cases associated with JE immunization is also another reason for MOHLLW's decision. Further, fifth doses of JE vaccine given to children at 14-15 years old as a routine immunization was decided to be discontinued by MOHLW at July 2005, considering present epidemiological situation on JE and JE immunization status in Japan, although four doses has been recommended continuously as routine. The background details on JE vaccine issues decided by MOHLW in 2005 were reviewed on this paper. PMID:16557017

Okabe, Nobuhiko

2005-12-01

454

Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.  

PubMed

Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land-based renewable resource-subsistence activities still being a major part of many local economies. PMID:19714957

Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

2009-07-01

455

BLAST: RESOLVING THE COSMIC SUBMILLIMETER BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has made 1 deg{sup 2}, deep, confusion-limited maps at three different bands, centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South Field. By calculating the covariance of these maps with catalogs of 24 mum sources from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, we have determined that the total submillimeter intensities are 8.60 +- 0.59, 4.93 +- 0.34, and 2.27 +- 0.20 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at 250, 350, and 500 mum, respectively. These numbers are more precise than previous estimates of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and are consistent with 24 mum-selected galaxies generating the full intensity of the CIB. We find that the fraction of the CIB that originates from sources at z >= 1.2 increases with wavelength, with 60% from high-redshift sources at 500 mum. At all BLAST wavelengths, the relative intensity of high-z sources is higher for 24 mum-faint sources than that for 24 mum-bright sources. Galaxies identified as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by their Infrared Array Camera colors are 1.6-2.6 times brighter than the average population at 250-500 mum, consistent with what is found for X-ray-selected AGNs. BzK-selected galaxies are found to be moderately brighter than typical 24 mum-selected galaxies in the BLAST bands. These data provide high-precision constraints for models of the evolution of the number density and intensity of star-forming galaxies at high redshift.

Marsden, Gaelen; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Ngo, Henry [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, James J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de AstrofIsica Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Magnelli, Benjamin [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d'Astrophysique, Bat. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Olmi, Luca [Physics Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Box 23343, UPR station, Puerto Rico 00931 (United States); Patanchon, Guillaume, E-mail: gmarsden@phas.ubc.c [Universite Paris Diderot, Laboratoire APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet 75205 Paris (France)

2009-12-20

456

A Flat Universe from High-Resolution Maps of the Cosmic MicrowaveBackground Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K Cosmic Microwave Background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole {ell}{sub peak} = (197 {+-} 6), with an amplitude DT{sub 200} = (69 {+-} 8){mu}K. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favored by standard inflationary scenarios.

de Bernardis, P.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill,J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Crill, B.P.; De Gasperis, G.; Farese, P.C.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mason,P.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Melchiorri, A.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield,C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Pogosyan, D.; Prunet, S.; Rao, S.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Sforna, D.; Vittorio, N.

2000-04-28

457

A method to characterise site, urban and regional ambient background radiation.  

PubMed

Control dosemeters are routinely provided to customers to monitor the background radiation so that it can be subtracted from the gross response of the dosemeter to arrive at the occupational dose. Landauer, the largest dosimetry processor in the world with subsidiaries in Australia, Brazil, China, France, Japan, Mexico and the UK, has clients in approximately 130 countries. The Glenwood facility processes over 1.1 million controls per year. This network of clients around the world provides a unique ability to monitor the world's ambient background radiation. Control data can be mined to provide useful historical information regarding ambient background rates and provide a historical baseline for geographical areas. Historical baseline can be used to provide site or region-specific background subtraction values, document the variation in ambient background radiation around a client's site or provide a baseline for measuring the efficiency of clean-up efforts in urban areas after a dirty bomb detonation. PMID:20959341

Passmore, C; Kirr, M

2011-03-01

458

Studying extragalactic background fluctuations with the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment 2 (CIBER-2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluctuations in the extragalactic background light trace emission from the history of galaxy formation, including the emission from the earliest sources from the epoch of reionization. A number of recent near-infrared measure- ments show excess spatial power at large angular scales inconsistent with models of z < 5 emission from galaxies. These measurements have been interpreted as arising from either redshifted stellar and quasar emission from the epoch of reionization, or the combined intra-halo light from stars thrown out of galaxies during merging activity at lower redshifts. Though astrophysically distinct, both interpretations arise from faint, low surface brightness source populations that are difficult to detect except by statistical approaches using careful observations with suitable instruments. The key to determining the source of these background anisotropies will be wide-field imaging measurements spanning multiple bands from the optical to the near-infrared. The Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment 2 (CIBER-2) will measure spatial anisotropies in the extra- galactic infrared background caused by cosmological structure using six broad spectral bands. The experiment uses three 2048 x 2048 Hawaii-2RG near-infrared arrays in three cameras coupled to a single 28.5 cm telescope housed in a reusable sounding rocket-borne payload. A small portion of each array will also be combined with a linear-variable filter to make absolute measurements of the spectrum of the extragalactic background with high spatial resolution for deep subtraction of Galactic starlight. The large field of view and multiple spectral bands make CIBER-2 unique in its sensitivity to fluctuations predicted by models of lower limits on the luminosity of the first stars and galaxies and in its ability to distinguish between primordial and foreground anisotropies. In this paper the scientific motivation for CIBER-2 and details of its first flight instrumentation will be discussed, including detailed designs of the mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical systems. Plans for the future will also be presented.

Lanz, Alicia; Arai, Toshiaki; Battle, John; Bock, James; Cooray, Asantha; Hristov, Viktor; Korngut, Phillip; Lee, Dae Hee; Mason, Peter; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Morford, Tracy; Onishi, Yosuke; Shirahata, Mai; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Zemcov, Michael

2014-08-01

459

77 FR 60506 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INFORMATION: Title: Customer Satisfaction Surveys. Background...Setting Customer Service Standards...directly from our customers. The information...in evaluating service delivery and...governments, highway industry...

2012-10-03

460

77 FR 37735 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INFORMATION: Title: Customer Satisfaction Surveys. Background...Setting Customer Service Standards...directly from our customers. The information...in evaluating service delivery and...governments, highway industry...

2012-06-22

461

The Impact of Information Technology on Science: Science Policy Study Background Report No. 5. Report Prepared by the Congressional Research Service Library of Congress Transmitted to the Task Force on Science Policy, Committee on Science and Technology. U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report to the Committee on Science and Technology, United States House of Representatives, provides an analysis of how advances in computer and telecommunications technology are significantly affecting the conduct of science. The introduction describes key developments in information technology, discusses their general impact, and highlights

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

462

Federal Assistance for Elementary and Secondary Education: Background Information on Selected Programs Likely To Be Considered for Reauthorization by the 100th Congress. Prepared for the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. Committee Print.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Congressional Research Service has compiled the information in this document in order to assist the 100th Congress as it considers reauthorization of most of the major Federal elementary and secondary programs. For each program, basic statistics, a short history, and a summary of the major issues confronting the Congress in reauthorization are

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

463

Background Literature Model Examples Summary Supply Chain Network Design  

E-print Network

Background and Motivation Blood service operations are a key component of the healthcare system all over Literature Model Examples Summary Background and Motivation Blood service operations are a key component;Background Literature Model Examples Summary Background and Motivation Blood service operations are a key

Nagurney, Anna

464

Spectral observations of the extreme ultraviolet background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations in the far ultraviolet and soft X-ray bands suggest that the interstellar medium contains gas at temperatures between 10(5) and 10(6) K. If large volumes of local interstellar space are filled with this hot plasma, observable emission lines will be produced in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). A unique grazing incidence spectrometer was designed to study the diffuse emission between 80 and 650 A with 10 to 30 A resolution. Interplanetary He(I) 584 A emission and geocoronal He(II) 304 A emission were detected, and other features were also observed which may originate in the hot ionized interstellar gas. One feature is consistent with O(V) emission at 630 A. This emission, when combined with upper limits for other lines, restricts the temperature to 5.5 less than log T less than 5.7, in agreement with temperatures derived from O(VI) absorption studies. A power law distribution of temperatures is only consistent with the data if the power law coefficient is negative, such as predicted for saturated evaporation of clouds in a hot medium. In this case, the O(VI) absorption data confines the filling factor of the emission to f less than or equal to 4.0 pct and the pressure to more than 37,000 cm(-3) K, substantially above ambient interstellar pressure. Such a pressure enhancement has been predicted for clouds undergoing saturated evaporation. Further, this O(V) emission is consistent with the local interstellar ionization levels suggested by solar backscatter observations. A feature centered at about 100 A is best fitted by a cluster of Fe(XVIII) and Fe(XIX) lines from gas at log T = 6.6 to 6.8. The higher temperature solution is consistent with previous low resolution soft X-ray observations. A feature found in the data at 108 A is consistent with Fe(X) and Fe(XI) emission from gas at log T = 6, the same temperature derived from soft X-ray background observations.

Labov, Simon Ezra

465

Characterization of background reflectivity for MEDUSA  

SciTech Connect

The DARPA MEDUSA program goal is to detect, locate, and identify electro-optical threats in the vicinity of a moving platform. Laser sensing will be employed to find these threats by looking for anomalous reflections from threat sensors. However, the reflectivity variability (clutter) in both natural and manmade backgrounds will inherently limit target detection levels. In parallel with advanced component development by several aerospace contractors, a study of this clutter limitation was initiated in the long-wave (LW) and midwave (MW) infrared spectral regions to properly drive system design parameters. The analysis of clutter and associated limits on detection has been a major component of LANL efforts in laser remote sensing for non-proliferation. LANL is now analyzing existing data and conducting additional selected measurements in both the LWIR (9 and 10.6 pm) and MWIR (4.6 pm) in support of the DARPA program to increase our understanding of these clutter limitations and, thereby aid in the design and development of the MEDUSA system. The status of the LANL effort will be discussed. A variety of different natural and manmade target types have been investigated. Target scenes range from relatively low clutter sites typical of a southwestern desert to higher clutter downtown urban sites. Images are created by conducting raster scans across a scene interest. These images are then analyzed using data clustering techniques (e g K-means) to identify regions within the scene that contain similar reflectivity profiles. Data will be presented illustrating the reflectivity variability among different samples of the same target type, Le. within the same cluster, and among different data clusters. In general, it is found that the variability of reflectivities among similar targets is well represented by a log-normal distribution. Furthermore, manmade target tend to have higher reflectivities and more variability than natural targets. The implications of this observation for MEDUSA systems designed to locate and identify threat sensors will be discussed. The implications for chemical sensing applications will also be addressed.

Oldenborg, R. C. (Richard C.); Tiee, J. J. (Joe J.); Foy, B. R. (Bernard R.); Petrin, R. R. (Roger R.); Wilson, C. W. (Carl W.)

2003-01-01

466

The Sound of the Microwave Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most impressive developments in modern cosmology has been the measurement and analysis of the tiny fluctuations seen in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. When discussing these fluctuations, cosmologists frequently refer to their acoustic nature -- sound waves moving through the hot gas appear as peaks and troughs when they cross the surface of last scattering. As is now well known, recent observations quantify the amplitudes of these waves over several octaves, revealing a fundamental tone with several harmonics, whose relative strengths and pitches reveal important cosmological parameters, including global curvature. Not surprisingly, these results have wonderful pedagogical value in educating and inspiring both students and the general public. To further enhance this educational experience, I have attempted what might seem rather obvious, namely converting the CMB power spectrum into an audible sound. By raising the pitch some 50 octaves so that the fundamental falls at 200 Hz (matching its harmonic ``l" value), we hear the resulting sound as a loud hissing roar. Matching the progress in observational results has been an equally impressive development of the theoretical treatment of CMB fluctuations. Using available computer simulations (e.g. CMBFAST) it is possible to recreate the subtley different sounds generated by different kinds of universe (e.g. different curvature or baryon content). Pushing further, one can generate the ``true" sound, characterized by P(k), rather than the ``observed" sound, characterized by C(l). From P(k), we learn that the fundamental and harmonics are offset, yielding a chord somewhere between a major and minor third. A sequence of models also allows one to follow the growth of sound during the first megayear: a descending scream, changing into a deepening roar, with subsequent growing hiss; matching the increase in wavelength caused by universal expansion, followed by the post recombination flow of gas into the small scale potential wells created by dark matter. This final sound, of course, sets the stage for all subsequent growth of cosmic structure, from stars (hiss), through galaxies (mid-range tones), to large scale structure (bass notes). Although popular presentations of CMB studies already make use of many visual and conceptual aids, introducing sound into the pedagogical mix can significantly enhance both the intellectual and the emotional impact of the subject on its audience.

Whittle, M.

2004-05-01

467

Weatherization Assistance Program - Background Data and Statistics  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum is intended to provide readers with information that may be useful in understanding the purposes, performance, and outcomes of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program (Weatherization). Weatherization has been in operation for over thirty years and is the nation's largest single residential energy efficiency program. Its primary purpose, established by law, is 'to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings owned or occupied by low-income persons, reduce their total residential energy expenditures, and improve their health and safety, especially low-income persons who are particularly vulnerable such as the elderly, the handicapped, and children.' The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act PL111-5 (ARRA), passed and signed into law in February 2009, committed $5 Billion over two years to an expanded Weatherization Assistance Program. This has created substantial interest in the program, the population it serves, the energy and cost savings it produces, and its cost-effectiveness. This memorandum is intended to address the need for this kind of information. Statistically valid answers to many of the questions surrounding Weatherization and its performance require comprehensive evaluation of the program. DOE is undertaking precisely this kind of independent evaluation in order to ascertain program effectiveness and to improve its performance. Results of this evaluation effort will begin to emerge in late 2010 and 2011, but they require substantial time and effort. In the meantime, the data and statistics in this memorandum can provide reasonable and transparent estimates of key program characteristics. The memorandum is laid out in three sections. The first deals with some key characteristics describing low-income energy consumption and expenditures. The second section provides estimates of energy savings and energy bill reductions that the program can reasonably be presumed to be producing. The third section deals with estimates of program cost-effectiveness and societal impacts such as carbon reduction and reduced national energy consumption. Each of the sections is brief, containing statistics, explanatory graphics and tables as appropriate, and short explanations of the statistics in order to place them in context for the reader. The companion appendices at the back of the memorandum explain the methods and sources used in developing the statistics.

Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-03-01

468

Research on distribution characteristic of sky background luminance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since sky background luminance is a critical parameter of atmospheric optics, it is very important for space target detection and identification. In order to acquire sky background luminance characteristic and evaluate the detecting and tracking capability of electro-optical systems for space target. Sky background luminance was measured with sky background measurement equipment in somewhere in Xinjiang. The contour distribution of all-sky background luminance in different type weather was given. Experimental data measured in fact was analyzed. The distribution characteristic of sky background was acquired; That provided important basis for researching sky background luminance, arraying electro-optical system and application of related field.

Liu, Weifeng; Qiang, Xiwen; Wang, Yong

2014-02-01

469

The Ethical Role of Information in Sustainable Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of sustainable communities, or sustainable development, focuses on the ethical role of information in fostering sustainable environmental development. Topics include background information, developments in information technology, permaculture in the area of horticulture and information ethics, information ethics models, hardware

Lockway, Larry

1995-01-01

470

Psychological background of pro-health behavior.  

PubMed

In this study, psychological conditions of pro-health lifestyle behavior have been analyzed. A first research group consisted of 88 healthy people (44 males, 44 females) aged 19-39. Psychological analysis showed a positive correlation between the internal locus of control and adherence to healthy diets; a correlation extending to the knowledge about healthy food. Social exclusion appeared to reduce the possibility of reaping new knowledge about healthy diets and was negatively correlated with the tendency of using healthy diet or dietary supplements. A second group consisted of 70 women aged 20-65. The subjects in this group were oriented towards using a diet which reduces body mass; pro-health both physical and psychological objectives other than body mass reduction were secondary in this study. General self-esteem and physical self-esteem were found to be positively correlated with the involvement in physical activities and satisfaction from dietary intervention. These outcomes were negatively correlated with body mass. The study shows that the efficiency of prevention is related to the locus of control, self-efficacy expectation, faith in the result, and self-esteem. The information about the interconnections among these variables may be useful in building preventive behavioral programs. PMID:22826083

Wilczynska, Agnieszka; Bargiel-Matusiewicz, Kamilla; Troc, Marta; Niebroj, Leslaw

2013-01-01

471

The Cosmic Microwave Background & Inflation, Then & Now  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most recent results from the Boomerang, Maxima, DASI, CBI and VSA CMB experiments significantly increase the case for accelerated expansion in the early universe (the inflationary paradigm) and at the current epoch (dark energy dominance). This is especially so when combined with data on high redshift supernovae (SN1) and large scale structure (LSS), encoding information from local cluster abundances, galaxy clustering, and gravitational lensing. There are ``7 pillars of Inflation'' that can be shown with the CMB probe, and at least 5, and possibly 6, of these have already been demonstrated in the CMB data: (1) the effects of a large scale gravitational potential, demonstrated with COBE/DMR in 1992-96 (2) acoustic peaks/dips in the angular power spectrum of the radiation, which tell about the geometry of the Universe, with the large first peak convincingly shown with Boomerang and Maxima data in 2000, a multiple peak/dip pattern shown in data from Boomerang and DASI (2nd, 3rd peaks, first and 2nd dips in 2001) and from CBI (2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th peaks, 3rd, 4th dips at 1-sigma in 2002) (3) damping due to shear viscosity and the width of the region over which hydrogen recombination occurred when the universe was 400000 years old (CBI 2002) (4) the primary anisotropies should have a Gaussian distribution (be maximally random) in almost all inflationary models, the best data on this coming from Boomerang; (5) secondary anisotropies associated with nonlinear phenomena subsequent to 400000 years, which must be there and may have been detected by CBI and another experiment, BIMA. Showing the 5 ``pillars'' involves detailed confrontation of the experimental data with theory; e.g., (5) compares the CBI data with predictions from two of the largest cosmological hydrodynamics simulations ever done. DASI, Boomerang and CBI in 2002, AMiBA in 2003, and many other experiments have the sensitivity to demonstrate the next pillar, (6) polarization, which must be there at the ~ 7% level. A broad-band DASI detection consistent with inflation models was just reported. A 7th pillar, anisotropies induced by gravity wave quantum noise, could be too small to detect. A minimal inflation parameter set, {?b, ?cdm, ?tot, ?Q, wQ, ns, ?C, ?8}, is used to illustrate the power of the current data. After marginalizing over the other cosmic and experimental variables, we find the current CMB+LSS+SN1 data give ?tot = 1.00-.03+.07, consistent with (non-baroque) inflation theory. Restricting to ?tot = 1, we find a nearly scale invariant spectrum, ns = 0.97-.05+.06. The CDM density, ?cdm = ?cdmh2 = .12-.01+.01, and baryon density, ?b ? ?bh2 = .022-.002+.003, are in the expected range. (The Big Bang nucleosynthesis estimate is 0.019 +/- 0.002.) Substantial dark (unclustered) energy is inferred, ?Q ~ 0.68 +/- 0.05, and CMB+LSS ?Q values are compatible with the independent SN1 estimates. The dark energy equation of state, crudely parameterized by a quintessence-field pressure-to-density ratio wQ, is not well determined by CMB+LSS (wQ < -0.4 at 95% CL), but when combined with SN1 the resulting wQ < -0.7 limit is quite consistent with the wQ=-1 cosmological constant case.

Bond, J. Richard; Contaldi, Carlo; Pogosyan, Dmitry; Mason, Brian; Myers, Steve; Pearson, Tim; Pen, Ue-Li; Prunet, Simon; Readhead, Tony; Sievers, Jonathan

2002-12-01

472

Multiple concentric annuli for characterizing spatially nonuniform backgrounds  

E-print Network

A method is presented for estimating the background at a given location on a sky map by interpolating the estimated background from a set of concentric annuli which surround this location. If the background is nonuniform but smoothly varying, this method provides a more accurate (though less precise) estimate than can be obtained with a single annulus. Several applications of multi-annulus background estimation are discussed, including direct testing for point sources in the presence of a nonuniform background, the generation of "surrogate maps" for characterizing false alarm rates, and precise testing of the null hypothesis that the background is uniform.

James Theiler; Jeff Bloch

1998-08-20

473

Information Structures and Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how undergraduates seek information across various information structures. Taking part in an interview, fifteen students of diverse backgrounds described their information seeking. The findings pointed to several issues relating to the underlying structures of information resources. Suggestions are made for structural

Lee, Hur-Li

2008-01-01

474

THE COSMIC NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND. II. FLUCTUATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The near-infrared background (NIRB) is one of a few methods that can be used to observe the redshifted light from early stars at a redshift of 6 and above, and thus it is imperative to understand the significance of any detection or nondetection of the NIRB. Fluctuations of the NIRB can provide information on the first structures, such as halos and their surrounding ionized regions in the intergalactic medium (IGM). We combine, for the first time, N-body simulations, radiative transfer code, and analytic calculations of luminosity of early structures to predict the angular power spectrum (C{sub l} ) of fluctuations in the NIRB. We study in detail the effects of various assumptions about the stellar mass, the initial mass spectrum of stars, the metallicity, the star formation efficiency (f{sub *}), the escape fraction of ionizing photons (f{sub esc}), and the star formation timescale (t{sub SF}), on the amplitude as well as the shape of C{sub l} . The power spectrum of NIRB fluctuations is maximized when f{sub *} is the largest (as C{sub l} {proportional_to} f {sup 2}{sub *}) and f{sub esc} is the smallest (as more nebular emission is produced within halos). A significant uncertainty in the predicted amplitude of C{sub l} exists due to our lack of knowledge of t{sub SF} of these early populations of galaxies, which is equivalent to our lack of knowledge of the mass-to-light ratio of these sources. We do not see a turnover in the NIRB angular power spectrum of the halo contribution, which was claimed to exist in the literature, and explain this as the effect of high levels of nonlinear bias that was ignored in the previous calculations. This is partly due to our choice of the minimum mass of halos contributing to NIRB ({approx}2 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}), and a smaller minimum mass, which has a smaller nonlinear bias, may still exhibit a turnover. Therefore, our results suggest that both the amplitude and shape of the NIRB power spectrum provide important information regarding the nature of sources contributing to the cosmic reionization. The angular power spectrum of the IGM, in most cases, is much smaller than the halo angular power spectrum, except when f{sub esc} is close to unity, t{sub SF} is longer, or the minimum redshift at which the star formation is occurring is high. In addition, low levels of the observed mean background intensity tend to rule out high values of f{sub *} {approx}> 0.2.

Fernandez, Elizabeth R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Komatsu, Eiichiro; Shapiro, Paul R. [Texas Cosmology Center and the Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Iliev, Ilian T., E-mail: elizabeth.fernandez@colorado.ed [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pevensey II Building, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2010-02-20

475

BACKGROUND MATERIAL on US higher-education reform dialogue 2006-2012 Meera Sitharam, University of Florida, November 2012  

E-print Network

BACKGROUND MATERIAL on US higher-education reform dialogue 2006-2012 Meera Sitharam, University of Florida, November 2012 Here's a bunch of background information I collected over time for "higher ed reform" and various related issues and responses. PROBLEM 1: High higher ed cost

Sitharam, Meera

476

A Review of the Major Issues and Problems of Welfare Reform; A Background Paper Developed for the Community Services Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This background paper was developed for the Community Services Administration (CSA) in order to provide background information concerning welfare reform. It examines possible public assistance strategies, such as the following: (1) broad-based cash transfer (negative income tax, wage rate subsidies, demogrants, and family allowances), (2)

Technical Assistance Research Programs, Inc., Washington, DC.

477

The Effects of Social Background Factors on Psychological Orientations and Child Rearing Patterns of Interracially Married Mothers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a research study on the effects of social background factors on psychological orientations and child rearing patterns of interracially married mothers, both black and white. Data were gathered in interviews with 64 interracial couples. Background information reviewed on the interracially married mothers includes:

Long, Margo Alexandre

478

Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review  

SciTech Connect

As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to promote that understanding. The literature review begins with a discussion in Section 2.0 of the Federal regulatory processes and mission areas pertaining to hydropower siting and licensing at the basin scale. This discussion of regulatory processes and mission areas sets the context for the next topic in Section 3.0, past and ongoing basin-scale hydropower planning and assessment activities. The final sections of the literature review provide some conclusions about past and ongoing basin-scale activities and their relevance to the current basin-scale opportunity assessment (Section 4.0), and a bibliography of existing planning and assessment documents (Section 5.0).

Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2010-10-01

479

StreamNet; Northwest Aquatic Resource Information Network - Status of Salmon and Steelhead in the Columbia River Basin, 1995 Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on fish populations, fisheries, and fish habitat is crucial to the success of ongoing program to protect, recover, enhance, and manage fish resources in the Columbia River Basin. However, pertinent data are often difficult to locate because it is scattered among many agencies and is often unpublished. The goal of this annual report is to bring many diverse data

Duane A. Anderson; Raymond C. Beamesderfer; Bob Woodard

1996-01-01

480

Measurement of the neutron background at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory LSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy distribution of the neutron background was measured for the first time at Hall A of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. For this purpose we used a novel approach based on the combination of the information obtained with six large high-pressure 3He proportional counters embedded in individual polyethylene blocks of different size. In this way not only the integral value but also the flux distribution as a function of neutron energy was determined in the range from 1 eV to 10 MeV. This information is of importance because different underground experiments show different neutron background energy dependence. The high sensitivity of the setup allowed to measure a neutron flux level which is about four orders of magnitude smaller that the neutron background at sea level. The integral value obtained is ?=(3.440.35)10-6 cm-2 s-1.

Jordan, D.; Tain, J. L.; Algora, A.; Agramunt, J.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Corts, G.; Cano-Ott, D.; Mendoza, E.; Bandac, I.; Bettini, A.; Fraile, L. M.; Domingo, C.

2013-02-01

481

The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders: background, inter-rater reliability and clinical use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO) is a schedule for the diagnosis of autistic spectrum and related disorders and assessment of individual needs. It enables information to be recorded systematically for a wide range of behaviours and developmental skills and is suitable for use with all ages and levels of ability. In addition to helping the

Lorna Wing; Susan R. Leekam; Sarah J. Libby; Judith Gould; Michael Larcombe

2002-01-01

482

English Proficiency and Competency Background of Social Science and Humanities Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study focuses on the background of Social Science and Humanities students (specifically in the course General Psychology) on their English education and competence. This research aims to identify the common factors of these students in terms of their English Proficiency. The students will answer survey questions that will give us information

Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III; Kutschera, P. C.; Capili, Claire Ann P.

2014-01-01