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1

Background Information  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Background Information ... These have been labeled to remove fluid from patients suffering from volume overload. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

2

Sources of geologic and hydrologic information pertinent to ground-water resources in Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes sources of geologic and hydrologic information useful to water managers and others involved in the investigation, appraisal, development, and protection of ground-water resources in Rhode Island. The geographic scope of the report includes Rhode Island and small adjoining areas of Massachusetts and Connecticut, where drainage basins are shared with these States. The information summarized is found in maps and reports prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and published by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by the State of Rhode Island. Information sources are presented in maps and tables. Reference maps show drainage divides, town lines, and the 7.5-minute grid of latitude and longitude for the State. Maps show availability of surficial geologic maps, bedrock geologic maps, and ground-water studies by 7.5-minute quadrangle, and show availability of ground-water studies by drainage basin, subbasin, and special study area. Sources of geologic and hydrologic information for the thirty-seven 7.5-minute quadrangles covering Rhode Island have been compiled based on the following information categories: surficial geology, bedrock geology, subsurface materials, altitude of bedrock surface, water-table altitudes, water-table contours, saturated thickness, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, drainage divides, recharge areas, ground-water reservoirs, induced infiltration, and ground-water quality. A table for each of the 37 quadrangles lists the major categories of information available for that quadrangle, provides references to the publications in which the information can be found, and indicates the format, scale, and other pertinent attributes of the information. A table organized by report series gives full citations for publications prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey pertaining to the geology and hydrology of Rhode Island. To facilitate location of information for particular municipalities, a table lists cities and towns in the State and the quadrangles that cover each municipality.

Trench, Elaine C.

1995-01-01

3

Background Information on Ammonia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the synthesis, production, and use of ammonia (7664417) is reviewed. The importance of a catalyst in the process of uniting hydrogen and nitrogen to form ammonia, producers of ammonia between 1961 and 1974, their annual production capacity,...

R. Hartle

1975-01-01

4

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR THE PEDIATRIC ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Meeting Background Materials Blinatumomab (AMG 103) Page 1 AVAILABLE FOR PUBLIC DISCLOSURE WITHOUT REDACTION ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

5

Developing Pupil Background Information for Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students are often provided with background information before reading an assigned selection. This background information functions differently in the following reading variations: individualized reading; basal reading; big book approaches; programmed reading, the language experience approach; and predictable books. Students often pick subjects…

Ediger, Marlow

6

Background Information Regarding the ISBT Label  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Background Information Regarding the ISBT Label Useful References 1.Guidance for Industry: Recognition and ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess

7

Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

1994-10-01

8

Providing Relevant Background Information in Smart Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a system, called GAIN (Group Adapted Interaction for News), which selects background information to be displayed in public shared environments according to preferences of the group of people present in there. In ambient intelligence contexts, we cannot assume that the system will be able to know every users physically present in the environment and therefore to access to their profiles in order to compute the preferences of the entire group. For this reason, we assume that group members may be i) totally unknown, ii) completely or iii) partially known by the system. As we describe in the paper, in the first case, the system uses a group profile that is built statistically according to the results of a preliminary study. In the second case, the model of the group is created from the profiles of known users. In the third situation the group interests are modeled by integrating preferences of known members with a statistical prediction of the interests of unknown ones. Evaluation results proved that adapting news display to the group was more effective in matching the members’ interests in all the three cases than the in the non-adaptive modality.

de Carolis, Berardina; Pizzutilo, Sebastiano

9

Division of Undergraduate Education Reviewer Background Information Form  

NSF Publications Database

... information is retained for future reference in selecting reviewers. The information requested on ... of all information is entirely voluntary. The purpose of this background information is to assist in ...

10

Background information on the SSC project  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning.

Warren, J.

1991-10-01

11

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Colon CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the descriptive manuscript cited below.

12

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Breast CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the materials cited below.

13

25 CFR 537.2 - Submission of background information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTEREST IN, OR HAVING MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY FOR, A MANAGEMENT CONTRACT § 537.2 Submission of background information. A management contractor shall submit the background information required in § 537.1 of this part: (a)...

2013-04-01

14

Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

Schulte, Roger R.

1987-11-01

15

Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child  

MedlinePLUS

... Practice Family-Centered Practice Home Philosophy and Key Elements of Family-Centered Practice Family-Centered Practice Across the ... Connections Act Laws & Policies Library Search Mandated Reporters Publications ... Stay Connected Home » Obtaining Background Information on ...

16

Alcohol Use and Abuse: Background Information for Security Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of alcohol abuse and alcoholism as it relates to personnel security is prepared as background information for policy makers, adjudicators, investigators, and researchers. It discusses the relationships between alcohol use and personnel security...

R. J. Heuer

1991-01-01

17

Information Routing Driven by Background Chatter in a Signaling Network  

PubMed Central

Living systems are capable of processing multiple sources of information simultaneously. This is true even at the cellular level, where not only coexisting signals stimulate the cell, but also the presence of fluctuating conditions is significant. When information is received by a cell signaling network via one specific input, the existence of other stimuli can provide a background activity –or chatter– that may affect signal transmission through the network and, therefore, the response of the cell. Here we study the modulation of information processing by chatter in the signaling network of a human cell, specifically, in a Boolean model of the signal transduction network of a fibroblast. We observe that the level of external chatter shapes the response of the system to information carrying signals in a nontrivial manner, modulates the activity levels of the network outputs, and effectively determines the paths of information flow. Our results show that the interactions and node dynamics, far from being random, confer versatility to the signaling network and allow transitions between different information-processing scenarios.

Pons, Antonio J.; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi

2011-01-01

18

Community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constrained clustering has been well-studied in the unsupervised learning society. However, how to encode constraints into community structure detection, within complex networks, remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised learning framework for community structure detection. This framework implicitly encodes the must-link and cannot-link constraints by modifying the adjacency matrix of network, which can also be regarded as de-noising the consensus matrix of community structures. Our proposed method gives consideration to both the topology and the functions (background information) of complex network, which enhances the interpretability of the results. The comparisons performed on both the synthetic benchmarks and the real-world networks show that the proposed framework can significantly improve the community detection performance with few constraints, which makes it an attractive methodology in the analysis of complex networks.

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

2013-02-01

19

Background Information on the He(3) Nuclear Gyroscope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the contract period the background necessary to proceed with the assembly and testing of the precision He(3) nuclear gyroscope was completed. This background work included experiments on He(3)-He(4) liquid and gas mixtures in a prototype apparatus ...

W. M. Fairbank

1983-01-01

20

Nursing research: historical background and teaching information strategies.  

PubMed Central

The expansion of research-based literature is one of the foremost goals of the nursing profession. Linked to this goal are the utilization and further development of nursing libraries. This paper discusses some historical factors that have influenced nursing literature. It presents a model for teaching graduate nursing students the relationship between research and library information skills.

Sarkis, J M; Conners, V L

1986-01-01

21

Cross Cultural Strategies: Background Information For Teachers of Indian Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet was designed as a source of information for teachers seeking a deeper understanding of Native American children and who want to take advantage of opportunities offered by a cross-cultural classroom. The first section is a collection of 13 articles from a wide variety of sources on various aspects of cross-cultural education. Each…

Council for Yukon Indians, Whitehorse (Yukon). Curriculum Development Program.

22

Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nat

23

Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation. A Review Pertinent to Air Force Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents analyses studies, research results, and other pertinent information related to investigations of human exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR). The topics discussed are the ANSI/IEEE RFR-exposure guidelines; environmental levels in...

L. N. Heynick P. Polson

1996-01-01

24

BACKGROUND INFORMATION  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... in CKD patients with PRCA from antibodies to protein-based ESAs ... A nascent clinical program for chemotherapy-induced anemia was suspended ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

25

Representing Background Information for Product Description to Support Product Development Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an attempt to capture and to represent product information, which is used for generating product definition, but is not explicitly represented in product description. In this paper, such information is called background information. It includes requirements, specifications, assumptions, constraints, decision history, trial-and-error processes, and “rationale” in general. It plays an important role by providing information about underlying

Fumihiko Kimura; Hiromasa Suzuki

1995-01-01

26

Considerations Relating to Toxic Substances in the Application of Municipal Sludge to Cropland and Pastureland (A Background Summary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents background information pertinent to an assessment of the potential health hazards from toxic substances when disposing/utilizing municipal sludge on agricultural lands, particularly croplands and pasturelands where products enter the ...

F. D. Kover

1976-01-01

27

Background Information on Hydrocarbon Emissions from Marine Terminal Operations. Volume I. Discussion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents results of a study to develop background information necessary for the accurate assessment of hydrocarbon emissions from ship and barge loading and unloading of gasoline and crude oil. The report assesses marine terminal facilities, m...

C. E. Burklin J. D. Colley M. L. Owen

1976-01-01

28

Study to Develop Background Information for the Direct Meat-Firing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains background information on the direct meat-firing industry (charbroilers and barbecues). The geographical distribution, emission levels, state and local air pollution regulations as well as control techniques for particulate and gaseou...

M. I. Bornstein

1978-01-01

29

Explore the development of information industry in Chongqing—In the background of industrialization and information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the integration of the two opportunities for industrialization and information, to develop Chongqing's Information Industry, to promote the diversity of economic structure to achieve important practical significance and long-term strategic significance. This paper analyzes the status of development and problems of information industry in Chongqing. We did empirical analysis, Chongqing's Information Industry on the impact of regional economic growth,

Zeng Degao; Li Zizhong

2011-01-01

30

Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of

Hendrickson

1986-01-01

31

Students Seeking Access to Four-Year Institutions: Community College Transfers [Background Information].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication provides background information for a hearing by the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education and Outreach on December 3, 1997. The Introduction presents the Committee announcement, press release, agenda, information about transfer efforts in California, facts and figures about the community colleges, and the text…

Moore, Jamillah

32

Hipikat: recommending pertinent software development artifacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newcomer to a software project must typically come up-to-speed on a large, varied amount of information about the project before becoming productive. Assimilating this information in the open-source context is difficult because a newcomer cannot rely on the mentoring approach that is commonly used in traditional software developments. To help a newcomer to an open-source project become productive faster,

Davor ?ubrani?; Gail C. Murphy

2003-01-01

33

Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of Northwest rental housing owners and, to a lesser extent, tenants toward energy conservation and energy-efficiency improvements. Available market research data on these subjects were found to be quite limited. The most useful data were two surveys of Seattle rental housing owners conducted in late 1984 for Seattle City Light. Several other surveys provided supplemental market research information in selected areas. In addition to market research information, the report also includes background information on rental housing characteristics in the Northwest.

Hendrickson, P.L.

1986-02-01

34

Integrating Overlapping Structures and Background Information of Words Significantly Improves Biological Sequence Comparison  

PubMed Central

Word-based models have achieved promising results in sequence comparison. However, as the important statistical properties of words in biological sequence, how to use the overlapping structures and background information of the words to improve sequence comparison is still a problem. This paper proposed a new statistical method that integrates the overlapping structures and the background information of the words in biological sequences. To assess the effectiveness of this integration for sequence comparison, two sets of evaluation experiments were taken to test the proposed model. The first one, performed via receiver operating curve analysis, is the application of proposed method in discrimination between functionally related regulatory sequences and unrelated sequences, intron and exon. The second experiment is to evaluate the performance of the proposed method with f-measure for clustering Hepatitis E virus genotypes. It was demonstrated that the proposed method integrating the overlapping structures and the background information of words significantly improves biological sequence comparison and outperforms the existing models.

Dai, Qi; Li, Lihua; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yao, Yuhua; Zhao, Fukun; Zhang, Michael

2011-01-01

35

Performance Parameters Pertinent to Nuclear Powered Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the present design information and studies relating to nuclear power plants indicates that the weight of the power plant components, exclusive of crew shield and nacelles, may at a particular design point be represented by an equation of the form, W{subpp} = W{subo} + K{subt}T. By use of this, a power plant parameter psi is defined as

Ruffman

1952-01-01

36

Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations is reported. An environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program was developed. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakdown conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. An environmental

J. B. Cannon

1983-01-01

37

Pertinent reportable incidental cardiac findings on chest CT without electrocardiography gating: review of 268 consecutive cases.  

PubMed

BackgroundPertinent reportable cardiac findings on non-electrocardiography (ECG)-gated chest CT examinations have become easier to detect given recent advancements in multidetector CT technology. However, those findings are easily overlooked on routine chest CT without ECG gating given residual inherent cardiac motion artifact and non-cardiac indications.PurposeTo describe and quantify the types of pertinent reportable cardiac findings that can be detected on chest CT examinations without ECG gating and evaluate how often they were reported.Material and MethodsTwo radiologists retrospectively reviewed (blinded to the original interpretation) 268 consecutive routine adult chest CT examinations without ECG gating for the presence of pertinent reportable cardiac findings. Retrospective interpretations were then compared with the original radiological reports.ResultsOne hundred and sixty-three patients (61%) had pertinent reportable cardiac findings. The findings encountered included: coronary artery disease (n = 131; 80.0%), coronary artery bypass grafts (n = 10; 6.1%), left ventricular aneurysm (n = 1; 0.6%), valve calcification (n = 131; 80.0%), valve repair/replacement (n = 5; 3.1%), pericardial effusion (n = 33; 20.2%), left atrial appendage thrombus (n = 1; 0.6%), cardiac mass (n = 1; 0.6%), and cardiac chamber enlargement (n = 29; 17.8%). On the original radiological reports 22.3% of the pertinent reportable cardiac findings, detected by the two radiologists retrospectively, were not reported.ConclusionDetection of pertinent reportable cardiac findings on routine chest CT examinations without ECG gating is possible. The high volume of chest CT examinations without ECG gating represents an opportunity for radiologists to comment on the presence or absence of cardiac disease which may influence future clinical decisions. PMID:23436832

Choy, Garry; Kröpil, Patric; Scherer, Axel; El-Sherief, Ahmed H; Chung, Jonathan; Rojas, Carlos A; Abbara, Suhny

2013-02-23

38

Gasoline distribution industry (stage i). Background information for promulgated standards. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This background information document provides technical information and analyses used in the development of the final NESHAP and Agency responses to public comments on the proposed rule. The alternatives analyzed are to limit emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from existing and new Stage I gasoline distribution facilities. Stage I sources include bulk gasoline terminals and plants, pipeline facilities, and underground storage tanks at service stations. Emissions of HAP`s from these facilities occur during gasoline tank truck and railcar loading, gasoline storage, and from vapor leaks from tank trucks, pumps, valves, flanges and other equipment in gasoline service.

Jordan, B.C.

1994-11-01

39

Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations is reported. An environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program was developed. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakdown conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. An environmental impact statement on magnetic fusion will be based with this reference as a principle.

Cannon, J. B.

1983-08-01

40

Digital Diorama: AR Exhibition System to Convey Background Information for Museums  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we propose a MR museum exhibition system, the “Digital Diorama” system, to convey background information intuitively.\\u000a The The system aims to offer more features than the function of existing dioramas in museum exhibitions by using mixed reality\\u000a technology. The system superimposes computer generated diorama scene reconstructed from related image\\/video materials onto\\u000a real exhibits. First, we implement and

Takuji Narumi; Oribe Hayashi; Kazuhiro Kasada; Mitsuhiko Yamazaki; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose

41

Background frequency, information content, and the scoring matrix in sequence alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequence alignment tools for protein/DNA sequences have been widely used to find homologous biosequences over the past few decades. In these automated procedures, the target similarity between the two sequences compared is largely determined by the scoring matrix used. Theoretically, each matrix element of the scoring matrix is a log-odd ratio, i.e., the logarithm of the target frequency over the background frequency. In real alignment applications, however, the theoretical criterion is often overlooked. In this talk, we will present a sensible solution to forcibly maintain the theoretical criterion. We will also discuss the information content of the scoring matrix.

Yu, Yi-Kuo; Altschul, Stephen

2003-03-01

42

A Bibliometric Analysis of Scholarly Articles Pertinent to Radio Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate what is meant by the term "radio studies," a study analyzed 156 randomly selected scholarly communication journal articles pertinent to the radio broadcasting industry. Articles were chosen through the use of Matlon and Ortiz's (1992) "Index to Journals in Communication Studies through 1990." A master bibliography was constructed…

Shields, Steven O.; And Others

43

Leading Court Decision Pertinent to Public School Desegregation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document comprises eight federal court decisions pertinent to public school desegregation: (1) "Brown v. Board of Education," 347 U.S. 483 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (2) "Bolling v. Sharpe," 374 U.S. 497 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (3) "Brown…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

44

The Thesaurus in Action. Background Information for a Thesaurus Workshop at the Annual Convention of the American Society for Information Science (32nd), October 1969, San Francisco, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five facets of background information are intended to be helpful to persons interested in the construction and use of a thesaurus, in the sense of a standardized language for communication with and between information storage and retrieval systems. TEST i...

P. C. Daniels T. L. Gillum W. Hammond J. G. Peirce F. Y. Speight

1969-01-01

45

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and background rejection with event position information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low- ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

Wang, Gensheng

46

Effects of Public Regulation on the U.S. Copper Industry. Volume IV, Background Information and Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume is intended to provide basic background information and analysis upon which methodologies for the assessment of regulatory impacts on the copper industry can be built and subsequent actual measurements of those impacts made. Although much of th...

1978-01-01

47

Cosmological and Astrophysical Information Content in the Low Radio Frequency 21-cm Background from High Redshifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will discuss the prospects for extracting cosmological and astrophysical parameters from the low radio frequency 21-cm background due to the spin-flip transition of neutral Hydrogen during and prior to the reionization of the Universe with radio interferometric arrays such as LOFAR and SKA We will discuss the measurement of the angular power spectrum of 21-cm anistropies, which exists due to inhomogeneities in the neutral Hydrogen density field, the gas temperature field, the intensity of the Lyman-alpha radiation from first luminous sources that emit UV photons, and the gas velocity. We consider the general case where fluctuations are induced by a variety of sources during the era of reionization. We attempt to extract parameters that describe both the underlying mass power spectrum and the global cosmology, as well as a set of simplified astrophysical parameters that connect fluctuations in the dark matter to those that govern 21-cm fluctuations by marginalizing over a model for the foregrounds at low radio frequencies. In this general description, we find large degeneracies between cosmological parameters and astrophysical parameters, though such degeneracies are not present when strong assumptions are made with respect to the spin temperature relative to the CMB temperature. Some of the parameter degeneracies are broken when 21-cm measurements are combined with information from the CMB, such as anisotropy and polarization measurements with Planck. For upcoming low frequency radio interferometers, the overall improvement on the cosmological parameter estimates when combined with Planck is not significant; we suggest that low radio frequency 21-cm measurements are, at best, suitable to understand certain astrophysical details during the era of recombination, but neither the shape of the power spectrum nor the global cosmological parameters.

Cooray, A.

2006-08-01

48

Overview of groundwater and surface water standards pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an overview of groundwater- and surface water-related laws, regulations, agreements, guidance documents, Executive Orders, and DOE orders pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This document is a summary and is intended to help readers understand which regulatory requirements may apply to their particular circumstances. However, the document is not intended to be used in lieu of applicable regulations. Unless otherwise noted, the information in this report reflects a summary and evaluation completed July 1, 1995. This document is considered a Living Document, and updates on changing laws and regulations will be provided.

Lundahl, A.L.; Williams, S.; Grizzle, B.J.

1995-09-01

49

Tautatietoa turvesoiden jaelkikaeytoestae. (Background information of utilization of peat bogs after production).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This information booklet deals with possible ways of utilization of peat bogs after they have been removed from production. The booklet contain information on the present usage of peatlands. It also describes the possibilities to use old production fields...

1989-01-01

50

The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and resources maps of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles (1:250,000) are a part of the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. This circular and a companion folio of maps represent results of integrated field and laboratory studies by an interdisciplinary team on geology, geophysics, geochemistry, mineral resources, geochronology, and energy resources to provide a modern assessment of the mineral and energy resources of the quadrangles. The maps contain descriptive text, explanatory material, tables and diagrams, and pertinent references. This circular provides the background data for the mineral and energy resource assessment and integrates the component maps. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references relevant to the geology and resources of the quadrangles.

Detterman, Robert L.; Case, J. E.; Cox, D. P.; Detra, D. E.; Miller, T. P.; Wilson, F. H.

1981-01-01

51

Unique lightning activities pertinent to tropical and temperate thunderstorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from two geographical locations show that some lightning events are unique and specific to the respective thunderstorms. From the measurements conducted in a tropical country, Sri Lanka, and a temperate country, Sweden, it is observed that there are some lightning activities that are unique for each location. Narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) have frequently been observed in the tropical thunderstorms and were not observed in the temperate thunderstorms, whereas isolated breakdown pulses (IBPs) have frequently been observed in the temperate thunderstorms and were not observed in the tropical thunderstorms. It can be speculated that NBPs are the unique features of tropical thunderstorms and that IBPs are the unique features pertinent to the temperate thunderstorms.

Sharma, S. R.; Cooray, V.; Fernando, M.

2011-03-01

52

Peelle's pertinent puzzle using the Monte Carlo technique  

SciTech Connect

We try to understand the long-standing problem of the Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) using the Monte Carlo technique. We allow the probability density functions to be any kind of form to assume the impact of distribution, and obtain the least-squares solution directly from numerical simulations. We found that the standard least squares method gives the correct answer if a weighting function is properly provided. Results from numerical simulations show that the correct answer of PPP is 1.1 {+-} 0.25 if the common error is multiplicative. The thought-provoking answer of 0.88 is also correct, if the common error is additive, and if the error is proportional to the measured values. The least squares method correctly gives us the most probable case, where the additive component has a negative value. Finally, the standard method fails for PPP due to a distorted (non Gaussian) joint distribution.

Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burr, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

53

Fugitive Dust Background Document and Technical Information Document for Best Available Control Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document provides technical information for developing fugitive dust (FD) best available control measures (BACM) strategies in areas designated serious nonattainment for PM-10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 ...

R. Dunkins C. Cowherd

1992-01-01

54

The Effects of Background Information and Syntactic Cues in Reading French Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared two groups of intermediate/advanced L2 French learners on a reading comprehension test when presented with or without background knowledge of the text. This study also compared intermediate and intermediate/advanced L2 French learners' reading comprehension when presented with increasing syntactic complexity. The results of…

Garrott, Carl L.

2009-01-01

55

Supercomputers: Government Plans and Policies Background Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The background paper presents a review of the Federal Government's large-scale computing programs and examines the networking and software programs within selected agencies. Certain management and institutional questions pertinent to the Federal efforts a...

1986-01-01

56

Managing the waste stream: Background information for planning source separation programs. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document includes a variety of data that can be used to help plan recycling and yard waste collection and composting programs. The report was written primarily as a reference for people using the Recycling Planning and Evaluation Program (REPEP), a simple, spreadsheet computer program for planning recycling programs. Much of the information and some of the default data in

G. Lindsey; L. Lechner

1989-01-01

57

When is ERIC Useful? A Background and Current Overview of the Education Resources Information Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) underwent substantial change during the 2004 contract cycle. Since it began in 1966, it has always been a highly respected and heavily used bibliographic resource, but some users are unaware of its current status due to the recent changes in its format and availability. This update highlights major developments and assesses the resulting ERIC

Kate Corby

2009-01-01

58

Volatile organic compound emissions from automobile refinishing. Background information for proposed standards. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

A draft rule for the regulation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from automible refinishing is being proposed under the authority of Section 183(e) of the Clean Air Act. This document contains information on the automobile refinish industry, and presents control options and their associated environmental and cost impacts.

NONE

1995-08-01

59

[A Packet of Information on the Background of the AFT-NEA Merger Break.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains informational materials about the breakdown in merger talks between the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and the National Education Association (NEA). Included in the packet are (a) the AFT statement on the breakup of unity talks; (b) transcripts of two news conferences by David Selden, president of the AFT, on the…

American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

60

Product information with enhanced background description for improved revision of decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of products has been organized around product lifecycle management (PLM) systems during the past decade in leading industries. In mechatronics, where product structures are very complex and inhomogeneous, it is urgent to apply high level information technology for engineering purposes. The new style of engineering, where engineers work in remote workplaces and communicate through sophisticated model of product is

László Horváth; Imre J. Rudas; Nicola Belfiore

2008-01-01

61

Product Definition in Virtual Space Using Background information at Description of Engineering Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current technology of engineering has reached a level where lifecycle product information, comprehensive sets of model creation procedures, product data management, and Internet based communication environment serve integrated group work of engineers. It is inevitable, that the next main phase of development of the digital product definition is enriching content of product model in order to more intelligent decision support

LÁSZLÓ HORVÁTH; IMRE J. RUDAS

62

Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

Sutter, S. L.

1982-05-01

63

Planning serials cancellations and cooperative collection development in the health sciences: methodology and background information.  

PubMed

In an era of steady-state budgets many research and academic libraries must cancel a significant number of current serials to maintain acquisitions of monographs. Thus paper reviews several techniques that have been used or that are of potential use in a rational selection of titles for cancellation. The context of the proposed methodology involves a network of libraries rather than an individual library. The methodology was tested with specific health sciences serial titles held by University of California libraries and resource libraries in NLM Region XI. As a test for the proposed methodology, background data were collected on 600 current foreign language serial titles included in SERLINE and held by at least one of the libraries in the networks of interest. Price, major secondary service coverage with productivity/impact factors, extent of holdings, and average number of recorded circulations per year in several of the libraries were recorded for each title. With the use of several different rules, estimates were made of the subscription savings that might be realized. It seems feasible to extend the same methodology to other groups of serial titles. PMID:1191822

Bourne, C P

1975-10-01

64

Shock tube studies of pyrolyses pertinent to soot formation  

SciTech Connect

A shock tube coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is utilized to investigate the chemical kinetics of reactions pertinent to soot formation. Three projects are covered. 1. High temperature pyrolyses of acetylene and diacetylene. The acetylene decomposition mechanism is developed further by incorporating new thermodynamic and chemical kinetic parameters. A sub-mechanism valid for the experimental conditions is derived, revealing several kinetic features for the pyrolyses of acetylene and diacetylene. A value of 111 kcal/mol for the heat of formation of C[sub 4]H[sub 2] is supported by these experiments. 2. The mechanism of pyrolyses of propargyl chloride, propyne and allene. In mixtures of propargyl chloride dilute in neon, benzene is not detected as an expected product of reactions involving C[sub 3]H[sub 3] radicals. However, in mixtures of C[sub 3]H[sub 3]Cl containing H[sub 2], benzene is observed. Benzene production is also recorded in the mixtures of C[sub 3]H[sub 3]Cl + allene and C[sub 3]H[sub 3]Cl + propyne. Two initial parallel reactions for propargyl chloride decomposition C[sub 3]H[sub 3]Cl [yields] C[sub 3]H[sub 3] + Cl, C[sub 3]H[sub 3]Cl [yields] c-C[sub 3]H[sub 2] + HCl are proposed to account for the ratio of HCl/DCl measured in the pyrolysis of a C[sub 3]H[sub 3]Cl - D[sub 2] mixture. A primary mechanism with 36 reactions is proposed which yields satisfactory agreement between the calculational and experimental results. Mixtures containing allene or propyne were investigated in order to compare the respective benzene yields. 3. High temperature dissociation of toluene. One of the current disputes in the high temperature dissociation of toluene was studied; the relative dominance of two initiation reactions. C[sub 7]H[sub 8] [yields] C[sub 7]H[sub 7] + H, C[sub 7]H[sub 8] [yields] C[sub 6]H[sub 5] + C[sub 3]H. The theory of unimolecular reactions was employed to explore the relative dominance and falloff behavior for these two reactions.

Chen, Hua.

1993-01-01

65

Background Information about PLCO  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large population-based randomized trial evaluating screening programs for these cancers. The primary goal of this long-term trial of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and on secondary endpoints.

66

Background Information for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

2001-01-01

67

Development of tool for the assessment of comprehension of informed consent form in healthy volunteers participating in first-in-human studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informed consent is a process that involves providing all pertinent study information to the potential study participant. The information imparted in the form gives all such information as would enable a potential participant to come to a decision regarding his\\/her participation in the study. Various study related aspects are outlined in the participant information leaflet including the background of the

A. Arora; S. Rajagopalan; N. Shafiq; P. Pandhi; A. Bhalla; D. P. Dhibar; S. Malhotra

2011-01-01

68

Some Pertinent Questions on Collective Violence and the News Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information available suggests that the media are rarely a major influence on the amount of violence and that they function as much to deter as to incite violence. Yet, if reports of violence affect expectations, then the nature of public protest as well as of official response will be influenced. (Authors)

Lang, Gladys Engel; Lang, Kurt

1972-01-01

69

Chemical Kinetics and Molecular Physics Pertinent to Proposed Mercury Dimer Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the dimeric mercury molecule has several bound-excited electronic states, but a largely dissociative molecular ground state, It has been proposed as a molecular system for laser development. This note reviews much of the literature pertinent to the ...

C. E. Kolb

1973-01-01

70

Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

1970-01-01

71

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2012-07-01

72

Continuing Education Services. How Public Libraries Can Expand Educational Horizons for All Americans. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet, prepared as background information for the White House Conference, describes recent developments in providing learners' advisory services to adults beyond traditional school and college age. In particular, it focuses on the Woodbridge, New J...

E. N. Layne

1979-01-01

73

Personnel Reactions to Incentives, Naval Conditions and Experiences (PRINCE): Demographic and Background Information, Expectations, Attitudes, Values and Motivations of New Recruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a longitudinal study of the reactions of enlisted personnel incentives, Naval conditions and experiences, information on backgrounds, expectations, attitudes, values and motivations were obtained at entry into the Navy from 6,795 recruits in Ca...

A. Katz

1971-01-01

74

Experiences with nutrition-related information during antenatal care of pregnant women of different ethnic backgrounds residing in the area of Oslo, Norway.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: to explore experiences with nutrition-related information during routine antenatal care among women of different ethnical backgrounds. DESIGN: individual interviews with seventeen participants were conducted twice during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis were inspired by an interpretative phenomenological approach. SETTING: participants were purposively recruited at eight Mother and Child Health Centres in the area of Oslo, Norway, where they received antenatal care. PARTICIPANTS: participants had either immigrant backgrounds from African and Asian countries (n=12) or were ethnic Norwegian (n=5). Participants were pregnant with their first child and had a pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index above 25kg/m(2). FINDINGS: participants experienced that they were provided with little nutrition-related information in antenatal care. The information was perceived as presented in very general terms and focused on food safety. Weight management and the long-term prevention of diet-related chronic diseases had hardly been discussed. Participants with immigrant backgrounds appeared to be confused about information given by the midwife which was incongruent with their original food culture. The participants were actively seeking for nutrition-related information and had to navigate between various sources of information. CONCLUSIONS: the midwife is considered a trustworthy source of nutrition-related information. Therefore, antenatal care may have considerable potential to promote a healthy diet to pregnant women. Findings suggest that nutrition communication in antenatal care should be more tailored towards women's dietary habits and cultural background, nutritional knowledge as well as level of nutrition literacy. PMID:23481338

M Garnweidner, Lisa; Sverre Pettersen, Kjell; Mosdøl, Annhild

2013-03-01

75

Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a “Y” junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re-entry survey, and routine surveys around the crater lip did not identify alpha contamination. Background information includes several radiological surveys conducted after these two tests. The MULLET area has been surveyed frequently. The early surveys indicate the area as both contaminated and containing buried radioactive material. A survey conducted in 1970 found the radiological/chemical piping partially intact, including the “Y” junction, and shows two runs of intact piping running past the U2am crater lip. The survey focused on the piping system itself and detected alpha contamination from 4 counts per minute (cpm) to 900,000 cpm. The highest value was at a pipe flange between a dirt pile and a dirt berm within the current site fence line. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. A 1972 survey was essentially a repeat of the 1970 survey; however, it does not show the “Y” junction nor does it show piping extending past the U2am crater lip. It also shows a new fence line separating the radiological/chemical piping from the U2am crater area with all piping within the fence. Alpha contamination was detected on pipe flanges during the survey, but alpha contamination was not detected on the dirt pile or the dirt berm. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. Additional surveys were conducted in 1986, 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996. One of the surveys focused on determining the extent of soil contamination around GZ. An alpha contamination plume extending approximately 200 feet south of GZ was detected in a swath approximately 100 feet wide. The maximum measurement was 15,000 cpm alpha. All surveys show the piping within the fence line. Recent surveys (2007 and 2008) were performed around the current fence line by the demarcation group. No removable contamination was identified during these surveys. In late 2008, a visual inspection of the site was conducted by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Restoration group. All piping is within the fence line. Photos taken during this site visit are attached.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2012-06-26

76

50 CFR 600.315 - National Standard 2-Scientific Information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Federal fishery management programs. Information on bycatch and...and ecological information pertinent to the success of management or the achievement...and ecological information pertinent to the success of management or the...

2011-10-01

77

50 CFR 600.315 - National Standard 2-Scientific Information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Federal fishery management programs. Information on bycatch and...and ecological information pertinent to the success of management or the achievement...and ecological information pertinent to the success of management or the...

2012-10-01

78

78 FR 54246 - Agency Emergency Information Collection Reinstatement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provide pertinent information for easy record...efficiencies and quicker processing. Pertinent information includes the requester's...The Privacy Act Information Request Form assists...Department of Energy in processing privacy...

2013-09-03

79

Developing Metacognitive Behaviour in Physical Education Classes: The Use of Task-Pertinent Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in motor learning and sport pedagogy has shown that task-pertinent learning strategies enhance the learning and performance of self-paced motor tasks. Strategy research has typically been conducted under laboratory conditions in which artificial self-paced tasks were executed under well-controlled conditions. The purpose of this study was…

Lidor, Ronnie

2004-01-01

80

Hurricane Backgrounder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides basic information on hurricanes. topics include the definition of "hurricane", where they are likely to form, and their potential for damage, including high winds, heavy rainfall, flooding, tornadoes, and microbursts. There is also an illustration showing the Saffir-Simpson scale for classifying hurricane intensity, information on naming hurricanes, and a set of links to additional information.

81

Background Study and Proposals for Development of Information Provision in Science and Technology in Ethiopia. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provision of information for research and development in science and technology in Ethiopia was studied by 50 participants in a seminar on evaluation and analysis of a national information policy and plan. Policy makers and planners, users, producers and suppliers of information, information specialists, and representatives of Unesco (United…

Schwarz, Stephan; Winkel, Annette

82

Hydrogeologic and stratigraphic data pertinent to uranium mining, Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. Information series 12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recoverable low-grade uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Laramie Formation in the Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. One of these deposits, the Grover deposit, has been test mined on a pilot scale using in-situ solution-mining techniques. A second deposit, the Keota deposit, is currently being licensed and will produce about 500,000 lb\\/yr (227,000 kg\\/yr) of yellowcake also

R. M. Kirkham; W. OLeary; J. W. Warner

1980-01-01

83

Background Use of Sensitive Information to Aid in Analysis of Non-sensitive Data on Threats and Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the 9-11 commission’s recommendations on a different way of organizing intelligence activities of the United States\\u000a was to unify the effort in information sharing across the Intelligence Community. Challenges include the need to deal with\\u000a information that is geographically distributed and held in compartmented repositories having restricted access. A demonstrated\\u000a ‘need to know’ is required before the data

Richard A. Smith

2005-01-01

84

You don't have to believe everything you read: background knowledge permits fast and efficient validation of information.  

PubMed

In social cognition, knowledge-based validation of information is usually regarded as relying on strategic and resource-demanding processes. Research on language comprehension, in contrast, suggests that validation processes are involved in the construction of a referential representation of the communicated information. This view implies that individuals can use their knowledge to validate incoming information in a routine and efficient manner. Consistent with this idea, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that individuals are able to reject false assertions efficiently when they have validity-relevant beliefs. Validation processes were carried out routinely even when individuals were put under additional cognitive load during comprehension. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the rejection of false information occurs automatically and interferes with affirmative responses in a nonsemantic task (epistemic Stroop effect). Experiment 4 also revealed complementary interference effects of true information with negative responses in a nonsemantic task. These results suggest the existence of fast and efficient validation processes that protect mental representations from being contaminated by false and inaccurate information. PMID:19254102

Richter, Tobias; Schroeder, Sascha; Wöhrmann, Britta

2009-03-01

85

June 29, 2012: Background Materials  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Drug Administration. -. June 29, 2012: Background Materials. -. June 29, 2012: Background Information Memo. -. -. -. Page Last ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/riskcommunicationadvisorycommittee

86

SOME NEUTRON INDUCED CROSS SECTIONS FOR ELEMENTS PERTINENT TO XMA, PART 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuation of a previous report (DC 59-5-45) is presented in which a ; preliminary compilation of the empirical cross sections for neutron-induced ; reactions of elements pertinent to the XMlA Project are given. Data on neutron ; cross sections for the remaining elements after O¹⁶, and the heavy elements ; are given for the energy range fifteen to twenty

Gerardo

1959-01-01

87

Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year.

Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

1980-10-01

88

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry-background information for proposed air emission standards. Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, and semi-chemical mills. Interim final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being proposed for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. The document provides technical background information and analyses used in the development of the proposed pulp and paper NESHAP. It covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills. Effluent guideline limitations for pulp and paper mills are being developed concurrently under the Clean Water Act. Technical information used for the development of effluent guideline limitations is in separate documents.

Not Available

1993-10-01

89

Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

1985-06-01

90

Taiwan: Background Notes Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concise background information on Taiwan is provided. The publication begins with a profile of Taiwan, discussing the people, geography, political establishment, and economy. A map of the country is provided. The bulk of the publication then provides more detailed information on Taiwan's people, geography, history, administration, political…

Reams, Joanne Reppert

91

FDA Errata to Background information  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 1 Page 3. Original: In subjects with mild (creatinine clearance 50 to < 80 mL/min), moderate (creatinine clearance 30 to < 50 mL/min) or severe renal ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

92

Background Information: Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... noted that it is unaware of the basis upon which manufacturers may have ... There is no food additive regulation that permits the addition of caffeine, at ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

93

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR THE ONCOLOGIC ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Panitumumab in Subjects with Colorectal Cancer" which will provide a ... pharmacokinetic data, in both the Japanese and non-Asian population that ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

94

China: Background Notes Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

Reams, Joanne Reppert

95

Foregrounding the Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

Robbins, Bruce

1998-01-01

96

Bibliographic citations pertinent to the Weldon Spring Site, St. Charles County, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of 166 bibliographic references pertinent to the Weldon Spring Site (WSS), St. Charles County, Missouri. The WSS is a surplus US government facility which consists of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant; two separate low-level radioactive waste storage properties, designated the ''raffinate pits'' and ''quarry'', and a number of potentially contaminated vicinity properties. The facility was used by the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1957 to 1966 to refine uranium. After several years the US Department of the Army acquired responsibility for the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, performed some limited radiological decontamination, and then cancelled plans to construct a chemical process. Contamination of the facility and adjacent lands resulted from operation of the refining facility and the storage, transport, and disposal of process wastes on the property, as well as subsequent decontamination activities. All identified references to published technical documents that relate to the WSS were included in this report. In some cases citations from the reference section of existing documents were included in this report with no hardcopy to substantiate the existence of the document referenced.

Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P. (comps.)

1985-08-01

97

Body Functions and Structures Pertinent to Infrared Thermography-Based Access for Clients with Severe Motor Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Infrared thermography has been recently proposed as an access technology for individuals with disabilities, but body functions and structures pertinent to its use have not been documented. Seven clients (2 adults, 5 youth) with severe disabilities and their primary caregivers participated in this study. All clients had a Gross Motor Functional…

Memarian, Negar; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.; Chau, Tom

2011-01-01

98

Classification Structures for Career Information. Volume III: Technical Information. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC)…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

99

A review of coal properties pertinent to carbon dioxide sequestration in coal seams: with special reference to Victorian brown coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents reviews of studies on properties of coal pertinent to carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in coal with specific reference to Victorian brown coals. The coal basins in Victoria, Australia have been\\u000a identified as one of the largest brown coal resources in the world and so far few studies have been conducted on CO2 sequestration in this particular type

M. S. A. Perera; P. G. Ranjith; S. K. Choi; A. Bouazza; J. Kodikara; D. Airey

100

Cosmic microwave background polarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is our richest source of cosmological information; the standard cosmological model was largely established thanks to study of the temperature anisotropies. By the end of the decade, the Planck satellite will close this important chapter and move us deeper into the new frontier of polarization measurements. Numerous ground-based and balloon-borne experiments are already forging into this new territory. Besides providing new and independent information on the primordial density perturbations and cosmological parameters, polarization measurements offer the potential to detect primordial gravity waves, constrain dark energy and measure the neutrino mass scale. A vigorous experimental program is underway worldwide and heading towards a new satellite mission dedicated to CMB polarization.

Bartlett, James G.

2006-05-01

101

TRANSFER TO ADULT COURT: A National Study of How Juvenile Court Judges Weigh Pertinent Kent Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of juvenile offenders considered for transfer to adult court entails consideration of three factors: (a) potential risk of dangerousness, (b) level of sophistication–maturity, and (c) treatment amenability. Despite the centrality of these concepts to dispositional decision making, virtually no information or guidelines exist describing how juvenile court judges or mental health professionals should weigh these constructs when making vivid

Dia N. Brannen; Randall T. Salekin; Patricia A. Zapf; Karen L. Salekin; Franz A. Kubak; Jamie DeCoster

2006-01-01

102

LITERATURE PERTINENT TO A STEAM GENERATOR DESIGN FOR A GAS-COOLED REACTOR SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

References to signiflcant design information for a steam generator in a ; gas-cooled reactor system are presented. Papers concerning heat transfer and ; pressure drop correlations for gas flow across banks of bare and circular finned ; tubes and for subcooled waters boiling water, and superheated steam flow inside ; pipes are listed and briefly discussed. (auth);

Gray

1958-01-01

103

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks: Background Information for Proposed Standards. Marvin Branscome and Sandra Burns, RTI and Lula Melton.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes the background information used in the development of MACT standards for the coke ovens: pushing, quenching, and battery stacks source category. All references cited in this document are available in EPA Docket A-2000-34. In addit...

L. Melton M. Branscome S. Burns

2001-01-01

104

Focus group data pertinent to the prevention of obesity in African Americans.  

PubMed

The increased prevalence of obesity among African-American women makes it likely that they bear a disproportionate burden of comorbidities attributable to obesity, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipemia. These observations suggest that intensive efforts to prevent obesity should be directed at this group. This presentation provides a summary of the findings of focus groups that convened prior to the Sisters Together, Move More, Eat Better campaign in Boston. This pilot campaign was designed to increase awareness of the importance of healthy eating and physical activity among young adult African-American women. In addition, data collected by the Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provide additional information about attitudes toward diet and physical activity among African American youth. Such data are essential to understand the attitudinal changes necessary to prevent obesity in these vulnerable populations. PMID:11721801

Dietz, W

2001-11-01

105

Focus group data pertinent to the prevention of obesity in African Americans.  

PubMed

The increased prevalence of obesity among African-American women makes it likely that they bear a disproportionate burden of comorbidities attributable to obesity, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipemia. These observations suggest that intensive efforts to prevent obesity should be directed at this group. This presentation provides a summary of the findings of focus groups that convened prior to the Sisters Together, Move More, Eat Better campaign in Boston. This pilot campaign was designed to increase awareness of the importance of healthy eating and physical activity among young adult African-American women. In addition, data collected by the Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provide additional information about attitudes toward diet and physical activity among African American youth. Such data are essential to understand the attitudinal changes necessary to prevent obesity in these vulnerable populations. PMID:11876190

Dietz, W

2001-11-01

106

Recent immigration and the misery of motherhood: a discussion of pertinent issues.  

PubMed

In this paper it is assumed that the high rates of misery experienced by most new mothers in contemporary Western society are socially and culturally induced. Women from non-English-speaking backgrounds (NESB) recuperate from the stress of birth, often further complicated by morbidity from intervention, frequently alone and without practical household help. They often embark on their new mothering role with little support or guidance. In a Western society which markets a romanticized Anglo image of motherhood, where happy, contented, smiling babies and glamorous mothers appear as the norm, it is not surprising that women from NESB find becoming a mother in Australia difficult. Their difficulties are exacerbated as they frequently come from cultures where women are nurtured, valued and supported at this time in their lives. These women are often socially isolated in their new country, within an alien health system and separated from their normal birth and postpartum practices. Their misery can only be imagined, as mostly it is hidden and suffered alone. Providing a diagnosis of depression in women who are unhappy, but not clinically depressed, is likely to be even less helpful and more damaging for NESB women than for Anglo-Australian women. A diagnosis of depression excuses Western society for accepting responsibility for alleviating the isolation of new mothers by labelling them as 'sick'. PMID:9633371

Barclay, L; Kent, D

1998-03-01

107

The pertinence of oral health indicators in nutritional studies in the elderly.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Studies concerning the more appropriate criteria for evaluating oral health in relation to nutrition in the elderly vary greatly. There is a need to identify the most relevant criteria for classifying dental indicators of mastication in nutritional studies, so these indicators may be considered for epidemiological and clinical purposes. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between nutritional deficit and measures of oral health in a group of elderly. METHODS: A convenience sample of independent elderly aged 65 years or more attending two primary care clinics in Beirut, Lebanon was selected. Data were collected from a questionnaire including the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and questions about perception of xerostomia and chewing problems. The oral examinations recorded decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), the prosthetic status and the number of functional units (FU). RESULTS: The sample was composed of 121 women (mean age: 71.59 ± 5.97 years) and 80 men (mean age: 72.74 ± 6.98 years). They were allocated to two groups: 85 participants suffering from malnutrition (MNA score < 17, n = 17) or at risk of malnutrition (17 < MNA score < 24, n = 68) and 116 participants with a normal nutritional status (MNA score ? 24). Parameters that explain MNA variations were perception of xerostomia (OR = 3.49, 95% CI [1.66-7.34]), number of FU (OR = 2.79, 95% CI [1.49; 5.22]), and GOHAI score (OR = 2.905, 95% CI [1.40; 6.00]). CONCLUSION: Further studies exploring factors affecting nutrition in the elderly should take into consideration perception of xerostomia, number of FUs and GOHAI score. PMID:23773972

El Osta, Nada; Hennequin, Martine; Tubert-Jeannin, Stephanie; Abboud Naaman, Nada Bou; El Osta, Lana; Geahchan, Negib

2013-05-28

108

Radiological assessment of radioactive waste-disposal areas at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 3: Technical background information for the ORNL environmental and safety report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to determine dose equivalent rates in the ORNL solid waste disposal areas. The dosimeters were exchanged and read approximately quarterly during 1979 and 1980. The data were reviewed to detect trends in dose equivalent rates, but no trends were detected other than increased radiation levels in some areas due to the lowering of White Oak Lake. The rates at the disposal site were compared with TLD readings taken in areas on the DOE reservation perimeter, as well as in remote areas that represent natural background for East Tennessee.

Oakes, T. W.; Ohnesorge, W. F.; Wagner, E. B.; Chaudhry, M. Y.

1981-12-01

109

Primer on Durability of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Review of Pertinent Factors  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide a primer on the environmental effects that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant concrete structures. As concrete ages, changes in its properties will occur as a result of continuing microstructural changes (i.e., slow hydration, crystallization of amorphous constituents, and reactions between cement paste and aggregates), as well as environmental influences. These changes do not have to be detrimental to the point that concrete will not be able to meet its performance requirements. Concrete, however, can suffer undesirable changes with time because of improper specifications, a violation of specifications, or adverse performance of its cement paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either physical or chemical attack. Contained in this report is a discussion on concrete durability and the relationship between durability and performance, a review of the historical perspective related to concrete and longevity, a description of the basic materials that comprise reinforced concrete, and information on the environmental factors that can affect the performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Commentary is provided on the importance of an aging management program.

Naus, Dan J [ORNL

2007-02-01

110

Extragalactic Background Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents; Preface; List of participants; 1. Introduction P. J. E. Peebles; 2. Extragalactic gamma-ray background N. Gehrels and C. Cheung; 3. The X-ray background (observations) G. Zamorani; 4. Extragalactic ultraviolet background radiation R. C. Henry and J. Murthy; 5. Ultraviolet background (theory) P. Jakobsen; 6. The optical extragalactic background radiation J. A. Tyson; 7. Infrared background (observations) M. G. Hauser; 8. The infrared background (theory) C. J. Lonsdale; 9. Microwave background radiation (observations) J. C. Mather; 10. Detection of degree scale anisotropy P. M. Lubin; 11. Cosmic microwave background anisotropies and structure formation in the universe N. Vittorio; The radio background emission - the long and short of it M. S. Longair; 13. The radio background: radio-loud galaxies at high and low redshifts J. A. Peacock; 14. Conference summary M. J. Rees.

Calzetti, Daniela; Livio, Mario; Madau, Piero

1995-01-01

111

USE OF PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODELS TO QUANTIFY THE IMPACT OF HUMAN AGE AND INTERINDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY PERTINENT TO RISK (FINAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This final report, Use of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models to Quantify the Impact of Human Age and Interindividual Differences in Physiology and Biochemistry Pertinent to Risk Final R...

112

43 CFR 27.7 - Compliance information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...regulations, and orders. (b) Access to sources of information. Each recipient, contractor and subcontractor...of his books, records, accounts, and other sources of information, and his facilities, as may be pertinent...

2011-10-01

113

45 CFR 1110.6 - Compliance information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...obligations under this part. (c) Access to sources of information. Each recipient shall permit access by the...of its books, records, accounts, and other sources of information, and its facilities as may be pertinent to...

2011-10-01

114

49 CFR 27.121 - Compliance information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...recipient to prepare its report. (c) Access to sources of information. Each recipient shall permit access by the...hours to books, records, accounts, and other sources of information, and to facilities that are pertinent to...

2011-10-01

115

44 CFR 7.10 - Compliance information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...obligations under this regulation. (c) Access to sources of information. Each recipient shall permit access by the...of its books, records, accounts, and other sources of information, and its facilities as may be pertinent to...

2011-10-01

116

45 CFR 80.6 - Compliance information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...obligations under this part. (c) Access to sources of information. Each recipient shall permit access by the...of its books, records, accounts, and other sources of information, and its facilities as may be pertinent to...

2011-10-01

117

45 CFR 1203.6 - Compliance information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...federally assisted programs. (c) Access to sources of information. Each recipient shall permit access by ACTION...to its books, records, accounts, and other sources of information, and its facilities as may be pertinent to...

2011-10-01

118

The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Project; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Reno 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada and California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in west-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The assessment is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, reports, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

John, David A.; Stewart, J. H.; Hendricks, J. D.; Rowan, L. C.; Plouff, Donald.

1992-01-01

119

Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for final standards. Volume 2E. Comments on recordkeeping, reporting, compliance and test methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This background information document (BID) provides summaries and responses for public comments received regarding the Hazardous Organic National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), commonly referred to as the HON. The HON will primarily affect the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI). Volume 2E discusses the provisions for compliance, recordkeeping and reporting. Volume 2E also discusses issues related to the use of EPA test methods.

Not Available

1994-03-01

120

Biological aerosol background characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

2011-05-01

121

Acetaminophen: Background and Overview  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version1 Acetaminophen: Background and Overview Gerald J. Dal Pan, MD, MHS ... Page 86. 86 Background 1953 NDA 08-717 (acetaminophen tablet) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

122

IR Background Suppression Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief description of the background suppression scheme is described, and results obtained using the defocussing technique are presented. It has been demonstrated that a background suppression ratio of two orders of magnitudes can be obtained.

O. Shepherd W. P. Reidy T. F. Zehnpfennig G. A. Vanasse A. T. Stair

1977-01-01

123

The Cosmic Background Explorer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)|

Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

1990-01-01

124

The Cosmic Background Explorer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

1990-01-01

125

Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of

D. J. Hofmann; J. M. Rosen

1981-01-01

126

GLAST Background Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles tha...

E. Grove F. Longo J. F. Ormes T. Burnett W. Atwood

2007-01-01

127

Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

Mello Koch, Robert de [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

2009-01-15

128

The attached package contains background information ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... DXM) is an over-the-counter (OTC) cough suppressant ... DXM is fueled by its OTC availability and ... to DXM in 2008.The Drug Abuse Warning Network ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

129

Opacity provisions: background information for promulgated amendments  

SciTech Connect

On July 31, 1984, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a requirement for owners and operators of affected facilities subject to opacity standards in 40 CFR Part 60 to conduct opacity observations, and record and report the opacity of emissions during each performance test as required by Section 114 of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and was based on the Administrator's determination that the recordkeeping and reporting was necessary to demonstrate compliance with the respective opacity standards. The data would also be used during 4-year reviews of standards of performance for new stationary sources so that EPA could decide whether revisions to the respective opacity standards were necessary. The proposed opacity provisions were published in the Federal Register (49 FR 30676). A hearing was not requested. Comments were received from industry, state and local air pollution control agencies, and a law firm representing members of the Utility Air Regulatory Group (UARG). The summary of comments and responses serves as the basis for the revisions made to the opacity provisions between proposal and promulgation.

Not Available

1985-12-01

130

October 7, 2010 TPSAC Background Information Addendum ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Marketing of Menthol Cigarettes and Consumer Perceptions (UCSF). The correct citations are: ... American Tobacco. ... Market Science Associates, Inc. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/tobaccoproductsscientificadvisorycommittee

131

FDA Working Group Background Information on Banked ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... If the human milk donor pool has a high ... the potential for missing infectious diseases because of ... addresses many of the infectious disease risks, but ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

132

Background Information on the Chinese Fruit Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The People's Republic of China was established in 1949, ushering in an era of socialism and government centralization. Beginning in 1978, China's economy gradually transitioned from centralization to the transitional and somewhat more privatized society of today. Prior to 1978, government policies aimed at controlling food supplies and prices were common. Food rationing in 1953 was aimed at guaranteeing food

Suzanne Thornsbury; Mollie Woods

2007-01-01

133

Anisotropies of cosmic microwave background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies have been recognized as one of the most important observational quantities to understand the early stage of our universe. Here it is shown that temperature fluctuations of CMB contain rich information, i.e., cosmological parameters, geometry of the universe, initial condition of the density perturbations and more. The impact by recent observations of BOOMERanG and MAXIMA is also mentioned.

Sugiyama, Naoshi

2001-07-01

134

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J.F.; /Denver U.; Atwood, W.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Burnett, T.; /Washington U., Seattle; Grove, E.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Longo, F.; /INFN, Pisa; McEnery, J.; /NASA, Goddard; Mizuno, T.; /Hiroshima U.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

2007-10-17

135

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J. F. [University of Denver (United States); Atwood, W. [University of California at Santa Cruz (United States); Burnett, T. [University of Washington (United States); Grove, E. [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Longo, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)-Pisa (Italy); McEnery, J.; Ritz, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Mizuno, T. [Hiroshima University (Japan)

2007-07-12

136

1 CFR 20.5 - Sources of information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS HANDLING OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL STATEMENTS § 20.5 Sources of information. Pertinent sources of information useful to the...

2013-01-01

137

Matching Background Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter introduces an especially important subject in the concealment of animals--countershading. One observes many animals with colors that match the general color of their usual backgrounds. Many leaf-eating insects appear green, for example, making them relatively inconspicuous against their normal background of leaves. The manner of coloration that will provide such a color match is not as obvious as one might imagine. It depends significantly on the nature of the lighting. The inquiry-based activities included in this section effectively illustrate this concept.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2008-04-01

138

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Characteristics, Volume II. Part 2. SOC Numbers 4499 to 6560. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

139

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Statements, Volume I. Part 2. SOC Numbers 4499 to 6560. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

140

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Statements, Volume I. Part 1. SOC Numbers 1099 to 4490. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

141

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Characteristics, Volume II. Part 3A. SOC Numbers 6699 to 7679. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

142

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Statements, Volume I. Part 3. SOC Numbers 6699 to 9900. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

143

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Characteristics, Volume II. Part 1. SOC Numbers 1099 to 4490. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

144

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Characteristics, Volume II. Part 3B. SOC Numbers 7700 to 9900. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

145

Building Background Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on their ability to ask questions and wonder--both key components of inquiry. In this article,…

Fisher, Douglas; Ross, Donna; Grant, Maria

2010-01-01

146

Background Level Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The framework enabled by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System to allow appropriate, patient-centred caries management includes a frequently encountered scenario in which a comprehensive assessment of the teeth and the patient reveals no lesions in need of active preventive or operative care. The issue addressed here is: what background care is appropriate for patients attending a dental practice

N. B. Pitts

2009-01-01

147

Cosmic background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and\\u000aanisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the\\u000aupdate of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle\\u000aProperties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

2000-01-01

148

Diffuse UV Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a LEGACY project, with the aim of characterizing the diffuse ultraviolet background radiation. In order to achieve maximum impact, we propose to observe exclusively targets for which we already have in hand Voyager diffuse - background spectra (shortward of Lyman alpha). Our Voyager spectroscopy will allow powerful insight into the interpretation and meaning of the deep GALEX images longward of Lyman alpha that we propose (here) to obtain. There is good evidence that a substantial portion of the diffuse UV background at moderate and high Galactic latitudes is exotic in its origin - that is, that the radiation is not simply diffuse galactic light plus the integrated light of distant galaxies. We propose to find clues to the nature and physical origin of the diffuse ultraviolet background radiation in as comprehensive a manner as can be accomplished using GALEX. But in the course of carrying out the proposed work, we will also be creating a permanent GALEX archive of well-chosen deep images that are supported by spectroscopy - images valuable for a wide range of purposes beyond those that we propose. To speed this broader use, we waive all data rights.

Henry, Richard

149

47 CFR 215.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment...concerning the telecommunications effects of EMP and available protective measures,...

2010-10-01

150

47 CFR 215.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment...concerning the telecommunications effects of EMP and available protective measures,...

2009-10-01

151

Food Grains: Background for 1990 Farm Legislation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wheat and rice are the primary food grains produced in the United States and throughout the world. The report provides domestic and international background information on the wheat and rice industries. The 1985 Food Security Act established target prices...

C. E. Young J. L. Harwood N. W. Childs W. Lin

1990-01-01

152

Chiristmas Carol Background Knowlege  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find out more information about the book A Christmas Carol. Use the websites below to answer the questions about A Christmas Carol . Write your answers to these questions on a piece of paper or a word document you can print and turn in. The answers must be in your own words! 1. This story takes place in Victorian London. This time ...

Riesberg, Ms.

2012-11-28

153

Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

154

Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal…

Fagnoni, Cynthia

155

Critical review of four types of air quality models pertinent to MMS regulatory and environmental assessment missions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides comparative information on several air quality models that might be used for four distinct purposes: Regional-scale Dispersion Models, Lagrangian Trajectory Models, Toxic Release Models, and Steady-state Gaussian Models. For each model reviewed, information is provided for each of 20 categories or attributes that describe the model`s underlying science and credibility, ease of use, computational requirements, cost, availability, and computer language and interface. In addition to narrative information, each model is numerically rated for 17 of the 20 categories, leading to a ranking of candidate models suitable for the four purposes mentioned.

Chang, J.C.; Fernau, M.E.; Scire, J.S.; Strimaitis, D.G.

1998-11-01

156

Thermogravimetric studies of systems pertinent to the in-situ combustion process for enhanced oil recovery. Part 1. Development of a high-pressure thermobalance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-pressure (0–1000 psig) thermobalance experiment has been developed in order to obtain thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry data (DTG) pertinent to the in-situ combustion process for enhanced oil recovery. Studies on the pressured thermo-oxidative behaviour of 20\\/80 (W\\/W) oil\\/sand and coked sand samples are reported.In the case of the oil\\/sand sample under a 100 psig non-oxidising atmosphere, distillation\\/evaporation occurred

S. Indrijarso; J. S. Oklany; A. Millington; D. Price; R. Hughes

1996-01-01

157

Health Information Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of health information technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 14 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 6 units specific to the occupation of emergency medical technician. The following…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

158

Health and Well-Being in Old Age: The Pertinence of a Gender Mainstreaming Approach in Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The demographic and societal changes of the past decades, such as longevity and improvements in public health, have created new and often very distinct realities for men and women. However, these diversities have only marginally and fragmentally been the topic of research endeavours. There is a growing awareness of the societal phenomenon ‘feminization of old age’, yet the topic

Pasqualina Perrig-Chiello; Sara Hutchison

2010-01-01

159

Earth's Background Free Oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's background free oscillations, known as Earth's hum, were discovered in 1998. Excited modes of the oscillations are almost exclusively fundamental spheroidal and toroidal modes from 2 to 20 mHz. Seasonal variations in the source distribution suggest that the dominant sources are ocean infragravity waves in the shallow and deep oceans. A probable excitation mechanism is random shear traction acting on the sea bottom owing to linear topographic coupling of the infragravity waves. Excitation by pressure sources on Earth's surface is also significant for a frequency below 5 mHz. A possible pressure source is atmospheric turbulence, which can cause observed resonant oscillations between the solid modes and atmospheric acoustic modes.

Nishida, Kiwamu

2013-05-01

160

Cosmic microwave background theory.  

PubMed

A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant. PMID:9419321

Bond, J R

1998-01-01

161

Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large plasma redshifts of photons in hot, sparse plasma are given by ln ( 1+z )=3.326ot 10-25ot int_0^R N_eot dx., provided the wavelength ? ? ?_0.5 =3.185ot 10-6ot ( 1+1.296ot 10^5ot B^2/Ne )ot ? N_e/T cm, where Ne is the electron density in cm-3, T the temperature in K, R the distance in cm to the emitter, and B the magnetic field in Gauss. The cut-off at ? _0.5 means that the redshift is 50% of its full value. The theory is based on an overlooked interaction of photons with hot sparse electron plasma. It has been overlooked, because the necessary conditions (high temperature and low densities over extended dimensions) cannot be created in the laboratory. The plasma redshifts help explain: the heating of the transition to the corona, the coronal heating, solar redshifts (which invalidate the equivalence principle), galactic redshifts, the heating of galactic corona, the redshifts of white dwarfs and quasars, the cosmological redshifts, and the recently discovered dimming of distant super nova. This presentation will show how plasma redshift also helps explain the cosmic microwave background.

Brynjolfsson, Ari

2003-04-01

162

US ITER background summary papers  

SciTech Connect

The following brief summaries were prepared by members of the US ITER Home Team to provide background information on the ITER CDA design and in several instances to provide personal observations and suggestions regarding continuation of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA) into the Engineering Design Activities (EDA). The subjects covered represent areas and issues recognized to be important during the CDA and judged important to the initiation and implementation of the ITER EDA. These summaries were prepared to provide a very condensed statement on each issue to permit the reader to grasp quickly the essential material from the CDA based on the judgment of the author. In several instances, the authors also include suggestions regarding the EDA efforts. References to the appropriate ITER documents are included where the reader can find more detail on each subject.

Doggett, J.N. [comp.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Flanagan, C.A. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Post, D.E. [comp.] [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Wesley, J.C. [comp.] [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

1991-05-01

163

Acid rain: a background report  

SciTech Connect

This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to describe the deposition of acidic components through both wet deposition (e.g., rain or snow) and dry deposition (e.g., direct contact between atmospheric constituents and the land, water or vegetation of the earth). Part II presents background information on state agency activities relating to acid rain in Wisconsin, describes what is known about the occurrence of, susceptibility to and effects of acid rain in Wisconsin, and provides information related to man-made sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in Wisconsin. Part III describes major policies and regulations relating to acid rain which have been or are being developed jointly by the United States and Canadian governments, by the United States government and by the State of Wisconsin. Part IV briefly discusses possible areas for Committee action.

Glustrom, L.; Stolzenberg, J.

1982-07-08

164

Smart Mining of Drug Discovery Information: 1. A web service and workflow infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast increase of pertinent information available to drug discovery scientists means that there is strong demand for tools and techniques for organizing and intelligently mining this information for manageable human consumption. At Indiana University, we are developing techniques for \\

Xiao Dong; Kevin Gilbert; Rajarshi Guha; Jungkee Kim; Marlon Pierce; Geoffrey C. Fox; David J. Wild

165

Impact of the U.S. National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS) on Building Energy Performance Simulation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS) started the development of the National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS). Its goal is to define standard sets of data required to describe any given building in necessary detail so that any given AECO industry discipline application can find needed data at any point in the building lifecycle. This will include all data that are used in or are pertinent to building energy performance simulation and analysis. This paper describes the background that lead to the development of NBIMS, its goals and development methodology, its Part 1 (Version 1.0), and its probable impact on building energy performance simulation and analysis.

Bazjanac, Vladimir

2007-08-01

166

Accuracy of sentinel node biopsy in esophageal carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the pertinent literature.  

PubMed

The use of sentinel node surgery for esophageal carcinoma is still under investigation. We evaluated the data available in the literature on this topic, and herein present the results in a systematic review format. PUBMED, SCOPUS, the ISI web of knowledge and the information from the annual meetings of the Japan Esophageal Society were searched using the search terms: "(esophagus OR esophageal) AND sentinel". The outcomes of interest were the detection rate and sensitivity. Overall, 18 studies were included. The pooled detection rate was 89.2 % [82.6-93.5]. Patients with T1 and two tumors had a 17 % higher detection rate compared to those with T3 and four tumors. The pooled sensitivity was 84 % [78-88 %]. The sensitivity was higher for adenocarcinoma compared to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (91 vs. 81 %). In the SCC patients, there was a trend toward decreased sensitivity associated with an increasing tumor depth (T1:88 %, T2:76 %, T3:50 %). Our analysis indicated that sentinel node biopsy is useful in adenocarcinoma patients. For SCC patients, including only cN0 patients (preferably T1 and 2) would increase the detection rate and sensitivity. Due to the limited number of high-quality studies, drawing any more definite conclusions is impossible. Large cohort studies with a standardized and consistent design will be needed in the future. PMID:23715926

Dabbagh Kakhki, Vahid Reza; Bagheri, Reza; Tehranian, Shahrzad; Shojaei, Pardis; Gholami, Hassan; Sadeghi, Ramin; Krag, David N

2013-05-29

167

Background  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular ... patients are at greater risk for serious ... PI contains numerous other risks associated with ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

168

Background  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Problem: You placed a pivotal study under 5.3.1.1, and now you realize it needs to be under 5.3.5.1 y • Solution: – Delete out all the leaf IDs that ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

169

Background  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 11217 CAR.GD2z Activated T cells vs Neuroblastoma. EBV-CTLs. ... 13296 CAR.CD19.CD28z vs Activated T cells CD19+ Lymphoma. CAR.CD19z. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

170

The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention Citation: Hall, R. and Hanna, P. (2004), The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention, Behaviour & Information Technology, forthcoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text\\/background color combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioral intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four color-combination conditions. Major findings were: a) Colors with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater

Richard H. Hall

171

A Brief Background on the Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is intended to provide some background on the basic functions of the human immune system. Please note that this information is by no means comprehensive, and that many of these terms are de ned only in their broadest and least technical sense. Terms in italics are important to understanding the structure of the immune system, and those interested

E. Buchla; L. G. de Pillis; A. E. Radunskaya

172

Beam induced backgrounds: CDF experience  

SciTech Connect

We summarize the experiences of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in the presence of backgrounds originating from the counter circulating beams in the Fermilab Tevatron. These backgrounds are measured and their sources identified. Finally, we outline the strategies employed to reduce the effects of these backgrounds on the experiment.

Tesarek, R.J.; /Fermilab

2008-05-01

173

Information Sharing using Semantic Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—In both the commercial,and,defense sectors a compelling need is emerging for highly dynamic, yet risk op- timized, sharing of information across traditional organizational boundaries. Risk optimal decisions to disseminate mission critical tactical intelligence information to the pertinent actors in a timely manner is critical for a mission’s success. In this paper ,, we,argue that traditionally decision support mechanisms,for information sharing

Achille Fokoue; Mudhakar Srivatsa; Pankaj Rohatgi; Peter Wrobel; John Yesberg

174

Approach for an integrated weather subsystem for an Air Force command and control information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather information for Command and Control (C2) is usually available through separate weather systems, which are not necessarily implemented to satisfy specific C2 requirements for military end users. This paper describes an integrated approach for weather requirements for the Canadian Air Force Command and Control Information System (AFCCIS). Presentations for observations, forecasts, and weather warnings are made based on near real-time data from the Canadian military weather network. Static runway configuration and aircraft performance data are combined with dynamic weather data to obtain limitations for aircraft operations. Pertinent information is presented in graphical form, including the operational status of air bases on a map background. Additionally, data is obtained periodically from another source for the generation of forecast isotachs, jetstreams, isobars, calculation of contrail possibilities, and the detection of fronts. The weather features have been integrated with a prototype candidate component for AFCCIS.

Pille, Valdur

2002-07-01

175

Textured backgrounds alter perceived speed.  

PubMed

Both the luminance contrast of an object, and the nature of the background texture over which it moves, are known to influence its perceived speed. In this study the effect of object contrast upon perceived speed was investigated for targets moving across textured patterns of various contrasts. Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of contrast for objects moving over homogenous backgrounds, that was reduced or abolished if the object moved over a textured background. A further experiment suggested that this reduction may be the result of an increase in target visibility, perhaps as a result of additional 'second order' motion signals produced by motion over texture backgrounds. A final experiment suggested that two processes were occurring: (1) higher contrast backgrounds appeared to increase the perceived speeds of all objects; and (2) that higher contrast backgrounds eliminated the contrast induced changes in perceived speed. PMID:10824266

Blakemore, M R; Snowden, R J

2000-01-01

176

Backgrounds and the High Redshift Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many ways to observe the high redshift universe. One of these is to study backgrounds, from the near infrared to the radio. These backgrounds can give information about the properties of star formation from intermediate redshifts (z 2-4) to high redshifts (z>6). One of the benefits of observing backgrounds is that they trace the star formation that is occurring in the majority of galaxies, not just those bright enough to be seen in high redshift galaxy surveys. I will discuss our recent theoretical work, as well as our analysis and interpretation of observations from the Herschel Space Telescope. Our results includes analysis of the mean intensity, fluctuations, and fractional anisotropy of the backgrounds. This gives information to constrain the epoch of reionization, including the mass of halos responsible for reionization, the escape fraction, and the star formation rate. Furthermore, I will talk about our attempts to resolve the background in the far infrared, and the strength of these observations, including our tests to assess the stability of stacking analysis. Lastly, I will discuss the prospects of future observations.

Fernandez, Elizabeth R.; Iliev, I.; Komatsu, E.; Dole, H.; Shapiro, P.

2012-01-01

177

Lattice QCD in Background Fields  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

2009-06-01

178

Background adaptive multispectral band selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN initial automated band selection algorithm suitable for real-time application with tunable multispectral cameras is presented for multispectral target detection. The method and algorithm were developed from analyses of several background and target signatures collected from a field test using the prototype Tunable Filter Multispectral Camera (TFMC). Target and background data from TFMC imagery were analyzed to determine the detection

Frank J. Crosby; John H. Holloway; V. Todd Holmes; Arthur C. Kenton

2001-01-01

179

Background Television and Reading Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tests G. Armstrong's and B. Greenberg's model of the effect of background television on cognitive performance, applied to reading comprehension and memory. Finds significant deleterious effects of background television, stronger and more consistent effects when testing immediately after reading, and more consistently negative effects resulting…

Armstrong, G. Blake; And Others

1991-01-01

180

Background estimation in experimental spectra  

SciTech Connect

A general probabilistic technique for estimating background contributions to measured spectra is presented. A Bayesian model is used to capture the defining characteristics of the problem, namely, that the background is smoother than the signal. The signal is allowed to have positive and/or negative components. The background is represented in terms of a cubic spline basis. A variable degree of smoothness of the background is attained by allowing the number of knots and the knot positions to be adaptively chosen on the basis of the data. The fully Bayesian approach taken provides a natural way to handle knot adaptivity and allows uncertainties in the background to be estimated. Our technique is demonstrated on a particle induced x-ray emission spectrum from a geological sample and an Auger spectrum from iron, which contains signals with both positive and negative components. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Fischer, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association D-85740 Garching bei Muenchen, (Germany); Hanson, K. M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association D-85740 Garching bei Muenchen, (Germany); Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS P940, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dose, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association D-85740 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Linden, W. von der [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz, (Austria)

2000-02-01

181

Geochemical background - an environmental perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the concept of geochemical background from an environmental perspective. The idea of establishing the typical concentrations of elements in various environmental compartments, proposed by exploratory geochemists almost 50 years ago was important for the detection of anomalous element concentrations, thus providing a basic tool in the search for new mineral deposits. At present, the knowledge of the geochemical background of hazardous elements is essential for: defining pollution, identifying the source of contamination, and for establishing reliable environmental quality criteria for soils, sediments and surface waters. The article presents geochemical methods of evaluation of anthropogenic influence on the environment and discusses the problem of defining and understanding the term "geochemical background" and related terms in environmental sciences. It also briefly presents methods of geochemical background evaluation based on the results of environmental sample analyses. It stresses the role of geochemical background in our understanding of environmental pollution and pollution prevention.

Ga?uszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzis?aw M.

2011-01-01

182

Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2005 and 2006 School Years. National Goals for Schooling. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. First Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to implement changes required by Education Ministers to enrolment forms (and associated data collection and storage processes). This is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the "National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." The…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2004

2004-01-01

183

THEMIS GEONS Background Science and User's Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This userâs guide contains background science and technology information for the magnetometer program across the country known as the Geomagnetic Event Observatory Network by Students (GEONS). It describes the role that terrestrial magnetism plays in shaping a number of important Earth systems. It also explains the basic operating principles behind magnetometers â particularly the system used in the GEONS program. The data from these magnetometers are used in the fourth of four THEMIS teacher guides.

2005-01-01

184

Laboratory Information Management Systems for Forensic Laboratories: A White Paper for Directors and Decision Makers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modern, forensics laboratories need Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) implementations that allow the lab to track evidentiary items through their examination life cycle and also serve all pertinent laboratory personnel. The research present...

A. Hendrickson A. Townsend B. Mennecke K. Scheibe

2005-01-01

185

75 FR 48642 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Tag Recapture Card  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Comment Request; Tag Recapture Card AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric...II. Method of Collection The recapture cards will be sent out to the constituents who will fill in the cards with the pertinent information when...

2010-08-11

186

Earth and Atmosphere Shine Backgrounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews current knowledge of earth and atmosphere shine background radiation. Field measurements accomplished up to 1968 are summarized with references, quoted measurement data and effective spectral radiance values. The relation of the several...

A. J. Grobecker

1968-01-01

187

Impacts of Neuroscience: Background Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The background paper surveys the scientific basis of research on the nervous system, identifies several medical applications, examines some of the social effects, and discusses some of the difficult ethical and political issues that may arise from discove...

1984-01-01

188

Low background techniques in XMASS  

SciTech Connect

The XMASS project aims to detect pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, neutrino-less double beta decay, and dark matter searches using ultra-pure liquid xenon. The first stage of XMASS project is concentrated on dark matter searches using 800 kg liquid xenon detector which requires low background and low threshold. Several techniques applied to XMASS detector for low background will be presented.

Takeda, Atsushi [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, University of Tokyo, 456 Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida, Gifu, 506-1205 (Japan)

2011-04-27

189

Nongeometric fluxes as supergravity backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We consider examples of D=4 string theory vacua which, although globally nongeometric, admit a local description in terms of D=10 supergravity backgrounds. We analyze such backgrounds and find that the supersymmetry spinors vary nontrivially along the internal manifold, reproducing the interpolating supergravity solutions found by Frey and Grana. Finally, we propose a simple, local expression for nongeometric fluxes in terms of the internal spinors of the compactification.

Marchesano, Fernando [ASC, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Munich (Germany); Schulgin, Waldemar [Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

2007-08-15

190

Perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five studies of the background level of several perfluorocarbon compounds in Europe are here presented together with measurements from the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX). The tracers used during the two ETEX tracer releases were the perfluorocarbons (PFCs); perfluoromethylcyclohexane (C7F14, PMCH) and perfluoromethylcyclopentane (C6F12, PMCP). Their background concentrations were detected by using both passive and active sampling techniques, to define the

Anne Grete Straume; Russel N. Dietz; Katrin Nodop

1998-01-01

191

1 CFR 20.5 - Sources of information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources of information. 20.5 Section 20.5 General...GOVERNMENT MANUAL STATEMENTS § 20.5 Sources of information. Pertinent sources of information useful to the public, in areas...

2010-01-01

192

1 CFR 20.5 - Sources of information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2005-01-01 true Sources of information. 20.5 Section 20.5 General...GOVERNMENT MANUAL STATEMENTS § 20.5 Sources of information. Pertinent sources of information useful to the public, in areas...

2009-01-01

193

How do hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background estimate their language skills and their comprehension of medical information - a prospective cross-sectional study and comparison to native patients in Germany to assess the language barrier and the need for translation  

PubMed Central

Background Today more than two million people with Turkish migration background live in Germany making them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Data concerning language skills and the perception of medical information in hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background (T) are scarce. Our study is the first to gather quantitative information on this important subject. Methods T and hospitalised German patients without migration background (G) of our university hospital were prospectively included into a cross-sectional study and completed a questionnaire - each group in the appropriate language (T: Turkish, G: German). Results 121 T and 121 G were included. Groups significantly differed in age (T: 44.9?±?17.8, G: 56.9?±?16.7y) and proportion of males (T: 37.2, G: 54.5%) but not regarding the proportion of college graduates (T: 19.3, G: 15.7%). The majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74% of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73% speak German at work. 74.4% of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as “average” or better while 25.6% reported it as “very bad” or “bad”. 10.7% of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physician’s information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3% of T estimated their reception of the physician’s information to be “average” or worse. 43.3% of T had the impression that it would have helped them “much” or “very much” to be aided by an interpreter at the hospital. The information transmitted while giving informed consent to invasive medical procedure was judged to be “mostly” or “completely” sufficient by the majority of T (76%) and G (89.8%). In this setting 37 of 96 T (38.5%) reported being helped by an interpreter – in most cases (64.9%) a family member. Conclusion Although the majority of patients with Turkish migration background have spent most of their lives in Germany (28.94?±?10.41y) a large part of this population has limited German language skills and difficulties obtaining medical information when hospitalised.

2013-01-01

194

Backgrounds in the NPDGamma Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NPDGamma experiment, which measures the parity-violating directional gamma asymmetry in neutron-proton capture, completed its first run cycle in June at the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source. In the experiment intense polarized low-energy neutron beam interacts with liquid para-hydrogen target. Gamma rays from the capture reaction are detected by 48 CsI(Tl) detectors with the 3? acceptance angle. The goal of the experiment is to measure the asymmetry with precision of 1 x10-8. The polarized neutrons also interact with other materials in the beam windows and the walls of the target vessel producing a background to the signal that dilutes the PV gamma asymmetry and these materials (primarily Aluminum) could, in principle, have their own PV asymmetries. Therefore, it is important to study the backgrounds and their contributions to measured signals. I will discuss the detected backgrounds and their effect on NPDGamma.

Kucuker Dogan, Serpil

2012-10-01

195

Background simulations and shielding calculations  

SciTech Connect

Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

2011-04-27

196

Detector Background at Muon Colliders  

SciTech Connect

Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

197

Exotic Branes and Nongeometric Backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries.

Boer, Jan de; Shigemori, Masaki [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2010-06-25

198

Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.  

PubMed

When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

2010-06-25

199

Image segmentation algorithm based on contourlet transform and background complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In infrared image, the grey distribution of background and target are instability, so it has much difficulty in the target segmentation. In this paper, a novel image segmentation algorithm is presented which is based on Contourlet transform and background complexity. Firstly, using Contourlet transform, the structure information of target and background is obtained. Next, structure similarity of target and background is computed. Finally, through the structure similarity of target and background, segmentation threshold is adjusted adaptively. If the structure similarity of target and background is low, it indicates that background is simple, segmentation threshold is set with the grey information. If the structure similarity of target and background is high, segmentation threshold is set with the structure information. The simulation experiments show that the target can be segmented truly in the complex background environment. The algorithm not only reserves the advantage of the grey segmentation in simple background environment, but overcomes the limitation of the grey segmentation in complex background environment, shows better adaptability than the traditional image segmentation methods.

Li, Xue; Meng, Wei-hua; Xiang, Jingbo

2013-09-01

200

Background television and reading performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted testing Armstrong and Greenberg's (1990) model of the effect of background television on cognitive performance, as it applies to reading comprehension and memory. Subjects completed a cued?recall test of the content of an expository prose passage read under quiet conditions or concurrently with the presence of one of two types of television content (prime?time drama versus

G. Blake Armstrong; Greg A. Boiarsky

1991-01-01

201

Simulation of HEAO 3 background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91 [2], nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database [3], and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) [4] using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, ?-, ?+, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both ?- and ?+. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

Graham, B. L.; Phlips, B. F.; Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.

1997-05-01

202

Simulation of HEAO 3 background  

SciTech Connect

A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91, nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database, and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, {beta}{sup -}, {beta}{sup +}, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both {beta}{sup -} and {beta}{sup +}. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

Graham, B. L. [George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Phlips, B. F. [USRA, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia (United States)

1997-05-10

203

Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

Behrends, Ehrhard

2004-05-01

204

A Little Background Music, Please.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background music could be used to provide a pleasant beginning for the school day, to help keep students quiet and relaxed in the school cafeteria at lunchtime, and to provide a midafternoon lift for bored and tired children. The most effective music pleases children without overly exciting them through jarring rhythms and loud dynamics. (nine…

Giles, Martha Mead

1991-01-01

205

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, provides an overview of how scientists are working to explain the origin of the universe. Specifically, it discusses the two major theories about the origin of the universe (Big Bang and Steady State), the search for microwave background radiation, and the discovery of the first observational evidence to support the Big Bang theory.

206

Background stratospheric aerosol reference model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

McCormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

1989-12-01

207

WFC3/UVIS Sky Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the on-orbit background levels present in WFC3/UVIS full-frame images. The results are based on nearly all standard readout images taken since the installation of WFC3 on HST in May 2009, with a relatively small number of exclusions e.g. images with obvious anomalous backgrounds (such as extended targets filling the field of view) or those taken with the quad filters (different bandpass in each amp). Comparisons are provided to estimates from the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). We anticipate these results to be helpful in fine-tuning the level of post-flash required to achieve the optimum balance of charge transfter efficiency (CTE) loss mitigation versus noise penalty. Observers considering the use of post-flash should refer to the White Paper (MacKenty & Smith 2012) on the CTE WWW page (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/ins_performance/CTE/).

Baggett, Sylvia; Anderson, Jay

2012-06-01

208

MiniCLEAN surface backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

MiniCLEAN is a dark matter experiment using 150kg fiducial mass of liquid cryogen (argon or neon) to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). MiniCLEAN seeks to detect scintillation photons from WIMP-induced argon recoils. A potentially dominant background is from alpha decays on the inner surfaces of the containment vessel. Such events can mimic the prompt signal characteristic of nuclear

Boqian Wang; Richard Schnee

2011-01-01

209

The cosmic infrared background experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extragalactic background, based on absolute measurements reported by DIRBE and IRTS at 1.2 and 2.2?m, exceeds the brightness derived from galaxy counts by up to a factor 5. Furthermore, both DIRBE and the IRTS report fluctuations in the near-infrared sky brightness that appear to have an extra-galactic origin, but are larger than expected from local (z=1–3) galaxies. These observations

James Bock; John Battle; Asantha Cooray; Mitsunobu Kawada; Brian Keating; Andrew Lange; Dae-Hea Lee; Toshio Matsumoto; Shuji Matsuura; Soojong Pak; Tom Renbarger; Ian Sullivan; Kohji Tsumura; Takehiko Wada; Toyoki Watabe

2006-01-01

210

Embryological background for fetal surgery.  

PubMed

Congenital malformations are one of the main topics, which must be addressed in the 21st century. Fetal surgery is expected to become a routine procedure for malformed fetal patients in the near future. This paper presents some important aspects of the embryological background required for fetal surgery and shows normal human embryos between the 4th and the 8th week of development. PMID:11754144

Park, H W

2001-12-01

211

Electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a fully vectorial formalism for the investigation of electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds, i.e., where the scatterers are not in vacuum but situated in a medium with a dielectric permittivity different from unity. Our approach is based on the Green's tensor technique and the corresponding Green's tensors for two-dimensional ~2D! and three-dimensional ~3D! systems are developed. The analysis

Olivier J. F. Martin; Nicolas B. Piller

1998-01-01

212

Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital "De Kijvelanden", were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for other severe crimes. Apart from DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, family backgrounds, level of education, treatment history, intelligence (WAIS scores), and PCL-R scores were included in the comparisons. Furthermore, the apparent motives for the arson offences were explored. It was found that arsonists had more often received psychiatric treatment, prior to committing their index offence, and had a history of severe alcohol abuse more often in comparison to the controls. The arsonists turned out to be less likely to suffer from a major psychotic disorder. Both groups did not differ significantly on the other variables, among which the PCL-R total scores and factor scores. Exploratory analyses however, did suggest that arsonists may differentiate from non-arsonists on three items of the PCL-R, namely impulsivity (higher scores), superficial charm (lower scores), and juvenile delinquency (lower scores). Although the number of arsonists with a major psychotic disorder was relatively low (28%), delusional thinking of some form was judged to play a role in causing arson crimes in about half of the cases (52%). PMID:20434774

Labree, Wim; Nijman, Henk; van Marle, Hjalmar; Rassin, Eric

213

Making maps of the cosmic microwave background: The MAXIMA example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes cosmic microwave background (CMB) data analysis algorithms and their implementations, developed to produce a pixelized map of the sky and a corresponding pixel-pixel noise correlation matrix from time ordered data for a CMB mapping experiment. We discuss in turn algorithms for estimating noise properties from the time ordered data, techniques for manipulating the time ordered data, and a number of variants of the maximum likelihood map-making procedure. We pay particular attention to issues pertinent to real CMB data, and present ways of incorporating them within the framework of maximum likelihood map making. Making a map of the sky is shown to be not only an intermediate step rendering an image of the sky, but also an important diagnostic stage, when tests for and/or removal of systematic effects can efficiently be performed. The case under study is the MAXIMA-I data set. However, the methods discussed are expected to be applicable to the analysis of other current and forthcoming CMB experiments.

Stompor, Radek; Balbi, Amedeo; Borrill, Julian D.; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Hanany, Shaul; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Lee, Adrian T.; Oh, Sang; Rabii, Bahman; Richards, Paul L.; Smoot, George F.; Winant, Celeste D.; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

2002-01-01

214

49 CFR 172.527 - Background requirements for certain placards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.527...the requirements of § 172.519 for minimum durability and strength, the square background must consist of a white square...

2012-10-01

215

49 CFR 172.527 - Background requirements for certain placards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.527...the requirements of § 172.519 for minimum durability and strength, the square background must consist of a white square...

2011-10-01

216

14 CFR 1203.200 - Background and discussion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false...Background and discussion. 1203.200 Section 1203.200 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY...

2013-01-01

217

Cuba: Background to a Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)|

De La Fuente, Alejandro

2000-01-01

218

Korean Basic Course: Area Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

219

Trial SNAPSHOT: measurements for terrain background characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and spectral characteristics of targets and backgrounds must be known and understood for a wide variety of reasons such as: synthetic scene simulation and validation; target description for modelling; in- service target material characterisation and background variability assessment. Without this information it will be impossible to design effective camouflage systems and to maximise the capabilities of new sensors. Laboratory measurements of background materials are insufficient to provide the data required. A series of trials are being undertaken in the UK to quantify both diurnal and seasonal changes of a terrain background, as well as the statistical variability within a scene. These trials are part of a collaborative effort between the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK), Defence Clothing and Textile Agency (UK) and the T.A.C.O.M. (USA). Data are being gathered at a single site consisting primarily of south facing mixed coniferous and deciduous woodland, but also containing uncultivated grassland and tracks. Ideally each point in the scene needs to be characterized at all relevant wavelengths but his is unrealistic. In addition there are a number of important environmental variables that are required. The goal of the measurement programme is to acquire data across the spectrum from 0.4 - 14 microns. Sensors used to include visible band imaging spectroradiometers, telespectroradiometers (visual, NIR, SWIR and LWIR), calibrate colour cameras, broad band SWIR and LWIR imagers and contact reflectance measurement equipment. Targets consist of painted panels with known material properties and a wheeled vehicle, which is in some cases covered with camouflage netting. Measurements have bene made of the background with and without the man- made objects present. This paper will review the results to date and present an analysis of the spectral characteristics fo different surfaces. In addition some consideration will be given to the implications of the data obtained for camouflage design.

Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Mitchell, Alistair A.; Bell, Christopher R.; Thomas, David J.; Evans, Roger

2000-07-01

220

Heritage Learners in the Chinese Language Classroom: Home Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies from information-processing and language comprehension research have reported that background knowledge facilitates reading and writing. By comparing Chinese language development of heritage students who had home background in Chinese language and culture with those who did not, this study found that heritage learners did significantly better than their non-heritage counterparts in speaking, listening, grammar, and sentence constructions, but not

Yun Xiao

221

Heritage Learners in the Chinese Language Classroom: Home Background  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies from information-processing and language comprehension research have reported that background knowledge facilitates reading and writing. By comparing Chinese language development of heritage students who had home background in Chinese language and culture with those who did not, this study found that heritage learners did significantly…

Xiao, Yun

2006-01-01

222

User's manual for the Gas Research Institute coal-gasification environmental, health, and safety information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

GRI has developed an information system to provide member companies and other participating researchers access to a carefully screened collection of technical information relevant to controlling potential environmental, health, and safety (EHandS) impacts of coal gasification. The information system does not contain data, but rather a short review of that data or other information, and a rating of its pertinent

G. E. Brown; N. P. Meserole; J. Esh-Sheikh

1985-01-01

223

Illicit drug knowledge and information-seeking behaviours among elite athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Many sporting organisations in Australia conduct drug information seminars for their athletes; however, it is uncertain whether these programs provide athletes with pertinent drug information in formats that are conducive to information retention. The aims of the current study were to investigate self-reported confidence in knowledge of illicit drugs and information seeking behaviours among elite athletes. Methods: Data were

Johanna O. Thomas; Matthew Dunn; Wendy Swift; Lucinda Burns

2011-01-01

224

Information retrieval at the millenium.  

PubMed Central

Information retrieval systems were among the first medical informatics applications, yet their use has changed substantially in this decade with the growth of end-user computers and the Internet. While early challenges revolved around how to increase the amount of information available in electronic form, more recent challenges center on how to manage the growing volume. Traditional information retrieval issues--such as how to organize and index information to make it more retrievable as well as how to evaluate the effectiveness of systems--are still as pertinent as ever.

Hersh, W.

1998-01-01

225

A decision support system for secure information sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In both the commercial and defense sectors a compelling need is emerging for highly dynamic, yet risk optimized, sharing of information across traditional organizational boundaries. Risk optimal decisions to disseminate mission critical tactical intelligence information to the pertinent actors in a timely manner is critical for a mission's success. In this paper1, we argue that traditionally decision support mechanisms for

Achille Fokoue; Mudhakar Srivatsa; Pankaj Rohatgi; Peter Wrobel; John Yesberg

2009-01-01

226

UICDS-based information sharing among emergency response application systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential requirements of effective emergency management and response include pertinent information sharing across various government agencies as well as non-governmental and private organizations to assess the situation, identify the needed resources for emergency response and generate response plans. Interoperability is a key requirement for information sharing from disparate systems and organizations, such as the case in emergency response. In

Vijay Atluri; Basit Shafiq; Soon Ae Chun; Ghulam Nabi; Jaideep Vaidya

2011-01-01

227

Towards Ontology-driven Knowledge Synthesis for Heterogeneous Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information integration enables delivery of the right information to the right user in a timely manner giving manufacturers\\u000a a competitive edge in today’s global manufacturing market. However, as enterprise information is usually aggregated from a\\u000a variety of heterogeneous information sources, without using an adequate integration framework it is difficult to extract pertinent\\u000a information and apply current knowledge to assessing production

Robin G. Qiu

2006-01-01

228

Recognizing foreground-background interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can the background affect a foreground target in distant, low-quality imagery? If it does, it might occur in our mind, or perhaps it may represent a snapshot of our early vision. An affirmative answer, one way or another, may affect our current understanding of this phenomena and potentially for related applications. How can we be sure about this in the psycho-physical sense? We begin with the physiology of our brain's homeostasis, of which an isothermal equilibrium is characterized by the minimum of Helmholtz isothermal Free Energy: A = U - T0S >= 0, where T0 = 37°C, the Boltzmann Entropy S = KB1n(W), and U is the unknown internal energy to be computed.

Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

2010-04-01

229

Gauging the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect

We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behavior of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behavior. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behavior. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

Zibin, J. P.; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2008-12-15

230

Low background aspects of GERDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in 76Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from 222Rn. The main source of 222Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq 228Th.

Simgen, Hardy

2011-04-01

231

Backgrounder: Council on Foreign Relations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations provides a number of services for the general public, and in the past they have offered up public discussions, forums, and other outreach activities. In addition, they offer the "Backgrounders" series, which offer succinct explanations of current political and economic issues. First-time users can visit the "Most Recent" area to peruse the latest piece, or they can click on the "Daily Analysis" or "Daily Brief" sections. The profiles cover everything from the role of delegates in the U.S. presidential nominating process to understanding Kenya's politics. Also, visitors can click on complementary materials, such as podcasts, interactive features, and online debates. Finally, visitors can also search for specific materials via the search engine offered here.

232

Low background aspects of GERDA  

SciTech Connect

The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-04-27

233

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

234

Deleterious background selection with recombination  

SciTech Connect

An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Hudson, R.R. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kaplan, N.L. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-12-01

235

Information literacy during entry to practice: Information-seeking behaviors in student nurses and recent nurse graduates.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The ability to locate information pertinent to guide clinical practice is important for quality nursing care and patient safety. To date, little is known about the transfer of information literacy skills as student nurses transition to clinical practice as new graduates. This study begins to address this gap from the perspective of student nurses, recent nurse graduates (RNs), nurse leaders and library staff. OBJECTIVES: To describe the information-seeking behaviors of student nurses and RNs within their clinical settings. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a descriptive study that included both cross-sectional surveys and key informant interviews. Participants were senior-level undergraduate students and recently graduated RNs (graduated since 2008), and nurse leaders and library staff employed in one of the clinical sites accepting undergraduate students from the McMaster Mohawk and Conestoga BScN program. The study was completed in two large hospital corporations in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Student nurses and RNs were invited to complete online surveys to assess their access to and use of information sources and resources within clinical practice. Students completed a survey comprised of five open-ended questions, while RNs completed a survey comprised of 13 fixed choice and open-ended questions. Nurse leaders and library staff participated in qualitative interviews to verify the extent and availability of information resources. RESULTS: Eighteen RNs and 62 students completed their respective surveys. Three categories of information sources and resources were identified: electronic, print and interpersonal. Electronic sources of information were the most used resource by both students and RNs. More RNs reported using interpersonal sources, while students reported using more print sources of information. CONCLUSIONS: Recent RN graduates meet the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing performance indicators related to information access for the entry to practice Nursing Informatics competencies. PMID:23664089

Wahoush, Olive; Banfield, Laura

2013-05-01

236

Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants: Background Information for Promulgated Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standards of performance for the control of particulate matter emissions from nonmetallic mineral processing plants are being promulgated under the authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. These standards apply to new, modified, or reconstructed fac...

J. R. Farmer

1985-01-01

237

Fiscal Year 2006 Budget Summary and Background Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2006 U.S. President's budget request of $56.0 billion in discretionary appropriations for the Department of Education (ED), represents a decrease of $529.6 million, or 0.9 percent, from the 2005 level. Even after this small decrease, the Federal investment in education will have grown substantially over the past five years, with discretionary…

US Department of Education, 2005

2005-01-01

238

US Uranium Mining Industry: Background Information on Economics and Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U sub 3 O sub 8 production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion represe...

G. A. Bruno J. A. Dirks P. O. Jackson J. K. Young

1984-01-01

239

Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities: Background Information for Promulgated Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standards of performance to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from new and reconstructed synthetic fiber production facilities are being promulgated under the authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. This document contains a deta...

1984-01-01

240

Background Information concerning Miami-Dade Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven essays are presented that deal with the students, instruction, and administration of Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC). First, John Losak considers the M-DCC student population since 1969, providing data on ethnicity, age of students, male/female enrollments, foreign student enrollments, program diversity, skill level of enrolling…

Losak, John; And Others

241

Polymer Manufacturing Industry - Background Information for Proposed Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standards of performance for the control of volatile organic compound emissions from the polymer manufacturing industry are being proposed under the authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. These standards would apply to new, modified, and reconstru...

1985-01-01

242

US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions  

SciTech Connect

A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

1984-03-01

243

Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Data analysis for the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be complicated by the huge number of sources in the LISA band. In the frequency band {approx}10{sup -4}-2x10{sup -3} Hz, galactic white dwarf binaries (GWDBs) are sufficiently dense in frequency space that it will be impossible to resolve most of them, and ''confusion noise'' from the unresolved Galactic binaries will dominate over instrumental noise in determining LISA's sensitivity to other sources in that band. Confusion noise from unresolved extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) could also contribute significantly to LISA's total noise curve. To date, estimates of the effect of LISA's confusion noise on matched-filter searches and their detection thresholds have generally approximated the noise as Gaussian, based on the central limit theorem. However in matched-filter searches, the appropriate detection threshold for a given class of signals may be located rather far out on the tail of the signal-to-noise probability distribution, where a priori it is unclear whether the Gaussian approximation is reliable. Using the Edgeworth expansion and the theory of large deviations, we investigate the probability distribution of the usual matched-filter detection statistic, far out on the tail of the distribution. We apply these tools to four somewhat idealized versions of LISA data searches: searches for EMRI signals buried in GWDB confusion noise, and searches for massive black hole binary signals buried in (i) GWDB noise, (ii) EMRI noise, and (iii) a sum of EMRI noise and Gaussian noise. Assuming reasonable short-distance cutoffs in the populations of confusion sources (since the very closest and hence strongest sources will be individually resolvable), modifications to the appropriate detection threshold, due to the non-Gaussianity of the confusion noise, turn out to be quite small for realistic cases. The smallness of the correction is partly due to the fact that these three types of sources evolve on quite different time scales, so no single background source closely resembles any search template. We also briefly discuss other types of LISA searches where the non-Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds could perhaps have a much greater impact on search reliability and efficacy.

Racine, Etienne [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Cutler, Curt [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

2007-12-15

244

BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of experiments and has gradually yielded up answers to the deepest questions about the origin of our Universe. Most recently, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has made a full-sky analysis of the pattern of temperature and polarization variations that helped establish a new standard cosmological model, confirmed the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and provided strong evidence that there was an epoch of primordial inflation. Ruth Durrer's book reflects the importance of the CMB for future developments in this field. Aimed at graduate students and established researchers, it consists of a basic introduction to cosmology and the theory of primordial perturbations followed by a detailed explanation of how these manifest themselves as measurable variations in the present-day radiation field. It then focuses on the statistical methods needed to obtain accurate estimates of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and finishes with a discussion of the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB and on the evolution of its spectrum. The book apparently grew out of various lecture notes on CMB anisotropies for graduate courses given by the author. Its level and scope are well matched to the needs of such an audience and the presentation is clear and well-organized. I am sure that this book will be a useful reference for more senior scientists too. If I have a criticism, it is not about what is in the book but what is omitted. In my view, one of the most exciting possibilities for future CMB missions, including Planck, is the possibility that they might discover physics beyond that which the current standard model can describe. 'Thinking outside the box' has become a cliché, but it is what graduate students should be encouraged to do. For example, the standard cosmological model entails the assumption, motivated by the simplest theories of inflation, that the primordial density fluctuations are described by Gaussian statistics. The detection of any deviations from Gaussian behaviour in the radiation field would therefore offer us an exciting window into the detailed physics of inflation or other departures from the standard model. Although primordial non-Gaussianity is an extremely active subject of contemporary cosmological research, it is barely mentioned in this book. This is a regrettable omission in an otherwise commendable volume.

Coles, Peter

2009-08-01

245

Data Collection and Analyses Pertinent to EPA's Development of Guidelines for Procurement of Highway Construction Products Containing Recovered Materials. Volume I: Issues and Technical Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this study is to prepare a base of quantitative and qualitative information relating to the writing of guidelines for government procurement of four catagories of recovered materials which are suitable for use in highway construct...

1981-01-01

246

Extragalactic background light and extragalactic magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VHE ?-rays from distant blazars several hundred Mpc away are attenuated through pair production interactions on extragalactic background light (EBL). Subsequent to their generation, electron/positron pairs proceed to produce ?-rays through IC interactions leading to the development of an electromagnetic (EM) cascade. Due to the deflection of VHE cascade electrons by extragalactic magnetic fields (EGMF), the spectral shape of this arriving ?-ray emission is dependent on the strength of the EGMF. The GeV-TeV spectral shape of blazars has, thus, the potential to probe the EGMF strength along the line of sight to the object. Focusing on the specific example cases of the blazar 1ES 0229+200 and PKS 2155-304, bounds on the EGMF are obtained using both the spectral and angular observational information from the these two blazars.

Taylor, Andrew M.

2012-12-01

247

Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background: Theory  

SciTech Connect

Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I online some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The spectrum of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions.

Dodelson, S.

1998-02-01

248

Model-Directed Information Systems for Management of the Federal Courts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To satisfy the diverse information needs of federal courts, a family of information management systems was developed, based upon formal mathematical models of judicial case processing embedded in interactive data base information systems for case tracking and caseload management. These case processing models embodied pertinent federal rules of procedure, regulatory statutes, and local rules of procedure as adopted by individual

Jack R. Buchanan; Richard D. Fennell

1981-01-01

249

Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN) - Other Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN) is dedicated to improving Earth system literacy through increased communication and collaboration among providers of informal Earth system education. The collection is designed for museum professionals (educators, exhibits designers, developers) as a resource of ideas, tools, traveling exhibits and online materials. The resources are web portals to organizations providing substantial informal Earth system science education. They describe educational programming, resources and exhibits that are pertinent to an informal educator.

250

Bayesian rule-based complex background modeling and foreground detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting foreground objects from image sequences has played an important role in many machine vision applications. Background modeling, which is a preliminary processing step for foreground detection, is a challenging task due to the complexity and variety of background regions, unexpected situations, and image artifacts such as noise factors, impairments, etc. In this work, we propose a pixel-based background modeling method that uses nonparametric kernel density estimation and foreground/background classification based on the Bayesian decision rule. To reduce the complexity of the kernel density estimation technique, we estimate the probability density function for the background regions using histograms. Hue, saturation, and value (HSV) color and gradient information is also used to represent the background features. After the background statistics are estimated, we detect the foreground regions by using a background subtracting method based on the Bayesian decision rule, which eliminates the need to select and tune the threshold value for foreground/background region classification. The proposed algorithm is validated using datasets acquired in indoor and outdoor environments with a fixed camera. The proposed algorithm is quantitatively compared with two existing background modeling methods. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm produces more accurate and stable results.

Park, Jong Geun; Lee, Chulhee

2010-02-01

251

Survey of the Target Audience for the Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS), with a Review of Pertinent Research Studies. A Report to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide information on the target audience for the Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS), a television series being developed by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, interviews were conducted with a small national sample of potential viewers. The main focus of the study was an examination of the social-psychological aspects of a decision…

Center for Urban Education, New York, NY.

252

A Region-Level Motion-Based Background Modeling and Subtraction Using MRFs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to automatic segmentation of the foreground objects from the sequence of images by integrating techniques of background subtraction and motion-based segmentation. At first, a background model is built to represent information of both color and motion of the background scene. Based on temporal and spatial information, an initial partition of each image is obtained.

Shih-shinh Huang; Li-chen Fu; Pei-yung Hsiao

2005-01-01

253

The effect of background cuing on prey detection.  

PubMed

Studies of prey detection have typically focused on how search image affects the capture of cryptic items. This study also considers how background vegetation influences cryptic prey detection. Blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata, searched digitized images for two Catocala moths: C. ilia, which is cryptic on oak, and C. relicta, which is cryptic on birch. Some images contained moths while others did not. The ability of blue jays to detect prey during repeated presentations of one prey type within a session was compared with their performance during randomly alternating presentations of both prey types within a session to examine search-image formation under two background conditions (informative and ambiguous). In the informative background condition, both trees in the image were of the same species and therefore, the background was a reliable indicator of which prey type might be present. In the ambiguous background condition, there was one tree of each species in the image and either prey type could be present. The results indicate that: (1) a search-image effect was observed only for the more cryptic prey type and only when the background was informative; (2) as accuracy on prey images (those with moths) increased, response latency remained unchanged; (3) performance on nonprey images (those without moths) was primarily determined by the difficulty of searching the background and not by the prey type in the accompanying prey images; and (4) search-image effects disappeared with extended practice. These results suggest that the ability to detect prey is influenced by background and that the presence of either multiple backgrounds or multiple prey types interferes with search-image formation. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790707

Kono; Reid; Kamil

1998-10-01

254

Non-parametric Model for Background Subtraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background subtraction is a method typically used to segment moving regions in image sequences taken from a static camera\\u000a by comparing each new frame to a model of the scene background. We present a novel non-parametric background model and a background\\u000a subtraction approach. The model can handle situations where the background of the scene is cluttered and not completely static

Ahmed M. Elgammal; David Harwood; Larry S. Davis

2000-01-01

255

Data analysis of cosmic microwave background experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a powerful tool for determining and constraining the fundamental properties of our universe. In this thesis we present various computational and statistical techniques used to analyze datasets from CMB experiments, and apply them to both simulated and actual datasets. The algorithms presented in this thesis perform a variety of tasks in relation to the goal of extracting scientific information from CMB data sets. The CMB anisotropy power spectrum is sensitive to numerous parameters that determine the evolutionary and large scale properties of our universe. Now that numerous experiments have mapped the CMB intensity fluctuations on overlapping regions of the sky it is important to ensure that the various experiments are indeed observing the same signal. We cross-correlate the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy maps from the WMAP, MAXIMA-I, and MAXIMA-II experiments. The results conclusively show that the three experiments not only display the same statistical properties of the CMB anisotropy, but also detect the same features wherever the observed sky areas overlap. We conclude that the contribution of systematic errors to these maps is negligible and that MAXIMA and WMAP have accurately mapped the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. Due to a quadrapole anisotropy at last scattering it is predicted that the CMB photons should be linearly polarized, and that the polarization intensity will be roughly an order of magnitude lower than the intensity fluctuations. Two computationally intensive methods for simulating the CMB polarization signal on the sky are presented. Now that CMB polarization experiments are currently producing data sets new algorithms for analyzing polarization time stream data must be developed and tested. We demonstrate how to generate simulations of a polarization experiment in the temporal domain and apply these simulations to the MAXIPOL case. We develop a maximum likelihood map making algorithm and apply it to the temporal simulations to generate simulated MAXIPOL temperature and polarization maximum likelihood maps, and the pixel noise correlation matrix. We show that the output from the map making code is in agreement with the expected results. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Abroe, Matthew Edmund

2004-12-01

256

Fluctuations In The Cosmic Infrared Background Using the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clustering properties of faint unresolved sources may be probed by examining the anisotropies they create in the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB). Using information from fluctuations in the CIB at different wavelengths allows us to disentangle how clustering relates to redshift. In this talk, preliminary measurements of clustering using data from the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER), a rocket-borne experiment designed to detect the signatures of unresolved infrared galaxies during reionization, will be discussed. The CIBER payload contains four instruments including two wide field imagers designed to measure fluctuations in the near IR cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.0 and 1.6 microns on scales between 0.2 and 100 arcmin in both bands, where the clustering of high-redshift sources is expected to peak. CIBER observations may be combined with Akari/NEP and Spitzer/NDWFS near-infrared surveys to check systematic errors and to fully characterize the electromagnetic spectrum of CIB fluctuations.

Smidt, Joseph; Arai, T.; Battle, J.; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Frazer, C.; Hristov, V.; Keating, B.; Kim, M.; Lee, D.; Mason, P.; Matsumoto, T.; Mitchell-Wynne, K.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Smith, A.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

2012-01-01

257

Quality Determinants of Mammography. Clinical Practice Guideline Number 13; High Quality Mammography: Information for Referring Providers. Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians Number 13; Things to Know About Quality Mammograms. A Woman's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guideline addresses quality issues concerning mammography, the primary tool for the early detection of breast cancer. Information is presented that is pertinent to each health professional and to the woman having mammography. Several steps are involv...

1994-01-01

258

22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...appropriate measures to ensure that a child background study is performed that includes information about the child's identity, adoptability, background, social...history (including that of the child's family), and any special...

2013-04-01

259

22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appropriate measures to ensure that a child background study is performed that includes information about the child's identity, adoptability, background, social...history (including that of the child's family), and any special...

2010-04-01

260

22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appropriate measures to ensure that a child background study is performed that includes information about the child's identity, adoptability, background, social...history (including that of the child's family), and any special...

2009-04-01

261

Extending the Information Commons: From Instructional Testbed to Internet2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's conceptualization of an Information Commons (IC) is revisited and elaborated in reaction to Bailey and Tierney's article. The IC's role as testbed for instructional support and knowledge discovery is explored, and progress on pertinent research is reviewed. Prospects for media-rich learning environments relate the IC to the…

Beagle, Donald

2002-01-01

262

Case-based conceptual design information server for concurrent engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual design requires processing information from diverse sources in order to define the functional requirements, operating constraints, and evaluation criteria pertinent to accomplishing a prescribed goal. This goal has traditionally been focused on the functionality of an artifact to be provided to a customer. Concurrent engineering redefines this focus to account for the concerns of 'customers' not previously considered -

William H. Wood III; Alice M. Agogino

1996-01-01

263

Toward a New Horizon in Information Science: Domain-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This programmatic article formulates a new approach to information science: domain analysis. Highlights include a literature review of pertinent research; transdisciplinary tendencies in the understanding of knowledge, including artificial intelligence; domain analysis compared to other theories, including the cognitive approach; and examples of…

Hjorland, Birger; Albrechtsen, Hanne

1995-01-01

264

True cosmic microwave background power spectrum estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum is a powerful cosmological probe as it entails almost the entire statistical information of CMB perturbations. Having access to only one sky, the CMB power spectrum measured by our experiments is only a realization of the true underlying angular power spectrum. We aim to recover the true underlying CMB power spectrum from the one realization that we have without knowing the cosmological parameters. Methods: The sparsity of the CMB power spectrum is first investigated in two dictionaries; discrete cosine transform (DCT) and wavelet transform (WT). The CMB power spectrum can be recovered with very few coefficients in these two dictionaries and hence is very compressible. Results: We studied the performance of these dictionaries in smoothing a set of simulated power spectra. Based on this, we developed a technique that estimates the true underlying CMB power spectrum from data, i.e., without a need to know the cosmological parameters. Conclusions: This smooth estimated spectrum can be used to simulate CMB maps with similar properties as the true CMB simulations with the correct cosmological parameters. This allows us to perform Monte Carlo simulations in a given project without having to know the cosmological parameters. The developed IDL code, TOUSI, for theoretical power spectrum using sparse estimation, will be released with the next version of ISAP.

Paykari, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Fadili, M. J.

2012-05-01

265

Fluctuations in the Extragalactic Background Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to apply statistical analyses to archival WFPC2 images in order to obtain important new constraints on the physical nature and clustering of the extragalactic background light {EBL}. Fluctuations in the EBL contain a wealth of information about the evolution and clustering of the population of faint galaxies and cosmology. Deep CCD images obtained by Tyson and others reveal a population of faint blue objects which may compromise a significant fraction of the EBL, but their nature is poorly understood. The integrated flux from galaxies to B=27 accounts for only 1/10 to 1/4 of the upper limits on the optical EBL. Multi-band deep WFPC2 images obtained as part of several programs are of the requisite quality to examine the properties of the light not assigned with high significance to discrete sources. At a redshift z 0.5, each WFPC2 field yields a 0.5h^-1 Mpc scale glimpse of the universe. If the EBL is clustered as strongly as the detected faint galaxies, the fluctuations will be strong enough to be detected; a null result would likewise be a significant discovery.

Szalay, Alexander

1995-07-01

266

32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

2013-07-01

267

Acoustic Background of BN-600 Steam Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper the results of acoustic background for BN-600 steam generator in nominal operating conditions are presented. The 1-200 kHz acoustic background of evaporator and reheater modules are given. (ERA citation 13:053691)

V. S. Yugai L. N. Naboichenkov V. N. Zhukovets V. I. Ivannikov V. V. Vylomov

1986-01-01

268

Sky Radiance Distributions for Thermal Imaging Backgrounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Background Measurements and Analysis program (BMAP) is a program of measurement and analysis of background scenes appropriate to generic infrared imaging systems. A computer code has been made available to NACIT (Naval Academic Center for Infrared Tec...

A. Kotsis

1987-01-01

269

A background-free direction-sensitive neutron detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show data from a new type of detector that can be used to determine neutron flux, energy distribution, and direction of neutron motion for both fast and thermal neutrons. Many neutron detectors are plagued by large backgrounds from x-rays and gamma rays, and most current neutron detectors lack single-event energy sensitivity or any information on neutron directionality. Even the

Alvaro Roccaro; H. Tomita; S. Ahlen; D. Avery; A. Inglis; J. Battat; D. Dujmic; P. Fisher; S. Henderson; A. Kaboth; G. Kohse; R. Lanza; J. Monroe; G. Sciolla; N. Skvorodnev; H. Wellenstein; R. Yamamoto

2009-01-01

270

Issue Backgrounder : Downstream Fish Migration : Improving the Odds of Survival.  

SciTech Connect

Background information is given on the problems caused to anadromous fish migrations, especially salmon and steelhead trout, by the development of hydroelectric power dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Programs arising out of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and conservation Act of 1980 to remedy these problems and restore fish and wildlife populations are described. (ACR)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1985-05-01

271

The Case of Sydney's Tainted Food Scandal: Background and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds are of major economic and social importance in the Sydney basin, producing 90% of Sydney's perishable vegetables. Although most are unable to read English, all technical information, including that for pesticide use, is only available in English. Despite many attempts to influence policy, such as through the formation of the NSW Premier's Taskforce

Frances Parker

272

Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy's FY2011 budget proposes canceling the CG(X) program as unaffordable and instead building an improved version of the Arleigh Burke (DDG- 51) class Aegis destroyer called the Flight III version. This report provides background information on the C...

R. O'Rourke

2010-01-01

273

Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)|

Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

1988-01-01

274

Community Colleges and Low Income Populations: A Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a background paper prepared for the conference "Community Colleges and Low Income Populations: Lessons from Research... Priorities for Policy." The paper sets out the framework that informs the conference. The author seeks to answer the question: What strategies, practices, and policies are needed if community colleges are to help people…

Kazis, Richard

275

Ghana: Background and U.S. Relations (February 14, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This short report, which will be updated as events warrant, provides background information on current developments in Ghana and U.S. bilateral relations with Ghana. In mid-February 2008, President and Mrs. Bush are slated to travel to five African countr...

N. Cook

2008-01-01

276

Research Libraries and Collection Development: Background, Methods, and Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This examination of the past and present states of collection development in the research library covers background information, theories, and associated problems. A historical review of methods that have been and are currently being used for collection development includes discussions of the changes imposed by World War II on the practice of…

Buschman, John

277

Alpha radioactive background in BGO crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe some cases of unusual internal radioactive background in BGO crystals. Routinely produced at the Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry during nearly a quarter of a century, BGO crystals have low radioactive background caused by 207Bi contamination. However, some BGO crystals incidentally have higher internal radioactive background with activity up to 10 Bq/kg. This background is pure alpha radioactivity. It is caused by 210Po contamination and has technogenic origin.

Grigoriev, D. N.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kuznetcov, G. N.; Novoselov, I. I.; Schotanus, P.; Shavinski, B. M.; Shepelev, S. N.; Shlegel, V. N.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.

2010-11-01

278

Natural-background-oriented schlieren imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) flow visualization method has the potential for large-scale flow imaging outside the laboratory by using natural backgrounds instead of the artificial patterns normally used indoors. The natural surroundings of an outdoor test site can sometimes be used as such a background, subject to criteria of fine scale, randomness and contrast that are developed here. Some natural

Michael John Hargather; Gary S. Settles

2010-01-01

279

Background radiation: natural and man-made  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief overview and comparison is given of dose rates arising from natural background radiation and the fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Although there are considerable spatial variations in exposure to natural background radiation, it is useful to give estimates of worldwide average overall exposures from the various components of that background. Cosmic-ray secondaries of low linear energy

M C Thorne

2003-01-01

280

Gravitational wave background in inflationary models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of a gravitational wave (GW) background is a generic feature of inflationary models. This background, of quantum origin, covers a huge range of frequencies and is undistinguishable today on large cosmological scales from a classical stochastic background. We review some of its properties in different models including more sophisticated Broken Scale Invariance (BSI) models. .

Polarski, David

2001-02-01

281

Cultural Background and Second Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knubb?Manninen, G. 1988. Cultural Background and Second Language Acquisition. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 32, 93?100. The article examines – on the basis of a research study carried out in Swedish?speaking schools in Finland – the significance that cultural conditions, such as gender and social background, have for second language learning. A model with gender and social background serving as

1988-01-01

282

The object and background hypothesis for vection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulus attributes effective in inducing vection can be generalized by the object and background hypothesis, that is, properties that belong to ‘objects’ weaken vection while those of the ‘background’ enhance vection. We presented a motion-defined Rubin’s vase to induce vection. Results clearly indicated that the background dominantly induced vection. We further demonstrated that motion stimuli that had a property of

Takeharu Seno; Hiroyuki Ito; Shoji Sunaga

2009-01-01

283

Evaluation of Local Models of Dynamic Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background subtraction is the first step of many video surveillance applications. What is considered background varies by application, and may include regular, systematic, or complex motions. This paper explores the use of several different local spatio-temporal models of a background, de- fined at each pixel in the image. We present experiments with real image data and conclude that appropriate local

Robert Pless; John Larson; Scott Siebers; Ben Westover

2003-01-01

284

Assessing ACS/WFC Sky Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report compares the on-orbit sky background levels present in Cycle 18 ACS/WFC fullframe images against estimates provided by the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). Backgrounds of over ~20 e- can alleviate charge-transfer efficiency (CTE) losses, which especially affect low S/N sources. HST observers can use these estimates to anticipate the natural background that should be present in their exposures, and can then determine whether they want to supplement that background with a post-flash to improve the CTE - at the cost of more background noise.

Sokol, Josh; Anderson, Jay; Smith, Linda

2012-07-01

285

Pertinent spatio-temporal scale of observation to understand sediment yield control factors in the Andean Region: the case of the Santa River (Peru)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydro-sedimentology development is a great challenge in Peru due to limited data as well as sparse and confidential information. Consequently, little is known at present about the relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), precipitation, runoff, land use and the sediment transport dynamics. The aim of this paper is to bridge this gap in order to quantify and understand the signal of magnitude and frequency of the sediment fluxes from the central western Andes; also, to identify the main erosion control factor and its relevance. The Tablachaca River (3132 km2) and the Santa River (6815 km2), two mountainous Andean catchments that are geographically close to each other, both showed similar statistical daily rainfall and discharge variability but high contrast in sediment yield (SY). In order to investigate which factors are of importance, the continuous water discharge and hourly suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) of the Santa River were studied. Firstly, the specific sediment yield (SSY) at the continental Andes range scale for the Pacific side is one of the highest amounts (2204 t km2 yr-1). Secondly, no relationship between the water discharge (Q) and El Niño/La Niñ a events is found over a 54 yr time period. However, the Santa Basin is highly sensitive during mega Niños (1982-1983 and 1997-1998). Lastly, dispersed micro-mining and mining activity in specific lithologies are identified as the major factors that control the high SSY. These remarks make the Peruvian coast key areas for future research on Andean sediment rates.

Morera, S. B.; Condom, T.; Vauchel, P.; Guyot, J.-L.; Galvez, C.; Crave, A.

2013-01-01

286

What are the pertinent quality-of-life issues for melanoma cancer patients? Aiming for the development of a new module to accompany the EORTC core questionnaire.  

PubMed

Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the impact of melanoma on the quality of life (QoL) of patients. Only two clinically validated QoL instruments have been reported in the literature. The present study has identified contemporary QoL issues during a time of great change for melanoma treatment, as a precursor to an international study to develop a new melanoma-specific QoL instrument. Twenty-two melanoma patients (American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I-IV) and 10 close family members were recruited from a metropolitan tertiary referral clinical and research centre in Sydney, Australia, to participate in interview or focus group discussions. Verbatim transcripts of these recorded interviews were systematically analysed. Seventy-three issues across seven health-related QoL domains were identified. Issues across three domains featured highly; psychosocial, availability of support and information. Given the current rapid evolution of systemic therapies for melanoma, the challenges associated with treatment choices and clinical trial participation were also highlighted in this sample. Although some issues were generic in nature, experienced by many cancer patients, this study revealed that the wide range and intensity of QoL issues reported by melanoma patients are not adequately evaluated in current QoL instruments. With the increasing importance of patient reported outcome measurement, this list has been transformed into questionnaire items, in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life Group, for testing a new melanoma-specific QoL module for use with the EORTC core questionnaire (QLQ-C30). PMID:23358427

Winstanley, Julie B; White, Edward G; Boyle, Frances M; Thompson, John F

2013-04-01

287

Natural-background-oriented schlieren imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) flow visualization method has the potential for large-scale flow imaging outside the\\u000a laboratory by using natural backgrounds instead of the artificial patterns normally used indoors. The natural surroundings\\u000a of an outdoor test site can sometimes be used as such a background, subject to criteria of fine scale, randomness and contrast\\u000a that are developed here. Some natural

Michael John Hargather; Gary S. Settles

2010-01-01

288

The object and background hypothesis for vection.  

PubMed

Stimulus attributes effective in inducing vection can be generalized by the object and background hypothesis, that is, properties that belong to 'objects' weaken vection while those of the 'background' enhance vection. We presented a motion-defined Rubin's vase to induce vection. Results clearly indicated that the background dominantly induced vection. We further demonstrated that motion stimuli that had a property of an object could not induce vection efficiently. Investigating vection in the framework of the object and background hypothesis provides a unified point of view for understanding vection stimuli. PMID:19782099

Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji

2009-09-24

289

Current status of federal involvement in US aquaculture. Background paper  

SciTech Connect

The United States lacks a strong national aquaculture policy and supporting federal presence. Over the years, levels and focii of agency involvement in aquaculture development have shifted in response to legislation and its differing interpretations. The National Aquaculture Act (NAA), the primary piece of aquaculture-related legislation, is slated for reauthorization of the NAA and related legislation is the federal role in research and regulation of this emerging industry. Congress requested this Background Paper to provide information on technology issues of immediate importance to the U.S. aquaculture industry. This is a companion piece to the Background Paper on Selected Technology Issues in U.S. Aquaculture.

NONE

1995-09-01

290

Spyware: Background and Policy Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The term 'spyware' generally refers to any software that is downloaded onto a computer without the owner's or user's knowledge. Spyware may collect information about a computer user's activities and transmit that information to someone else. It may change...

P. M. Figliola

2009-01-01

291

Social Background and School Continuation Decisions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a model of the relationship between social background and school continuation decisions among White males born between 1900 and 1950. The model predicts a decline in the effects of social background by the last school transition. Reprint available from Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. (AM)|

Mare, Robert D.

1980-01-01

292

Initial Result of the Army Background Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army Background Experiment was commissioned in April 1987 to measure the space neutron background near the Earth. It was launched aboard the LACE spacecraft in February 1990 and has operated flawlessly since turn on. All overview of the experiment and...

W. C. Feldman G. F. Auchampaugh E. R. Shunk

1985-01-01

293

Audio-Video Integration for Background Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new concept of surveillance, namely, audio-visual data integration for background modelling. Actually, visual data acquired by a fixed camera can be easily supported by audio infor- mation allowing a more complete analysis of the monitored scene. The key idea is to build a multimodal model of the scene background, able to promptly detect single auditory or

Marco Cristani; Manuele Bicego; Vittorio Murino

2004-01-01

294

Social Background, Composition and Educational Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the impact of changes in family background on grade-level attainment for White males between 1907-1951. Findings show that the effects of social background on grade attainment decrease with increasing levels of attainment. Reprint available from Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI 53706. (AM)

Mare, Robert D.

1979-01-01

295

Effect of background noise on food perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of auditory background noise on the perception of gustatory food properties (sugar level, salt level), food crunchiness and food liking. Participants blindly consumed different foods whilst passively listening to either no sound, or quiet or loud background white noise. The foods were then rated in terms of sweetness, saltiness and liking (Experiment 1) or in terms

A. T. Woods; E. Poliakoff; D. M. Lloyd; J. Kuenzel; R. Hodson; H. Gonda; J. Batchelor; G. B. Dijksterhuis; A. Thomas

2011-01-01

296

Startle Reaction: Modification by Background Acoustic Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six rats were exposed to a sequence of gunshot-like acoustical bursts during silence, during steady noise, and during pulsed noise. Assessment of their startle reactions to the bursts revealed that a background of steady noise enhanced the response, whereas a background of pulsed noise produced suppression of response. It is hypothesized that pulsed noise causes a relative refractory state in

Howard S. Hoffman; Morton Fleshler

1963-01-01

297

On the background stratospheric aerosol layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balloon-borne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in investigating the stratospheric sulfate layer in Wyoming in 1978 and 1979, a two-year volcanically quiescent period during which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period suggests that the actual decay rate of volcanic

D. J. Hofmann; J. M. Rosen

1981-01-01

298

Modeling ambient background in complex detection scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation detection instrumentation is being widely deployed as a countermeasure against the movement and use of radiological dispersal devices and nuclear weapons. Accurate ambient background modeling is critical for accurate simulation of detection scenarios of interest; these background source terms influence minimum detectable limits and are thus a significant factor in overall system performance. Described below are the methods used

Scott D. Kiff; Leon E. Smith; Kenneth D. Jarman

2007-01-01

299

Background Tabs 1.0.1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extension for Firefox allows visitors to cut down on their battery usage, which can be quite useful. Background Tabs suspends actions in background tabs until they become active again and it is quite easy to use. This version is compatible with computers running Firefox 6.0.

Palant, Wladimir

2012-05-12

300

Recent experience with backgrounds at the SLC  

SciTech Connect

During the 1990 SLC/Mark II runs, machine backgrounds visible in the new vertex detectors were studied. These detectors had active elements at radii from 3 to 17 cm and were subjected to backgrounds unique to linear colliders. We describe recent progress in identifying sources and developing control techniques. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Jacobsen, R.; Band, H.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.; Brown, K.; Burke, D.; Coupal, D.; DeStaebler, H.; Fujino, D.; Hearty, C.; Hertzbach, S.; Jaros, J.; Maruyama, T.; Tauchi, T.; Toge, N.; Turk, J.; Wagner, S.; Zeitlin, C.

1991-05-01

301

Effects of buckyballs and cosmic strings on the cosmic microwave background  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis consists of two Cosmic Microwave Background related projects: a simulation of an anomalous foreground component, and a search for a distinct background signature. The Cosmic Microwave Background forms one of the three major pillars of support for the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe, and is an important source of information about the early universe.

Amy Shiu-Mei Lo

2005-01-01

302

Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

Not Available

1993-04-01

303

Interferometry of the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the Very Small Array (VSA) and review the recent results on the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) obtained in the Ka-band (? ? 33 GHz) with this instrument. This array has covered an ?-range of 150 to 1500 with a relatively high resolution in ? compared to previous measurements at ?? 1000; this is achieved by using mosaiced observations in 7 regions covering a total of approximately 82 sq. degrees. Our resolution of ? ? ? 60 between ?=300 and ? = 1500 allows the first 3 acoustic peaks to be identified. Contamination by extragalactic radiosources brighter than 20 mJy has been taken into account by simultaneously monitoring identified sources with a high resolution interferometer. In addition, it has been performed a statistical correction for the small residual contribution from weaker sources that are below this flux limit. There is good agreement between the VSA power spectrum and that obtained by WMAP and other higher resolution experiments like ACBAR and CBI. We have set constraints on cosmological parameters using VSA data and combinations with other CMB data and external priors. Within the flat ?CDM model, the combined VSA+WMAP data without external priors gives ?_{b}h^2=0.0234^{+0.0012}_{-0.0014}, ?_{dm}h^2=0.111^{+0.014}_{-0.016}, h=0.73^{+0.09}_{-0.05}, n_{S}=0.97^{+0.06}_{-0.03}, 10^{10}A_{S}=23^{+7}_{-3} and ?=0.14^{+0.14}_{-0.07}. We also find evidence for a running spectral index of density fluctuations, n_{run}=-0.069± 0.032 at a level of more than 95% confidence. However, inclusion of prior information from the 2dF galaxy redshift survey reduces the significance of the result. When a general cosmological model with 12 parameters is considered we find consistency with other analyses available in the literature. The evidence for n_{run}<0 is only marginal within this model. The fraction of dark matter in neutrinos is constrained to f_{?}< 0.087 (95% confidence limit) which implies that m_?<0.32 eV if all the three neutrino species have the same mass.

Rebolo, R.; Vsa Consortium.

2004-09-01

304

The efficiency of reading around learned backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most metrics of medical image quality typically treat all variability components of the background as a Gaussian noise process. This includes task based model observers (non-prewhitening matched filter without and with an eye filter, NPW and NPWE; Hotelling and Channelized Hotelling) as well as Fourier metrics of medical image quality based on the noise power spectra. However, many investigators have observed that unlike many of the models/metrics, physicians often can discount signal-looking structures that are part of the normal anatomic background. This process has been referred to as reading around the background or noise. The purpose of this paper is to develop an experimental framework to systematically study the ability of human observers to read around learned backgrounds and compare their ability to that of an optimal ideal observer which has knowledge of the background. We measured human localization performance of one of twelve targets in the presence of a fixed background consisting of randomly placed Gaussians with random contrasts and sizes, and white noise. Performance was compared to a condition in which the test images contained only white noise but with higher contrast. Human performance was compared to standard model observers that treat the background as a Gaussian noise process (NPW, NPWE and Hotelling), a Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter, and an ideal observer. The Hotelling, NPW, NPWE models as well as the Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter predicted higher performance for the white noise test images than the background plus white noise. In contrast, ideal and human performance was higher for the background plus white noise condition. Furthermore, human performance exceeded that of the NPW, NPWE and Hotelling models and reached an efficiency of 19% relative to the ideal observer. Our results demonstrate that for some types of images human signal localization performance is consistent with use of knowledge about the high order moments of the backgrounds to discount signal-looking structures that belong to the background. In such scenarios model observers and metrics that either ignore the background or treat the background as a Gaussian process (Hotelling, Channelized Hotelling, Task-based SNR) under predict human performance.

Eckstein, Miguel P.; Pham, Binh T.; Abbey, Craig K.; Zhang, Yani

2006-03-01

305

Background Rejection for the MAJORANA Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MAJORANA project is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment based on the use of high purity, enriched, ^76Ge crystals housed in ultra low background Cu cryostats as both the source ans the detector. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the experiment, the collaboration is currently building a demonstrator consisting of up to 30 kg of enriched High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors and 10 kg of natural HPGe detectors. These detectors, which will take a P-type Point Contact (PPC) geometry, are designed to maximise performance in terms of energy resolution and background rejection efficacy. In order to achieve the background goal of 1 count per tonne-year in a 4 keV wide region of interest around the 2039 keV neutrinoless double beta decay Q-value, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will be constructed using ultra-clean materials and will employ sophisticated background rejection techniques. One such technique, which is key to achieving this background goal, is the ability to distinguish between single-site events from neutrinoless double beta decay and multiple-site events resulting from background gamma rays. This will be achieved through analysis of the digitised signal response of the HPGe detectors. The physics goals of the MAJORANA experiment will be discussed, along with the roles played by digital electronics and digital pulse processing techniques. Details of key background rejection algorithms will also be presented.

Cooper, Reynold

2011-10-01

306

Background Subtraction Approach based on Independent Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

In this work, a new approach to background subtraction based on independent component analysis is presented. This approach assumes that background and foreground information are mixed in a given sequence of images. Then, foreground and background components are identified, if their probability density functions are separable from a mixed space. Afterwards, the components estimation process consists in calculating an unmixed matrix. The estimation of an unmixed matrix is based on a fast ICA algorithm, which is estimated as a Newton-Raphson maximization approach. Next, the motion components are represented by the mid-significant eigenvalues from the unmixed matrix. Finally, the results show the approach capabilities to detect efficiently motion in outdoors and indoors scenarios. The results show that the approach is robust to luminance conditions changes at scene.

Jimenez-Hernandez, Hugo

2010-01-01

307

Sources of the Radio Background Considered  

SciTech Connect

We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

2011-08-22

308

Gravitational wave background from rotating neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background of gravitational waves produced by the ensemble of rotating neutron stars (which includes pulsars, magnetars, and gravitars) is investigated. A formula for ?(f) (a function that is commonly used to quantify the background, and is directly related to its energy density) is derived, without making the usual assumption that each radiating system evolves on a short time scale compared to the Hubble time; the time evolution of the systems since their formation until the present day is properly taken into account. Moreover, the formula allows one to distinguish the different parts of the background: the unresolvable (which forms a stochastic background or confusion noise, since the waveforms composing it cannot be either individually observed or subtracted out of the data of a detector) and the resolvable. Several estimations of the background are obtained, for different assumptions on the parameters that characterize neutron stars and their population. In particular, different initial spin period distributions lead to very different results. For one of the models, with slow initial spins, the detection of the background by present or planned detectors can be rejected. However, other models do predict the detection of the background, that would be unresolvable, by the future ground-based gravitational wave detector ET. A robust upper limit for the background of rotating neutron stars is obtained; it does not exceed the detection threshold of two cross-correlated Advanced LIGO interferometers. If gravitars exist and constitute more than a few percent of the neutron star population, then they produce an unresolvable background that could be detected by ET. Under the most reasonable assumptions on the parameters characterizing a neutron star, the background is too faint to be detected. Previous papers have suggested neutron star models in which large magnetic fields (like the ones that characterize magnetars) induce big deformations in the star, which produce a stronger emission of gravitational radiation. Considering the most optimistic (in terms of the detection of gravitational waves) of these models, an upper limit for the background produced by magnetars is obtained; it could be detected by ET, but not by BBO or DECIGO. Simple approximate formulas to characterize both the total and the unresolvable backgrounds are given for the ensemble of rotating neutron stars, and, for completion, also for the ensemble of binary star systems.

Rosado, Pablo A.

2012-11-01

309

Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation  

SciTech Connect

Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.

Burr, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

310

Low background physics at the Kimballton Mine  

SciTech Connect

The Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) is home to several experiments. One consists to two HPGe detectors designed to screen candidate materials to be used in low-background experiments for radioactivity. Analysis techniques, including our efficiency calculations will be presented. We have also deployed a customized BEGe (Broad Energy Germanium) detector in a low-background cryostat. This paper will focus on the shield design, detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a detector in a low-background environment.

MacMullin, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-04-27

311

Employee Privacy at Workplaces: Some Pertinent Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employee privacy at the workplace is an issue of debate worldwide. With data security and other organizational interests becoming paramount, the employee rights for privacy and freedom is curtailed. This paper explores the underlying factors that contribute to violation of workplace privacy, the factors that affect how workplace privacy is defined, and debates on how privacy notions change based on

Krishnan Sandeep K; Biju Varkkey; Raghavan Anush

312

OTTER experiments pertinent to CADE-10  

SciTech Connect

This Argonne report serves as a companion to our CADE-10 paper. To fulfill promises made in that paper, we include here detailed proofs in clause notation, input files compatible with OTTER, and explanations for our choice of approach. We also include certain of the original and unpublished proofs (of Winker) that answered four open questions, two in equivalent calculus and two in the R-calculus. The organization parallels that of our CADE-10 paper. 34 refs.

Wos, L.; Winker, S.; McCune, W.; Overbeek, R.; Lusk, E.; Stevens, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Butler, R. (University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL (USA))

1991-02-01

313

Cancer caregivers information needs and resource preferences.  

PubMed

This study sought to characterize the need for information about personal psychosocial care, providing direct care, and managing care among cancer caregivers and to explore preferred resources for caregiving information. Data come from cross-sectional telephone interviews of 1,247 family caregivers, which included 104 cancer caregivers. A majority of cancer caregivers expressed one or more information need for each of the three content categories. Four out of ten caregivers expressed needing information about managing physical and emotional stress. A significantly higher percentage of male caregivers reported needing more information pertinent to providing direct care than females. Heightened objective burden was significantly associated with caregivers preferring to receive information from health professionals than informal sources (e.g., Internet), while the opposite was found among caregivers with lower objective burden. These findings suggest that specific types of information and resources may be most relevant to specific subgroups of cancer caregivers. PMID:23553000

Longacre, Margaret L

2013-06-01

314

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2013-01-01

315

Dyonic branes and linear dilaton background  

SciTech Connect

We study dyonic solutions to the gravity-dilaton-antisymmetric form equations with the goal of identifying new p-brane solutions on the fluxed linear dilaton background. Starting with the generic solutions constructed by reducing the system to decoupled Liouville equations for certain values of parameters, we identify the most general solution whose singularities are hidden behind a regular event horizon, and then explore the admissible asymptotic behaviors. In addition to known asymptotically flat dyonic branes, we find two classes of asymptotically nonflat solutions which can be interpreted as describing magnetically charged branes on the electrically charged linear dilaton background (and the S-dual configuration of electrically charged branes on the magnetically charged background), and uncharged black branes on the dyonically charged linear dilaton background. This interpretation is shown to be consistent with the first law of thermodynamics for the new solutions.

Clement, Gerard; Leygnac, Cedric [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique LAPTH (CNRS), B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Gal'tsov, Dmitri [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique LAPTH (CNRS), B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Department of Theoretical Physics, Moscow State University, 119899, Moscow (Russian Federation); Orlov, Dmitri [Department of Theoretical Physics, Moscow State University, 119899, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-02-15

316

14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

2013-01-01

317

14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

2012-01-01

318

16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CB BASE STATION ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background...contacted powerlines with CB base station and outside TV antennas while putting these antennas up or taking...

2013-01-01

319

Target detection against narrow band noise backgrounds.  

PubMed

We studied the detectability of narrow band random noise targets embedded in narrow band random noise backgrounds as a function of differences in center frequency, spatial frequency bandwidth and orientation bandwidth between target and the immediately adjacent background. Unlike most target detection experiments the targets were not added to the background; they replaced the underlying background texture. Simulations showed that target detection probabilities could be accounted for by a simple transformation on the summed outputs of a two layer filter model similar to the complex channels model proposed by Graham, Beck and Sutter (Graham, N., Beck, J., & Sutter, A. (1992). Vision Research, 32, 719-743). Subsequently, the model was tested on the detection of camouflaged vehicle targets with encouraging results. PMID:10343801

Cannon, M W; Reese, G J; Fullenkamp, S C

1999-06-01

320

Background Document for Joint Meeting of Advisory ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Background Document for Joint Meeting of Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs and the Drug Safety ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

321

March 2, 2011: TPSAC Background Materials  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... March 2, 2011: TPSAC Background Materials. ... Summary of Briefing Package Contents: -Revised versions of Chapters 1 and 2 of the Menthol Report. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/tobaccoproductsscientificadvisorycommittee

322

32 CFR 770.42 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

2013-07-01

323

32 CFR 770.17 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

2013-07-01

324

New Dietary Ingredients in Dietary Supplements - Background ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... New Dietary Ingredients in Dietary Supplements - Background for Industry. ... When to Notify FDA and What is a New Dietary Ingredient. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/dietarysupplements/newdietaryingredientsnotificationprocess

325

Background and Update on June 9, 2009 ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 3 Background • Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder can ... Pharmacologic intervention is an integral part of treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

326

32 CFR 770.27 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

2013-07-01

327

FDA Background for Colon Cancer Endpoints Workshop  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. FDA Background for Colon Cancer Endpoints Workshop ... I. FDA examination of endpoints for cancer drug approval ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

328

Foreground-Background Segmentation of Video Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic segmentation of foreground from background in video sequences has attracted lots of attention in computer vision. Two different implementations have been completed during the summer. The first one is known as \\

Yi Wang; Pietro Perona; Claudio Fanti

329

23 CFR 777.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background...1977 Comp., p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A, 1 Preservation of the Nation's Wetlands, emphasize the important...

2013-04-01

330

32 CFR 770.49 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington...770.49 Background. (a) Puget Sound Naval Shipyard is a major...interruption. Additionally, most of Puget Sound Naval Shipyard is dedicated...

2013-07-01

331

Experiences with active cosmic background suppression  

SciTech Connect

The dominant source of background in a bare germanium gamma-ray detector is natural radiation originating from potassium, uranium, and thorium decay in the laboratory environment and from cosmic rays. Most of the background is removed by surrounding the detector with lead shielding, which is commonly 20 cm thick. In a well-shielded detector, the largest contributor to the integral counting rate is cosmic rays, and to a lesser extent beta particles from {sup 210}Pb. Most of the counting rate in the continuum is due to highly penetrating muons. Many of the characteristic peaks in the background also originate from fast tertiary neutrons of cosmic-ray origin, which generate neutron activation products or create gamma rays from inelastic scattering in materials of the detector and shield. Very massive shielding is required to remove this penetrating component of background; we have found a fivefold reduction in the cosmic components by moving the detector into a laboratory 20 m underground. However, lacking an underground lab, we have attempted to use active shielding to reduce the background of a Ge detector located above ground. The guard detector is a proportional counter forming a roof 23 cm above the detector. The counter is placed inside the lead shielding to reduce it`s background counting rate.

Lindstrom, R.M.; Lamaze, G.P.

1994-12-31

332

Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

Willshire, K. F.

1984-01-01

333

Characterizing gravitational wave stochastic background anisotropy with pulsar timing arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting a stochastic gravitational wave background, particularly radiation from individually unresolvable supermassive black hole binary systems, is one of the primary targets for pulsar timing arrays. Increasingly more stringent upper limits are being set on these signals under the assumption that the background radiation is isotropic. However, some level of anisotropy may be present and the characterization of the gravitational wave energy density at different angular scales carries important information. We show that the standard analysis for isotropic backgrounds can be generalized in a conceptually straightforward way to the case of generic anisotropic background radiation by decomposing the angular distribution of the gravitational wave energy density on the sky into multipole moments. We introduce the concept of generalized overlap reduction functions which characterize the effect of the anisotropy multipoles on the correlation of the timing residuals from the pulsars timed by a pulsar timing array. In a search for a signal characterized by a generic anisotropy, the generalized overlap reduction functions play the role of the so-called Hellings and Downs curve used for isotropic radiation. We compute the generalized overlap reduction functions for a generic level of anisotropy and pulsar timing array configuration. We also provide an order of magnitude estimate of the level of anisotropy that can be expected in the background generated by supermassive black hole binary systems.

Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Sidery, T.; Mandel, I.; Vecchio, A.

2013-09-01

334

Background nitrogen concentrations in fresh waters in Denmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative information on the background loading of nitrogen is important when establishing the pressure-impact pathway for Danish springs, streams, lakes and estuaries The background nitrogen loading thus determines present day lowest nitrogen loadings without influence from point sources and agriculture but includes present day atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. We have mapped the background concentration of nitrogen in Danish soil water, springs and streams based on monitoring in one soil water station (1990-2010), 11 springs, 7 small streams draining undisturbed catchments (1990-2010) and 19 streams draining small undisturbed catchments (2004-11). The concentration of ammonium-N (NH4+) and organic N was found to be nearly constant within six major landscape types in Denmark, respectively, 0.05 mg ± 0.06 mg N L-1 and 0.53 mg ± 0.29 mg N L-1. On contrary, the concentration of nitrate-nitrite-N (NO3- + NO2-) was found to vary between 0.06-0.83 mg N L-1 within the six landscape types. We have also time series of background total nitrogen concentrations from 7 small undisturbed catchments covering the period 1990-2010. No significant trends have been observed for total nitrogen concentrations from these streams during the period 1990-2010. The measured average nitrate-N concentrations in streams has been modelled against dominant landscape geology and a 5x5 km grid map of Denmark showing background concentrations of nitrate-N and total N has been produced. This map has been used during the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive as a baseline for estimating background nitrogen losses to surface waters in Denmark. Thus, the average annual background loss of total nitrogen amounts to 13,000 tonnes N or 20% of the total loading of nitrogen from the Danish land to sea during the period 2005-2009.

Windolf, Jørgen; Bøgestrand, Jens; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Kronvang, Brian

2013-04-01

335

Gravitational wave background from Population III binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Current star formation models imply that the binary fraction of Population III stars is non-zero. The evolution of these binaries must have led to the formation of compact object binaries. Aims: We estimate the gravitational wave background originating in these binaries and discuss its observability. Methods: The properties of the Population III binaries are investigated using a binary population synthesis code. We numerically model the background and take into account the evolution of eccentric binaries. Results: The gravitational wave background from Population III binaries dominates the spectrum below 100 Hz. If the binary fraction is larger than 10-2, the background will be detectable by Einstein Telescope (ET), Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), and DECi-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO). Conclusions: The gravitational wave background from Population III binaries will dominate the spectrum below 100 Hz. The instruments LISA, ET, and DECIGO should either see it easily or, in the case of non-detection, provide very strong constraints on the properties of the Population III stars.

Kowalska, I.; Bulik, T.; Belczynski, K.

2012-05-01

336

Geochemical background--concept and reality.  

PubMed

The definitions and use of the term 'background' in exploration and environmental geochemistry are reviewed. Based on data from two subcontinental-scale geochemical mapping projects, it is shown that trying to define 'a background' for a large area is fraught with problems. It is demonstrated that background may change from area to area within a region and between regions. Although global averages are of general use, no specific global background levels of elements, for example in soils, can be defined, at best regional or local operational estimates can be made, though with caveats. Using background estimates based on concentrations in deeper soil levels to judge element concentrations in upper soil horizons (e.g., the TOP/BOT-ratio) can lead to severe misinterpretations if natural biogeochemical soil formation processes are ignored. Because of large natural variations in element concentrations in, for example soils, even the establishment of maximum admissible concentration based on ecotoxicological investigations is a difficult exercise. Organisms may become adapted to natural differences. Furthermore, there are challenges in converting the concentrations of the soluble substances used in ecotoxicological studies to appropriate levels in solid phase material, for example soils, analysed by commonly employed acid digestion procedures. Toxicological thresholds may thus also need to consider a spatial component that is presently neglected. PMID:15890388

Reimann, Clemens; Garrett, Robert G

2005-11-01

337

Serving Citizens with Special Needs. New Libraries Can Enrich Lives and Fulfill Aspirations for the Elderly and the Handicapped, the Functionally Illiterate, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, the Homebound and Inmates of Correctional Institutions. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet describes varieties of public library services and programs geared to fulfilling the information needs of older adults, the physically handicapped, the illiterate, ethnic minorities, and others requiring survival information essentials.

E. N. Layne

1980-01-01

338

Background compensation for a radiation level monitor  

DOEpatents

Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

Keefe, D.J.

1975-12-01

339

Cosmological origin of anomalous radio background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ARCADE 2 collaboration has reported a significant excess in the isotropic radio background, whose homogeneity cannot be reconciled with clustered sources. This suggests a cosmological origin prior to structure formation. We investigate several potential mechanisms and show that injection of relativistic electrons through late decays of a metastable particle can give rise to the observed excess radio spectrum through synchrotron emission. However, constraints from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, on injection of charged particles and on the primordial magnetic field, present a challenge. The simplest scenario is with a gtrsim9 GeV particle decaying into e+e- at a redshift of z ~ 5, in a magnetic field of ~ 5?G, which exceeds the CMB B-field constraints, unless the field was generated after decoupling. Decays into exotic millicharged particles can alleviate this tension, if they emit synchroton radiation in conjunction with a sufficiently large background magnetic field of a dark U(1)' gauge field.

Cline, James M.; Vincent, Aaron C.

2013-02-01

340

Modeling Ambient Background in Complex Detection Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Radiation detection instrumentation is being widely deployed as a countermeasure against the movement and use of radiological dispersal devices and nuclear weapons. Accurate ambient background modeling is critical for accurate simulation of detection scenarios of interest; these background source terms influence minimum detectable limits and are thus a significant factor in overall system performance. Described below are the methods used to characterize ambient background source terms in the at-sea maritime cargo container environment, how statistical distributions on those source terms are defined, and how the resulting radiation fields are calibrated using available measurement data from aboard large ocean-going ships. Although the maritime environment is the demonstration case study, these methods are broadly applicable to modeling of all complex detection scenarios.

Kiff, Scott D.; Smith, Leon E.; Jarman, Kenneth D.

2008-08-01

341

Discrimination of recoil backgrounds in scintillating calorimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha decay of 210Po is a dangerous background to rare event searches. Here, we describe observations related to this alpha decay in the Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST). We find that lead nuclei show a scintillation light yield in our CaWO crystals of 0.0142±0.0013 relative to electrons of the same energy. We describe a way to discriminate this source of nuclear recoil background by means of a scintillating foil, and demonstrate its effectiveness. This leads to an observable difference in the pulse shape of the light detector, which can be used to tag these events. Differences in pulse shape of the phonon detector between lead and electron recoils are also extracted, opening the window to future additional background suppression techniques based on pulse shape discrimination in such experiments.

Lang, R. F.; Angloher, G.; Bauer, M.; Bavykina, I.; Bento, A.; Brown, A.; Bucci, C.; Ciemniak, C.; Coppi, C.; Deuter, G.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Hauff, D.; Henry, S.; Huff, P.; Imber, J.; Ingleby, S.; Isaila, C.; Jochum, J.; Kiefer, M.; Kimmerle, M.; Kraus, H.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Malek, M.; McGowan, R.; Mikhailik, V. B.; Pantic, E.; Petricca, F.; Pfister, S.; Potzel, W.; Pröbst, F.; Roth, S.; Rottler, K.; Sailer, C.; Schäffner, K.; Schmaler, J.; Scholl, S.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.; Tolhurst, A. J. B.; Usherov, I.; Westphal, W.

2010-02-01

342

Low-background direct readout array performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and evaluation of an integrated array of antimony-doped silicon detectors is described. The spectral range of extrinsic silicon-integrated arrays useful for low-background IR astronomical applications is extended to about 31 microns with this development. The 58 x 62-element array is accessed by a direct readout multiplexer. The device is evaluated with a flexible microcomputer-based drive and readout electronics system in a low-background test dewar. Acceptance testing indicates single-pixel NEPs in the mid-10 to the -18th W/sq rt Hz range, and good global uniformity statistics.

Goebel, J. H.; McKelvey, M. E.; McCreight, C. R.; Anderson, G. M.

1986-01-01

343

Contacts & Information Sources  

Cancer.gov

PLCO Background Information about PLCO Sponsoring Organization Participants/Eligibility PLCO Extended Follow-Up Etiology and Early Marker Studies Cancer Data Access System PLCO Publications Contacts & Information Sources PLCO participants who

344

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS...information, engineering analysis of...scenarios, and laboratory tests, the Consumer Product Safety Commission...top of recessed electrical light...

2013-01-01

345

32 CFR 264.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Technical Information for Defense Purposes with Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The agreements, which...

2013-07-01

346

February 10, 2011: TPSAC Background Materials  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Page Last Updated: 02/08/2011 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/tobaccoproductsscientificadvisorycommittee

347

40 CFR 90.422 - Background sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...may be produced by drawing a sample during the collection phase...For analysis of the individual sample described in paragraph (a...All readings taken during the data logging period must be stable...background concentrations in the sample bag(s) with...

2012-07-01

348

Family Backgrounds of Emotionally Disturbed Chil dren  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on family backgrounds of 32 children and adolescents who were patients in one mental hospital in a midwestern state. Parent figures, all of whom lived in rural areas, were interviewed and data from hospital records obtained to examine possible association between problems of children and problems of their families. Family stress and a lack of family unity

Virginia M. Moxley; Nancy J. White; Stephan R. Bollman

1973-01-01

349

Realtime background subtraction from dynamic scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problem of moving object detection. More precisely, it addresses the difficult scenarios where background scene textures in the video might change over time. In this paper, we formulate the problem mathematically as minimizing a constrained risk functional motivated from the large margin principle. It is a generalization of the one class support vector machines (1-SVMs) to

Li Cheng; Minglun Gong

2009-01-01

350

Possible Manifestations of the Graviton Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible effects are considered which would be caused by a hypothetical superstrong interaction of photons or massive bodies with single gravitons of the graviton background. If full cosmological redshift magnitudes are caused by the interaction, then the luminosity distance in a flat non-expanding universe as a function of redshift is very similar to the specific function which fits supernova cosmology

Michael A. Ivanov

2001-01-01

351

Background Document: Bagasse Combustion in Sugar Mills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a background document in support of the contents of Section 1.8 of AP-2, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Second Edition. It concerns the major criteria pollutants emitted during the combustion of bagasse (a fiberous waste product in...

R. Baker T. F. Lahre

1977-01-01

352

Building Background Knowledge within Literature Circles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors examined the strength of literature circles in developing background knowledge--an acknowledged sticking point in the development of understanding for middle graders--with a special focus on the literature circle role of "investigator," where it is student initiative and not teacher direction that guides comprehension. Observing…

Barone, Diane; Barone, Rebecca

2012-01-01

353

Computer Software & Intellectual Property. Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This background paper reviews copyright, patent, and trade secret protections as these issues are related to computer software. Topics discussed include current issues regarding legal protection for computer software including the necessity for defining intellectual property, determining what should or should not be protected, commerical piracy,…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

354

CEO Educational Background and Firm Financial Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents the first attempt to empirically examine the relationship between Chief Executive Officer (CEO) educational background and firm financial performance. Using a relatively broad sample of 390 U.S. firms, we find no significant evidence that firms with CEOs who hold graduate degrees and or liberal arts undergraduate degrees have significantly better financial performance than other firms. Furthermore, using

Aron A. Gottesman; Matthew R. Morey

355

THE TEMPERATURE OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer data are independently recalibrated using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data to obtain a cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature of 2.7260 +- 0.0013. Measurements of the temperature of the CMB are reviewed. The determination from the measurements from the literature is CMB temperature of 2.72548 +- 0.00057 K.

Fixsen, D. J. [University of Maryland, Goddard Space Flight Center, MD (United States)

2009-12-20

356

On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of \\AdS_4\\times S^7 and find that it is isomorphic to \\mathfrak{osp}(1|32) . We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to \\AdS_4 \\times S^7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simón, Joan

2009-02-01

357

Family background and leaving the parental home  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the influence of the family background on the transition to leaving parental home for the first time is studied. The focus lies on the influences of a number of explanatory determinants in the field of family structure and family characteristics and on the differences in these effects for men and women. A distinction is made between individuals

Marjolein Blaauboer; Clara H. Mulder

358

Background to Risk Analysis. Vol. 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an intr...

J. R. Taylor

1979-01-01

359

Background to Risk Analysis. Vol. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques, described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an int...

J. R . Taylor

1979-01-01

360

FBOS - Foreground/Background Operating System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A batch operating system is converted to a Foreground/Background Operating System (FBOS) for use on a Varian 620/f Minicomputer system. Entry to port no. 1 (the foreground) is via an interrupt generating graphics console facilitating user interaction with...

D. J. Turner

1974-01-01

361

ESTIMATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples from hazardous waste site investigations frequently come from two or more statistical populations. Assessment of "background" levels of contaminants can be a significant problem. This problem is being investigated at the US EPA's EMSL in Las Vegas. This paper describes a ...

362

WMAP: Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site discusses the cosmic microwave background, radiation left over from the Big Bang. Particular emphasis is upon tiny fluctuations in the temperature of the radiation, which are believed to reflect fluctuations in the density of matter in the early universe.

363

32 CFR 763.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES GOVERNING PUBLIC ACCESS Entry Regulations for Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii § 763.3 Background. (a) Kaho'olawe Island is used by the armed forces of the United States as a...

2013-07-01

364

Results on perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of Perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Austria are presented, which were taken at the beginning of 1994 in preparation for the European Tracer Experiment ETEX. Two very different weather regimes, a mild westerly current and a continental spell with easterly air flow, were chosen to comprise a variety of weather situations. The concentrations obtained are generally higher than those from

Katrin Nodop

1997-01-01

365

Parental backgrounds of Otago medical students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To investigate the background of medical students admitted to the Otago Medical School (OMS) in terms of their parents' occupations, socioeconomic status and education, and to assess how this has been affected by the introduction of substantial tuition fees. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data on the occupations and education of the parents of all successful New

Christopher Heath; Christan Stoddart; Hadrian Green

366

Geographical information systems and tropical medicine  

PubMed Central

In terms of their applicability to the field of tropical medicine, geographical information systems (GIS) have developed enormously in the last two decades. This article reviews some of the pertinent and representative applications of GIS, including the use of such systems and remote sensing for the mapping of Chagas disease and human helminthiases, the use of GIS in vaccine trials, and the global applications of GIS for health-information management, disease epidemiology, and pandemic planning. The future use of GIS as a decision-making tool and some barriers to the widespread implementation of such systems in developing settings are also discussed.

KHAN, O. A.; DAVENHALL, W.; ALI, M.; CASTILLO-SALGADO, C.; VAZQUEZ-PROKOPEC, G.; KITRON, U.; SOARES MAGALHAES, R. J.; CLEMENTS, A. C. A.

2013-01-01

367

RCRA and CERCLA requirements associated with the sale or transfer of DOE property. CERCLA Information Brief  

SciTech Connect

This information brief summarizes the RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) statutory and regulatory requirements pertinent to sale or transfer of DOE property. The regulations pertain to hazardous waste or radioactive mixed waste disposal.

Whitehead, B.

1993-11-01

368

RCRA and CERCLA requirements associated with the sale or transfer of DOE property. CERCLA Information Brief  

Microsoft Academic Search

This information brief summarizes the RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) statutory and regulatory requirements pertinent to sale or transfer of DOE property. The regulations pertain to hazardous waste or radioactive mixed waste disposal.

1993-01-01

369

Comprehensive bibliography and index of environmental information along the three alternative gas pipeline routes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bibliography was compiled to provide increased access to environmental information pertinent to the three alternative natural gas pipeline routes from Prudhoe Bay through Alaska. Only the Alaskan segment of each of these routes was included. 754 citations were included which discussed environmental features within 15 miles of any segment of any of the three pipeline routes. The indexes cover

E. H. Buck; A. Allen; R. B. Olshansky; S. H. Pennell

1978-01-01

370

The Information Revolution, Security, and International Relations: (IR)relevant Theory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is twofold: to analyze the impact of the information revolution on security and to clarify what existing international relations theory can say about this challenge. These pertinent questions are initially addressed by a critical review of past research. This review shows that the concern for security issues is largely confined to a specialist literature on

Johan Eriksson; Giampiero Giacomello

2006-01-01

371

Molecular origin of background light in Thomson scattering measurements  

SciTech Connect

The plasma background light in Thomson scattering measurements is often far higher than expected for a pure hydrogen plasma. The spectral distribution of light from three plasmas (duration: 1 ms to steady state; electron density: below 10/sup 12/ to over 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/; temperature: below 20 to over 1000 eV) and signal-to-noise and intensity data from the Thomson scattering systems used on them are compared with analytic estimates to show that in two of these plasmas molecular light dominates the spectrum, while in the other, molecular light is present, but bremsstrahlung is usually more intense. Knowledge of the mechanism for background light can aid in designing detection systems for Thomson scattering and provide information on the neutral species composition and effective charge of the plasma.

McNeill, D.H.

1986-06-01

372

Genetic testing in asymptomatic minors: background considerations towards ESHG Recommendations.  

PubMed

Although various guidelines and position papers have discussed, in the past, the ethical aspects of genetic testing in asymptomatic minors, the European Society of Human Genetics had not earlier endorsed any set of guidelines exclusively focused on this issue. This paper has served as a background document in preparation of the development of the policy recommendations of the Public and Professional Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics. This background paper first discusses some general considerations with regard to the provision of genetic tests to minors. It discusses the concept of best interests, participation of minors in health-care decisions, parents' responsibilities to share genetic information, the role of clinical genetics and the health-care system in communication within the family. Second, it discusses, respectively, the presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing for adult-onset disorders, childhood-onset disorders and carrier testing. PMID:19277061

Borry, Pascal; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Cornel, Martina C; Clarke, Angus; Dierickx, Kris

2009-03-11

373

RadOnc: An Integrated Clinical Database and Information Retrieval System Implemented by HyperCard  

PubMed Central

RadOnc is a prototype hypermedia program designed for the resident physician which integrates a radiation oncology clinical database with reference information. Basic and clinical science information relevant to radiation oncology with pertinent literature reviews are linked to patient records which contain a clinical summary of the presentation, treatment and results. RadOnc's features include a dictionary, search capability, navigational aids, information printing and archiving, and graphics, linkage and updating tools.

Michael, Patricia A.; Foxlee, R. Heath

1989-01-01

374

Optical and infrared backgrounds from the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sum total of the energy released by the earliest era of star formation should show up today within the diffuse extragalactic background light (EBL), its signature peaking in the near-infrared. There is considerable controversy over estimates of the average EBL per steradian at optical and infrared wavelengths, over measurements of background fluctuations, and over the interpretation of the measurements. Resolving this controversy is important because the EBL constrains the history of galaxy evolution. The fluctuations and their colors may also contain important information about Population III stars and the earliest era of star formation. We compare number counts from recent galaxy surveys, correcting for their differing passbands. With some assumptions about galaxy sizes and surface-brightness profiles, we account for the light missed in standard photometric estimates, integrating the resulting corrected counts to estimate the total EBL due to resolved galaxies as well as undetected galaxies. We then present an analysis of background fluctuations in observations of the HUDF, the GOODS field, and the CANDELS fields obtained with WFC3. The fluctuation signal provides a constraint on the slope of galaxy counts fainter than the levels of individual detection, as well as their typical angular sizes. The color dependence of the fluctuations provides a constraint on the redshift distribution of these very faint sources. The spatial and spectral information from these anisotropies, even in their non-detection, provide valuable information about the era of reionization, when the first stars and galaxies formed. Via various analysis tools such as power spectra and P(D) fitting, best-fit models to faint sources can be obtained.

Dolch, Timothy

375

Optical and Infrared Backgrounds from HST and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sum total of the energy released by the earliest era of star formation should show up today within the diffuse extragalactic background light (EBL), its signature peaking in the near-infrared. There is considerable controversy over estimates of the average EBL per steradian at wavelengths longward of 1µm, over measurements of background fluctuations, and over the interpretation of the measurements. Resolving this controversy is important because the EBL constrains the history of galaxy evolution, and because the near-infrared fluctuations may contain important information about Population III stars and the earliest era of star formation. We compare number counts from recent galaxy surveys, correcting for their differing passbands. With some assumptions about galaxy sizes and surface-brightness profiles, we account for the light missed in standard photometric estimates, integrating the resulting corrected counts to estimate the total EBL due to resolved galaxies. We then present an analysis of background fluctuations in observations of the HUDF, the GOODS field, and the CANDELS fields obtained with WFC3. The fluctuation signal provides a constraint on the slope of galaxy counts fainter than the levels of individual detection. The color dependence of the fluctuations provides a constraint on the redshift distribution of these very faint sources. Fluctuations of the near-infrared EBL due to undetected sources help also constrain the nature of galaxies below current detection levels in other deep fields. The spatial and spectral information of these anisotropies provide valuable information about the EoR, as well as new populations of faint objects at lower redshifts. Via various analysis tools such as power spectra, P(D) fitting, and cross-correlations, best-fit models to faint sources can be obtained.

Dolch, Timothy; Ferguson, H. C.; Chary, R.; Cooray, A. R.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Ravindranath, S.; Sukhbold, T.

2011-05-01

376

Cosmic Microwave Background Bispectrum from Recombination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum generated by nonlinearities at recombination on all scales. We use CosmoLib2nd, a numerical Boltzmann code at second order to compute cosmic microwave background bispectra on the full sky. We consistently include all effects except gravitational lensing, which can be added to our result using standard methods. The bispectrum is peaked on squeezed triangles and agrees with the analytic approximation in the squeezed limit at the few percent level for all the scales where this is applicable. On smaller scales, we recover previous results on perturbed recombination. For cosmic-variance limited data to lmax?=2000, its signal-to-noise ratio is S/N=0.47, corresponding to fNLeff=-2.79, and will bias a local signal by fNLloc?0.82.

Huang, Zhiqi; Vernizzi, Filippo

2013-03-01

377

Analysis of the Suzaku\\/XRS background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background counts on the XRS calorimeter spectrometer of the Suzaku Observatory (formerly Astro-E2) have several sources, including primary cosmic rays and secondary particles interacting with the pixels and with the silicon structure of the array. Using ground data, we identified the types of correlations between events on different pixels, and between pixel pulses and the signal from the anti-coincidence detector

C. A. Kilbourne; K. R. Boyce; G. V. Brown; J. Cottam; E. Figueroa-Feliciano; R. Fujimoto; T. Furusho; Y. Ishisaki; R. L. Kelley; D. McCammon; K. Mitsuda; U. Morita; F. S. Porter; N. Ota; T. Saab; Y. Takei; M. Yamamoto

2006-01-01

378

Possible manifestations of the graviton background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible effects are considered which would be caused by a hypothetical\\u000asuperstrong interaction of photons or massive bodies with single gravitons of\\u000athe graviton background. If full cosmological redshift magnitudes are caused by\\u000athe interaction, then the luminosity distance in a flat non-expanding universe\\u000aas a function of redshift is very similar to the specific function which fits\\u000asupernova cosmology

Michael A. Ivanov

2000-01-01

379

Underground argon for low background detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excellent scintillation characteristics of argon, including a high light yield and strong discrimination between minimum and highly ionizing particles, make it a valuable material for use in a variety of detectors, most notably detectors or WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. However, the presence of the cosmogenically induced radioactive isotope 39Ar in atmospheric argon generates a background rate of ~1 Bq\\/kg atmospheric

Ben Loer

2008-01-01

380

Simulation of night sky background for HAGAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For experiments like HAGAR, based on atmospheric Cherenkov technique, performance of the experiment depends strongly on the level of night sky background (NSB) at the observation site. Proper modeling of NSB in simulations is important to get the realistic estimate of the performance parameters. Here we present the Monte Carlo simulation of NSB and its comparison with experimental data. Effect of after-pulsing in photo-multiplier tubes is also modeled in present simulations.

Saha, Lab; Hagar Collaboration

381

Backgrounds in H ? WW(*) ? ???? with ATLAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present techniques used to estimate the backgrounds in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in the H ? WW(*) ? ???? decay channel with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The dataset corresponds to 13 fb-1 of integrated luminosity taken at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV. Only the final states with an electron, muon, and zero or one jet are presented here.

Lazovich, Tomo

2013-05-01

382

Quantum field thermalization in expanding backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2PI effective action formalism for quantum fields out of equilibrium is set up in an expanding (Friedmann-Robertson-Walker) background. We write down and solve the evolution equations for a varphi4 model at Script O(?2) in a coupling expansion. We comment on issues of renormalization, lattice discretization and the range of applicability of the approach. A number of example calculations are presented, including thermalization and (p)reheating. Generalizations to more complicated systems and applications are discussed.

Tranberg, Anders

2008-11-01

383

Background, Principles and Promise of Nanodielectrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Electrical insulation based on nanodielectric technology stems from the use of fillers in polymeric materials which has been\\u000a common practice since polymer insulation was first introduced. However, when the filler size is reduced to nanometric size,\\u000a the internal interface becomes dominant and unique properties can be obtained. The basic processes and effects are introduced\\u000a in order to provide background and

J. Keith Nelson

384

The Distribution of Cosmic Radio Background Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey of cosmic radio background radiation at 250 mc using the Ohio State University 96-helix radio telescope are described. The antenna has beam widths of about 1.2° in right ascension and 8° in declination between half-power points. Radio maps, covering about 75 per cent of the sky, are presented in celestial and galactic coordinates. The greater

H. C. Ko

1958-01-01

385

Polarization of the Microwave Background: theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a brief review of the polarization properties of the cosmic\\u000amicrowave background in dark matter models for structure formation. Quite\\u000aindependently of the model parameters, the polarization level is expected to be\\u000a$\\\\sim 10%$ of the anisotropy signal at angular scales $\\\\le 1^o$. Detections\\u000aof polarization at larger angular scales would provide a strong evidence in\\u000afavour of

Alessandro Melchiorri; Nicola Vittorio

1996-01-01

386

Soudan Low Background Counting Facility (SOLO)  

SciTech Connect

The Soudan Low Background Counting Facility (SOLO) has been in operation at the Soudan Mine, MN since March 2003. In the past two years, we have gamma-screened samples for the Majorana, CDMS and XENON experiments. With individual sample exposure times of up to two weeks we have measured sample contamination down to the 0.1 ppb level for 238U / 232Th, and down to the 0.25 ppm level for 40K.

Attisha, Michael; Viveiros, Luiz de; Gaitksell, Richard; Thompson, John-Paul [Brown University, Providence RI 02912 (United States)

2005-09-08

387

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

1998-11-10

388

Gamma Reaction History Backgrounds at the NIF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at NIF detects gamma-rays, emitted directly from DT fusion reactions (DT?), through the use of four Gas Cherenkov detectors with adjustable gamma-ray energy thresholds. It is primarily used to determine bang time, burn width and total DT yield of the implosion. Background interference to the signal is insignificant when capsules are driven directly by the lasers, but can be significant during indirect-drive using a hohlraum, forming an approximately 20 ns plateau under the narrow ˜200 ps FWHM fusion signal. This background is independent of fusion yield and most likely the result of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) induced hot electron bremsstrahlung radiation. These hard x-rays stream out target chamber ports and take multiple scatter paths to reach the GRH photomultiplier tubes (PMT), where they then bypass the Cherenkov conversion process and generate signal by direct interaction with the PMT microchannel plates. An examination of this background contribution to the GRH signal and possible mitigation strategies will be presented.

Church, J. A.; Stoeffl, W. S.; Watts, P. W.; Carpenter, A. C.; Liebman, J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Grafil, E.

2011-11-01

389

Background complexity affects colour preference in bumblebees.  

PubMed

Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination are typically red. This correlation is usually explained by the assertion that nectar- or pollen-stealing bees are "blind" to red flowers. However, laboratory studies have shown that bees are capable of locating artificial red flowers and often show no innate preference for blue over red. We hypothesised that these findings might be artefacts of the simplified laboratory environment. Using bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) that had been trained to visit red and blue artificial flowers, we tested whether colour preference was influenced by complexity of the background on which they were foraging. Many bees were indifferent to flower colour when tested using a uniform green background like those commonly used in laboratory studies, but all bees showed strong colour preferences (usually for blue) when flowers were presented against a photograph of real foliage. Overall, preference for blue flowers was significantly greater on the more realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of "hummingbird syndrome" flowers can function to reduce bee visits despite the ability of bees to detect red and highlight the need to consider context when drawing inferences about pollinator preferences from laboratory data. PMID:19444425

Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D

2009-05-15

390

Background levels in the Borexino detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Borexino detector, designed and constructed for sub-MeV solar neutrino spectroscopy, is taking data at the Gran Sasso Laboratory, Italy; since May 2007. The main physics objective of Borexino, based on elastic scattering of neutrinos in organic liquid scintillator, is the real time flux measurement of the 862keV mono-energetic neutrinos from 7Be, which set extremely severe radio-purity requirements in the detector's design and handling. The first year of continous data taking provide now evidence of the extremely low background levels achieved in the construction of the detector and in the purification of the target mass. Several pieces of analysis sense the presence of radioisotopes of the 238U and 232Th chains, of 85Kr and of 210Po out of equilibrium from other Radon daughters. Particular emphasis is given to the detection of the cosmic muon background whose angular distributions have been obtained with the outer detector tracking algorithm and to the possibility of tagging the muon-induced neutron background in the scintillator with the recently enhanced electronics setup.

D'Angelo, Davide; Wurm, Michael; Borexino Collaboration

2008-11-01

391

THE {gamma}-RAY BACKGROUND constrains the ORIGINS OF THE RADIO AND X-RAY BACKGROUNDS  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic ray protons generate {gamma}-rays, neutrinos, and secondary electrons and positrons (e{sup {+-}}) through pion-producing collisions with gas atoms. Any synchrotron or inverse Compton (IC) radiation from secondary e {sup {+-}} is therefore accompanied by pionic {gamma}-rays. Using the extragalactic {gamma}-ray background, we constrain the contribution of secondary e {sup {+-}} to the cosmic radio, X-ray, and soft {gamma}-ray backgrounds. These bounds depend on the unknown hadronic contribution to the {gamma}-ray background and the backgrounds' source redshifts. With our assumptions, we find that IC-upscattered light from secondaries is {approx}<1/4 of the MeV-GeV {gamma}-ray background and {approx}<10% of the 0.5 keV-1 MeV background (for sources at a redshift z {approx}< 10). The low intensity of the observed {gamma}-ray background is marginally inconsistent with a secondary e{sup {+-}} origin for the radio background reported by ARCADE at {approx}3 GHz, unless the magnetic field strength in their sources is milligauss or greater. These limits on the magnetic field strength are sensitive to uncertainties. However, any contribution to the {gamma}-ray background from sources not responsible for the ARCADE excess increases the inconsistency.

Lacki, Brian C., E-mail: lacki@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2011-03-01

392

Extragalactic infrared backgrounds polarization, and universal magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

A model is developed in which the submillimeter excess recently measured in a rocket experiment is explained as emission from extragalactic dust heated by Population III stars. The linear polarization expected in such a background if a universal magnetic field (UMF) is present in the universe is calculated. This is compared with existing polarization upper limits in order to get information about the UMF. For a wide range of the important parameters, the present strength of the magnetic field should be lower than 5 x 10 to the -10th G. 26 refs.

De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Melchiorri, F.; Moreno, G. (Roma I Universita, Rome (Italy))

1989-05-01

393

Possibility of observing the evolution of the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect

Most cosmological parameters are expected to change significantly only on cosmological time scales, but given the large amount of information contained within the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky, we can expect that changes in the CMB should be observable on much shorter time scales. Here we quantify this expectation, examining the detectability of the dominant effects on short time scales. We find that an ideal future experiment with currently achievable sensitivity could detect the changing dipole due to our galactic motion in about 5 years, but that it would take around 4000 years to detect a change in the higher order multipoles.

Moss, Adam; Zibin, James P.; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2008-02-15

394

SCOUT: information retrieval from full-text medical literature.  

PubMed Central

SCOUT is an expert system designed to aid the practicing physician in searching a full-text database of biomedical literature for information in the domain of oncology. In the clinical setting, an information-retrieval system needs to provide only a few relevant documents that address a patient-specific query. SCOUT models the expertise of an oncologist and an information specialist in a probabilistic inference system; it applies expert heuristics both in selecting the best source of information for a particular question and in developing an effective, source-specific search statement that retrieves only a minimal number of pertinent documents.

Purcell, G. P.; Mar, D. D.

1992-01-01

395

11C Background in Liquid Scintillator Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Cosmogenic 11C produced in muon showers is one of the main backgrounds for the detection of pep and CNO solar neutrinos in underground organic liquid scintillator detectors. Experimental data available for the effective cross section for 11C by muons indicate that 11C is in fact the dominant background for the observation of such neutrinos. 11C decays are expected to total a rate 2.5 (20) times higher than the combined rate of pep and CNO neutrinos in Borexino (KamLAND) in the energy window preferred for the pep measurement, between 0.8 and 1.3 MeV.Background from 11C in organic liquid scintillator detectors can be reduced if a neutron is emitted when the 11C nuclide is created. 11C decays can be tagged on a one-by-one basis using a three-fold coincidence with the parent muon track and the subsequent neutron capture on protons. The efficiency of such background reduction critically relies on the emission of a free neutron associated with 11C production.In order to verify the hypothesis, first suggested by Deutsch, that a neutron is in fact always emitted when 11C is produced, we perform a detailed ab initio calculation of the production of cosmogenic 11C, taking into consideration all relevant production channels. Results of the calculation are compared with the effective cross sections measured by target experiments in muon beams. 'Bilnd' channels without a neutron in the final state account for only about 5% of 11C production modes.An estimation of the effectiveness of the one-by-one tagging of 11C events, in light of such 'blind' channels is performed for KamLAND, Borexino, and a possible scintillator experiment at SNOLab. Both KamLAND and Borexino can significantly improve their pep and CNO solar neutrino signal and could perform a 3% measurement of the pep solar neutrino flux in five years. At SNOLab depths the muon flux is low enough that 11C background would be much smaller than the pep and CNO neutrino signal and hence negligible.

Pocar, Andrea [Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2005-09-08

396

Background of SIFs and Stress Indices for Moment Loadings of Piping Components  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information, references, and equations for twenty-four piping components (thirteen component SIFs and eleven component stress indices) that justify the values or expressions for the SIFs and indices.

E. A. Wais; E. C. Rodabaugh

2005-06-15

397

Effect of the Interaction of Text Structure, Background Knowledge and Purpose on Attention to Text.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Memory for discourse is generally an incomplete and modified version of the original text. This partial text recall has been related to structure or organization of information in text, reader's background knowledge, and reader's purpose or goal for readi...

D. P. Birkmire

1982-01-01

398

Using multiple perspectives to suppress information and complexity  

SciTech Connect

Dissemination of battlespace information involves getting information to particular warfighters that is both useful and in a form that facilitates the tasks of those particular warfighters. There are two issues which motivate this problem of dissemination. The first issue deals with disseminating pertinent information to a particular warfighter. This can be thought of as information suppression. The second issue deals with facilitating the use of the information by tailoring the computer interface to the specific tasks of an individual warfighter. This can be thought of as interface complexity suppression. This paper presents a framework for suppressing information using an object-based knowledge representation methodology. This methodology has the ability to represent knowledge and information in multiple perspectives. Information can be suppressed by creating a perspective specific to an individual warfighter. In this way, only the information pertinent and useful to a warfighter is made available to that warfighter. Information is not removed, lost, or changed, but spread among multiple perspectives. Interface complexity is managed in a similar manner. Rather than have one generalized computer interface to access all information, the computer interface can be divided into interface elements. Interface elements can then be selected and arranged into a perspective-specific interface. This is done in a manner to facilitate completion of tasks contained in that perspective. A basic battlespace domain containing ground and air elements and associated warfighters is used to exercise the methodology.

Kelsey, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)]|[New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (US). Computer Science Dept.; Webster, R.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Hartley, R.T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (US). Computer Science Dept.

1998-09-01

399

Background error covariance estimation for atmospheric CO2 data assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

any data assimilation framework, the background error covariance statistics play the critical role of filtering the observed information and determining the quality of the analysis. For atmospheric CO2 data assimilation, however, the background errors cannot be prescribed via traditional forecast or ensemble-based techniques as these fail to account for the uncertainties in the carbon emissions and uptake, or for the errors associated with the CO2 transport model. We propose an approach where the differences between two modeled CO2 concentration fields, based on different but plausible CO2 flux distributions and atmospheric transport models, are used as a proxy for the statistics of the background errors. The resulting error statistics: (1) vary regionally and seasonally to better capture the uncertainty in the background CO2 field, and (2) have a positive impact on the analysis estimates by allowing observations to adjust predictions over large areas. A state-of-the-art four-dimensional variational (4D-VAR) system developed at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is used to illustrate the impact of the proposed approach for characterizing background error statistics on atmospheric CO2 concentration estimates. Observations from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite "IBUKI" (GOSAT) are assimilated into the ECMWF 4D-VAR system along with meteorological variables, using both the new error statistics and those based on a traditional forecast-based technique. Evaluation of the four-dimensional CO2 fields against independent CO2 observations confirms that the performance of the data assimilation system improves substantially in the summer, when significant variability and uncertainty in the fluxes are present.

Chatterjee, Abhishek; Engelen, Richard J.; Kawa, Stephan R.; Sweeney, Colm; Michalak, Anna M.

2013-09-01

400

CT detector evaluation with complex random backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern computed tomography (CT) uses detector arrays consisting of large numbers of photodiodes with scintil- lator crystals. The number of pixels in the array can play an important role in system performance. Considerable research has been performed on signal detection in flat backgrounds under various conditions, but little has been done with complex, random backgrounds in CT; our work investigates in particular the effect of the number of detector elements on signal detection by a channelized Hotelling observer in a complex background. For this project, a simulated three-dimensional phantom is generated with its attenuation equal to that of water. The phantom contains a smaller central section with random variations to simulate random anatomical structures. Cone-beam projections of the phantom are acquired at different angles and used to calculate the covariance matrix of the raw projection data. Laguerre-Gauss channels are used to reduce the dimensionality of each 2D projection and hence the size of the covariance matrix, but the covariance is still a function of two projection angles. A strong cross-channel correlation is observed as a function of the difference between the angles. A signal with known location and size is used, and the performance of the observer is calculated from the channel outputs at multiple projection angles. A contrast-detail diagram is computed for different variables such as signal size, number of incident x-ray photons, pixel size, etc. At a fixed observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the contrast required to detect a signal increases dramatically as the signal size decreases.

Fan, Helen; Barrett, Harrison H.

2012-02-01

401

Cosmic string collision in cosmological backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

The collisions of cosmic string loops and the dynamics of junction formations in expanding backgrounds are studied. The key parameter controlling the dynamics of junction formation, the cosmic strings zipping and unzipping, is the relative size of the loops compared to the Hubble radius at the time of collision. We study analytically and numerically these processes for large superhorizon size loops, for small subhorizon size loops as well as for loops with the radii comparable to the Hubble radius at the time of collision.

Firouzjahi, Hassan [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoeini-Moghaddam, Salomeh [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Mo'allem University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khosravi, Shahram [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Mo'allem University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-06-15

402

Conformal Invariance and Cosmic Background Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectrum and statistics of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are investigated under the hypothesis that scale invariance of the primordial density fluctuations should be promoted to full conformal invariance, allowing for deviations from naive scaling. The spectral index of the two-point function of density fluctuations is determined by the trace anomaly to be greater than one, implying less power at large distance scales than a Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum. Conformal invariance also implies non-Gaussian statistics of the CMBR and determines the large angular dependence of its three-point correlations.

Antoniadis, Ignatios; Mazur, Pawel O.; Mottola, Emil

1997-07-01

403

Emergence of oscillons in an expanding background  

SciTech Connect

We consider a (1+1) dimensional scalar field theory that supports oscillons, which are localized, oscillatory, stable solutions to nonlinear equations of motion. We study this theory in an expanding background and show that oscillons now lose energy, but at a rate that is exponentially small when the expansion rate is slow. We also show numerically that a universe that starts with (almost) thermal initial conditions will cool to a final state where a significant fraction of the energy of the universe--on the order of 50%--is stored in oscillons. If this phenomenon persists in realistic models, oscillons may have cosmological consequences.

Farhi, E.; Guth, A. H.; Iqbal, N. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Graham, N. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); Rosales, R. R. [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Stamatopoulos, N. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)

2008-04-15

404

Background atoms and decoherence in optical lattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All experiments with ultracold atoms are performed in the presence of background residual gas. With the help of a suitable master equation we investigate a role of these fast atoms on the loss of coherence in optical lattices. We present an exact solution of the master equation and give the analytic formulas for all correlation functions in the presence of one-body losses. Additionally we discuss the existence of a Schrödinger cat state predicted in this system in Greiner [Nature 419, 51 (2002)].

Paw?owski, Krzysztof; Rz??ewski, Kazimierz

2010-01-01

405

Beam Delivery WG Summary: Optics, Collimation & Background  

SciTech Connect

The presented paper partially summarizes the work of the Beam Delivery working group (WG4) at Snowmass, concentrating on status of optics, layout, collimation, and background. The strawman layout with 2 interaction regions was recommended at the first ILC workshop at KEK in November 2004. Two crossing-angle designs were included in this layout. The design of the ILC BDS has evolved since the first ILC workshop. The progress on the BDS design and extraction line design has been reviewed and the design issues were discussed during the optics and layout session at the Snowmass.

Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jackson, F.; /Daresbury; Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab; Kuroda, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Seryi, A.A.; /SLAC

2006-01-20

406

Low background shielding of HPGe detector.  

PubMed

National Radiation Protection Institute in Prague is equipped with 14 HPGe detectors with relative efficiency up to 150%. Steel shielding with one of these detectors (relative efficiency 100%) was chosen to be rebuilt to decrease minimum detectable activity (MDA). Additional lead and copper shielding was built up inside the original steel shielding to reduce the volume of the inner space and filled with nitrogen by means of evaporating liquid nitrogen. MDA values decreased for Compton background up to 0.67 of original value. PMID:19243960

Trnková, L; Rulík, P

2009-01-29

407

Finnish Disease Heritage I: characteristics, causes, background.  

PubMed

This review of the Finnish Disease Heritage (FDH), a group of rare hereditary diseases that are overrepresented in Finland, includes the following topics: FDH characteristics, causes and background, primary theory, revis(it)ed theory, consanguineous marriages in Finland, internal migration of the 1500s, family series for further FDH studies, geography and population structure as a basis for FDH, geography of individual diseases, the structure of FDH families, family structure in individual diseases, Finnish gene mutations, linkage disequilibrium and haplotypes, age of gene mutations, frequencies of disease genes and carriers, and a short description of the possible future of FDH. PMID:12627295

Norio, Reijo

2003-03-08

408

Stochastic background from inspiralling double neutron stars  

SciTech Connect

We review the contribution of extra galactic inspiralling double neutron stars, to the LISA astrophysical gravitational wave foreground. Using recent fits of the star formation rate, we show that sources beyond z{sub *}=0.005 contribute to a truly continuous background, which may dominate the LISA instrumental noise in the range 3{approx_equal}10{sup -4}-1x10{sup -2} Hz and overwhelm the galactic WD-WD confusion noise at frequencies larger than {nu}{sub o}{approx_equal}2x10{sup -3}.

Regimbau, Tania [Dpt. ARTEMIS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 429 06304 Nice (France)

2007-02-15

409

Global Monopole in Kalb Ramond Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent, S. SenGupta and S. Sur [Phys. Lett. B 502 (2001) 350] have obtained static vacuum solutions of the gravitational field equations in back ground space time with torsion. The torsion is identified with the field strength of a second-rank anti-symmetric tensor field, namely Kalb-Ramond field. In this work, we present the solutions for the metric outside a monopole resulting from the breaking of a global 0(3) symmetry in Kalb-Ramond background. A comparison is made with the corresponding results predicted by general relativity.

Rahaman, F.; Mukherjee, R.; Roy, T.; Maity, K.; Shekhar, S.

2003-12-01

410

Neutrino Background from Population III Stars  

SciTech Connect

Population III Stars (PopIII) are the first generation of stars formed from the collapse of the very first structures in the Universe. Their peculiar chemical composition (metal-free, resembling the Primordial Nucleosynthesis yields) affects their formation and evolution and makes them unusually big and hot stars. They are good candidates for the engines of Reionization of the Universe although their direct observation is extremely difficult. Here we summarize a study of their expected diffuse low-energy neutrino background flux at Earth.

Iocco, F.; /Naples U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2007-04-25

411

Using Time Series Analysis to Visualize and Evaluate Background Subtraction Results for Computer Vision Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information visualization has proved its signiflcance and im- portance for exploring and analysis of complex data. This paper introduces a novel framework for applying time series analysis and visualization methods to evaluate and compare the results of background subtraction algorithms for com- puter vision applications. Instead of judging the results of background subtraction algorithms by just viewing the re- sulted

Samah Ramadan

412

Inputs and Processes in Education: A Background Paper. Final Report Deliverable #1-2.2b.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This background paper is a result of a literature review conducted under Project FORUM that identifies research-based inputs and processes related to student outcomes. It was intended to provide background information for the participants attending the Wingspread Conference on Inputs and Processes in October, 1998. In addition, the report is…

Schrag, Judy A.

413

A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total

P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; A. Boscaleri; K. Coble; B. P. Crill; G. De Gasperis; P. C. Farese; P. G. Ferreira; K. Ganga; M. Giacometti; E. Hivon; V. V. Hristov; A. Iacoangeli; A. H. Jaffe; A. E. Lange; L. Martinis; S. Masi; P. V. Mason; P. D. Mauskopf; A. Melchiorri; L. Miglio; T. Montroy; C. B. Netterfield; E. Pascale; F. Piacentini; D. Pogosyan; S. Prunet; S. Rao; G. Romeo; J. E. Ruhl; F. Scaramuzzi; D. Sforna; N. Vittorio; P. de Bernardis

2000-01-01

414

A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy

P. de Bernardis; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; A. Boscaleri; K. Coble; B. P. Crill; G. De Gasperis; P. C. Farese; P. G. Ferreira; K. Ganga; M. Giacometti; E. Hivon; V. V. Hristov; A. Iacoangeli; A. H. Jaffe; A. E. Lange; L. Martinis; S. Masi; P. V. Mason; P. D. Mauskopf; A. Melchiorri; L. Miglio; T. Montroy; C. B. Netterfield; E. Pascale; F. Piacentini; D. Pogosyan; S. Prunet; S. Rao; G. Romeo; J. E. Ruhl; F. Scaramuzzi; D. Sforna; N. Vittorio

2000-01-01

415

US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with

Robin T. Harrison; Lawrence Hartmann

1990-01-01

416

Natural radiation background in metropolitan Taipei.  

PubMed

A high-pressure ionization chamber was used to measure the natural background radiation in metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. during a period in 1987-1988. The average exposure rate was 27.55 x 10(-10) C kg-1 h-1 including cosmic radiation, but the radon contribution was excluded. Scintillation survey meter, gamma-ray spectroscopy for soil samples, in-situ measurement with a NaI(Tl) detector coupled to a portable multichannel analyzer, instrumental neutron activation analysis of rock samples, and even thermoluminescent dosimeters were used as complementary measuring devices. Areas of higher radiation background were detected. They are the radium-bearing Peitou stones, an unusual occurrence of uraniferous zone at Sanhsia, and uranium precipitation in the glassy olivine basalt in a tea field at Tachi. All these areas are located in suburban sites of Taipei. Three types of building in Taipei City were selected for radon detection. No significantly elevated level of radon was detected, since Taipei is located in a semitropical area where ventilation of buildings is not a problem. PMID:1941767

Weng, P S; Chu, T C; Chen, C F

1991-06-01

417

BLAST resolves origins of Cosmic Infrared Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmic infrared background (CIB), composed of starlight which is absorbed by dust and re-emitted at infrared wavelengths, has approximately the same intensity as the optical background. The CIB is most intense at around 200,m, where the atmosphere is very opaque, which makes observing it very difficult. The Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST) operates above 99.5% of the atmosphere and has made the first direct observations at 250, 350 and 500,m. In December 2006, BLAST completed an 11-day flight over Antarctica. 220 hours of data were collected, 90 of which were spent in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) South Field. We calculate the covariance of the BLAST data with catalogs of 24,m sources. With this method, we measure the CIB brightness levels at BLAST wavelengths. This analysis resolves the CIB into contributions from 24,m identified galaxies. At 500,m, we find that over half of the light comes from sources with redshifts greater than 1.2. Furthermore, this analysis allows us to determine the characteristics of the galaxies which produce the CIB.

Ngo, Henry

2009-05-01

418

DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane  

DOEpatents

A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

Caldwell, Karin D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chu, Tun-Jen (Salt Lake City, UT); Pitt, William G. (Orem, UT)

1992-01-01

419

Electromagnetic polarizabilities: Lattice QCD in background fields  

SciTech Connect

Chiral perturbation theory makes definitive predictions for the extrinsic behavior of hadrons in external electric and magnetic fields. Near the chiral limit, the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pions, kaons, and nucleons are determined in terms of a few well-known parameters. In this limit, hadrons become quantum mechanically diffuse as polarizabilities scale with the inverse square-root of the quark mass. In some cases, however, such predictions from chiral perturbation theory have not compared well with experimental data. Ultimately we must turn to first principles numerical simulations of QCD to determine properties of hadrons, and confront the predictions of chiral perturbation theory. To address the electromagnetic polarizabilities, we utilize the background field technique. Restricting our attention to calculations in background electric fields, we demonstrate new techniques to determine electric polarizabilities and baryon magnetic moments for both charged and neutral states. As we can study the quark mass dependence of observables with lattice QCD, the lattice will provide a crucial test of our understanding of low-energy QCD, which will be timely in light of ongoing experiments, such as at COMPASS and HI gamma S.

W. Detmold, B.C. Tiburzi, A. Walker-Loud

2012-04-01

420

Radioactivity backgrounds in ZEPLIN-III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine electron and nuclear recoil backgrounds from radioactivity in the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment at Boulby. The rate of low-energy electron recoils in the liquid xenon WIMP target is 0.75 ± 0.05 events/kg/day/keV, which represents a 20-fold improvement over the rate observed during the first science run. Energy and spatial distributions agree with those predicted by component-level Monte Carlo simulations propagating the effects of the radiological contamination measured for materials employed in the experiment. Neutron elastic scattering is predicted to yield 3.05 ± 0.5 nuclear recoils with energy 5-50 keV per year, which translates to an expectation of 0.4 events in a 1 yr dataset in anti-coincidence with the veto detector for realistic signal acceptance. Less obvious background sources are discussed, especially in the context of future experiments. These include contamination of scintillation pulses with Cherenkov light from Compton electrons and from ? activity internal to photomultipliers, which can increase the size and lower the apparent time constant of the scintillation response. Another challenge is posed by multiple-scatter ?-rays with one or more vertices in regions that yield no ionisation. If the discrimination power achieved in the first run can be replicated, ZEPLIN-III should reach a sensitivity of ˜1 × 10-8pb · yr to the scalar WIMP-nucleon elastic cross-section, as originally conceived.

Araújo, H. M.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Barnes, E. J.; Belov, V. A.; Bewick, A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Chepel, V.; Currie, A.; Deviveiros, L.; Edwards, B.; Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A.; Horn, M.; Kalmus, G. E.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Lebedenko, V. N.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Lüscher, R.; Majewski, P.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Neves, F.; Paling, S. M.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Preece, R.; Quenby, J. J.; Reichhart, L.; Scovell, P. R.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Smith, N. J. T.; Smith, P. F.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Sumner, T. J.; Thorne, C.; Walker, R. J.

2012-03-01

421

Black branes on the linear dilaton background  

SciTech Connect

We show that the complete static black p-brane supergravity solution with a single charge contains two and only two branches with respect to behavior at infinity in the transverse space. One branch is the standard family of asymptotically flat black branes, and another is the family of black branes which asymptotically approach the linear dilaton background (LDB) with antisymmetric form flux. Such configurations were previously obtained in the near-horizon near-extreme limit of the dilatonic asymptotically flat p-branes, and used to describe the thermal phase of field theories involved in the domain wall (DW)/quantum field theory (QFT) dualities and the thermodynamics of little string theory in the case of the NS5-brane. Here we show by direct integration of the Einstein equations that the asymptotically LDB p-branes are indeed exact supergravity solutions, and we prove a new uniqueness theorem for static p-brane solutions satisfying cosmic censorship. In the nondilatonic case, our general nonasymptotically flat p-branes are black branes on the background AdS{sub p+2}xS{sup D-p-2} supported by the form flux. We develop the general formalism of quasilocal quantities for nonasymptotically flat supergravity solutions with antisymmetric form fields, and show that our solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also suggest a constructive procedure to derive rotating asymptotically LDB brane solutions.

Clement, Gerard; Leygnac, Cedric [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique LAPTH (CNRS), B.P.110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux cedex (France); Gal'tsov, Dmitri [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique LAPTH (CNRS), B.P.110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux cedex (France); Department of Theoretical Physics, Moscow State University, 119899, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2005-04-15

422

DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane  

DOEpatents

A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

1992-05-12

423

Study of robot landmark recognition with complex background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It's of great importance for assisting robot in path planning, position navigating and task performing by perceiving and recognising environment characteristic. To solve the problem of monocular-vision-oriented landmark recognition for mobile intelligent robot marching with complex background, a kind of nested region growing algorithm which fused with transcendental color information and based on current maximum convergence center is proposed, allowing invariance localization to changes in position, scale, rotation, jitters and weather conditions. Firstly, a novel experiment threshold based on RGB vision model is used for the first image segmentation, which allowing some objects and partial scenes with similar color to landmarks also are detected with landmarks together. Secondly, with current maximum convergence center on segmented image as each growing seed point, the above region growing algorithm accordingly starts to establish several Regions of Interest (ROI) orderly. According to shape characteristics, a quick and effectual contour analysis based on primitive element is applied in deciding whether current ROI could be reserved or deleted after each region growing, then each ROI is judged initially and positioned. When the position information as feedback is conveyed to the gray image, the whole landmarks are extracted accurately with the second segmentation on the local image that exclusive to landmark area. Finally, landmarks are recognised by Hopfield neural network. Results issued from experiments on a great number of images with both campus and urban district as background show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Huang, Yuqing; Yang, Jia

2007-12-01

424

Stop the top background of the stop search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main background for the supersymmetric stop direct production search comes from Standard Model toverline t events. For the single-lepton search channel, we introduce a few kinematic variables to further suppress this background by focusing on its dileptonic and semileptonic topologies. All are defined to have end points in the background, but not signal distributions. They can substantially improve the stop signal significance and mass reach when combined with traditional kinematic variables such as the total missing transverse energy. Among them, our variable M_{{T2}}^W hasthebestoverallperformancebecause it uses all available kinematic information, including the on-shell mass of both W's. We see 20 %-30 % improvement on the discovery significance and estimate that the 8 TeV LHC run with 20 fb-1 of data would be able to reach an exclusion limit of 650-700 GeV for direct stop production, as long as the stop decays dominantly to the top quark and a light stable neutralino. Most of the mass range required for the supersymmetric solution of the naturalness problem in the standard scenario can be covered.

Bai, Yang; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Gallicchio, Jason; Gu, Jiayin

2012-07-01

425

Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples.

Not Available

1993-04-01

426

General relativity with a background metric  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to remove singularities arising in general relativity by modifying it so as to take into account the existence of a fundamental rest frame in the universe. This is done by introducing a background metric ..gamma.. ..mu..v (in addition to g..mu..v) describing a spacetime of constant curvature with positive spatial curvature. The additional terms in the field equations are negligible for the solar system but important for intense fields. Cosmological models are obtained without singular states but simulating the ''big bang.'' The field of a particle differs from the Schwarzschild field only very close to, and inside, the Schwarzschild sphere. The interior of this sphere is unphysical and impenetrable. A star undergoing gravitational collapse reaches a state in which it fills the Schwarzschild sphere with uiform density (and pressure) and has the geometry of a closed Einstein universe. Any charge present is on the surface of the sphere. Elementary particles may have similar structures.

Rosen, N.

1980-10-01

427

The neutron induced background in GALLEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radiochemical experiment has been performed in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory to measure the fast neutron flux in the environment of the GALLEX Solar Neutrino experiment. Neutrons are detected via the reaction n + 40Ca? 37Ar + 4He and the calcium target is in the form of 470 ƒ of a calcium nitrate solution. It is found that only 0.44±0.24 37Ar atom is produced per day. This leads to a neutron flux above 2.5 McV of (0.9±0.6) × 10 -7 cm -2· s 1. An evaluation of the neutron induced background in the GALLEX experiment is done using a Monte Carlo simulation program. The value obtained. 0.15±0.10 SNU. is about 0.2% of the signal measured by GALLEX.

Cribler, M.; Pichard, B.; Soirat, J. P.; Spiro, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Belli, P.; d'Angelo, S.; Wink, R.

1995-10-01

428

Polarization of the cosmic background radiation  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the technique and results of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation. Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. 38{sup o}N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. 12{sup o}s) over 11 declinations from -37{sup o} to +63{sup o} show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. A fit of all data to the anisotropic axisymmetric model of Rees (1968) yields a 95% confidence level limit of 0.15 mK for the magnitude of the polarized component. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits.

Lubin, Philip M.; Smoot, George F.

1980-08-01

429

The hermeneutic background of C. G. Jung.  

PubMed

Hermeneutics has been central to the practice of Jung's psychology from the beginning, although he never fully and consistently developed a hermeneutic method of inquiry and the literature addressing this aspect of his psychology is not extensive. In this paper(1) we undertake a critical re-examination of Jung's relationship to hermeneutic thought, based on his explicit references to hermeneutics in the Collected Works and his theoretical development of the notion of archetypes. Although Jung did not consistently formulate a hermeneutic approach to inquiry, his theoretical development of archetypes is rich in hermeneutic implications. In particular, his notion of the archetype as such can be understood hermeneutically as a form of non-conceptual background understanding. Some implications of this construal of archetypes for Jungian hermeneutics as a form of inquiry are considered. PMID:22288541

Smythe, William E; Baydala, Angelina

2012-02-01

430

Sinuous antennas for cosmic microwave background polarimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers to be used in the focal planes of telescopes mapping Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies. These detectors will be both dual-polarized and ultra-wide band, each containing several frequency channels. Arrays of such detectors could realize mapping speeds nearly an order of magnitude higher than previously deployed technology while naturally facilitating foreground removal. For such detectors to be useful, the antennas must have a high gain and a low cross-polarization. We have designed a novel modification of DuHamel's Sinuous antenna that couples to a contacting lens and is driven by integrated microstrip feed-lines. The integrated feed lines allow the antenna to interface with microstrip circuits and bolometers in a way that is planar and scalable to kilo-pixel arrays. We have demonstrated the polarization and beam properties with scale model antennas that operate at 1-12 GHz.

O'Brient, Roger; Edwards, Jennifer; Arnold, Kam; Engargiola, Greg; Holzapfel, William; Lee, Adrian T.; Myers, Michael; Quealy, Erin; Rebeiz, Gabriel; Richards, Paul; Spieler, Helmuth; Tran, Huan

2008-08-01

431

CFTs in rotating black hole backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use AdS/CFT to construct the gravitational dual of a 5D CFT in the background of a non-extremal rotating black hole. Our boundary conditions are such that the vacuum state of the dual CFT corresponds to the Unruh state. We extract the expectation value of the stress tensor of the dual CFT using holographic renormalization and show that it is stationary and regular on both the future and the past event horizons. The energy density of the CFT is found to be negative everywhere in our domain and we argue that this can be understood as a vacuum polarization effect. We construct the solutions by numerically solving the elliptic Einstein-DeTurck equation for stationary Lorentzian spacetimes with Killing horizons. Communicated by H Reall

Figueras, Pau; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran

2013-06-01

432

Environmental monitoring for nuclear safeguards. Background paper  

SciTech Connect

To assure that states are not violating their Non-Proliferation Treaty commitments, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must verify that states do not possess convert nuclear facilities-a mission that prior to the 1991 Gulf War, it had neither the political backing nor the resources to conduct. The IAEA recognizes the importance of this new mission and is in the process of assuming it. One of the tools it is exploring to provide some indication of the presence of secret, or undeclared, nuclear activities and facilities is environmental monitoring. Modern sampling and analysis technologies provide powerful tools to detect the presence of characteristic substances that are likely to be emitted by such illicit activities. This background paper examines the prospects for such technologies to improve nuclear safeguards. It concludes that environmental monitoring can greatly increase the ability to detect undeclared activity at declared, or known, sites, and it can significantly increase the chances of detecting and locating undeclared sites.

NONE

1995-09-01

433

Observer models for statistically-defined backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of human signal-detection performance for noise- limited tasks with statistically defined signal or image parameters represents a step towards clinical realism. However, the ideal observer procedure is then usually nonlinear, and analysis becomes mathematically intractable. Two linear but suboptimal observer models, the Hotelling observer and the non- prewhitening (NPW) matched filter, have been proposed for mathematical convenience. Experiments by Rolland and Barrett involving detection of signals in white noise superimposed on statistically defined backgrounds showed that the Hotelling model gave a good fit while the simple NPW matched filter gave a poor fit. It will be shown that the NPW model can be modified to fit their data by adding a spatial frequency filter of shape similar to the human contrast sensitivity function. The best fit is obtained using an eye filter model, E(f) equals f1.3 exp(-cf2) with c selected to give a peak at 4 cycles per degree.

Burgess, Arthur E.

1994-04-01

434

Spent Fuel Background Report Volume I  

SciTech Connect

This report is an overview of current spent nuclear fuel management in the DOE complex. Sources of information include published literature, internal DOE documents, interviews with site personnel, and information provided by individual sites. Much of the specific information on facilities and fuels was provided by the DOE sites in response to the questionnaire for data for spent fuels and facilities data bases. This information is as accurate as is currently available, but is subject to revision pending results of further data calls. Spent fuel is broadly classified into three categories: (a) production fuels, (b) special fuels, and (c) naval fuels. Production fuels, comprising about 80% of the total inventory, are those used at Hanford and Savannah River to produce nuclear materials for defense. Special fuels are those used in a wide variety of research, development, and testing activities. Special fuels include fuel from DOE and commercial reactors used in research activities at DOE sites. Naval fuels are those developed and used for nuclear-powered naval vessels and for related research and development. Given the recent DOE decision to curtail reprocessing, the topic of main concern in the management of spent fuel is its storage. Of the DOE sites that have spent nuclear fuel, the vast majority is located at three sites-Hanford, INEL, and Savannah River. Other sites with spent fuel include Oak Ridge, West Valley, Brookhaven, Argonne, Los Alamos, and Sandia. B&W NESI Lynchburg Technology Center and General Atomics are commercial facilities with DOE fuel. DOE may also receive fuel from foreign research reactors, university reactors, and other commercial and government research reactors. Most DOE spent fuel is stored in water-filled pools at the reactor facilities. Currently an engineering study is being performed to determine the feasibility of using dry storage for DOE-owned spent fuel currently stored at various facilities. Delays in opening the deep geologic repository and the decision to phase out reprocessing of production fuels are extending the need for interim storage. The report describes the basic storage conditions and the general SNF inventory at individual DOE facilities.

Abbott, D.

1994-03-01

435

Synthesized performance model of thermal imaging systems based on natural background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of nature environment on the synthesized performance of thermal imaging systems was researched comparing with the targeting task performance (TTP) model. A nature background noise factor was presented and introduced into the minimum resolvable temperature difference channel width (MRTD-CW) model. The method for determining the nature background noise factor was given. A information quantity model based on MRTD-CW model was proposed to evaluate the impact of nature environment on the synthesized performance of thermal imaging systems. A normalized parameter was introduced into the information quantity model. Different background experiments were performed, and the results were analyzed and compared with those of TTP model.

Chen, Song-lin; Wang, Ji-hui; Wang, Xiao-wei; Jin, Wei-qi

2013-09-01

436

Double Layered-Background Removal Filter for Detecting Small Infrared Targets in Heterogenous Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting small targets is essential for mitigating the sea-based Infrared search and track (IRST) problem. It is easy to\\u000a detect small targets in homogeneous backgrounds such as the sky. When targets are on the border line of heterogeneous backgrounds\\u000a such as the horizon in the sky and sea surface, solving the problem of detection becomes difficult. This paper presents a

Sungho Kim

2011-01-01

437

Improving Vocabulary and Comprehension Skills of Secondary-Level Students from Diverse Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Secondary-level students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds who struggle with reading need strategies for aligning new information with their previous knowledge as well as for obtaining and retaining essential information from the text. Important components of all secondary literacy support must include instruction in…

McCollin, Michelle; O'Shea, Doris J.; McQuiston, Kathleen

2009-01-01

438

Improving Vocabulary and Comprehension Skills of Secondary-Level Students from Diverse Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary-level students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds who struggle with reading need strategies for aligning new information with their previous knowledge as well as for obtaining and retaining essential information from the text. Important components of all secondary literacy support must include instruction in word identification, vocabulary, and comprehension skills.

Michelle McCollin; Doris J. OShea; Kathleen McQuiston

2009-01-01

439

Cognitive processes underlying lottery and sports gambling decisions: The role of stated probabilities and background knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies compared choice and underlying cognitive processes in equivalent decision tasks involving risk and uncertainty (lotteries versus sports gambles including displayed expert probability judgements). In sports gambles, background knowledge was triggered via information on team location, home or away. Otherwise, displayed risk information (stake, winnings, odds, and outcome probabilities) was controlled across gamble type. In a choice study, home

Rob Ranyard; John Charlton

2006-01-01

440

Comprehensive bibliography and index of environmental information along the three alternative gas pipeline routes. Supplement No. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography of 141 references was compiled to provide increased access to environmental information pertinent to the three alternative natural gas pipeline routes from Prudhoe Bay through Alaska (only the Alaskan segment of each was included). Environmental features within 15 miles of any segment of the routes are covered. The following indexes are included: author, geographic, map, earth sciences, biological

E. H. Buck; A. Allen; R. B. Olshansky; S. H. Pennell

1979-01-01

441

Development of tool for the assessment of comprehension of informed consent form in healthy volunteers participating in first-in-human studies.  

PubMed

Informed consent is a process that involves providing all pertinent study information to the potential study participant. The information imparted in the form gives all such information as would enable a potential participant to come to a decision regarding his/her participation in the study. Various study related aspects are outlined in the participant information leaflet including the background of the study, the benefits and risks, treatment alternatives; the methodology of the study, follow up schedules, confidentiality of the data, compensations and remunerations and right to not participate or withdraw from the study. We have continued a similar exercise for a phase I, first-in-human study, conducted by our center. Here, the volunteers were asked certain questions pertaining to the trial background, design, patients' rights and miscellaneous categories. They were then assessed and the scores compared to come up with certain conclusions. The median (range) for the entire comprehension score was calculated and statistically analyzed on various aspects. Readability of the ease of reading of the consent form was also analyzed on a Flesch-Kinkaid reading scale. A total of 69 volunteers were screened out of which 50 were enrolled in the study. The median (range) score was 27 (19 to 33) and the mean (S.D.) score was 28.9 (3.1). The maximum correct responses were observed for the questions falling under the volunteers' rights category. The Flesch reading ease score was 54 and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade level score was 9.8. Investigators may be encouraged to incorporate such tools in their informed consent process. PMID:21664491

Arora, A; Rajagopalan, S; Shafiq, N; Pandhi, P; Bhalla, A; Dhibar, D P; Malhotra, S

2011-06-01

442

[Orthorexia nervosa and it's background factors].  

PubMed

The place of orthorexia nervosa (ON)--described by Bratman in 1997--is not clearly defined in the diagnostic systems. However, the increasing number of clinical experiences and research data gives us more and more information about the epidemiology, and the social and individual characteristics of ON. The general population shows a 6.9% prevalence of ON; healthcare professionals are at high risk of ON with the prevalence rate of 35-57.6%. Education, the choice of profession, socioeconomic status and the internalization of the ideals of society are significant factors in the development of ON, while sex, age and body mass index do not seem to be determining variables in this respect. The lack of common criteria and proper research results on ON makes it impossible to generalize data on the general population. Further studies with larger representative samples and assessment instruments with good psychometric properties are necessary to make research data on ON comparable. PMID:23971352

Varga, Márta; Dukay-Szabo, Szilvia; Túry, Ferenc

2013-07-30

443

Testing string theory with cosmic microwave background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future detection/non-detection of tensor modes from inflation in cosmic microwave background observations presents a unique way to test certain features of string theory. The current limit on the ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations, r = T/S, is r\\lesssim 0.3 ; future detection may take place for r \\gtrsim 10^{-2} 10-3. At present all known string theory inflation models predict tensor modes well below the level of detection. Therefore a possible experimental discovery of tensor modes may present a challenge to string cosmology. The strongest bound on r in string inflation follows from the observation that in most of the models based on the Kachru Kallosh Linde Trivedi construction, the value of the Hubble constant H during inflation must be smaller than the gravitino mass. For the gravitino mass in the usual range, m_{3/2} \\lesssim {\\cal O}(1) TeV, this leads to an extremely strong bound r \\lesssim 10^{{-24}} . A discovery of tensor perturbations with r\\gtrsim 10^{-3} would imply that the gravitinos in this class of models are superheavy, m_{3/2}\\gtrsim 10^{13} GeV. This would have important implications for particle phenomenology based on string theory.

Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei

2007-04-01

444

The superhealing MRL background improves muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Mice from the MRL or “superhealing” strain have enhanced repair after acute injury to the skin, cornea, and heart. We now tested an admixture of the MRL genome and found that it altered the course of muscle pathology and cardiac function in a chronic disease model of skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mice lacking ?-sarcoglycan (Sgcg), a dystrophin-associated protein, develop muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy similar to their human counterparts with limb girdle muscular dystrophy. With disruption of the dystrophin complex, the muscle plasma membrane becomes leaky and muscles develop increased fibrosis. Methods MRL/MpJ mice were bred with Sgcg mice, and cardiac function was measured. Muscles were assessed for fibrosis and membrane leak using measurements of hydroxyproline and Evans blue dye. Quantitative trait locus mapping was conducted using single nucleotide polymorphisms distinct between the two parental strains. Results Introduction of the MRL genome reduced fibrosis but did not alter membrane leak in skeletal muscle of the Sgcg model. The MRL genome was also associated with improved cardiac function with reversal of depressed fractional shortening and the left ventricular ejection fraction. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic modifiers and found that a region on chromosome 2 was associated with cardiac, diaphragm muscle and abdominal muscle fibrosis. Conclusions These data are consistent with a model where the MRL genome acts in a dominant manner to suppress fibrosis in this chronic disease setting of heart and muscle disease.

2012-01-01

445

Spatial Statistics of Cosmic Microwave Background Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial statistics in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) maps are characterized by N-point correlation functions and their corresponding poly-spectra. I focus on basic statistical properties (noise, bias, optimality), and computational issues regarding two- and three-point functions, or angular power spectrum and bi-spectrum. Optimal estimators scale as D^3 for even the two-point statistics, where D is the number of data elements Even naive estimators scale scale D^N for N-point functions. I show that these daunting computational challenges can be met for present and future megapixel CMB maps with considerations about symmetries, multi-resolution techniques, and Monte Carlo methods and careful balancing of optimality, and resolution against computational resources. Once estimated, the interpretation of higher order correlation functions presents unique difficulties due to the large number of configurations: e.g., ?^2 fitting of parameters becomes non-trivial because of the large size of the corresponding covariance matrices. I show that False Discovery Rate based methods can be used for massive hypothesis testing, and I present techniques which help diagnosing and inverting covariance matrices obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.

Szapudi, I.

2007-11-01

446

Astronomical background of global huge earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes the astronomical background of the global huge earthquakes with M?8.5. The result shows that most of the earthquakes has occurred in the seismic belts (regions) where is being corresponding seismic active period with the lunar path, solar active falling period and accelerating period of earth rotation. This is as for the variation of long period of astronomical factors. For the variation of short period of astronomical factors, whether for local time or local sidereal time and lunar phase there is the phenomenon of occurrence of concentrating a interval time for the earthquakes. For the short variation of earth rotation this phenomenon is clear; either the earthquakes occur in most fast or in lowest of earth rotation. The above-mentioned results indicate that the eartquakes occurrence is affected by astronomical factors. The astronomical factors are one of motive force causing earthquake from external world. The astronomical factors with long period may act as modulation for the earthquake-pregnant process. And the astronomical factors with short period will causing huge fluctuations of the system and earthquake occur when it act on seismic structure of away from balance state.

Hu, Hui; Han, Yan-Ben

2006-03-01

447

LED light fixture with background lighting  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An illumination device with a number of light sources arranged in at least two groups of light sources that are individually controllable. The first group of light sources (203) have light collectors (209) such as internal reflection (TIR) lenses, mixers or other lenses placed over them to collect and convert light of the light sources into a number of light source beams. The second group of light sources (205) pass light through diffusing areas (215) of a diffuser (213) in the form of a diffusion cover included in the lamp housing to diffuse the light and create a background light for the first group of light sources. The light from the first group of light sources pass through non diffusing regions (211) of the diffuser cover without the light being diffused. The second group of light sources are interleaved with the first group by the diffuser having one or several diffusion areas between non diffusion areas. By controlling both groups of light sources based on the same target color the dotted look of led light sources can be removed or by controlling the two groups of light sources based on two different colors light effects can be obtained. The illumination device can be included in a moving head light source with a base, a yoke connected rotatably to the base and the head connected rotatably to the head.

2013-07-09

448

The Future of Cosmic Microwave Background Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) have led to a remarkable picture of the origin, make-up and evolution of the universe. The measurements provide support for the inflation theory of the big bang. In the broadest sense, the measurements have allowed a full accounting of the stuff that makes up the universe, although we know few details beyond the few percent contributed by ordinary matter. Future measurements will focus on characterizing the temperature anisotropy on finer angular scales and the polarization anisotropy on all angular scales. These measurements can be used to constrain the neutrino mass and the equation of state of the Dark Energy. The most exciting future prospect, and by far the most challenging experiment, is the possibility of detecting the signature of inflationary gravitational waves generated in the first instants of time imprinted on the CMB polarization. After a brief review of the current status and ongoing experiments, this talk will focus on the expectations and challenges for future CMB observations.

Carlstrom, John

2006-04-01

449

Molecular background of novel silent RHCE alleles.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The absence of expression of C/c and E/e antigens has been associated with rare variant RHCE alleles, referred to as silent RHCE alleles, classically identified among individuals with a rare D-?- or Rh(null) phenotype. This work reports on different molecular mechanisms identified in three novel silent RHCE alleles. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from D-?- or Rh(null) individuals and their family members, from families for whom Rh phenotype and/or serologic data were unexplained by inheritance of conventional RH alleles, were analyzed. Genomic DNA and transcripts were tested by sequencing analysis. RESULTS: The first silent allele was a RHCE*cE allele carrying an intronic IVS3+5G>A mutation. The second was a RHCE*ce allele carrying an intronic IVS7-2A>G mutation, whereas the third was a silent RHCE*ce allele carrying a 5-bp deletion (Nucleotides 679-683) in Exon?5. CONCLUSION: In addition to hybrid alleles and nucleotide deletion, intronic mutations may be associated with the nonexpression of RhCE antigens. Regarding the RH system, silent alleles may not be investigated among D-?- or Rh(null) individuals only. Rh phenotype and/or serologic data unexplained by inheritance of conventional RH alleles should lead to molecular investigations. PMID:23252593

Pham, Bach-Nga; Ramelet, Stéphanie; Wibaut, Bénédicte; Juszczak, Genevieve; Loukil, Chawki; Dubeaux, Isabelle; Gien, Dominique; Kappler-Gratias, Sandrine; Rouger, Philippe; Le Pennec, Pierre-Yves

2012-12-17

450

Evolution of the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the time dependence and future of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in the context of the standard cosmological model, in which we are now entering a state of endless accelerated expansion. The mean temperature will simply decrease until it reaches the effective temperature of the de Sitter vacuum, while the dipole will oscillate as the sun orbits the Galaxy. However, the higher CMB multipoles have a richer phenomenology. The CMB anisotropy power spectrum will for the most part simply project to smaller scales, as the comoving distance to last scattering increases, and we derive a scaling relation that describes this behavior. However, there will also be a dramatic increase in the integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution at low multipoles. We also discuss the effects of tensor modes and optical depth due to Thomson scattering. We introduce a correlation function relating the sky maps at two times and the closely related power spectrum of the difference map. We compute the evolution both analytically and numerically, and present simulated future sky maps.

Zibin, James P.; Moss, Adam; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2007-12-15

451

Riga Dynamo experiment and its mathematical background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that almost all magnetic fields in a natural environment are a result of the dynamo process -- field generation in a moving nearly homogeneous electroconducting fluid in deeps of celestial bodies such as Earth, most of the planets, Sun, another stars and even galaxies. We are not going to model in the laboratory any particular celestial body. Our aim is to demonstrate the very idea -- intense motion in a large volume of good electroconducting liquid creates magnetic field. As the working fluid serve 2 qm of molten sodium -- the best electroconducting liquid available. It is filled in a 3m long and 0.8m thich annular vessel. At the top in it is propeller powered by two 100kW motors and producing swirling sodium circulation within the vessel. At high enough circulation appears magnetic field. Field pattern slowly rotates round the vessel's axis rising AC signal in any field's sensor. The observed field strength is about 0.1T. The experiment was at first computer simulated and optimized. Then by means of water the desired flow structure was achieved. After this the vessel was filled with sodium and magnetic field observed exactly as predicted. In present meeting we will touch details of field pattern, fields turbulent spectra, field produced motions in sodium etc as well as mathematical background of the experiment.

Gailitis, Agris

2003-10-01

452

Tailoring online information retrieval to user's needs based on a logical semantic approach to natural language processing and UMLS mapping.  

PubMed

Depression can derail teenagers' lives and cause serious chronic health problems. Acquiring pertinent knowledge and skills supports care management, but retrieving appropriate information can be difficult. This poster presents a strategy to tailor online information to user attributes using a logical semantic approach to natural language processing (NLP) and mapping propositions to UMLS terms. This approach capitalizes on existing NLM resources and presents a potentially sustainable plan for meeting consumers and providers information needs. PMID:18694113

Kossman, Susan; Jones, Josette; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

2007-10-11

453

Federal Assistance for Elementary and Secondary Education: Background Information on Selected Programs Likely To Be Considered for Reauthorization by the 100th Congress. Prepared for the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. Committee Print.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Congressional Research Service has compiled the information in this document in order to assist the 100th Congress as it considers reauthorization of most of the major Federal elementary and secondary programs. For each program, basic statistics, a short history, and a summary of the major issues confronting the Congress in reauthorization…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

454

Primordial helium and the cosmic background radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The products of primordial nucleosynthesis, along with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, are relics from the early evolution of the Universe whose observations probe the standard model of cosmology and provide windows on new physics beyond the standard models of cosmology and of particle physics. According to the standard, hot big bang cosmology, long before any stars have formed a significant fraction ( ~ 25%) of the baryonic mass in the Universe should be in the form of helium-4 nuclei. Since current observations of 4He are restricted to low redshift regions where stellar nucleosynthesis has occurred, an observation of high redshift, prestellar, truly primordial 4He would constitute a fundamental test of the hot, big bang cosmology. At recombination, long after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) has ended, the temperature anisotropy spectrum imprinted on the CMB depends on the 4He abundance through its connection to the electron density and the effect of the electron density on Silk damping. Since the relic abundance of 4He is relatively insensitive to the universal density of baryons, but is sensitive to a non-standard, early Universe expansion rate, the primordial mass fraction of 4He, Yp, offers a test of the consistency of the standard models of BBN and the CMB and, provides constraints on non-standard physics. Here, the WMAP seven year data (supplemented by other CMB experiments), which lead to an indirect determination of Yp at high redshift, are compared to the BBN predictions and to the independent, direct observations of 4He in low redshift, extragalactic HII regions. At present, given the very large uncertainties in the CMB-determined primordial 4He abundance (as well as for the helium abundances inferred from HII region observations), any differences between the BBN predictions and the CMB observations are small, at a level lap1.5?.

Steigman, Gary

2010-04-01

455

NLC and the background atmosphere above ALOMAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noctilucent clouds (NLC) have been measured by the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman-lidar at the ALOMAR research facility in Northern Norway (69° N, 16° E). From 1997 to 2010 NLC were detected during more than 1850 h on 440 different days. Colocated MF-radar measurements and calculations with the Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere (LIMA-) model are used to characterize the background atmosphere. Temperatures as well as horizontal winds at 83 km altitude show distinct differences during NLC compared to the absence of NLC. On seasonal mean it is colder and the winds are stronger westward when NLC are detected. The wind separation is a robust feature as it shows up in measurements as well as in model and it is consistent with the current understanding that lower temperatures support the existence of ice particles. For the whole 14-years data set there is no statistically significant relation between NLC occurrence and solar activity. On the other hand NLC occurrence and temperatures at 83 km show a significant anti-correlation, which suggests that the thermal state plays a major role for the existence of ice particles and dominates the pure Lyman-? influence on water vapor during certain years. We find the seasonal mean NLC altitudes to be correlated to both Lyman-? radiation and temperature. NLC above ALOMAR are strongly influenced by atmospheric tides. Diurnal and semidiurnal amplitudes and phases show partly pronounced year-to-year variations. In general, amplitudes as well as phases vary in a different manner. Amplitudes change by a factor of more than 3 and phases vary by up to 7 h. Such variability can impact NLC observations limited to fixed local times.

Fiedler, J.; Baumgarten, G.; Berger, U.; Hoffmann, P.; Kaifler, N.; Lübken, F.-J.

2011-02-01

456

NLC and the background atmosphere above ALOMAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noctilucent clouds (NLC) have been measured by the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman-lidar at the ALOMAR research facility in Northern Norway (69° N, 16° E). From 1997 to 2010 NLC were detected during more than 1850 h on 440 different days. Colocated MF-radar measurements and calculations with the Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere (LIMA-) model are used to characterize the background atmosphere. Temperatures as well as horizontal winds at 83 km altitude show distinct differences during NLC observations compared to when NLC are absent. The seasonally averaged temperature is lower and the winds are stronger westward when NLC are detected. The wind separation is a robust feature as it shows up in measurements as well as in model results and it is consistent with the current understanding that lower temperatures support the existence of ice particles. For the whole 14-year data set there is no statistically significant relation between NLC occurrence and solar Lyman-? radiation. On the other hand NLC occurrence and temperatures at 83 km show a significant anti-correlation, which suggests that the thermal state plays a major role for the existence of ice particles and dominates the pure Lyman-? influence on water vapor during certain years. We find the seasonal mean NLC altitudes to be correlated to both Lyman-? radiation and temperature. NLC above ALOMAR are strongly influenced by atmospheric tides. The cloud water content varies by a factor of 2.8 over the diurnal cycle. Diurnal and semidiurnal amplitudes and phases show some pronounced year-to-year variations. In general, amplitudes as well as phases vary in a different manner. Amplitudes change by a factor of more than 3 and phases vary by up to 7 h. Such variability could impact long-term NLC observations which do not cover the full diurnal cycle.

Fiedler, J.; Baumgarten, G.; Berger, U.; Hoffmann, P.; Kaifler, N.; Lübken, F.-J.

2011-06-01

457

Spectrophotometric measurement of the Extragalacic Background Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) at UV, optical and NIR wavelengths consists of the integrated light of all unresolved galaxies along the line of sight plus any contributions by intergalactic matter including hypothetical decaying relic particles. The measurement of the EBL has turned out to be a tedious problem. This is because of the foreground components of the night sky brightness, much larger than the EBL itself: the Zodiacal Light (ZL), Integrated Starlight (ISL), Diffuse Galactic Light (DGL) and, for ground-based observations, the Airglow (AGL) and the tropospheric scattered light. We have been developing a method for the EBL measurement which utilises the screening effect of a dark nebula on the EBL. A differential measurement in the direction of a high-latitude dark nebula and its surrounding area provides a signal that is due to two components only, i.e. the EBL and the diffusely scattered ISL from the cloud. We present a progress report of this method where we are now utilising intermediate resolution spectroscopy with ESO's VLT telescope. We detect and remove the scattered ISL component by using its characteristic Fraunhofer line spectral signature. In contrast to the ISL, in the EBL spectrum all spectral lines are washed out. We present a high quality spectrum representing the difference between an opaque position within our target cloud and several clear OFF positions around the cloud. We derive a preliminary EBL value at 400 nm and an upper limit to the EBL at 520 nm. These values are in the same range as the EBL lower limits derived from galaxy counts. Unit: We will use in this paper the abbreviation 1 cgs = 10-9erg s-1cm-2sr-1Å-1

Mattila, Kalevi; Lehtinen, Kimmo; Väisänen, Petri; von Appen-Schnur, Gerhard; Leinert, Christoph

2012-08-01

458

Spectral measurements of the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect

Three experiments have measured the intensity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at wavelengths 4.0, 3.0, and 0.21 cm. The measurement at 4.0 cm used a direct-gain total-power radiometer to measure the difference in power between the zenith sky and a large cryogenic reference target. Foreground signals are measured with the same instrument and subtracted from the zenith signal, leaving the CMB as the residual. The reference target consists of a large open-mouth cryostat with a microwave absorber submerged in liquid helium; thin windows block the radiative heat load and prevent condensation atmospheric gases within the cryostat. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 4.0 cm is 2.59 +- 0.07 K. The measurement at 3.0 cm used a superheterodyne Dicke-switched radiometer with a similar reference target to measure the zenith sky temperature. A rotating mirror allowed one of the antenna beams to be redirected to a series of zenith angles, permitting automated atmospheric measurements without moving the radiometer. A weighted average of 5 years of data provided the thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 3.0 cm of 2.62 +- 0.06 K. The measurement at 0.21 cm used Very Large Array observations of interstellar ortho-formaldehyde to determine the CMB intensity in molecular clouds toward the giant HII region W51A (G49.5-0.4). Solutions of the radiative transfer problem in the context of a large velocity gradient model provided estimates of the CMB temperature within the foreground clouds. Collisional excitation from neutral hydrogen molecules within the clouds limited the precision of the result. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB at 0.21 cm is 3.2 +- 0.9 K. 72 refs., 27 figs., 38 tabs.

Kogut, A.J.

1989-04-01

459

Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.  

PubMed

Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land-based renewable resource-subsistence activities still being a major part of many local economies. PMID:19714957

Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

2009-07-01

460

BLAST: RESOLVING THE COSMIC SUBMILLIMETER BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has made 1 deg{sup 2}, deep, confusion-limited maps at three different bands, centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South Field. By calculating the covariance of these maps with catalogs of 24 mum sources from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, we have determined that the total submillimeter intensities are 8.60 +- 0.59, 4.93 +- 0.34, and 2.27 +- 0.20 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at 250, 350, and 500 mum, respectively. These numbers are more precise than previous estimates of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and are consistent with 24 mum-selected galaxies generating the full intensity of the CIB. We find that the fraction of the CIB that originates from sources at z >= 1.2 increases with wavelength, with 60% from high-redshift sources at 500 mum. At all BLAST wavelengths, the relative intensity of high-z sources is higher for 24 mum-faint sources than that for 24 mum-bright sources. Galaxies identified as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by their Infrared Array Camera colors are 1.6-2.6 times brighter than the average population at 250-500 mum, consistent with what is found for X-ray-selected AGNs. BzK-selected galaxies are found to be moderately brighter than typical 24 mum-selected galaxies in the BLAST bands. These data provide high-precision constraints for models of the evolution of the number density and intensity of star-forming galaxies at high redshift.

Marsden, Gaelen; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Ngo, Henry [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, James J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de AstrofIsica Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Magnelli, Benjamin [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d'Astrophysique, Bat. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Olmi, Luca [Physics Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Box 23343, UPR station, Puerto Rico 00931 (United States); Patanchon, Guillaume, E-mail: gmarsden@phas.ubc.c [Universite Paris Diderot, Laboratoire APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet 75205 Paris (France)

2009-12-20

461

Difference image photometry with bright variable backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades the Andromeda galaxy (M31) has been something of a test-bed for methods aimed at obtaining accurate time-domain relative photometry within highly crowded fields. Difference imaging methods, originally pioneered towards M31, have evolved into sophisticated methods, such as the optimal image subtraction (OIS) method of Alard & Lupton, that today are most widely used to survey variable stars, transients and microlensing events in our own Galaxy. We show that modern difference image analysis (DIA) algorithms such as OIS, whilst spectacularly successful towards the Milky Way bulge, may perform badly towards high surface brightness targets such as the M31 bulge. Poor results can occur in the presence of common systematics which add spurious flux contributions to images, such as internal reflections, scattered light or fringing. Using data from the Angstrom Project microlensing survey of the M31 bulge, we show that very good results are usually obtainable by first performing careful photometric alignment prior to using OIS to perform point spread function (PSF) matching. This separation of background matching and PSF matching, a common feature of earlier M31 photometry techniques, allows us to take full advantage of the powerful PSF matching flexibility offered by OIS towards high surface brightness targets. We find that difference images produced this way have noise distributions close to Gaussian, showing significant improvement upon results achieved using OIS alone. We show that with this correction light curves of variable stars and transients can be recovered to within ~10arcsec of the M31 nucleus. Our method is simple to implement and is quick enough to be incorporated within real-time DIA pipelines. We also demonstrate that OIS is remarkably robust even when, as in the case of the central regions of the M31 bulge, the sky density of variable sources approaches the confusion limit.

Kerins, E.; Darnley, M. J.; Duke, J. P.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Newsam, A.; Park, B. G.; Street, R.

2010-11-01

462

Weatherization Assistance Program - Background Data and Statistics  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum is intended to provide readers with information that may be useful in understanding the purposes, performance, and outcomes of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program (Weatherization). Weatherization has been in operation for over thirty years and is the nation's largest single residential energy efficiency program. Its primary purpose, established by law, is 'to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings owned or occupied by low-income persons, reduce their total residential energy expenditures, and improve their health and safety, especially low-income persons who are particularly vulnerable such as the elderly, the handicapped, and children.' The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act PL111-5 (ARRA), passed and signed into law in February 2009, committed $5 Billion over two years to an expanded Weatherization Assistance Program. This has created substantial interest in the program, the population it serves, the energy and cost savings it produces, and its cost-effectiveness. This memorandum is intended to address the need for this kind of information. Statistically valid answers to many of the questions surrounding Weatherization and its performance require comprehensive evaluation of the program. DOE is undertaking precisely this kind of independent evaluation in order to ascertain program effectiveness and to improve its performance. Results of this evaluation effort will begin to emerge in late 2010 and 2011, but they require substantial time and effort. In the meantime, the data and statistics in this memorandum can provide reasonable and transparent estimates of key program characteristics. The memorandum is laid out in three sections. The first deals with some key characteristics describing low-income energy consumption and expenditures. The second section provides estimates of energy savings and energy bill reductions that the program can reasonably be presumed to be producing. The third section deals with estimates of program cost-effectiveness and societal impacts such as carbon reduction and reduced national energy consumption. Each of the sections is brief, containing statistics, explanatory graphics and tables as appropriate, and short explanations of the statistics in order to place them in context for the reader. The companion appendices at the back of the memorandum explain the methods and sources used in developing the statistics.

Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

2010-03-01

463

Background phosphorus concentrations in Danish groundwater and surface water bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative information on the background concentration and loading of phosphorus is important when establishing the pressure-impact pathway for Danish streams, lakes and estuaries The background phosphorus loading thus determines present day lowest phosphorus loadings without influence from point sources and agriculture. We have mapped the background concentration of phosphorus in Danish groundwater and streams based on monitoring in 3000 groundwater wells, 7 small streams draining undisturbed catchments (1990-2010) and 19 streams draining small undisturbed catchments being monitored during 2004-2005. The concentration particulate P (PP) was found to be nearly constant within eight major georegions of Denmark (0.018 mg ± 0.010 mg P L-1. On contrary, the concentration of total dissolved P (TDP) was found to vary between 0.011-0.071 mg P L-1 within the eight georegions. We have also time series of background total P concentrations from 7 small undisturbed catchments covering the period 1990-2010. No significant trends have been observed in total P concentrations from these streams during the period 1990-2010. The average annual background loss of total phosphorus amounts to 730 tonnes P or 29% of the total loading of phosphorus from the Danish land to sea during the period 2007-2011. The measured TDP concentration in groundwater was much higher under reduced conditions (median: 0.10-0.15 mg P L-1) than in oxidized groundwater (<0.02 mg P L-1). Clear links could be established between TDP concentrations in reduced groundwater and the geological formations where chalk aquifers have low TDP concentrations and interglacial marine clay deposits having high TDP concentrations. No significant relationship could, however, be established between TDP concentration in oxidized groundwater and in stream water within the catchment to the 19 streams draining uncultivated areas. A modelling of the potential discharge of TDP from deeper reduced groundwater to surface waters in Denmark was performed with the MIKE SHE having a grid size of 1x1 km The (DK-model) (Henriksen et al., 2003). The discharge of TDP is low on the Danish Islands (< 1 kg P km-2) but very high in the western part of Jutland (10-17 kg P km-2). The question that can be raised is if these large quantities of TDP from deeper groundwater actually reach surface water or how much of the modelled TPD flux is sorbed in river valley sediments before discharging to surface water? References Henriksen, H.J., Troldborg, L., Nyegaard, P., Sonnenborg, T.O., Refsgaard, J.C. and Madsen, B. (2003) Methodology for construction, calibration and validation of a national hydrological model for Denmark. Journal of Hydrology (280) 52-71.

Kronvang, Brian; Bøgestrand, Jens; Windolf, Jørgen; Ovesen, Niels; Troldborg, Lars

2013-04-01

464

Advanced information society (1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In considering the relationship of informationization and industrial structure, this paper analize some factors such as information revolution, informationization of industries and industrialization of information as background of informationization of Japanese society. Next, some information indicators such as, information coefficient of household which is a share of information related expenditure, information coefficient of industry which is a share of information related cost to total cost of production, and information transmission census developed by Ministry of Post and Telecommunication are introduced. Then new information indicator by Economic Planning Agency, that is, electronic info-communication indicator is showed. In this study, the information activities are defined to produce message or to supply services on process, stores or sale of message using electronic information equipment. International comparisons of information labor force are also presented.

Ohira, Gosei

465

Quantum Field Theory on Curved Backgrounds — a Primer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Goal of this paper is to introduce the algebraic approach to quantum field theory on curved backgrounds. Based on a set of axioms, first written down by Haag and Kastler, this method consists of a two-step procedure. In the first one, it is assigned to a physical system a suitable algebra of observables, which is meant to encode all algebraic relations among observables, such as commutation relations. In the second step, one must select an algebraic state in order to recover the standard Hilbert space interpretation of a quantum system. As quantum field theories possess infinitely many degrees of freedom, many unitarily inequivalent Hilbert space representations exist and the power of such approach is the ability to treat them all in a coherent manner. We will discuss in detail the algebraic approach for free fields in order to give the reader all necessary information to deal with the recent literature, which focuses on the applications to specific problems, mostly in cosmology.

Benini, Marco; Dappiaggi, Claudio; Hack, Thomas-Paul

2013-07-01

466

Backgrounds of computer-assisted treatment planning in radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Interaction of ionising radiation and living materials causes biological damage of tempory or permanent nature. In radiation therapy this phenomenon is used in a controlled fashion in order to stop the proliferation of malignant cells, while at the same time limiting the permanent damage to healthy tissues and organs to at least tolerable levels. Because of the often relatively small differences in response of malignant growths and normal tissues, the margins between tolerable and intolerable are so small that the greatest precision in treatment planning and execution is required. The nature of this treatment agent implies that the radiation therapist has to rely very much on instrumentally obtained and processed information, in all phases of this medical activities around the patient. In this paper a description is given of the backgrounds of computer-assisted methods which have enabled modern individualised and optimised planning for therapy with high enery X - and gamma beams. PMID:1178845

van de Geijn, J

1975-06-01

467

Background Subtraction Based on Color and Depth Using Active Sensors  

PubMed Central

Depth information has been used in computer vision for a wide variety of tasks. Since active range sensors are currently available at low cost, high-quality depth maps can be used as relevant input for many applications. Background subtraction and video segmentation algorithms can be improved by fusing depth and color inputs, which are complementary and allow one to solve many classic color segmentation issues. In this paper, we describe one fusion method to combine color and depth based on an advanced color-based algorithm. This technique has been evaluated by means of a complete dataset recorded with Microsoft Kinect, which enables comparison with the original method. The proposed method outperforms the others in almost every test, showing more robustness to illumination changes, shadows, reflections and camouflage.

Fernandez-Sanchez, Enrique J.; Diaz, Javier; Ros, Eduardo

2013-01-01

468

Background subtraction based on color and depth using active sensors.  

PubMed

Depth information has been used in computer vision for a wide variety of tasks. Since active range sensors are currently available at low cost, high-quality depth maps can be used as relevant input for many applications. Background subtraction and video segmentation algorithms can be improved by fusing depth and color inputs, which are complementary and allow one to solve many classic color segmentation issues. In this paper, we describe one fusion method to combine color and depth based on an advanced color-based algorithm. This technique has been evaluated by means of a complete dataset recorded with Microsoft Kinect, which enables comparison with the original method. The proposed method outperforms the others in almost every test, showing more robustness to illumination changes, shadows, reflections and camouflage. PMID:23857259

Fernandez-Sanchez, Enrique J; Diaz, Javier; Ros, Eduardo

2013-07-12

469

Evaluation of Background Mercury Concentrations in the SRS Groundwater System  

SciTech Connect

Mercury analyses associated with the A-01 Outfall have highlighted the importance of developing an understanding of mercury in the Savannah River Site groundwater system and associated surface water streams. This activity is critical based upon the fact that the EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for this constituent is 0.012mg/L, a level that is well below conventional detection limits of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L. A first step in this process is obtained by utilizing the existing investment in groundwater mercury concentrations (20,242 records) maintained in the SRS geographical information management system (GIMS) database. Careful use of these data provides a technically defensible initial estimate for total recoverable mercury in background and contaminated SRS wells.

Looney, B.B.

1999-03-03

470

How Adolescents Use Technology for Health Information: Implications for Health Professionals from Focus Group Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescents present many challenges in providing them effective preventive services and health care. Yet, they are typically the early adopters of new technology (eg, the Internet). This creates important opportunities for engaging youths via eHealth. Objective To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents. Methods Using an inductive qualitative research design, 27 focus groups were conducted in Ontario, Canada. The 210 participants (55% female, 45% male; median age 16 years) were selected to reflect diversity in age, sex, geographic location, cultural identity, and risk. An 8-person team analyzed and coded the data according to major themes. Results Study participants most-frequently sought or distributed information related to school (89%), interacting with friends (85%), social concerns (85%), specific medical conditions (67%), body image and nutrition (63%), violence and personal safety (59%), and sexual health (56%). Finding personally-relevant, high-quality information was a pivotal challenge that has ramifications on the depth and types of information that adolescents can find to answer their health questions. Privacy in accessing information technology was a second key challenge. Participants reported using technologies that clustered into 4 domains along a continuum from highly-interactive to fixed information sources: (1) personal communication: telephone, cell phone, and pager; (2) social communication: e-mail, instant messaging, chat, and bulletin boards; (3) interactive environments: Web sites, search engines, and computers; and (4) unidirectional sources: television, radio, and print. Three emerging roles for health professionals in eHealth include: (1) providing an interface for adolescents with technology and assisting them in finding pertinent information sources; (2) enhancing connection to youths by extending ways and times when practitioners are available; and (3) fostering critical appraisal skills among youths for evaluating the quality of health information. Conclusions This study helps illuminate adolescent health-information needs, their use of information technologies, and emerging roles for health professionals. The findings can inform the design and more-effective use of eHealth applications for adolescent populations.

Biscope, Sherry; Poland, Blake; Goldberg, Eudice

2003-01-01

471

Genetic Background Influences Fluoride's Effects on Osteoclastogenesis  

PubMed Central

Excessive fluoride (F) can lead to abnormal bone biology. Numerous studies have focused on the anabolic action of F yet little is known regarding any action on osteoclastogenesis. Little is known regarding the influence of an individual’s genetic background on the responses of bone cells to F. Four-week old C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) female mice were treated with NaF in the drinking water (0ppm, 50ppm and 100ppm F ion) for 3 weeks. Bone marrow cells were harvested for osteoclastogenesis and hematopoietic colony-forming cell assays. Sera were analyzed for biochemical and bone markers. Femurs, tibiae and lumbar vertebrae were subjected to microCT analysis. Tibiae and femurs were subjected to histology and biomechanical testing, respectively. The results demonstrated new actions of F on osteoclastogenesis and hematopoietic cell differentiation. Strain specific responses were observed. The anabolic action of F was favored in B6 mice exhibiting dose dependent increases in serum ALP activity (p < 0.001); in proximal tibia trabecular and vertebral BMD (tibia at 50&100ppm, p = 0.001; vertebrae at 50&100ppm, p = 0.023&0.019, respectively); and decrease in intact PTH and sRANKL (p = 0.045 and p < 0.001, respectively). F treatment in B6 mice also resulted in increased numbers of CFU-GEMM colonies (p = 0.025). Strain specific accumulations in bone [F] were observed. For C3H mice, dose dependent increases were observed in osteoclast potential (p < 0.001), in situ trabecular osteoclast number (p = 0.007), hematopoietic colony forming units (CFU-GEMM: p < 0.001, CFU-GM: p = 0.006, CFU-M: p < 0.001), and serum markers for osteoclastogenesis (intact PTH: p = 0.004, RANKL: p = 0.022, TRAP5b: p < 0.001). A concordant decrease in serum OPG (p = 0.005) was also observed. Fluoride treatment had no significant effects on bone morphology, BMD and serum PYD crosslinks in C3H suggesting a lack of significant bone resorption. Mechanical properties were also unaltered in C3H. In conclusion, short term F treatment at physiological levels has strain specific effects in mice. The expected anabolic effects were observed in B6 and novel actions hallmarked by enhanced osteoclastogenesis shifts in hematopoietic cell differentiation in the C3H strain.

Yan, Dong; Gurumurthy, Aruna; Wright, Maggie; Pfeiler, T. Wayne; Loboa, Elizabeth G.; Everett, Eric T.

2008-01-01

472

The Sound of the Microwave Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most impressive developments in modern cosmology has been the measurement and analysis of the tiny fluctuations seen in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. When discussing these fluctuations, cosmologists frequently refer to their acoustic nature -- sound waves moving through the hot gas appear as peaks and troughs when they cross the surface of last scattering. As is now well known, recent observations quantify the amplitudes of these waves over several octaves, revealing a fundamental tone with several harmonics, whose relative strengths and pitches reveal important cosmological parameters, including global curvature. Not surprisingly, these results have wonderful pedagogical value in educating and inspiring both students and the general public. To further enhance this educational experience, I have attempted what might seem rather obvious, namely converting the CMB power spectrum into an audible sound. By raising the pitch some 50 octaves so that the fundamental falls at 200 Hz (matching its harmonic ``l" value), we hear the resulting sound as a loud hissing roar. Matching the progress in observational results has been an equally impressive development of the theoretical treatment of CMB fluctuations. Using available computer simulations (e.g. CMBFAST) it is possible to recreate the subtley different sounds generated by different kinds of universe (e.g. different curvature or baryon content). Pushing further, one can generate the ``true" sound, characterized by P(k), rather than the ``observed" sound, characterized by C(l). From P(k), we learn that the fundamental and harmonics are offset, yielding a chord somewhere between a major and minor third. A sequence of models also allows one to follow the growth of sound during the first megayear: a descending scream, changing into a deepening roar, with subsequent growing hiss; matching the increase in wavelength caused by universal expansion, followed by the post recombination flow of gas into the small scale potential wells created by dark matter. This final sound, of course, sets the stage for all subsequent growth of cosmic structure, from stars (hiss), through galaxies (mid-range tones), to large scale structure (bass notes). Although popular presentations of CMB studies already make use of many visual and conceptual aids, introducing sound into the pedagogical mix can significantly enhance both the intellectual and the emotional impact of the subject on its audience.

Whittle, M.

2004-05-01

473

Kanto Asperity Project -Background and Outline-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kanto region (Tokyo and the surrounding area) is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the world and has been devastated by repeated great earthquakes. This region is located at an island arc-island arc collision zone and a zone where Pacific and Philippine Sea plates are subducting. Great earthquakes along the Sagami trough, where the Philippine Sea slab is subducting, have repeatedly occurred. The 1703 Genroku and 1923 (Taisho) Kanto earthquakes caused severe damages in the metropolitan area. The recurrence periods of Taisho- and Genroku-type earthquakes are about 200-400 and 2000 years, respectively (e.g., Earthquake Research Committee, 2004). Many studies on the asperities along the Sagami trough have been carried out. Two asperities of the 1923 Kanto earthquake are located around the western part of Kanagawa prefecture (the base of the Izu peninsula) and around the Miura peninsula. An additional asperity of the 1703 Genroku earthquake is located the southern part of the Boso Peninsula. Slow slip events have also repeatedly occurred in an area adjacent to the asperities of the great earthquakes, off Boso peninsula (e.g., Ozawa et al 2007). In the cases of Nankai and Cascadia, slow slip events occur at deeper levels than the asperities, in a transition zone between the asperity and a region of steady slip. In contrast, slow slip events in the Kanto region have occurred at relatively shallow depths, at the same level as the asperity, raising the possibiltiy of friction controlled by different conditions (materials, fluid, or surface roughness) to those (temperature and pressure) encountered at Nankai and Cascadia. Deep seismic profiling have been carried out since the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban areas (DaiDaiToku) (2002-2006). These profiling successfully presented a new image of the upper surface of the Philippine Sea slab (Sato et al. 2005), which is shallower than the previous models. This profiling also presents that amplitudes of reflections are different between in the asperity and non-asperity regions, suggesting the different characteristics on the plate boundaries in these regions. The Kanto Asperity Project (KAP) have been submitted to IODP to know the geometry, physical properties, and tectonics along the Sagami trough, which are considered to control the occurrence of the great earthquakes and slow slips. The KAP consists of three research components. The first component is shallow drilling, coring, and logging at several sites distributed in wide area for the combined purposes of geological characterization (sediments, basements, and faults), tectonic reconstruction (collision, accretion, and rotation), earthquake history inferred from sediments, and in situ stress measurements. The second is long-term geophysical monitoring with wide area network, focusing on understanding the geometrical and geophysical situation of the system of asperities and non-asperities. The third one is coring and logging plate boundaries in asperity and slow slip regions to measure physical properties. Information obtained in this plan may be effective to modify simulations of earthquake cycles, strong motion, and tsunamis for seismic hazard assessment.

Kobayashi, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Shishikura, M.; Curewitz, D.

2009-12-01

474

Background-oriented schlieren with natural background for quantitative visualization of open-air explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes an attempt of quantitative visualization of open-air explosions via the background-oriented schlieren method (BOS). The shock wave propagation curve and overpressure distribution were extracted from the obtained images and compared with the results of the numerical analysis. The potential of extracting the density distribution behind the shock front is also demonstrated. Two open-air explosions were conducted; one with a 36 -kg emulsion explosive and the other with a 7.89 -kg composition C4 explosive. A high-speed digital video camera was used with a frame rate of 10{,}000 Hz and a pixel size of 800 × 600. A natural background, including trees and grass, was used for BOS measurements instead of the random dots used in a laboratory. The overpressure distribution given by the passing shock was estimated from the visualized images. The estimated overpressures agreed with the values recorded by pressure transducers in the test field. The background displacement caused by light diffraction inside the spherical shock waves was in good agreement, except at the shock front. The results shown here suggest that the BOS method for open-air experiments could provide increasingly better quantitative and conventional visualization results with increasing spatial resolution of high-speed cameras.

Mizukaki, T.; Wakabayashi, K.; Matsumura, T.; Nakayama, K.

2013-07-01

475

Information, Energy and Relocalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the scientifi c and tech- nological backgrounds of two quite different fi elds: petro- chemical geophysics and information technology, and their re- spective and opposite roles in \\

Robert L. Thayer

476

Robust background subtraction method based on 3D model projections with likelihood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a robust background subtraction method for multi-view images, which is essential for realizing free viewpoint video where an accurate 3D model is required. Most of the conventional methods determine background using only visual information from a single camera image, and the precise silhouette cannot be obtained. Our method employs an approach of integrating multi-view images taken by multiple

Hiroshi Sankoh; Akio Ishikawa; Sei Naito; Shigeyuki Sakazawa

2010-01-01

477

Status, plans, and capabilities of the Nuclear Criticality Information System  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS), in preparation since 1981, has substantially evolved and now contains a growing number of resources pertinent to nuclear criticality safety. These resources include bibliographic compilations, experimental data, communications media, and the International Directory of Nuclear Criticality Safety Personnel. These resources are part of the LLNL Technology Information System (TIS) which provides the host computer for NCIS. The TIS provides nationwide access to authorized members of the nuclear criticality community via interactive dial-up from computer terminals that utilize communication facilities such as commercial and federal telephone networks, toll-free WATS lines, TYMNET, and the ARPANET/MILNET computer network.

Koponen, B.L.

1984-01-06

478

Medical information retrieval and WWW browsers at Mayo.  

PubMed Central

Medical information retrieval from "Master Sheet" entries specially indexed for research retrieval has been part of the Mayo culture since 1909. Providing easy to use and universally available WWW access to these and other patient information databases at Mayo via browsers, shines a bright light on issues of privacy and confidentiality, user authentication, need to know, data transmission security, and technical details of interfacing disparate databases on a spectrum of platforms to many types of workstations using a variety of browsers. We review our recent experience, and generalize pertinent issues.

Chute, C. G.; Crowson, D. L.; Buntrock, J. D.

1995-01-01

479

Optimal Background Attenuation for Fielded Radiation Detection Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation detectors are often placed in positions difficult to shield from the effects of terrestrial background. This is particularly true in the case of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) systems, as their wide viewing angle and outdoor installations make them susceptible to terrestrial background from the surrounding area. A low background is desired in most cases, especially when the background noise

Sean M. Robinson; William R. Kaye; John E. Schweppe; Edward R. Siciliano

2006-01-01

480

The Ethical Role of Information in Sustainable Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of sustainable communities, or sustainable development, focuses on the ethical role of information in fostering sustainable environmental development. Topics include background information, developments in information technology, permaculture in the area of horticulture and information ethics, information ethics models, hardware…

Lockway, Larry

1995-01-01

481

A Flat Universe from High-Resolution Maps of the Cosmic MicrowaveBackground Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K Cosmic Microwave Background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole {ell}{sub peak} = (197 {+-} 6), with an amplitude DT{sub 200} = (69 {+-} 8){mu}K. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favored by standard inflationary scenarios.

de Bernardis, P.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill,J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Crill, B.P.; De Gasperis, G.; Farese, P.C.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mason,P.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Melchiorri, A.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield,C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Pogosyan, D.; Prunet, S.; Rao, S.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Sforna, D.; Vittorio, N.

2000-04-28

482

A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

PubMed

The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the Universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole Ipeak = (197 +/- 6), with an amplitude delta T200 = (69 +/- 8) microK. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favoured by standard inflationary models. PMID:10801117

de Bernardis P; Ade; Bock; Bond; Borrill; Boscaleri; Coble; Crill; De Gasperis G; Farese; Ferreira; Ganga; Giacometti; Hivon; Hristov; Iacoangeli; Jaffe; Lange; Martinis; Masi; Mason; Mauskopf; Melchiorri; Miglio; Montroy; Netterfield

2000-04-27

483

A method to characterise site, urban and regional ambient background radiation.  

PubMed

Control dosemeters are routinely provided to customers to monitor the background radiation so that it can be subtracted from the gross response of the dosemeter to arrive at the occupational dose. Landauer, the largest dosimetry processor in the world with subsidiaries in Australia, Brazil, China, France, Japan, Mexico and the UK, has clients in approximately 130 countries. The Glenwood facility processes over 1.1 million controls per year. This network of clients around the world provides a unique ability to monitor the world's ambient background radiation. Control data can be mined to provide useful historical information regarding ambient background rates and provide a historical baseline for geographical areas. Historical baseline can be used to provide site or region-specific background subtraction values, document the variation in ambient background radiation around a client's site or provide a baseline for measuring the efficiency of clean-up efforts in urban areas after a dirty bomb detonation. PMID:20959341

Passmore, C; Kirr, M

2010-10-19

484

A lower-limit flux for the extragalactic background light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The extragalactic background light (EBL) contains information about the evolution of galaxies from very early times up to the present. The spectral energy distribution is not known accurately, especially in the near- and mid-infrared range. Upper limits and absolute measurements come from direct observations which might be be polluted by foreground emission, while indirect upper limits can also be set by observations of high energy gamma-ray sources. Galaxy number counts integrations of observable galaxies, missing possible faint sources, give strict lower limits. Aims: A model is constructed, which reproduces the EBL lower limit flux. This model can be used for a guaranteed minimum correction of observed spectra of extragalactic gamma-ray sources for extragalactic absorption. Methods: A forward evolution model for the metagalactic radiation field is used to fit recent observations of satelites like Spitzer, ISO, Hubble and GALEX. The model is applied to calculate the Fazio-Stecker relation, and to compute the absorption factor at different redshifts and corrected blazar spectra. Results: A strict lower-limit flux for the evolving extragalactic background light (and in particular the cosmic infrared background) has been calculated up to a redshift of five. The computed flux is below the existing upper limits from direct observations, and agrees with all existing limits derived from very-high energy gamma-ray observations. The corrected spectra still agree with simple theoretical predictions. The derived strict lower-limit EBL flux is very close to the upper limits from gamma-ray observations. This is true for the present day EBL, but also for the diffuse flux at higher redshift. Conclusions: If future detections of high redshift gamma-ray sources require a lower EBL flux than derived here, the physics assumptions used to derive the upper limits have to be revised. The lower-limit EBL model is not only needed for absorption features in active galactic nuclei and other gamma-ray sources, but is also essential when alternative particle processes are tested, which could prevent the high energy gamma-rays from being absorbed. It can also be used for a guaranteed interaction of cosmic-ray particles. The model is available online.

Kneiske, T. M.; Dole, H.

2010-06-01

485

Information Structures and Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores how undergraduates seek information across various information structures. Taking part in an interview, fifteen students of diverse backgrounds described their information seeking. The findings pointed to several issues relating to the underlying structures of information resources. Suggestions are made for structural…

Lee, Hur-Li

2008-01-01

486

Information Structures and Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how undergraduates seek information across various information structures. Taking part in an interview, fifteen students of diverse backgrounds described their information seeking. The findings pointed to several issues relating to the underlying structures of in