Science.gov

Sample records for background information pertinent

  1. Sources of geologic and hydrologic information pertinent to ground-water resources in Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trench, Elaine C.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes sources of geologic and hydrologic information useful to water managers and others involved in the investigation, appraisal, development, and protection of ground-water resources in Rhode Island. The geographic scope of the report includes Rhode Island and small adjoining areas of Massachusetts and Connecticut, where drainage basins are shared with these States. The information summarized is found in maps and reports prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and published by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by the State of Rhode Island. Information sources are presented in maps and tables. Reference maps show drainage divides, town lines, and the 7.5-minute grid of latitude and longitude for the State. Maps show availability of surficial geologic maps, bedrock geologic maps, and ground-water studies by 7.5-minute quadrangle, and show availability of ground-water studies by drainage basin, subbasin, and special study area. Sources of geologic and hydrologic information for the thirty-seven 7.5-minute quadrangles covering Rhode Island have been compiled based on the following information categories: surficial geology, bedrock geology, subsurface materials, altitude of bedrock surface, water-table altitudes, water-table contours, saturated thickness, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, drainage divides, recharge areas, ground-water reservoirs, induced infiltration, and ground-water quality. A table for each of the 37 quadrangles lists the major categories of information available for that quadrangle, provides references to the publications in which the information can be found, and indicates the format, scale, and other pertinent attributes of the information. A table organized by report series gives full citations for publications prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey pertaining to the geology and hydrology of Rhode Island. To facilitate location of information for particular municipalities, a table lists cities and towns in the State and the quadrangles that cover each municipality.

  2. Mars Background Information General Information

    E-print Network

    Dennis, Robert G.

    Mars Background Information General Information Here are some quick facts about Mars in comparison with Earth: Mars Earth Atmosphere 95% CO2, 5% N2, Ar & trace gasses 0.007 atm pressure 78% N2, 21% O2, 1 successful fly-by Mariner 9 11/71 - 10/72 Orbit of Mars Viking 1&2 6/76 - 1987 Orbiter and First lander

  3. A genetic prion disease Background information:Background information

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    on homo- or heterozygosity · Genetic counseling ­ Prenatal and pre-implantation diagnosis for familyA genetic prion disease #12;Background information:Background information: About PrionsAbout Prions· Structure ­ Misfolded proteins ­ Not alive; no genetic material · Pathogenesis ­ Convert normal proteins

  4. BACKGROUND INFORMATION October 4, 2004

    E-print Network

    the health of communities. Information from an EPHT network will help federal, state, and local agencies their health. Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange, Atlanta (HELIX-Atlanta) is an effort with environmental hazards. Bridging this gap between health and environmental information systems will provide

  5. Effective leadership in animal groups when no individual has pertinent information about resource locations: How interactions between leaders and followers can result in Lévy walk movement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2013-04-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding how a few informed individuals are able to influence the foraging behaviour of a group and enhance its ability to navigate towards a resource. This research has provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of effective leadership. Here using a simple exactly solvable model we show how effective leadership could operate when no individual in the group has pertinent information about the locations of resources. Simple interactions between an ignorant leader and its followers are found to result in Lévy walk movement patterns that can optimize random searches. The findings may account for the Lévy walk movement patterns seen in some marine predators and for the frequent formation of groups of 2 or 3 ungulates when resources become scarce.

  6. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  7. Background Information 1. What are stem cells?

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Background Information 1. What are stem cells? 2. What might stem cell research achieve? 3. Why we need to continue research using embryonic stem cells? 4. Time taken for discoveries 5. Examples of stem cell therapies in clinical trials 6. Patentability of human embryonic stem cell therapies 7. Creation

  8. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  9. 29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pertinent data. 511.11 Section 511.11 Labor Regulations... FOR AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.11 Pertinent data. Among the types of data which may be considered pertinent... as reflected in profit and loss statements and balance sheets; and (e) Data bearing on...

  10. 29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pertinent data. 511.11 Section 511.11 Labor Regulations... FOR AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.11 Pertinent data. Among the types of data which may be considered pertinent... as reflected in profit and loss statements and balance sheets; and (e) Data bearing on...

  11. 29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pertinent data. 511.11 Section 511.11 Labor Regulations... FOR AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.11 Pertinent data. Among the types of data which may be considered pertinent... as reflected in profit and loss statements and balance sheets; and (e) Data bearing on...

  12. 29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pertinent data. 511.11 Section 511.11 Labor Regulations... FOR AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.11 Pertinent data. Among the types of data which may be considered pertinent... as reflected in profit and loss statements and balance sheets; and (e) Data bearing on...

  13. 29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pertinent data. 511.11 Section 511.11 Labor Regulations... FOR AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.11 Pertinent data. Among the types of data which may be considered pertinent... as reflected in profit and loss statements and balance sheets; and (e) Data bearing on...

  14. Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information

    Cancer.gov

    More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Breast CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the materials cited below.

  15. Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

  16. Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Roger R.

    1987-11-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

  17. Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

  18. Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in

    E-print Network

    Coxson, Darwyn

    Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in the Interior Cedar is to share information with other forest professionals on biodiversity management in Interior Cedar Hemlock licensees to implement this guidance. If biodiversity management in the ICH is significantly inconsistent

  19. Student Performance Standards and Testing Programs: Background Information for Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Joel A.; Rice, Elizabeth V.

    This report provides Minnesota legislators with background information on establishing state educational standards and periodic testing to measure student progress. Scientific management, the accountability movement, and the basic education movement were educational trends of the 1970's providing pressure on states to set standards to improve…

  20. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, R R

    1953-01-01

    Because of the importance of fuel properties in design of aircraft fuel systems the present report has been prepared to provide information on the characteristics of current jet fuels. In addition to information on fuel properties, discussions are presented on fuel specifications, the variations among fuels supplied under a given specification, fuel composition, and the pertinence of fuel composition and physical properties to fuel system design. In some instances the influence of variables such as pressure and temperature on physical properties is indicated. References are cited to provide fuel system designers with sources of information containing more detail than is practicable in the present report.

  1. Thermalization of Mutual Information in Hyperscaling Violating Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Mohammad Reza Tanhayi

    2015-12-13

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in \\cite{Alishahiha:2014jxa} to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description for entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We find that in hyperscaling violating backgrounds the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior (\\emph{e.g.,} at the pre-local-equilibration regime) of the mutual information during the thermalization process. While the scaling violating parameter appears in redefinition of the dimension of the theory.

  2. Thermalization of Mutual Information in Hyperscaling Violating Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Tanhayi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in \\cite{Alishahiha:2014jxa} to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description for entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We find that in hyperscaling violating backgrounds the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior (\\emph{e.g.,} at the pre-local-equilibration regime) of the mutual information during the thermalization process. While the scaling violating parameter appears in redefinition of the dimension of the theory.

  3. 76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Bureau of Investigation National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information... Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division's National Instant Criminal Background Check System..., National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section, Module A-3, 1000 Custer Hollow Road,...

  4. 78 FR 79418 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...designee provide pertinent information for easy record retrieval allowing for increased...processing. Pertinent information includes the requester's...designees pertinent information for easy record retrieval; (5) Annual...

  5. 78 FR 54246 - Agency Emergency Information Collection Reinstatement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ...designee provide pertinent information for easy record retrieval allowing for increased...processing. Pertinent information includes the requester's...designees pertinent information for easy record retrieval; (5) Annual...

  6. Reappraising Abstract Paintings after Exposure to Background Information

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongmin A.; Yun, Kyongsik; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    Can knowledge help viewers when they appreciate an artwork? Experts’ judgments of the aesthetic value of a painting often differ from the estimates of naïve viewers, and this phenomenon is especially pronounced in the aesthetic judgment of abstract paintings. We compared the changes in aesthetic judgments of naïve viewers while they were progressively exposed to five pieces of background information. The participants were asked to report their aesthetic judgments of a given painting after each piece of information was presented. We found that commentaries by the artist and a critic significantly increased the subjective aesthetic ratings. Does knowledge enable experts to attend to the visual features in a painting and to link it to the evaluative conventions, thus potentially causing different aesthetic judgments? To investigate whether a specific pattern of attention is essential for the knowledge-based appreciation, we tracked the eye movements of subjects while viewing a painting with a commentary by the artist and with a commentary by a critic. We observed that critics’ commentaries directed the viewers’ attention to the visual components that were highly relevant to the presented commentary. However, attention to specific features of a painting was not necessary for increasing the subjective aesthetic judgment when the artists’ commentary was presented. Our results suggest that at least two different cognitive mechanisms may be involved in knowledge- guided aesthetic judgments while viewers reappraise a painting. PMID:25945789

  7. 47 CFR 78.3 - Other pertinent rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other pertinent rules. 78.3 Section 78.3 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General § 78.3 Other pertinent rules. Other pertinent provisions of the Commission's rules and regulations relating to the...

  8. Are Disciplinary Distinctions Pertinent to Multicultural Education?: A View from Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabak, Iris

    2005-01-01

    In this article I ask whether disciplinary distinctions are pertinent to multicultural education. Are pedagogical prescriptions aimed at providing access and success to students of diverse backgrounds equally applicable across domains? I review cross-cultural cognitive research to depict defunct deficit and extant pluralistic approaches to…

  9. Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.

    PubMed

    Kerren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses. PMID:24807935

  10. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  11. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background Information A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION Selection practices. §§ 1605.2 &1605.3, App. A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3—Background Information...

  12. Part 1: Background Information Part 1 will cover APEX Scope, Phases, Process, "How we got here",

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    APEX Part 1: Background Information · Part 1 will cover APEX Scope, Phases, Process, "How we got here", Documentation, and How to get more information. · Future Briefings Part 2: EVOLVE (High Concepts, Modelling, and Experiments N. Morley (UCLA) Part 5: Liquid Wall Engineering Issues D. Sze (ANL

  13. English Language Development Theory and Practices: Background Information for "EE" Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, Jean

    This document provides environmental educators with background information on English language development theory and practices. Information was derived from a series of workshops that focused on the objectives of increasing facilitators' familiarity with the theory and practices of English Language Development (ELD) and demonstrating how the…

  14. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  15. Leading Court Decision Pertinent to Public School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    This document comprises eight federal court decisions pertinent to public school desegregation: (1) "Brown v. Board of Education," 347 U.S. 483 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (2) "Bolling v. Sharpe," 374 U.S. 497 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (3) "Brown v.…

  16. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the business”. 29 CFR 1605.1(a)(2), 31 FR 3870 (1966). In 1967, the Commission revised these... “undue hardship”. 29 CFR 1605.1(b)(c), 32 FR 10298. In 1972, Congress amended title VII to incorporate... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background Information A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and...

  18. Education Reform Act 1988 and Further Education. General Background Information. Information Bank Working Paper Number 2706.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graystone, J. A.

    This paper analyzes the implications of the Education Reform Act of 1988 on further education in Great Britain. The six major sections of the paper examine the following: (1) the sections of the act; (2) major proposals in the Education Reform Act 1988; (3) other general information about the act; (4) summary of further education clauses of the…

  19. Overview of groundwater and surface water standards pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Lundahl, A.L.; Williams, S.; Grizzle, B.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document presents an overview of groundwater- and surface water-related laws, regulations, agreements, guidance documents, Executive Orders, and DOE orders pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This document is a summary and is intended to help readers understand which regulatory requirements may apply to their particular circumstances. However, the document is not intended to be used in lieu of applicable regulations. Unless otherwise noted, the information in this report reflects a summary and evaluation completed July 1, 1995. This document is considered a Living Document, and updates on changing laws and regulations will be provided.

  20. Distinguishing vegetation from soil background information. [by gray mapping of Landsat MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    In aircraft and satellite multispectral scanner data, soil background signals are superimposed on or intermingled with information about vegetation. A procedure which accounts for soil background would, therefore, make a considerable contribution to an operational use of Landsat and other spectral data for monitoring the productivity of range, forest, and crop lands. A description is presented of an investigation which was conducted to obtain information for the development of such a procedure. The investigation included a study of the soil reflectance that supplies the background signal of vegetated surfaces. Landsat data as recorded on computer compatible tapes were used in the study. The results of the investigation are discussed, taking into account a study reported by Kauth and Thomas (1976). Attention is given to the determination of Kauth's plane of soils, sun angle effects, vegetation index modeling, and the evaluation of vegetation indexes. Graphs are presented which show the results obtained with a gray mapping technique. The technique makes it possible to display plant, soil, water, and cloud conditions for any Landsat overpass.

  1. A Neural Mechanism for Background Information-Gated Learning Based on Axonal-Dendritic Overlaps

    PubMed Central

    Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing certain events triggers the acquisition of new memories. Although necessary, however, actual experience is not sufficient for memory formation. One-trial learning is also gated by knowledge of appropriate background information to make sense of the experienced occurrence. Strong neurobiological evidence suggests that long-term memory storage involves formation of new synapses. On the short time scale, this form of structural plasticity requires that the axon of the pre-synaptic neuron be physically proximal to the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron. We surmise that such “axonal-dendritic overlap” (ADO) constitutes the neural correlate of background information-gated (BIG) learning. The hypothesis is based on a fundamental neuroanatomical constraint: an axon must pass close to the dendrites that are near other neurons it contacts. The topographic organization of the mammalian cortex ensures that nearby neurons encode related information. Using neural network simulations, we demonstrate that ADO is a suitable mechanism for BIG learning. We model knowledge as associations between terms, concepts or indivisible units of thought via directed graphs. The simplest instantiation encodes each concept by single neurons. Results are then generalized to cell assemblies. The proposed mechanism results in learning real associations better than spurious co-occurrences, providing definitive cognitive advantages. PMID:25767887

  2. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  3. The transport of photochemical pollutants to the background troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazzell, C. C.; Peters, L. K.

    1981-01-01

    The considered investigation is concerned with the phenomena occurring as a chemically reacting plume, with specific initial concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, and hydrocarbons, emerges from an urban area and is advected to the background troposphere. A better understanding of the global NOx and hydrocarbon budgets can be realized by determining the fractions of NOx and hydrocarbons that are transported to distances far enough to be considered background. The investigation makes use of a 56-step, lumped kinetic mechanism for photochemical smog, which includes current information on pertinent chemical reactions and rate constants for the reactions.

  4. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

  5. Using LOINC to link an EMR to the pertinent paragraph in a structured reference knowledge base.

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, James C.; Glasgow, Matt; Narus, Scott P.; Clayton, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    Intermountain Health Care has integrated the electronic medical record (EMR) with online information resources in order to create easy access to a knowledge base which practicing physicians can use at the point of care. When a user is reviewing problems/diagnosis, medications, or clinical laboratory test results, they can conveniently access a "pertinent paragraph" of reference literature that pertains to the clinical data in the EMR. Using terminology first coined by Cimino1, we call this application the "infobutton." We describe the architectural issues involved in linking our electronic medical record with a structured laboratory knowledge base. The application has been well received as noted by anecdotal comments made by physicians and usage of the application. PMID:12463904

  6. Lipid biomarkers and pertinent indices from aquatic environment record paleoclimate and paleoenvironment changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Guo, Fen; Bu, Hongmei

    2015-09-01

    Lipid biomarkers and their pertinent indices have been used as the most effective proxies for paleoclimate and paleoenvironment conditions. This paper conducts a systematic review on a variety of lipid biomarkers in aquatic sediments and water column that are used as proxies tracing paleoclimate and paleoenvironment information. The sources of those lipid biomarkers are autochthonous and/or allochthonous. General mechanisms of lipid biomarkers used as paleoclimate and paleoenvironment archives include characteristics of carbon chain distribution, temperature adaptation and combined temperature and humidity adaptation. Different lipid indices underpinned by the mechanisms are surrogates for the past precipitation, temperature and humidity as well as plant succession. We propose that the combined use of lipid indices and other biomarkers can expand the outlook of individual index, and provide a better understanding of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment reconstruction.

  7. 76 FR 67182 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ...; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks for Contractor Employees (Renewal) and Drug Testing... identify one of following Docket ID Numbers: (1) Docket ID: EPA-HQ-OARM-2011-0803, Background Checks for...-0803, Background Checks for Contractor Employees; (2) Docket ID: EPA-HQ-OARM-2-11-0804, Drug...

  8. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  9. Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background

    E-print Network

    Misao Sasaki; Dong-han Yeom

    2014-12-25

    We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

  10. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). 250.8 Section 250.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS WITHHOLDING OF UNCLASSIFIED TECHNICAL DATA FROM PUBLIC DISCLOSURE § 250.8 Pertinent...

  11. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). 250.8 Section 250.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS WITHHOLDING OF UNCLASSIFIED TECHNICAL DATA FROM PUBLIC DISCLOSURE § 250.8 Pertinent...

  12. 76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ...Department of Justice (DOJ) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS...and Program Analyst, FBI, Criminal Justice Information Services Division...Number: 1110-0043. Sponsor: Criminal Justice Information Services...

  13. The Thesaurus in Action: Background Information for a Thesaurus Workshop at the Annual Convention of the American Society for Information Science (32nd, San Francisco, California, October 1969.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Parmely C.; And Others

    Five facets of background information are intended to be helpful to persons interested in the construction and use of a thesaurus, in the sense of a standardized language for communication with and between information storage and retrieval systems. Based on the Thesaurus of Engineering and Scientific Terms (TEST) as an example: (1) the thesaurus…

  14. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION Selection practices. §§ 1605.2 &1605.3, App. A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3—Background...

  15. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION Selection practices. §§ 1605.2 &1605.3, App. A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3—Background...

  16. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION Selection practices. §§ 1605.2 &1605.3, App. A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3—Background...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION Selection practices. §§ 1605.2 &1605.3, App. A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3—Background...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION Selection practices. §§ 1605.2 &1605.3, App. A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3—Background...

  19. 76 FR 67182 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ...felony convictions, and parties prohibited from receiving federal contracts. (2) Drug tests are for the presence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP). Contractors shall maintain records of all background...

  20. Surfing for health: user evaluation of a health information website. Part one: Background and literature review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter; Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; McLean, Fiona

    2002-06-01

    The Government in Britain is set on using the Internet to expand the provision of health information to the general public. Concerns over the quality of the health information have preoccupied commentators and organizations rather than the way users interact with health information systems. This report examines the issues surrounding the provision of electronic health information, and describes an evaluation undertaken of a commercial health website-that of Surgerydoor (http://www.surgerydoor.co.uk/), and comprises two parts. Part one outlines the literature on electronic health information evaluation. It discusses quality issues, but also redresses the imbalance by exploring other evaluative perspectives. Part two describes an evaluation of a health information Internet site in terms of its usability and appeal, undertaken as part of a Department of Health funded study on the impact of such systems. PMID:12389607

  1. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

  2. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

  3. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

  4. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

  5. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

  6. Background for Builders--Related Science and Trade Information for the Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Joseph

    Primarily intended for instructors but also useful to students, this guide provides a set of lessons (interlaced with humorous phrases and cartoons) for teaching fundamental information for the building trades. Each lesson contains objectives, related information, and a review or summary. Unit I is a brief, humorous message to the student on the…

  7. All Student Background Information (Calculus-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete this questionnaire. The information you provide will help

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    . Computer Science D. Engineering E. Mathematics 32. A. Pre-medical B. Physics/Astrophysics C. Social ScienceAll Student Background Information (Calculus-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete completed? a Algebra b Geometry or Trigonometry c Pre-calculus, Functions, or Analysis d Calculus e Other

  8. The Graduate Certificate in Information Systems allows students to gain a broad background in information systems, as well as more specialized knowledge in areas such

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    .html. Matriculated applicants can fill out the School of Business online application for the Graduate Certificate of Business Essay Professional Resume University of Utah Non-Matriculated Application and Fee 3The Graduate Certificate in Information Systems allows students to gain a broad background

  9. Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions.

    PubMed

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Chryssochoidis, George; Kehagia, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers, this paper explores the perceived benefits and drawbacks of such technologies. The aim is to identify factors that influence consumers' perceptions of such technologies, and furthermore to advise the agri-food business on issues that they should consider prior to the implementation of such technologies in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies that provide traceability. PMID:19631704

  10. Financial Information Source, Knowledge, and Practices of College Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimura, Yoko; Koonce, Joan; Plunkett, Scott W.; Pleskus, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data, we examined the financial information sources, financial knowledge, and financial practices of young adults, many of whom are first generation college students, ethnic minorities, and immigrants or children of immigrants. Participants (n = 1,249) were undergraduate students at a large regional comprehensive university.…

  11. 77 FR 10508 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... announces that an Information Collection Request (ICR) has been forwarded to the Office of Management and... Affairs, Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Attention: Desk Officer for EPA, 725 17th Street NW..., Office of Acquisition Management (3802R), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave....

  12. 77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Agency Check Criminal History, GSA Form 176; and 2. Two sets of fingerprints on FBI Fingerprint Cards, for FD-258. This is not a request to collect new information, this is a request to change the form..., presented in the Federal Register publication of February 17, 2009, 74 FR 7439. GSA is proceeding with...

  13. Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S. L.

    1982-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

  14. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and mineral resources maps of the Butte 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.; Trautwein, C.M.; Wallace, C.A.; Lee, G.K.; Rowan, L.C.; Hanna, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Butte 1?x2 ? quadrangle in west-central Montana was investigated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). These investigations included geologic mapping, geochemical surveys, gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, examinations of mineral deposits, and specialized geochronologic and remote-sensing studies. The data collected during these studies were compiled, combined with available published and unpublished data, analyzed, and used in a mineral-resource assessment of the quadrangle. The results, including data, interpretations, and mineral-resource assessments for nine types of mineral deposits, are published separately as a folio of maps. These maps are accompanied by figures, tables, and explanatory text. This circular provides background information on the Butte quadrangle, summarizes the studies and published maps, and lists a selected bibliography of references pertinent to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral resources of the quadrangle. The Butte quadrangle, which includes the world-famous Butte mining district, has a long history of mineral production. Many mining districts within the quadrangle have produced large quantities of many commodities; the most important in dollar value of production were copper, gold, silver, lead, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, and phosphate. At present, mines at several locations produce copper, molybdenum, gold, silver, lead, zinc, and phosphate. Exploration, mainly for gold, has indicated the presence of other mineral deposits that may be exploited in the future. The results of the investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey indicate that many areas of the quadrangle are highly favorable for the occurrence of additional undiscovered resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, and other metals in several deposit types.

  15. Background Error Covariance Estimation Using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory.SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

  16. Background Information for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

  17. Air/helium ground-test simulation pertinent to the definition of slender body hypersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, W. C.; Thompson, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The capability of air/helium simulations pertinent to the definition of slender body hypersonic aerodynamics is tested, using exact inviscid analytical comparisons to characterize the Mach number and bluntness effects. Comparisons are made with experiments conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s. The results indicate no general rule for air/helium simulation. A feasibility for obtaining sufficient simulation for many types of aero/fluid dynamic studies is demonstrated.

  18. A review of vapor explosion information pertinent to the SRS reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.; Allison, D.K.

    1992-04-01

    Vapor explosions are explosive events resulting from the mixing of two liquids, one of which is heated to a temperature well above the boiling point of the second. Under some circumstances mixing of the liquids can boil part of the lower boiling liquid so quickly that the expanding vapor generates a strong pressure wave and explosion. If the lower boiling liquid is water, as is frequently the case, the event is called a ``steam explosion``. Analyses in support of the K-Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment have shown that steam explosions generated by the interaction of molten reactor fuel with water contribute significantly to the risk of reactor operation at the SRS. This calculated risk incorporates a conservative treatment of the uncertainties associated with such explosions. Study of steam explosions involving molten reactor materials has been included in the Severe Accident Analysis Program (SAAP) in order to obtain a better evaluation of their importance, and, if possible, to find ways to avoid them. This paper presents a brief review and summary of steam explosion experience from literature accounts, along with the results of experimental studies from the SAAP. It concludes with an evaluation of current knowledge, and suggestions for future development. 71 refs.

  19. Dynamics, control and sensor issues pertinent to robotic hands for the EVA retriever system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Basic dynamics, sensor, control, and related artificial intelligence issues pertinent to smart robotic hands for the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever system are summarized and discussed. These smart hands are to be used as end effectors on arms attached to manned maneuvering units (MMU). The Retriever robotic systems comprised of MMU, arm and smart hands, are being developed to aid crewmen in the performance of routine EVA tasks including tool and object retrieval. The ultimate goal is to enhance the effectiveness of EVA crewmen.

  20. Future Information Services at the Texas A&M University Library: Background and Recommendations (Report of an Ad Hoc Committee).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Colleen; And Others

    The Ad Hoc Committee on Future Information Services explored possible future directions for information services at Texas A&M University Library and developed a plan to guide the library into the next decade in terms of automated access to information. In exploring future directions for automated information services, the committee members…

  1. Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-26

    Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a 'Y' junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re-entry survey, and routine surveys around the crater lip did not identify alpha contamination. Background information includes several radiological surveys conducted after these two tests. The MULLET area has been surveyed frequently. The early surveys indicate the area as both contaminated and containing buried radioactive material. A survey conducted in 1970 found the radiological/chemical piping partially intact, including the 'Y' junction, and shows two runs of intact piping running past the U2am crater lip. The survey focused on the piping system itself and detected alpha contamination from 4 counts per minute (cpm) to 900,000 cpm. The highest value was at a pipe flange between a dirt pile and a dirt berm within the current site fence line. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. A 1972 survey was essentially a repeat of the 1970 survey; however, it does not show the 'Y' junction nor does it show piping extending past the U2am crater lip. It also shows a new fence line separating the radiological/chemical piping from the U2am crater area with all piping within the fence. Alpha contamination was detected on pipe flanges during the survey, but alpha contamination was not detected on the dirt pile or the dirt berm. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. Additional surveys were conducted in 1986, 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996. One of the surveys focused on determining the extent of soil contamination around GZ. An alpha contamination plume extending approximately 200 feet south of GZ was detected in a swath approximately 100 feet wide. The maximum measurement was 15,000 cpm alpha. All surveys show the piping within the fence line. Recent surveys (2007 and 2008) were performed around the current fence line by the demarcation group. No removable contamination was identified during these surveys. In late 2008, a visual inspection of the site was conducted by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Restoration group. All piping is within the fence line. Photos taken during this site visit are attached.

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, VOL. 11, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2007 537 Variable Background Active Contour Model for

    E-print Network

    Athens, University of

    (US). I. INTRODUCTION THYROID nodules are solid or cystic lumps formed in the thyroid gland, and can Variable Background Active Contour Model for Computer-Aided Delineation of Nodules in Thyroid Ultrasound-aided approach for nodule delineation in thyroid ultrasound (US) images. The devel- oped algorithm is based

  3. Background Information for Think Tank on Planning, Governance and System Building Early Care and Education--NYC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boressoff, Todd

    2008-01-01

    This document provides some background on early childhood planning and system building around the country. Since mid-December, the author has been studying these efforts for Child Care, Inc. (CCI) interviewing national experts and reading widely. This outline provides insights and lesson learned from those inquiries. The goal at this meeting will…

  4. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  5. Introduction Background

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Research Conclusions #12;Background What is a hygrometer? VCSEL Chilled mirror hygrometer Why measure does a VCSEL hygrometer address these problems? 25Hz measurements Open source environment Low wind with chilled mirror hygrometer Pressure and Temperature effects #12;Calibration Techniques Removal of all

  6. Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-10-01

    Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year.

  7. Identify, isolate, inform: Background and considerations for Ebola virus disease preparedness in U.S. ambulatory care settings.

    PubMed

    Chea, Nora; Perz, Joseph F; Srinivasan, Arjun; Laufer, Alison S; Pollack, Lori A

    2015-11-01

    Public health activities to identify and monitor persons at risk for Ebola virus disease in the United States include directing persons at risk to assessment facilities that are prepared to safely evaluate for Ebola virus disease. Although it is unlikely that a person with Ebola virus disease will unexpectedly present to a nonemergency ambulatory care facility, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have provided guidance for this setting that can be summarized as identify, isolate, and inform. PMID:26277570

  8. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of all studies in the Agency... PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation of all studies in the... for a data requirement by citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent of that...

  9. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Citation of all studies in the Agency... PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation of all studies in the... for a data requirement by citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent of that...

  10. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Citation of all studies in the Agency... PROCEDURES Satisfaction of Data Requirements and Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation of... demonstrate compliance for a data requirement by citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent...

  11. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Citation of all studies in the Agency... PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation of all studies in the... for a data requirement by citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent of that...

  12. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Citation of all studies in the Agency... PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation of all studies in the... for a data requirement by citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent of that...

  13. Body Functions and Structures Pertinent to Infrared Thermography-Based Access for Clients with Severe Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memarian, Negar; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.; Chau, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Infrared thermography has been recently proposed as an access technology for individuals with disabilities, but body functions and structures pertinent to its use have not been documented. Seven clients (2 adults, 5 youth) with severe disabilities and their primary caregivers participated in this study. All clients had a Gross Motor Functional…

  14. Hazardous-waste TSDF: Background information for proposed RCRA air emission standards. Volume 1. Chapters 1-8, and Appendices A-C. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Air emission standards are being proposed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDF) to reduce emissions of ozone precursors (volatile organic compounds) and exposures to hazardous air pollutants. The document contains background information and environmental and economic assessments of regulatory alternatives considered in developing the proposed standards. The regulatory alternatives consider application of air pollution controls on tanks, surface impoundments, and containers used to manage hazardous waste at TSDFs, as well as at generators using tanks and containers to accumulate large quantities of waste on site. The document is divided into a three volume set.

  15. An Information System for the Council of Educational Facility Planners International Membership Information Network. Volume 1: Background Report and Implementation Models. Volume 2: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruday, Connie; And Others

    This document is designed to assist the Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFP/I) in planning for the establishment of an information system for its members and other stakeholders who need information on educational facilities. The report focuses on the major activities to be accomplished and the issues to be considered when…

  16. Background Checks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    In this era when many Americans seem resigned to greater encroachments on their personal privacy due to the growth and ubiquity of electronic databases with information about almost every aspect of their lives, a recent statement from the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) seems timely. The statement highlighted the issue of…

  17. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  18. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  19. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G; Ward, Richard C; Wright, Michael C; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNM detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. The approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information

  20. Criminal Background Check With few exceptions, you are entitled on your request to be informed about the information UT Health Science Center San Antonio collects about you. Under

    E-print Network

    Nicholson, Bruce J.

    ) and rules. Different types of information are kept for different periods of time. Disclosure of your Social) List any former names used: Social Security #: Driver's License - State and #: Gender: Male Female Date or investigative consumer report for employment purposes, as authorized by state law and/or the Fair Credit

  1. [Are German information materials on colorectal cancer screening understandable or do they fail? Rating of health information by users with different educational backgrounds].

    PubMed

    Seidel, G; Münch, I; Dreier, M; Borutta, B; Walter, U; Dierks, M-L

    2014-03-01

    Evidence-based patient information is an essential part of decision making in health issues. A qualitative study was conducted to examine whether consumers consider the health information on colorectal cancer screening in Germany helpful in supporting their decision making. In this study, eight texts from different German authors about colorectal cancer screening were evaluated with a criteria-based selection. The texts were tested for understandability, structure, design, and effect on readers. Thirteen semi-structured focus groups were formed including 59 higher-educated and 15 lower-educated testers, 46?% of them being male with a mean age of 62.9 years. The transcripts were analyzed by content-analytic assessment. The testers provided detailed comments on the content and design of the texts. They revealed inaccuracies and suggested improvements of the texts. The testers differed from each other in terms of the intensity of their participation in the discussions and comprehension of the material. The reception of the flyers and brochures varied according to the educational level of the testers. Lower-educated testers often skipped passages of texts about risks as well as passages containing numbers and graphics. The texts had different effects on the testers, regardless of the level of education. If adverse effects were presented, some testers became scared while others were reassured because they felt informed. Most of the testers appreciated a call for participation as a central message of the text. Sometimes, if there was no clear appeal to attend the screening, the testers even asked for it. The recently introduced political strategy of promoting an informed choice is applied to an unprepared population who was used to getting a clear yes-or-no recommendation. Thus, at first, the population has to learn how to make an informed choice. This topic must be addressed and taken into account in the process of developing health information. Since this is not always the case, we conclude that current materials are limited in their contribution toward the decision of attending CRC screening. PMID:24562713

  2. Background Error Covariance Estimation using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation into the GEOS-5 Coupled Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele M.; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume; Koster, Randal D. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory. SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

  3. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...S. Government; or (iv) Freely available at public libraries. (2) If it has been approved for public release...approval of a U.S. Government agency having authority for the classification of information or material under Executive Order...

  4. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...S. Government; or (iv) Freely available at public libraries. (2) If it has been approved for public release...approval of a U.S. Government agency having authority for the classification of information or material under Executive Order...

  5. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...S. Government; or (iv) Freely available at public libraries. (2) If it has been approved for public release...approval of a U.S. Government agency having authority for the classification of information or material under Executive Order...

  6. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...S. Government; or (iv) Freely available at public libraries. (2) If it has been approved for public release...approval of a U.S. Government agency having authority for the classification of information or material under Executive Order...

  7. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...S. Government; or (iv) Freely available at public libraries. (2) If it has been approved for public release...approval of a U.S. Government agency having authority for the classification of information or material under Executive Order...

  8. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What is a botanical? A botanical is a plant or plant part valued for its medicinal or therapeutic properties, ... up of the genus and species of the plant. Under this system the botanical black cohosh is ...

  9. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 125.11 General Exemptions (a) Except as provided in § 26.01, district directors of customs and... Security Manual relating to the transmission of such classified information (and any other requirements of... requirements of the Department of Defense Industrial Security Manual relating to the transmission of...

  10. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 125.11 General Exemptions (a) Except as provided in § 26.01, district directors of customs and... Security Manual relating to the transmission of such classified information (and any other requirements of... requirements of the Department of Defense Industrial Security Manual relating to the transmission of...

  11. Background: Extratropical Cyclones and NWP

    E-print Network

    Froude, Lizzie

    Chapter 2 Background: Extratropical Cyclones and NWP 2.1 Introduction This chapter provides background information about extratropical cyclones, numerical weather prediction (NWP) and ensemble prediction. It is organised as follows. Section 2.2 discusses extratropical cyclones and begins with a brief

  12. Computerized Placement Tests: Background Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    This document is a compilation of background readings for the user of Computerized Placement Tests (CPTs) developed by the College Board for student placement purposes. CPTs are computerized adaptive tests that test the individual abilities and backgrounds of examinees. CPTs are part of the ACCUPLACER student information management system. The…

  13. Primer on Durability of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Review of Pertinent Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a primer on the environmental effects that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant concrete structures. As concrete ages, changes in its properties will occur as a result of continuing microstructural changes (i.e., slow hydration, crystallization of amorphous constituents, and reactions between cement paste and aggregates), as well as environmental influences. These changes do not have to be detrimental to the point that concrete will not be able to meet its performance requirements. Concrete, however, can suffer undesirable changes with time because of improper specifications, a violation of specifications, or adverse performance of its cement paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either physical or chemical attack. Contained in this report is a discussion on concrete durability and the relationship between durability and performance, a review of the historical perspective related to concrete and longevity, a description of the basic materials that comprise reinforced concrete, and information on the environmental factors that can affect the performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Commentary is provided on the importance of an aging management program.

  14. 2. Social, ethical, and economic background

    E-print Network

    Keil, David M.

    2. Social, ethical, and economic background David Keil Information Technology and Society 5/13 David Keil Information Technology and Society 5/13 1 David Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 135 Information Technology and Society 2. Social, ethical, and economic background 1. Foundations of ethics 2

  15. The Pertinence of Joy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen, Ziporah

    1982-01-01

    Describes a study which examined differences in the experience of joy between Israeli Jewish, Israeli Arab, and American adolescents. The interpersonal experience was the most common source of joy in all three cultures. The data also showed greater differences between males and females than between cultures. (AM)

  16. Identification of a Pertinent Referential Period for Drought Definition in the West African Soudano-Sahelian Zone from Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, B.; Wisser, D.; Barry, B.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have been undertaken on climate variability analysis in West Africa since the drastic drought recorded at the beginning of the 1970s. The variability highlighted by these studies relies in many cases on different baseline periods chosen with regard to the data available or to the reference periods defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). However, the significance of the change in a time series for a given period is determined from some statistical tests. We develop in this study a statistical method to identify a pertinent reference period for rainfall and temperature variability analysis in the West African Soudano-Sahelian zone. The method is based on an application of three tests of homogeneity in time series and three tests of shift detection in time series. The pertinent reference period is defined as a period of more than 20 years and homogeneous with regard to the main climate parameters (rainfall and temperature). The application of the method on four different gridded climate data from 1901 to 2012 shows that the 1945-1970 period is the longest homogeneous period with regard to the annual rainfall amount. An assessment of the significance of the difference between the confidence interval at the level of 95% around the average during this period and the annual rainfall amounts time series shows that the normal amount is between -10% and +10% of that average. Thus, with regard to that referential period, a wet (dry) year is defined with a surplus (gap) of 10% in the annual rainfall amount above (below) this average. The decadal proportions of wet and dry years reveal that the 1971-1980 period presents the most important number of significant dry years with 1984 as the driest year over the whole 1901-2012 period. The drought periods recorded in the region are mainly characterized by segments of consecutive dry years that had severe impacts on crop production and livestock. Key words: climate variability; climate change; drought; reference period; Soudano-Sahel; West Africa

  17. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY...POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. ...disseminate among affected Federal agencies information concerning the telecommunications...

  18. USE OF PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODELS TO QUANTIFY THE IMPACT OF HUMAN AGE AND INTERINDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY PERTINENT TO RISK (FINAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report, Use of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models to Quantify the Impact of Human Age and Interindividual Differences in Physiology and Biochemistry Pertinent to Risk Final R...

  19. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Walker Lake 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; Chaffee, M.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; John, D.A.; Kistler, R.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.; Menzie, W.D.; Plouff, Donald; Rowan, L.C.; Silberling, Norman J.

    1984-01-01

    The Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle in eastern California and western Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle.

  20. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  1. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Project; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Reno 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Stewart, John H.; Hendricks, J.D.; Rowan, L.C.; Plouff, Donald

    1992-01-01

    The Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in west-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The assessment is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, reports, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  2. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  3. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  4. The Evolving National Information Network: Background and Challenges. A Report of the Technology Assessment Advisory Committee to the Commission on Preservation and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houweling, Douglas E.; McGill, Michael J.

    The rapidly developing and changing networking and telecommunications environment now being implemented in the United States and across the globe is explored. The creation of a flexible and inexpensive digital network allowing instantaneous access by any individual to information of any type is now within our grasp. A primer on the technology…

  5. Recovery of Native Genetic Background in Admixed Populations Using Haplotypes, Phenotypes, and Pedigree Information – Using Cika Cattle as a Case Breed

    PubMed Central

    Sim?i?, Mojca; Smetko, Anamarija; Sölkner, Johann; Seichter, Doris; Gorjanc, Gregor; Kompan, Dragomir; Medugorac, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which potentially have had direct or indirect historical contribution to the genetic makeup of the breed of interest. PMID:25923207

  6. Impact of the U.S. National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS) on Building Energy Performance Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2007-08-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS) started the development of the National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS). Its goal is to define standard sets of data required to describe any given building in necessary detail so that any given AECO industry discipline application can find needed data at any point in the building lifecycle. This will include all data that are used in or are pertinent to building energy performance simulation and analysis. This paper describes the background that lead to the development of NBIMS, its goals and development methodology, its Part 1 (Version 1.0), and its probable impact on building energy performance simulation and analysis.

  7. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  8. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, remote sensing, and mineral resource maps of the Wallace 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Jack Edward; Leach, David L.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean; Long, Carl L.; Rowan, Larry C.; Marvin, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    The Wallace 1? x 2 quadrangle in Montana and Idaho was studied by an interdisciplinary research team that included geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists, as well as specialists in isotopic dating and remote sensing. The basic data resulting from these studies, as well as the final metallic mineral resource assessments, are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the studies and lists the published components of the resource appraisal. An extensive bibliography lists both specific and general references that apply to this geoscience study of the quadrangle.

  9. The IBEX background monitor

    E-print Network

    Crew, Geoffrey B.

    The IBEX Background Monitor (IBaM) provides a small and lightweight method for independently measuring IBEX’s high-energy proton background by integrating the flux of >~14 keV protons over a ~7° conical FOV. The IBaM is ...

  10. INDIAN BACKGROUNDS Patuxent Wildlife

    E-print Network

    INDIAN BACKGROUNDS of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center |./«arine'a(Megical Laboratory NOV 19 of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 138 #12;#12;INDIAN BACKGROUNDS of the Patuxent Wildlife Research of Indian Relics The Indian artifacts on display in the C. Hart Merriam Laboratory were collected

  11. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  12. Wetlands in the Lake Champlain region of Vermont: Present and future threats to the resource. Boundary determination and background information for the EPA's proposed advanced identification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Borre, M.A.

    1988-11-01

    EPA Region 1 Wetlands Protections Section is planning an Advanced Identification Project for the Lake Champlain Region of Vermont. 'Advanced Identification' refers to the two authorities EPA can utilize under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act to protect wetlands in advance of permit applications. In Vermont, a combined activities-based Advanced Identification of Sites (AIS) and Advance 404(c) project is proposed. This study determines the boundaries for the Advanced Identification action. It discusses the criteria developed to evaluate watershed considerations and both present and future threats to the resource. All towns in four counties bordering Lake Champlain were evaluated with regard to location in watershed, wetland acreage, wetland loss, population projections, historical growth trends, tax information, and housing stock estimates. Based on the criteria listed above, the towns selected are experiencing the types of growth pressures that will lead to continued wetland loss. EPA plans to restrict work at especially valuable sites with this area using Advance 404(c).

  13. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  14. Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia

    Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal Bureau…

  15. The Cosmic Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    George Smoot; Douglas Scott

    1997-11-08

    We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and anisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the update of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle Properties.

  16. Introduction Biological Background

    E-print Network

    Mahaffy, Joseph M.

    @mail.sdsu.eduUBC Biomath Seminar -- (1/39) #12;Introduction Biological Background Mathematical Models Conclusions Tunicate ­ Ciona intestinalis Ciona intestinalis ­ Tunicate ­ Sea Squirt Joseph M. Mahaffy, jmahaffy

  17. Proteomics: General Background

    E-print Network

    Grosu, Radu

    Proteomics: General Background Michael Hadjiargyrou Department of Biomedical Engineering #12;What is proteomics? · Study of the Proteome: Field that utilizes protein sequences, expression and structure, large scale manner · may also involve bioinformatic analysis and storage of data #12;Proteomics

  18. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-print Network

    Joseph Silk

    2002-12-12

    I review the discovery of the temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The underlying theory and the implications for cosmology are reviewed, and I describe the prospects for future progress.

  19. 76 FR 13420 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ...Reviewer Recruitment Form standardizes pertinent categories of reviewer information such as areas of expertise, occupations, work settings, reviewer education, and experience. This standardized information is automatically entered into a...

  20. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It consists of transient... among affected Federal agencies information concerning the telecommunications effects of EMP...

  1. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  2. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for final standards. Volume 2A. Comments on process vents, storage vessels, transfer operations, and equipment leaks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This background information document (BID) provides summaries and responses for public comments received regarding the Hazardous Organic National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), commonly referred to as the HON. The HON will primarily affect the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI). However, the provisions for equipment leaks also apply to certain polymer and resin production processes, certain pesticide production processes, and certain miscellaneous processes that are subject to the negotiated regulation for equipment leaks. Volume 2A is organized by emission point and contains discussions of specific technical issues related to process vents, storage vessels, transfer operations, and equipment leaks. Volume 2A discusses specific technical issues such as control technology, cost analysis, emission estimates, Group 1/Group 2 determination, compliance options and demonstrations, and monitoring.

  3. BACKGROUND RESEARCH SAMPLE CODE

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey G.

    . This type of diabetes is normally seen in children at a very young age. Type II diabetes, on the other handBACKGROUND RESEARCH SAMPLE CODE INTRODUCTION APPLICATION MATERIALS ABSTRACT PURPOSE Diabetes is when the body does not properly use or store the glucose (Mayoclinic). There are two types of diabetes

  4. Monitored background radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruel, C.; Larouche, M.; Donato, M.

    1986-01-01

    The infrared (IR) testing of the Olympus thermal model has provided a capability to perform cost effective thermal balance testing of satellites and satellite components. A high-accuracy monitored background radiometer was developed for the measurement of absorbed radiation heat flux encountered during IR thermal vacuum testing of spacecraft. The design, development, and calibration of this radiometer is described.

  5. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Norman, E. B.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  6. PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

  7. EBSD Images Theoretical Background

    E-print Network

    Psaltis, Demetri

    /s assuming a constant growth rate on the 20 first seconds. Bad quality welds were produced by adding grease-tomography. Figure 8 Transverse slice of the bad quality weld observed through X-ray micro- tomography. The poresMotivation EBSD Images Theoretical Background Defects in the Weld Grain Growth Low Speed Welding

  8. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Ross, Donna; Grant, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on their ability to ask questions and wonder--both key components of inquiry. In this article,…

  9. Background Information | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large population-based randomized trial evaluating screening programs for these cancers. The primary goal of this long-term trial of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and on secondary endpoints.

  10. Background information on high voltage fields.

    PubMed Central

    Janes, D E

    1977-01-01

    The increased demand for power has led to higher voltages for overhead transmission lines. Environmentalists, governmental agencies, and some members of the scientific community have questioned if past biological effects research and experience with lower voltage lines provide adequate bases for predicting the possible health and environmental effects of the higher voltage lines. Only a small amount of work has been done to explore the possible effects, especially long term effects, of the exposure of biological systems to electric fields from transmission lines. Research in Western Europe and the United States has not identified any prompt or acute effects other than spark and electric discharge and no permanent effects. Contrasted with this are the studies of workers in Soviet and Spanish high voltage switchyards that report effects, such as excitability, headaches, drowsiness, fatique, and nausea, that are not found in Soviet line maintenance workers. The results of current and planned research, supported by both U.S. Government agencies and the private sector, should resolve a number of the present uncertanties and provide answers for the many questions concerning potential effects. PMID:598346

  11. 40 CFR 92.133 - Required information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required information. 92.133 Section... information. (a) The required test data shall be grouped into the following two general categories: (1) Pre....115-92.122. (7) All pertinent instrument information such as tuning (as applicable), gain,...

  12. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

  13. Antiscalar cosmological background

    E-print Network

    Eduard G. Mychelkin; Maxim A. Makukov

    2015-06-11

    It is shown that the antiscalar approach to dark energy, whereby the energy-momentum tensor of the scalar field has the sign opposite to that of the rest of the matter, follows from the considerations of thermodynamic stability, as well as from the static limit of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. The same limit also demonstrates that the resulting background antiscalar field proves to be of quasi-electrostatic origin.

  14. Characterization of Plastic Flow Pertinent to the Evolution of Bulk Residual Stress in Powder-Metallurgy, Nickel-Base Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiatin, S. L.; Fagin, P. N.; Goetz, R. L.; Furrer, D. U.; Dutton, R. E.

    2015-09-01

    The plastic-flow behavior which controls the formation of bulk residual stresses during final heat treatment of powder-metallurgy (PM), nickel-base superalloys was quantified using conventional (isothermal) stress-relaxation (SR) tests and a novel approach which simulates concurrent temperature and strain transients during cooling following solution treatment. The concurrent cooling/straining test involves characterization of the thermal compliance of the test sample. In turn, this information is used to program the ram-displacement- vs-time profile to impose a constant plastic strain rate during cooling. To demonstrate the efficacy of the new approach, SR tests (in both tension and compression) and concurrent cooling/tension-straining experiments were performed on two PM superalloys, LSHR and IN-100. The isothermal SR experiments were conducted at a series of temperatures between 1144 K and 1436 K (871 °C and 1163 °C) on samples that had been supersolvus solution treated and cooled slowly or rapidly to produce starting microstructures comprising coarse gamma grains and coarse or fine secondary gamma-prime precipitates, respectively. The concurrent cooling/straining tests comprised supersolvus solution treatment and various combinations of subsequent cooling rate and plastic strain rate. Comparison of flow-stress data from the SR and concurrent cooling/straining tests showed some similarities and some differences which were explained in the context of the size of the gamma-prime precipitates and the evolution of dislocation substructure. The magnitude of the effect of concurrent deformation during cooling on gamma-prime precipitation was also quantified experimentally and theoretically.

  15. IMEX evolution of scalar fields on curved backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Stephen R. Lau; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Jan S. Hesthaven

    2009-06-27

    Inspiral of binary black holes occurs over a time-scale of many orbits, far longer than the dynamical time-scale of the individual black holes. Explicit evolutions of a binary system therefore require excessively many time steps to capture interesting dynamics. We present a strategy to overcome the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition in such evolutions, one relying on modern implicit-explicit ODE solvers and multidomain spectral methods for elliptic equations. Our analysis considers the model problem of a forced scalar field propagating on a generic curved background. Nevertheless, we encounter and address a number of issues pertinent to the binary black hole problem in full general relativity. Specializing to the Schwarzschild geometry in Kerr-Schild coordinates, we document the results of several numerical experiments testing our strategy.

  16. IMEX evolution of scalar fields on curved backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Lau, Stephen R; Hesthaven, Jan S

    2008-01-01

    Inspiral of binary black holes occurs over a time-scale of many orbits, far longer than the dynamical time-scale of the individual black holes. Explicit evolutions of a binary system therefore require excessively many time steps to capture interesting dynamics. We present a strategy to overcome the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition in such evolutions, one relying on modern implicit-explicit ODE solvers and multidomain spectral methods for elliptic equations. Our analysis considers the model problem of a forced scalar field propagating on a generic curved background. Nevertheless, we encounter and address a number of issues pertinent to the binary black hole problem in full general relativity. Specializing to the Schwarzschild geometry in Kerr-Schild coordinates, we document the results of several numerical experiments testing our strategy.

  17. Case Study: On a Deep-tow Piggy Back system, DAI-PACK - Pertinent information is coordinates, but tool is even more important -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisimoto, K.; Joshima, M.; Nishimura, K.

    2006-12-01

    Deep submergence vehicles bring us closer to the target we want to see in better resolution. It is difficult to obtain very detailed scale seafloor or sub-bottom structure profiling by a conventional surface-towed survey system, in which the horizontal spatial resolution in data obtained is poor because of the great distance between the sensors and the targets (seafloor/sub-bottom). To improve this horizontal resolution of the profiling, we have been developing and using deep-tow profiling systems for more than two decades at the Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. In our presentation we show our latest tool for the deep-sea mapping, named DAI-PACK (Deep-sea Acoustic Imaging Package) system, which has been tested and used in fields for more than four years now. It is not easy, however, to bring the tool deep and to maneuver and keep the towing altitude sufficiently close to the seafloor. To overcome this problem, we made the system work stand-alone and also made it portable in size and weight to be accommodated to ROVs (Remotely Operated Vehicle) or manned submersibles. We have chosen two sensors to be installed in the system, i.e. (1) deep-sea side-scan sonar and (2) deep-sea sub-bottom profiler. All components except sensors are packaged in an aluminum pressure sphere, which can be installed as a piggy back payload on many vehicles available today. From our recent experiments using the DAI-PACK on several vehicles, e.g. ROVs (the Hyper Dolphin in '03~'06, the ROPOS in '04, the Kaiko7000II in '06), and HOV (Shinkai6500 in '04, '05), we have learned several pros and cons regarding the use of the DSVs. We can discuss on the topics, such as (1) noise problem of the vehicles; ROVs were more noisy than Shinkai6500, (2) importance and need of good positioning of the vehicles;any DSVs we have used have not been installed a navigation system good enough to be collocated with the imagery data of the DAI-PACK, and (3) usefulness of sub-bottom profiling, based on real good/bad data we have collected. We haven't had a chance to use AUVs yet, but we can discuss about the advantage/disadvantage of using AUVs to some extent as well.

  18. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  19. Presentation 1: Background

    Cancer.gov

    The Objectives of this presentation are to explain why, and a bit about how, the new rules were developed; to describe the Hematopoietic Working Group; to provide some general information about the Hematopoietic Working Group and its membership, and the objectives of the Working Group.

  20. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    PubMed

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant. PMID:9419321

  1. Background and Foreground: Audience Education from Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ken

    Just as all perceptions are of figures differentiated from a larger background, a play takes place against the background of the audience's knowledge and feelings. While audience members generally bring to a performance a large body of background information--they evaluate the storyline, for example, using a lifetime of personal experience--at…

  2. X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

  3. Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background from Exoplanets

    E-print Network

    Ain, Anirban; Mitra, Sanjit

    2015-01-01

    Recent exoplanet surveys have predicted a very large population of planetary systems in our galaxy, more than one planet per star on the average, perhaps totalling about two hundred billion. These surveys, based on electro-magnetic observations, are limited to a very small neighbourhood of the solar system and the estimations rely on the observations of only a few thousand planets. On the other hand, orbital motions of planets around stars are expected to emit gravitational waves (GW), which could provide information about the planets not accessible to electro-magnetic astronomy. The cumulative effect of the planets, with periods ranging from few hours to several years, is expected to create a stochastic GW background (SGWB). We compute the characteristic GW strain of this background based on the observed distribution of planet parameters. We also show that the integrated extragalactic background is comparable or less than the galactic background at different frequencies. Our estimate shows that the net backg...

  4. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollaine, S.

    1978-01-01

    The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present in the standard big bang model. In the present calculation, evolutionary effects on grain opacity and abundance are estimated. At wavelengths used in studying the microwave background, the optical depth of the grains is found to be 0.18 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.03, and 0.05 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.5. The results indicate that microwave background can provide information on an early dense phase of the universe.

  5. FIRST NAME SURNAME: Education/Background

    E-print Network

    FIRST NAME SURNAME: Education/Background: Degree(s) Held Completion Date Discipline/ Subject) _______________________________________________________________ Personal Statement (maximum length two pages) Please provide a statement outlining why you are interested in enrolling in the Graduate Diploma in Mathematics Education, and providing information on the following: 1

  6. 14 CFR 1203.200 - Background and discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background and discussion. 1203.200 Section 1203.200 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM NASA Information Security Program § 1203.200 Background and discussion. (a) In establishing...

  7. 14 CFR 1203.200 - Background and discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Background and discussion. 1203.200 Section 1203.200 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM NASA Information Security Program § 1203.200 Background and discussion. (a) In establishing...

  8. 75 FR 11540 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    .... hospitals ] have limited experience with the use of such measurement tools, or in using quality improvement... also ensures the collection of information close to pertinent events, which avoids the recall...

  9. 75 FR 77649 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...The Grant Reviewer Form standardizes pertinent categories of reviewer information, such as: areas of expertise; occupations; work settings; reviewer experience; and allows maximum use of drop-down menus to simplify the data collection...

  10. 78 FR 79418 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE), pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995), intends to extend for three years, an information collection request (OMB Control Number 1910-1700) with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The proposed voluntary collection will request that an individual or an authorized designee provide pertinent information for easy record retrieval allowing for......

  11. Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation Signals from the early universe, or pigeon droppings? #12;Microwave Background Radiation The spectrum is a near- perfect match of a time when the entire universe was a black body with a temperature T 3000 K. Very uniform microwave

  12. Historical Background and Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Jean-Claude

    Forty and twenty years after the two books published by Einar Tandberg-Hanssen (Solar prominences (Geophysics and astrophysics monographs), Vol. 12. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1974; The nature of solar prominences, astrophysics and space science library, Vol. 199. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995) on solar prominences, it is time to update our knowledge and understanding of these fascinating solar structures. After a brief history which overviews first eclipse observations (drawings and then photography), spectrographic, coronagraphic and later on polarimetric measurements, the chapter presents samples of the most spectacular results of the last two decades, obtained whether from space or on the ground. It discusses the contents of the book in order to encourage the reader to dip into the following 17 chapters which provide comprehensive and detailed observations, information about the methods used, and interpretation of the results on the basis of the latest theoretical and modelling works.

  13. Quantifying stream thermal regimes at management-pertinent scales: combining thermal infrared and stationary stream temperature data in a novel modeling framework.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vatland, Shane J.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Poole, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Accurately quantifying stream thermal regimes can be challenging because stream temperatures are often spatially and temporally heterogeneous. In this study, we present a novel modeling framework that combines stream temperature data sets that are continuous in either space or time. Specifically, we merged the fine spatial resolution of thermal infrared (TIR) imagery with hourly data from 10 stationary temperature loggers in a 100 km portion of the Big Hole River, MT, USA. This combination allowed us to estimate summer thermal conditions at a relatively fine spatial resolution (every 100 m of stream length) over a large extent of stream (100 km of stream) during during the warmest part of the summer. Rigorous evaluation, including internal validation, external validation with spatially continuous instream temperature measurements collected from a Langrangian frame of reference, and sensitivity analyses, suggests the model was capable of accurately estimating longitudinal patterns in summer stream temperatures for this system Results revealed considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity in summer stream temperatures and highlighted the value of assessing thermal regimes at relatively fine spatial and temporal scales. Preserving spatial and temporal variability and structure in abiotic stream data provides a critical foundation for understanding the dynamic, multiscale habitat needs of mobile stream organisms. Similarly, enhanced understanding of spatial and temporal variation in dynamic water quality attributes, including temporal sequence and spatial arrangement, can guide strategic placement of monitoring equipment that will subsequently capture variation in environmental conditions directly pertinent to research and management objectives.

  14. Integrable Background Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderbank, David M. J.

    2014-03-01

    This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ?-manifold, determines a (k+?)-dimensional geometry (k+??4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ?-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+?)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(?) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(?^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently , degenerate or null reductions have attracted increased interest. Two of these reductions and their gauge theories (arguably, the two most significant) are also described.

  15. Low background screening capability in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-01

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  16. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2014-06-13

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  17. BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY AUTHORIZATION FOR LIMITED RELEASE OF MEDICAL INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    medical information (including pertinent medical records), and to discuss my medical condition providers.) 1. 2. 3. I understand that the forgoing records and medical information are limited onlyBOISE STATE UNIVERSITY AUTHORIZATION FOR LIMITED RELEASE OF MEDICAL INFORMATION ("Release") I

  18. Reason for Testing (Required-failure to include a diagnosis may delay testing. Include all pertinent diagnoses and ICD9 codes. Ie. Primary Lung Cancer 162.9 with metastasis to brain 198.3 and bone 198.5)

    E-print Network

    Grant, Gregory

    pertinent diagnoses and ICD9 codes. Ie. Primary Lung Cancer 162.9 with metastasis to brain 198.3 and bone management of the patient. The undersigned Client authorizes the Washington University School of Medicine Forest Park Avenue St. Louis, MO 63108 BJC Main Campus sample drop off locations: Children's Hospital One

  19. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0???) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0??? decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ??} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and ? emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  20. 36 CFR 1260.54 - What is the appeal process when a mandatory review request for Executive Branch information is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...right to appeal denials of access to the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel, Attn: Mandatory Review Appeals, c/o...20408. (f) The pertinent NARA office or Presidential Library will coordinate the potential release of information...

  1. 36 CFR 1260.54 - What is the appeal process when a mandatory review request for Executive Branch information is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...right to appeal denials of access to the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel, Attn: Mandatory Review Appeals, c/o...20408. (f) The pertinent NARA office or Presidential Library will coordinate the potential release of information...

  2. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  3. Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background from Exoplanets

    E-print Network

    Anirban Ain; Shilpa Kastha; Sanjit Mitra

    2015-04-09

    Recent exoplanet surveys have predicted a very large population of planetary systems in our galaxy, more than one planet per star on the average, perhaps totalling about two hundred billion. These surveys, based on electro-magnetic observations, are limited to a very small neighbourhood of the solar system and the estimations rely on the observations of only a few thousand planets. On the other hand, orbital motions of planets around stars are expected to emit gravitational waves (GW), which could provide information about the planets not accessible to electro-magnetic astronomy. The cumulative effect of the planets, with periods ranging from few hours to several years, is expected to create a stochastic GW background (SGWB). We compute the characteristic GW strain of this background based on the observed distribution of planet parameters. We also show that the integrated extragalactic background is comparable or less than the galactic background at different frequencies. Our estimate shows that the net background is significantly below the sensitivities of the proposed GW experiments in different frequency bands. However, we notice that the peak of the spectrum, at around $10^{-5}$Hz, is not too far below the proposed space based GW missions. A future space based mission may be able to observe or tightly constrain this signal, which will possibly be the only way to probe the galactic population of exoplanets as a whole.

  4. Stochastic gravitational wave background from exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ain, Anirban; Kastha, Shilpa; Mitra, Sanjit

    2015-06-01

    Recent exoplanet surveys have predicted a very large population of planetary systems in our galaxy, more than one planet per star on the average, perhaps totaling about two hundred billion. These surveys, based on electromagnetic observations, are limited to a very small neighborhood of the solar system and the estimations rely on the observations of only a few thousand planets. On the other hand, orbital motions of planets around stars are expected to emit gravitational waves (GW), which could provide information about the planets not accessible to electromagnetic astronomy. The cumulative effect of the planets, with periods ranging from a few hours to several years, is expected to create a stochastic GW background (SGWB). We compute the characteristic GW strain of this background based on the observed distribution of planet parameters. We also show that the integrated extragalactic background is comparable to or less than the galactic background at different frequencies. Our estimate shows that the net background is significantly below the sensitivities of the proposed GW experiments in different frequency bands. However, we notice that the peak of the spectrum, at around 10-5 Hz , is not too far below the proposed space-based GW missions. A future space-based mission may be able to observe or tightly constrain this signal, which will possibly be the only way to probe the galactic population of exoplanets as a whole.

  5. Neutron Background at Boulby Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lightfoot, P. K.; McMillan, J. E.; Robinson, M.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Smith, P. F.; Smith, N. J. T.; Lewin, J. D.; Lüscher, R.; Liubarsky, I.

    2003-03-01

    The neutron background at the underground laboratory at Boulby - a site for several dark matter experiments - is discussed. Special emphasis is put on the neutron background produced by cosmic-ray muons. The most recent versions of the muon propagation code MUSIC, and particle transport code FLUKA are used to evaluate muon and neutron fluxes. The results of simulations are compared with experimental data.

  6. Cosmic Superstring Scattering in Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Mark G. Jackson

    2006-09-27

    We generalize the calculation of cosmic superstring reconnection probability to non-trivial backgrounds. This is done by modeling cosmic strings as wound tachyon modes in the 0B theory, and the spacetime effective action is then used to couple this to background fields. Simple examples are given including trivial and warped compactifications. Generalization to $(p,q)$ strings is discussed.

  7. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  8. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  9. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    E-print Network

    William Detmold; Brian C. Tiburzi; Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-08-25

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  10. Background

    Cancer.gov

    The discovery that proteins and peptides are "leaked" by tumors into clinically accessible bodily fluids such as blood has led to the possibility of diagnosing cancer at an early stage or monitoring response to treatment by collecting these fluids and testing for the presence of cancer-related biomarkers. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) are examples of blood-borne cancer protein biomarkers that are currently being used in the clinic.

  11. Backgrounder

    Cancer.gov

    There may be more than 200 different types of cancer and many more subtypes, each caused by glitches in DNA that trigger the uncontrolled growth of cells. Identifying the changes in each cancer’s complete set of DNA - its genome - and understanding how such changes interact to drive the disease process will lay the foundation for an era of precision medicine in cancer care that treats each patient as a unique case.

  12. Background

    Cancer.gov

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls provide the highest quality, least biased dietary data. Traditional 24-hour recalls, however, are expensive and impractical for large-scale research because they rely on trained interviewers and multiple administrations to estimate usual intakes. As a result, researchers often make use of food frequency questionnaires, which are less expensive but contain substantial error.

  13. Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L.; Wang, B. S.

    2013-08-08

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3? muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

  14. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    E-print Network

    B. Majorovits; I. Abt; M. Laubenstein; O. Volynets

    2011-05-18

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10^-5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  15. TeV Blazars and Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    F. A. Aharonian

    2001-12-13

    The recent developments in studies of TeV radiation from blazars are highlighted and the implications of these results for derivation of cosmologically important information about the cosmic infrared background radiation are discussed.

  16. Revised 03/12 Background Screening Request Form

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Revised 03/12 Background Screening Request Form Prior to submission, all information ­ type of hire at (352) 392-2477 to schedule an appointment for checks below: FBI LiveScan (Result within 48 hours) 435

  17. Search for the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, A.; Hodak, R.; Kovalenko, S.; Simkovic, F.

    2015-02-01

    One expects three Cosmic Backgrounds: (1) The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) originated 380000 years after the Big Bang (BB). (2) The Neutrino Background decoupled about one second after the BB, while (3) the Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background created by the inflationary expansion decoupled directly after the BB. Only the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been detected and is well studied. Its spectrum follows Planck's black body radiation formula and shows a remarkable constant temperature of T0? ? 2.7 K independent of the direction. The present photon density is about 370 photons per cm3. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 380 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T0? = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe and form the CMB. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 380 000 years after the Big Bang. The Cosmic Neutrino Background (C?B) decoupled from matter already one second after the BB at a temperature of about 1010 K. Today their temperature is ~ 1.95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos and the total density of all neutrinos about 336 per cm3. Measurement of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key elements of the Big Bang Cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe. The search for the C?B with the induced beta decay ?e+3H ? 3He + e- using KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) is the topic of this contribution.

  18. How do hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background estimate their language skills and their comprehension of medical information – a prospective cross-sectional study and comparison to native patients in Germany to assess the language barrier and the need for translation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Today more than two million people with Turkish migration background live in Germany making them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Data concerning language skills and the perception of medical information in hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background (T) are scarce. Our study is the first to gather quantitative information on this important subject. Methods T and hospitalised German patients without migration background (G) of our university hospital were prospectively included into a cross-sectional study and completed a questionnaire - each group in the appropriate language (T: Turkish, G: German). Results 121 T and 121 G were included. Groups significantly differed in age (T: 44.9?±?17.8, G: 56.9?±?16.7y) and proportion of males (T: 37.2, G: 54.5%) but not regarding the proportion of college graduates (T: 19.3, G: 15.7%). The majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74% of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73% speak German at work. 74.4% of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as “average” or better while 25.6% reported it as “very bad” or “bad”. 10.7% of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physician’s information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3% of T estimated their reception of the physician’s information to be “average” or worse. 43.3% of T had the impression that it would have helped them “much” or “very much” to be aided by an interpreter at the hospital. The information transmitted while giving informed consent to invasive medical procedure was judged to be “mostly” or “completely” sufficient by the majority of T (76%) and G (89.8%). In this setting 37 of 96 T (38.5%) reported being helped by an interpreter – in most cases (64.9%) a family member. Conclusion Although the majority of patients with Turkish migration background have spent most of their lives in Germany (28.94?±?10.41y) a large part of this population has limited German language skills and difficulties obtaining medical information when hospitalised. PMID:23710582

  19. 30 CFR 585.213 - What must I submit in response to a Request for Interest or a Call for Information and Nominations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive.... (d) Available and pertinent data and information concerning renewable energy and...

  20. 30 CFR 585.213 - What must I submit in response to a Request for Interest or a Call for Information and Nominations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive.... (d) Available and pertinent data and information concerning renewable energy and...

  1. 30 CFR 285.213 - What must I submit in response to a Request for Interest or a Call for Information and Nominations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Process... and pertinent data and information concerning renewable energy and environmental conditions in...

  2. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Master of Arts

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Master of Arts Graduate research in professional studies focused on the application of cognitive enhancement technologies to educational settings. This involved analyzingPaul University, Chicago, IL Bachelor of Science Undergraduate degree in Special Education included coursework

  3. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    Eric Gawiser; Joseph Silk

    2000-02-02

    We summarize the theoretical and observational status of the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Its thermodynamic spectrum is a robust prediction of the Hot Big Bang cosmology and has been confirmed observationally. There are now 76 observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy, which we present in a table with references. We discuss the theoretical origins of these anisotropies and explain the standard jargon associated with their observation.

  4. Inducing Expertise in History Doctoral Students via Information Retrieval Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Investigates cognitive effects of history doctoral students writing information about names pertinent to their study on index cards and recognizing patterns among the data elements. Highlights include schemata theory; theories on expert cognition; the development of expert thinking; and an information retrieval system that facilitates name…

  5. Summary of Information Relating to Gust Loads on Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donely, Philip

    1950-01-01

    Available information on gust structure, airplane reactions, and pertinent operating statistics has been examined. This report attempts to coordinate this information with reference to the prediction of gust loads on airplanes. The material covered represents research up to October 1947. (author)

  6. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  7. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  8. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more »or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  9. Rocket observations of the diffuse ultraviolet background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakobsen, P.; Bowyer, S.; Kimble, R.; Jelinsky, P.; Grewing, M.; Kraemer, G.; Wulf-Mathies, C.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the experiment reported here was to obtain additional information on the absolute intensity level and spatial variation of the diffuse ultraviolet background and thereby gain insight into the origin of this radiation. The experiment used three ultraviolet sensitive photometers placed in the focal plane of a 95-cm, f/2.8 normal incidence telescope flown on board an Aries sounding rocket. The measured intensities clearly refute the hypothesis of an isotropic background, the intensities of the high galactic latitude being definitely lower than the intensities seen at intermediate latitudes. Moreover, the count rates in all three channels along the slow scan exhibit local enhancements as well as an overall trend. In general, the spatial variations exhibited by the data correlate with the line of sight of neutral hydrogen column density as determined from 21-cm radio observations. This fact demonstrates that there is a galactic component to the diffuse ultraviolet radiation field.

  10. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported that the highest power fluctuations occur at scales of about one degree. A number of ground-based interferometers provided measurements of the fluctuations with higher accuracy over the next three years, including the Very Small Array [16], Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) [61], and the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) [78]. DASI was the first to detect the polarization of the CMB and the CBI provided the first E-mode polarization spectrum with compelling evidence that it is out of phase with the T-mode spectrum. In June 2001, NASA launched its second CMB mission (after COBE), Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Explorer (WMAP) [44], to make much more precise measurements of the CMB sky. WMAP measured the differences in the CMB temperature across the sky creating a full-sky map of the CMB in five different frequency bands. The mission also measured the CMB's E-mode and the foreground polarization. As of October 2010, the WMAP spacecraft has ended its mission after nine years of operation. Although WMAP provided very accurate measurements of the large angular-scale fluctuations in the CMB, it did not have the angular resolution to cover the smaller-scale fluctuations that had been observed by previous ground-based interferometers. A third space mission, the Planck Surveyor [1], was launched by ESA* in May 2009 to measure the CMB on smaller scales than WMAP, as well as making precise measurements of the polarization of CMB. Planck represents an advance over WMAP in several respects: it observes in higher resolution, hence allowing one to probe the CMB power spectrum to smaller scales; it has a higher sensitivity and observes in nine frequency bands rather than five, hence improving the astrophysical foreground models. The mission has a wide variety of scientific aims, including: (1) detecting the total intensity/polarization of the primordial CMB anisotropies; (2) creating a galaxy-cluster catalogue through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect [93]; (3) observing the gravitational lensing of the CMB and the integrated Sachs Wolfe (ISW) effect [82]; (4) observing br

  11. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-print Network

    J. G. Garza; S. Aune; D. Calvet; J. F. Castel; F. E. Christensen; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; T. Decker; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. Galán; J. A. García; I. Giomataris; R. M. Hill; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; A. C. Jakobsen; D. Jourde; H. Mirallas; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; J. Ruz; A. Tomás; T. Vafeiadis; J. K. Vogel

    2015-03-17

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  12. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, J. G.; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J. F.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10-6 counts/keV/cm2/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10-7 counts/keV/cm2/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  13. Background simulations and shielding calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2011-04-27

    Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

  14. Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper

    E-print Network

    Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper The New Electric Power Business-tuned, economically efficient, and technically-reliable electric power system. The creation of new information and the flow of that information among the various players is at the heart of restructuring. The power

  15. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  16. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  17. Background music and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance. PMID:20865993

  18. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

  19. Adult Education Information and Referral Hot-Line. Adult Education Special Project. Final Report, July 1980-June 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jim

    A toll-free adult education information and referral hotline provided information and referral services to approximately 1500 adults in Region IX in Texas from September 1980 to June 1981. Adult education co-ops and testing centers forwarded pertinent program information (class schedules, General Educational Development testing information) to the…

  20. Harnessing the Power of Education Research Databases with the Pearl-Harvesting Methodological Framework for Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandieson, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Lori C.; Sandieson, Rachel M.; Zimmerman, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital technologies enable the storage of vast amounts of information, accessible with remarkable ease. However, along with this facility comes the challenge to find pertinent information from the volumes of nonrelevant information. The present article describes the pearl-harvesting methodological framework for information retrieval. Pearl…

  1. Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrends, Ehrhard

    2004-05-01

    Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

  2. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-print Network

    Garza, J G; Calvet, D; Castel, J F; Christensen, F E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Decker, T; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Giomataris, I; Hill, R M; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jakobsen, A C; Jourde, D; Mirallas, H; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Ruz, J; Tomás, A; Vafeiadis, T; Vogel, J K

    2015-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  3. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  4. Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.

    2008-01-01

    Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

  5. Simulation of HEAO 3 background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, B. L.; Phlips, B. F.; Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91 [2], nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database [3], and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) [4] using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, ?-, ?+, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both ?- and ?+. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

  6. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  7. Modeling Background from Compressed Video Weiqiang Wang, Datong Chen and Jie Yang

    E-print Network

    Chen, Datong

    Modeling Background from Compressed Video Weiqiang Wang, Datong Chen and Jie Yang School background models directly from compressed video data. The proposed approach utilizes the information from video cameras onto a computer hard disk using hardware compression devices. However, how

  8. Quality of Online Information to Support Patient Decision-Making in Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Jordan G.; Tucholka, Jennifer L.; Steffens, Nicole M.; Neuman, Heather B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer patients commonly use the internet as an information resource. Our objective was to evaluate the quality of online information available to support patients facing a decision for breast surgery. Methods Breast cancer surgery-related queries were performed (Google and Bing), and reviewed for content pertinent to breast cancer surgery. The DISCERN instrument was used to evaluate websites’ structural components that influence publication reliability and ability of information to support treatment decision-making. Scores of 4/5 were considered “good”. Results 45 unique websites were identified. Websites satisfied a median 5/9 content questions. Commonly omitted topics included: having a choice between breast conservation and mastectomy (67%) and potential for 2nd surgery to obtain negative margins after breast conservation (60%). Websites had a median DISCERN score of 2.9 (range 2.0–4.5). Websites achieved higher scores on structural criteria (median 3.6 [2.1–4.7]), with 24% rated as “good”. Scores on supporting decision-making questions were lower (2.6 [1.3–4.4]), with only 7% scoring “good”. Conclusion Although numerous breast cancer-related websites exist, most do a poor job providing women with essential information necessary to actively participate in decision-making for breast cancer surgery. Providing easily-accessible, high-quality online information has the potential to significantly improve patients’ experiences with decision-making. PMID:26417898

  9. Gaining Precision and Accuracy on Microprobe Trace Element Analysis with the Multipoint Background Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaz, J. M.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Donovan, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Electron microprobe trace element analysis is a significant challenge, but can provide critical data when high spatial resolution is required. Due to the low peak intensity, the accuracy and precision of such analyses relies critically on background measurements, and on the accuracy of any pertinent peak interference corrections. A linear regression between two points selected at appropriate off-peak positions is a classical approach for background characterization in microprobe analysis. However, this approach disallows an accurate assessment of background curvature (usually exponential). Moreover, if present, background interferences can dramatically affect the results if underestimated or ignored. The acquisition of a quantitative WDS scan over the spectral region of interest is still a valuable option to determine the background intensity and curvature from a fitted regression of background portions of the scan, but this technique retains an element of subjectivity as the analyst has to select areas in the scan, which appear to represent background. We present here a new method, "Multi-Point Background" (MPB), that allows acquiring up to 24 off-peak background measurements from wavelength positions around the peaks. This method aims to improve the accuracy, precision, and objectivity of trace element analysis. The overall efficiency is amended because no systematic WDS scan needs to be acquired in order to check for the presence of possible background interferences. Moreover, the method is less subjective because "true" backgrounds are selected by the statistical exclusion of erroneous background measurements, reducing the need for analyst intervention. This idea originated from efforts to refine EPMA monazite U-Th-Pb dating, where it was recognised that background errors (peak interference or background curvature) could result in errors of several tens of million years on the calculated age. Results obtained on a CAMECA SX-100 "UltraChron" using monazite standards and well-characterized unknowns yield excellent agreement with ages obtained by isotopic method. The MPB method aims thus to improve and facilitate trace element analysis in general, as we further demonstrate with blank tests and Ti-in-quartz measurements in reference materials and well-characterized quartz samples.

  10. Conductivity in the anisotropic background

    E-print Network

    Bum-Hoon Lee; Siyoung Nam; Da-Wei Pang; Chanyong Park

    2011-02-28

    By using the gauge/gravity duality, we investigate the dual field theories of the anisotropic backgrounds, which are exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with a Liouville potential. When we turn on the bulk gauge field fluctuation $A_x$ with a non-trivial dilaton coupling, the AC conductivity of this dual field theory is proportional to the frequency with an exponent depending on parameters of the anisotropic background. In some parameter regions, we find that this conductivity can have the negative exponent like the strange metal. In addition, we also investigate another U(1) gauge field fluctuation, which is not coupled with a dilaton field. We classify all possible conductivities of this system and find that the exponent of the conductivity is always positive.

  11. The isotropic radio background revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  12. The Cosmic Background Explorer /COBE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, under study by NASA since 1976, will map the spectrum and the angular distribution of diffuse radiation from the universe over the entire wavelength range from 1 micron to 1.3 cm. It carries three instruments: a set of differential microwave radiometers (DMR) at 23.5, 31.4, 53, and 90GHz, a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 1 to 100 per cm, and a diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) covering 1 to 300 microns. They will use the ideal space environment, a one year lifetime, and standard instrument techniques to achieve orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity and accuracy, providing a fundamental data base for cosmology. The instruments are united by common purpose as well as similar environmental and orbital requirements. The data from all three experiments will be analyzed together, to distinguish nearby sources of radiation from the cosmologically interesting diffuse background radiations. Construction is planned to begin in 1982 for a launch in 1988.

  13. PROCUREMENT CARD GUIDELINES Background 3

    E-print Network

    Sun, Yi

    · Information 5 · Citibank Web Tools 1. CitiDirect 6 2. Citibank Electronic Reporting System (CERS) 6 3 Prior Approval 7 · Cardholder Review 7 · Disputed Items 8 · Lost or Stolen Credit Cards 9 · State

  14. Value of a privileged background 

    E-print Network

    Watts, Michael James

    2013-07-03

    This thesis considers how informational imperfections may give rise to advantages for those born to relatively rich parents. The first chapter focuses on the separation of some societies into different classes. Within ...

  15. Beta Decay and the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand; Hodak, Rastislav; Kovalenko, Sergey; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2014-04-01

    In 1964 Penzias and Wilson detected the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Its spectrum follows Planck's black body radiation formula and shows a remarkable constant temperature of T0? ? 2:7 K independent of the direction. The present photon density is about 370 photons per cm3. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 380 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T0? = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and the 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 380 000 years after the Big Bang. Information about earlier times can, in principle, be derived from the Cosmic Neutrino Background (C?B). The neutrinos decouple already 1 second after the Big Bang at a temperature of about 1010 K. Today their temperature is ˜ 1:95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos per cm3. Registration of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key element of the Big Bang cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe evolution. The search for the C?B with the induced beta decay ?e + 3H ? 3He + e- is the topic of this contribution. The signal would show up by a peak in the electron spectrum with an energy of the neutrino mass above the Q value. We discuss the prospects of this approach and argue that it is able to set limits on the C?B density in our vicinity. We also discuss critically ways to increase with modifications of the present KATRIN spectrometer the source intensity by a factor 100, which would yield about 170 counts of relic neutrino captures per year. This would make the detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Background possible. Presently such an increase seems not to be possible. But one should be able to find an upper limit for the local density of the relic neutrinos (Cosmic Neutrino Background) in our galaxy.

  16. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich Background

    E-print Network

    Gilbert Holder; Ian G. McCarthy; Arif Babul

    2007-02-27

    The cosmic background due to the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect is expected to be the largest signal at mm and cm wavelengths at a resolution of a few arcminutes. We investigate some simple statistics of SZ maps and their scaling with the normalization of the matter power spectrum, sigma_8, as well as the effects of the unknown physics of the intracluster medium on these statistics. We show that the SZ background provides a significant background for SZ cluster searches, with the onset of confusion occurring around 10^{14} h^{-1} solar masses in a cosmology-dependent way, where confusion is defined as typical errors in recovered flux larger than 20%. The confusion limit, corresponds to the mass at which there are roughly ten clusters per square degree, with this number nearly independent of cosmology and cluster gas physics. Typical errors grow quickly as lower mass objects are included in the catalog. We also point out that there is nothing in particular about the rms of the filtered map that makes it especially well-suited for capturing aspects of the SZ effect, and other indicators of the one-point SZ probability distribution function are at least as well suited for the task. For example, the full width at half maximum of the one point probability distribution has a field-to-field scatter that is about 60% that of the rms. The simplest statistics of SZ maps are largely unaffected by cluster physics such aspreheating, although the impact of preheating is clear by eye in the maps.Studies aimed at learning about the physics of the intracluster medium will apparently require more specialized statistical indicators.

  17. High background photon counting lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    Photon counting with lidar returns is usually limited to low light levels, while wide dynamic range is achieved by counting for long times. The broad emission spectrum of inexpensive high-power semiconductor lasers makes receiver filters pass too much background light for traditional photon counting in daylight. Very high speed photon counting is possible, however, at more than 500 MHz which allows the construction of eyesafe lidar operating in the presence of bright clouds. Detector improvements are possible to count to 20 GHz producing a single shot dynamic range of ten decades.

  18. MACSIMS : multiple alignment of complete sequences information management system

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Julie D; Muller, Arnaud; Waterhouse, Andrew; Procter, Jim; Barton, Geoffrey J; Plewniak, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Background In the post-genomic era, systems-level studies are being performed that seek to explain complex biological systems by integrating diverse resources from fields such as genomics, proteomics or transcriptomics. New information management systems are now needed for the collection, validation and analysis of the vast amount of heterogeneous data available. Multiple alignments of complete sequences provide an ideal environment for the integration of this information in the context of the protein family. Results MACSIMS is a multiple alignment-based information management program that combines the advantages of both knowledge-based and ab initio sequence analysis methods. Structural and functional information is retrieved automatically from the public databases. In the multiple alignment, homologous regions are identified and the retrieved data is evaluated and propagated from known to unknown sequences with these reliable regions. In a large-scale evaluation, the specificity of the propagated sequence features is estimated to be >99%, i.e. very few false positive predictions are made. MACSIMS is then used to characterise mutations in a test set of 100 proteins that are known to be involved in human genetic diseases. The number of sequence features associated with these proteins was increased by 60%, compared to the features available in the public databases. An XML format output file allows automatic parsing of the MACSIM results, while a graphical display using the JalView program allows manual analysis. Conclusion MACSIMS is a new information management system that incorporates detailed analyses of protein families at the structural, functional and evolutionary levels. MACSIMS thus provides a unique environment that facilitates knowledge extraction and the presentation of the most pertinent information to the biologist. A web server and the source code are available at . PMID:16792820

  19. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  20. Extending the Information Commons: From Instructional Testbed to Internet2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    2002-01-01

    The author's conceptualization of an Information Commons (IC) is revisited and elaborated in reaction to Bailey and Tierney's article. The IC's role as testbed for instructional support and knowledge discovery is explored, and progress on pertinent research is reviewed. Prospects for media-rich learning environments relate the IC to the…

  1. Natural information measures in Cox' approach for contextual probabilistic theories

    E-print Network

    F. Holik; A. Plastino; M. Sáenz

    2015-09-30

    In this article we provide, from a novel perspective, arguments that support the idea that, in the wake of Cox' approach to probability theory, von Neumann's entropy should be the natural one in Quantum Mechanics. We also generalize the pertinent reasoning to more general orthomodular lattices, which reveals the structure of a general non-Boolean information theory.

  2. Bayesian Analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background! Experiments designed to map the microwave sky are returning a flood of data (time streams of instrument response as a beam is swept over the sky) at several different frequencies (from 30 to 900 GHz), all with different resolutions and noise properties. The resulting analysis challenge is to estimate, and quantify our uncertainty in, the spatial power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background given the complexities of "missing data", foreground emission, and complicated instrumental noise. Bayesian formulation of this problem allows consistent treatment of many complexities including complicated instrumental noise and foregrounds, and can be numerically implemented with Gibbs sampling. Gibbs sampling has now been validated as an efficient, statistically exact, and practically useful method for low-resolution (as demonstrated on WMAP 1 and 3 year temperature and polarization data). Continuing development for Planck - the goal is to exploit the unique capabilities of Gibbs sampling to directly propagate uncertainties in both foreground and instrument models to total uncertainty in cosmological parameters.

  3. Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Shinji Tsujikawa; Takashi Tamaki; Reza Tavakol

    2009-04-03

    We study the field profile of a scalar field $\\phi$ that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential $\\Phi_c$ at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials $V(\\phi)=M^{4+n} \\phi^{-n}$ by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential $\\Phi_c$ is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for $\\Phi_c \\lesssim O(0.1)$.

  4. Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujikawa, Shinji; Tamaki, Takashi; Tavakol, Reza E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp

    2009-05-15

    We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}

  5. Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background: Theory

    E-print Network

    Scott Dodelson

    1997-02-14

    Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I ouline some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The specturm of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions.

  6. Cosmic Infrared Background and Early Stellar Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmic infrared background (CIB) contains information about galaxy luminosities over the entire history of the Universe and can be a powerful diagnostic of the early populations otherwise inaccessible to telescopic studies. Its measurements are very difficult because of the strong IR foregrounds from the Solar system and the Galaxy. Nevertheless, substantial recent progress in measuring the CIB and its structure has been made. The measurements now allow to set significant constraints on early galaxy evolution and, perhaps, even detect the elusive Population III era. We discuss briefly the theory behind the CIB, review the latest measurements of the CIB and its structure, and discuss their implications for detecting and/or constraining the first stars and their epochs.

  7. Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, S.

    1998-02-01

    Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I online some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The spectrum of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions.

  8. Genetic background of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Simona; Scarlata, Simone; Zito, Anna; Chiurco, Domenica; Pedone, Claudio; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2013-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive lung disease characterized by progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. The histological pattern, which displays dense fibrosis with active areas of fibroblastic proliferation, suggests a pathogenetic role of aberrant response to healing of multiple microscopic, repeated alveolar epithelial injuries. Although the exact etiology of the disease is still under investigation, several studies suggest that a combination of genetic and environmental factors may play a causal role. The aim of this review is to describe the genetic background of IPF, reporting the latest advancements made possible by genomic techniques that allow a high-throughput analysis and the identification of target genes implicated in IPF. This information may help to clarify pivotal aspects on prognosis and diagnosis, and may help to identify potential targets for future therapies. PMID:23638821

  9. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  10. Background Check Policy Revisions Refer to CSU Background Check Policy for more detailed information

    E-print Network

    ) Mandatory Mandatory n/a Student Hourly Postdoctoral Fellow Graduate Assistant Clinical Psych Intern, Vet Intern/Vet Resident, Fellowship Grant Trainee Faculty Affilliate (Associate - Affiliate) Volunteer Postdoctoral Fellow Graduate Assistant Clinical Psych Intern, Vet Intern/Vet Resident, Fellowship Grant Trainee

  11. Gauging the cosmic microwave background

    E-print Network

    J. P. Zibin; Douglas Scott

    2008-12-21

    We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behaviour of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behaviour. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behaviour. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

  12. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  13. Deleterious Background Selection with Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, R. R.; Kaplan, N. L.

    1995-01-01

    An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. PMID:8601498

  14. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  15. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found that spectral distortions at the 3-sigma level near the peak of the blackbody spectrum, although inconsistent with the predicted distortions due to Compton scattering in the early universe, are elegantly interpreted in terms of radiation from an early, pregalactic generation of massive stars which had been thermalized by a modest amount of dust at high redshift. The quadrupole anisotropy at the 4-sigma level is most simply interpreted in terms of the large-scale structure of the universe.

  16. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  17. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  18. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  19. Gauging the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Zibin, J. P.; Scott, Douglas

    2008-12-15

    We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behavior of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behavior. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behavior. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

  20. The microwave background anisotropies: observations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation-fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 microK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 degrees and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe--the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century. PMID:9419320

  1. Cosmic microwave?background?theory

    PubMed Central

    Bond, J. Richard

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in ?-space are consistent with a ?T flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are ?(10?5)2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at ? ? 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted ? cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 ± 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 ± 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 ± 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 ± 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on ? and moderate constraints on ?tot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant. PMID:9419321

  2. Background Learning with Support Vectors: Efficient Foreground

    E-print Network

    Bebis, George

    Detection and Tracking 11.3 Non-Parametric Statistical Estimation of Pixel Distribution for Background11 Background Learning with Support Vectors: Efficient Foreground Detection and Tracking ................................. .... 11-2 Statistical Background Modeling · Analytical Learning of Background Pixel Models · Target

  3. 40 CFR 86.605-88 - Maintenance of records; submittal of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... detector temperature control system (for diesel vehicles only). (D) Test cell. (1) Barometric pressure... information, reference to a vehicle test cell number may be used, with the advance approval of the Administrator: Provided, the test cell records show the pertinent information. (2) Individual records....

  4. 40 CFR 86.605-88 - Maintenance of records; submittal of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... detector temperature control system (for diesel vehicles only). (D) Test cell. (1) Barometric pressure... information, reference to a vehicle test cell number may be used, with the advance approval of the Administrator: Provided, the test cell records show the pertinent information. (2) Individual records....

  5. 40 CFR 86.605-88 - Maintenance of records; submittal of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... detector temperature control system (for diesel vehicles only). (D) Test cell. (1) Barometric pressure... information, reference to a vehicle test cell number may be used, with the advance approval of the Administrator: Provided, the test cell records show the pertinent information. (2) Individual records....

  6. Incremental Structure From Restrictive Motion This paper demonstrates the ability of the Federated Information Sharing fil-

    E-print Network

    Solà, Joan

    Localisation And Mapping scheme based on Extended Kalman Filter is used: its capability of imme- diate, and nu- merous contributions using Particle Filters, Information Filters, etc.) using an Extended Kalman of the system. All the image pro- cessing to extract the pertinent visual information in real time is described

  7. Metamemory Judgments of the Origin and Content of Course Information: Comparing Text and Lecture Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Gerard L.; Collins, Vicki L.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy and relations between 38 undergraduates' knowledge of content and origin of course information were examined. Results indicate a relationship between correct answers on a multiple-choice test and knowledge concerning the origin of information pertinent to the answers. Findings are discussed in terms of a reality-monitoring model. (TJH)

  8. TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the TIMSS 2011 background variables. Background questionnaire adaptations…

  9. PIRLS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Drucker, Kathleen T., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background variables. Background

  10. Mineral-resource assessments in Alaska; background information to accompany maps and reports about the geology and undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the Mount Katmai Quadrangle and adjacent parts of the Naknek and Afognak quadrangles, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Church, S.E.; Detterman, R.L.; Miller, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Geologic and geochemical field studies were carded out from 1983 to 1987 in the Mount Katmai l?x2 ? quadrangle and adjoining region, at the northeast end of the Alaska Peninsula. The region is nearly entirely within Katmai National Park and Preserve and has had almost no mineral production, so prior to this study there were few data by which to assess the mineral potential of the region. This report describes the folio of publications that have resulted from the study: geologic maps, geochemical results, fossil identifications, radiometric rock ages, and an assessment of the undiscovered-mineral-resource potential of the region. The Katmai region is inferred to potentially have three types of undiscovered mineral deposits: porphyry copper (molybdenum), precious-metal vein, and hot-springs gold. These deposit types occur elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar geologic units. Evidence suggesting their occurrence in the Katmai region is the presence of trace amounts of metals typically associated with these kinds of deposits in bedrock of certain tracts and in sediments of streams draining those tracts. Magma to provide heat, fractures to provide pathways for mineralizing fluids, and altered rock are required by genetic models of these deposit types. Such features do occur in the Katmai tracts. Confirmation of any mineral deposit in the Katmai region requires detailed follow-up sampling and acquisition of subsurface information, which is beyond the scope of this study. However, producing porphyry deposits are unknown elsewhere on the Alaska Peninsula in similar rocks, so if any such deposits occur in the Katmai region, they are likely to be few in number. Conversely, vein deposits are typically small in size so there may be several of such deposits. The properties and thermal history of the sedimentary rocks that could serve as reservoirs for oil or gas are unfavorable in adjacent regions. Thus the potential of the Katmai region for producible quantities of fossil fuels is low. In theory the region has shallow concentrations of geothermal fluids, but specific evidence for their presence is obscured by heavy precipitation and cold young rocks or deposits. Small volumes of coal occur at tidewater sites on the Pacific coast.

  11. Small and dim target detection by background estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Yu, Yi; Liu, Fan

    2015-11-01

    An effective method for small and dim moving target detection in complicated background is proposed. The proposed approach takes advantage of the Non-local means filter, and applies a novel weight calculation model based on circular mask to the original background estimation pattern. By associating similarity of grayscale distribution of the images with temporal information, the extended method estimates the complicated background precisely and extracts point target successfully. To compare existing target detection methods and the proposed one, signal-to-clutter ratio gain (SCRG) and background suppression factor (BSF) are employed for spatial performance comparison and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) is used for detection-performance comparison of the target trajectory. Experimental results demonstrate good performance of the proposed method for infrared images in complicated scene, especially for images with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  12. Characterising gravitational wave stochastic background anisotropy with Pulsar Timing Arrays

    E-print Network

    Mingarelli, Chiara M F; Mandel, Ilya; Vecchio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Detecting a stochastic gravitational wave background, particularly radiation from individually unresolvable super-massive black hole binary systems, is one of the primary targets for Pulsar Timing Arrays. Increasingly more stringent upper limits are being set on these signals under the assumption that the background radiation is isotropic. However, some level of anisotropy may be present and the characterisation of the power at different angular scales carries important information. We show that the standard analysis for isotropic backgrounds can be generalised in a conceptually straightforward way to the case of generic anisotropic background radiation by decomposing the angular distribution of the gravitational wave power on the sky into multipole moments. We introduce the concept of generalised overlap reduction functions which characterise the effect of the anisotropy multipoles on the correlation of the timing residuals from the pulsars timed by a Pulsar Timing Array. In a search for a signal characteris...

  13. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)

  14. Verification and Trust: Background Investigations Preceding Faculty Appointment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Many employers in the United States have been initiating or expanding policies requiring background checks of prospective employees. The ability to perform such checks has been abetted by the growth of computerized databases and of commercial enterprises that facilitate access to personal information. Employers now have ready access to public…

  15. 14 CFR 1203.200 - Background and discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Background and discussion. 1203.200 Section 1203.200 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY..., “the Order” was promulgated. It designates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration...

  16. 14 CFR 1203.200 - Background and discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Background and discussion. 1203.200 Section 1203.200 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY..., “the Order” was promulgated. It designates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration...

  17. 14 CFR 1203.200 - Background and discussion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Background and discussion. 1203.200 Section 1203.200 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY..., “the Order” was promulgated. It designates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration...

  18. Chapter 1 Background to the review The Research Assessment Exercise

    E-print Network

    Abrahams, I. David

    Exercise (RAE) provides ratings of the quality of research conducted in universities and higher education to provide public information on the quality of research in higher education throughout the UK. The resultsChapter 1 Background to the review The Research Assessment Exercise 60. The Research Assessment

  19. Background Material on National Instructional Television, Bloomington, Ind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Instructional Television Center, Bloomington, IN.

    Six separate pieces of information comprise this packet of background material on the National Instructional Television Center (NIT). Two brief descriptive statements provide an overview of the history and current operation of NIT and a summary of the consortium concept as it has been utilized by the Center to produce three series of…

  20. Information dynamics in quantum theory

    E-print Network

    Piotr Garbaczewski

    2006-12-18

    Shannon entropy and Fisher information functionals are known to quantify certain information-theoretic properties of continuous probability distributions of various origins. We carry out a systematic study of these functionals, while assuming that the pertinent probability density has a quantum mechanical appearance $\\rho \\doteq |\\psi |^2$, with $\\psi \\in L^2(R)$. Their behavior in time, due to the quantum Schr\\"{o}dinger picture evolution-induced dynamics of $\\rho (x,t)$ is investigated as well, with an emphasis on thermodynamical features of quantum motion.

  1. Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect

    PubMed Central

    Dekerle, Marie; Boulenger, Véronique; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1–4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring. PMID:25400572

  2. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantarians, N.; Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

    2013-11-07

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  3. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:25797499

  4. BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Peter

    2009-08-01

    With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of experiments and has gradually yielded up answers to the deepest questions about the origin of our Universe. Most recently, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has made a full-sky analysis of the pattern of temperature and polarization variations that helped establish a new standard cosmological model, confirmed the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and provided strong evidence that there was an epoch of primordial inflation. Ruth Durrer's book reflects the importance of the CMB for future developments in this field. Aimed at graduate students and established researchers, it consists of a basic introduction to cosmology and the theory of primordial perturbations followed by a detailed explanation of how these manifest themselves as measurable variations in the present-day radiation field. It then focuses on the statistical methods needed to obtain accurate estimates of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and finishes with a discussion of the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB and on the evolution of its spectrum. The book apparently grew out of various lecture notes on CMB anisotropies for graduate courses given by the author. Its level and scope are well matched to the needs of such an audience and the presentation is clear and well-organized. I am sure that this book will be a useful reference for more senior scientists too. If I have a criticism, it is not about what is in the book but what is omitted. In my view, one of the most exciting possibilities for future CMB missions, including Planck, is the possibility that they might discover physics beyond that which the current standard model can describe. 'Thinking outside the box' has become a cliché, but it is what graduate students should be encouraged to do. For example, the standard cosmological model entails the assumption, motivated by the simplest theories of inflation, that the primordial density fluctuations are described by Gaussian statistics. The detection of any deviations from Gaussian behaviour in the radiation field would therefore offer us an exciting window into the detailed physics of inflation or other departures from the standard model. Although primordial non-Gaussianity is an extremely active subject of contemporary cosmological research, it is barely mentioned in this book. This is a regrettable omission in an otherwise commendable volume.

  5. Cosmic Infrared Background and Early Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The cosmic infrared background (CIB) reflects the sum total of galactic luminosities integrated over the entire age of the universe. From its measurement the red-shifted starlight and dust-absorbed and re-radiated starlight of the CIB can be used to determine (or constrain) the rates of star formation and metal production as a function of time and deduce information about objects at epochs currently inaccessible to telescopic studies. This review discusses the state of current CIB measurements and the (mostly space-based) instruments with which these measurements have been made, the obstacles (the various foreground emissions) and the physics behind the CIB and its structure. Theoretical discussion of the CIB levels can now be normalized to the standard cosmological model narrowing down theoretical uncertainties. We review the information behind and theoretical modeling of both the mean (isotropic) levels of the CIB and their fluctuations. The CIB is divided into three broad bands: near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and far-IR (FIR). For each of the bands we review the main contributors to the CIB flux and the epochs at which the bulk of the flux originates. We also discuss the data on the various quantities relevant for correct interpretation of the CIB levels: the star-formation history, the present-day luminosity function measurements, resolving the various galaxy contributors to the CIB, etc. The integrated light of all galaxies in the deepest NIR galaxy counts to date fails to match the observed mean level of the CIB, probably indicating a significant high-redshift contribution to the CIB. Additionally, Population III stars should have left a strong and measurable signature via their contribution to the CIB anisotropies for a wide range of their formation scenarios, and measuring the excess CIB anisotropies coming from high z would provide direct information on the epoch of the first stars.

  6. Image segmentation by background extraction refinements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Mitchell, O. Robert

    1990-01-01

    An image segmentation method refining background extraction in two phases is presented. In the first phase, the method detects homogeneous-background blocks and estimates the local background to be extracted throughout the image. A block is classified homogeneous if its left and right standard deviations are small. The second phase of the method refines background extraction in nonhomogeneous blocks by recomputing the shoulder thresholds. Rules that predict the final background extraction are derived by observing the behavior of successive background statistical measurements in the regions under the presence of dark and/or bright object pixels. Good results are shown for a number of outdoor scenes.

  7. Energy information guidance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, P.

    1982-01-01

    This manual seeks to increase states' self-sufficiency in the acquisition, selection, development and sharing of energy information materials, and to assist state energy agencies and related offices which experience employee turnover to train new personnel rapidly. The Manual distills pertinent aspects of the Center for Energy Policy and Research experience in providing energy information to a wide clientele and incorporates valuable ideas and suggestions which many state energy officials conveyed to our staff personnel during visits over the past few years and in seminars conducted in 1981. Elements of specific programs can be adopted - or adapted - by other states. The pooling of states' experiences on difficult information problems can lead to joint efforts toward quicker, less expensive or more effective solutions. It is the interchange and testing of ideas by the many state officials with hands-on program experience that provide many of the practical suggestions in the Manual.

  8. Sunyaev-Zeldovich and Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-print Network

    Carlo Burigana

    2007-12-28

    Since its original formulation the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect has been recognized as a ``powerful laboratory'' for our comprehension of physical processes in cosmic structures and to derive crucial information on some general properties of the universe. After a discussion of the fundamental concepts and of some well established applications of the SZ effect towards galaxy clusters, I will focus on dedicated themes related to the SZ effect and other features in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) of particular interest in the view of the extremely high angular resolution observations achievable in the future with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). SKA will allow the mapping of the thermal and density structure of clusters of galaxies at radio and centimetre bands with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity and with an extremely accurate control of extragalactic radio source contamination. The signatures from SZ effects and free-free emission at galactic scales and in the intergalactic medium probe the structure evolution at various cosmic times. The detection of these sources and their imaging at the high resolution and sensitivity achievable with SKA will greatly contribute to the comprehension of crucial cosmological and astrophysical aspects, as the physical conditions of early ionized halos, quasars and proto-galactic gas. The spectacular improvement in our understanding of the properties of extragalactic radio sources at very faint fluxes achievable with SKA will allow to accurately model their contribution to the diffuse radio background, greatly contributing to the interpretation of next generation of CMB spectrum experiments devoted to probe the thermal plasma history at early times.

  9. Background radiation from fission pulses

    SciTech Connect

    England, T.R.; Arthur, E.D.; Brady, M.C.; LaBauve, R.J.

    1988-05-01

    Extensive source terms for beta, gamma, and neutrons following fission pulses are presented in various tabular and graphical forms. Neutron results from a wide range of fissioning nuclides (42) are examined and detailed information is provided for four fuels: /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 239/Pu; these bracket the range of the delayed spectra. Results at several cooling (decay) times are presented. For ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. spectra, only /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu results are given; fission-product data are currently inadequate for other fuels. The data base consists of all known measured data for individual fission products extensively supplemented with nuclear model results. The process is evolutionary, and therefore, the current base is summarized in sufficient detail for users to judge its quality. Comparisons with recent delayed neutron experiments and total ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. decay energies are included. 27 refs., 47 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico–Rhino–Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed. PMID:25713500

  11. Microwave Background Anisotropies from Scaling Seed Perturbations

    E-print Network

    Durrer, Ruth

    Microwave Background Anisotropies from Scaling Seed Perturbations Ruth Durrer and Mairi, Switzerland Abstract We study microwave background anisotropies induced by scaling seed pertur- bations the perturbation equations on super- horizon scales, for CMB anisotropies triggered by generic gravitational seeds

  12. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS...INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.4 Background investigations...primary management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation....

  13. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS...INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.4 Background investigations...primary management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation....

  14. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS...INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.4 Background investigations...primary management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation....

  15. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS...INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.4 Background investigations...primary management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation....

  16. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS...INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.4 Background investigations...primary management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation....

  17. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  18. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  19. Membrane in M5-branes Background

    E-print Network

    Wei-shui Xu; Ding-fang Zeng

    2007-05-30

    In this paper, we investigate the properties of a membrane in the M5-brane background. Through solving the classical equations of motion of the membrane, we can understand the classical dynamics of the membrane in this background.

  20. PennStateStormwaterPennStateStormwater Background Information

    E-print Network

    Squicciarini, Anna Cinzia

    Roofs 15 Infiltration Facilities 18 Wetlands 19 Storm Drains 20 Conveyance Swales 21 Water Quality Activities 24 Surface Water Gaging 25 Thermal Studies 26 Cold Weather Studies 27 Water Quality Testing 28 in the early 1990's, the dam has a drainage area of 237 acres and controls peak runoff rates and water quality

  1. STUDENT SOURCES -BACKGROUND INFORMATION Title Grade Rating Source

    E-print Network

    Packard, Jane M.

    -6 ****** http://www.wolf.org/wolves/learn/justkids/kids.asp Wolf Fun & Games K-6 *** http://www.timberwolfinformation.org/kidsonly/kidsonly.htm Mammals: Wolves 4-8 ***** http://dmoz.org/Kids_and_Teens/School_Time/Science/Living_Things/Animals/Mammals/Wolves Wolves 8-12, U ****** http://www.fws.gov/southwest/es/mexicanwolf/kids_WF.shtml International Wolf Center

  2. Background information and SOPs | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Search site CENTERS Arizona State University Cornell University Dana-Farber Cancer Institute H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute Johns Hopkins University Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Methodist Hospital Research Institute Northwestern

  3. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

  4. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR 30.115. (b) The... EEOICPA, has promulgated regulations at 20 CFR 30.210 and 30.213 that identify current members of the... compensation may be provided are cancers. There are two categories of covered employees with cancer...

  5. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR 30.115. (b) The... EEOICPA, has promulgated regulations at 20 CFR 30.210 and 30.213 that identify current members of the... compensation may be provided are cancers. There are two categories of covered employees with cancer...

  6. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR 30.115. (b) The... EEOICPA, has promulgated regulations at 20 CFR 30.210 and 30.213 that identify current members of the... compensation may be provided are cancers. There are two categories of covered employees with cancer...

  7. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR 30.115. (b) The... EEOICPA, has promulgated regulations at 20 CFR 30.210 and 30.213 that identify current members of the... compensation may be provided are cancers. There are two categories of covered employees with cancer...

  8. Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    for the IMRC Smog Check Evaluation _________________ 2 3. Evaluation Process of the Smog Check Process _____________________________________12 5.3. Agencies Involved in Smog Check Fits into Federal and State Air Pollution Policy 28 6.1. Federal Statutory and Regulatory Framework

  9. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR 30.115. (b) The... EEOICPA, has promulgated regulations at 20 CFR 30.210 and 30.213 that identify current members of the... compensation may be provided are cancers. There are two categories of covered employees with cancer...

  10. Improved Upper Limits on the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from 2009–2010 LIGO and Virgo Data

    E-print Network

    Aasi, J.

    Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the Universe that is ...

  11. The Discursive Construction of Literature Review: An Examination of Chinese PhD Students' Information Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Jiadong; Han, Jinghe

    2012-01-01

    Information behaviour is a pertinent practice throughout students' research work. However, research students, particularly those with English as an additional language, experienced challenges and complications when studying in a western university. Issues relating to their information behaviour during the research process has largely been…

  12. [Melatonin, a pertinent prototype for therapeutic innovation].

    PubMed

    Lesieur, D; Leclerc, V; Chavatte, P; Marot, C; Renard, P; Guardiola-Lemaitre, B

    1998-01-01

    Melatonin fulfils most of the requirements of a typical lead compound for rational drug design. We have rationally modified each of its structural features with a view to clarifying their role in drug-receptor interactions (affinity and activity) and to obtain agonist and antagonist ligands which could be used as pharmacological tools and/or as drugs. Molecular modelling studies allow us to propose a pharmacophore model. The naphthalenic bioisostere of melatonin (agomelatin) is currently under clinical (phase II) evaluation and two other compounds have been selected for development. PMID:9921034

  13. Optimisation de la pertinence des rsultats des

    E-print Network

    Libre de Bruxelles, Université

    frères pour leur soutien morale tout au long de mes études, je me fais un plaisir de leur présenter ce moteurs de recherche actuels 53 3.1 Google théories supposées ..........................................57 3.1.4 Le succès de google

  14. Cosmic microwave background: Past, future, and present

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, S.

    2000-04-10

    Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) carry an enormous amount of information about the early universe. The anisotropy spectrum depends sensitively on close to a dozen cosmological parameters, some of which have never been measured before. Experiments over the next decade will help us extract these parameters, teaching us not only about the early universe, but also about physics at unprecedented energies. One of the dangers now is that scientist are tempted to ignore the present data and rely too much on the future. This would be a shame, for hundreds of individuals have put in a great amount of time building state-of-the-art instruments, making painstaking observations at remote places on and off the globe. It seems unfair to ignore all the data that has been taken to date simply because there will be more and better data in the future. The author then makes the following claims: (1) the theory of CMB anisotropies is understood; (2) using this understanding, he is able to extract from future observations extremely accurate measurements of about ten cosmological parameters; (3) taken at face value, present data determines one of these parameters, the curvature of the universe; and (4) the present data is good enough that the measurements should be believed. The first of these claims are well-known. The last claim is more controversial, but the author presents evidence for it.

  15. Probing Inflation via Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been a rich source of information about the early Universe. Detailed measurements of its spectrum and spatial distribution have helped solidify the Standard Model of Cosmology. However, many questions still remain. Standard Cosmology does not explain why the early Universe is geometrically flat, expanding, homogenous across the horizon, and riddled with a small anisotropy that provides the seed for structure formation. Inflation has been proposed as a mechanism that naturally solves these problems. In addition to solving these problems, inflation is expected to produce a spectrum of gravitational waves that will create a particular polarization pattern on the CMB. Detection of this polarized signal is a key test of inflation and will give a direct measurement of the energy scale at which inflation takes place. This polarized signature of inflation is expected to be -9 orders of magnitude below the 2.7 K monopole level of the CMB. This measurement will require good control of systematic errors, an array of many detectors having the requisite sensitivity, and a reliable method for removing polarized foregrounds, and nearly complete sky coverage. Ultimately, this measurement is likely to require a space mission. To this effect, technology and mission concept development are currently underway.

  16. Gamma-Ray Background Variability in Mobile Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucott, Timothy John

    Gamma-ray background radiation significantly reduces detection sensitivity when searching for radioactive sources in the field, such as in wide-area searches for homeland security applications. Mobile detector systems in particular must contend with a variable background that is not necessarily known or even measurable a priori. This work will present measurements of the spatial and temporal variability of the background, with the goal of merging gamma-ray detection, spectroscopy, and imaging with contextual information--a "nuclear street view" of the ubiquitous background radiation. The gamma-ray background originates from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. The dominant sources in the field are the primordial isotopes potassium-40, uranium-238, and thorium-232, as well as their decay daughters. In addition to the natural background, many artificially-created isotopes are used for industrial or medical purposes, and contamination from fission products can be found in many environments. Regardless of origin, these backgrounds will reduce detection sensitivity by adding both statistical as well as systematic uncertainty. In particular, large detector arrays will be limited by the systematic uncertainty in the background and will suffer from a high rate of false alarms. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the gamma-ray background and its variability in order to improve detection sensitivity and evaluate the performance of mobile detectors in the field. Large quantities of data are measured in order to study their performance at very low false alarm rates. Two different approaches, spectroscopy and imaging, are compared in a controlled study in the presence of this measured background. Furthermore, there is additional information that can be gained by correlating the gamma-ray data with contextual data streams (such as cameras and global positioning systems) in order to reduce the variability in the background. This is accomplished by making many hours of background measurements with a truck-mounted system, which utilizes high-purity germanium detectors for spectroscopy and sodium iodide detectors for coded aperture imaging. This system also utilizes various peripheral sensors, such as panoramic cameras, laser ranging systems, global positioning systems, and a weather station to provide context for the gamma-ray data. About three hundred hours of data were taken in the San Francisco Bay Area, covering a wide variety of environments that might be encountered in operational scenarios. These measurements were used in a source injection study to evaluate the sensitivity of different algorithms (imaging and spectroscopy) and hardware (sodium iodide and high-purity germanium detectors). These measurements confirm that background distributions in large, mobile detector systems are dominated by systematic, not statistical variations, and both spectroscopy and imaging were found to substantially reduce this variability. Spectroscopy performed better than the coded aperture for the given scintillator array (one square meter of sodium iodide) for a variety of sources and geometries. By modeling the statistical and systematic uncertainties of the background, the data can be sampled to simulate the performance of a detector array of arbitrary size and resolution. With a larger array or lower resolution detectors, however imaging was better able to compensate for background variability.

  17. Pilot Performance With Predictive System Status Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1997-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, the benefits of predictive information have not been quantitatively demonstrated. The study described here attempted to identify and quantify these benefits if they existed. In this simulator experiment, three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and four initial times to an alert (1 minute, 5 minutes, 15 minutes, and ETA+ 45 minutes) were found to affect when subjects accomplished certain actions, such as accessing pertinent checklists, declaring emergencies, diverting, and calling the flight attendant and dispatch.

  18. External Background Characterization of Homestake Mine for DUSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Keenan; Mei, Dongming; Gray, Frederick; Zhang, Chao

    2009-10-01

    The Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota has been selected as the site for the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The former gold mine will provide ample underground facilities for low background experiments such as the detection of neutrinos and dark matter. Although the earth overburden provides shielding of cosmic rays, there are still sources of external background underground that are of concern to early experiments while the mine is in the initial stages of renovation. The goal of this project is to measure sources of external background underground including muons, neutrons, gamma-rays, and radon concentrations in the air. The information produced by these measurements is of use for future experiments in the design of shielding and infrastructure such as ventilation systems for radon removal. This paper will report the results regarding muon flux, neutron flux, gamma-ray flux, as well as radon at the different levels.

  19. External Background Characterization of Homestake Mine for DUSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Keenan; Mei, Dongming; Gray, Frederick; Zhang, Chao

    2010-02-01

    The Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota has been selected as the site for the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The former gold mine will provide underground facilities for low background experiments such as the detection of neutrinos and dark matter. Although the earth overburden provides shielding of cosmic rays, there are still sources of external background underground that are of concern to early experiments. The goal of this project is to measure sources of external background underground including muons, neutrons, gamma-rays, and airborne radon concentrations. The information produced by these measurements is of use for future experiments in the design of shielding and infrastructure such as ventilation systems for radon removal. This will present updates regarding muon flux, neutron flux, gamma-ray flux, as well as radon measurements underground. )

  20. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  1. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

  2. Managing Information On Technical Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III; Hammond, Dana P.

    1993-01-01

    Technical Requirements Analysis and Control Systems/Initial Operating Capability (TRACS/IOC) computer program provides supplemental software tools for analysis, control, and interchange of project requirements so qualified project members have access to pertinent project information, even if in different locations. Enables users to analyze and control requirements, serves as focal point for project requirements, and integrates system supporting efficient and consistent operations. TRACS/IOC is HyperCard stack for use on Macintosh computers running HyperCard 1.2 or later and Oracle 1.2 or later.

  3. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background...Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards...

  4. Spatial variations of groundwater background concentrations in coastal aquifers, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Soojae

    2014-05-01

    In coastal aquifers the mixing between fresh terrestrial water and seawater occurs, which influences groundwater quality. Due to mixing elevated chloride concentrations are often observed in coastal aquifers. In coastal areas terrestrial water-seawater mixing can be caused by anthropogenic activities or natural factors such as tides and sea level changes. Therefore, it is difficult or even impossible to characterize groundwater background concentrations in coastal aquifers. Although it is usual to exclude coastal aquifer when characterizing background concentrations, it is essential to accurately characterize naturally-affected groundwater quality in coastal areas because groundwater is a major water resource for potable, irrigation, domestic uses. So in this work we define groundwater background concentrations as naturally occurring ambient concentrations with excluding groundwater abstraction. Based on this definition, we evaluate groundwater background concentrations in various geologic formations and analyze characteristics of groundwater quality in coastal aquifers by utilizing Groundwater Quality Monitoring System (GQMS) data. The results show that high concentrations of chloride are observed in some coastal areas but not always. Tidal effects and topographical characteristics are thought to be as factors affecting such spatial variations. In some coastal areas high concentrations of chloride are observed with high nitrate concentrations. This means that agricultural practices can attribute to anthropogenic background, leading to elevated concentrations of nitrate. These results provide some essential information for groundwater resources management in coastal areas. Further data collection and analysis is required for evaluating the effect of tide and sea level changes on groundwater quality.

  5. Characterising gravitational wave stochastic background anisotropy with Pulsar Timing Arrays

    E-print Network

    Chiara M. F. Mingarelli; Trevor Sidery; Ilya Mandel; Alberto Vecchio

    2013-09-07

    Detecting a stochastic gravitational wave background, particularly radiation from individually unresolvable super-massive black hole binary systems, is one of the primary targets for Pulsar Timing Arrays. Increasingly more stringent upper limits are being set on these signals under the assumption that the background radiation is isotropic. However, some level of anisotropy may be present and the characterisation of the power at different angular scales carries important information. We show that the standard analysis for isotropic backgrounds can be generalised in a conceptually straightforward way to the case of generic anisotropic background radiation by decomposing the angular distribution of the gravitational wave power on the sky into multipole moments. We introduce the concept of generalised overlap reduction functions which characterise the effect of the anisotropy multipoles on the correlation of the timing residuals from the pulsars timed by a Pulsar Timing Array. In a search for a signal characterised by a generic anisotropy, the generalised overlap reduction functions play the role of the so-called Hellings and Downs curve used for isotropic radiation. We compute the generalised overlap reduction functions for a generic level of anisotropy and Pulsar Timing Array configuration. We also provide an order of magnitude estimate of the level of anisotropy that can be expected in the background generated by super-massive black hole binary systems.

  6. 40 CFR 86.605-88 - Maintenance of records; submittal of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... temperature control system (for diesel vehicles only). (D) Test cell. (1) Barometric pressure, ambient..., reference to a vehicle test cell number may be used, with the advance approval of the Administrator: Provided, the test cell records show the pertinent information. (2) Individual records. These...

  7. 78 FR 52929 - Scientific Information Request on Imaging Tests for the Diagnosis and Staging of Pancreatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... AHRQ Effective Health Care Program. Access to published and unpublished pertinent scientific... commissioned the Effective Health Care (EHC) Program Evidence-based Practice Centers to complete a review of... information on indications not included in the review cannot be used by the Effective Health Care...

  8. 78 FR 25760 - Proposed Information Collection; Urban Park and Recreation Recovery Program Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... next year, and any additional information pertinent for grant completion. (7) Conversion of Use... reports must be submitted. However, we still receive requests for conversion of properties improved or... requests for conversions of use, we are estimating one response as a placeholder for each of...

  9. A Framework to Access Handwritten Information within Large Digitized Paper Collections

    E-print Network

    Minsker, Barbara S.

    or practical means of searchable access. The possibility to search images of handwritten text is fundamental records that can be mined for information pertinent a number of fields from the geosciences of content based image retrieval, it avoids the still difficult task of directly recognizing the text

  10. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  11. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  12. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  13. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station

    E-print Network

    Protection Agency ESRI Environmental Systems Research Institute FR Federal Register g gram(s) HMS HanfordPNNL-23930 Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus BG Fritz LE Bisping SF Snyder JP Rishel JM

  14. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  15. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  16. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  17. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 401.3 Section 401.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and...

  18. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 401.3 Section 401.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and...

  19. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 401.3 Section 401.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and...

  20. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  1. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  2. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  3. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  4. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the Internal Security Act of...

  5. 47 CFR 32.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Background. 32.1 Section 32.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.1 Background. The revised Uniform System of Accounts (USOA) is a...

  6. 47 CFR 32.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background. 32.1 Section 32.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.1 Background. The revised Uniform System of Accounts (USOA) is a...

  7. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  8. 47 CFR 32.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 32.1 Section 32.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.1 Background. The revised Uniform System of Accounts (USOA) is a historical financial accounting...

  9. Definition and some backgrounds Combinatorial consequences

    E-print Network

    Andrews, Peter B.

    related backgrounds For cardinals , C. Weiss has defined the notion of a slender (, )-list, which generalizes the notion of a -tree. He also isolates the principle ISP(, ) which states that every slender Lowerbounds Some related backgrounds For cardinals , C. Weiss has defined the notion of a slender (, )-list

  10. 33 CFR 236.4 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 236.4 Section 236.4 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCE POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: CORPS OF ENGINEERS PARTICIPATION IN IMPROVEMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 236.4 Background. (a) The role...

  11. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background. In order to encourage and facilitate the use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of...

  12. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Background. 1217.102 Section 1217.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background. In order to encourage and facilitate the use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of...

  13. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Background. 334.3 Section 334.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS GRADUATED MOBILIZATION RESPONSE § 334.3 Background. (a) The GMR system is designed to take into account the need to mobilize...

  14. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  15. The GENIUS Project - Background and technical studies

    E-print Network

    L. Baudis; G. Heusser; B. Majorovits; Y. Ramachers; H. Strecker; H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus

    1998-11-11

    The potential of GENIUS as a dark matter detector is discussed. A study was performed to demonstrate the good behaviour of the proposed detector design of naked HPGe-crystals in liquid nitrogen. The expected background components were simulated and are discussed in some detail.With the obtained background GENIUS could cover a large part of the favoured MSSM parameter-space.

  16. The GENIUS Project Background and technical studies

    E-print Network

    Baudis, L; Majorovits, B; Ramachers, Y; Strecker, H; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H V

    1998-01-01

    The potential of GENIUS as a dark matter detector is discussed. A study was performed to demonstrate the good behaviour of the proposed detector design of naked HPGe-crystals in liquid nitrogen. The expected background components were simulated and are discussed in some detail.With the obtained background GENIUS could cover a large part of the favoured MSSM parameter-space.

  17. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  18. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  19. Cosmic Microwave Background Overview J. Richard Bond

    E-print Network

    Bond, Dick

    Cosmic Microwave Background Overview J. Richard Bond CIAR Cosmology Program, Canadian Institute for the gravitational instability theory, rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS, suggest, which #12; Cosmic Microwave Background Overview 2 is what makes it so simple to analyze. One of the most

  20. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  1. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 770.27 Section 770.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a)...

  2. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 770.27 Section 770.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a)...

  3. Background Concentrations of Trace Metals in

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Background Concentrations of Trace Metals in Florida Surface Soils April 1997 Lena Q. Ma Principal, 1996 March 14, 1997 PROJECT TITLE: Background Concentrations of Trace Metals in Florida Surface Soils of Florida CO-PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Willie Harris AFFILIATION: Soil Mineralogy, Soil and Water Sciences

  4. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 770.27 Section 770.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a)...

  5. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 770.27 Section 770.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a)...

  6. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  7. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  8. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 23.2 Section 23.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background. It is... of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal activity may...

  9. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Background. 128-1.8001 Section 128-1.8001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act...

  10. Integrated far-infrared background from galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi

    1991-01-01

    The integrated radiation from galaxies is calculated at far-IR and submillimeter wavelengths. The peak of the far-IR background radiation is 100-130 microns, and its total energy content is 0.5-6 percent of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). At wavelengths longward of 400 microns, the CMB dominates over the far-IR radiation from galaxies in intensity. The autocorrelation of fluctuations from the average angle of the far-IR background of galaxies is calculated. The contribution of galaxies to the anisotropy of the background radiation at wavelengths longer than about 400 microns where the CMB is predominant is obtained. It is found that, in general, earlier galaxy formation predicts stronger far-IR background radiation. The prompt initial enrichment model for the chemical evolution of disk galaxies, in particular those with an exponential star formation rate, produces much larger intensity of the integrated radiation than the accretion model.

  11. Improved mean shift target tracking approach under the interference of background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoran; Cui, Shaohui; Fang, Dan

    2014-11-01

    Aiming at the earlier stage tracking of strapdown image terminal guidance system, this paper propose a tracking approach which can not only enhance the distinction between targets and background effectively, but also can constrain the interference of target positioning suffered from background information. Among various target tracking approaches, the Mean Shift tracking algorithm is an excellent one due to its efficiency and simplicity, while it can not effective restrain the disturbance from background information. Thus, in this paper, an only target model background-weighted histogram target tracking algorithm, which can restrain the interference from background information, is presented under the Mean Shift framework. If the histogram of target model and target candidate model are both transformed, the probability of remarkable background features in the target model and target candidate model will simultaneously decrease. Thus it is equivalent to a proportional transformation of the weights obtained by the conventional target representation method. Meanwhile, the Mean Shift iteration formula is invariant to the proportional transformation of weights. Therefore, simultaneously transform the histogram of target model and target candidate model is exactly the same as the Mean Shift tracking with traditional target representation. So the proposed algorithm only transforms the histogram of target model and decreases the probability of target model features that are prominent in the background, but do nothing to target candidate model. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only restrain the disturbance from background information and improve the tracking accuracy, but also not increases the execution time.

  12. Application of Monte Carlo algorithms to the Bayesian analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, J.; Levin, S.; Anderson, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    Power spectrum estimation and evaluation of associated errors in the presence of incomplete sky coverage; nonhomogeneous, correlated instrumental noise; and foreground emission are problems of central importance for the extraction of cosmological information from the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

  13. Background of SIFs and Stress Indices for Moment Loadings of Piping Components

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. Wais; E. C. Rodabaugh

    2005-06-15

    This report provides background information, references, and equations for twenty-four piping components (thirteen component SIFs and eleven component stress indices) that justify the values or expressions for the SIFs and indices.

  14. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2014-12-18

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  15. Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W.; Girard, Emily J.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-07-01

    Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and near-infrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo.

  16. Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W.; Girard, Emily J.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and near-infrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo. PMID:25027002

  17. Informed consent.

    PubMed

    Steevenson, Grania

    2006-08-01

    Disclosure of information prior to consent is a very complex area of medical ethics. On the surface it would seem to be quite clear cut, but on closer inspection the scope for 'grey areas' is vast. In practice, however, it could be argued that the number of cases that result in complaint or litigation is comparatively small. However, this does not mean that wrong decisions or unethical scenarios do not occur. It would seem that in clinical practice these ethical grey areas concerning patients' full knowledge of their condition or treatment are quite common. One of the barometers for how much disclosure should be given prior to consent could be the feedback obtained from the patients. Are they asking relevant questions pertinent to their condition and do they show a good understanding of the options available? This should be seen as a positive trait and should be welcomed by the healthcare professionals. Ultimately it gives patients greater autonomy and the healthcare professional can expand and build on the patient's knowledge as well as allay fears perhaps based on wrongly held information. Greater communication with the patient would help the healthcare professional pitch their explanations at the right level. Every case and scenario is different and unique and deserves to be treated as such. Studies have shown that most patients can understand their medical condition and treatment provided communication has been thorough (Gillon 1996). It is in the patients' best interests to feel comfortable with the level of disclosure offered to them. It can only foster greater trust and respect between them and the healthcare profession which has to be mutually beneficial to both parties. PMID:16939165

  18. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Stawarz, L.; Lawrence, A.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  19. Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.

  20. Scientific Explanation Seminar Background Notes (2/1/11) 1 Scientific Explanation --More Background Notes

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    general facts about all probability models -- the algebraic method. Scientific Explanation Scientific Explanation Seminar Background Notes (2/1/11) 1 ' & $ % Scientific Explanation -- More­R Model Scientific Explanation Seminar Background Notes (2/1/11) 2 ' & $ % Overview of Finite

  1. Introduction & background Key-swapping collusion attack

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Mitchell

    Introduction & background Key-swapping collusion attack Analysis Discussion & Conclusions A Collusion Attack on Pairwise Key Presdistribution Schemes for Distributed Sensor Networks Tyler W Moore 2006 Pisa, Italy Tyler W Moore A Collusion Attack on Pairwise Key Predistribution #12;Introduction

  2. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is authorized by...

  3. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is authorized by...

  4. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is authorized by...

  5. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is authorized by...

  6. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  7. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  8. 48 CFR 1523.7000 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy-Efficient Computer Equipment 1523.7000 Background...only microcomputers, including personal computers, monitors and printers, which meet...power state. (b) The EPA Energy Star Computer Program is a voluntary partnership...

  9. 48 CFR 1523.7000 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy-Efficient Computer Equipment 1523.7000 Background...only microcomputers, including personal computers, monitors and printers, which meet...power state. (b) The EPA Energy Star Computer Program is a voluntary partnership...

  10. 48 CFR 1523.7000 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy-Efficient Computer Equipment 1523.7000 Background...only microcomputers, including personal computers, monitors and printers, which meet...power state. (b) The EPA Energy Star Computer Program is a voluntary partnership...

  11. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to...

  12. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2013-08-08

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  13. 32 CFR 770.37 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Naval Installations and Property in Puerto Rico § 770.37 Background. In accordance with 32 CFR 765.4, Naval installations and properties in Puerto...

  14. 32 CFR 770.37 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Entry Regulations for Naval Installations and Property in Puerto Rico § 770.37 Background. In accordance with 32 CFR 765.4, Naval installations and properties in Puerto...

  15. New directions in Background Independent Quantum Gravity

    E-print Network

    Fotini Markopoulou

    2007-03-20

    We discuss the meaning of background independence in quantum theories of gravity where geometry and gravity are emergent and illustrate the possibilities using the framework of quantum causal histories.

  16. 32 CFR 770.17 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

  17. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

  18. 32 CFR 770.17 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

  19. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

  20. 32 CFR 770.17 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

  1. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

  2. 32 CFR 770.17 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

  3. 32 CFR 770.17 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

  4. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

  5. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

  6. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

  7. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

  8. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

  9. 47 CFR 32.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS...Background. The revised Uniform System of Accounts (USOA) is a historical financial accounting system which reports the...

  10. 47 CFR 32.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS...Background. The revised Uniform System of Accounts (USOA) is a historical financial accounting system which reports the...

  11. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  12. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  13. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  14. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  15. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  16. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background...activities. However, because the collection and exchange of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal...

  17. 16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background. ...that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed too close...that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed even...

  18. 16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background. ...that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed too close...that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed even...

  19. 16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background. ...that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed too close...that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed even...

  20. 16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background. ...that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed too close...that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed even...

  1. 16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background. ...that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed too close...that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed even...

  2. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

  3. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

  4. Capabilities of the cosmic background explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    The cosmic background explorer, now being redesigned for a launch on a Delta rocket in 1989, will carry three instruments to measure the cosmic infrared and microwave background radiation and other diffuse sources from 1 micron to 1 cm wavelength. These instruments will be orders of magnitude more sensitive and accurate than previous equipment and will help determine the structure of the early universe. The instruments are (1) an absolute spectrophotometer, covering 100 microns to 1 cm, (2) an absolute infrared radiometer covering 1 to 300 microns, and (3) differential microwave radiometers at 32, 53, and 90 GHz. They will measure the large scale anisotropy and the spectrum of the 3 K cosmic background, and search for the extragalactic infrared background, to a sensitivity limited by the astrophysical environment. The first two instruments require liquid helium cooling, limiting their lifetime to about 14 months.

  5. Physics of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    Wands, David; Casarini, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation provides a remarkable window onto the early universe, revealing its composition and structure. In these lectures we review and discuss the physics underlying the main features of the CMB.

  6. Accounting UMass Lowell 20132014 Name and Background

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Accounting UMass Lowell 20132014 Name and Background FullTime Faculty: Professor Monty Carter Asst Virginia Professor Khondkar Karim, Chair BCom. ­ Univ. of Dhaka Lecturer Lisa Andrusaitis MCom. ­ Univ

  7. Thermal neutron background measurement in CJPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Z. M.; Gong, H.; Yue, Q.; Li, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the measurement of thermal neutron flux in the CJPL underground laboratory in the proximity of the CDEX experiment. A low background thermal neutron detection system is designed which applies a combination of a 3He proportional tube and a 4He proportional tube as the detector. Thermal neutrons can be captured by the 3He proportional tube while the 4He proportional tube is for the purpose of background measurement. The tube wall is made up of oxygen-free copper to reduce the background due to radioactivity of the wall material. The electronics readout system has been developed to store triggered events' waveforms so as to get the amplitude spectrum and monitor the data quality. We observed an average thermal neutron flux of ? = 4.00 ± 0.08 ×10-6 /cm2 s in the CJPL experiment hall in the proximity of CDEX experiment and the neutron and background events both distribute uniformly along the tube.

  8. Expected background in the LZ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2015-08-01

    The LZ experiment, featuring a 7-tonne active liquid xenon target, is aimed at achieving unprecedented sensitivity to WIMPs with the background expected to be dominated by astrophysical neutrinos. To reach this goal, extensive simulations are carried out to accurately calculate the electron recoil and nuclear recoil rates in the detector. Both internal (from target material) and external (from detector components and surrounding environment) backgrounds are considered. A very efficient suppression of background rate is achieved with an outer liquid scintillator veto, liquid xenon skin and fiducialisation. Based on the current measurements of radioactivity of different materials, it is shown that LZ can achieve the reduction of a total background for a WIMP search down to about 2 events in 1000 live days for 5.6 tonne fiducial mass.

  9. ORIGINAL PAPER Background complexity affects colour preference

    E-print Network

    Thomson, James D.

    online: 15 May 2009 # Springer-Verlag 2009 Abstract Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of "hummingbird syndrome . Colour. Pollination syndromes . Ornithophily Introduction Many hummingbird-pollinated plants exhibit

  10. Future of Cosmological Physics: Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-print Network

    Collar, Juan I.

    CMB anisotropy from degrees to arc minutes #12;Arno%Penzias%&%Robert%Wilson%in%front%of%the% 206%Bell on Cosmology 2015 marks the 50 year anniversary of the Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background Penzias

  11. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

  12. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

  13. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

  14. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

  15. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

  16. Hidden Markov Models for background clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Yang, Cui; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Zhang, Dong-Yang

    2013-07-01

    The development of a target acquisition performance model for an electro-optical imaging system is seriously affected by the description of the target and background characteristics at present. Based on the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), a different clutter metric is proposed to quantify the influence of background on target detection in this article. It first simulates the process of recording a target in the human brain by optimizing the HMM parameters to represent the target as far as possible. And then the background clutter is defined to be the similarity, estimated by the computed model parameters, between the target and background. Finally, the newly proposed clutter metric is applied to the Search2 database, and the experiment results prove its superiority to other metrics.

  17. Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian C. Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2010-02-01

    We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields.

  18. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0??? in EXO-200

    E-print Network

    EXO-200 Collaboration; :; J. B. Albert; D. J. Auty; P. S. Barbeau; D. Beck; V. Belov; M. Breidenbach; T. Brunner; A. Burenkov; G. F. Cao; C. Chambers; B. Cleveland; M. Coon; A. Craycraft; T. Daniels; M. Danilov; S. J. Daugherty; J. Davis; S. Delaquis; A. Der Mesrobian-Kabakian; R. DeVoe; T. Didberidze; J. Dilling; A. Dolgolenko; M. J. Dolinski; M. Dunford; W. Fairbank Jr; J. Farine; W. Feldmeier; S. Feyzbakhsh; P. Fierlinger; D. Fudenberg; R. Gornea; K. Graham; G. Gratta; C. Hall; S. Herrin; M. Hughes; M. J. Jewell; A. Johnson; T. N. Johnson; S. Johnston; A. Karelin; L. J. Kaufman; R. Killick; T. Koffas; S. Kravitz; R. Krücken; A. Kuchenkov; K. S. Kumar; D. S. Leonard; C. Licciardi; Y. H. Lin; J. Ling; R. MacLellan; M. G. Marino; B. Mong; D. Moore; O. Njoya; R. Nelson; A. Odian; I. Ostrovskiy; A. Piepke; A. Pocar; C. Y. Prescott; F. Retière; P. C. Rowson; J. J. Russell; A. Schubert; D. Sinclair; E. Smith; V. Stekhanov; M. Tarka; T. Tolba; R. Tsang; K. Twelker; J. -L. Vuilleumier; A. Waite; J. Walton; T. Walton; M. Weber; L. J. Wen; U. Wichoski; J. Wood; L. Yang; Y. -R. Yen; O. Ya. Zeldovich

    2015-12-21

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  19. Gravitational wave background from binary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, Pablo A.

    2011-10-15

    Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter {Omega}(f), commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, {Omega}(f) is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the frequencies of all existing and planned detectors. A semi-analytical formula for {Omega}(f) is derived in the case of stellar binaries (containing white dwarfs, neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes). Besides a realistic expectation of the level of background, upper and lower limits are given, to account for the uncertainties in some astrophysical parameters such as binary coalescence rates. One interesting result concerns all current and planned ground-based detectors (including the Einstein Telescope). In their frequency range, the background of binaries is resolvable and only sporadically present. In other words, there is no stochastic background of binaries for ground-based detectors.

  20. The pregalactic cosmic gravitational wave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzner, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution. The spectral region of cosmically generated and cosmically limited radiation is, at long periods, P greater than 1 year, in contrast to more recent cosmological sources, which have P approx. 10 to 10(exp -3).

  1. The diffuse X-ray background

    E-print Network

    A. M. Soltan

    2003-09-03

    The deepest observations of the X-ray background approach the surface brightness of the truly diffuse component generated by Thomson scattering of cosmic X-ray photons. Available estimates of the electron density and the X-ray luminosity density of AGNs as a function of cosmological epoch are used to calculate the integral scattered X-ray background component. It is shown that the scattered component constitutes 1.0 - 1.7 % of the total background, depending on the AGN cosmic evolution. Albeit this is a minute fragment of the total flux, it becomes a perceptible fraction of the still unresolved part of the background and should be taken into account in the future rigorous assessments of the X-ray background structure. This diffuse component at energies < 1 keV sums up with the emission by WHIM to 3 - 4 %. Consequently, one should expect that integrated counts of discrete sources account for just 96 - 97 % for soft background and ~99 % at higher energies.

  2. Background Assay and Rejection in DRIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, J.; Daw, E.; Dorofeev, A.; Ezeribe, A.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Gold, M.; Harton, J.; Lafler, R.; Lauer, R.; Lee, E. R.; Loomba, D.; Matthews, J.; Miller, E. H.; Monte, A.; Murphy, A.; Paling, S.; Phan, N.; Sadler, S.; Scarff, A.; Snowden-Ifft, D.; Spooner, N.; Telfer, S.; Walker, D.; Williams, M.; Yuriev, L.

    The DRIFT-IId dark matter detector is a m3-scale low-pressure TPC with directional sensitivity to WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. Its primary backgrounds were due to alpha decays from contamination on the central cathode. Efforts to reduce these backgrounds led to replacing the 20 ?m wire central cathode with one constructed from 0.9 ?m aluminized mylar, which is almost totally transparent to alpha particles. Detailed modeling of the nature and origin of the remaining backgrounds led to an in-situ, ppt-sensitive assay of alpha decay backgrounds from the central cathode. This led to further improvements in the thin-film cathode resulting in over 2 orders of magnitude reduction in backgrounds compared to the wire cathode. Finally, the addition of O2 to CS2 gas was found to produce multiple species of electronegative charge carriers, providing a method to determine the absolute position of nuclear recoils and reject all known remaining backgrounds while retaining a high efficiency for nuclear recoil detection.

  3. Motion influences the perception of background lightness

    PubMed Central

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    Uniform backgrounds appear lighter or darker when elements containing luminance gradients move across them, a phenomenon first presented by Ko Nakamura at the 2010 Illusion Contest in Japan. We measured the apparent lightness of the background with a configuration where the grey background was overlaid with moving square patches of vertically oriented luminance gradient. For black-to-grey gradients, the background appeared lighter when the black edges were leading than when they were trailing. For white-to-grey gradients, the background appeared darker when the white edges were leading than when they were trailing. For white-to-black gradients, the background appeared darker with a white edge leading and lighter with a dark edge leading, but the effects were weaker. These results demonstrate that lightness contrast can be modulated by the direction of motion of the inducing patterns. The smooth gradient is essential, because the effect disappeared when the black-to-white gradient was replaced with the binary black and white pattern. We speculate that asymmetry in the processing of a temporal gradient with increasing and decreasing contrast, as proposed to explain the “Rotating Snakes” illusion (Murakami, Kitaoka, & Ashida, 2006, Vision Research, 46, 2421–2431), might be the basis for this effect. PMID:25165515

  4. Modeling background intensity in DNA microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, K. M.; Barkema, G. T.; Carlon, E.

    2008-06-01

    DNA microarrays are devices that are able, in principle, to detect and quantify the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences in complex biological mixtures. The measurement consists in detecting fluorescence signals from several spots on the microarray surface onto which different probe sequences are grafted. One of the problems of the data analysis is that the signal contains a noisy background component due to nonspecific binding. We present a physical model for background estimation in Affymetrix Genechips. It combines two different approaches. The first is based on the sequence composition, specifically its sequence-dependent hybridization affinity. The second is based on the strong correlation of intensities from locations which are the physical neighbors of a specific spot on the chip. Both effects are incorporated in a background estimator which contains 24 free parameters, fixed by minimization on a training data set. In all data analyzed the sequence-specific parameters, obtained by minimization, are found to strongly correlate with empirically determined stacking free energies for RNA-DNA hybridization in solution. Moreover, there is an overall agreement with experimental background data and we show that the physics-based model that we propose performs on average better than purely statistical approaches for background calculations. The model thus provides an interesting alternative method for background subtraction schemes in Affymetrix Genechips.

  5. Simulation of natural radioactivity backgrounds in the central detector

    E-print Network

    Li, Xinying; Wen, Liangjian; Li, Weidong; You, Zhengyun; Yu, Chunxu; Zhang, Yumei; Lin, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is an experiment proposed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and probe the fundamental properties of neutrino oscillation. The JUNO central detector is a spherical liquid scintillator detector with 20 kton fiducial mass. It is required to achieve a $3\\%/\\sqrt{E(MeV)}$ energy resolution with very low radioactive background, which is a big challenge to the detector design. In order to ensure the detector performance can meet the physics requirements, reliable detector simulation is necessary to provide useful information for detector design. A simulation study of natural radioactivity backgrounds in the JUNO central detector has been performed to guide the detector design and set requirements to the radiopurity of detector materials.

  6. Simulation of natural radioactivity backgrounds in the central detector

    E-print Network

    Xinying Li; Ziyan Deng; Liangjian Wen; Weidong Li; Zhengyun You; Chunxu Yu; Yumei Zhang; Tao Lin

    2015-05-13

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is an experiment proposed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and probe the fundamental properties of neutrino oscillation. The JUNO central detector is a spherical liquid scintillator detector with 20 kton fiducial mass. It is required to achieve a $3\\%/\\sqrt{E(MeV)}$ energy resolution with very low radioactive background, which is a big challenge to the detector design. In order to ensure the detector performance can meet the physics requirements, reliable detector simulation is necessary to provide useful information for detector design. A simulation study of natural radioactivity backgrounds in the JUNO central detector has been performed to guide the detector design and set requirements to the radiopurity of detector materials.

  7. Spherically symmetric high-velocity plasma expansions into background gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, T.-H.; Borovsky, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Spherically symmetric plasmas with high expansion velocities have been produced by irradiating targets with eight beams from the Helios CO2 laser in the presence of gases at various pressures. Attention was given to the properties of the target-emitted ions in order to obtain information about the ion-acceleration mechanisms in plasma expansions. Photoionization of the ambient gases by the soft X-ray emission from the laser-irradiated targets produced background plasmas, permitting plasma counterstreaming experiments to be performed in spherical geometry. Successful laser-target coupling in the presence of back-ground gases is obtained; modification of the ion acceleration in accordance with isothermal-expansion models is observed; and an absence of collective coupling between collisionless counterstreaming plasmas is found.

  8. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P.; Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Keating, B.; Renbarger, T.; Kim, M. G.; Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W.; Sullivan, I.; Suzuki, K.

    2013-08-15

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  9. Using multiple perspectives to suppress information and complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L. |; Webster, R.B.; Hartley, R.T.

    1998-09-01

    Dissemination of battlespace information involves getting information to particular warfighters that is both useful and in a form that facilitates the tasks of those particular warfighters. There are two issues which motivate this problem of dissemination. The first issue deals with disseminating pertinent information to a particular warfighter. This can be thought of as information suppression. The second issue deals with facilitating the use of the information by tailoring the computer interface to the specific tasks of an individual warfighter. This can be thought of as interface complexity suppression. This paper presents a framework for suppressing information using an object-based knowledge representation methodology. This methodology has the ability to represent knowledge and information in multiple perspectives. Information can be suppressed by creating a perspective specific to an individual warfighter. In this way, only the information pertinent and useful to a warfighter is made available to that warfighter. Information is not removed, lost, or changed, but spread among multiple perspectives. Interface complexity is managed in a similar manner. Rather than have one generalized computer interface to access all information, the computer interface can be divided into interface elements. Interface elements can then be selected and arranged into a perspective-specific interface. This is done in a manner to facilitate completion of tasks contained in that perspective. A basic battlespace domain containing ground and air elements and associated warfighters is used to exercise the methodology.

  10. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Office (GPO) or the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), to set and collect fees. DON activities should ensure...operating statutory-based fee schedule programs, such as GPO or NTIS, they inform requesters of the steps necessary to obtain...

  11. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Office (GPO) or the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), to set and collect fees. DON activities should ensure...operating statutory-based fee schedule programs, such as GPO or NTIS, they inform requesters of the steps necessary to obtain...

  12. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Office (GPO) or the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), to set and collect fees. DON activities should ensure...operating statutory-based fee schedule programs, such as GPO or NTIS, they inform requesters of the steps necessary to obtain...

  13. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Office (GPO) or the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), to set and collect fees. DON activities should ensure...operating statutory-based fee schedule programs, such as GPO or NTIS, they inform requesters of the steps necessary to obtain...

  14. 32 CFR 701.40 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Office (GPO) or the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), to set and collect fees. DON activities should ensure...operating statutory-based fee schedule programs, such as GPO or NTIS, they inform requesters of the steps necessary to obtain...

  15. Changeable cuttlefish camouflage is influenced by horizontal and vertical aspects of the visual background.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alexandra; Litman, Leib; Litman, Leonild; Hanlon, Roger T

    2008-04-01

    Cuttlefish change their appearance rapidly for camouflage on different backgrounds. Effective camouflage for a benthic organism such as cuttlefish must deceive predators viewing from above as well as from the side, thus the choice of camouflage skin pattern is expected to account for horizontal and vertical background information. Previous experiments dealt only with the former, and here we explore some influences of background patterns oriented vertically in the visual background. Two experiments were conducted: (1) to determine whether cuttlefish cue visually on vertical background information; and (2) if a visual cue presented singly (either horizontally or vertically) is less, equally or more influential than a visual cue presented both horizontally and vertically. Combinations of uniform and checkerboard backgrounds (either on the bottom or wall) evoked disruptive coloration in all cases, implying that high-contrast, non-uniform backgrounds are responded to with priority over uniform backgrounds. However, there were differences in the expression of disruptive components if the checkerboard was presented simultaneously on the bottom and wall, or solely on the wall or the bottom. These results demonstrate that cuttlefish respond to visual background stimuli both in the horizontal and vertical plane, a finding that supports field observations of cuttlefish and octopus camouflage. PMID:18188570

  16. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-01

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with 130Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier's. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 102 -103 in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  17. A review on natural background radiation.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly (232)Th and (238)U series, and their decay products, as well as (40)K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

  18. The Background Field Approximation in (quantum) cosmology

    E-print Network

    R. Parentani

    1998-03-12

    We analyze the Hamilton-Jacobi action of gravity and matter in the limit where gravity is treated at the background field approximation. The motivation is to clarify when and how the solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation lead to the Schr\\"odinger equation in a given background. To this end, we determine when and how the total action, solution of the constraint equations of General Relativity, leads to the HJ action for matter in a given background. This is achieved by comparing two neighboring solutions differing slightly in their matter energy content. To first order in the change of the 3-geometries, the change of the gravitational action equals the integral of the matter energy evaluated in the background geometry. Higher order terms are governed by the ``susceptibility'' of the geometry. These classical properties also apply to quantum cosmology since the conditions which legitimize the use of WKB gravitational waves are concomitant with those governing the validity of the background field approximation.

  19. A review on natural background radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly 232Th and 238U series, and their decay products, as well as 40K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

  20. Information Quality in Regulatory Decision Making: Peer Review versus Good Laboratory Practice

    PubMed Central

    Borgert, Christopher J.; Mihaich, Ellen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is an ongoing discussion on the provenance of toxicity testing data regarding how best to ensure its validity and credibility. A central argument is whether journal peer-review procedures are superior to Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) standards employed for compliance with regulatory mandates. Objective: We sought to evaluate the rationale for regulatory decision making based on peer-review procedures versus GLP standards. Method: We examined pertinent published literature regarding how scientific data quality and validity are evaluated for peer review, GLP compliance, and development of regulations. Discussion: Some contend that peer review is a coherent, consistent evaluative procedure providing quality control for experimental data generation, analysis, and reporting sufficient to reliably establish relative merit, whereas GLP is seen as merely a tracking process designed to thwart investigator corruption. This view is not supported by published analyses pointing to subjectivity and variability in peer-review processes. Although GLP is not designed to establish relative merit, it is an internationally accepted quality assurance, quality control method for documenting experimental conduct and data. Conclusions: Neither process is completely sufficient for establishing relative scientific soundness. However, changes occurring both in peer-review processes and in regulatory guidance resulting in clearer, more transparent communication of scientific information point to an emerging convergence in ensuring information quality. The solution to determining relative merit lies in developing a well-documented, generally accepted weight-of-evidence scheme to evaluate both peer-reviewed and GLP information used in regulatory decision making where both merit and specific relevance inform the process. PMID:22343028

  1. The background and theory of integrated risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsucker, John L.

    1995-01-01

    While all good managers have always considered risk in their decision making, only recently have formal programs to do so been introduced. This report covers the logical structure behind the formulation of an integrated risk management plan (IRM). Included in the report are factors forcing the development of a formal plan to consider risk, the basic objective or purpose of an IRM, and desirable traits of such a plan. The report moves on to a discussion of background issues, seeks to formalize some definitions, and then discusses required information on threats. The report concludes with the steps for an IRM.

  2. How Adolescents Use Technology for Health Information: Implications for Health Professionals from Focus Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Biscope, Sherry; Poland, Blake; Goldberg, Eudice

    2003-01-01

    Background Adolescents present many challenges in providing them effective preventive services and health care. Yet, they are typically the early adopters of new technology (eg, the Internet). This creates important opportunities for engaging youths via eHealth. Objective To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents. Methods Using an inductive qualitative research design, 27 focus groups were conducted in Ontario, Canada. The 210 participants (55% female, 45% male; median age 16 years) were selected to reflect diversity in age, sex, geographic location, cultural identity, and risk. An 8-person team analyzed and coded the data according to major themes. Results Study participants most-frequently sought or distributed information related to school (89%), interacting with friends (85%), social concerns (85%), specific medical conditions (67%), body image and nutrition (63%), violence and personal safety (59%), and sexual health (56%). Finding personally-relevant, high-quality information was a pivotal challenge that has ramifications on the depth and types of information that adolescents can find to answer their health questions. Privacy in accessing information technology was a second key challenge. Participants reported using technologies that clustered into 4 domains along a continuum from highly-interactive to fixed information sources: (1) personal communication: telephone, cell phone, and pager; (2) social communication: e-mail, instant messaging, chat, and bulletin boards; (3) interactive environments: Web sites, search engines, and computers; and (4) unidirectional sources: television, radio, and print. Three emerging roles for health professionals in eHealth include: (1) providing an interface for adolescents with technology and assisting them in finding pertinent information sources; (2) enhancing connection to youths by extending ways and times when practitioners are available; and (3) fostering critical appraisal skills among youths for evaluating the quality of health information. Conclusions This study helps illuminate adolescent health-information needs, their use of information technologies, and emerging roles for health professionals. The findings can inform the design and more-effective use of eHealth applications for adolescent populations. PMID:14713660

  3. Neutrino refraction by the cosmic neutrino background

    E-print Network

    Diaz, J S

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the dispersion relation of a neutrino test particle propagating in the cosmic neutrino background. Describing the relic neutrinos and antineutrinos from the hot big bang as a dense medium, a matter potential or refractive index is obtained. The vacuum neutrino mixing angles are unchanged, but the energy of each mass state is modified. Using a matrix in the space of neutrino species, the induced potential is decomposed into a part which produces signatures in beta-decay experiments and another part which modifies neutrino oscillations. The low temperature of the relic neutrinos makes a direct detection extremely challenging. From a different point of view, the identified refractive effects of the cosmic neutrino background constitute an ultralow background for future experimental studies of nonvanishing Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector.

  4. Neutrino refraction by the cosmic neutrino background

    E-print Network

    J. S. Diaz; F. R. Klinkhamer

    2015-12-07

    We have determined the dispersion relation of a neutrino test particle propagating in the cosmic neutrino background. Describing the relic neutrinos and antineutrinos from the hot big bang as a dense medium, a matter potential or refractive index is obtained. The vacuum neutrino mixing angles are unchanged, but the energy of each mass state is modified. Using a matrix in the space of neutrino species, the induced potential is decomposed into a part which produces signatures in beta-decay experiments and another part which modifies neutrino oscillations. The low temperature of the relic neutrinos makes a direct detection extremely challenging. From a different point of view, the identified refractive effects of the cosmic neutrino background constitute an ultralow background for future experimental studies of nonvanishing Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector.

  5. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example usingmore »powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.« less

  6. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  7. Cosmological origin of anomalous radio background

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, James M.; Vincent, Aaron C. E-mail: vincent@ific.uv.es

    2013-02-01

    The ARCADE 2 collaboration has reported a significant excess in the isotropic radio background, whose homogeneity cannot be reconciled with clustered sources. This suggests a cosmological origin prior to structure formation. We investigate several potential mechanisms and show that injection of relativistic electrons through late decays of a metastable particle can give rise to the observed excess radio spectrum through synchrotron emission. However, constraints from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, on injection of charged particles and on the primordial magnetic field, present a challenge. The simplest scenario is with a ?>9 GeV particle decaying into e{sup +}e{sup ?} at a redshift of z ? 5, in a magnetic field of ? 5?G, which exceeds the CMB B-field constraints, unless the field was generated after decoupling. Decays into exotic millicharged particles can alleviate this tension, if they emit synchroton radiation in conjunction with a sufficiently large background magnetic field of a dark U(1)' gauge field.

  8. Tidal forces in naked singularity backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Akash; Maity, Reevu; Roy, Pratim; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2015-05-01

    The end stage of a gravitational collapse process can generically result in a black hole or a naked singularity. Here we undertake a comparative analysis of the nature of tidal forces in these backgrounds. The effect of such forces is generically exemplified by the Roche limit, which predicts the distance within which a celestial object disintegrates due to the tidal effects of a second more massive object. In this paper, using Fermi normal coordinates, we numerically compute the Roche limit for a class of nonrotating naked singularity backgrounds and compare them with known results for Schwarzschild black holes. Our analysis indicates that there might be substantially large deviations in the magnitudes of tidal forces in naked singularity backgrounds, compared to the black hole cases. If observationally established, these can prove to be an effective indicator of the nature of the singularity at a galactic center.

  9. Tidal Forces in Naked Singularity Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Akash Goel; Reevu Maity; Pratim Roy; Tapobrata Sarkar

    2015-04-06

    The end stage of a gravitational collapse process can generically result in a black hole or a naked singularity. Here we undertake a comparative analysis of the nature of tidal forces in these backgrounds. The effect of such forces is generically exemplified by the Roche limit, which predicts the distance within which a celestial object disintegrates due to the tidal effects of a second more massive object. In this paper, using Fermi normal coordinates, we numerically compute the Roche limit for a class of non-rotating naked singularity backgrounds, and compare them with known results for Schwarzschild black holes. Our analysis indicates that there might be substantially large deviations in the magnitudes of tidal forces in naked singularity backgrounds, compared to the black hole cases. If observationally established, these can prove to be an effective indicator of the nature of the singularity at a galactic centre.

  10. Minkowski Functional Description of Microwave Background Gaussianity

    E-print Network

    Serge Winitzki; Arthur Kosowsky

    1997-10-15

    A Gaussian distribution of cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations is a generic prediction of inflation. Upcoming high-resolution maps of the microwave background will allow detailed tests of Gaussianity down to small angular scales, providing a crucial test of inflation. We propose Minkowski functionals as a calculational tool for testing Gaussianity and characterizing deviations from it. We review the mathematical formalism of Minkowski functionals of random fields; for Gaussian fields the functionals can be calculated exactly. We then apply the results to pixelized maps, giving explicit expressions for calculating the functionals from maps as well as the Gaussian predictions, including corrections for map boundaries, pixel noise, and pixel size and shape. Variances of the functionals for Gaussian distributions are derived in terms of the map correlation function. Applications to microwave background maps are discussed.

  11. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, W. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. K.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  12. From Cosmic Microwave Background to Cosmic Infrared Background: dusty star-formation in the making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagache, Guilaine

    2015-08-01

    How the clumpy structured universe that we see today evolved from the smoothly distributed matter that existed during the dark ages is one of the most pressing questions of modern Cosmology. In the last few years, it has become clear that dusty star-forming galaxies are participating to this major change. Indeed they are a critical player in the assembly of stellar mass and the evolution of massive galaxies.Dusty star-forming galaxies at high redshift are very difficult to detect individually because they are so faint and numerous (compared to the angular resolution achievable in the far-IR to mm), that confusion plagues observations substantially. As a result, CMB experiments, such as Planck, can only see the brightest objects that represent the tip of the iceberg in terms of galaxy mass halos and star formation rates. But fortunately, those experiments are sensitive enough to measure the cumulative IR emission from all galaxies throughout cosmic history, the cosmic IR background. The anisotropies detected in this background trace the large-scale distribution of star-forming galaxies and, to some extent, the underlying distribution of the dark matter haloes in which galaxies reside. It is so bright that it represents (together with the shot noise) the main foreground contaminant to CMB temperature maps at small scales.I will review the current measurements of CIB anisotropies in Planck, but also in SPT, ACT and Herschel. I will discussed what we've learned from these measurements in the framework of galaxy evolution. I will show that most of the information from CIB anisotropies alone has been extracted; the future is now in cross-correlation. Because dusty galaxies trace the underlying dark matter, the CIB will correlate with any other tracer of the same dark matter field, provided that both overlap in redshift. The potential of Planck maps, covering the whole sky, is tremendous. A good illustration of this promising future is the fact that the Planck discovered strong correlation between the CIB and the lensing of the CMB led to the first detection of CMB polarization B-modes due to gravitational lensing.

  13. Improved Background Corrections for Uranium Holdup Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R.B.; Gunn, C.A.; Chiang, L.G.

    2004-06-21

    In the original Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) model, all holdup deposits were modeled as points, lines, and areas[1, 5]. Two improvements[4] were recently made to the GGH model and are currently in use at the Y-12 National Security Complex. These two improvements are the finite-source correction CF{sub g} and the self-attenuation correction. The finite-source correction corrects the average detector response for the width of point and line geometries which in effect, converts points and lines into areas. The result of a holdup measurement of an area deposit is a density-thickness which is converted to mass by multiplying it by the area of the deposit. From the measured density-thickness, the true density-thickness can be calculated by correcting for the material self-attenuation. Therefore the self-attenuation correction is applied to finite point and line deposits as well as areas. This report demonstrates that the finite-source and self-attenuation corrections also provide a means to better separate the gamma rays emitted by the material from the gamma rays emitted by background sources for an improved background correction. Currently, the measured background radiation is attenuated for equipment walls in the case of area deposits but not for line and point sources. The measured background radiation is not corrected for attenuation by the uranium material. For all of these cases, the background is overestimated which causes a negative bias in the measurement. The finite-source correction and the self-attenuation correction will allow the correction of the measured background radiation for both the equipment attenuation and material attenuation for area sources as well as point and line sources.

  14. William and Mary Athletics Camp Employee Disclosure and Background Release Form

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    William and Mary Athletics Camp Employee Disclosure and Background Release Form the criminal history information of the FBI. I certify that the information provided above is accurate and complete. Applicant Signature Printed Name Date Please return this form to: Adam Andrusyszyn, Assistant

  15. Granularity of the Diffuse Background Observed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, D. E.; MacDonald, D.; Rothschild, R. E.; Boldt, E.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Fabian, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    First results are reported from a program for measuring the field-to-field fluctuation level of the cosmic diffuse background by using differences between the two background positions of each deep exposure with the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE) instrument on the Remote X Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). With 8 million live seconds accumulated to date a fluctuation level on the 15-25 keV band is observed which is consistent with extrapolations from the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory-1 (HEAO-1) measurements. Positive results are expected eventually at higher energies. Models of (active galactic nuclei) AGN origin will eventually be constrained by this program.

  16. Nature of the background ultraviolet radiation field

    E-print Network

    Archana Samantaray; Pushpa Khare

    2000-03-21

    We have tried to determine the flux of the ultraviolet background radiation field from the column density ratios of various ions in several absorption systems observed in the spectra of QSOs. We find that in most cases the flux is considerably higher than what has been estimated to be contributed by the AGNs. The excess flux could originate locally in hot stars. In a few cases we have been able to show that such galactic flux can only contribute a part of the total required flux. The results suggest that the background gets a significant contribution from an unseen QSO population.

  17. A low-background parylene temperature sensor

    E-print Network

    A. Dhar; J. C. Loach; P. J. Barton; J. T. Larsen; A. W. P. Poon

    2015-08-24

    Ultra-low radioactivity temperature sensors have been developed for low-background experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay and the interactions of WIMP dark matter. The sensors consist of electrical traces photolithographically-patterned onto substrates of vapor-deposited parylene. They are demonstrated to function as expected, to do so reliably and robustly, and to be highly radio-pure. This work is a proof-of-concept study of a technology that can be applied to broad class of electronic circuits used in low-background experiments.

  18. Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background

    E-print Network

    Mattias Marklund; Gert Brodin; Lennart Stenflo

    2003-10-17

    The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects, between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background is investigated, by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density there is focusing and subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed.

  19. Compensatable muon collider calorimeter with manageable backgrounds

    DOEpatents

    Raja, Rajendran

    2015-02-17

    A method and system for reducing background noise in a particle collider, comprises identifying an interaction point among a plurality of particles within a particle collider associated with a detector element, defining a trigger start time for each of the pixels as the time taken for light to travel from the interaction point to the pixel and a trigger stop time as a selected time after the trigger start time, and collecting only detections that occur between the start trigger time and the stop trigger time in order to thereafter compensate the result from the particle collider to reduce unwanted background detection.

  20. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.; Mendis, A.

    1977-01-01

    It is argued that the 'surface of last scattering' of the observed microwave background radiation corresponds to the distribution of dust in galaxies or protogalaxies with a temperature of about 110 K at the epoch corresponding to Z roughly equal to 40. This is in contrast with the plasma temperature of over 3,000 K at an earlier epoch (Z greater than about 1,000), as given by the canonical model of big bang cosmologies. In view of this, the claim that the microwave background radiation lends strong support to hot big bang cosmologies is without foundation.

  1. Cosmology and the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggess, Nancy W.

    1989-01-01

    COBE, planned for launch aboard a Delta rocket, is NASA's first space mission specifically designed to study the diffuse IR and microwave background radiation. COBE has three instruments for performing precision measurements of the spectrum and angular distribution of the 3 K cosmic background radiation and for making an all-sky survey of the diffuse IR emission at wavelengths of 1-300 microns. COBE will carry differential microwave radiameters to search for anisotropies to a sensitivity per 7-deg pixel of 0.15 mK at frequencies of 53 and 90 GHz and of 0.3 mK at 32 GHz.

  2. Geodesics and Newton's Law in Brane Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    W. Mueck; K. S. Viswanathan; I. V. Volovich

    2000-02-16

    In brane world models our universe is considered as a brane imbedded into a higher dimensional space. We discuss the behaviour of geodesics in the Randall-Sundrum background and point out that free massive particles cannot move along the brane only. The brane is repulsive, and matter will be expelled from the brane into the extra dimension. This is rather undesirable, and hence we study an alternative model with a non-compact extra dimension, but with an attractive brane embedded into the higher dimensional space. We study the linearized gravity equations and show that Newton's gravitational law is valid on the brane also in the alternative background.

  3. A low-background parylene temperature sensor

    E-print Network

    Dhar, A; Barton, P J; Larsen, J T; Poon, A W P

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-low radioactivity temperature sensors have been developed for low-background experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay and the interactions of WIMP dark matter. The sensors consist of electrical traces photolithographically-patterned onto substrates of vapor-deposited parylene. They are demonstrated to function as expected, to do so reliably and robustly, and to be highly radio-pure. This work is a proof-of-concept study of a technology that can be applied to broad class of electronic circuits used in low-background experiments.

  4. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  5. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1989-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  6. Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

  7. 44 CFR 350.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Background. 350.3 Section 350.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... coordinate civil emergency planning, management and assistance functions and to represent the President...

  8. Cultural background shapes spatial reference frame proclivity

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Köster, Moritz; Fernández-Revelles, Andrés B.; Gramann, Klaus; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation is an essential human skill that is influenced by several factors. The present study investigates how gender, age, and cultural background account for differences in reference frame proclivity and performance in a virtual navigation task. Using an online navigation study, we recorded reaction times, error rates (confusion of turning axis), and reference frame proclivity (egocentric vs. allocentric reference frame) of 1823 participants. Reaction times significantly varied with gender and age, but were only marginally influenced by the cultural background of participants. Error rates were in line with these results and exhibited a significant influence of gender and culture, but not age. Participants’ cultural background significantly influenced reference frame selection; the majority of North-Americans preferred an allocentric strategy, while Latin-Americans preferred an egocentric navigation strategy. European and Asian groups were in between these two extremes. Neither the factor of age nor the factor of gender had a direct impact on participants’ navigation strategies. The strong effects of cultural background on navigation strategies without the influence of gender or age underlines the importance of socialized spatial cognitive processes and argues for socio-economic analysis in studies investigating human navigation. PMID:26073656

  9. Background Verification Request -Cover Sheet (Form 1691)

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    call your Office of Human Resources Recruiter. Is this background check request for the Saftey address: Phone: Has this individual lived outside the U.S. in the past 7 years? If yes, please check with request form) Standard Package: Social Security Number trace Criminal felony/misdemeanor Sex offender

  10. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS §...

  11. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS §...

  12. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS §...

  13. Computer Software & Intellectual Property. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This background paper reviews copyright, patent, and trade secret protections as these issues are related to computer software. Topics discussed include current issues regarding legal protection for computer software including the necessity for defining intellectual property, determining what should or should not be protected, commerical piracy,…

  14. Background Material Important Questions about Magnetism

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Background Material Important Questions about Magnetism: 1) What is Magnetism?Magnetism is a force or repulsion due to charge is called the electric force. But what about magnetism, is there a fundamental property of some matter that makes things magnetic? The answer is: "sort of." Electric current

  15. Psychological Adaptation of Adolescents with Immigrant Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, David Lackland

    2000-01-01

    Examines three theoretical perspectives (family values, acculturation strategies, and social group identity) as predictors of the psychological well-being of adolescents from immigrant backgrounds. Reveals that the perspectives accounted for between 12% and 22% of variance of mental health, life satisfaction, and self-esteem, while social group…

  16. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... explaining the review procedures for these claims are published at 20 CFR part 727. ... LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977...

  17. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... explaining the review procedures for these claims are published at 20 CFR part 727. ... LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977...

  18. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review...Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977 broadens...

  19. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review...Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977 broadens...

  20. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS §...