Sample records for background information pertinent

  1. Detecting Gene Symbols and Names in Biological Texts: A First Step toward Pertinent Information Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Jacq; Denys Proux; Francois Rechenmann; Laurent Julliard; Violaine Pillet

    1998-01-01

    Gathering data on molecular interactions to be fed into a specialized database has motivatedthe development of a computer system to help extracting pertinent information from texts, relyingon advanced linguistic tools, completed with object-oriented knowledge modeling capabilities. Asa first step toward this challenging objective, a program for the identification of gene symbols andnames inside sentences has been devised. The main difficulty

  2. Mars Background Information General Information

    E-print Network

    Dennis, Robert G.

    close. Not until the Viking Missions was anything successfully landed on Mars. Viking conducted testsMars Background Information General Information Here are some quick facts about Mars in comparison with Earth: Mars Earth Atmosphere 95% CO2, 5% N2, Ar & trace gasses 0.007 atm pressure 78% N2, 21% O2, 1

  3. Italian: Area Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet has been assembled in order to provide students of Italian with a compact source of cultural information on their target area. Chapters include discussion of: (1) introduction to Italian; (2) origins of the Italian population; (3) geography; (4) history including the Roman Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the "Risorgimento," and…

  4. Pertinence of the internship

    E-print Network

    Krause, Rolf

    1 Art.1 Curricular internship Art.2 Objectives Art.3 Timing and Duration Art.4 Choice of Employer Art.5 Pertinence of the internship Art.6 Internship Search GRADUATE INTERNSHIP GUIDELINES Faculties and in Economics a period of practical training or work experience, herein referred to as `internship', is one

  5. Effective leadership in animal groups when no individual has pertinent information about resource locations: How interactions between leaders and followers can result in Lévy walk movement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2013-04-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding how a few informed individuals are able to influence the foraging behaviour of a group and enhance its ability to navigate towards a resource. This research has provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of effective leadership. Here using a simple exactly solvable model we show how effective leadership could operate when no individual in the group has pertinent information about the locations of resources. Simple interactions between an ignorant leader and its followers are found to result in Lévy walk movement patterns that can optimize random searches. The findings may account for the Lévy walk movement patterns seen in some marine predators and for the frequent formation of groups of 2 or 3 ungulates when resources become scarce.

  6. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  7. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  8. Providing Relevant Background Information in Smart Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berardina De Carolis; Sebastiano Pizzutilo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a system, called GAIN (Group Adapted Interaction for News), which selects background information\\u000a to be displayed in public shared environments according to preferences of the group of people present in there. In ambient\\u000a intelligence contexts, we cannot assume that the system will be able to know every users physically present in the environment\\u000a and therefore

  9. Organizational performance and regulatory compliance as measured by clinical pertinence indicators before and after implementation of Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    PubMed

    Choi, Clark K; Saberito, Darlene; Tyagaraj, Changa; Tyagaraj, Kalpana

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that electronic medical records (EMR) can lead to a greater reduction of medical errors and better adherence to regulatory compliance than paper medical records (PMR). In order to assess the organizational performance and regulatory compliance, we tracked different clinical pertinence indicators (CPI) in our anesthesia information management system (AIMS) for 5 years. These indicators comprised of the protocols from the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP), elements of performance (EP) from The Joint Commission (TJC), and guidelines from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). A comprehensive AIMS was initiated and the CPI were collected from October 5, 2009 to December 31, 2010 (EMR period) and from January 1, 2006 to October 4, 2009 (PMR period). Fourteen CPI were found to be common between the EMR and PMR periods. Based on the statistical analysis of the 14 common CPI, there was a significant increase (p?

  10. Associate Director Information Services at SHS since 2012 Educational Background

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Chip Colby Associate Director Information Services at SHS since 2012 Educational Background Information Technology / Health Informatics Healthcare Information Security Professional Membership Information technology in primary education Travel, mostly to places related to Disney #12;

  11. Background information on the SSC project

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning.

  12. Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

  13. Harrah Excellence in Innovation Award AWARD BACKGROUND & INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Harrah Excellence in Innovation Award AWARD BACKGROUND & INFORMATION Harrah Excellence innovative approaches have contributed significantly to business excellence. The distinguished innovations Research Center, UNLV. Previous award winners include: 2009 Harrah Excellence in Innovation Award Tapcode

  14. Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in

    E-print Network

    Coxson, Darwyn

    Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in the Interior Cedar is to share information with other forest professionals on biodiversity management in Interior Cedar Hemlock licensees to implement this guidance. If biodiversity management in the ICH is significantly inconsistent

  15. Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

  16. Information Routing Driven by Background Chatter in a Signaling Network

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Antonio J.; García-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Living systems are capable of processing multiple sources of information simultaneously. This is true even at the cellular level, where not only coexisting signals stimulate the cell, but also the presence of fluctuating conditions is significant. When information is received by a cell signaling network via one specific input, the existence of other stimuli can provide a background activity –or chatter– that may affect signal transmission through the network and, therefore, the response of the cell. Here we study the modulation of information processing by chatter in the signaling network of a human cell, specifically, in a Boolean model of the signal transduction network of a fibroblast. We observe that the level of external chatter shapes the response of the system to information carrying signals in a nontrivial manner, modulates the activity levels of the network outputs, and effectively determines the paths of information flow. Our results show that the interactions and node dynamics, far from being random, confer versatility to the signaling network and allow transitions between different information-processing scenarios. PMID:22174668

  17. Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Simultaneous Confidence Intervals with more

    E-print Network

    Stark, Philip B.

    Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Outline Bounds Illustrations Women's Health Initiative #12;Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence

  18. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, R R

    1953-01-01

    Because of the importance of fuel properties in design of aircraft fuel systems the present report has been prepared to provide information on the characteristics of current jet fuels. In addition to information on fuel properties, discussions are presented on fuel specifications, the variations among fuels supplied under a given specification, fuel composition, and the pertinence of fuel composition and physical properties to fuel system design. In some instances the influence of variables such as pressure and temperature on physical properties is indicated. References are cited to provide fuel system designers with sources of information containing more detail than is practicable in the present report.

  19. Medical record review for clinical pertinence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, K S

    1991-08-01

    This clinical pertinence review process described was in effect for seven months, after which the author terminated affiliation with the hospital. Despite resistance by many physicians, this monthly review process focused the medical staff's attention on good documentation practices. To the author's knowledge, the plan is still in use. PMID:10112162

  20. Background Information on the Ethnic Chinese Refugees. General Information Series #22. Indochinese Refugee Education Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Resource Center, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide background information on the ethnic Chinese refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos that will be of interest and use to educators working with these refugees. The guide consists of four sections: (1) a brief history of the Chinese communities in Southeast Asia; (2) a more detailed discussion of the…

  1. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  2. Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very nearly the speed of light. Optical studies of a December 1997 burst (GRB 971214) indicated a distance for it of nearly 12 billion light-years. With distances known, astronomers could calculate the amount of energy released during the explosion. The answers were astounding. GRB 970508, in a mere 15 seconds, released nearly ten times more energy than our Sun will release in its entire, 10-billion-year lifetime. GRB 971214, for one or two seconds, outshone the entire rest of the universe. These energies ruled out many of the numerous theories for the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts that had arisen over the previous three decades. Many answers about the origins of Gamma Ray Bursts and the physics of the fireballs will come from radio telescopes. The VLA, with its combination of sensitivity and resolving power, "has a unique role to play in deciphering GRB fireball physics," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. First, radio astronomers can see the GRB fireball far longer than it is visible at other wavelengths. A Gamma Ray Burst is visible in the gamma rays for typically seconds or minutes, in X-rays for days, and in visible light for weeks, based on the past year's experience. "With radio telescopes, we can see the fireballs for months, gaining new information every day," said Greg Taylor, also of NRAO in Socorro. "Also, at other wavelengths, they see the emission only as it is rapidly getting weaker. At radio wavelengths, we can study the emission as it rises in strength, peaks, then slowly decays." In addition, radio observations can measure the size of the fireball. "Only radio telescopes can measure the size, and we can do it in three different ways," Frail said. These techniques involve studying the scintillation, or "twinkling" of the radio emission; absorption characteristics of the emission; and, for bright, energetic afterglows, direct measurements of sizes can be made through the great resolving power of continent-wide radio telescope arrays such as t

  3. Clinical Pertinence Metric Enables Hypothesis-Independent Genome-Phenome Analysis for Neurologic Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdellateef, Mostafa; El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Hilbush, Brian S.; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Tromp, Gerard; Williams, Marc S.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Gleeson, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We describe an “integrated genome-phenome analysis” that combines both genomic sequence data and clinical information for genomic diagnosis. It is novel in that it uses robust diagnostic decision support and combines the clinical differential diagnosis and the genomic variants using a “pertinence” metric. This allows the analysis to be hypothesis-independent, not requiring assumptions about mode of inheritance, number of genes involved, or which clinical findings are most relevant. Using 20 genomic trios with neurologic disease, we find that pertinence scores averaging 99.9% identify the causative variant under conditions in which a genomic trio is analyzed and family-aware variant calling is done. The analysis takes seconds, and pertinence scores can be improved by clinicians adding more findings. The core conclusion is that automated genome-phenome analysis can be accurate, rapid, and efficient. We also conclude that an automated process offers a methodology for quality improvement of many components of genomic analysis. PMID:25156663

  4. Does Chiral Fermion Coupled to a Background Dilaton Field Preserve Information?

    E-print Network

    Anisur Rahaman

    2010-09-27

    A model where chiral boson is coupled to a background dilaton field is considered to study the s-wave scattering of fermion by a back ground dilaton black hole. It is found that the scattering process of chiral fermion does not violate unitarity and information remains preserved. Faddevian anomaly plays a crucial role on the information scenario.

  5. Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, J. B.

    1983-08-01

    Background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations is reported. An environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program was developed. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakdown conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. An environmental impact statement on magnetic fusion will be based with this reference as a principle.

  6. Digital Diorama: AR Exhibition System to Convey Background Information for Museums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuji Narumi; Oribe Hayashi; Kazuhiro Kasada; Mitsuhiko Yamazaki; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose

    \\u000a In this paper, we propose a MR museum exhibition system, the “Digital Diorama” system, to convey background information intuitively.\\u000a The The system aims to offer more features than the function of existing dioramas in museum exhibitions by using mixed reality\\u000a technology. The system superimposes computer generated diorama scene reconstructed from related image\\/video materials onto\\u000a real exhibits. First, we implement and

  7. Discriminating direction of motion trajectories from angular speed and background information.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zheng; Braunstein, Myron L; Andersen, George J

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a background scene on the perception of the trajectory of an approaching object and its relation to changes in angular speed and angular size were examined in five experiments. Observers judged the direction (upward or downward) of two sequentially presented motion trajectories simulating a sphere traveling toward the observer at a constant 3-D speed from a fixed distance. In Experiments 1-4, we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and the presence of a scene background, with changes in angular size based either on the trajectories being discriminated or on an intermediate trajectory. In Experiment 5, we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and scene background, with angular size either constant or consistent with an intermediate 3-D trajectory. Overall, we found that (1) observers were able to judge the direction of object motion trajectories from angular speed changes; (2) observers were more accurate with a 3-D scene background, as compared with a uniform background, suggesting that scene information is important for recovering object motion trajectories; and (3) observers were more accurate in judging motion trajectories based on angular speed when the angular size function was consistent with motion in depth than when the angular size was constant. PMID:23824599

  8. A Bibliometric Analysis of Scholarly Articles Pertinent to Radio Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Steven O.; And Others

    To investigate what is meant by the term "radio studies," a study analyzed 156 randomly selected scholarly communication journal articles pertinent to the radio broadcasting industry. Articles were chosen through the use of Matlon and Ortiz's (1992) "Index to Journals in Communication Studies through 1990." A master bibliography was constructed…

  9. Overview of groundwater and surface water standards pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Lundahl, A.L.; Williams, S.; Grizzle, B.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document presents an overview of groundwater- and surface water-related laws, regulations, agreements, guidance documents, Executive Orders, and DOE orders pertinent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This document is a summary and is intended to help readers understand which regulatory requirements may apply to their particular circumstances. However, the document is not intended to be used in lieu of applicable regulations. Unless otherwise noted, the information in this report reflects a summary and evaluation completed July 1, 1995. This document is considered a Living Document, and updates on changing laws and regulations will be provided.

  10. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

  11. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). 250.8 Section...Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). The following...this part. International Traffic in Arms Regulations 22 CFR 125.11 General...

  12. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). 250.8 Section...Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). The following...this part. International Traffic in Arms Regulations 22 CFR 125.11 General...

  13. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). 250.8 Section...Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). The following...this part. International Traffic in Arms Regulations 22 CFR 125.11 General...

  14. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). 250.8 Section...Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). The following...this part. International Traffic in Arms Regulations 22 CFR 125.11 General...

  15. 1. Technical background David Keil Information Technology and Society 1/13 David Keil Information Technology and Society 1/13 1

    E-print Network

    Keil, David M.

    Technology and Society 1/13 5 Pre-history · Leibnitz and Newton developed the calculus to reason about1. Technical background David Keil Information Technology and Society 1/13 David Keil Information Technology and Society 1/13 1 David M. Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 135 Information Technology

  16. Human facial allotransplantation: patient selection and pertinent considerations.

    PubMed

    Losee, Joseph E; Fletcher, Derek R; Gorantla, Vijay S

    2012-01-01

    Devastating facial deformities can cause significant functional and psychosocial injury. Significant facial disfigurement can preclude meaningful human interaction. Allotransplantation of facial tissues for reconstruction of devastating deformities has become a clinical reality, with 15 transplants performed at various centers around the world. Restoration of aesthetics and functionality has been superior to that achieved by conventional reconstruction, without the morbidity of multiple surgeries. Unlike solid organ transplantation which can be life saving, facial transplantation is considered by many to be life enhancing, highlighting the ethical argument against justification of these procedures given the risks of lifelong immunosuppression. Meticulous patient selection is mandatory, and a multidisciplinary team approach is key for the program's success. The overriding goal of screening for candidacy is to identify and select subjects who have the best chance for a positive immunologic, functional, and quality-of-life outcome. This article reviews the pertinent considerations and screening approach for appropriate patient selection in facial tissue transplantation. PMID:22337421

  17. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  18. Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background

    E-print Network

    Sasaki, Misao

    2014-01-01

    We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

  19. Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-12-01

    We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

  20. 76 FR 67182 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ...felony convictions, and parties prohibited from receiving federal contracts. (2) Drug tests are for the presence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP). Contractors shall maintain records of all background...

  1. Using LOINC to link an EMR to the pertinent paragraph in a structured reference knowledge base.

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, James C.; Glasgow, Matt; Narus, Scott P.; Clayton, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    Intermountain Health Care has integrated the electronic medical record (EMR) with online information resources in order to create easy access to a knowledge base which practicing physicians can use at the point of care. When a user is reviewing problems/diagnosis, medications, or clinical laboratory test results, they can conveniently access a "pertinent paragraph" of reference literature that pertains to the clinical data in the EMR. Using terminology first coined by Cimino1, we call this application the "infobutton." We describe the architectural issues involved in linking our electronic medical record with a structured laboratory knowledge base. The application has been well received as noted by anecdotal comments made by physicians and usage of the application. PMID:12463904

  2. The Effects of Background Information and Syntactic Cues in Reading French Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, Carl L.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared two groups of intermediate/advanced L2 French learners on a reading comprehension test when presented with or without background knowledge of the text. This study also compared intermediate and intermediate/advanced L2 French learners' reading comprehension when presented with increasing syntactic complexity. The results of…

  3. Pertinence conomique de la norme IFRS 3 phase 1 Une analyse des dprciations du goodwill

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Pertinence économique de la norme IFRS 3 ­ phase 1 Une analyse des dépréciations du goodwill par les entreprises françaises sur la période 2000-2004 Is IFRS 3 ­ step 1 consistent with market Feuilloley , Patrick Sentis Résumé Cet article propose de mesurer la pertinence économique de la norme IFRS 3

  4. 77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...Docket 2012-0001; Sequence 7] Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection...Investigations for Child Care Workers AGENCY: Office of Facilities Management and Program Services, Public Building...

  5. Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2006-05-01

    Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

  6. Industrial waste-water volatile organic compound emissions. Background information for BACT\\/LAER determinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Elliott; S. Watkins

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Control Technology Center (CTC) is to provide technical information to States on estimating and controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from the collection and treatment of industrial wastewaters for Best Available Control Technology (BACT) and Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER) determinations. Technical guidance projects, focus on topics of national or regional interest that are identified through

  7. Background Dirty Paper Coding Codeword Binning Code construction Lossless Watermarking Remaining problems Information Hiding

    E-print Network

    Regalia, Phillip A.

    or transmission, information hiding is trivial: Replace select bits imperceptibly. Cover signal TOP SECRET message Hiding algorithm Modified signal Extraction algorithm TOP SECRET Recovered message Clear channel If cover is trivial: Replace select bits imperceptibly. Cover signal TOP SECRET message Hiding algorithm Modified

  8. Background hydrologic information in potential lignite mining areas in Mississippi, July 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    A water-quality sampling program was initiated in 1980 to determine background hydrologic data in potential lignite mining areas of Mississippi. This report is the third in a planned five-part series to provide data to assess future impacts of mining on small streams. The data indicates that most streams in the study area have a dissolved-solids concentration less than 100 mg/. The major ion concentrations were generally less than 10 mg/. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and selenium in bottom material samples were below detectable limits. Cobalt, lead, zinc, copper, and chromium concentrations exceeded 10 micro-/g at all sites and maganese exceeded 1000 micro-/g at five sites. (USGS)

  9. Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S. L.

    1982-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

  10. Enhanced community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework. PMID:24247657

  11. Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

    1970-01-01

    Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

  12. Some Landing Studies Pertinent to Glider-Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbolt, John C.; Batterson, Sidney A.

    1960-01-01

    Results are presented of some landing studies that may serve as guidelines in the consideration of landing problems of glider-reentry configurations. The effect of the initial conditions of sinking velocity, angle of attack, and pitch rate on impact severity and the effect of locating the rear gear in various positions are discussed. Some information is included regarding the influence of landing-gear location on effective masses. Preliminary experimental results on the slideout phase of landing include sliding and rolling friction coefficients that have been determined from tests of various skids and all-metal wheels.

  13. Radon calibration chamber assembly, detector accuracy, and pertinent operational findings.

    PubMed

    Distenfeld, C H

    2007-08-01

    Reliable radon laboratory operations motivated the construction of three radon gas calibration chambers. One chamber is used for background calibrations while the other two cover a radon gas concentration range of 110 to >5,550 Bq m(-3) (3-150 pCi L(-1)). The chambers entered commercial service, for tertiary radon calibration chambers, after review and listing by the National Radon Safety Board. The chambers were used since 2003 to calibrate over 500 activated charcoal (AC) detectors, half open face, and the remainder a diffusion barrier type, and >150 continuous radon (CR) monitors. Nearly all the CR devices were Sun Nuclear model 1027. Analysis of the calibration results show the overall AC measurement uncertainties, expressed as standard deviations of the relative percent differences, R%D, were <10% and were about the same as the Sun Nuclear CR devices. The diffusion barrier AC detectors displayed a smaller uncertainty than the CR monitor group. All but one CR monitor satisfied the U.S. EPA Radon Proficiency Program requirement of +/-25%. In view of the similar R%D between CR and AC detectors, good agreement was found for all simultaneous field radon measurements with CR and single AC devices. The U.S. EPA appears to have adopted a position that CR devices are superior to AC detectors. Neither the present results nor U.S. EPA's published detector uncertainties support this presumed position. PMID:17630640

  14. Background Error Covariance Estimation Using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory.SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

  15. Bibliographic citations pertinent to the Weldon Spring Site, St. Charles County, Missouri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T. Owen; D. C. Michelson; N. P. Knox

    1985-01-01

    This report is a compilation of 166 bibliographic references pertinent to the Weldon Spring Site (WSS), St. Charles County, Missouri. The WSS is a surplus US government facility which consists of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant; two separate low-level radioactive waste storage properties, designated the ''raffinate pits'' and ''quarry'', and a number of potentially contaminated vicinity properties. The facility was

  16. Insights from the Interim Reliability Evaluation Program pertinent to reactor-safety issues. [PWR; BWR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    The Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP) consisted of concurrent probabilistic analyses of four operating nuclear power plants. This paper presents an integrated view of the results of the analyses drawing insights pertinent to reactor safety. The importance to risk of accident sequences initiated by transients and small loss-of-coolant accidents was confirmed. Support systems were found to contribute significantly to the

  17. La valorisation boursire des tats financiers des socits franaises : pertinence du rfrentiel IFRS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IFRS Denis Cormier CIFO ESG UQAM Samira Demaria Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis - GREDEG Pascale valorisation boursière des états financiers des sociétés françaises : pertinence du référentiel IFRS Résumé du référentiel comptable français et après l'adoption des IFRS. Les résultats sont les suivants

  18. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY...Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms...of this part. International Traffic in Arms...maintenance and training manuals, and aids...certifies. The Office of Munitions Control...citizen and has a “need to know.” 7...

  19. Future Information Services at the Texas A&M University Library: Background and Recommendations (Report of an Ad Hoc Committee).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Colleen; And Others

    The Ad Hoc Committee on Future Information Services explored possible future directions for information services at Texas A&M University Library and developed a plan to guide the library into the next decade in terms of automated access to information. In exploring future directions for automated information services, the committee members…

  20. A review of vapor explosion information pertinent to the SRS reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.; Allison, D.K.

    1992-04-01

    Vapor explosions are explosive events resulting from the mixing of two liquids, one of which is heated to a temperature well above the boiling point of the second. Under some circumstances mixing of the liquids can boil part of the lower boiling liquid so quickly that the expanding vapor generates a strong pressure wave and explosion. If the lower boiling liquid is water, as is frequently the case, the event is called a ``steam explosion``. Analyses in support of the K-Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment have shown that steam explosions generated by the interaction of molten reactor fuel with water contribute significantly to the risk of reactor operation at the SRS. This calculated risk incorporates a conservative treatment of the uncertainties associated with such explosions. Study of steam explosions involving molten reactor materials has been included in the Severe Accident Analysis Program (SAAP) in order to obtain a better evaluation of their importance, and, if possible, to find ways to avoid them. This paper presents a brief review and summary of steam explosion experience from literature accounts, along with the results of experimental studies from the SAAP. It concludes with an evaluation of current knowledge, and suggestions for future development. 71 refs.

  1. Hydrogeologic and stratigraphic data pertinent to uranium mining, Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. Information series 12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Kirkham; W. OLeary; J. W. Warner

    1980-01-01

    Recoverable low-grade uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Laramie Formation in the Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. One of these deposits, the Grover deposit, has been test mined on a pilot scale using in-situ solution-mining techniques. A second deposit, the Keota deposit, is currently being licensed and will produce about 500,000 lb\\/yr (227,000 kg\\/yr) of yellowcake also

  2. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent...Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent...compliance for a data requirement by citation of all studies in the Agency's files...

  3. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent...Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent...compliance for a data requirement by citation of all studies in the Agency's files...

  4. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent...Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent...compliance for a data requirement by citation of all studies in the Agency's files...

  5. 40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent...Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent...compliance for a data requirement by citation of all studies in the Agency's files...

  6. Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-06-26

    Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a 'Y' junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re-entry survey, and routine surveys around the crater lip did not identify alpha contamination. Background information includes several radiological surveys conducted after these two tests. The MULLET area has been surveyed frequently. The early surveys indicate the area as both contaminated and containing buried radioactive material. A survey conducted in 1970 found the radiological/chemical piping partially intact, including the 'Y' junction, and shows two runs of intact piping running past the U2am crater lip. The survey focused on the piping system itself and detected alpha contamination from 4 counts per minute (cpm) to 900,000 cpm. The highest value was at a pipe flange between a dirt pile and a dirt berm within the current site fence line. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. A 1972 survey was essentially a repeat of the 1970 survey; however, it does not show the 'Y' junction nor does it show piping extending past the U2am crater lip. It also shows a new fence line separating the radiological/chemical piping from the U2am crater area with all piping within the fence. Alpha contamination was detected on pipe flanges during the survey, but alpha contamination was not detected on the dirt pile or the dirt berm. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. Additional surveys were conducted in 1986, 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996. One of the surveys focused on determining the extent of soil contamination around GZ. An alpha contamination plume extending approximately 200 feet south of GZ was detected in a swath approximately 100 feet wide. The maximum measurement was 15,000 cpm alpha. All surveys show the piping within the fence line. Recent surveys (2007 and 2008) were performed around the current fence line by the demarcation group. No removable contamination was identified during these surveys. In late 2008, a visual inspection of the site was conducted by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Restoration group. All piping is within the fence line. Photos taken during this site visit are attached.

  7. Child Care Providers' Use of HIV/AIDS Information Resources: Links to Professional Background Variables and Feelings about Caring for an HIV-Infected Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mick; Toledo, Carlos; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Examined child caregivers' use of various HIV/AIDS information resources in relation to professional background and attitudes. Found that providers' education level, child care experience, and the age group for which they were responsible correlated with use of newspaper/magazine articles, pamphlets, and educational workshops. Use of…

  8. Background Information for Think Tank on Planning, Governance and System Building Early Care and Education--NYC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boressoff, Todd

    2008-01-01

    This document provides some background on early childhood planning and system building around the country. Since mid-December, the author has been studying these efforts for Child Care, Inc. (CCI) interviewing national experts and reading widely. This outline provides insights and lesson learned from those inquiries. The goal at this meeting will…

  9. Dynamics, control and sensor issues pertinent to robotic hands for the EVA retriever system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Basic dynamics, sensor, control, and related artificial intelligence issues pertinent to smart robotic hands for the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever system are summarized and discussed. These smart hands are to be used as end effectors on arms attached to manned maneuvering units (MMU). The Retriever robotic systems comprised of MMU, arm and smart hands, are being developed to aid crewmen in the performance of routine EVA tasks including tool and object retrieval. The ultimate goal is to enhance the effectiveness of EVA crewmen.

  10. Experimental investigations of a uranium plasma pertinent to a self-sustaining plasma source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.

    1971-01-01

    The research is pertinent to the realization of a self-sustained fissioning plasma for applications such as nuclear propulsion, closed cycle MHD power generation using a plasma core reactor, and heat engines such as the nuclear piston engine, as well as the direct conversion of fission energy into optical radiation (nuclear pumped lasers). Diagnostic measurement methods and experimental devices simulating plasma core reactor conditions are discussed. Studies on the following topics are considered: (1) ballistic piston compressor (U-235); (2) high pressure uranium plasma (natural uranium); (3) sliding spark discharge (natural uranium); (4) fission fragment interaction (He-3 and U-235); and (5) nuclear pumped lasers (He-3 and U-235).

  11. Evaluating the Referring Physician's Clinical History and Indication as a Means for Communicating Chronic Conditions That Are Pertinent at the Point of Radiologic Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Obara, Piotr; Sevenster, Merlijn; Travis, Adam; Qian, Yuechen; Westin, Charles; Chang, Paul J

    2015-06-01

    The clinical history and indication (CHI) provided with a radiological examination are critical components of a quality interpretation by the radiologist. A patient's chronic conditions offer the context in which acute symptoms and findings can be interpreted more accurately. Seven pertinent (potentially diagnosis altering) chronic conditions, which are fairly prevalent at our institution, were selected. We analyze if and how in 140 CHIs there was mention of a patient's previously reported chronic condition and if and how the condition was subsequently described in the radiology report using a four-item scheme (Mention/Specialization, Generalization, Common comorbidity, No mention). In 40.7 % of CHIs, the condition was rated Mention/Specialization. Therefore, we reject our first hypothesis that the CHI is a reliable source for obtaining pertinent chronic conditions (?90.0 %). Non-oncological conditions were significantly more likely rated No mention in the CHI than oncological conditions (58.7 versus 8.3 %, P?pertinent medical information to the radiologist, which may negatively impact interpretation quality. Presenting automatically aggregated patient information to the radiologist may be a potential avenue for improving interpretation and adding value of the radiology department to the care chain. PMID:25533493

  12. 2003 --Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT-BACKGROUND COLOR

    E-print Network

    Missouri-Rolla, University of

    on black (WB), light blue on dark blue (B), or teal on black (TB). They then studied two Web pages2003 -- Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT.hanna@matrikon.com Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of different web page text

  13. Hurricane Backgrounder

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This reference provides basic information on hurricanes. topics include the definition of hurricane , where they are likely to form, and their potential for damage, including high winds, heavy rainfall, flooding, tornadoes, and microbursts. There is also an illustration showing the Saffir-Simpson scale for classifying hurricane intensity, information on naming hurricanes, and a set of links to additional information.

  14. Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-10-01

    Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year.

  15. Background information presented to the expert panel on inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guzowski, R.V. [ed.; Brinster, K.F. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, M.M. [ed.; Swift, P.N.; Pasztor, S.B. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weart, W.D.; Bertram-Howery, S.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned as a mined geologic repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by defense programs of the United States Department of Energy. One of the criteria for evaluating the suitability of the WIPP for disposal of TRU wastes is compliance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) standards for such facilities. The Containment Requirements of those standards require calculating cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment by all combinations of events and processes (scenarios) that may affect the escape and transport of radionuclides from the repository for 10, 000 years after decommissioning of the facility. Because the release limits established by the EPA are probabilistic, scenario probabilities are also required. A panel of experts was convened to estimate the probabilities of occurrence of the events used in scenario development and to identify additional human-intrusion events for inclusion in a safety assessment of the WIPP. This report documents the background presentations that were made to the panel about the WIPP program, regulatory guidelines, and performance-assessment program, and site-specific and regional geologic and hydrologic characteristics that may affect the WIPP disposal system.

  16. Background information presented to the expert panel on inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guzowski, R.V. (ed.); Brinster, K.F. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Gruebel, M.M. (ed.); Swift, P.N.; Pasztor, S.B. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Weart, W.D.; Bertram-Howery, S.G. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned as a mined geologic repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by defense programs of the United States Department of Energy. One of the criteria for evaluating the suitability of the WIPP for disposal of TRU wastes is compliance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards for such facilities. The Containment Requirements of those standards require calculating cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment by all combinations of events and processes (scenarios) that may affect the escape and transport of radionuclides from the repository for 10, 000 years after decommissioning of the facility. Because the release limits established by the EPA are probabilistic, scenario probabilities are also required. A panel of experts was convened to estimate the probabilities of occurrence of the events used in scenario development and to identify additional human-intrusion events for inclusion in a safety assessment of the WIPP. This report documents the background presentations that were made to the panel about the WIPP program, regulatory guidelines, and performance-assessment program, and site-specific and regional geologic and hydrologic characteristics that may affect the WIPP disposal system.

  17. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Ward, Richard C [ORNL; Wright, Michael C [ORNL; Kruse, Kara L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNM detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. The approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information

  18. EDUCATIONAL TRAVEL Residents/fellows are provided financial support for travel to an educational conference pertinent to

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    efficient means possible. Ground versus air travel, choice of airfare, and lodging must be in accordancePage 71 EDUCATIONAL TRAVEL Residents/fellows are provided financial support for travel to an educational conference pertinent to their specialty. All travel to educational conferences must be approved

  19. La pertinence informationnelle des chiffres comptables aprs l'adoption des Mise en vidence du rle des facteurs institutionnels

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 La pertinence informationnelle des chiffres comptables après l'adoption des IFRS Mise en évidence informationnelle additionnelle des chiffres comptables due à l'adoption des IFRS. Les tests empiriques ont porté financière (Dyck et Zingales 2007) et les différences entre les normes locales et les IFRS (Bae et al. 2008

  20. Body Functions and Structures Pertinent to Infrared Thermography-Based Access for Clients with Severe Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memarian, Negar; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.; Chau, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Infrared thermography has been recently proposed as an access technology for individuals with disabilities, but body functions and structures pertinent to its use have not been documented. Seven clients (2 adults, 5 youth) with severe disabilities and their primary caregivers participated in this study. All clients had a Gross Motor Functional…

  1. 19 CFR 201.9 - Methods employed in obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...employed in obtaining information. 201.9 Section...Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION ...employed in obtaining information. In obtaining information...means authorized by law. In general, the...Commission obtains pertinent information from its own...

  2. Pertinence de l'implantation de la filiere granule de bois pour le Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Stephan

    Les spécialistes avancent que le marché mondial de l'énergie en forte demande et en offre limitée nécessitera bientôt toutes les formes d'énergie disponibles. Le granulé de bois est une forme de bioénergie principalement utilisée pour le chauffage des bâtiments et pourrait être davantage considéré dans l'offre énergétique du Québec. Comme le Québec est un territoire où il fait froid et donc susceptible de pouvoir se tourner vers cette forme d'énergie, l'objectif de ce mémoire est d'en analyser les avantages. Pour ce faire, nous commencerons par démontrer la croissance des besoins énergétiques sur les plans national et international et dresser un portrait des différentes formes d'énergies consommées au Québec. Puisque la majorité des Québécois chauffent leurs bâtiments à l'hydroélectricité, nous analyserons à travers le plan d'approvisionnement d'Hydro-Québec le portrait de la production et de la consommation de cette forme d'énergie renouvelable. Cela nous permettra de constater le défi face à la gestion de surplus importants, sauf pendant la période hivernale, et ce faisant, l'obligation de la société d'État d'utiliser davantage ses centrales au gaz ou de se tourner vers l'importation de l'électricité. Dans la même lignée, un regard sera porté sur les perspectives d'utilisation de l'hydroélectricité sur les plans de la production d'aluminium, de l'exportation et de l'utilisation dans l'électrification des transports au Québec. Cette analyse se fera dans l'objectif de s'interroger sur la pertinence d'utiliser cette source d'énergie dans le chauffage plutôt que dans des secteurs plus créateurs de richesse. Nous poserons ensuite l'hypothèse que le granulé de bois pourrait être un bon substitut à une autre forme d'énergie utilisée dans le chauffage, soit le mazout. Avant de dresser un portrait de ce combustible fossile, nous ferons celui de la production et de la consommation de granulés sur les plans régional, québécois, canadien, européen et mondial. Cela nous amènera par la suite à comparer les deux formes d'énergie sous les angles de l'économie et des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES). Après cette comparaison théorique, a suivi une comparaison réelle faite à partir des résultats d'une expérience terrain où cinq maisons chauffant au mazout ont été converties aux granulés de bois. Cela nous a permis de constater d'une part la véracité de nos comparaisons théoriques, mais aussi d'évaluer les différentes techniques relatives au fait de passer d'une forme d'énergie liquide (le mazout) à une forme solide (le granulé).

  3. The exponential increase of biomedical information can be overwhelming for researchers and patients alike. However, to Dr. Suresh K. Bhavnani this explosion presents an exciting opportunity to use his interdisciplinary background in computer science, huma

    E-print Network

    Bhavnani, Suresh K.

    to the design of decision-support systems. His journey of attempting to unlock biomedical mysteries has resultedThe exponential increase of biomedical information can be overwhelming for researchers and patients interdisciplinary background in computer science, human-computer interaction, and graphic design to unlock mysteries

  4. 4.4 RELEVANCE AND SIGNIFICANCE This proposal addresses the following published topic areas pertinent to the 14.3 Animal Manure

    E-print Network

    Kentucky, University of

    pertinent to the 14.3 Animal Manure Management program: (a) Determination of the effects of animal manure and implementation of alternative waste treatment technologies and alternative animal production systems

  5. Optical techniques for remote and in-situ characterization of particles pertinent to GEOTRACES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Emmanuel; Guidi, Lionel; Richardson, Mary Jo; Stemmann, Lars; Gardner, Wilford; Bishop, James K. B.; Anderson, Robert F.; Sherrell, Robert M.

    2015-04-01

    Field and laboratory characterization of marine particles is laborious and expensive. Proxies of particle properties have been developed that allow researchers to obtain high frequency distributions of such properties in space or time. We focus on optical techniques used to characterize marine particles in-situ, with a focus on GEOTRACES-relevant properties, such as bulk properties including particle mass, cross-sectional area, particle size distribution, particle shape information, and also single particle optical properties, such as individual particle type and size. We also address the use of optical properties of particles to infer particulate organic or inorganic carbon. In addition to optical sensors we review advances in imaging technology and its use to study marine particles in situ. This review addresses commercially available technology and techniques that can be used as a proxy for particle properties and the associated uncertainties with particular focus to open ocean environments, the focus of GEOTRACES.

  6. Primer on Durability of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Review of Pertinent Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a primer on the environmental effects that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant concrete structures. As concrete ages, changes in its properties will occur as a result of continuing microstructural changes (i.e., slow hydration, crystallization of amorphous constituents, and reactions between cement paste and aggregates), as well as environmental influences. These changes do not have to be detrimental to the point that concrete will not be able to meet its performance requirements. Concrete, however, can suffer undesirable changes with time because of improper specifications, a violation of specifications, or adverse performance of its cement paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either physical or chemical attack. Contained in this report is a discussion on concrete durability and the relationship between durability and performance, a review of the historical perspective related to concrete and longevity, a description of the basic materials that comprise reinforced concrete, and information on the environmental factors that can affect the performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Commentary is provided on the importance of an aging management program.

  7. Monitoring costs in the ICU: a search for a pertinent methodology.

    PubMed

    Reis Miranda, D; Jegers, M

    2012-10-01

    Attempts to determine costs in the intensive care unit (ICU) were not successful until now, as they failed to detect differences of costs between patients. The methodology and/or the instruments used might be at the origin of this failure. Based on the results of the European ICUs studies and on the descriptions of the activities of care in the ICU, we gathered and analysed the relevant literature concerning the monitoring of costs in the ICU. The aim was to formulate a methodology, from an economic perspective, in which future research may be framed. A bottom-up microcosting methodology will enable to distinguish costs between patients. The resulting information will at the same time support the decision-making of top management and be ready to include in the financial system of the hospital. Nursing staff explains about 30% of the total costs. This relation remains constant irrespective of the annual nurse/patient ratio. In contrast with other scoring instruments, the nursing activities score (NAS) covers all nursing activities. (1) NAS is to be chosen for quantifying nursing activities; (2) an instrument for measuring the physician's activities is not yet available; (3) because the nursing activities have a large impact on total costs, the standardisation of the processes of care (following the system approach) will contribute to manage costs, making also reproducible the issue of quality of care; (4) the quantification of the nursing activities may be the required (proxy) input for the automated bottom-up monitoring of costs in the ICU. PMID:22967197

  8. 24 CFR 6.10 - Compliance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    Failure or refusal to furnish pertinent information (whether maintained by the Recipient or some other agency, institution, or person) without a credible reason for the failure or refusal will be considered to be noncompliance under this part. (c) Compliance...

  9. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  10. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  11. The Pertinence of Joy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen, Ziporah

    1982-01-01

    Describes a study which examined differences in the experience of joy between Israeli Jewish, Israeli Arab, and American adolescents. The interpersonal experience was the most common source of joy in all three cultures. The data also showed greater differences between males and females than between cultures. (AM)

  12. Advanced Network Technology. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This background paper analyzes technologies for tomorrow's information superhighways. Advanced networks will first be used to support scientists in their work, but will soon be deployed more widely in business, entertainment, health care, and education. Significant progress has been made toward the development of gigabit network technology since…

  13. Atmospheric Neutrinos: Background and Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Mocioiu, Irina [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab 122, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-11-24

    We discuss a brief history of atmospheric neutrinos, from background to proton decay searches to proving neutrino oscillations. We then discuss how high statistics atmospheric neutrino measurements in the IceCube Deep Core Array can provide useful information about neutrino oscillation parameters and other neutrino properties.

  14. The University of Oklahoma Background Check Authorization (updated 02/05/2013) Hiring department completes this section. Incomplete information will delay the hiring process.

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    with the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Driver's Protection Act, and any applicable state statute(s). I with the Fair Credit Reporting Act, this information may only be used to verify statement(s) made of any investigative consumer report requested within five days after the University receives my request

  15. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information - using cika cattle as a case breed.

    PubMed

    Sim?i?, Mojca; Smetko, Anamarija; Sölkner, Johann; Seichter, Doris; Gorjanc, Gregor; Kompan, Dragomir; Medugorac, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which potentially have had direct or indirect historical contribution to the genetic makeup of the breed of interest. PMID:25923207

  16. Impact of the U.S. National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS) on Building Energy Performance Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2007-08-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS) started the development of the National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS). Its goal is to define standard sets of data required to describe any given building in necessary detail so that any given AECO industry discipline application can find needed data at any point in the building lifecycle. This will include all data that are used in or are pertinent to building energy performance simulation and analysis. This paper describes the background that lead to the development of NBIMS, its goals and development methodology, its Part 1 (Version 1.0), and its probable impact on building energy performance simulation and analysis.

  17. Visit our website: extension.unh.edu UNH Cooperative Extension programs and policies are consistent with pertinent Federal and State laws and regulations

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    with pertinent Federal and State laws and regulations on non-discrimination regarding age, color, handicap. packages · 30 lbs. Fresh Ham ­ to cook, or for smoking · 16 lbs. Fresh Bacon Slab (two sides) ­ brine or for smoking · 20 lbs. Shoulder Roast · 8 lbs. Butt Pork Roast · 10 lbs. Stew Bones · 16 lbs. Fat ­ to render

  18. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, remote sensing, and mineral resource maps of the Wallace 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Jack Edward; Leach, David L.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean; Long, Carl L.; Rowan, Larry C.; Marvin, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    The Wallace 1? x 2 quadrangle in Montana and Idaho was studied by an interdisciplinary research team that included geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists, as well as specialists in isotopic dating and remote sensing. The basic data resulting from these studies, as well as the final metallic mineral resource assessments, are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the studies and lists the published components of the resource appraisal. An extensive bibliography lists both specific and general references that apply to this geoscience study of the quadrangle.

  19. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  20. Background Subtraction Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan M. McIvor

    Background subtraction is a commonly used class of techniques for segmenting out objects of interest in a scene for applications such as surveillance. This paper surveys a repre- sentative sample of the published techiques for background subtraction, and analyses them with respect to three important attributes: foreground detection; background maintenance; and postprocessing.

  1. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  2. Smart Mining of Drug Discovery Information: 1. A web service and workflow infrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Dong; Kevin Gilbert; Rajarshi Guha; Jungkee Kim; Marlon Pierce; Geoffrey C. Fox; David J. Wild

    The vast increase of pertinent information available to drug discovery scientists means that there is strong demand for tools and techniques for organizing and intelligently mining this information for manageable human consumption. At Indiana University, we are developing techniques for \\

  3. 40 CFR 86.605-88 - Maintenance of records; submittal of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...information, reference to a vehicle test cell number may be used, with the advance...Administrator: Provided, the test cell records show the pertinent information...each emissions test. (ii) The number of miles on the test vehicle...

  4. 40 CFR 86.605-88 - Maintenance of records; submittal of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...information, reference to a vehicle test cell number may be used, with the advance...Administrator: Provided, the test cell records show the pertinent information...each emissions test. (ii) The number of miles on the test vehicle...

  5. Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, John; Hinshaw, Gary; Page, Lyman

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the relic of the early phases of the expanding universe, is bright, full of information, and difficult to measure. Along with the recession of galaxies and the primordial nucleosynthesis, it is one of the strongest signs that the Hot Big Bang Model of the universe is correct. It is brightest around 2 mm wavelength, has a temperature of T_{cmb} = 2.72548 ± 0.00057 K, and has a blackbody spectrum within 50 parts per million. Its spatial fluctuations (around 0.01% on 1{}^{circ } scales) are possibly the relics of quantum mechanical processes in the early universe, modified by processes up to the decoupling at a redshift of about 1,000 (when the primordial plasma became mostly transparent). In the cold dark matter (DM) model with cosmic acceleration (? CDM), the fluctuation statistics are consistent with the model of inflation and can be used to determine other parameters within a few percent, including the Hubble constant, the ? constant, the densities of baryonic and dark matter, and the primordial fluctuation amplitude and power spectrum slope. In addition, the polarization of the fluctuations reveals the epoch of reionization at a redshift approximately twice that determined from the Gunn-Peterson trough due to optically thick Lyman ? absorption in QSO spectra. It is of historic importance, and a testament to the unity of theory and experiment, that we now have a standard model of cosmology that is consistent with all of the observations.Current observational challenges include (1) improvement of the spectrum distortion measurements, especially at long wavelengths, where the measured background is unexpectedly bright; (2) the search for the B-mode polarization (the divergence-free part of the polarization map), arising from propagating gravitational waves; and (3) the extension of fluctuation measurements to smaller angular scales. Much more precise spectrum observations near 2 mm are likely and would test some very interesting theories. Current theoretical challenges include explanation of the dark matter and dark energy; understanding, estimating, and removing the interference of foreground sources that limit the measurements of the CMB; detailed understanding of the influence of nonequilibrium processes on the decoupling and reionization phases; and searches for signs of the second order or exotic processes (e.g., isocurvature fluctuations, cosmic strings, non-Gaussian fluctuations). At this writing, we await the cosmological results of the Planck mission.

  6. Illuminating the Background: Topics in Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Nathan J.

    The cosmic microwave background provides a wealth of information about the origin and history of the universe. The statistics of the anisotropy and the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, among other things, can tell us about the distribution of matter, the redshift of reionization, and the nature of the primordial uctuations. From the lensing of cosmic microwave background due to intervening matter, we can extract information about neutrinos and the equation of state of dark energy. A measurement of the large angular scale B-mode polarization has been called the "smoking gun" of in ation, a theory that describes a possible early rapid expansion of the universe. The focus of current experiments is to measure this B-mode polarization, while several experiments, such as POLARBEAR, are also looking to measure the lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This dissertation will discuss several different topics in cosmic microwave background polarization research. I will make predictions for future experiments and I will also show analysis for two current experiments, POLARBEAR and BICEP. I will show how beam systematics affect the measurement of cosmological parameters and how well we must limit these systematics in order to get unbiased constraints on cosmological parameters for future experiments. I will discuss a novel way of using the temperature-polarization cross correlation to constrain the amount of inflationary gravitational waves. Through Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, I will determine how well future experiments will be able to constrain the neutrino masses and their degeneracy parameters. I will show results from current data analysis and calibration being done on the Cedar Flat deployment for the POLARBEAR experiment which is currently being constructed in the Atacama desert in Chile. Finally, I will analyze the claim of detection of cosmological birefringence in the BICEP data and show that there is reason to believe it is due to systematic effects in the data.

  7. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  8. The IBEX background monitor

    E-print Network

    Crew, Geoffrey B.

    The IBEX Background Monitor (IBaM) provides a small and lightweight method for independently measuring IBEX’s high-energy proton background by integrating the flux of >~14 keV protons over a ~7° conical FOV. The IBaM is ...

  9. The microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan M. Uson; David T. Wilkinson

    1988-01-01

    Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. The spectrum of the microwave background: Heterodyne radiometer methods (lambda >= 3 mm). Bolometric measurements (lambda <= 3 mm). Measurements using interstellar molecules. Summary and future prospects. 3. Polarization of the microwave background. 4. Anisotropy searches. 5. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect: Concept and cosmological consequences. Measurements. Cosmological applications.

  10. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  11. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  12. Water Watch Program Overview. Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

    Lakes, streams, and wetlands serve many purposes for the people of the state of Kentucky and are necessary and valued elements of its natural resources. The Water Watch program promotes individual responsibility for a common resource, educates people about the use and protection of local water resources, provides recreational opportunities through…

  13. January 7, 2002 Background Information on

    E-print Network

    Experiments In 1967, Andrei Sakharov showed that a matter-dominated universe (rather than one with equal parts violation have been observed lending support to the consistency of Sakharov's hypothesis. However

  14. Background information on high voltage fields.

    PubMed Central

    Janes, D E

    1977-01-01

    The increased demand for power has led to higher voltages for overhead transmission lines. Environmentalists, governmental agencies, and some members of the scientific community have questioned if past biological effects research and experience with lower voltage lines provide adequate bases for predicting the possible health and environmental effects of the higher voltage lines. Only a small amount of work has been done to explore the possible effects, especially long term effects, of the exposure of biological systems to electric fields from transmission lines. Research in Western Europe and the United States has not identified any prompt or acute effects other than spark and electric discharge and no permanent effects. Contrasted with this are the studies of workers in Soviet and Spanish high voltage switchyards that report effects, such as excitability, headaches, drowsiness, fatique, and nausea, that are not found in Soviet line maintenance workers. The results of current and planned research, supported by both U.S. Government agencies and the private sector, should resolve a number of the present uncertanties and provide answers for the many questions concerning potential effects. PMID:598346

  15. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Silk

    2003-01-01

    .  I review the discovery of the temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The underlying theory\\u000a and the implications for cosmology are described, and I summarize the prospects for future progress.

  16. Building Background Knowledge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna Ross

    2010-01-01

    Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on

  17. Background and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    Background & Statistics FAQ About Homeless Veterans Homeless Veterans Facts Demographics of Homeless Veterans Incarcerated Veterans Research Briefs Sources FAQ ... VETERANS In May 2007, the Bureau of Justice Statistics released a special report on incarcerated veterans. The ...

  18. Background Studies for EXIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Pendleton, G. N.; Fishman, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from a study of the trapped proton and electron background for several orbital inclinations and altitudes. This study includes time dependent effects. In addition we describe a 3 component cosmic background model developed at the University of Southampton, UK. The three components are cosmic diffuse gamma rays, atmospheric albedo gamma rays, and cosmic ray protons. We present examples of how this model was applied to BATSE and discuss its application to EXIST.

  19. Efficient moving object segmentation algorithm using background registration technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-yi Chien; Shyh-yih Ma; Liang-gee Chen

    2002-01-01

    An efficient moving object segmentation algorithm suitable for real-time content-based multimedia communication systems is proposed in this paper. First, a background registration technique is used to construct a reliable background image from the accumulated frame difference information. The moving object region is then separated from the background region by com- paring the current frame with the constructed background image. Finally,

  20. Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation (SBAR) and Emergency Medicine Residents' Learning of Case Presentation Skills

    PubMed Central

    Tews, Matthew C.; Liu, J. Marc; Treat, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, no standardized presentation format is taught to emergency medicine (EM) residents during patient handoffs to consulting or admitting physicians. The Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation (SBAR) is a common format that provides a consistent framework to communicate pertinent information. Objective The objective of this study was to describe and evaluate the feasibility of using SBAR to teach interphysician communication skills to first-year EM residents to use during patient handoffs. Methods An educational study was designed as part of a pilot curriculum to teach first-year EM residents handoff communication skills. A standardized SBAR reporting format was taught during a 1-hour didactic intervention. All residents were evaluated using pretest/posttest simulated cases using a 17-item SBAR checklist initially, and then within 4 months to assess retention of the tool. A survey was distributed to determine resident perceptions of the training and potential clinical utility. Results There was a statistically significant improvement from the resident scores on the pretest/posttest of the first case (P??=??.001), but there was no difference between posttest of the first case and pretest of the second case (P??=??.34), suggesting retention of the material. There was a statistically significant improvement from the pretest and posttest scores on the second case (P??=??.001). The survey yielded good reliability for both sessions (Cronbach alpha??=??0.87 and 0.89, respectively), demonstrating statistically significant increases for the perceived quality of training, presentation comfort level, and the use of SBAR (P??=??.001). Conclusion SBAR was acceptable to first-year EM residents, with improvements in both the ability to apply SBAR to simulated case presentations and retention at a follow-up session. This format was feasible to use as a training method and was well received by our resident physicians. Future research will be useful in examining the general applicability of the SBAR model for interphysician communications in the clinical environment and residency training programs. PMID:23997885

  1. Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation Signals from the early universe, or pigeon droppings? #12;Microwave Background Radiation The spectrum is a near- perfect match background. Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background MWMW 370 km/s #12;Microwave Background Features

  2. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  3. Cosmic Microwave Background

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this lesson, students explore the cosmic microwave background to understand why it permeates the universe and why it peaks as microwave radiation. Students should be able to explain that the origin of the background radiation is the uniform thermal radiation of the big bang and that the radiation produced was evenly distributed around the small early universe, causing it to permeate today's universe. This activity is part of the Cosmic Times teachers guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1965 Cosmic Times Poster.

  4. Matching Background Color

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ipsen

    2008-04-01

    This chapter introduces an especially important subject in the concealment of animals--countershading. One observes many animals with colors that match the general color of their usual backgrounds. Many leaf-eating insects appear green, for example, making them relatively inconspicuous against their normal background of leaves. The manner of coloration that will provide such a color match is not as obvious as one might imagine. It depends significantly on the nature of the lighting. The inquiry-based activities included in this section effectively illustrate this concept.

  5. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

  6. David Smith Academic background

    E-print Network

    David Smith Academic background Ph.D. in Mathematics (Algebra), Université de Sherbrooke, Canada project program (I. Assem, F. Bergeron, C. Reutenauer, D. Smith) $132,000 ($44,000 per year for 3 years. Schiffler and D. Smith, Friezes, strings and cluster variables, to appear in Glasgow Mathematcal Journal. 2

  7. PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

  8. Country background Forest history

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    season prone to forest fires. Atlantic climate is wet with temperatures moderated by the ocean33 Country background Forest history During the Gallo-Roman period (1st­4th century AD), forests this proportion decreased dramatically to only 15­17 % of the land area. This residual forest was then severely

  9. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyman Page; David Wilkinson

    1999-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is widely interpreted as the thermal afterglow of a hot big bang. Measurements of the CMBR intensity as a function of frequency constrain the history of cosmic energetics. Measurements of the anisotropy in the CMBR temperature provide a snapshot of the distribution of fluctuations in the gravitational potential at the earliest stages of cosmic

  10. Shark Species Profiles Background

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    skeletons that are made of bone. Although all sharks have some similarities such as having gills and fins there are small spots long the sides of the shark and a black blotch near the pectoral fin Diet: Marine mammalsShark Species Profiles Background: Sharks have existed for about 400 million years, before

  11. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

  12. Quantum backgrounds and QFT

    E-print Network

    Jae-Suk Park; John Terilla; Thomas Tradler

    2009-09-21

    We introduce the concept of a quantum background and a functor QFT. In the case that the QFT moduli space is smooth formal, we construct a flat quantum superconnection on a bundle over QFT which defines algebraic structures relevant to correlation functions in quantum field theory. We go further and identify chain level generalizations of correlation functions which should be present in all quantum field theories.

  13. Cosmic Microwave Background Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Richard Bond

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in ell -space are consistent with a Delta T flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the

  14. IMEX evolution of scalar fields on curved backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Stephen R. Lau; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Jan S. Hesthaven

    2009-06-27

    Inspiral of binary black holes occurs over a time-scale of many orbits, far longer than the dynamical time-scale of the individual black holes. Explicit evolutions of a binary system therefore require excessively many time steps to capture interesting dynamics. We present a strategy to overcome the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition in such evolutions, one relying on modern implicit-explicit ODE solvers and multidomain spectral methods for elliptic equations. Our analysis considers the model problem of a forced scalar field propagating on a generic curved background. Nevertheless, we encounter and address a number of issues pertinent to the binary black hole problem in full general relativity. Specializing to the Schwarzschild geometry in Kerr-Schild coordinates, we document the results of several numerical experiments testing our strategy.

  15. Development assistance, export promotion, and environmental technology. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Background Paper provides an overview of developing country environmental problems and markets for environmental technologies and services. It discusses preliminary estimates on the amount and purposes of environmental aid provided by donor countries in 1991. It discusses the commercial implications of other countries' aid for U.S. environmental firms, and the Helsinki package adopted by the OECD in late 1991 to limit commercial advantage from use of tied aid credits. Japan's aid program, which seems likely to become the largest bilateral source of development assistance and environmental aid, receives the most attention. The Paper's appendixes discuss environmental markets in developing and newly industrialized countries, and U.S. export promotion programs pertinent to environmental technologies and services.

  16. BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY AUTHORIZATION FOR LIMITED RELEASE OF MEDICAL INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    medical information (including pertinent medical records), and to discuss my medical condition providers.) 1. 2. 3. I understand that the forgoing records and medical information are limited onlyBOISE STATE UNIVERSITY AUTHORIZATION FOR LIMITED RELEASE OF MEDICAL INFORMATION ("Release") I

  17. Impact of future information systems on business strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tejinder Singh; R. Subramanian; T. S. Chowdhry

    1990-01-01

    The authors emphasize the need to formulate strategies to exploit the wide-ranging services offered by these systems. It is pointed out that information transfer and manipulation are increasingly becoming the key factor in successful business decisions. As information becomes extremely valuable, it becomes pertinent to have a long-term strategy for information technology, and to ensure that it adapts well to

  18. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  19. Experiment! Experiment! Background

    E-print Network

    Carette, Jacques

    of characters -- sequence of lines -- sequence of records . Meaning of stored information is defined by creator control lists'' with three user classifications: . Owner (u --- user): usually creator, identified by user ID . Group (g): identified by a group ID . Universe (o --- other): all other users in the system

  20. Coordination, microprotonation equilibria and conformational changes of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate with pertinence to its biological function.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Nicolás; Torres, Julia; Macho, Israel; Gómez, Kerman; González, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos

    2014-11-21

    Within all the eukaryotic cells there is an important group of biomolecules that has been potentially related to signalling functions: the myo-inositol phosphates (InsPs). In nature, the most abundant member of this family is the so called InsP6 (phytate, L(12-)), for which our group has strived in the past to elucidate its intricate chemical behaviour. In this work we expand on our earlier findings, shedding light on the inframolecular details of its protonation and complexation processes. We evaluate systematically the chemical performance of InsP6 in the presence and absence of alkali and alkaline earth metal ions, through (31)P NMR measurements, in a non-interacting medium and over a wide pH range. The analysis of the titration curves by means of a model based on the cluster expansion method allows us to describe in detail the distribution of the different protonated microspecies of the ligand. With the aid of molecular modelling tools, we assess the energetic and geometrical characteristics of the protonation sequence and the conformational transition suffered by InsP6 as the pH changes. By completely characterizing the protonation pattern, conformation and geometry of the metal complexes, we unveil the chemical and structural basis behind the influence that the physiologically relevant cations, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) have over the phytate chemical reactivity. This information is essential in the process of gaining reliable structural knowledge about the most important InsP6 species in the in vitro and in vivo experiments, and how these features modulate their probable biological functions. PMID:25058574

  1. Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN) is dedicated to improving Earth system literacy through increased communication and collaboration among providers of informal Earth system education. The collection is designed for museum professionals (educators, exhibits designers, developers) as a resource of ideas, tools, traveling exhibits and online materials. The resources are web portals to organizations providing substantial informal Earth system science education. They describe educational programming, resources and exhibits that are pertinent to an informal educator.

  2. Face tracking using particle filer in the complex background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Min Yoon; Sang Hwan Lee

    We present a novel method of tracking a face using color transformation, particle filter and the Motion Adaptive Weighted Unmatched Pixel Count algorithm that makes more effective combination of color and motion information in complex background and face occluded environment. The proposed algorithm of tracking the face has advantages in rejecting static background objects of similar color without background training

  3. Background sources in optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    The characterization and measurement of background radiation relevant to optical communications system performance is addressed. The necessary optical receiver parameters are described, and radiometric concepts required for the calculation of collected background power are developed. The most important components of optical background power are discussed, and their contribution to the total collected background power in various communications scenarios is examined.

  4. X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

  5. Solving the background mystery in acoustical resonance scattering theory (RST)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changzheng Huang

    2002-01-01

    The acoustical resonance scattering theory (RST) aims to solving inverse scattering problems by decomposing the backscattering echoes into a background part and a resonance part. The former contains scatterers shape information, and the latter contains the material composition information. RST assumes the existence of an intermediate background for general scatterer and surrounding combinations. However, despite the efforts taken in the

  6. Criminal Background Checks for future Medical

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    , possible drug screening, credit check, etc. #12;AMCAS system Some schools will use a national system being piloted by AMCAS. Students will enter information when they apply, but it will remain hidden until background check from Certiphi Screening, the same company AMCAS uses for their system checks. Remedy any

  7. CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND FOR INFORMED DECISION-MAKING Stephen E. Schwartz in climate change. Global mean surface temperature is higher today than it's been for at least a millennium Climate Research Unit, East Anglia UK #12;INDICATIONS OF SYSTEMATIC WARMING IN RECENT YEARS The 1990s were

  8. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollaine, S.

    1978-01-01

    The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present in the standard big bang model. In the present calculation, evolutionary effects on grain opacity and abundance are estimated. At wavelengths used in studying the microwave background, the optical depth of the grains is found to be 0.18 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.03, and 0.05 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.5. The results indicate that microwave background can provide information on an early dense phase of the universe.

  9. Molecules in the mirror: how SERS backgrounds arise from the quantum method of images† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional derivation of eqn (5). See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp00093e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Harris, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The Raman coupling of light to molecular vibrations is strongly modified when they are placed near a plasmonic metal surface, with the appearance of a strong broad continuum background in addition to the normal surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peaks. Using a quantum method of images approach, we produce a simple but quantitative explanation of the inevitable presence of the background, due to the resistive damping of the image molecule. This model thus suggests new strategies for enhancing the SERS peak to background ratio. PMID:24584480

  10. Historical Background and Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Jean-Claude

    Forty and twenty years after the two books published by Einar Tandberg-Hanssen (Solar prominences (Geophysics and astrophysics monographs), Vol. 12. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1974; The nature of solar prominences, astrophysics and space science library, Vol. 199. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995) on solar prominences, it is time to update our knowledge and understanding of these fascinating solar structures. After a brief history which overviews first eclipse observations (drawings and then photography), spectrographic, coronagraphic and later on polarimetric measurements, the chapter presents samples of the most spectacular results of the last two decades, obtained whether from space or on the ground. It discusses the contents of the book in order to encourage the reader to dip into the following 17 chapters which provide comprehensive and detailed observations, information about the methods used, and interpretation of the results on the basis of the latest theoretical and modelling works.

  11. Does your gene need a background check? How genetic background

    E-print Network

    Dworkin, Ian

    best to exploit genetic background effects to broaden genetic research programs. What are geneticDoes your gene need a background check? How genetic background impacts the analysis of mutations, USA 2 Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY, USA The premise of genetic analysis

  12. JEM-X background models

    E-print Network

    J. Huovelin; S. Maisala; J. Schultz; N. J. Westergaard; C. A. Oxborrow; P. Kretschmar; N. Lund

    2003-09-10

    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula on revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital phase dependence in the background outside radiation belts was observed. The analysis yielded an average of 5 cps for the diffuse background, and 20 cps for the instrument background. The instrument background was found highly dependent on position, both for spectral shape and intensity. Diffuse background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors, with significant difference in spatial signatures between JEM-X units. According to our modelling, instrument background dominates over diffuse background in all positions and for all energies of JEM-X.

  13. Simple information systems for coastal zone management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter K. Weyl

    1982-01-01

    To be useful for decision making, coastal zone information systems must have the following attributes: 1) they must store indexed and referenced data about the coastal zone; 2) they must be able to select spatially relevant data; 3) they must be able to transform the data into output parameters pertinent to the decision; 4) they must translate the output into

  14. Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Rhodes

    1991-01-01

    Coleridge's famous line about water everywhere without a drop to drink may serve as a useful metaphor for the contemporary design studio. Engulfed within a sea of information, where does the designer look for references? This paper outlines the results of an ongoing research project entitled 'Interactive Multimedia within the Design Studio' (grant awarded by FAPEMIG - Fundação de Amparo

  15. The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention Citation: Hall, R. and Hanna, P. (2004), The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention, Behaviour & Information Technology, forthcoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Hall

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text\\/background color combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioral intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four color-combination conditions. Major findings were: a) Colors with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater

  16. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2014-06-13

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  17. Summary of Information Relating to Gust Loads on Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donely, Philip

    1950-01-01

    Available information on gust structure, airplane reactions, and pertinent operating statistics has been examined. This report attempts to coordinate this information with reference to the prediction of gust loads on airplanes. The material covered represents research up to October 1947. (author)

  18. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0???) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0??? decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ??} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and ? emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  19. New Technology for Libraries. A Layman's Guide to Reducing Public Library Costs and Improving Services through Scientific Methods and Tools. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbrod, David L.

    This booklet, one of a series of background papers for the White House Conference, explores the potential of new technologies to improve library services while reducing library costs. Separate subsections describe the application of technology to the following library functions: acquisitions, catalogs and cataloging, serials control, circulation…

  20. How do hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background estimate their language skills and their comprehension of medical information – a prospective cross-sectional study and comparison to native patients in Germany to assess the language barrier and the need for translation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Today more than two million people with Turkish migration background live in Germany making them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Data concerning language skills and the perception of medical information in hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background (T) are scarce. Our study is the first to gather quantitative information on this important subject. Methods T and hospitalised German patients without migration background (G) of our university hospital were prospectively included into a cross-sectional study and completed a questionnaire - each group in the appropriate language (T: Turkish, G: German). Results 121 T and 121 G were included. Groups significantly differed in age (T: 44.9?±?17.8, G: 56.9?±?16.7y) and proportion of males (T: 37.2, G: 54.5%) but not regarding the proportion of college graduates (T: 19.3, G: 15.7%). The majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74% of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73% speak German at work. 74.4% of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as “average” or better while 25.6% reported it as “very bad” or “bad”. 10.7% of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physician’s information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3% of T estimated their reception of the physician’s information to be “average” or worse. 43.3% of T had the impression that it would have helped them “much” or “very much” to be aided by an interpreter at the hospital. The information transmitted while giving informed consent to invasive medical procedure was judged to be “mostly” or “completely” sufficient by the majority of T (76%) and G (89.8%). In this setting 37 of 96 T (38.5%) reported being helped by an interpreter – in most cases (64.9%) a family member. Conclusion Although the majority of patients with Turkish migration background have spent most of their lives in Germany (28.94?±?10.41y) a large part of this population has limited German language skills and difficulties obtaining medical information when hospitalised. PMID:23710582

  1. Computing challenges of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Richard Bond; Robert G. Crittenden; Andrew H. Jaffe; Lloyd Knox

    1999-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) encodes information on the origin and\\u000aevolution of the universe, buried in a fractional anisotropy of one part in\\u000a100,000 on angular scales from arcminutes to tens of degrees. We await the\\u000acoming onslaught of data from experiments measuring the microwave sky from the\\u000aground, from balloons and from space. However, we are faced with

  2. THEMIS GEONS Background Science and User's Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    This user’s guide contains background science and technology information for the magnetometer program across the country known as the Geomagnetic Event Observatory Network by Students (GEONS). It describes the role that terrestrial magnetism plays in shaping a number of important Earth systems. It also explains the basic operating principles behind magnetometers — particularly the system used in the GEONS program. The data from these magnetometers are used in the fourth of four THEMIS teacher guides.

  3. Stochastic gravitational wave background from exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ain, Anirban; Kastha, Shilpa; Mitra, Sanjit

    2015-06-01

    Recent exoplanet surveys have predicted a very large population of planetary systems in our galaxy, more than one planet per star on the average, perhaps totaling about two hundred billion. These surveys, based on electromagnetic observations, are limited to a very small neighborhood of the solar system and the estimations rely on the observations of only a few thousand planets. On the other hand, orbital motions of planets around stars are expected to emit gravitational waves (GW), which could provide information about the planets not accessible to electromagnetic astronomy. The cumulative effect of the planets, with periods ranging from a few hours to several years, is expected to create a stochastic GW background (SGWB). We compute the characteristic GW strain of this background based on the observed distribution of planet parameters. We also show that the integrated extragalactic background is comparable to or less than the galactic background at different frequencies. Our estimate shows that the net background is significantly below the sensitivities of the proposed GW experiments in different frequency bands. However, we notice that the peak of the spectrum, at around 10-5 Hz , is not too far below the proposed space-based GW missions. A future space-based mission may be able to observe or tightly constrain this signal, which will possibly be the only way to probe the galactic population of exoplanets as a whole.

  4. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  5. Harnessing the Power of Education Research Databases with the Pearl-Harvesting Methodological Framework for Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandieson, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Lori C.; Sandieson, Rachel M.; Zimmerman, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital technologies enable the storage of vast amounts of information, accessible with remarkable ease. However, along with this facility comes the challenge to find pertinent information from the volumes of nonrelevant information. The present article describes the pearl-harvesting methodological framework for information retrieval. Pearl…

  6. BIAIS COGNITIFS ET RECHERCHE D'INFORMATION SUR INTERNET : QUELLES PERSPECTIVES POUR LES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : Information overload, cognitive biases, relevance criteria, search engine, information retrieval Palabras, dissonance cognitive, indicateur de pertinence, moteur de recherche, recherche d`information Keywords requête. Il s`agit par exemple de développer des systèmes anti biais (Anti Bias Mecanism) permettant de

  7. Maintenance and Development of the California Manpower Management Information System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

    The California Manpower Management Information System (CMMIS) Project reported here was done to provide a means of coordinating manpower supply and demand information with pertinent demographic information which will enable state, regional, and local agencies to fulfill various legislative mandates and legal responsibilities. This report covers…

  8. TeV Blazars and Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    F. A. Aharonian

    2001-12-13

    The recent developments in studies of TeV radiation from blazars are highlighted and the implications of these results for derivation of cosmologically important information about the cosmic infrared background radiation are discussed.

  9. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  10. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Wilson

    1979-01-01

    The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation is discussed beginning with radio astronomical measuring techniques, followed by the history of the detection of background radiation, and a summary of some of its properties. Attention is given to the design and operation of a radiotelescope, its antenna and radiometer, exhibiting its advantages, including the ability to measure a collecting area

  11. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Gawiser; Joseph Silk

    2000-01-01

    We summarize the theoretical and observational status of the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Its thermodynamic spectrum is a robust prediction of the Hot Big Bang cosmology and has been confirmed observationally. There are now 75 observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy, which we present in a table with references. We discuss the theoretical origins of these anisotropies

  12. Radar background signal reduction study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Knott; C. J. Ray; M. S. West; R. J. Wohlers

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes a study whose objective was to identify materials and\\/or techniques to reduce radar background signals for ground plane radar cross section (RCS) ranges. Background signal reduction is essential for improving the accuracy of RCS measurements and the primary application is for operations at the RATSCAT range on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. A survey

  13. Background

    Cancer.gov

    The discovery that proteins and peptides are "leaked" by tumors into clinically accessible bodily fluids such as blood has led to the possibility of diagnosing cancer at an early stage or monitoring response to treatment by collecting these fluids and testing for the presence of cancer-related biomarkers. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) are examples of blood-borne cancer protein biomarkers that are currently being used in the clinic.

  14. Background

    Cancer.gov

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls provide the highest quality, least biased dietary data. Traditional 24-hour recalls, however, are expensive and impractical for large-scale research because they rely on trained interviewers and multiple administrations to estimate usual intakes. As a result, researchers often make use of food frequency questionnaires, which are less expensive but contain substantial error.

  15. Background events in microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Wargelin, B.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements have been made to assess the characteristics and origins of background events in microchannel plates (MCPs). An overall background rate of about 0.4 events/sq cm persec has been achieved consistently for MCPs that have been baked and scrubbed. The temperature and gain of the MCPs are found to have no significant effect on the background rate. Detection of 1.46-MeV gamma rays from the MCP glass confirms the presence of K-40, with a concentration of 0.0007 percent, in MCP glass. It is shown that beta decay from K-40 is sufficient to cause the background rate and spectrum observed. Anticoincidence measurements indicate the the background rate caused by cosmic ray interactions is small (less than 0.016 events/sq cm per sec).

  16. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    E-print Network

    B. Majorovits; I. Abt; M. Laubenstein; O. Volynets

    2011-05-18

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10^-5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  17. Search for the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, A.; Hodak, R.; Kovalenko, S.; Simkovic, F.

    2015-02-01

    One expects three Cosmic Backgrounds: (1) The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) originated 380000 years after the Big Bang (BB). (2) The Neutrino Background decoupled about one second after the BB, while (3) the Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background created by the inflationary expansion decoupled directly after the BB. Only the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been detected and is well studied. Its spectrum follows Planck's black body radiation formula and shows a remarkable constant temperature of T0? ? 2.7 K independent of the direction. The present photon density is about 370 photons per cm3. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 380 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T0? = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe and form the CMB. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 380 000 years after the Big Bang. The Cosmic Neutrino Background (C?B) decoupled from matter already one second after the BB at a temperature of about 1010 K. Today their temperature is ~ 1.95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos and the total density of all neutrinos about 336 per cm3. Measurement of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key elements of the Big Bang Cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe. The search for the C?B with the induced beta decay ?e+3H ? 3He + e? using KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) is the topic of this contribution.

  18. Statistical Challenges of Cosmic Microwave Background Analysis

    E-print Network

    Benjamin D. Wandelt

    2004-01-30

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is an abundant source of cosmological information. However, this information is encoded in non-trivial ways in a signal that is difficult to observe. The resulting challenges in extracting this information from CMB data sets have created a new frontier. In this talk I will discuss the challenges of CMB data analysis. I review what cosmological information is contained in the CMB data and the problem of extracting it. CMB analyses can be divided into two types: ``canonical'' parameter extraction which seeks to obtain the best possible estimates of cosmological parameters within a pre-defined theory space and "hypothesis testing" which seeks to test the assumption on which the canonical tests rest. Both of these activities are fundamentally important. In addition to mining the CMB for cosmological information cosmologists would like to strengthen the analysis with data from other cosmologically interesting observations as well as physical constraints. This gives an opportunity 1) to test the results from these separate probes for concordance and 2) if concordance is established to sharpen the constraints on theory space by combining the information from these separate sources.

  19. Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2005 and 2006 School Years. National Goals for Schooling. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. First Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to implement changes required by Education Ministers to enrolment forms (and associated data collection and storage processes). This is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the "National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." The…

  20. Problem solving Using background knowledge

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    . Connect all 9 dots with four lines without lifting your pen from the page. Using background knowledge Pizza Children Cups · Retrieval affected by domain similarity ­ Both similar and cross-mapped examples

  1. Low background techniques in XMASS

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Atsushi [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, University of Tokyo, 456 Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida, Gifu, 506-1205 (Japan)

    2011-04-27

    The XMASS project aims to detect pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, neutrino-less double beta decay, and dark matter searches using ultra-pure liquid xenon. The first stage of XMASS project is concentrated on dark matter searches using 800 kg liquid xenon detector which requires low background and low threshold. Several techniques applied to XMASS detector for low background will be presented.

  2. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    Eric Gawiser; Joseph Silk

    2000-02-02

    We summarize the theoretical and observational status of the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Its thermodynamic spectrum is a robust prediction of the Hot Big Bang cosmology and has been confirmed observationally. There are now 76 observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy, which we present in a table with references. We discuss the theoretical origins of these anisotropies and explain the standard jargon associated with their observation.

  3. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  4. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported that the highest power fluctuations occur at scales of about one degree. A number of ground-based interferometers provided measurements of the fluctuations with higher accuracy over the next three years, including the Very Small Array [16], Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) [61], and the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) [78]. DASI was the first to detect the polarization of the CMB and the CBI provided the first E-mode polarization spectrum with compelling evidence that it is out of phase with the T-mode spectrum. In June 2001, NASA launched its second CMB mission (after COBE), Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Explorer (WMAP) [44], to make much more precise measurements of the CMB sky. WMAP measured the differences in the CMB temperature across the sky creating a full-sky map of the CMB in five different frequency bands. The mission also measured the CMB's E-mode and the foreground polarization. As of October 2010, the WMAP spacecraft has ended its mission after nine years of operation. Although WMAP provided very accurate measurements of the large angular-scale fluctuations in the CMB, it did not have the angular resolution to cover the smaller-scale fluctuations that had been observed by previous ground-based interferometers. A third space mission, the Planck Surveyor [1], was launched by ESA* in May 2009 to measure the CMB on smaller scales than WMAP, as well as making precise measurements of the polarization of CMB. Planck represents an advance over WMAP in several respects: it observes in higher resolution, hence allowing one to probe the CMB power spectrum to smaller scales; it has a higher sensitivity and observes in nine frequency bands rather than five, hence improving the astrophysical foreground models. The mission has a wide variety of scientific aims, including: (1) detecting the total intensity/polarization of the primordial CMB anisotropies; (2) creating a galaxy-cluster catalogue through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect [93]; (3) observing the gravitational lensing of the CMB and the integrated Sachs Wolfe (ISW) effect [82]; (4) observing br

  5. Confidentiality Agreement for Access to HRS and Banner Background

    E-print Network

    Confidentiality Agreement for Access to HRS and Banner Background: HRS and Banner are the data. Many of these records contain personal information about employees and are confidential and private, use, and become aware of information regarding employees and applicants that is confidential. I

  6. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-print Network

    J. G. Garza; S. Aune; D. Calvet; J. F. Castel; F. E. Christensen; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; T. Decker; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. Galán; J. A. García; I. Giomataris; R. M. Hill; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; A. C. Jakobsen; D. Jourde; H. Mirallas; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; J. Ruz; A. Tomás; T. Vafeiadis; J. K. Vogel

    2015-03-17

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  7. Extending the Information Commons: From Instructional Testbed to Internet2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    2002-01-01

    The author's conceptualization of an Information Commons (IC) is revisited and elaborated in reaction to Bailey and Tierney's article. The IC's role as testbed for instructional support and knowledge discovery is explored, and progress on pertinent research is reviewed. Prospects for media-rich learning environments relate the IC to the…

  8. Backgrounds in the NPDGamma Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucuker Dogan, Serpil

    2012-10-01

    The NPDGamma experiment, which measures the parity-violating directional gamma asymmetry in neutron-proton capture, completed its first run cycle in June at the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source. In the experiment intense polarized low-energy neutron beam interacts with liquid para-hydrogen target. Gamma rays from the capture reaction are detected by 48 CsI(Tl) detectors with the 3? acceptance angle. The goal of the experiment is to measure the asymmetry with precision of 1 x10-8. The polarized neutrons also interact with other materials in the beam windows and the walls of the target vessel producing a background to the signal that dilutes the PV gamma asymmetry and these materials (primarily Aluminum) could, in principle, have their own PV asymmetries. Therefore, it is important to study the backgrounds and their contributions to measured signals. I will discuss the detected backgrounds and their effect on NPDGamma.

  9. Computing challenges of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-print Network

    J. Richard Bond; Robert G. Crittenden; Andrew H. Jaffe; Lloyd Knox

    1999-03-11

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) encodes information on the origin and evolution of the universe, buried in a fractional anisotropy of one part in 100,000 on angular scales from arcminutes to tens of degrees. We await the coming onslaught of data from experiments measuring the microwave sky from the ground, from balloons and from space. However, we are faced with the harsh reality that current algorithms for extracting cosmological information cannot handle data sets of the size and complexity expected even in the next few years. Here we review the challenges involved in understanding this data: making maps from time-ordered data, removing the foreground contaminants, and finally estimating the power spectrum and cosmological parameters from the CMB map. If handled naively, the global nature of the analysis problem renders these tasks effectively impossible given the volume of the data. We discuss possible techniques for overcoming these issues and outline the many other challenges that wait to be addressed.

  10. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

  11. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  12. Gravitational Wave Background from Population III Stars

    E-print Network

    Yudai Suwa; Tomoya Takiwaki; Kei Kotake; Katsuhiko Sato

    2007-06-24

    We estimate the gravitational wave (GW) background from Population III (Pop III) stars using the results from our hydrodynamic simulations (Suwa et al. 2007). We calculate gravitational waveforms from matter motions and anisotropic neutrino emissions for single Pop III stars. We find that the GW amplitudes from matter motions are dominant until just after bounce, but those from neutrinos dominate later on at frequencies below $\\sim 10$ Hz in the GW spectrum. Computing the overall signal produced by the ensemble of such Pop III stars, we find that the resultant density parameter of the GW background peaks at the amplitude of $\\Omega_\\mathrm{GW}\\sim 10^{-10}$ in the frequency interval $\\sim 1-10$ Hz. We show that such signals, depending on the formation rate of Pop III stars, can be within the detection limits of future planned interferometers such as DECIGO and BBO in the frequency interval of $\\sim 0.1-1$ Hz. Our results suggest that the detection of the GW background from Pop III stars can be an important tool to supply the information about the star formation history in the early universe.

  13. Information dynamics in quantum theory

    E-print Network

    Piotr Garbaczewski

    2006-12-18

    Shannon entropy and Fisher information functionals are known to quantify certain information-theoretic properties of continuous probability distributions of various origins. We carry out a systematic study of these functionals, while assuming that the pertinent probability density has a quantum mechanical appearance $\\rho \\doteq |\\psi |^2$, with $\\psi \\in L^2(R)$. Their behavior in time, due to the quantum Schr\\"{o}dinger picture evolution-induced dynamics of $\\rho (x,t)$ is investigated as well, with an emphasis on thermodynamical features of quantum motion.

  14. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, provides an overview of how scientists are working to explain the origin of the universe. Specifically, it discusses the two major theories about the origin of the universe (Big Bang and Steady State), the search for microwave background radiation, and the discovery of the first observational evidence to support the Big Bang theory.

  15. The Kondo Problem Historical background

    E-print Network

    The Kondo Problem Historical background Kondo solution (Fermi liquid and perturbation) RG flow (Luttinger liquid) for single channel Multichannel Kondo effect by Andrzej Nowojewski #12;#12;#12;Resistance-d Hamiltonian: Jun Kondo Prog. Th. Phys 32, 37 (1964) #12;Use perturbation theory to calculate transition

  16. REPORT NO. 1 background material

    E-print Network

    to large amounts of ionizing radiation can produce deleterious effects on the human body so exposed. More the current knowledge on effects of radiation exposure and on human exposure levREPORT NO. 1 background material for the development of radiation protection standards May 13

  17. Employment with a Criminal Background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Hennessy

    Seeking employment is highly competitive, and it becomes more difficult when in poverty and with a criminal past. Many factors influence this complex situation. Hiring an ex- convict does pose a risk to the employer, and negative stereotypes reinforce anxiety over this risk. A common belief is that a criminal background means a person can't be trusted and that they

  18. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-print Network

    Garza, J G; Calvet, D; Castel, J F; Christensen, F E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Decker, T; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Giomataris, I; Hill, R M; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jakobsen, A C; Jourde, D; Mirallas, H; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Ruz, J; Tomás, A; Vafeiadis, T; Vogel, J K

    2015-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  19. Climate Change The Physical Background

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    Climate Change ­ The Physical Background Andreas Sterl KNMI · Basics of the climate system/18) #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11.10.2007 Observed climate change #12;Andreas Sterl · Anthropogenic influence · Projected changes & impact #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11

  20. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Silk

    1981-01-01

    Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found

  1. Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrends, Ehrhard

    2004-05-01

    Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

  2. Shark Fact or Fiction? Background

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    in saltwater. Most sharks are hot-blooded. The chance of being attacked by a shark is very high. Shark finning are hot-blooded. FICTION The chance of being attacked by a shark is very high. FICTION Shark finningShark Fact or Fiction? Background: This is a fun classroom activity based on the basic biology

  3. Simulation of HEAO 3 background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, B. L.; Phlips, B. F.; Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91 [2], nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database [3], and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) [4] using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, ?-, ?+, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both ?- and ?+. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

  4. Simulation of HEAO 3 background

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, B. L. [George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Phlips, B. F. [USRA, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia (United States)

    1997-05-10

    A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91, nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database, and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, {beta}{sup -}, {beta}{sup +}, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both {beta}{sup -} and {beta}{sup +}. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

  5. Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background

    E-print Network

    - 1 - Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background: Over the last 20 years, hurricane research at AOML has focused on improved scientific understanding of hurricanes and of tropical meteorology scientific goals for AOMLs hurricane research derive from the U.S. Weather Research Programs (USWRP

  6. Aggregations from using inadvertent social information: a form of ideal habitat selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Nocera; Graham J. Forbes; Luc-Alain Giraldeau

    2009-01-01

    Social information in breeding site selection has received extensive study; however, few attempts have been made to link this process to pre-existing models. We examine the importance of social information to three pertinent models of habitat selection that describe breeding aggregations and spatial patterns: 1) the ideal despotic distribution (IDD) which considers conspecific competition and habitat availability, 2) the perceptual

  7. Gaining Precision and Accuracy on Microprobe Trace Element Analysis with the Multipoint Background Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaz, J. M.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Donovan, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Electron microprobe trace element analysis is a significant challenge, but can provide critical data when high spatial resolution is required. Due to the low peak intensity, the accuracy and precision of such analyses relies critically on background measurements, and on the accuracy of any pertinent peak interference corrections. A linear regression between two points selected at appropriate off-peak positions is a classical approach for background characterization in microprobe analysis. However, this approach disallows an accurate assessment of background curvature (usually exponential). Moreover, if present, background interferences can dramatically affect the results if underestimated or ignored. The acquisition of a quantitative WDS scan over the spectral region of interest is still a valuable option to determine the background intensity and curvature from a fitted regression of background portions of the scan, but this technique retains an element of subjectivity as the analyst has to select areas in the scan, which appear to represent background. We present here a new method, "Multi-Point Background" (MPB), that allows acquiring up to 24 off-peak background measurements from wavelength positions around the peaks. This method aims to improve the accuracy, precision, and objectivity of trace element analysis. The overall efficiency is amended because no systematic WDS scan needs to be acquired in order to check for the presence of possible background interferences. Moreover, the method is less subjective because "true" backgrounds are selected by the statistical exclusion of erroneous background measurements, reducing the need for analyst intervention. This idea originated from efforts to refine EPMA monazite U-Th-Pb dating, where it was recognised that background errors (peak interference or background curvature) could result in errors of several tens of million years on the calculated age. Results obtained on a CAMECA SX-100 "UltraChron" using monazite standards and well-characterized unknowns yield excellent agreement with ages obtained by isotopic method. The MPB method aims thus to improve and facilitate trace element analysis in general, as we further demonstrate with blank tests and Ti-in-quartz measurements in reference materials and well-characterized quartz samples.

  8. Superspace geometry for supermembrane backgrounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard de Wit; Kasper Peeters; Jan Plefka

    1998-01-01

    We construct part of the superspace vielbein and tensor gauge field in terms of the component fields of 11-dimensional on-shell supergravity. The result can be utilized to describe supermembranes and corresponding matrix models for Dirichlet particles in non-trivial supergravity backgrounds to second order in anticommuting coordinates. We exhibit the ?-invariance of the corresponding supermembrane action, which at this order holds

  9. The effect of background cuing on prey detection.

    PubMed

    Kono; Reid; Kamil

    1998-10-01

    Studies of prey detection have typically focused on how search image affects the capture of cryptic items. This study also considers how background vegetation influences cryptic prey detection. Blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata, searched digitized images for two Catocala moths: C. ilia, which is cryptic on oak, and C. relicta, which is cryptic on birch. Some images contained moths while others did not. The ability of blue jays to detect prey during repeated presentations of one prey type within a session was compared with their performance during randomly alternating presentations of both prey types within a session to examine search-image formation under two background conditions (informative and ambiguous). In the informative background condition, both trees in the image were of the same species and therefore, the background was a reliable indicator of which prey type might be present. In the ambiguous background condition, there was one tree of each species in the image and either prey type could be present. The results indicate that: (1) a search-image effect was observed only for the more cryptic prey type and only when the background was informative; (2) as accuracy on prey images (those with moths) increased, response latency remained unchanged; (3) performance on nonprey images (those without moths) was primarily determined by the difficulty of searching the background and not by the prey type in the accompanying prey images; and (4) search-image effects disappeared with extended practice. These results suggest that the ability to detect prey is influenced by background and that the presence of either multiple backgrounds or multiple prey types interferes with search-image formation. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790707

  10. The Cosmic Background Explorer /COBE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, under study by NASA since 1976, will map the spectrum and the angular distribution of diffuse radiation from the universe over the entire wavelength range from 1 micron to 1.3 cm. It carries three instruments: a set of differential microwave radiometers (DMR) at 23.5, 31.4, 53, and 90GHz, a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 1 to 100 per cm, and a diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) covering 1 to 300 microns. They will use the ideal space environment, a one year lifetime, and standard instrument techniques to achieve orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity and accuracy, providing a fundamental data base for cosmology. The instruments are united by common purpose as well as similar environmental and orbital requirements. The data from all three experiments will be analyzed together, to distinguish nearby sources of radiation from the cosmologically interesting diffuse background radiations. Construction is planned to begin in 1982 for a launch in 1988.

  11. Ice absorption toward background stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knez, Claudia; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Kessler-Silacci, Jacqueline; Evans, Neal J., II; Augereau, Jean-Charles; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Brown, Joanna; Geers, Vincent; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Lahuis, Fred

    We present results of ice absorption between 5-20 ?m toward background stars as part of the Cores to Disks (c2d) Legacy program (Evans et al. 2003). Molecules such as H2O, CO2, HCOOH, NH3, CH3OH, and NH4+ have bands in this wavelength region. Absorption from H2O bands at 6 and 13 ?m is observed toward all sources. We detect strong CO2 absorption toward CK 2, a background star with high extinction in the Serpens dark cloud. The abundance of CO2 with respect to H2O is 30-40%, similar to what is observed toward protostars. Also, at 6.8 ?m, CK 2 shows a feature which may be due to NH4+ . Other sources with lower extinction, such as Elias 13 and Elias 16 in the Taurus dark cloud, do not show this feature. By probing different lines of sight, we can learn how ice composition varies with extinction. The abundances found toward background stars are then compared to abundances observed toward protosatars.

  12. Stealths on Anisotropic Holographic Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Eloy Ayón-Beato; Mokhtar Hassaïne; María Montserrat Juárez-Aubry

    2015-06-11

    In this paper, we are interested in exploring the existence of stealth configurations on anisotropic backgrounds playing a prominent role in the non-relativistic version of the gauge/gravity correspondence. By stealth configuration, we mean a nontrivial scalar field nonminimally coupled to gravity whose energy-momentum tensor evaluated on the anisotropic background vanishes identically. In the case of a Lifshitz spacetime with a nontrivial dynamical exponent z, we spotlight the role played by the anisotropy to establish the holographic character of the stealth configurations, i.e. the scalar field is shown to only depend on the radial holographic direction. This configuration which turns out to be massless and without integration constants is possible for a unique value of the nonminimal coupling parameter. Then, using a simple conformal argument, we map this configuration into a stealth solution defined on the so-called hyperscaling violation metric which is conformally related to the Lifshitz spacetime. This holographic configuration obtained through a conformal mapping constitutes only a particular class within the stealth solutions defined on the hyperscaling violation as it is shown by deriving the most general stealth configurations. The case of the Schrodinger background is also exhaustively analyzed and we establish that the presence of the null direction makes their stealth configurations not necessarily holographic in general and characterized by a self-interacting behavior. Finally, for completeness we also study the stealth configurations on the Schrodinger inspired hyperscaling violation spacetimes.

  13. Algorithms for Bayesian background-subtracted Fourier darkfield imaging.

    PubMed

    Fraundorf, P; Pollack, K

    1991-08-01

    Formal consideration of prior information on the Fourier amplitude of background contrast in an image, using the same Bayesian principles of statistical inference which underlie thermodynamics, allows one to subtract background without favoring only selected parts of frequency space. Without the bias in frequency space which causes periodicity bleeding and mars literal interpretation of Fourier-filtered images, the shape transform of aperiodic objects can be left intact. Algorithms for Bayesian background subtraction from one- and two-dimensional images are presented which further consider, in ad hoc fashion, one's uncertainty about background amplitude. The results help explain the reported success of Fourier truncation, and indicate that Bayesian background-subtracted images can minimize root-mean-square image error, as well as periodicity bleeding, in comparison to Fourier-filtered and Fourier-truncated alternatives. PMID:1750150

  14. Beta Decay and the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand; Hodak, Rastislav; Kovalenko, Sergey; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2014-04-01

    In 1964 Penzias and Wilson detected the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Its spectrum follows Planck's black body radiation formula and shows a remarkable constant temperature of T0? ? 2:7 K independent of the direction. The present photon density is about 370 photons per cm3. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 380 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T0? = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and the 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 380 000 years after the Big Bang. Information about earlier times can, in principle, be derived from the Cosmic Neutrino Background (C?B). The neutrinos decouple already 1 second after the Big Bang at a temperature of about 1010 K. Today their temperature is ˜ 1:95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos per cm3. Registration of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key element of the Big Bang cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe evolution. The search for the C?B with the induced beta decay ?e + 3H ? 3He + e- is the topic of this contribution. The signal would show up by a peak in the electron spectrum with an energy of the neutrino mass above the Q value. We discuss the prospects of this approach and argue that it is able to set limits on the C?B density in our vicinity. We also discuss critically ways to increase with modifications of the present KATRIN spectrometer the source intensity by a factor 100, which would yield about 170 counts of relic neutrino captures per year. This would make the detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Background possible. Presently such an increase seems not to be possible. But one should be able to find an upper limit for the local density of the relic neutrinos (Cosmic Neutrino Background) in our galaxy.

  15. THE WITHIN-SITE AND REGIONAL IMPACTS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA): HIERARCHIAL BAYESIAN METHODS ESTIMATE INVASIVE WEED IMPACTS AT PERTINENT SPATIAL SCALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Without information on the severity of invasive weed impacts, natural resource managers cannot compare the costs and benefits of weed management strategies. The spatial scale of interest to weed managers ranges from very local (e.g. ranchers, park managers) to regional (e.g. policy makers). Our go...

  16. Student Residence Hall Life: A Review of Literature, Research, and Experience Pertinent to Planning Residence-Based Programs for Post-Secondary Deaf and Hearing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen G.

    Reviewed in the paper are studies on college and university living, facts and proposals from persons cognizant of residential living, and information about present residential accommodations of students at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID). The aim of the paper is given to be collecting previously unknown data about housing of…

  17. Introduction and biological background Definitions and examples

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    Outline Introduction and biological background Definitions and examples Computing the reversal and biological background 2 Definitions and examples Signed permutations and reversal distance Elementary without hurdles and fortresses #12;Outline Introduction and biological background Definitions and examples

  18. The Extragalactic Gamma Ray Background

    E-print Network

    Charles D. Dermer

    2007-05-10

    One way to understand the nonthermal history of the universe is by establishing the origins of the unresolved and truly diffuse extragalactic gamma rays. Dim blazars and radio/gamma galaxies certainly make an important contribution to the galactic gamma-ray background given the EGRET discoveries, and previous treatments are reviewed and compared with a new analysis. Studies of the gamma-ray intensity from cosmic rays in star-forming galaxies and from structure formation shocks, as well as from dim GRBs, are briefly reviewed. A new hard gamma-ray source class seems required from the predicted aggregate intensity compared with the measured intensity.

  19. Symmetric M-Theory Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2011-01-01

    We classify symmetric backgrounds of eleven-dimensional supergravity up to local isometry. In other words, we classify triples (M,g,F), where (M,g) is an eleven-dimensional lorentzian locally symmetric space and F is an invariant 4-form, satisfying the equations of motion of eleven-dimensional supergravity. The possible (M,g) are given either by (not necessarily nondegenerate) Cahen-Wallach spaces or by products AdS_d x M for 1 < d < 8 and M a not necessarily irreducible riemannian symmetric space of dimension 11-d. In most cases we determine the corresponding F-moduli spaces.

  20. Acoustic Signatures in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-print Network

    Wayne Hu; Martin White

    1996-08-15

    We study the uniqueness and robustness of acoustic signatures in the cosmic microwave background by allowing for the possibility that they are generated by some as yet unknown source of gravitational perturbations. The acoustic {\\it pattern} of peak locations and relative heights predicted by the standard inflationary cold dark matter model is essentially unique and its confirmation would have deep implications for the causal structure of the early universe. A generic pattern for isocurvature initial conditions arises due to backreaction effects but is not robust to exotic source behavior inside the horizon. If present, the acoustic pattern contains unambiguous information on the curvature of the universe even in the general case. By classifying the behavior of the unknown source, we determine the minimal observations necessary for robust constraints on the curvature. The diffusion damping scale provides an entirely model independent cornerstone upon which to build such a measurement. The peak spacing, if regular, supplies a precision test.

  1. Genetic background of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Simona; Scarlata, Simone; Zito, Anna; Chiurco, Domenica; Pedone, Claudio; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2013-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive lung disease characterized by progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. The histological pattern, which displays dense fibrosis with active areas of fibroblastic proliferation, suggests a pathogenetic role of aberrant response to healing of multiple microscopic, repeated alveolar epithelial injuries. Although the exact etiology of the disease is still under investigation, several studies suggest that a combination of genetic and environmental factors may play a causal role. The aim of this review is to describe the genetic background of IPF, reporting the latest advancements made possible by genomic techniques that allow a high-throughput analysis and the identification of target genes implicated in IPF. This information may help to clarify pivotal aspects on prognosis and diagnosis, and may help to identify potential targets for future therapies. PMID:23638821

  2. Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, S.

    1998-02-01

    Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I online some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The spectrum of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions.

  3. Cosmic Infrared Background and Early Stellar Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmic infrared background (CIB) contains information about galaxy luminosities over the entire history of the Universe and can be a powerful diagnostic of the early populations otherwise inaccessible to telescopic studies. Its measurements are very difficult because of the strong IR foregrounds from the Solar system and the Galaxy. Nevertheless, substantial recent progress in measuring the CIB and its structure has been made. The measurements now allow to set significant constraints on early galaxy evolution and, perhaps, even detect the elusive Population III era. We discuss briefly the theory behind the CIB, review the latest measurements of the CIB and its structure, and discuss their implications for detecting and/or constraining the first stars and their epochs.

  4. The Cosmic Background Imager 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Angela C.; Jones, Michael E.; Allison, James R.; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Bond, J. Richard; Bronfman, Leonardo; Bustos, Ricardo; Davis, Richard J.; Dickinson, Clive; Leech, Jamie; Mason, Brian S.; Myers, Steven T.; Pearson, Timothy J.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Reeves, Rodrigo; Shepherd, Martin C.; Sievers, Jonathan L.

    2011-12-01

    We describe an upgrade to the Cosmic Background Imager instrument to increase its surface brightness sensitivity at small angular scales. The upgrade consisted of replacing the 13 0.9-m antennas with 1.4-m antennas incorporating a novel combination of design features, which provided excellent sidelobe and spillover performance for low manufacturing cost. Off-the-shelf spun primaries were used, and the secondary mirrors were oversized and shaped relative to a standard Cassegrain in order to provide an optimum compromise between aperture efficiency and low spillover lobes. Low-order distortions in the primary mirrors were compensated for by custom machining of the secondary mirrors. The secondaries were supported on a transparent dielectric foam cone to minimize scattering. The antennas were tested in the complete instrument, and the beam shape and spillover noise contributions were as expected. We demonstrate the performance of the telescope and the intercalibration with the previous system using observations of the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect in the cluster Abell 1689. The enhanced instrument has been used to study the cosmic microwave background, the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect and diffuse Galactic emission.

  5. Pilot Performance With Predictive System Status Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1997-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, the benefits of predictive information have not been quantitatively demonstrated. The study described here attempted to identify and quantify these benefits if they existed. In this simulator experiment, three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and four initial times to an alert (1 minute, 5 minutes, 15 minutes, and ETA+ 45 minutes) were found to affect when subjects accomplished certain actions, such as accessing pertinent checklists, declaring emergencies, diverting, and calling the flight attendant and dispatch.

  6. Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA): Learning Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA) provides this page of learning resources useful for information technology courses. Most of these materials fall under the category of course outlines and syllabi. Topics include cyber ethics, forensic accounting, disaster recovery, security awareness, wireless security, VOIP security and other pertinent subjects to this field. Users are encouraged to visit the center's site and create a free login to view these and other learning resources.

  7. Predictors of Informal Health Payments: The Example from Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hacer Özgen; Bayram Sahin; Paolo Belli; Mehtap Tatar; Peter Berman

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that can affect informal health payments in Turkey, which is pertinent given that Turkey\\u000a has been undergoing and considering a series of reforms in the health sector. This paper aims to examine the predictors of\\u000a informal payments in Turkey. The study surveyed a random sample of 3,727 people in a medium-sized city, of whom

  8. The Discursive Construction of Literature Review: An Examination of Chinese PhD Students' Information Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Jiadong; Han, Jinghe

    2012-01-01

    Information behaviour is a pertinent practice throughout students' research work. However, research students, particularly those with English as an additional language, experienced challenges and complications when studying in a western university. Issues relating to their information behaviour during the research process has largely been…

  9. PIRLS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Drucker, Kathleen T., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background variables. Background

  10. TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the TIMSS 2011 background variables. Background questionnaire adaptations…

  11. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found that spectral distortions at the 3-sigma level near the peak of the blackbody spectrum, although inconsistent with the predicted distortions due to Compton scattering in the early universe, are elegantly interpreted in terms of radiation from an early, pregalactic generation of massive stars which had been thermalized by a modest amount of dust at high redshift. The quadrupole anisotropy at the 4-sigma level is most simply interpreted in terms of the large-scale structure of the universe.

  12. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  13. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  14. Recognizing foreground-background interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    Can the background affect a foreground target in distant, low-quality imagery? If it does, it might occur in our mind, or perhaps it may represent a snapshot of our early vision. An affirmative answer, one way or another, may affect our current understanding of this phenomena and potentially for related applications. How can we be sure about this in the psycho-physical sense? We begin with the physiology of our brain's homeostasis, of which an isothermal equilibrium is characterized by the minimum of Helmholtz isothermal Free Energy: A = U - T0S >= 0, where T0 = 37°C, the Boltzmann Entropy S = KB1n(W), and U is the unknown internal energy to be computed.

  15. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  16. The microwave background anisotropies: observations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation-fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 microK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 degrees and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe--the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century. PMID:9419320

  17. Cosmic microwave?background?theory

    PubMed Central

    Bond, J. Richard

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in ?-space are consistent with a ?T flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are ?(10?5)2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at ? ? 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted ? cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 ± 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 ± 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 ± 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 ± 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on ? and moderate constraints on ?tot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant. PMID:9419321

  18. Background information and SOPs | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Search site CENTERS Arizona State University Cornell University Dana-Farber Cancer Institute H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute Johns Hopkins University Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Methodist Hospital Research Institute Northwestern

  19. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS...section. (a) One category is employees with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR...

  20. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS...section. (a) One category is employees with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR...

  1. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS...section. (a) One category is employees with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR...

  2. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS...section. (a) One category is employees with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR...

  3. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS...section. (a) One category is employees with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR...

  4. Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... State Child Welfare Workload Compendium More Tools & Resources Logic Model Builders Related Organizations Learning Center Resources From ... State Child Welfare Workload Compendium More Tools & Resources Logic Model Builders Related Organizations Learning Center Children's Bureau ...

  5. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Bruno; J. A. Dirks; P. O. Jackson; J. K. Young

    1984-01-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 UO production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31%

  6. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

  7. Managing Information On Technical Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III; Hammond, Dana P.

    1993-01-01

    Technical Requirements Analysis and Control Systems/Initial Operating Capability (TRACS/IOC) computer program provides supplemental software tools for analysis, control, and interchange of project requirements so qualified project members have access to pertinent project information, even if in different locations. Enables users to analyze and control requirements, serves as focal point for project requirements, and integrates system supporting efficient and consistent operations. TRACS/IOC is HyperCard stack for use on Macintosh computers running HyperCard 1.2 or later and Oracle 1.2 or later.

  8. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)

  9. FOC\\/48 Format Dependent Background Emission and Geometric Distortion Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Nota

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this test is to determine how the the behavior of the background emission {flare} changes with the format, since a significant format dependence was indicated in Proposal 6302. We will need this information in order to advise future long-slit observers as to which format should be used for obtaining their spectra. In addition to the format dependence,

  10. Political Correctness: Background, Perspective, and Implications for Student Affairs Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forney, Deanna S.

    1996-01-01

    Provides background information about the Political Correctness debate, encourages student affairs administrators to reflect on their own perceptions and actions, offers ideas and suggestions about the debate, and explores the debate's implications for student affairs staff. Is intended to promote both individual reflection and group discussions…

  11. Background Materials for Chairman's Workshop. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimble, Gregory A.

    Information for newly appointed heads of graduate departments of psychology is presented as background material for the 1974 Chairman's Workshop. Topics include the following: the budgetary situation, pressures for increased teaching loads, effects upon recruiting faculty, faculty morale, graduate and undergraduate student morale, the intellectual…

  12. Collection and evaluation of false alarm signatures in background data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjeev Agarwal; Shivakar Vulli; Neil J. Malloy; Elizabeth M. Lord; Josh R. Fairley; Bruce M. Sabol; Wesley Johnson; Richard Ess; Anh H. Trang

    2009-01-01

    A significant amount of background airborne data was collected as part of May 2005 tests for airborne minefield detection at an arid site. The locations of false alarms which occurred consistently during different runs, were identified and geo-referenced by MultiSensor Science LLC. Ground truth information, which included pictures, type qualifiers and some hyperspectral data for these identified false alarm locations,

  13. Background Checks on School Personnel. ERIC Digest Series EA 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baas, Alan

    Although it is relatively simple to check on applicants' basic professional competency, ensuring the moral competency of potential school employees is much more difficult. This digest examines major legal issues, district liabilities and responsibilities, suggested guidelines, and information sources involving employee background checks. Of more…

  14. Statistical challenges in the analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Cabella; Domenico Marinuccu

    2009-01-01

    An enormous amount of observations on Cosmic Microwave Background radiation has been collected in the last decade, and much more data are expected in the near future from planned or operating satellite missions. These datasets are a goldmine of information for Cosmology and Theoretical Physics; their efficient exploitation posits several intriguing challenges from the statistical point of view. In this

  15. Increasing Educational Efficiency Through Technology (Commission Discussion and Background Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.

    A program schedule and background information for Indiana Commission for Higher Education-sponsored discussion of the use of educational technology to increase educational effeciency are presented. The four major topics of discussion to illustrate the uses and advantages/disadvantages of audio, video, and computing technologies are as follows:…

  16. Verification and Trust: Background Investigations Preceding Faculty Appointment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Many employers in the United States have been initiating or expanding policies requiring background checks of prospective employees. The ability to perform such checks has been abetted by the growth of computerized databases and of commercial enterprises that facilitate access to personal information. Employers now have ready access to public…

  17. Medical waste management: Regulatory and technical background report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urbanowicz

    1992-01-01

    Electric utility companies need to be familiar with the regulatory and technical issues of medical waste disposal in order to help their healthcare facility customers remain competitive and meet increasingly stringent environmental regulations. This report addresses this need for background information by describing the characterization, generation, handling, regulation, and treatment of medical waste. The report also provides a qualitative assessment

  18. A background suppression algorithm for infrared image based on shearlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ruibin; Shi, Caicheng; Qin, Xiao

    2015-04-01

    Because of the relative far distance between infrared imaging system and target or the wide field infrared optical, the imaging area of infrared target is only a few pixels, which is isolated or spots to be showed in the field of view. The only available is the intensity information (gray value) for the target detection. Simultaneously, there are many shortcomings of the infrared image, such as large noise, interference and so on, therefore the small target is always buried in the background and noises. The small target is relatively difficult to detect, so generally, it is impossible to make reliable detection to this target in a single frame image. Summarily, the core of the infrared small target detection algorithm is the background and noise suppression based on a single frame image. Aiming at the infrared small target detection and the above problems, a shearlets-based background suppression algorithm for infrared image is proposed. The algorithm demonstrates the performance of advantage based on shearlets, which is especially designed to address anisotropic and directional information at various scales. This transform provides an optimally efficient representation of images, which is greatly reduced the amount of the information and the available information representation. In the paper, introducing the principle of shearlets first, and then proposing the theory of the algorithm and explaining the implementation step. Finally, giving the simulation results. In Matlab simulations with this method for several sets of infrared images, simulation results conformed to the theory on background suppression based on shearlets. The result showed that this method can effectively suppress background, and improve the SCR and achieve a satisfactory effect in the sky background. The method is very effectively for target detection, identification, track in infrared image system for the future.

  19. Sources of Information on Medical Geography

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Lynn S.

    1966-01-01

    Adequate research in the peripheral field of medical geography requires familiarity with the literature of medicine, geography, and other environmentally oriented fields. The pertinent literature of the two primary disciplines, as well as that of anthropology, nutrition, and human bioclimatology, is surveyed from a bibliographical point of view. A brief review of historical sources is presented, followed by a discussion of the contemporary organizations, both international and national, active in the field. Emphasis is placed on the publishing programs and projects, maps, atlases, symposia, reports, and other literature sponsored or stimulated by these organizations. Regional bibliographical surveys for East Africa, India, and the Soviet Union are also noted. Pertinent aspects of bibliographies, indexes, abstracts, library card catalogs and accession lists, and other resources are listed, with emphasis on the various subject headings and other approaches to them. Throughout, the sources of information are approached from a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary viewpoint. PMID:5329543

  20. Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect

    PubMed Central

    Dekerle, Marie; Boulenger, Véronique; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1–4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring. PMID:25400572

  1. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

    2013-11-07

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  2. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico–Rhino–Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed. PMID:25713500

  3. Background radiation from fission pulses

    SciTech Connect

    England, T.R.; Arthur, E.D.; Brady, M.C.; LaBauve, R.J.

    1988-05-01

    Extensive source terms for beta, gamma, and neutrons following fission pulses are presented in various tabular and graphical forms. Neutron results from a wide range of fissioning nuclides (42) are examined and detailed information is provided for four fuels: /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 239/Pu; these bracket the range of the delayed spectra. Results at several cooling (decay) times are presented. For ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. spectra, only /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu results are given; fission-product data are currently inadequate for other fuels. The data base consists of all known measured data for individual fission products extensively supplemented with nuclear model results. The process is evolutionary, and therefore, the current base is summarized in sufficient detail for users to judge its quality. Comparisons with recent delayed neutron experiments and total ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. decay energies are included. 27 refs., 47 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Application of Information Technology j A Statistical Approach to Scanning the Biomedical Literature

    E-print Network

    Rubin, Daniel L.

    Literature for Pharmacogenetics Knowledge DANIEL L. RUBIN, MD, MS, CAROLINE F. THORN, PHD, TERI E. KLEIN, PHD pertinent literature and data in the voluminous biomedical literature. It is difficult to manually extract useful information embedded in the large volumes of literature, and automated intelligent text analysis

  5. Spatial decision support and information management application to wildland fire prevention The WILFRIED System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guarniéri; J. L. Wybo

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS), called WILFRIED, which is designed to fit the requirements of managers in charge of wildland fire prevention and fighting. To achieve decision support, the system combines tasks: it gives the user an efficient access to relevant data, synthesizes pertinent information (meteorology, topography, vegetation) and automates repetitive tasks (compute the wind

  6. The Information Revolution, Security, and International Relations: (IR)relevant Theory?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Eriksson; Giampiero Giacomello

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: to analyze the impact of the information revolution on security and to clarify what existing international relations theory can say about this challenge. These pertinent questions are initially addressed by a critical review of past research. This review shows that the concern for security issues is largely confined to a specialist literature on

  7. Application of Information Technology: A Statistical Approach to Scanning the Biomedical Literature for Pharmacogenetics Knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Rubin; Caroline F. Thorn; Teri E. Klein; Russ B. Altman

    2005-01-01

    ObjectiveBiomedical databases summarize current scientific knowledge, but they generally require years of laborious curation effort to build, focusing on identifying pertinent literature and data in the voluminous biomedical literature. It is difficult to manually extract useful information embedded in the large volumes of literature, and automated intelligent text analysis tools are becoming increasingly essential to assist in these curation activities.

  8. Interferometry of background acoustic-gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Godin, Oleg A.; Sheehan, Anne F.

    2013-04-01

    In addition to acoustic-gravity waves generated in the ocean and atmosphere by strong transient events such as earthquakes and tsunamis, there exists a certain background level of acoustic-gravity waves. Because of their large free path length and a wide spatial distribution of the wave sources, background acoustic-gravity waves form a diffuse (but not necessarily isotropic), random wave field. Wave fields generated by uncorrelated sources are known to retain finite correlation at ranges large compared to the wavelength and spatial dimensions of the random wave sources. A technique known as noise (or wave) interferometry has been shown in seismology, helioseismology, acoustics, and other fields to be an effective tool for retrieving information about the deterministic propagation environment and the random wave field from two-point cross-correlation functions of diffuse noise. Here, we apply wave interferometry to acoustic-gravity waves in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The primary dataset analyzed in this study was obtained by 30 differential pressure gauges deployed from January 2009 to February 2010 on the seafloor offshore the South Island of New Zealand in the course of the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) Seismic Experiment [Yang, Z., A. Sheehan, J. A. Collins, and G. Laske (2012), The character of seafloor ambient noise recorded offshore New Zealand: Results from the MOANA ocean bottom seismic experiment, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q10011]. By applying time-reversal ideas to processing of cross-correlations of random wave fields, we have developed a compressed cross-correlation function technique to compensate for wave dispersion in evaluating the cross-correlation function of a random wave field. When applied to the seafloor pressure data, the technique drastically reduces the signal averaging times necessary for emergence of deterministic features and allows for accurate passive measurements of wave travel times and directivity. The reduction in the averaging time makes it possible to study dynamics on the acoustic-gravity wave field and helps to identify specific wave types that contribute to observed pressure variations. We will discuss implications of the seafloor measurements for observations of acoustic-gravity waves in air above the ocean and feasibility of extending the wave interferometry to other modalities of observation of background acoustic-gravity waves, including ionospheric radio sounding performed with Dynasonde systems.

  9. Background, an important factor in visual search.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Jelmer P; Hooge, Ignace T C; Wertheim, Alexander H; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2013-06-28

    The ability to detect an object depends on the contrast between the object and its background. Despite this, many models of visual search rely solely on the properties of target and distractors, and do not take the background into account. Yet, both target and distractors have their individual contrasts with the background. These contrasts generally differ, because the target and distractors are different in at least one feature. Therefore, background is likely to play an important role in visual search. In three experiments we manipulated the properties of the background (luminance, orientation and spatial frequency, respectively) while keeping the target and distractors constant. In the first experiment, in which target and distractors had a different luminance, changing the background luminance had an extensive effect on search times. When background luminance was in between that of the target and distractors, search times were always short. Interestingly, when the background was darker than both the target and the distractors, search times were much longer than when the background was lighter. Manipulating orientation and spatial frequency of the background, on the other hand, resulted in search times that were longest for small target-background differences. Thus, background plays an important role in search. This role depends on the individual contrast of both target and distractors with the background and the type of feature contrast (luminance, orientation or spatial frequency). PMID:23623804

  10. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  11. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  12. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  13. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  14. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  15. Locally covariant charged fields and background independence

    E-print Network

    Jochen Zahn

    2014-10-28

    We discuss gauge background independence at the example of the charged Dirac field. We show that a perturbative version of background independence, termed perturbative agreement by Hollands and Wald, can be fulfilled, and discuss some of its consequences.

  16. Microwave Background Anisotropies from Scaling Seed Perturbations

    E-print Network

    Durrer, Ruth

    Microwave Background Anisotropies from Scaling Seed Perturbations Ruth Durrer and Mairi, Switzerland Abstract We study microwave background anisotropies induced by scaling seed pertur- bations. Thus, compensation, which is mainly the consequence of physically sensible initial conditions, is very

  17. Improved Upper Limits on the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from 2009–2010 LIGO and Virgo Data

    E-print Network

    Aasi, J.

    Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the Universe that is ...

  18. Current status of federal involvement in US aquaculture. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The United States lacks a strong national aquaculture policy and supporting federal presence. Over the years, levels and focii of agency involvement in aquaculture development have shifted in response to legislation and its differing interpretations. The National Aquaculture Act (NAA), the primary piece of aquaculture-related legislation, is slated for reauthorization of the NAA and related legislation is the federal role in research and regulation of this emerging industry. Congress requested this Background Paper to provide information on technology issues of immediate importance to the U.S. aquaculture industry. This is a companion piece to the Background Paper on Selected Technology Issues in U.S. Aquaculture.

  19. Full length background papers can be found at globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/news-events/malaria-elimination-background-paper-series Ideal surveillance for malaria elimination

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Dyche

    APRIL 2014 Full length background papers can be found at globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/news-events/malaria-elimination-background-paper-series Ideal surveillance for malaria elimination key messages what does surveillance for malaria elimination entail? Surveillance for malaria control aims to estimate the burden of malaria and inform population

  20. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects. Annual report, October 1984September 1985. Volume 4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Meyer; W. D. Arnold; J. G. Blencoe; G. K. Jacobs; A. D. Kelmers; F. G. Seeley; S. K. Whatley

    1986-01-01

    Information pertaining to the potential geochemical behavior of radionuclides at candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository, which is being developed by projects within the Department of Energy (DOE), is being evaluated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). During this report period, emphasis was placed on the evaluation of information pertinent to the Hanford

  1. Probing Inflation via Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been a rich source of information about the early Universe. Detailed measurements of its spectrum and spatial distribution have helped solidify the Standard Model of Cosmology. However, many questions still remain. Standard Cosmology does not explain why the early Universe is geometrically flat, expanding, homogenous across the horizon, and riddled with a small anisotropy that provides the seed for structure formation. Inflation has been proposed as a mechanism that naturally solves these problems. In addition to solving these problems, inflation is expected to produce a spectrum of gravitational waves that will create a particular polarization pattern on the CMB. Detection of this polarized signal is a key test of inflation and will give a direct measurement of the energy scale at which inflation takes place. This polarized signature of inflation is expected to be -9 orders of magnitude below the 2.7 K monopole level of the CMB. This measurement will require good control of systematic errors, an array of many detectors having the requisite sensitivity, and a reliable method for removing polarized foregrounds, and nearly complete sky coverage. Ultimately, this measurement is likely to require a space mission. To this effect, technology and mission concept development are currently underway.

  2. Systematic Errors in Cosmic Microwave Background Interferometry

    E-print Network

    Emory F. Bunn

    2006-07-13

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization observations will require superb control of systematic errors in order to achieve their full scientific potential, particularly in the case of attempts to detect the B modes that may provide a window on inflation. Interferometry may be a promising way to achieve these goals. This paper presents a formalism for characterizing the effects of a variety of systematic errors on interferometric CMB polarization observations, with particular emphasis on estimates of the B-mode power spectrum. The most severe errors are those that couple the temperature anisotropy signal to polarization; such errors include cross-talk within detectors, misalignment of polarizers, and cross-polarization. In a B mode experiment, the next most serious category of errors are those that mix E and B modes, such as gain fluctuations, pointing errors, and beam shape errors. The paper also indicates which sources of error may cause circular polarization (e.g., from foregrounds) to contaminate the cosmologically interesting linear polarization channels, and conversely whether monitoring of the circular polarization channels may yield useful information about the errors themselves. For all the sources of error considered, estimates of the level of control that will be required for both E and B mode experiments are provided. Both experiments that interfere linear polarizations and those that interfere circular polarizations are considered. The fact that circular experiments simultaneously measure both linear polarization Stokes parameters in each baseline mitigates some sources of error.

  3. Systematic errors in cosmic microwave background interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Emory F. [Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, Virginia 23173 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization observations will require superb control of systematic errors in order to achieve their full scientific potential, particularly in the case of attempts to detect the B modes that may provide a window on inflation. Interferometry may be a promising way to achieve these goals. This paper presents a formalism for characterizing the effects of a variety of systematic errors on interferometric CMB polarization observations, with particular emphasis on estimates of the B-mode power spectrum. The most severe errors are those that couple the temperature anisotropy signal to polarization; such errors include cross talk within detectors, misalignment of polarizers, and cross polarization. In a B mode experiment, the next most serious category of errors are those that mix E and B modes, such as gain fluctuations, pointing errors, and beam shape errors. The paper also indicates which sources of error may cause circular polarization (e.g., from foregrounds) to contaminate the cosmologically interesting linear polarization channels, and conversely whether monitoring of the circular-polarization channels may yield useful information about the errors themselves. For all the sources of error considered, estimates of the level of control that will be required for both E and B mode experiments are provided. Simulations of a mock experiment are presented to illustrate the results. Both experiments that interfere linear polarizations and those that interfere circular polarizations are considered. The fact that circular experiments simultaneously measure both linear polarization Stokes parameters in each baseline mitigates some sources of error.

  4. Characterization of infrared cloud background clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.

    1992-09-01

    Detection of airborne point targets in infrared surveillance is hampered by the presence of cloud clutter. In order to develop tactical decision aids providing the performance of surveillance system in clutter conditions a scheme has been developed to obtain information on cloud clutter in real scenes. The amount of clutter depends on the amount of RMS variations of the intensity in the image within a certain cell size. An image consisting of RMS values in these cells give a first clutter map. To determine clutter for a large number of filter sizes it is necessary to apply the process for different cell sizes. These RMS values are weighed to obtain a single clutter value for a larger scene. In the process sensor noise needs to be separated from real background structure. The scheme has been applied to a number of 10 micrometers IR-18 image sequences for extensive analysis. After fine-tuning it is possible to compare the degree of clutter in different (types of) images. From the IR-18 image sequences several parameters have been determined. The temporal behavior of the images has been analyzed in two-dimensional scatter diagrams.

  5. Gamma-Ray Background Variability in Mobile Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucott, Timothy John

    Gamma-ray background radiation significantly reduces detection sensitivity when searching for radioactive sources in the field, such as in wide-area searches for homeland security applications. Mobile detector systems in particular must contend with a variable background that is not necessarily known or even measurable a priori. This work will present measurements of the spatial and temporal variability of the background, with the goal of merging gamma-ray detection, spectroscopy, and imaging with contextual information--a "nuclear street view" of the ubiquitous background radiation. The gamma-ray background originates from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. The dominant sources in the field are the primordial isotopes potassium-40, uranium-238, and thorium-232, as well as their decay daughters. In addition to the natural background, many artificially-created isotopes are used for industrial or medical purposes, and contamination from fission products can be found in many environments. Regardless of origin, these backgrounds will reduce detection sensitivity by adding both statistical as well as systematic uncertainty. In particular, large detector arrays will be limited by the systematic uncertainty in the background and will suffer from a high rate of false alarms. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the gamma-ray background and its variability in order to improve detection sensitivity and evaluate the performance of mobile detectors in the field. Large quantities of data are measured in order to study their performance at very low false alarm rates. Two different approaches, spectroscopy and imaging, are compared in a controlled study in the presence of this measured background. Furthermore, there is additional information that can be gained by correlating the gamma-ray data with contextual data streams (such as cameras and global positioning systems) in order to reduce the variability in the background. This is accomplished by making many hours of background measurements with a truck-mounted system, which utilizes high-purity germanium detectors for spectroscopy and sodium iodide detectors for coded aperture imaging. This system also utilizes various peripheral sensors, such as panoramic cameras, laser ranging systems, global positioning systems, and a weather station to provide context for the gamma-ray data. About three hundred hours of data were taken in the San Francisco Bay Area, covering a wide variety of environments that might be encountered in operational scenarios. These measurements were used in a source injection study to evaluate the sensitivity of different algorithms (imaging and spectroscopy) and hardware (sodium iodide and high-purity germanium detectors). These measurements confirm that background distributions in large, mobile detector systems are dominated by systematic, not statistical variations, and both spectroscopy and imaging were found to substantially reduce this variability. Spectroscopy performed better than the coded aperture for the given scintillator array (one square meter of sodium iodide) for a variety of sources and geometries. By modeling the statistical and systematic uncertainties of the background, the data can be sampled to simulate the performance of a detector array of arbitrary size and resolution. With a larger array or lower resolution detectors, however imaging was better able to compensate for background variability.

  6. Using multiple perspectives to suppress information and complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)]|[New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (US). Computer Science Dept.; Webster, R.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Hartley, R.T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (US). Computer Science Dept.

    1998-09-01

    Dissemination of battlespace information involves getting information to particular warfighters that is both useful and in a form that facilitates the tasks of those particular warfighters. There are two issues which motivate this problem of dissemination. The first issue deals with disseminating pertinent information to a particular warfighter. This can be thought of as information suppression. The second issue deals with facilitating the use of the information by tailoring the computer interface to the specific tasks of an individual warfighter. This can be thought of as interface complexity suppression. This paper presents a framework for suppressing information using an object-based knowledge representation methodology. This methodology has the ability to represent knowledge and information in multiple perspectives. Information can be suppressed by creating a perspective specific to an individual warfighter. In this way, only the information pertinent and useful to a warfighter is made available to that warfighter. Information is not removed, lost, or changed, but spread among multiple perspectives. Interface complexity is managed in a similar manner. Rather than have one generalized computer interface to access all information, the computer interface can be divided into interface elements. Interface elements can then be selected and arranged into a perspective-specific interface. This is done in a manner to facilitate completion of tasks contained in that perspective. A basic battlespace domain containing ground and air elements and associated warfighters is used to exercise the methodology.

  7. FOC/48 Format Dependent Background Emission and Geometric Distortion Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nota, Antonella

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this test is to determine how the the behavior of the background emission {flare} changes with the format, since a significant format dependence was indicated in Proposal 6302. We will need this information in order to advise future long-slit observers as to which format should be used for obtaining their spectra. In addition to the format dependence, the geometric distortion correction will be obtained using the reseaux marks for the formats to be used by Cycle 6 observers.

  8. Spatial variations of groundwater background concentrations in coastal aquifers, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Soojae

    2014-05-01

    In coastal aquifers the mixing between fresh terrestrial water and seawater occurs, which influences groundwater quality. Due to mixing elevated chloride concentrations are often observed in coastal aquifers. In coastal areas terrestrial water-seawater mixing can be caused by anthropogenic activities or natural factors such as tides and sea level changes. Therefore, it is difficult or even impossible to characterize groundwater background concentrations in coastal aquifers. Although it is usual to exclude coastal aquifer when characterizing background concentrations, it is essential to accurately characterize naturally-affected groundwater quality in coastal areas because groundwater is a major water resource for potable, irrigation, domestic uses. So in this work we define groundwater background concentrations as naturally occurring ambient concentrations with excluding groundwater abstraction. Based on this definition, we evaluate groundwater background concentrations in various geologic formations and analyze characteristics of groundwater quality in coastal aquifers by utilizing Groundwater Quality Monitoring System (GQMS) data. The results show that high concentrations of chloride are observed in some coastal areas but not always. Tidal effects and topographical characteristics are thought to be as factors affecting such spatial variations. In some coastal areas high concentrations of chloride are observed with high nitrate concentrations. This means that agricultural practices can attribute to anthropogenic background, leading to elevated concentrations of nitrate. These results provide some essential information for groundwater resources management in coastal areas. Further data collection and analysis is required for evaluating the effect of tide and sea level changes on groundwater quality.

  9. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

  10. [Toward pertinent analytical objectives for haematological parameters].

    PubMed

    Iobagiu, Cristina; Nehar, Diane; Denis, Isabelle; de Saint-Trivier, Aurélie; Boyer, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Usually, the blood cell counting activity in haematology laboratory uses the comparison of IQC values to the target values proposed by the manufacturer. We intended to improve the monitoring of the proper functioning of our analytical measure system for 17 main haematologic parameters. To set the allowable critical limits of IQC, we propose our reflection based on several elements: benchmark and expert recommendation, clinical requirements, statistical indicators of the laboratory calculated using IQC values (3 levels, 2 different lots, 2 haematology analysers and 2 passage modes) and the EEQ values, during four months. We exploited the reports obtained from the middleware (our own IQC values), and the interlaboratory comparison reports (obtained from SNCS and EuroCell websites) and we compared our performances to the Ricos objectives, to set clearly argued allowable limits for IQC values. Finally, the allowable limits correspond to the imprecision limits stated by Ricos for 14 parameters (desirable for 11 parametres and minimal for 3 parameters) and personalized limits (more exigent than desirable Ricos limits) for 3 parameters of blood cell counting. PMID:25486666

  11. Pertinent issues in pretransplant recipient workup.

    PubMed

    Modi, Pranjal

    2007-07-01

    Renal transplantation is recognized as the treatment of choice in most patients with end-stage renal disease. The evaluation of the candidate for kidney transplantation has been the recent subject of clinical practice guidelines published by the European Renal Association- European Dialysis Transplant Association and the American Society of Transplantation. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature for urological evaluation and treatment of patients prior to renal transplantation. In India, urologists are involved in evaluating not only the genitourinary problems but also vascular access and, vascular anatomy and pathology especially related to major pelvic vessels. Hence, evaluation of the transplant recipient should include assessment of vascular access for hemodialysis, access for peritoneal dialysis, assessment of pelvic vessels to which renal allograft vessels need to be anastomosed and genitourinary system. In addition, review of the serological tests for infective viral diseases like hepatitis and human immunodeficiency viruses should always be done before starting clinical evaluation. A note of the evaluation performed by other specialists like nephrologist, cardiologist, endocrinologist, pulmonologist, anesthetist etc. should always be reviewed. PMID:19718331

  12. Background Check Consent Statement This Background Check Consent Statement documents your consent for Indiana University to obtain a background

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    for Indiana University to obtain a background check from a consumer reporting agency consisting of a criminal. Indiana University requires a background check for the following individuals: 1) new employees in any position; 2) any employee, student, or volunteer affiliated with Indiana University who will be working

  13. INVESTIGATION Genomic Background and Generation Time

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Michael

    varied between populations, especially for clutch size, suggesting that genomic background influ- ences affecting the ability of natural populations to respond to selective pressures. Most spontaneous mutations

  14. Thermal inflation and the gravitational wave background

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Giblin Jr, John T [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lim, Eugene A [ISCAP and Physics Department, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States)] [ISCAP and Physics Department, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Park, Wan-Il; Stewart, Ewan D, E-mail: richard.easther@yale.edu, E-mail: john.giblin@yale.edu, E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com, E-mail: wipark@muon.kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: stewart@hep.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    We consider the impact of thermal inflation-a short, secondary period of inflation that can arise in supersymmetric scenarios-on the stochastic gravitational wave background. We show that while the primordial inflationary gravitational wave background is essentially unchanged at cosmic microwave background scales, it is massively diluted at solar system scales and would be unobservable by a Big Bang Observer (BBO) style experiment. Conversely, bubble collisions at the end of thermal inflation can generate a new stochastic background. We calculate the likely properties of the bubbles created during this phase transition, and show that the expected amplitude and frequency of this signal would fall within the BBO range.

  15. Aquaculture information package

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  16. Government-funded ethics in the information economy: The effects of a federal grant on a technical communication graduate curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann S. Jennings

    2008-01-01

    In the information economy, students can benefit from exposure to theories of ethics that are pertinent to such concerns as corporate governance and worker safety. The wisdom of classical and modern ethicists can provide guidance as faculty help students apply the theories to graduate-level course content as varied as visual design, rhetoric, and project management.

  17. Application of Monte Carlo algorithms to the Bayesian analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, J.; Levin, S.; Anderson, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    Power spectrum estimation and evaluation of associated errors in the presence of incomplete sky coverage; nonhomogeneous, correlated instrumental noise; and foreground emission are problems of central importance for the extraction of cosmological information from the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

  18. Background of SIFs and Stress Indices for Moment Loadings of Piping Components

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. Wais; E. C. Rodabaugh

    2005-06-15

    This report provides background information, references, and equations for twenty-four piping components (thirteen component SIFs and eleven component stress indices) that justify the values or expressions for the SIFs and indices.

  19. MEGA: a low-background radiation detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kareem Kazkaz; Craig E. Aalseth; Todd W. Hossbach; Victor M. Gehman; Jeremy D. Kephart; Harry S. Miley

    2004-01-01

    The multiple-element gamma assay (MEGA) is a low-background detector designed to support environmental monitoring and national security applications. MEGA also demonstrates technology needed for Majorana, a next generation neutrino mass experiment. It will employ active and passive shielding to reduce backgrounds. It will also exploit multicoincidence signatures to identify specific radioactive isotopes. MEGA is expected to begin testing in late

  20. Cosmic Microwave Background: The New Cosmology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This AstroBulletin article takes an in-depth look at the newest technology and instruments used to study the Cosmic Microwave Background. The site includes text and a seven minute video. There are links to three essays: "What Is the Cosmic Microwave Background?", "Antarctica: A Hotbed of Cold-Weather Research" and "DASI Does It."

  1. The Extrgalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker; M. H. Salamon

    2001-04-23

    The COMPTEL and EGRET detectors aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory measured an extragalactic gamma-ray background extending from MeV energies up to about 100 GeV. Calculations performed making reasonable assumptions indicate that blazars can account for the background between about 10 MeV and at least 10 GeV. Below 30 MeV, the background flux and spectrum are not very well determined and a dedicated satellite detector will be required to remedy this situation. Below 10 MeV, supernovae and possibly AGN may contribute to the extragalactic background flux. Above 10 GeV, the role of blazars in contributing to the background is unclear because we do not have data on their spectra at these energies and because theoretical models predict that many of them will have spectra which should cut off in this energy range. At these higher energies, a new component, perhaps from topological defects, may contribute to the background, as well as X-ray selected BL Lac objects. The future GLAST detector should provide important data on the emission of extragalactic sources above 10 GeV and help resolve this issue. GLAST may also be able to detect the signature of intergalactic absorption by pair production interactions of background gamma-rays of energy above 20 GeV with starlight photons, this signature being a steepening of the background spectrum.

  2. The Physics of Microwave Background Anisotropies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hu, Wayne

    Probing whether space is curved or flat, cosmologists have been searching for clues in ripples in the universe's microwave background left from the big bang. These tutorials, created by Professor Wayne Hu of the University of Chicago, explain the cosmic microwave background for neophytes, as well as more advanced readers.

  3. Real-Time Discriminative Background Subtraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Cheng; Minglun Gong; Dale Schuurmans; Terry Caelli

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine the problem of segmenting foreground objects in live video when background scene tex- tures change over time. In particular, we formulate background subtraction as minimizing a penalized instantaneous risk func- tional—yielding a local online discriminative algorithm that can quickly adapt to temporal changes. We analyze the algo- rithm's convergence, discuss its robustness to nonstationarity, and provide an

  4. Cerenkov background radiation in imaging detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward I. Rosenblatt; Edward A. Beaver; Ross D. Cohen; J. B. Linsky; Ron W. Lyons

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss results of an analysis of background dark data obtained with the Digicon detector in the faint object spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Time sequenced data are presented which show the background recorded by the detector as it orbits the Earth at an altitude of 600 km. The authors propose that Cerenkov radiation produced by cosmic

  5. Low-Background Counting at Homestake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iseley Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from

  6. Statistical Background Subtraction for a Mobile Observer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Hayman; Jan-olof Eklundh

    2003-01-01

    Statistical background modelling and subtraction has proved to be a popular and effective class of algorithms for segmenting independently moving foreground objects out from a static background, without requiring any a priori in- formation of the properties of foreground objects. This pa- per presents two contributions on this topic, aimed towards robotics where an active head is mounted on a

  7. THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND B. Winstein

    E-print Network

    Collar, Juan I.

    THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND RADIATION B. Winstein Center for Cosmological Physics by the NSF #12;1 Introduction By studying the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation field, cosmologists and promise in studies of the microwave radiation left over from the early universe. They are aimed

  8. Anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Silk

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical predictions of the angular anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on both small and large angular scales are presented, and the effect of massive neutrinos on both the background radiation anisotropy and on the galaxy correlation function over very large scales is reviewed. Current observations show that the quadrupole anisotropy provides the greatest constraint on theory, and the

  9. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHEN POLLAINE

    1978-01-01

    The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present

  10. Gifted Students from Low-Education Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Pelchar, Taylor K.; Cochran, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Gifted children from low-education backgrounds often experience barriers to educational and career success. This article reviews the growing body of literature regarding gifted students from low-education backgrounds and the related literature on the challenges and characteristics of first-generation college students. A mother and daughter…

  11. Atmospheric muon background in the ANTARES detector

    E-print Network

    S. Cecchini; E. Korolkova; A. Margiotta; L. Thompson

    2005-10-28

    An evaluation of the background due to atmospheric muons in the ANTARES high energy neutrino telescope is presented. Two different codes for atmospheric shower simulation have been used. Results from comparisons between these codes at sea level and detector level are presented. The first results on the capability of ANTARES to reject this class of background are given.

  12. Modeling ambient background in complex detection scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott D. Kiff; Leon E. Smith; Kenneth D. Jarman

    2007-01-01

    Radiation detection instrumentation is being widely deployed as a countermeasure against the movement and use of radiological dispersal devices and nuclear weapons. Accurate ambient background modeling is critical for accurate simulation of detection scenarios of interest; these background source terms influence minimum detectable limits and are thus a significant factor in overall system performance. Described below are the methods used

  13. Reliable Computation in Noisy Backgrounds Using Real-Time Neuromorphic Hardware

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsi-Ping Wang; Elisabetta Chicca; Giacomo Indiveri; Terrence J. Sejnowski

    2007-01-01

    Spike-time based coding of neural information, in contrast to rate coding, requires that neurons reliably and precisely fire spikes in response to repeated identical inputs, despite a high degree of noise from stochastic synaptic firing and extraneous background inputs. We investigated the degree of reliability and precision achievable in various noisy background conditions using real-time neuromorphic VLSI hardware which models

  14. A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; A. Boscaleri; K. Coble; B. P. Crill; G. De Gasperis; P. C. Farese; P. G. Ferreira; K. Ganga; M. Giacometti; E. Hivon; V. V. Hristov; A. Iacoangeli; A. H. Jaffe; A. E. Lange; L. Martinis; S. Masi; P. V. Mason; P. D. Mauskopf; A. Melchiorri; L. Miglio; T. Montroy; C. B. Netterfield; E. Pascale; F. Piacentini; D. Pogosyan; S. Prunet; S. Rao; G. Romeo; J. E. Ruhl; F. Scaramuzzi; D. Sforna; N. Vittorio; P. de Bernardis

    2000-01-01

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total

  15. Improved mean shift target tracking approach under the interference of background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoran; Cui, Shaohui; Fang, Dan

    2014-11-01

    Aiming at the earlier stage tracking of strapdown image terminal guidance system, this paper propose a tracking approach which can not only enhance the distinction between targets and background effectively, but also can constrain the interference of target positioning suffered from background information. Among various target tracking approaches, the Mean Shift tracking algorithm is an excellent one due to its efficiency and simplicity, while it can not effective restrain the disturbance from background information. Thus, in this paper, an only target model background-weighted histogram target tracking algorithm, which can restrain the interference from background information, is presented under the Mean Shift framework. If the histogram of target model and target candidate model are both transformed, the probability of remarkable background features in the target model and target candidate model will simultaneously decrease. Thus it is equivalent to a proportional transformation of the weights obtained by the conventional target representation method. Meanwhile, the Mean Shift iteration formula is invariant to the proportional transformation of weights. Therefore, simultaneously transform the histogram of target model and target candidate model is exactly the same as the Mean Shift tracking with traditional target representation. So the proposed algorithm only transforms the histogram of target model and decreases the probability of target model features that are prominent in the background, but do nothing to target candidate model. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only restrain the disturbance from background information and improve the tracking accuracy, but also not increases the execution time.

  16. Integrated far-infrared background from galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi

    1991-01-01

    The integrated radiation from galaxies is calculated at far-IR and submillimeter wavelengths. The peak of the far-IR background radiation is 100-130 microns, and its total energy content is 0.5-6 percent of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). At wavelengths longward of 400 microns, the CMB dominates over the far-IR radiation from galaxies in intensity. The autocorrelation of fluctuations from the average angle of the far-IR background of galaxies is calculated. The contribution of galaxies to the anisotropy of the background radiation at wavelengths longer than about 400 microns where the CMB is predominant is obtained. It is found that, in general, earlier galaxy formation predicts stronger far-IR background radiation. The prompt initial enrichment model for the chemical evolution of disk galaxies, in particular those with an exponential star formation rate, produces much larger intensity of the integrated radiation than the accretion model.

  17. 2. Social, ethical, and economic background

    E-print Network

    Keil, David M.

    . Informationalism 3. Globalization What is ... ? · a theory · good behavior · bad behavior · a policy · a right or rights 2.2 Explain economic and political origins of informationalism 2.3 Discuss how information technology has contributed to a globalized economy David Keil Information Technology and Society 5/13 4 #12

  18. The Ethical Role of Information in Sustainable Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockway, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of sustainable communities, or sustainable development, focuses on the ethical role of information in fostering sustainable environmental development. Topics include background information, developments in information technology, permaculture in the area of horticulture and information ethics, information ethics models, hardware…

  19. Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W.; Girard, Emily J.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-07-01

    Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and near-infrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo.

  20. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  1. Spatial aspects of intracellular information processing.

    PubMed

    Kinkhabwala, Ali; Bastiaens, Philippe I H

    2010-02-01

    The computational properties of intracellular biochemical networks, for which the cell is assumed to be a 'well-mixed' reactor, have already been widely characterized. What has so far not received systematic treatment is the important role of space in many intracellular computations. Spatial network computations can be divided into two broad categories: those required for essential spatial processes (e.g. polarization, chemotaxis, division, and development) and those for which space is simply used as an extra dimension to expand the computational power of the network. Several pertinent recent examples of each category are discussed that illustrate the often conceptually subtle role of space in the processing of intracellular information. PMID:20096560

  2. XMM-Newton EPIC in orbit background

    E-print Network

    D. H. Lumb

    2002-03-18

    We briefly describe the methods used in compiling a set of high galactic latitude background data. The characteristics and limitations of the data which affect their use as a template for analysing extended objects are described. We briefly describe a spectral fitting analysis of the data which reveals a normalisation for the extragalactic background of 11.4 keV / sq cm / s / sr, which implies the fraction of hard X-ray background presently resolved by various Chandra observations is towards the lower limit of their estimates.

  3. Gamma-ray background: a review

    E-print Network

    Tanja M. Kneiske

    2007-11-29

    The gamma-ray background is still a subject under great debate. All phenomena in the universe emitting gamma-rays can contribute directly as diffuse emission or as an isotropic component from unresolved point sources. The question of the origin of the extragalactic component cannot be answered without determining the galactic emission. To discuss in detail all models resulting in gamma-ray background contributions is far beyond the scope of this paper. Therefore the focus will be on recent publications on the extragalactic high energy (>100 MeV) part of the gamma-ray background.

  4. Stellar contributions to the diffuse soft X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookbinder, J.; Avni, Y.; Golub, L.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G.

    1981-01-01

    One of the results of the EINSTEIN/C.f.A. X-ray stellar survey was a determination of the contribution of the disk stellar population to the galactic component of the diffuse soft (0.28 - 1.0 keV) X-ray background. This analysis employed both binned and unbinned nonparametric statistical methods that have been developed by Avni, et al. (1980). These methods permitted the use of the information contained in both the 22 detections and 4 upper bounds on the luminosities of 26 dM stars in order to derive their luminosity function. Luminosity functions for earlier stellar types are not yet developed. For these earlier stellar types, the median luminosities as determined by Vaiana, et al., are used (1981), which underestimates their contribution to the background. We find that it is the M dwarfs that dominate the disk population stellar contribution to this background. To calculate the contribution of the stellar sources to the background, simple models both for the spatial distribution of the stars and for the properties of the intervening interstellar medium are used. A model is chosen in which all stellar classes have the same functional form for their spatial distribution: an exponentially decreasing distribution above the galactic equatorial plane, and a uniform distribution within the galactic plane for a region of several kiloparsecs centered on the Sun.

  5. Comparison of commingled backgrounded feeder cattle to non-backgrounded counterparts 

    E-print Network

    Geistweidt, Adam Robert

    2013-02-22

    premiums from late winter to early summer when there is more demand for backgrounded cattle. Lower premiums revealed less of a demand for heavy weight backgrounded cattle especially during summer months....

  6. Scientific Explanation Seminar Background Notes (2/1/11) 1 Scientific Explanation --More Background Notes

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    general facts about all probability models -- the algebraic method. Scientific Explanation Scientific Explanation Seminar Background Notes (2/1/11) 1 ' & $ % Scientific Explanation -- More­R Model Scientific Explanation Seminar Background Notes (2/1/11) 2 ' & $ % Overview of Finite

  7. Advanced information society (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Gosei

    In considering the relationship of informationization and industrial structure, this paper analize some factors such as information revolution, informationization of industries and industrialization of information as background of informationization of Japanese society. Next, some information indicators such as, information coefficient of household which is a share of information related expenditure, information coefficient of industry which is a share of information related cost to total cost of production, and information transmission census developed by Ministry of Post and Telecommunication are introduced. Then new information indicator by Economic Planning Agency, that is, electronic info-communication indicator is showed. In this study, the information activities are defined to produce message or to supply services on process, stores or sale of message using electronic information equipment. International comparisons of information labor force are also presented.

  8. Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian C. Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2010-02-01

    We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields.

  9. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental...service of American Armed Forces that participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were...

  10. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental...service of American Armed Forces that participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were...

  11. 36 CFR 401.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.3 Background. Following World War I many American individuals, organizations and governmental...service of American Armed Forces that participated in that war. Frequently such well-intended efforts were...

  12. 32 CFR 770.17 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

  13. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

  14. 32 CFR 770.17 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

  15. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

  16. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

  17. 32 CFR 770.17 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

  18. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

  19. 32 CFR 770.17 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

  20. 32 CFR 770.42 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut...770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and...and experimental operations of the submarine force including providing...

  1. 32 CFR 770.17 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

  2. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...305.3 Section 305.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure...

  3. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...305.3 Section 305.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure...

  4. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...305.3 Section 305.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure...

  5. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...305.3 Section 305.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure...

  6. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...305.3 Section 305.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure...

  7. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2013-08-08

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  8. 48 CFR 1523.7000 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy-Efficient Computer Equipment 1523.7000 Background...only microcomputers, including personal computers, monitors and printers, which meet...power state. (b) The EPA Energy Star Computer Program is a voluntary partnership...

  9. 14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

  10. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background...activities. However, because the collection and exchange of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal...

  11. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background...activities. However, because the collection and exchange of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal...

  12. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  13. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  14. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  15. 32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  16. Capabilities of the cosmic background explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    The cosmic background explorer, now being redesigned for a launch on a Delta rocket in 1989, will carry three instruments to measure the cosmic infrared and microwave background radiation and other diffuse sources from 1 micron to 1 cm wavelength. These instruments will be orders of magnitude more sensitive and accurate than previous equipment and will help determine the structure of the early universe. The instruments are (1) an absolute spectrophotometer, covering 100 microns to 1 cm, (2) an absolute infrared radiometer covering 1 to 300 microns, and (3) differential microwave radiometers at 32, 53, and 90 GHz. They will measure the large scale anisotropy and the spectrum of the 3 K cosmic background, and search for the extragalactic infrared background, to a sensitivity limited by the astrophysical environment. The first two instruments require liquid helium cooling, limiting their lifetime to about 14 months.

  17. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is...

  18. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is...

  19. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is...

  20. 40 CFR 105.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards Program is...

  1. 16 CFR 1031.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Section 1031.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ...Background. (a) Congress enacted the Consumer Product Safety Act in 1972 to protect consumers against unreasonable risks of injury...

  2. 16 CFR 1031.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Section 1031.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ...Background. (a) Congress enacted the Consumer Product Safety Act in 1972 to protect consumers against unreasonable risks of injury...

  3. 16 CFR 1031.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Section 1031.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ...Background. (a) Congress enacted the Consumer Product Safety Act in 1972 to protect consumers against unreasonable risks of injury...

  4. 16 CFR 1031.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Section 1031.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ...Background. (a) Congress enacted the Consumer Product Safety Act in 1972 to protect consumers against unreasonable risks of injury...

  5. 16 CFR 1031.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Section 1031.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ...Background. (a) Congress enacted the Consumer Product Safety Act in 1972 to protect consumers against unreasonable risks of injury...

  6. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background...1977 Comp., p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A, 1 Preservation of the Nation's Wetlands, emphasize the important...

  7. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background...1977 Comp., p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A, 1 Preservation of the Nation's Wetlands, emphasize the important...

  8. 36 CFR 805.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 ...Background. 805.1 Section 805.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL...

  9. 36 CFR 805.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 ...Background. 805.1 Section 805.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL...

  10. Fractal generation of textures and backgrounds 

    E-print Network

    Reuter, Kevin Duane

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents algorithms for the digital generation of naturally occurring textures and background images based on several frontal methodologies. These jackal techniques consist of a set of equations, usually quite simple in calculation...

  11. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

  12. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

  13. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

  14. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

  15. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

  16. The cosmic X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, Elihu A.

    1987-01-01

    The present knowledge about the overall spectrum of the isotropic extragalactic background of electromagnetic radiation is summarized. The role of the HEAO program is discussed. Spectral measurements from HEAO are examined.

  17. Counseling Battered Women from Fundamentalist Christian Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Vicky

    1988-01-01

    Examines biblical issues (spouse roles, separation and divorce, forgiveness, faith) that are of concern to battered women from fundamentalist Christian backgrounds. Offers counselors suggestions on how to address them. (Author/ABL)

  18. Background Reading: Ethical Perspectives and Theories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a PDF that provides short background reading describing values, morals, and ethics, as well as these perspectives: Moral Rules and Duties, Outcomes, Virtues, Principles, and Care/Feminist.

  19. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the...

  20. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  1. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  2. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  3. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  4. 32 CFR 770.27 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

  5. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking, trafficking in stolen property, gambling, extortion, smuggling, bribery, and corruption of public officials often...

  6. 28 CFR 23.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Background. It is recognized that certain criminal activities including but not limited to loan sharking, drug trafficking, trafficking in stolen property, gambling, extortion, smuggling, bribery, and corruption of public officials often...

  7. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine...

  8. Background studies for particle astrophysics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; Ilias; Ukdmc

    2006-05-01

    Neutron background for the high-sensitivity underground particle astrophysics experiments, in particular for dark matter searches, is discussed with an emphasis on the neutrons from rock and from cosmic-ray muons.

  9. 32 CFR 763.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...3 Background. (a) Kaho'olawe Island is used by the armed forces of the United States as a training area including bombing and gunnery training ranges under authority granted by Executive Order No. 10436. Training operations frequently...

  10. 32 CFR 763.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...3 Background. (a) Kaho'olawe Island is used by the armed forces of the United States as a training area including bombing and gunnery training ranges under authority granted by Executive Order No. 10436. Training operations frequently...

  11. 32 CFR 763.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...3 Background. (a) Kaho'olawe Island is used by the armed forces of the United States as a training area including bombing and gunnery training ranges under authority granted by Executive Order No. 10436. Training operations frequently...

  12. 32 CFR 763.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...3 Background. (a) Kaho'olawe Island is used by the armed forces of the United States as a training area including bombing and gunnery training ranges under authority granted by Executive Order No. 10436. Training operations frequently...

  13. 32 CFR 763.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...3 Background. (a) Kaho'olawe Island is used by the armed forces of the United States as a training area including bombing and gunnery training ranges under authority granted by Executive Order No. 10436. Training operations frequently...

  14. Clinical research before informed consent.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G

    2014-06-01

    Clinical research with patient-subjects was routinely conducted without informed consent for research participation prior to 1966. The aim of this article is to illuminate the moral climate of clinical research at this time, with particular attention to placebo-controlled trials in which patient-subjects often were not informed that they were participating in research or that they might receive a placebo intervention rather than standard medical treatment or an experimental treatment for their condition. An especially valuable window into the thinking of clinical investigators about their relationship with patient-subjects in the era before informed consent is afforded by reflection on two articles published by psychiatric researchers in 1966 and 1967, at the point of transition between clinical research conducted under the guise of medical care and clinical research based on consent following an invitation to participate and disclosure of material information about the study. Historical inquiry relating to the practice of clinical research without informed consent helps to put into perspective the moral progress associated with soliciting consent following disclosure of pertinent information; it also helps to shed light on an important issue in contemporary research ethics: the conditions under which it is ethical to conduct clinical research without informed consent. PMID:25109093

  15. MEGA: a low-background radiation detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kareem Kazkaz; Craig E. Aalseth; Todd W. Hossbach; Victor M. Gehman; Jeremy D. Kephart; Harry S. Miley

    2003-01-01

    The Multiple-Element Gamma Assay (MEGA) is a low-background detector designed to support environmental monitoring and national security applications. MEGA also demonstrates technology needed for Majorana, a next generation neutrino mass experiment. It will employ active and passive shielding to reduce backgrounds. It will also exploit multi-coincidence signatures to identify specific radioactive isotopes. MEGA is expected to begin operation in late

  16. Fractal generation of textures and backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Reuter, Kevin Duane

    1999-01-01

    FRACTAL GENERATION OF TEXTURES AND BACKGROUNDS A Thesis by KEVIN DUANE REUTER Subtnitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilhnent of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1999... Major Subject; Visualization Sciences FRACTAL GENERATION OF TEXTURES AND BACKGROUNDS A Thesis by KEVIN DUANE REUTER Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfilhnent of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

  17. The pregalactic cosmic gravitational wave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzner, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution. The spectral region of cosmically generated and cosmically limited radiation is, at long periods, P greater than 1 year, in contrast to more recent cosmological sources, which have P approx. 10 to 10(exp -3).

  18. BKGE: Fermi-LAT Background Estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiou, Vlasios

    2014-11-01

    The Fermi-LAT Background Estimator (BKGE) is a publicly available open-source tool that can estimate the expected background of the Fermi-LAT for any observational conguration and duration. It produces results in the form of text files, ROOT files, gtlike source-model files (for LAT maximum likelihood analyses), and PHA I/II FITS files (for RMFit/XSpec spectral fitting analyses). Its core is written in C++ and its user interface in Python.

  19. Molecular origin of background light in Thomson scattering measurements

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, D.H.

    1986-06-01

    The plasma background light in Thomson scattering measurements is often far higher than expected for a pure hydrogen plasma. The spectral distribution of light from three plasmas (duration: 1 ms to steady state; electron density: below 10/sup 12/ to over 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/; temperature: below 20 to over 1000 eV) and signal-to-noise and intensity data from the Thomson scattering systems used on them are compared with analytic estimates to show that in two of these plasmas molecular light dominates the spectrum, while in the other, molecular light is present, but bremsstrahlung is usually more intense. Knowledge of the mechanism for background light can aid in designing detection systems for Thomson scattering and provide information on the neutral species composition and effective charge of the plasma.

  20. Detecting unresolved moving sources in a diffuse background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geringer-Sameth, Alex; Koushiappas, Savvas M.

    2012-09-01

    We present a statistical technique which can be used to detect the presence and properties of moving sources contributing to a diffuse background. The method is a generalization of the two-point correlation function to include temporal as well as spatial information. We develop a formalism which allows for a derivation of the space-time two-point function in terms of the properties of the contributing sources. We test this technique in simulated sky maps, and demonstrate its robustness in identifying the presence of moving and stationary sources. Applications of this formalism to the diffuse gamma-ray background include searches for Solar system bodies, fast moving primordial black holes and dense cores of dark matter protohaloes in the solar neighbourhood. Other applications include detecting the contribution of energetic neutrinos originating in the Solar system, as well as probing compact objects in long-timeline lensing experiments.

  1. Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

  2. Modeling background intensity in DNA microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, K. M.; Barkema, G. T.; Carlon, E.

    2008-06-01

    DNA microarrays are devices that are able, in principle, to detect and quantify the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences in complex biological mixtures. The measurement consists in detecting fluorescence signals from several spots on the microarray surface onto which different probe sequences are grafted. One of the problems of the data analysis is that the signal contains a noisy background component due to nonspecific binding. We present a physical model for background estimation in Affymetrix Genechips. It combines two different approaches. The first is based on the sequence composition, specifically its sequence-dependent hybridization affinity. The second is based on the strong correlation of intensities from locations which are the physical neighbors of a specific spot on the chip. Both effects are incorporated in a background estimator which contains 24 free parameters, fixed by minimization on a training data set. In all data analyzed the sequence-specific parameters, obtained by minimization, are found to strongly correlate with empirically determined stacking free energies for RNA-DNA hybridization in solution. Moreover, there is an overall agreement with experimental background data and we show that the physics-based model that we propose performs on average better than purely statistical approaches for background calculations. The model thus provides an interesting alternative method for background subtraction schemes in Affymetrix Genechips.

  3. COBE Observations of the Cosmic Infrared Background

    E-print Network

    E. L. Wright

    2003-06-03

    The Diffuse InfraRed Background Experiment on COBE measured the total infrared signal seen from space at a distance of 1 astronomical unit from the Sun. Using time variations as the Earth orbits the Sun, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by the interplanetary dust cloud [zodiacal light]. By correlating the DIRBE signal with the column density of atomic hydrogen measured using the 21 cm line, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by interstellar dust, although one must still be concerned by dust associated with H_2 (molecular gas) and H II (the warm ionized medium). DIRBE was not able to determine the CIRB in the 5-60 micron wavelength range, but did detect both a far infrared background and a near infrared background. The far infrared background has an integrated intensity of about 34 nW/m^2/sr, while the near infrared and optical extragalactic background has about 59 nW/m^2/sr. The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on COBE has been used to constrain the long wavelength tail of the far infrared background but a wide range of intensities at 850 microns are compatible with the FIRAS data. Thus the fraction of the CIRB produced by SCUBA sources has large uncertainties in both the numerator and the denominator.

  4. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Suzuki, K., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  5. 2. Social, ethical, and economic background

    E-print Network

    Keil, David M.

    to knowledge? · Does IT enable a global economy?g y · Does connectedness of all people via information for right and wrong human actions · Varieties, w.r.t. actions: ­ Consequentialism (evaluates actions David Keil Information Technology and Society 1/12 1 3. Informationalism 4. Globalization Request

  6. Florida's Information Policy: Problems and Issues in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Legislature, Tallahassee.

    This report examines the major issues arising from the impact of information technology on the creation of government information and its storage, processing, and recordkeeping, based on information gathered through a literature search, several mailed questionnaires, and three public hearings. An outline of the background of the information policy…

  7. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects; Report for October 1987June 1989

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Meyer; W. D. Arnold; F. I. Case; J. F. Land

    1989-01-01

    Information that is being developed by projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) pertinent to the potential geochemical behavior of radionuclides at candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository is being evaluated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). During this report period, all experiments were conducted with tuff from the proposed high-level nuclear

  8. StreamNet; Northwest Aquatic Resource Information Network - Status of Salmon and Steelhead in the Columbia River Basin, 1995 Final Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duane A. Anderson; Raymond C. Beamesderfer; Bob Woodard

    1996-01-01

    Information on fish populations, fisheries, and fish habitat is crucial to the success of ongoing program to protect, recover, enhance, and manage fish resources in the Columbia River Basin. However, pertinent data are often difficult to locate because it is scattered among many agencies and is often unpublished. The goal of this annual report is to bring many diverse data

  9. Simulating Cosmic Microwave Background maps in multi-connected spaces

    E-print Network

    Alain Riazuelo; Jean-Philippe Uzan; Roland Lehoucq; Jeffrey Weeks

    2003-02-17

    This article describes the computation of cosmic microwave background anisotropies in a universe with multi-connected spatial sections and focuses on the implementation of the topology in standard CMB computer codes. The key ingredient is the computation of the eigenmodes of the Laplacian with boundary conditions compatible with multi-connected space topology. The correlators of the coefficients of the decomposition of the temperature fluctuation in spherical harmonics are computed and examples are given for spatially flat spaces and one family of spherical spaces, namely the lens spaces. Under the hypothesis of Gaussian initial conditions, these correlators encode all the topological information of the CMB and suffice to simulate CMB maps.

  10. N=2 Instanton Calculus In Closed String Background

    E-print Network

    Marco Billo; Marialuisa Frau; Alberto Lerda

    2007-07-16

    In this contribution we describe how to obtain instanton effects in four dimensional gauge theories by computing string scattering amplitudes in D3/D(-1) brane systems. In particular we study a system of fractional D3/D(-1) branes in a Z_2 orbifold and in a Ramond-Ramond closed string background, and show that it describes the gauge instantons of N=2 super Yang-Mills theory and their interactions with the graviphoton of N=2. Using string theory methods we compute the prepotential of the effective gauge theory exploiting the localization methods of the instanton calculus, showing that this leads to the same information given by the topological string.

  11. The background and theory of integrated risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsucker, John L.

    1995-01-01

    While all good managers have always considered risk in their decision making, only recently have formal programs to do so been introduced. This report covers the logical structure behind the formulation of an integrated risk management plan (IRM). Included in the report are factors forcing the development of a formal plan to consider risk, the basic objective or purpose of an IRM, and desirable traits of such a plan. The report moves on to a discussion of background issues, seeks to formalize some definitions, and then discusses required information on threats. The report concludes with the steps for an IRM.

  12. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the attributes of the 2.7-K microwave background radiation (CBR) are reviewed, with emphasis on the analytic phase of CBR studies. Methods for the direct measurement of the CBR spectrum are discussed; attention is given to receivers, antennas, absolute receiver calibration, atmospheric emission and absorption, the galactic background contribution, the analysis of LF measurements, and recent HF observations of the CBR spectrum. Measurements of the large-angular-scale intensity distribution of the CBR (the most convincing evidence that the radiation is of cosmological origin) are examined, along with limits on the linear polarization of the CBR. A description is given of the NASA-sponsored Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite mission. The results of the COBE mission will be a set of sky maps showing, in the wave number range from 1 to 10,000 kaysers, the galactic background radiation due to synchrotron emission from galactic cosmic rays, to diffuse thermal emission from H II regions, and to diffuse thermal emission from interstellar and interplanetary dust, as well as a residue consisting of the CBR and whatever other cosmological background might exist.

  13. A review on natural background radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly 232Th and 238U series, and their decay products, as well as 40K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

  14. Minkowski Functional Description of Microwave Background Gaussianity

    E-print Network

    Serge Winitzki; Arthur Kosowsky

    1997-10-15

    A Gaussian distribution of cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations is a generic prediction of inflation. Upcoming high-resolution maps of the microwave background will allow detailed tests of Gaussianity down to small angular scales, providing a crucial test of inflation. We propose Minkowski functionals as a calculational tool for testing Gaussianity and characterizing deviations from it. We review the mathematical formalism of Minkowski functionals of random fields; for Gaussian fields the functionals can be calculated exactly. We then apply the results to pixelized maps, giving explicit expressions for calculating the functionals from maps as well as the Gaussian predictions, including corrections for map boundaries, pixel noise, and pixel size and shape. Variances of the functionals for Gaussian distributions are derived in terms of the map correlation function. Applications to microwave background maps are discussed.

  15. Tidal forces in naked singularity backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Akash; Maity, Reevu; Roy, Pratim; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2015-05-01

    The end stage of a gravitational collapse process can generically result in a black hole or a naked singularity. Here we undertake a comparative analysis of the nature of tidal forces in these backgrounds. The effect of such forces is generically exemplified by the Roche limit, which predicts the distance within which a celestial object disintegrates due to the tidal effects of a second more massive object. In this paper, using Fermi normal coordinates, we numerically compute the Roche limit for a class of nonrotating naked singularity backgrounds and compare them with known results for Schwarzschild black holes. Our analysis indicates that there might be substantially large deviations in the magnitudes of tidal forces in naked singularity backgrounds, compared to the black hole cases. If observationally established, these can prove to be an effective indicator of the nature of the singularity at a galactic center.

  16. Background radiation measurement with water Cherenkov detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertou, X.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    Water Cherenkov Detectors have the nice property of being mostly calorimeters for cosmic ray induced electrons and photons, while providing a clear signal for muons. At large energy deposited in the detector, they observe small extended air showers. This makes them interesting detectors to study the background of cosmic ray secondaries. Using low threshold scaler counters, one can follow the flux of cosmic rays on top of the atmosphere, and/or study atmospheric effects on the cosmic ray shower development. In this paper, background data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are presented. These data are searched for short time-scale variation (one second scale, as expected from Gamma Ray Bursts), and larger time-scale variations, showing modulation effects due to Solar activity (Forbush decreases). Rapid changes in the background flux are also observed during the crossing of storms over the 3000 km 2 of the ground array.

  17. Modeling Ambient Background in Complex Detection Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kiff, Scott D.; Smith, Leon E.; Jarman, Kenneth D.

    2008-08-01

    Radiation detection instrumentation is being widely deployed as a countermeasure against the movement and use of radiological dispersal devices and nuclear weapons. Accurate ambient background modeling is critical for accurate simulation of detection scenarios of interest; these background source terms influence minimum detectable limits and are thus a significant factor in overall system performance. Described below are the methods used to characterize ambient background source terms in the at-sea maritime cargo container environment, how statistical distributions on those source terms are defined, and how the resulting radiation fields are calibrated using available measurement data from aboard large ocean-going ships. Although the maritime environment is the demonstration case study, these methods are broadly applicable to modeling of all complex detection scenarios.

  18. Improved Background Corrections for Uranium Holdup Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R.B.; Gunn, C.A.; Chiang, L.G.

    2004-06-21

    In the original Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) model, all holdup deposits were modeled as points, lines, and areas[1, 5]. Two improvements[4] were recently made to the GGH model and are currently in use at the Y-12 National Security Complex. These two improvements are the finite-source correction CF{sub g} and the self-attenuation correction. The finite-source correction corrects the average detector response for the width of point and line geometries which in effect, converts points and lines into areas. The result of a holdup measurement of an area deposit is a density-thickness which is converted to mass by multiplying it by the area of the deposit. From the measured density-thickness, the true density-thickness can be calculated by correcting for the material self-attenuation. Therefore the self-attenuation correction is applied to finite point and line deposits as well as areas. This report demonstrates that the finite-source and self-attenuation corrections also provide a means to better separate the gamma rays emitted by the material from the gamma rays emitted by background sources for an improved background correction. Currently, the measured background radiation is attenuated for equipment walls in the case of area deposits but not for line and point sources. The measured background radiation is not corrected for attenuation by the uranium material. For all of these cases, the background is overestimated which causes a negative bias in the measurement. The finite-source correction and the self-attenuation correction will allow the correction of the measured background radiation for both the equipment attenuation and material attenuation for area sources as well as point and line sources.

  19. Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

  20. Superfluids in non-Riemannian spacetime background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia de Andrade, L. C.

    2003-09-01

    The Gross-Pitaevski (GP) equation describing helium superfluids (Bose-Einstein condensate) is extended to non-Riemannian spacetime background where torsion is shown to induce the splitting in the potential energy of the flow. A cylindrically symmetric solution for Minkowski background with constant torsion is obtained, which shows that torsion induces a damping in the superfluid flow velocity. Since the exponential damping is a pure torsion effect, it is suggested that this effect could be used on a superfluid experiment to detect torsion.

  1. Microwave background anisotropy induced by gravitational waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    1988-01-01

    A cosmological background of gravitational waves induces redshift perturbations in light transversing it. Calculations of this Sachs-Wolfe effect on the microwave background are presented in an Omega = 1 Friedmann universe as a function of angular scale and gravitational wave spectrum. Blurriness of the last-scattering surface can cause nonnegligible dilution of the anisotropy for wavelengths less than about 100 Mpc. The limit implied for the energy density of the gravitational waves is given. A difficulty in associating a linear scale with an angular anisotropy, due to the clumpiness of the universe, is also pointed out.

  2. Pulsed laser/background light simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Ni, Xuxiang; Lu, Zukang; Ding, Xiancheng

    2000-10-01

    In this paper a pulsed laser/background simulator used for debugging and testing system performance of laser range finer (LRF) is introduced. This simulator is composed of a 1064nm- laser diode, an iodine tungsten lamp and its power supply, a collimating optics system, drive circuit, synchronal and delay circuit, simulating and computing code. This simulator can simulate the laser echo signal and the background radiation of a pulsed LRF when LRF ranges target with different distances and different characteristics under various atmosphere conditions.

  3. Geodesics and Newton's law in brane backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mück, W.; Viswanathan, K. S.; Volovich, I.

    2000-11-01

    In brane world models our universe is considered as a brane embedded into a higher-dimensional space. We discuss the behavior of geodesics in the Randall-Sundrum background and point out that free massive particles cannot stably move along the brane. The brane is repulsive, and matter will be expelled from the brane into the extra dimension. This is undesirable, and hence we study a simple alternative model with a noncompact extra dimension, but with an attractive brane embedded into the higher-dimensional space. We study the linearized gravity equations and show that Newton's gravitational law is valid on the brane also in the alternative background.

  4. Granularity of the Diffuse Background Observed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, D. E.; MacDonald, D.; Rothschild, R. E.; Boldt, E.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Fabian, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    First results are reported from a program for measuring the field-to-field fluctuation level of the cosmic diffuse background by using differences between the two background positions of each deep exposure with the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE) instrument on the Remote X Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). With 8 million live seconds accumulated to date a fluctuation level on the 15-25 keV band is observed which is consistent with extrapolations from the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory-1 (HEAO-1) measurements. Positive results are expected eventually at higher energies. Models of (active galactic nuclei) AGN origin will eventually be constrained by this program.

  5. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1989-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  6. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  7. Background studies for particle astrophysics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-08

    Background radiations typical for the high-sensitivity underground experiments in particle astrophysics are discussed. An emphasis is given to the neutron background coming from spontaneous fission and ({alpha},n) reactions from U and Th traces in rock and detector components, and from cosmic-ray muons. Gammas from radioactivity in various materials are also considered. Special case of a xenon-based large-scale dark matter detector is studied. Several Monte Carlo codes capable of producing, transporting and detecting neutrons are compared with each other and with available experimental data.

  8. High sensitivity background absorption measurements in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, Nathan; Silva, Junior R.; Wang, Chengao; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Melgaard, Seth D.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2015-03-01

    Laser cooling in InGaP|GaAs double heterostructures (DHS) has been a sought after goal. Even though very high external quantum efficiency (EQE) has been achieved, background absorption has remained a bottleneck in achieving net cooling. The purpose of this study is to gain more insight into the source of the background absorption for InGaP|GaAs DHS as well as GaAs|AlGaAs DBRs by employing an excite-probe thermal Z-scan measurement.

  9. Background-oriented schlieren (BOS) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffel, Markus

    2015-03-01

    This article gives an overview of the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique, typical applications and literature in the field. BOS is an optical density visualization technique, belonging to the same family as schlieren photography, shadowgraphy or interferometry. In contrast to these older techniques, BOS uses correlation techniques on a background dot pattern to quantitatively characterize compressible and thermal flows with good spatial and temporal resolution. The main advantages of this technique, the experimental simplicity and the robustness of correlation-based digital analysis, mean that it is widely used, and variant versions are reviewed in the article. The advantages of each variant are reviewed, and further literature is provided for the reader.

  10. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.; Mendis, A.

    1977-01-01

    It is argued that the 'surface of last scattering' of the observed microwave background radiation corresponds to the distribution of dust in galaxies or protogalaxies with a temperature of about 110 K at the epoch corresponding to Z roughly equal to 40. This is in contrast with the plasma temperature of over 3,000 K at an earlier epoch (Z greater than about 1,000), as given by the canonical model of big bang cosmologies. In view of this, the claim that the microwave background radiation lends strong support to hot big bang cosmologies is without foundation.

  11. Tachyon Backgrounds in 2D String Theory

    E-print Network

    Sera Cremonini

    2005-07-25

    We consider the construction of tachyonic backgrounds in two-dimensional string theory, focusing on the Sine-Liouville background. This can be studied in two different ways, one within the context of collective field theory and the other via the formalism of Toda integrable systems. The two approaches are seemingly different. The latter involves a deformation of the original inverted oscillator potential while the former does not. We perform a comparison by explicitly constructing the Fermi surface in each case, and demonstrate that the two apparently different approaches are in fact equivalent.

  12. Possible manifestations of the graviton background

    E-print Network

    Michael A. Ivanov

    2002-06-06

    Possible effects are considered which would be caused by a hypothetical superstrong interaction of photons or massive bodies with single gravitons of the graviton background. If full cosmological redshift magnitudes are caused by the interaction, then the luminosity distance in a flat non-expanding universe as a function of redshift is very similar to the specific function which fits supernova cosmology data by Riess et al. From another side, in this case every massive body, slowly moving relatively to the background, would experience a constant acceleration, proportional to the Hubble constant, of the same order as a small additional acceleration of Pioneer 10, 11.

  13. Segregation of task-relevant conditioned stimuli from background stimuli by associative learning.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Thomas; Deliano, Matthias; Scheich, Henning; Stark, Holger

    2009-11-10

    In the real world, task-relevant, conditioned stimuli are often embedded in a varying background, from which they have to be segregated. Besides sensory mechanisms, associative learning assumingly plays an important role for the segregation of the conditioned from the background stimuli, especially if conditioned and background stimuli are spectro-temporally structured, and psychophysically similar. We therefore investigated the influence of spectro-temporally structured background tones on associative learning of conditioned tones depending on the complexity of the behavioral task and the psychophysical similarity between conditioned and background tones. Frequency-modulated tone sweeps were used as conditioned stimuli, and persisting frequency-modulated tones as background. In a shuttle-box, Mongolian gerbils were subjected to a simple detection task, or to a more complex discrimination task. In contrast to detection learning, introduction or change of background tones affected discrimination performance both during learning and at the stage of retrieval, especially when conditioned and background tones were spectro-temporally similar. The change from a familiar to a new background tone at the stage of retrieval caused a prefrontal dopamine increase and lead to relearning of task-relevant associations. We conclude that conditioned stimuli and background stimuli are processed concomitantly, which might provide contextual information, but requires additional cognitive processing. PMID:19703425

  14. Front-End Processor For Metrology-Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muse, Walter S.; Sammet, Charles B.; Maxwell, Michael G.

    1992-01-01

    Front-end processor for NASA Metrology Information System (NMIS) is real-time relational data-base computer system designed to distribute processing for NMIS mainframe system or run as stand-alone local-area-network data-base system. System used in large calibration laboratories for work control and to maintain records of calibration, repair, costs, manpower usage, traceability, and other pertinent facts about instruments supported by laboratories. Provides enhancements to existing NASA Metrology Information System and batches upload to minimize mainframe I/O at times of heavy usage.

  15. The Ohio State University Office of Human Resources, Policy 4.15 Background Check Guide for Conducting Background Checks Revised 01/01/14, Page 1 of 9 Background Check, Policy 4.15

    E-print Network

    Xuan, Dong

    requirements. The principles in this document must be used to ensure consistent and fair practices. Request Ohio Bureau of Criminal Investigation (BCI)/Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) checks confidentiality of background check information and documentation on a strict need-to-know

  16. 2013 National Geothermal Student Competition Background

    E-print Network

    Carrington, Emily

    1 2013 National Geothermal Student Competition Background: The 2013 National Geothermal Student, is designed to advance the understanding of geothermal energy as a valued resource by promoting innovation to engage students in a collaborative exercise to develop a business plan for developing a geothermal

  17. WMAP: Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site discusses the cosmic microwave background, radiation left over from the Big Bang. Particular emphasis is upon tiny fluctuations in the temperature of the radiation, which are believed to reflect fluctuations in the density of matter in the early universe.

  18. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2001-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  19. Cultural background shapes spatial reference frame proclivity

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Köster, Moritz; Fernández-Revelles, Andrés B.; Gramann, Klaus; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation is an essential human skill that is influenced by several factors. The present study investigates how gender, age, and cultural background account for differences in reference frame proclivity and performance in a virtual navigation task. Using an online navigation study, we recorded reaction times, error rates (confusion of turning axis), and reference frame proclivity (egocentric vs. allocentric reference frame) of 1823 participants. Reaction times significantly varied with gender and age, but were only marginally influenced by the cultural background of participants. Error rates were in line with these results and exhibited a significant influence of gender and culture, but not age. Participants’ cultural background significantly influenced reference frame selection; the majority of North-Americans preferred an allocentric strategy, while Latin-Americans preferred an egocentric navigation strategy. European and Asian groups were in between these two extremes. Neither the factor of age nor the factor of gender had a direct impact on participants’ navigation strategies. The strong effects of cultural background on navigation strategies without the influence of gender or age underlines the importance of socialized spatial cognitive processes and argues for socio-economic analysis in studies investigating human navigation. PMID:26073656

  20. Cultural background shapes spatial reference frame proclivity.

    PubMed

    Goeke, Caspar; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Köster, Moritz; Fernández-Revelles, Andrés B; Gramann, Klaus; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation is an essential human skill that is influenced by several factors. The present study investigates how gender, age, and cultural background account for differences in reference frame proclivity and performance in a virtual navigation task. Using an online navigation study, we recorded reaction times, error rates (confusion of turning axis), and reference frame proclivity (egocentric vs. allocentric reference frame) of 1823 participants. Reaction times significantly varied with gender and age, but were only marginally influenced by the cultural background of participants. Error rates were in line with these results and exhibited a significant influence of gender and culture, but not age. Participants' cultural background significantly influenced reference frame selection; the majority of North-Americans preferred an allocentric strategy, while Latin-Americans preferred an egocentric navigation strategy. European and Asian groups were in between these two extremes. Neither the factor of age nor the factor of gender had a direct impact on participants' navigation strategies. The strong effects of cultural background on navigation strategies without the influence of gender or age underlines the importance of socialized spatial cognitive processes and argues for socio-economic analysis in studies investigating human navigation. PMID:26073656

  1. Marine environment background synthesis using MODTRAN 4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Ross; Denis Dion

    2006-01-01

    To date, physically accurate and reasonably fast background generation in a marine environment has been an elusive objective. The pursuit has been plagued by slow radiative transfer codes and sea BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution functions) implementations that traded accuracy for speed. Recent developments in both these fields have put this goal into our grasp. In this paper, we show that

  2. Disruptive coloration and background pattern matching.

    PubMed

    Cuthill, Innes C; Stevens, Martin; Sheppard, Jenna; Maddocks, Tracey; Párraga, C Alejandro; Troscianko, Tom S

    2005-03-01

    Effective camouflage renders a target indistinguishable from irrelevant background objects. Two interrelated but logically distinct mechanisms for this are background pattern matching (crypsis) and disruptive coloration: in the former, the animal's colours are a random sample of the background; in the latter, bold contrasting colours on the animal's periphery break up its outline. The latter has long been proposed as an explanation for some apparently conspicuous coloration in animals, and is standard textbook material. Surprisingly, only one quantitative test of the theory exists, and one experimental test of its effectiveness against non-human predators. Here we test two key predictions: that patterns on the body's outline should be particularly effective in promoting concealment and that highly contrasting colours should enhance this disruptive effect. Artificial moth-like targets were exposed to bird predation in the field, with the experimental colour patterns on the 'wings' and a dead mealworm as the edible 'body'. Survival analysis supported the predictions, indicating that disruptive coloration is an effective means of camouflage, above and beyond background pattern matching. PMID:15744301

  3. Yale ME Turbine Test cell instructions Background

    E-print Network

    Haller, Gary L.

    Yale ME Turbine Test cell instructions Background: The Turbine Technologies Turbojet engine of the turbine and check a few items: o Open keyed access door on rear of Turbine enclosure o Check Jet A fuel valve ­ turn on, (Drain water separator if turbine has not been run in the last week,) check pressure

  4. A Complete and Comprehensive Sky Background Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. M.; Noll, S.; Kausch, W.; Kimeswenger, S.; Szyszka, C.

    2014-05-01

    In the current era of precision astronomy, a complete sky background model is crucial, especially as the telescopes become even larger in the next decade. Such a model is needed for planning observations as well as understanding and correcting the data for the sky background. We have developed a sky model for this purpose, and it is the most complete and universal sky model that we know of to date. It covers a wide range of wavelengths from 0.3 to 30 micron up to a resolution of 1,000,000 and is instrument independent. Currently it is optimized for the telescopes at Cerro Paranal and the future site Cerro Armazones in Chile. Our sky model includes several components necessary to describe the sky background flux, such as scattered moonlight and starlight, zodiacal light, airglow emission and continuum, thermal emission from the telescope and lower atmosphere, and scattering and absorption within the Earth's atmosphere. Each component was designed with the latest knowledge and results in the field and was thoroughly checked with archival ESO data. Our sky background model will be a valuable asset for astronomical observatories and the community.

  5. Background System Overview types Food ingredients

    E-print Network

    Yanai, Keiji

    Background System Overview types Food ingredients fish tuna, squid, octopus, shrimp, salmon meat recommendation while shopping Point a smartphone camera to the food ingredients Select recipe easily by cooking recipe API Though food ingredients and recipe are automatically selected, user can also select

  6. Systematic errors in cosmic microwave background interferometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bunn; Emory F

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization observations will require superb control of systematic errors in order to achieve their full scientific potential, particularly in the case of attempts to detect the B modes that may provide a window on inflation. Interferometry may be a promising way to achieve these goals. This paper presents a formalism for characterizing the effects of a

  7. Mosaicking with Cosmic Microwave Background Interferometers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emory F. Bunn; Martin White

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies by interferometers offer several advantages over single-dish observations. The formalism for analyzing interferometer CMB data is well developed in the flat-sky approximation, which is valid for small fields of view. As the area of sky is increased to obtain finer spectral resolution, this approximation needs to be relaxed. We extend the formalism for

  8. Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    Tittley, Eric

    Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Yasin Memari, March 2007 The CMB radiation is completely characterized by its temperature anisotropy and polarization in each direction is limited by cosmic variance. Moreover, polarization data can help to distinguish the ingredients which go

  9. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HANNES ALFVEN; ASOKA MENDIS

    1977-01-01

    It is argued that the 'surface of last scattering' of the observed microwave background radiation corresponds to the distribution of dust in galaxies or protogalaxies with a temperature of about 110 K at the epoch corresponding to Z roughly equal to 40. This is in contrast with the plasma temperature of over 3,000 K at an earlier epoch (Z greater

  10. Polarization of cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Sazhin; V. V. Shul'Ga

    1996-01-01

    The formation of the cosmic microwave background radiation polarization in observations of standard recombination is discussed. The polarization level in observations using antennas with different sizes of directivity patterns over the angle range varying from 3 to 15° has been calculated. The formation of polarization was calculated in models with different kinds of spectra (for the spectrum index n =

  11. Characterization of background reflectivity for MEDUSA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Oldenborg; J. J. Tiee; B. R. Foy; R. R. Petrin; C. W. Wilson

    2003-01-01

    The DARPA MEDUSA program goal is to detect, locate, and identify electro-optical threats in the vicinity of a moving platform. Laser sensing will be employed to find these threats by looking for anomalous reflections from threat sensors. However, the reflectivity variability (clutter) in both natural and manmade backgrounds will inherently limit target detection levels. In parallel with advanced component development

  12. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review...Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977 broadens...

  13. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a...management of impacts to wetlands and natural habitats which result from projects funded pursuant...under the authority of the Act and their habitats as required by Section 7,...

  14. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a...management of impacts to wetlands and natural habitats which result from projects funded pursuant...under the authority of the Act and their habitats as required by Section 7,...

  15. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a...management of impacts to wetlands and natural habitats which result from projects funded pursuant...under the authority of the Act and their habitats as required by Section 7,...

  16. Background estimation in nonlinear image restoration

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    Background estimation in nonlinear image restoration Geert M. P. van Kempen Central Analytical August 23, 1999; accepted November 8, 1999 One of the essential ways in which nonlinear image restoration algorithms differ from linear, convolution-type image restoration filters is their capability to restrict

  17. Exemplar-based Background Model Initialization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Colombari; Marco Cristani; Vittorio Murino; Andrea Fusiello

    2005-01-01

    Most of the automated video-surveillance applications are based on background (BG) subtraction techniques, that aim at distinguishing moving objects in a static scene. These strategies strongly depend on the BG model, that has to be initialized and updated. A good initialization is crucial for the successive processing. In this paper, we propose a novel method for BG initialization and recovery,

  18. RSA Cryptography: Factorization 1 Background 2

    E-print Network

    Stein, William

    RSA Cryptography: Factorization Kevin Chu 3/11/10 Contents 1 Background 2 1.1 What is RSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2 Elliptic curve factorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4 Alternatives to RSA? 5 1 #12;Abstract The purpose of this paper is to explore the topic of factorization in RSA

  19. Patient Information in Radiooncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christof Schäfer; Barbara Dietl; Kurt Putnik; Daniel Altmann; Jörg Marienhagen; Manfred Herbst

    2002-01-01

    Background: As a result of increased interest and public demand, providing patients with adequate information about radiooncology has become more and more difficult for the doctor. Insufficient patient information can not only cause anxiety for the patient, but can also lead to legal action against the physician. In order to gain a deepter insight into our clinical practice of providing

  20. Reusing Ontological Background Knowledge in Semantic Wikis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denny Vrandecic; Markus Krötzsch

    2006-01-01

    A number of approaches have been developed for combining wikis with semantic technologies. Many semantic wikis focus on enabling users to specify properties and relationships of individual elements. Complex schema in- formation is typically not edited by the wiki user. Nevertheless, semantic wikis could benefit from taking existing schema information into account, and to allow users to specify additional information

  1. NUMBER: IT 1.00 SECTION: Information Technology

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    NUMBER: IT 1.00 SECTION: Information Technology SUBJECT: Information Technology Procurement DATE by: William F. Hogue Issued by: Office of Information Technology __________________________________________________________________________ Background: This Information Technology (IT) policy is designed to support the Academic, Research

  2. Learning to rank diversified results for biomedical information retrieval from multiple features

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Different from traditional information retrieval (IR), promoting diversity in IR takes consideration of relationship between documents in order to promote novelty and reduce redundancy thus to provide diversified results to satisfy various user intents. Diversity IR in biomedical domain is especially important as biologists sometimes want diversified results pertinent to their query. Methods A combined learning-to-rank (LTR) framework is learned through a general ranking model (gLTR) and a diversity-biased model. The former is learned from general ranking features by a conventional learning-to-rank approach; the latter is constructed with diversity-indicating features added, which are extracted based on the retrieved passages' topics detected using Wikipedia and ranking order produced by the general learning-to-rank model; final ranking results are given by combination of both models. Results Compared with baselines BM25 and DirKL on 2006 and 2007 collections, the gLTR has 0.2292 (+16.23% and +44.1% improvement over BM25 and DirKL respectively) and 0.1873 (+15.78% and +39.0% improvement over BM25 and DirKL respectively) in terms of aspect level of mean average precision (Aspect MAP). The LTR method outperforms gLTR on 2006 and 2007 collections with 4.7% and 2.4% improvement in terms of Aspect MAP. Conclusions The learning-to-rank method is an efficient way for biomedical information retrieval and the diversity-biased features are beneficial for promoting diversity in ranking results. PMID:25560088

  3. Prescription intentions in relation to therapeutic information: a study of 117 French general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Cialdella, P; Figon, G; Haugh, M C; Boissel, J P

    1991-01-01

    In 1987 we conducted a mailed questionnaire survey involving 250 GPs, randomly drawn from the 3061 GPs in the 'Rhône-Alpes' region in France, in order to study how general practitioners (GPs) react to information about drugs in terms of their prescribing practices. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate the GPs reactions (prescription intentions) to 25 statements containing information concerning drugs. These included results from randomized clinical trials with adequate clinical criteria (pertinent information), but there were also some statements containing non-relevant information such as intermediate criteria, physiopathological or pharmacological information, and some containing general information such as advice from colleagues, the established position of the drug etc. The GPs were also asked through which channels they commonly received therapeutic information (i.e. medical journals, conferences). A total of 117 GPs returned completed questionnaires. We found the prescription intentions, for pertinent information to be between 76.9% and 95.7%, whilst the intentions, as a result of personal knowledge and/or success with a drug were around 93%. More theoretical information resulted in prescription intentions which were more widely scattered (between 23.1% and 80.3%), and for external advice the intentions were not as high but they were also widely scattered (between 3.4% and 65%). The search for latent dimensions corresponding to GPs reactions to therapeutic information, with both principal component analysis and Rasch Modelling, showed that two orthogonal latent dimensions, i.e. 'sensitivity to clinical and theoretical information', and 'sensitivity to external standards', best explained the responses to the questionnaire. These two dimensions appeared to be independent of age, sex, medical school and type of practice (urban, rural). The use of the journal 'Prescrire' by GPs was found to be significantly associated (P less than 0.005) with low scores, or good quality of perception of pertinent information in the first dimension. The use of specialists' prescriptions was associated with similar scores for the first dimension, but also with poor quality of perception of pertinent information scores (i.e. high scores) for the second dimension. These results could be used to draw up proposals for the improvement of post-graduate medical education, which should take into consideration these two dimensions of therapeutic information assessment by doctors, in order to obtain better quality of perception profiles for information assessment and prescription by doctors. PMID:1776039

  4. General Aviation in Nebraska: Nebraska SATS Project Background Paper No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Russell; Wachal, Jocelyn

    2000-01-01

    The Nebraska SATS project is a state-level component of NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). During the next several years the project will examine several different factors affecting SATS implementation in Nebraska. These include economic and taxation issues, public policy issues, airport planning processes, information dissemination strategies, and systemic change factors. This background paper profiles the general aviation system in Nebraska. It is written to provide information about the "context" within which SATS will be pursued. The primary focus is thus on describing and providing background information about the current situation. A secondary focus is on drawing general conclusions about the ability of the current system to incorporate the types of changes implied by SATS. First, some brief information on the U.S. aviation system is provided. The next two sections profile the current general aviation aircraft and pilot base. Nebraska's system of general aviation airports is then described. Within this section of the paper, information is provided on the different types of general aviation airports in Nebraska, airport activity levels and current infrastructure. The fourth major section of the background paper looks at Nebraska's local airport authorities. These special purpose local governments oversee the majority of the general aviation airports in the state. Among the items examined are total expenditures, capital expenditures and planning activities. Next, the paper provides background information on the Nebraska Department of Aeronautics (NDA) and recent Federal funding for general aviation in Nebraska. The final section presents summary conclusions.

  5. Holographic Hall conductivities from dyonic backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Lindgren, Jonathan; Taliotis, Anastasios; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We develop a general framework for computing the holographic 2-point functions and the corresponding conductivities in asymptotically locally AdS backgrounds with an electric charge density, a constant magentic field, and possibly non-trivial scalar profiles, for a broad class of Einstein-Maxwell-Axion-Dilaton theories, including certain Chern-Simons terms. Holographic renormalization is carried out for any theory in this class and the computation of the renormalized AC conductivities at zero spatial momentum is reduced to solving a single decoupled first order Riccati equation. Moreover, we develop a first order fake supergravity formulalism for dyonic renormalization group flows in four dimensions, allowing us to construct analytically infinite families of such backgrounds by specifying a superpotential at will. These RG flows interpolate between AdS$_4$ in the UV and a hyperscaling violating Lifshitz geometry in the IR with exponents $1

  6. A Comptonization model for the submillimeter background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, James G.; Silk, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    A new measurement of the submillimeter portion of the cosmic microwave background by Matsumoto et al. (1988) indicates that there may be a large excess of energy over that of a blackbody spectrum of temperature 2.74 K. Several models are presented with cosmological heat sources which produce Compton y-distortions large enough to fit the submillimeter background. The models adopt generic forms for these heat sources in terms of the expansion rate and the energy density of other forms of matter in the universe. A specific realization of the models in terms of a decaying vacuum is presented. Unique thermal histories are predicted in which the universe does not globally recombine. A rise in the spectrum at long wavelengths due to free-free emission of the hot intergalactic medium is predicted, and the accompanying mu-distortions are estimated.

  7. Nonparametric Inference for the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-print Network

    Genovese, C R; Nichol, R C; Arjunwadkar, M; Wasserman, L; Genovese, Christopher R.; Miller, Christopher J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Arjunwadkar, Mihir; Wasserman, Larry

    2004-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), which permeates the entire Universe, is the radiation left over from just 380,000 years after the Big Bang. On very large scales, the CMB radiation field is smooth and isotropic, but the existence of structure in the Universe - stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies - suggests that the field should fluctuate on smaller scales. Recent observations, from the Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Project, have strikingly confirmed this prediction. CMB fluctuations provide clues to the Universe's structure and composition shortly after the Big Bang that are critical for testing cosmological models. For example, CMB data can be used to determine what portion of the Universe is composed of ordinary matter versus the mysterious dark matter and dark energy. To this end, cosmologists usually summarize the fluctuations by the power spectrum, which gives the variance as a function of angular frequency. The spectrum's shape, and in particular the ...

  8. Consistent massive graviton on arbitrary backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; von Strauss, Mikael

    2015-05-01

    We obtain the fully covariant linearized field equations for the metric perturbation in the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) ghost-free massive gravities. For a subset of these theories, we show that the nondynamical metric that appears in the dRGT setup can be completely eliminated leading to the theory of a massive graviton moving in a single metric. This has a mass term which contains nontrivial contributions of the space-time curvature. We show further how five covariant constraints can be obtained including one which leads to the tracelessness of the graviton on flat space-time and removes the Boulware-Deser ghost. The five constraints are obtained for a background metric which is arbitrary, i.e. which does not have to obey the background field equations.

  9. Stochastic background of gravitational waves from fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, Kari; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Meriniemi, Tuukka

    2012-09-01

    Preheating and other particle production phenomena in the early Universe can give rise to high-energy out-of-equilibrium fermions with an anisotropic stress. We develop a formalism to calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves due to fermions, and apply it to a variety of scenarios after inflation. We pay particular attention to regularization issues. We show that fermion production sources a stochastic background of gravitational waves with a significant amplitude, but we find that typical frequencies oef this new background are not within the presently accessible direct detection range. However, small-coupling scenarios might still produce a signal observable by planned detectors, and thus open a new window into the physics of the very early Universe.

  10. Measuring anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Tully, Christopher G.

    2014-10-01

    Neutrino capture on tritium has emerged as a promising method for detecting the cosmic neutrino background (C ? B ). We show that relic neutrinos are captured most readily when their spin vectors are antialigned with the polarization axis of the tritium nuclei and when they approach along the direction of polarization. As a result, C ? B observatories may measure anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino velocity and spin distributions by polarizing the tritium targets. A small dipole anisotropy in the C ? B is expected due to the peculiar velocity of the lab frame with respect to the cosmic frame and due to late-time gravitational effects. The PTOLEMY experiment, a tritium observatory currently under construction, should observe a nearly isotropic background. This would serve as a strong test of the cosmological origin of a potential signal. The polarized-target measurements may also constrain nonstandard neutrino interactions that would induce larger anisotropies and help discriminate between Majorana versus Dirac neutrinos.

  11. Anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical predictions of the angular anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on both small and large angular scales are presented, and the effect of massive neutrinos on both the background radiation anisotropy and on the galaxy correlation function over very large scales is reviewed. Current observations show that the quadrupole anisotropy provides the greatest constraint on theory, and the values for the gravitational potential fluctuations indicate that small amplitude but sufficiently large-scale density fluctuations, both at the present epoch and on the surface of last scattering, can produce significant large angular scale variations in the radiation temperature. Most importantly, it is proposed that the quadrupole moment is most simply and elegantly interpreted in terms of the density fluctuations on very large scales whose presence is inferred from the requirement that an initial fluctuation spectrum is required in order for structure to develop.

  12. Infrared color vision: separating objects from backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scribner, Dean A.; Schuler, Jonathan; Warren, Penny; Satyshur, Michael; Kruer, Melvin R.

    1998-07-01

    The concept of multi-band infrared color vision is discussed in terms of combining two or more bands of infrared imagery into a single composite color image. This work is motivated by emerging new technologies in which two or more infrared bands are simultaneously imaged for improved discrimination of objects from backgrounds. One of the current objectives of this work is to quantify the improvement obtained over single band infrared imagery to detect dim targets in clutter. Methods are discussed for mapping raw image data into an appropriate color space and then processing it to achieve an intuitively meaningful color display for a human viewer. In this regard, the final imagery should provide good color contrast between objects and backgrounds and consistent colors regardless of environmental conditions such as solar illumination and variations in surface temperature. Initial performance measures show that infrared color can improve discrimination significantly over single band imaging.

  13. D-branes in Nongeometric Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Albion Lawrence; Michael B. Schulz; Brian Wecht

    2006-04-20

    "T-fold" backgrounds are generically-nongeometric compactifications of string theory, described by T^n fibrations over a base N with transition functions in the perturbative T-duality group. We review Hull's doubled torus formalism, which geometrizes these backgrounds, and use the formalism to constrain the D-brane spectrum (to leading order in g_s and alpha') on T^n fibrations over S^1 with O(n,n;Z) monodromy. We also discuss the (approximate) moduli space of such branes and argue that it is always geometric. For a D-brane located at a point on the base N, the classical ``D-geometry'' is a T^n fibration over a multiple cover of N.

  14. Blackfolds in (anti)-de Sitter backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A. [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej, 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

    2011-04-15

    We construct different neutral blackfold solutions in Anti-de Sitter and de Sitter background spacetimes in the limit where the cosmological constant is taken to be much smaller than the horizon size. This includes a class of blackfolds with horizons that are products of odd-spheres times a transverse sphere, for which the thermodynamic stability is also studied. Moreover, we exhibit a specific case in which the same blackfold solution can describe different limiting black hole spacetimes therefore illustrating the geometric character of the blackfold approach. Furthermore, we show that the higher-dimensional Kerr-(Anti)-de Sitter black hole allows for ultraspinning regimes in the same limit under consideration and demonstrate that this is correctly described by a pancaked blackfold geometry. We also give evidence for the possibility of saturating the rigidity theorem in these backgrounds.

  15. Advanced Undergraduate Computer Based Astronomy Lab. The 3K Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Slovak

    2002-01-01

    A challenging computer based astronomy lab for advanced astronomy undergraduate students has been developed using satellite (COBE) and ground-based observations of the 3K cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). Students are provided the observations and background information on the discovery and interpretation of the CMBR. They also review relevant radiation laws such as the Stefan-Boltzmann law and Wein's law. The data

  16. Information-theoretic algorithms in bioinformatics and bio-\\/medical-imaging: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perambur Neelakanta; Sharmistha Chatterjee; Deepti Pappusetty; Mirjana Pavlovic; Abhijit Pandya

    2011-01-01

    Information-theoretic notion of entropy (in Shannon sense) is a versatile avenue in analyzing bioinformatic details as well as in mining data pertinent to molecular biology. Also, the informatics of bio- and medical-imaging can be comprehended via entropy considerations. Presented in this paper is a comprehensive review on salient methods, newer techniques and open-questions on unexplored efforts vis-à-vis the entropy principles

  17. Thermal and radiometric modeling of terrain backgrounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Conant; John R. Hummel

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) is administering a multi-year, multi-agency infrared background data and modeling program entitled Smart Weapons Operability Enhancement (SWOE). This paper describes the progress made to date in model development and integration, under the direction of the Geophysics Directorate of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory. Other aspects of the program, not described

  18. MEGA: A Low-Background Radiation Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kazkaz, Kareem; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Gehman, Victor M.; Kephart, Jeremy; Miley, Harry S.

    2004-06-01

    The multiple-element gamma assay (MEGA) is a low-background detector designed to support environmental monitoring and national security applications. MEGA also demonstrates technology needed or Majorana, a next generation neutrino mass experiment. It will also exploit multicoincidence signatures to identify specific radioactive isotopes. MEGA is expected to begin testing in late 2003 for eventual installation at the Waste Isolation Plant, Carlsbad, NM.

  19. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOEpatents

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  20. The Kerr metric in cosmological background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P C Vaidya

    1977-01-01

    A metric satisfying Einstein’s equations is given which in the vicinity of the source reduces to the well-known Kerr metric\\u000a and which at large distances reduces to the Robertson-Walker metric of a homogeneous cosmological model. The radius of the\\u000a event horizon of the Kerr black hole in the cosmological background is found out.

  1. Kerr — Newman metric in cosmological background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Patel; Hiren B. Trivedi

    1982-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein-Maxwell field equations is presented. The material content of the field described by this solution\\u000a is a perfect fluid plus sourceless electromagnetic fields. The metric of the solution is explicitly written. This metric is\\u000a examined as a possible representation of Kerr-Newman metric embedded in Einstein static universe. The Kerr-Newman metric in\\u000a the background of Robertson-Walker universe

  2. Statistics of cosmic microwave background polarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Kamionkowski; Arthur Kosowsky; Albert Stebbins

    1997-01-01

    We present a formalism for analyzing a full-sky temperature and polarization map of the cosmic microwave background. Temperature maps are analyzed by expanding over the set of spherical harmonics to give multipole moments of the two-point correlation function. Polarization, which is described by a second-rank tensor, can be treated analogously by expanding in the appropriate tensor spherical harmonics. We provide

  3. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, P.; Villela, T.

    1986-01-01

    Data on the cosmic microwave background radiation obtained with a maser at 12 mm and a Schottky diode mixer at 3 mm are presented. The dipole anisotropy, apparently due to our motion, has been measured sufficiently well to determine our direction of motion within two degrees. The results show that the Galaxy is moving in a direction that is about 44 deg from the center of the Virgo cluster.

  4. Systematic errors in cosmic microwave background interferometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emory F. Bunn

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization observations will require\\u000asuperb control of systematic errors in order to achieve their full scientific\\u000apotential, particularly in the case of attempts to detect the B modes that may\\u000aprovide a window on inflation. Interferometry may be a promising way to achieve\\u000athese goals. This paper presents a formalism for characterizing the effects of\\u000aa

  5. Microwave Background Interferometry on the Spherical Sky

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emory F. Bunn; M. White

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies by interferometers offer several advantages over single-dish observations. The formalism for analyzing interferometer CMB data is well-developed in the flat-sky approximation, valid for small fields of view. As the area of sky is increased to obtain finer spectral resolution, this approximation needs to be relaxed. In particular, the predicted signature of inflationary gravitational

  6. Cosmic Needles versus Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aigen Li

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested by a number of authors that the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation might have arisen from the radiation of ``Population III'' objects thermalized by conducting cosmic graphite\\/iron needle-shaped dust. Due to a lack of an accurate solution to the absorption properties of exceedingly elongated grains, in existing literature which studies the CMB thermalizing process

  7. Testing Isotropy of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pramoda Kumar Samal; Rajib Saha; Pankaj Jain; John P. Ralston

    2007-01-01

    We introduce new symmetry-based methods to test for isotropy in cosmic\\u000amicrowave background radiation. Each angular multipole is factored into unique\\u000aproducts of power eigenvectors, related multipoles and singular values that\\u000aprovide 2 new rotationally invariant measures mode by mode. The power entropy\\u000aand directional entropy are new tests of randomness that are independent of the\\u000ausual CMB power. Simulated

  8. Stochastic background from inspiralling double neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Tania Regimbau

    2006-12-30

    We review the contribution of extra galactic inspiralling double neutron stars, to the LISA astrophysical gravitational wave foreground. Using recent fits of the star formation rate, we show that sources beyond $z_*=0.005$ contribute to a truly continuous background, which may dominate the LISA instrumental noise in the range $3 \\simeq 10^{-4}$ - $1 \\times 10^{-2}$ Hz and overwhelm the galactic WD-WD confusion noise at frequencies larger than $\

  9. Immigrant background peer effects in Italian schools.

    PubMed

    Contini, Dalit

    2013-07-01

    This article provides an empirical assessment of the effect of the concentration of students of immigrant origin on student learning, in Italian primary and lower secondary schools. I draw on the data of a national standardized learning assessment administered in 2010 to the entire student population at selected grades. The main threat to identification is given by the endogeneity of school characteristics, due to the fact that families choose their children's schools. To circumvent this problem I exploit the within-school random variability observed in the share of immigrant students across classes. I estimate peer effects allowing for heterogeneous effects between native and immigrant background children, and among natives, between children of different socio-economic background. The main finding is that the proportion of children of immigrant origin has a weak negative effect on child learning outcomes. This negative effect is somewhat larger for children of immigrant and low socioeconomic background, while it is negligible or even positive for high social origin native children. PMID:23721678

  10. Improving the EOTDA ocean background model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Charles P.; Badzik, Gregory D.

    1997-09-01

    The Electro-Optical Tactical Decision Aid (EOTDA) is a strike warfare mission planning tool originally developed by the US Air Force. The US Navy has added navy sensors and targets to the EOTDA and installed it into current fleet mission planning and support systems. Fleet experience with the EOTDA and previous studies have noted the need for improvement, especially for scenarios involving ocean backgrounds. In order to test and improve the water background model in the EOTDA, a modified version has been created that replaces the existing semi-empirical model with the SeaRad model that was developed by Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Systems (NRaD). The SeaRad model is a more rigorous solution based on the Cox-Munk wave-slope probabilities. During the April 1996 Electrooptical Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments (EOPACE) trials, data was collected to evaluate the effects of the SeaRad version of the EOTDA. Data was collected using a calibrated airborne infrared imaging system and operational FUR systems against ship targets. A modified version of MODTRAN also containing the SeaRad model is used to correct the data for the influences of the atmosphere. This report uses these data along with the modified EOTDA to evaluate the effects of the SeaRad model on ocean background predictions under clear and clouded skies. Upon using the more accurate water reflection model, the significance of the sky and cloud radiance contributions become more apparent leading to recommendations for further improvements.

  11. Localised anti-branes in flux backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, Gavin S.

    2015-06-01

    Solutions corresponding to finite temperature (anti)-D3 and M2 branes localised in flux backgrounds are constructed in a linear approximation. The flux backgrounds considered are toy models for the IR of the Klebanov-Strassler solution and its M-theory analogue, the Cveti?-Gibbons-Lü-Pope solution. Smooth solutions exist for either sign charge, in stark contrast with the previously considered case of smeared black branes. That the singularities of the anti-branes in the zero temperature extremal limit can be shielded behind a finite temperature horizon indicates that the singularities are physical and resolvable by string theory. As the charge of the branes grows large and negative, the flux at the horizon increases without bound and diverges in the extremal limit, which suggests a resolution via brane polarisation à la Polchinski-Strassler. It therefore appears that the anti-brane singularities do not indicate a problem with the SUSY-breaking metastable states corresponding to expanded anti-brane configurations in these backgrounds, nor with the use of these states in constructing the de Sitter landscape.

  12. 32 CFR 264.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Technical Information for Defense Purposes with Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The agreements, which...

  13. 32 CFR 264.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Technical Information for Defense Purposes with Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The agreements, which...

  14. 32 CFR 264.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...United States has entered into agreements for the Interchange of Patent Rights and Technical Information for Defense Purposes with Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway,...

  15. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...are sold without notifying consumers of the information they...carrying out the purposes of the Consumer Product Safety Act of (1) helping to protect the public against unreasonable...of injury associated with consumer products and (2)...

  16. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...are sold without notifying consumers of the information they...carrying out the purposes of the Consumer Product Safety Act of (1) helping to protect the public against unreasonable...of injury associated with consumer products and (2)...

  17. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...are sold without notifying consumers of the information they...carrying out the purposes of the Consumer Product Safety Act of (1) helping to protect the public against unreasonable...of injury associated with consumer products and (2)...

  18. 16 CFR 1406.2 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...are sold without notifying consumers of the information they...carrying out the purposes of the Consumer Product Safety Act of (1) helping to protect the public against unreasonable...of injury associated with consumer products and (2)...

  19. A Flat Universe from High-Resolution Maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    P. de Bernardis; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; A. Boscaleri; K. Coble; B. P. Crill; G. De Gasperis; P. C. Farese; P. G. Ferreira; K. Ganga; M. Giacometti; E. Hivon; V. V. Hristov; A. Iacoangeli; A. H. Jaffe; A. E. Lange; L. Martinis; S. Masi; P. Mason; P. D. Mauskopf; A. Melchiorri; L. Miglio; T. Montroy; C. B. Netterfield; E. Pascale; F. Piacentini; D. Pogosyan; S. Prunet; S. Rao; G. Romeo; J. E. Ruhl; F. Scaramuzzi; D. Sforna; N. Vittorio

    2000-04-28

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73K Cosmic Microwave Background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole $\\ell_{peak}=(197 \\pm 6)$, with an amplitude $DT_{200}=(69 \\pm 8)\\mu K$. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favoured by standard inflationary scenarios.

  20. A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    PubMed

    de Bernardis P; Ade; Bock; Bond; Borrill; Boscaleri; Coble; Crill; De Gasperis G; Farese; Ferreira; Ganga; Giacometti; Hivon; Hristov; Iacoangeli; Jaffe; Lange; Martinis; Masi; Mason; Mauskopf; Melchiorri; Miglio; Montroy; Netterfield

    2000-04-27

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the Universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole Ipeak = (197 +/- 6), with an amplitude delta T200 = (69 +/- 8) microK. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favoured by standard inflationary models. PMID:10801117