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1

A study of NACA and NASA published information of pertinence in the design of light aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three volume report contains NACA/NASA generated literature pertinent to the design of light aircraft. Information covers structural design, propulsion subsystems, landing gear loads, flutter, performance calculation procedures, and high horsepower propellers. Major emphasis is on reports produced prior to 1962.

1970-01-01

2

Mars Background Information General Information  

E-print Network

Mars Background Information General Information Here are some quick facts about Mars in comparison with Earth: Mars Earth Atmosphere 95% CO2, 5% N2, Ar & trace gasses 0.007 atm pressure 78% N2, 21% O2, 1 successful fly-by Mariner 9 11/71 - 10/72 Orbit of Mars Viking 1&2 6/76 - 1987 Orbiter and First lander

Dennis, Robert G.

3

Pertinence of the internship  

E-print Network

1 Art.1 Curricular internship Art.2 Objectives Art.3 Timing and Duration Art.4 Choice of Employer Art.5 Pertinence of the internship Art.6 Internship Search GRADUATE INTERNSHIP GUIDELINES Faculties and in Economics a period of practical training or work experience, herein referred to as `internship', is one

Krause, Rolf

4

Background Information 1. What are stem cells?  

E-print Network

Background Information 1. What are stem cells? 2. What might stem cell research achieve? 3. Why we need to continue research using embryonic stem cells? 4. Time taken for discoveries 5. Examples of stem cell therapies in clinical trials 6. Patentability of human embryonic stem cell therapies 7. Creation

Rambaut, Andrew

5

Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

1953-01-01

6

Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

1994-10-01

7

Organizational performance and regulatory compliance as measured by clinical pertinence indicators before and after implementation of Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that electronic medical records (EMR) can lead to a greater reduction of medical errors and better adherence to regulatory compliance than paper medical records (PMR). In order to assess the organizational performance and regulatory compliance, we tracked different clinical pertinence indicators (CPI) in our anesthesia information management system (AIMS) for 5 years. These indicators comprised of the protocols from the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP), elements of performance (EP) from The Joint Commission (TJC), and guidelines from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). A comprehensive AIMS was initiated and the CPI were collected from October 5, 2009 to December 31, 2010 (EMR period) and from January 1, 2006 to October 4, 2009 (PMR period). Fourteen CPI were found to be common between the EMR and PMR periods. Based on the statistical analysis of the 14 common CPI, there was a significant increase (p?

Choi, Clark K; Saberito, Darlene; Tyagaraj, Changa; Tyagaraj, Kalpana

2014-01-01

8

Background Information Framework for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This framework will define the purpose and scope of NAEP's system of collecting background information, including background questionnaires and other sources of non-cognitive data. It will establish criteria for reporting background information as part of the National Assessment. The approach it suggests provides for asking various groups of…

National Assessment Governing Board, Washington, DC.

9

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Colon CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the descriptive manuscript cited below.

10

Background information on the SSC project  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning.

Warren, J.

1991-10-01

11

Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

Schulte, Roger R.

1987-01-01

12

Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in  

E-print Network

Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in the Interior Cedar is to share information with other forest professionals on biodiversity management in Interior Cedar Hemlock of the Integrated Land Management Bureau (ILMB) that this paper will provide useful information; however, ILMB would

Coxson, Darwyn

13

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information  

E-print Network

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepared by Joel. Introduction_______________________________________________ 1 1.1. Goals of the IMRC's Smog Check Evaluation for the IMRC Smog Check Evaluation _________________ 2 3. Evaluation Process

Denver, University of

14

Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

1981-01-01

15

UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information  

E-print Network

1 UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information: Re-employment compensation position. Re-employment compensation is a federal-state partnership based upon federal law but it is administered at the state level. Re-employment compensation is a temporary, partial wage replacement

Wu, Shin-Tson

16

Acquisition of background and technical information and class trip planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instructors who are very familiar with a study area, as well as those who are not, find the field trip information acquisition and planning process speeded and made more effective by organizing it in stages. The stage follow a deductive progression: from the associated context region, to the study area, to the specific sample window sites, and from generalized background information on the study region to specific technical data on the environmental and human use systems to be interpreted at each site. On the class trip and in the follow up laboratory, the learning/interpretive process are at first deductive in applying previously learned information and skills to analysis of the study site, then inductive in reading and interpreting the landscape, imagery, and maps of the site, correlating them with information of other samples sites and building valid generalizations about the larger study area, its context region, and other (similar and/or contrasting) regions.

Mackinnon, R. M.; Wake, W. H.

1981-01-01

17

Wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing industry - background information for proposed standards  

SciTech Connect

A Standard of Performance for the control of emissions from wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing facilities is being proposed under authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. This standard would apply to new, modified, or reconstructed wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing lines that utilize the rotary spin forming process and that commence construction on or after the date of proposal of the regulation. This document contains background information and environmental and economic impact assessments of the regulatory alternatives considered in developing the proposed standard. 79 references, 280 tables.

Not Available

1983-12-01

18

Background  

E-print Network

This summary was completed upon request to provide information for the Town of Ancram for land use planning and decision-making. It identifies major natural features, as well as significant ecosystems and valuable stream, forest, wetland, and other habitats with important biological resources based on information available to the NYSDEC. It should not be considered a complete biological inventory because it is based only on existing information gleaned from various complementary, but not comprehensive, sources. In the case of Ancram, a large amount of information is available. However, there are areas for which we had no information, particularly in the western part of town. Additional general information about habitats can be found in the Wildlife and Habitat Conservation Framework developed by the Hudson River Estuary Program (Penhollow et al. 2006). If you have any questions about this summary, or want to know if it needs to be updated, please contact Karen Strong, Biodiversity Outreach Coordinator. NYSDEC’s Hudson River Estuary Program protects and improves the historic and scenic Hudson River watershed for all its residents. The program was created in 1987 and extends from the Troy dam to the Verrazano Narrows. Its core mission is to: • Ensure clean water; • Protect and restore fish and wildlife habitats;

Joe Martens

2011-01-01

19

Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services: Speak Out. Conference Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as background material for the 1978 Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services, this document provides information in six areas of concern for Ohio libraries: (1) library and information services--library users, library collections, special user needs; (2) public awareness--definition, current status, suggestions for…

Ohio State Library, Columbus.

20

Background  

E-print Network

Efficiency of the EMDR procedure is based on a presumption of neuropsychological changes in therapeutic process.The aim of the investigation is to scann and give evidence of electroactivity changes, during the process of EMDR procedure and after finishing it. Materials and methods We have recorded a continual polygraph EEG, before, during and after EMDR therapy, in patient with combat-related PTSD. Results Before the treatment, EEG recorded basic activity of low voltage (attenuation) of 20 ?V, frequency of beta range (17-26 Hz), bioccipital, with no pathologic activity. Patient had prominent vegetative symptoms (anxiety, heart rate 100/min). Background activity immediately

Grozdanko Grbesa; Maja Simonovic; Dorjanka Jankovic

21

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Simultaneous Confidence Intervals with more  

E-print Network

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Outline Bounds Illustrations Women's Health Initiative #12;Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence

Stark, Philip B.

22

Background  

E-print Network

Background: Although the outcomes of caustic ingestion differ between children and adults, it is unclear whether such outcomes differ among adults as a function of their age. This retrospective study was performed to ascertain whether the clinical outcomes of caustic ingestion differ significantly between elderly and non-elderly adults. Methods: Medical records of patients hospitalized for caustic ingestion between June 1999 and July 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. Three hundred eighty nine patients between the ages of 17 and 107 years were divided into two groups: non-elderly (ingestion, substance ingested, systemic and gastrointestinal complications, psychological and systemic comorbidities, severity of mucosal injury, and time to expiration. Results: The incidence of psychological comorbidities was higher for the non-elderly group. By contrast, the incidence of systemic comorbidities, the grade of severity of mucosal damage, and the incidence of systemic complications were higher for the elderly group. The percentages of ICU admissions and deaths in the ICU were higher and the cumulative survival rate was lower for the elderly group. Elderly subjects, those with systemic complications had the greatest mortality risk due to caustic ingestion. Conclusions: Caustic ingestion by subjects ?65 years of age is associated with poorer clinical outcomes as compared to subjects < 65 years of age; elderly subjects with systemic complications have the poorest clinical outcomes. The severity of gastrointestinal tract injury appears to have no impact on the survival of elderly subjects.

Jui-min Chang; Nai-jen Liu; Betty Chien-jung Pai; Yun-hen Liu; Ming-hung Tsai; Ching-song Lee; Yin-yi Chu; Chih-chuan Lin; Cheng-tang Chiu; Hao-tsai Cheng

23

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

24

Autorit et pertinence versus popularit et influence Autorit et pertinence vs popularit et  

E-print Network

donne. L'autorité qualifiée par Hannah Arendt1 de capacité d'obtenir l'obéissance «sans recourir à la pertinence à l'Influence. Dans l'introduction, nous avons montré que nous avions retenu la définition d'Arendt majores». (Arendt, 1989) #12;Autorité et pertinence 3 tel par une communauté ou un réseau social qui peut

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

25

The Graphic Information Research Unit: Background and Recent Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses projects of the Graphic Information Research Unit at the Royal College of Art (England), which relates to the legibility of scientific and technical information. Summarizes the Unit's survey of problems in providing adequate guiding in libraries and museums, and reports two studies of Computer Output Microfilm library catalogues. (GT)

Reynolds, Linda

1979-01-01

26

Building Digital Collections: Technical Information and Background Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced on May 9, this newly updated site from the Library of Congress National Digital Library Program (NDLP) documents "technical activities relating to the procedures and practices employed by the NDLP, and its precursor American Memory Program, over the past decade." Of use to anyone involved in digital library projects, the highlight of the site is probably the Building Digital Collections section, which links to the technical documents (included with most American Memory Collections) describing how the collection was digitized and what technology was used. The site also contains descriptions of technical practices, workflow production, and a selection of background papers.

27

Information from Text: Overview of Background and Opportunities  

E-print Network

now. . . 4 #12;Exploiting Weak Structure: Text Mining 5 #12;PageRankTM 1. Underlies Google 2. How does it work? 3. Lession #1: There are clever ways to extract information automatically from weakly of the web by using its vast link structure as an indicator of an individual page's value. In essence, Google

Kimbrough, Steven Orla

28

Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

Rosenblatt, D.H.

1996-11-01

29

Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nat

30

Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very nearly the speed of light. Optical studies of a December 1997 burst (GRB 971214) indicated a distance for it of nearly 12 billion light-years. With distances known, astronomers could calculate the amount of energy released during the explosion. The answers were astounding. GRB 970508, in a mere 15 seconds, released nearly ten times more energy than our Sun will release in its entire, 10-billion-year lifetime. GRB 971214, for one or two seconds, outshone the entire rest of the universe. These energies ruled out many of the numerous theories for the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts that had arisen over the previous three decades. Many answers about the origins of Gamma Ray Bursts and the physics of the fireballs will come from radio telescopes. The VLA, with its combination of sensitivity and resolving power, "has a unique role to play in deciphering GRB fireball physics," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. First, radio astronomers can see the GRB fireball far longer than it is visible at other wavelengths. A Gamma Ray Burst is visible in the gamma rays for typically seconds or minutes, in X-rays for days, and in visible light for weeks, based on the past year's experience. "With radio telescopes, we can see the fireballs for months, gaining new information every day," said Greg Taylor, also of NRAO in Socorro. "Also, at other wavelengths, they see the emission only as it is rapidly getting weaker. At radio wavelengths, we can study the emission as it rises in strength, peaks, then slowly decays." In addition, radio observations can measure the size of the fireball. "Only radio telescopes can measure the size, and we can do it in three different ways," Frail said. These techniques involve studying the scintillation, or "twinkling" of the radio emission; absorption characteristics of the emission; and, for bright, energetic afterglows, direct measurements of sizes can be made through the great resolving power of continent-wide radio telescope arrays such as t

31

Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

2014-05-01

32

THERMAL RADIATION The type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinentThe type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinent  

E-print Network

THERMAL RADIATION The type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinentThe type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinent to heat transfer is the thermal radiation emitted as a result of the strength of these activities at the microscopic level, and the rate of thermal radiation emission increases

Kostic, Milivoje M.

33

A moving ship detection based on edge information of single image and background subtraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship detection based on video is important in the application of surveillance and marine safety, the detection results of tradition methods, such as background subtraction, have much noise because of background noise such as ocean wave. In this paper we present a simple but efficient method for ship detection, It is based on the edge information of single image and movement information of multi images. Firstly, detect those movement pixels used the background subtraction to the video image, and the distance transformation is operation on the difference images; Secondly, we detect the edge of video image used Canny detector , and morphological operation on the edge image, lastly, eliminate the movement pixels if their distance transformation value is bigger than the threshold. The experimental results demonstrate that is efficient to eliminate the background noise and detect the real target.

Shi, Tingyan; Yang, Lichun; Liu, Zhicheng

2013-10-01

34

Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

1982-03-01

35

The Effects of Color and Background Information in Motion Visuals on Children's Memory and Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether color and background information in motion visuals have different effects on memory and comprehension of students in various grade levels. A three-by-three factorial pretest-posttest design was used, comparing levels of visual complexity and grade levels. The instructional content was a 12-minute computer animation…

Chen, Lin Ching

36

Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program  

SciTech Connect

We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

Reader, J.

2013-06-11

37

Leading Court Decision Pertinent to Public School Desegregation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises eight federal court decisions pertinent to public school desegregation: (1) "Brown v. Board of Education," 347 U.S. 483 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (2) "Bolling v. Sharpe," 374 U.S. 497 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (3) "Brown v.…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

38

Discriminating direction of motion trajectories from angular speed and background information  

PubMed Central

The effects of a background scene on the perception of the trajectory of an approaching object and its relation to changes in angular speed and angular size were examined in 5 experiments. Observers judged the direction (upward or downward) of two sequentially presented motion trajectories simulating a sphere traveling towards the observer at a constant 3D speed from a fixed distance. In Experiments 1 – 4 we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and the presence of a scene background, with changes in angular size based either on the trajectories being discriminated or on an intermediate trajectory. In Experiment 5 we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and scene background with angular size either constant or consistent with an intermediate 3D trajectory. Overall, we found that: (1) observers were able to judge the direction of object motion trajectories from angular speed changes; (2) observers were more accurate with a 3D scene background as compared to a uniform background, suggesting that scene information is important for recovering object motion trajectories; and (3) observers were more accurate in judging motion trajectories based on angular speed when the angular size function was consistent with motion in depth than when the angular size was constant. PMID:23824599

Bian, Zheng; Braunstein, Myron L.; Andersen, George J.

2013-01-01

39

Distinguishing vegetation from soil background information. [by gray mapping of Landsat MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In aircraft and satellite multispectral scanner data, soil background signals are superimposed on or intermingled with information about vegetation. A procedure which accounts for soil background would, therefore, make a considerable contribution to an operational use of Landsat and other spectral data for monitoring the productivity of range, forest, and crop lands. A description is presented of an investigation which was conducted to obtain information for the development of such a procedure. The investigation included a study of the soil reflectance that supplies the background signal of vegetated surfaces. Landsat data as recorded on computer compatible tapes were used in the study. The results of the investigation are discussed, taking into account a study reported by Kauth and Thomas (1976). Attention is given to the determination of Kauth's plane of soils, sun angle effects, vegetation index modeling, and the evaluation of vegetation indexes. Graphs are presented which show the results obtained with a gray mapping technique. The technique makes it possible to display plant, soil, water, and cloud conditions for any Landsat overpass.

Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.

1977-01-01

40

A Neural Mechanism for Background Information-Gated Learning Based on Axonal-Dendritic Overlaps  

PubMed Central

Experiencing certain events triggers the acquisition of new memories. Although necessary, however, actual experience is not sufficient for memory formation. One-trial learning is also gated by knowledge of appropriate background information to make sense of the experienced occurrence. Strong neurobiological evidence suggests that long-term memory storage involves formation of new synapses. On the short time scale, this form of structural plasticity requires that the axon of the pre-synaptic neuron be physically proximal to the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron. We surmise that such “axonal-dendritic overlap” (ADO) constitutes the neural correlate of background information-gated (BIG) learning. The hypothesis is based on a fundamental neuroanatomical constraint: an axon must pass close to the dendrites that are near other neurons it contacts. The topographic organization of the mammalian cortex ensures that nearby neurons encode related information. Using neural network simulations, we demonstrate that ADO is a suitable mechanism for BIG learning. We model knowledge as associations between terms, concepts or indivisible units of thought via directed graphs. The simplest instantiation encodes each concept by single neurons. Results are then generalized to cell assemblies. The proposed mechanism results in learning real associations better than spurious co-occurrences, providing definitive cognitive advantages. PMID:25767887

Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

2015-01-01

41

A neural mechanism for background information-gated learning based on axonal-dendritic overlaps.  

PubMed

Experiencing certain events triggers the acquisition of new memories. Although necessary, however, actual experience is not sufficient for memory formation. One-trial learning is also gated by knowledge of appropriate background information to make sense of the experienced occurrence. Strong neurobiological evidence suggests that long-term memory storage involves formation of new synapses. On the short time scale, this form of structural plasticity requires that the axon of the pre-synaptic neuron be physically proximal to the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron. We surmise that such "axonal-dendritic overlap" (ADO) constitutes the neural correlate of background information-gated (BIG) learning. The hypothesis is based on a fundamental neuroanatomical constraint: an axon must pass close to the dendrites that are near other neurons it contacts. The topographic organization of the mammalian cortex ensures that nearby neurons encode related information. Using neural network simulations, we demonstrate that ADO is a suitable mechanism for BIG learning. We model knowledge as associations between terms, concepts or indivisible units of thought via directed graphs. The simplest instantiation encodes each concept by single neurons. Results are then generalized to cell assemblies. The proposed mechanism results in learning real associations better than spurious co-occurrences, providing definitive cognitive advantages. PMID:25767887

Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A

2015-03-01

42

Background frequency, information content, and the scoring matrix in sequence alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequence alignment tools for protein/DNA sequences have been widely used to find homologous biosequences over the past few decades. In these automated procedures, the target similarity between the two sequences compared is largely determined by the scoring matrix used. Theoretically, each matrix element of the scoring matrix is a log-odd ratio, i.e., the logarithm of the target frequency over the background frequency. In real alignment applications, however, the theoretical criterion is often overlooked. In this talk, we will present a sensible solution to forcibly maintain the theoretical criterion. We will also discuss the information content of the scoring matrix.

Yu, Yi-Kuo; Altschul, Stephen

2003-03-01

43

Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

2014-12-01

44

Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information  

PubMed Central

Background Although described in several reports, imported malaria in Europe has not been surveyed nationwide with overall coverage of patients and individually rechecked background information. Plasmodium falciparum infections have been reported despite regularly taken appropriate chemoprophylaxis, yet the reliability of such questionnaire-based retrospective data has been questioned. This was the starting-point for conducting a prospective nationwide survey of imported malaria where compliance data was double-checked. Methods Data was collected on all cases of imported malaria confirmed and recorded by the reference laboratory of Finland (population 5.4 million) from 2003 to 2011, and these were compared with those reported to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR). Background information was gathered by detailed questionnaires sent to the clinicians upon diagnosis; missing data were enquired by telephone of clinician or patient. Special attention was paid to compliance with chemoprophylaxis: self-reported use of anti-malarials was rechecked for all cases of P. falciparum. Results A total of 265 malaria cases (average annual incidence rate 0.5/100,000 population) had been recorded by the reference laboratory, all of them also reported to NIDR: 54% were born in malaria-endemic countries; 86% were currently living in non-endemic regions. Malaria was mainly (81%) contracted in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasmodium falciparum proved to be the most common species (72%). Immigrants constituted the largest group of travellers (44%). Pre-travel advice was received by 20% of those born in endemic regions and 81% of those from non-endemic regions. Of those with P. falciparum, 4% reported regular use of appropriate chemoprophylaxis (mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with chloroquine-resistant and atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with mefloquine-resistant P. falciparum); after individual rechecking, however, it was found that none of them had been fully compliant. Conclusions Information on compliance with chemoprophylactic regimen cannot be relied on, and it should be rechecked if malaria is suspected. The results of the present study suggest that mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil and doxycycline are effective as chemoprophylaxis against P. falciparum malaria, when taken conscientiously. PMID:23497115

2013-01-01

45

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

46

Peelle's pertinent puzzle using the Monte Carlo technique  

SciTech Connect

We try to understand the long-standing problem of the Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) using the Monte Carlo technique. We allow the probability density functions to be any kind of form to assume the impact of distribution, and obtain the least-squares solution directly from numerical simulations. We found that the standard least squares method gives the correct answer if a weighting function is properly provided. Results from numerical simulations show that the correct answer of PPP is 1.1 {+-} 0.25 if the common error is multiplicative. The thought-provoking answer of 0.88 is also correct, if the common error is additive, and if the error is proportional to the measured values. The least squares method correctly gives us the most probable case, where the additive component has a negative value. Finally, the standard method fails for PPP due to a distorted (non Gaussian) joint distribution.

Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burr, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

47

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information  

SciTech Connect

Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

Wang, Gen-sheng; /Case Western Reserve U.

2005-01-01

48

The transport of photochemical pollutants to the background troposphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The considered investigation is concerned with the phenomena occurring as a chemically reacting plume, with specific initial concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, and hydrocarbons, emerges from an urban area and is advected to the background troposphere. A better understanding of the global NOx and hydrocarbon budgets can be realized by determining the fractions of NOx and hydrocarbons that are transported to distances far enough to be considered background. The investigation makes use of a 56-step, lumped kinetic mechanism for photochemical smog, which includes current information on pertinent chemical reactions and rate constants for the reactions.

Bazzell, C. C.; Peters, L. K.

1981-01-01

49

Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information  

SciTech Connect

This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

Blaser, Richard

1980-11-01

50

76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Department of Justice (DOJ) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS...and Program Analyst, FBI, Criminal Justice Information Services Division...Number: 1110-0043. Sponsor: Criminal Justice Information Services...

2011-11-08

51

Scientific results from the cosmic background explorer (COBE). [Information on cosmic radiation  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 [+-] 0.06 K, with no deviation from a black-body spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant cosmic microwave background anisotropy, consistent with a scale-invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservation upper limits to the cosmic infrared background. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the cosmic infrared background limits. 104 refs., 1 tab.

Bennett, C.L.; Boggess, N.W.; Cheng, E.S.; Hauser, M.G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J.C.; Moseley, S.H. Jr.; Shafer, R.A.; Silverberg, R.F. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Murdock, T.L. (General Research Corp., Danvers, MA (United States)); Smoot, G.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Weiss, R. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge (United States)); Wright, E.L. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

1993-06-01

52

Sewage sludge to landfill: some pertinent engineering properties.  

PubMed

More stringent controls on the quality of wastewater discharges have given rise to increasing volumes of sewage sludge for disposal, principally to land, using either land-spreading or sludge-to-landfill operations. Current sludge-to-landfill methods generally involve mixing the concentrated sludge with other solid waste in municipal landfills. However, stricter waste disposal legislation and higher landfill taxes are forcing the water industry to look for more efficient disposal strategies. Landfill operators are also increasingly reluctant to accept sludge material in the slurry state because of construction difficulties and the potential for instability of the landfill slopes. The engineering and drying properties of a municipal sewage sludge are presented and applied, in particular, to the design, construction, and performance of sewage sludge monofills. Sludge handling and landfill construction are most effectively conducted within the water content range of 85% water content, the optimum water content for standard proctor compaction, and 95% water content, the sticky limit of the sludge material. Standard proctor compaction of the sludge within this water content range also achieves the maximum dry density of approximately 0.56 tonne/m3, which maximizes the storage capacity and, hence, the operational life of the landfill site. Undrained shear strength-water content data (pertinent to the stability of the landfill body during construction) and effective stress-strength parameters, which take into account the landfill age and the effects of ongoing sludge digestion, are presented. Landfill subsidence, which occurs principally because of creep and decomposition of the solid organic particles, is significant and continues indefinitely but at progressively slower rates. PMID:16022414

O'Kelly, Brendan C

2005-06-01

53

2003 --Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT-BACKGROUND COLOR  

E-print Network

2003 -- Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT guidelines posed by "web gurus". Introduction Web Design Guidelines and Font-Background Color Combinations black on white. "Web gurus" are quick to make definitive statements about design and readable text

Missouri-Rolla, University of

54

76 FR 67182 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...felony convictions, and parties prohibited from receiving federal contracts. (2) Drug tests are for the presence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP). Contractors shall maintain records of all background...

2011-10-31

55

The Effects of Background Information and Syntactic Cues in Reading French Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared two groups of intermediate/advanced L2 French learners on a reading comprehension test when presented with or without background knowledge of the text. This study also compared intermediate and intermediate/advanced L2 French learners' reading comprehension when presented with increasing syntactic complexity. The results of…

Garrott, Carl L.

2009-01-01

56

How to Make Maps from Cosmic Microwave Background Data without Losing Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments can measure cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy---in principle. To achieve this in practice when faced with such gigantic data sets, elaborate data analysis methods are needed to make it computationally feasible. An important step in the data pipeline is to make a map, which typically reduces the size of the data

Max Tegmark

1997-01-01

57

The research of rural logistics distribution information under the background of new rural construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural informatization is the national economy and the important aspects of the information society, is an inevitable trend in the development of agriculture and the content of the agricultural modernization.The production and circulation of agricultural products is restricted greatly by the ineffective information and logistics.This paper introduces the meaning of the construction of the new countryside informationization and analyzes the

Haiqiong Zhou; WangQing

2011-01-01

58

The effects of spontaneous activity, background noise, and the stimulus ensemble on information transfer in neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information theory is playing an increasingly important role in the analysis of neural data as it can precisely quantify the reliability of stimulus-response functions. Estimating the mutual information between a neural spike train and a time varying stimulus is, however, not trivial in practice and requires assumptions about the specific computations being performed by the neuron under study. Consequently, estimates

Maurice J. Chacron; André Longtin; Leonard Maler

2003-01-01

59

Background for Builders--Related Science and Trade Information for the Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primarily intended for instructors but also useful to students, this guide provides a set of lessons (interlaced with humorous phrases and cartoons) for teaching fundamental information for the building trades. Each lesson contains objectives, related information, and a review or summary. Unit I is a brief, humorous message to the student on the…

Lucas, Joseph

60

What the Eye Sees while Predicting a Document's Pertinence from Its Citation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that addressed the problem of predicting pertinence of documents from citations. The difference between pertinence and relevance is discussed; the use of eye movement monitoring and verbal reports is explained; and citation viewing is discussed in terms of extensity, intensity, and motility. (20 references) (LRW)

Howard, Dara Lee

1991-01-01

61

77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...there are barriers in our recruitment and selection processes, DOI must track the demographic...at various stages of the recruitment process. Response is optional...information is used for evaluating recruitment only, and plays no...

2012-04-12

62

[A Packet of Information on the Background of the AFT-NEA Merger Break.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains informational materials about the breakdown in merger talks between the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and the National Education Association (NEA). Included in the packet are (a) the AFT statement on the breakup of unity talks; (b) transcripts of two news conferences by David Selden, president of the AFT, on the…

American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

63

Radiation and mixed-waste incineration. Background information document. Volume 1. Technology. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report provides a broad look at technology issues surrounding the incineration of radioactive and mixed wastes. It is intended to high light major considerations and to provide direction that would enable the reader who must deal in depth with incineration to focus on and seek specific information on concerns appropriate to a particular situation. It is not a comprehensive

Nawar

1991-01-01

64

Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

Sutter, S. L.

1982-05-01

65

Planning serials cancellations and cooperative collection development in the health sciences: methodology and background information.  

PubMed

In an era of steady-state budgets many research and academic libraries must cancel a significant number of current serials to maintain acquisitions of monographs. Thus paper reviews several techniques that have been used or that are of potential use in a rational selection of titles for cancellation. The context of the proposed methodology involves a network of libraries rather than an individual library. The methodology was tested with specific health sciences serial titles held by University of California libraries and resource libraries in NLM Region XI. As a test for the proposed methodology, background data were collected on 600 current foreign language serial titles included in SERLINE and held by at least one of the libraries in the networks of interest. Price, major secondary service coverage with productivity/impact factors, extent of holdings, and average number of recorded circulations per year in several of the libraries were recorded for each title. With the use of several different rules, estimates were made of the subscription savings that might be realized. It seems feasible to extend the same methodology to other groups of serial titles. PMID:1191822

Bourne, C P

1975-10-01

66

[State and development of background information for the evaluation of Czech cancer screening programmes].  

PubMed

Czech cancer screening programmes feature a comprehensive multimodal information system which covers all the levels of assessment needed - population-based monitoring (Czech National Cancer Registry), monitoring of results in the diagnostic databases of centres, as well as the quantification of coverage and outputs of primary care according to the administrative data of health care payers. A system of personalised invitations to cancer screening programmes was launched in 2014, based on a stand-alone component of the information system which makes it possible to identify eligible clients in health care payers databases. The system was fully standardised and uniformly implemented in all health insurance companies; its functionalities also involve both continuous and retrospective assessment of the results of personalised invitation. The legislative framework in force will have to be applied and implemented for a more comprehensive and integrated employment of all involved data sources, i.e. cancer registries, screening registries, and administrative data. The system must be able to analyse de-identified individual records on clients participation in screening programmes, and thus to ensure an adequate analysis of performance indicators in compliance with international recommendations. PMID:25494889

Dušek, L; Májek, O; Klimeš, D; Bláha, M; Brabec, P; Gregor, J

2014-01-01

67

32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

2014-07-01

68

32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

2011-07-01

69

32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

2013-07-01

70

32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

2010-07-01

71

32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

2012-07-01

72

Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

1970-01-01

73

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2010-07-01

74

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2012-07-01

75

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2013-07-01

76

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152...PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. An applicant normally...

2011-07-01

77

Surveys for presence of Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa): background information and field methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) is the most aquatic of the native frogs in the Pacific Northwest. The common name derives from the pattern of black, ragged-edged spots set against a brown or red ground color on the dorsum of adult frogs. Oregon spotted frogs are generally associated with wetland complexes that have several aquatic habitat types and sizeable coverage of emergent vegetation. Like other ranid frogs native to the Northwest, Oregon spotted frogs breed in spring, larvae transform in summer of their breeding year, and adults tend to be relatively short lived (3-5 yrs). Each life stage (egg, tadpole, juvenile and adult) has characteristics that present challenges for detection. Breeding can be explosive and completed within 1-2 weeks. Egg masses are laid in aggregations, often in a few locations in large areas of potential habitat. Egg masses can develop, hatch, and disintegrate in <2 weeks during warm weather. Tadpoles can be difficult to identify, have low survival, and spend most of their 3-4 months hidden in vegetation or flocculant substrates. Juveniles and adults are often difficult to capture and can spend summers away from breeding areas. Moreover, a substantial portion of extant populations are of limited size (<100 breeding adults), and field densities of all life stages are often low. An understanding of the biology of the species and use of multiple visits are thus important for assessing presence of Oregon spotted frogs. This report is meant to be a resource for USDA Region 6 Forest Service (FS) and OR/WA Bureau of Land Management (BLM) personnel tasked with surveying for the presence of Oregon spotted frogs. Our objective was to summarize information to improve the efficiency of field surveys and increase chances of detection if frogs are present. We include overviews of historical and extant ranges of Oregon spotted frog. We briefly summarize what is known of Oregon spotted frog habitat associations and review aspects of behavior and ecology that are likely to affect detectability in the field. We summarize characteristics that can help differentiate Oregon spotted frog life stages from other northwestern ranid frogs encountered during surveys. Appendices include examples of data collection formats and a protocol for disinfecting field gear.

Pearl, Christopher A.; Clayton, David; Turner, Lauri

2010-01-01

78

Background Information for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

2001-01-01

79

Mononucleosis Background Information  

E-print Network

the respiratory system, the liver, and the lymphatic system. It is most often caused by the Epstein-Barr virus to a cold, tonsillitis or digestive disturbances. Blood tests are usually delayed until the second week

Suzuki, Masatsugu

80

Background Information about PLCO  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large population-based randomized trial evaluating screening programs for these cancers. The primary goal of this long-term trial of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and on secondary endpoints.

81

Background Error Covariance Estimation Using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory.SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume

2014-01-01

82

Writing with Others' Words: Native and Non-Native University Students' Use of Information from a Background Reading Text in Academic Compositions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the use of background information by native and non-native English-speaking university students in explaining, summarizing, paraphrasing, quoting, and copying information from a reading text. Thirty students in composition courses (10 native speakers and 20 non-native speakers, 10 each from a remedial and a standard class) wrote…

Campbell, Cherry

83

Developing Metacognitive Behaviour in Physical Education Classes: The Use of Task-Pertinent Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in motor learning and sport pedagogy has shown that task-pertinent learning strategies enhance the learning and performance of self-paced motor tasks. Strategy research has typically been conducted under laboratory conditions in which artificial self-paced tasks were executed under well-controlled conditions. The purpose of this study was…

Lidor, Ronnie

2004-01-01

84

Pertinence of apoptosis markers for the1 improvement of in vitro fertilization (IVF)2  

E-print Network

1 Pertinence of apoptosis markers for the1 improvement of in vitro fertilization (IVF)2 D and birth rates following in3 vitro fertilization (IVF) attempts are still low. Recently, apoptotic markers % of these cases. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a4 possible solution for many of these couples. Despite

Boyer, Edmond

85

A dynamic power system model with graded precision for fast extraction of pertinent load flow information  

SciTech Connect

In many situations of power system restoration or emergency control load flow, often dynamic load flow, results are needed at a time scale which makes regular load flow computations impractical. In this paper a low order dynamic model is introduced which retains fully detailed and precise representation of the critical components (such as strong backbone lines like EHV or weak tie lines) where the interest is focused and reduces the detail of representation of other parts of the system gradually with their distance from the spotlighted sections where details are needed. The result is a low order and hence very fast computation with not only detailed but also quite precise results for those parts of the system which are critical. This approach is very flexible, it can be used to compute tie line load and frequency swings on an interconnection of areas or static loads on the tie lines of such a system affecting third parties in a power trading situation. It can be used to compute precisely and fast the EHV system loads or any combinations of such elements. The operator is quite free to choose what should be represented in precise detail.

Zaborszky, J.; Huang, G.M.; Huang, P.; Liu, J.B.

1985-12-01

86

A review of vapor explosion information pertinent to the SRS reactors  

SciTech Connect

Vapor explosions are explosive events resulting from the mixing of two liquids, one of which is heated to a temperature well above the boiling point of the second. Under some circumstances mixing of the liquids can boil part of the lower boiling liquid so quickly that the expanding vapor generates a strong pressure wave and explosion. If the lower boiling liquid is water, as is frequently the case, the event is called a ``steam explosion``. Analyses in support of the K-Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment have shown that steam explosions generated by the interaction of molten reactor fuel with water contribute significantly to the risk of reactor operation at the SRS. This calculated risk incorporates a conservative treatment of the uncertainties associated with such explosions. Study of steam explosions involving molten reactor materials has been included in the Severe Accident Analysis Program (SAAP) in order to obtain a better evaluation of their importance, and, if possible, to find ways to avoid them. This paper presents a brief review and summary of steam explosion experience from literature accounts, along with the results of experimental studies from the SAAP. It concludes with an evaluation of current knowledge, and suggestions for future development. 71 refs.

Hyder, M.L.; Allison, D.K.

1992-04-01

87

Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a 'Y' junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re-entry survey, and routine surveys around the crater lip did not identify alpha contamination. Background information includes several radiological surveys conducted after these two tests. The MULLET area has been surveyed frequently. The early surveys indicate the area as both contaminated and containing buried radioactive material. A survey conducted in 1970 found the radiological/chemical piping partially intact, including the 'Y' junction, and shows two runs of intact piping running past the U2am crater lip. The survey focused on the piping system itself and detected alpha contamination from 4 counts per minute (cpm) to 900,000 cpm. The highest value was at a pipe flange between a dirt pile and a dirt berm within the current site fence line. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. A 1972 survey was essentially a repeat of the 1970 survey; however, it does not show the 'Y' junction nor does it show piping extending past the U2am crater lip. It also shows a new fence line separating the radiological/chemical piping from the U2am crater area with all piping within the fence. Alpha contamination was detected on pipe flanges during the survey, but alpha contamination was not detected on the dirt pile or the dirt berm. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. Additional surveys were conducted in 1986, 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996. One of the surveys focused on determining the extent of soil contamination around GZ. An alpha contamination plume extending approximately 200 feet south of GZ was detected in a swath approximately 100 feet wide. The maximum measurement was 15,000 cpm alpha. All surveys show the piping within the fence line. Recent surveys (2007 and 2008) were performed around the current fence line by the demarcation group. No removable contamination was identified during these surveys. In late 2008, a visual inspection of the site was conducted by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Restoration group. All piping is within the fence line. Photos taken during this site visit are attached.

none,

2012-06-26

88

Child Care Providers' Use of HIV/AIDS Information Resources: Links to Professional Background Variables and Feelings about Caring for an HIV-Infected Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined child caregivers' use of various HIV/AIDS information resources in relation to professional background and attitudes. Found that providers' education level, child care experience, and the age group for which they were responsible correlated with use of newspaper/magazine articles, pamphlets, and educational workshops. Use of…

Coleman, Mick; Toledo, Carlos; Wallinga, Charlotte

2002-01-01

89

Commissioned by the NHMRC as background information for the SRDC’s Illicit Drug Research Program. Prepared by  

E-print Network

this summary of research undertaken in the past ten years into illicit drug use in Australia. This information was used at a workshop in Sydney in November 1998 where key stakeholders were brought together by the SRDC to assist in the design of a research agenda around illicit drug use. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this document is correct as at the time of printing, but the Commonwealth accepts no liability for any loss or damage resulting directly or indirectly from reliance on this information or from subsequent changes to the currency of the information. i CONTENTS

Julie H; Wayne Hall; Scott Rutter; Kate Dolan

1998-01-01

90

Dynamics, control and sensor issues pertinent to robotic hands for the EVA retriever system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic dynamics, sensor, control, and related artificial intelligence issues pertinent to smart robotic hands for the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever system are summarized and discussed. These smart hands are to be used as end effectors on arms attached to manned maneuvering units (MMU). The Retriever robotic systems comprised of MMU, arm and smart hands, are being developed to aid crewmen in the performance of routine EVA tasks including tool and object retrieval. The ultimate goal is to enhance the effectiveness of EVA crewmen.

Mclauchlan, Robert A.

1987-01-01

91

Evaluation of development toxicity data: a discussion of some pertinent factors and a proposal  

SciTech Connect

There is currently no well-accepted standard method for evaluation of developmental toxicity data. This paper presents one approach to the evaluation of developmental toxicity data. The authors initially identify some pertinent factors that influence the interpretation of animal data and summarize the literature pertaining to these factors. Such factors include the quality and quantity of data and the relationship between maternal and developmental toxicity. They proceed with a discussion of quantitative assessment of data and propose schemes for qualitative and quantitative developmental hazard assessments.

Hart, W.L.; Reynolds, R.C.; Krasavage, W.J.; Ely, T.S.; Bell, R.H.; Raleigh, R.L.

1988-03-01

92

Experimental investigations of a uranium plasma pertinent to a self-sustaining plasma source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is pertinent to the realization of a self-sustained fissioning plasma for applications such as nuclear propulsion, closed cycle MHD power generation using a plasma core reactor, and heat engines such as the nuclear piston engine, as well as the direct conversion of fission energy into optical radiation (nuclear pumped lasers). Diagnostic measurement methods and experimental devices simulating plasma core reactor conditions are discussed. Studies on the following topics are considered: (1) ballistic piston compressor (U-235); (2) high pressure uranium plasma (natural uranium); (3) sliding spark discharge (natural uranium); (4) fission fragment interaction (He-3 and U-235); and (5) nuclear pumped lasers (He-3 and U-235).

Schneider, R. T.

1971-01-01

93

Background Information for Think Tank on Planning, Governance and System Building Early Care and Education--NYC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides some background on early childhood planning and system building around the country. Since mid-December, the author has been studying these efforts for Child Care, Inc. (CCI) interviewing national experts and reading widely. This outline provides insights and lesson learned from those inquiries. The goal at this meeting will…

Boressoff, Todd

2008-01-01

94

"Micro-syntax, macro-syntax, foregrounding and backgrounding in discourse: When indexicals target discursively subsidiary information"*  

E-print Network

1 "Micro-syntax, macro-syntax, foregrounding and backgrounding in discourse: When indexicals target.'s (forthcoming) distinction between "micro-syntax" and "macro-syntax", as well as the orthogonal dichotomy in terms of "macro-syntax". The overall aim is to characterise the limits of discourse-anaphoric reference

Boyer, Edmond

95

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, VOL. 11, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2007 537 Variable Background Active Contour Model for  

E-print Network

(US). I. INTRODUCTION THYROID nodules are solid or cystic lumps formed in the thyroid gland, and can Variable Background Active Contour Model for Computer-Aided Delineation of Nodules in Thyroid Ultrasound-aided approach for nodule delineation in thyroid ultrasound (US) images. The devel- oped algorithm is based

Athens, University of

96

Background Study and Proposals for Development of Information Provision in Science and Technology in Ethiopia. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provision of information for research and development in science and technology in Ethiopia was studied by 50 participants in a seminar on evaluation and analysis of a national information policy and plan. Policy makers and planners, users, producers and suppliers of information, information specialists, and representatives of Unesco (United…

Schwarz, Stephan; Winkel, Annette

97

The Effect of Background Knowledge on Young Children's Comprehension of Explicit and Implicit Information. Technical Report No. 116.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate the applicability of schema-theoretic notions to young children's comprehension of textually explicit and inferrable information, slightly above-average second grade readers with strong and weak schemata for knowledge about spiders read a passage about spiders and answered wh-questions tapping both explicitly stated information and…

Pearson, P. David; And Others

98

40 CFR 152.95 - Citation of all studies in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...in the Agency's files pertinent to a specific data requirement. 152.95 Section 152.95 Protection...AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Satisfaction of Data Requirements and Protection of Data Submitters' Rights § 152.95 Citation...

2014-07-01

99

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry-background information for proposed air emission standards. Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, and semi-chemical mills. Interim final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being proposed for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. The document provides technical background information and analyses used in the development of the proposed pulp and paper NESHAP. It covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills. Effluent guideline limitations for pulp and paper mills are being developed concurrently under the Clean Water Act. Technical information used for the development of effluent guideline limitations is in separate documents.

Not Available

1993-10-01

100

Hurricane Backgrounder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides basic information on hurricanes. topics include the definition of hurricane , where they are likely to form, and their potential for damage, including high winds, heavy rainfall, flooding, tornadoes, and microbursts. There is also an illustration showing the Saffir-Simpson scale for classifying hurricane intensity, information on naming hurricanes, and a set of links to additional information.

2007-12-12

101

Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year.

Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

1980-10-01

102

Speech synthesis in background noise: effects of message formulation and visual information on the intelligibility of American English DECTalk.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current research was to investigate the intelligibility of synthesized speech in noise, when listeners are able to watch an individual using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) formulate messages on-line and when they are listening to a speaker without any visual information. A total of 80 participants were randomly assigned to four groups, with 20 participants in each group. Each group listened to sentences delivered using a different message formulation strategy: prestored; audibly formulated (messages are formulated on-line and the listener is able to hear the formulation as the message is being encoded); audibly formulated with no repeat (the full sentence at the end is not repeated); and quietly formulated (the message is formulated on-line, but the listener is not able to hear the system feedback throughout the formulation). The speaker for this study was a 35-year-old woman with cerebral palsy who used a VOCA with DECTalk (Beautiful Betty, American English) to communicate. Half of the sentences were presented in an auditory-only condition and half were presented in an auditory-visual condition. The dependent variable was intelligibility, as measured by the percentage of words correctly transcribed by each listener. The overall intelligibility of the sentences in the Audibly Formulated with No Repeat group was statistically significantly lower than in each of the other message formulation type groups. Visual information did not have an effect on intelligibility for this speaker. Clinical implications, limitations, and directions for future research and development are discussed. PMID:17487630

Drager, Kathryn D R; Anderson, Jessie L; Debarros, Julie; Hayes, Elizabeth; Liebman, Jamie; Panek, Elizabeth

2007-06-01

103

Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

1985-06-01

104

Regularities pertinent to formation of hydraulic nonuniformities at the outlet from the reactor plant header system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintaining the preset distribution of coolant mass flow rate at the outlet from the header system organized as a back turn with lateral admission of coolant to the header and central removal of coolant from it is one of the conditions essential for securing reliable and efficient operation of a reactor plant. In the header system, coolant passes through the annular lateral channel formed by the vessel and central barrel, after which it enters into the header, changes the motion direction in it, and goes out through the channels of the grid placed in the central barrel. The results obtained from experimental investigations of the hydrodynamics in the header system flow paths carried out on models with flat and cylindrical shapes are presented. A previously unknown regularity pertinent to formation of hydraulic irregularities at the header system outlet is revealed, and semi-empirical correlations for determining the coolant mass flow rate distribution at the header system outlet are obtained. The regularity connected with formation of hydrodynamic nonuniformities at the header system outlet lies in the fact that the position of the maximum coolant velocity at the grid outlet coincides with the position of the maximum velocity in the core of the incident jet attacking the grid, and that the maximal average coolant velocity in the grid holes is proportional to the average coolant velocity in the incident jet.

Gabrianovich, B. N.; Del'nov, V. N.

2014-05-01

105

Body Functions and Structures Pertinent to Infrared Thermography-Based Access for Clients with Severe Motor Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infrared thermography has been recently proposed as an access technology for individuals with disabilities, but body functions and structures pertinent to its use have not been documented. Seven clients (2 adults, 5 youth) with severe disabilities and their primary caregivers participated in this study. All clients had a Gross Motor Functional…

Memarian, Negar; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.; Chau, Tom

2011-01-01

106

Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information  

MedlinePLUS

... plant, but many compounds may be responsible for valerian's relaxing effect. Are botanical dietary supplements safe? Many ... before their full effects are achieved. For example, valerian may be effective as a sleep aid after ...

107

Background Error Covariance Estimation using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation into the GEOS-5 Coupled Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory. SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele M.; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume; Koster, Randal D. (Editor)

2014-01-01

108

Markle Foundation: The Task Force on National Security in the Information Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main feature of this Web site is the report titled "Protecting America's Freedom in the Information Age," released in October 2002. It examines how to effectively use information technology to collect and analyze information pertinent to national security. The report states that current government practices are insufficient in this area, and it is laden with recommendations for improving the situation. The task force's final findings and views are expressed in the first part of the report, some analyses of various working groups are given in the second part, and the final part is a collection of background research articles. Other sections of the site mainly constitute supporting documents for the report.

109

Pertinence de l'implantation de la filiere granule de bois pour le Quebec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Les spécialistes avancent que le marché mondial de l'énergie en forte demande et en offre limitée nécessitera bientôt toutes les formes d'énergie disponibles. Le granulé de bois est une forme de bioénergie principalement utilisée pour le chauffage des bâtiments et pourrait être davantage considéré dans l'offre énergétique du Québec. Comme le Québec est un territoire où il fait froid et donc susceptible de pouvoir se tourner vers cette forme d'énergie, l'objectif de ce mémoire est d'en analyser les avantages. Pour ce faire, nous commencerons par démontrer la croissance des besoins énergétiques sur les plans national et international et dresser un portrait des différentes formes d'énergies consommées au Québec. Puisque la majorité des Québécois chauffent leurs bâtiments à l'hydroélectricité, nous analyserons à travers le plan d'approvisionnement d'Hydro-Québec le portrait de la production et de la consommation de cette forme d'énergie renouvelable. Cela nous permettra de constater le défi face à la gestion de surplus importants, sauf pendant la période hivernale, et ce faisant, l'obligation de la société d'État d'utiliser davantage ses centrales au gaz ou de se tourner vers l'importation de l'électricité. Dans la même lignée, un regard sera porté sur les perspectives d'utilisation de l'hydroélectricité sur les plans de la production d'aluminium, de l'exportation et de l'utilisation dans l'électrification des transports au Québec. Cette analyse se fera dans l'objectif de s'interroger sur la pertinence d'utiliser cette source d'énergie dans le chauffage plutôt que dans des secteurs plus créateurs de richesse. Nous poserons ensuite l'hypothèse que le granulé de bois pourrait être un bon substitut à une autre forme d'énergie utilisée dans le chauffage, soit le mazout. Avant de dresser un portrait de ce combustible fossile, nous ferons celui de la production et de la consommation de granulés sur les plans régional, québécois, canadien, européen et mondial. Cela nous amènera par la suite à comparer les deux formes d'énergie sous les angles de l'économie et des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES). Après cette comparaison théorique, a suivi une comparaison réelle faite à partir des résultats d'une expérience terrain où cinq maisons chauffant au mazout ont été converties aux granulés de bois. Cela nous a permis de constater d'une part la véracité de nos comparaisons théoriques, mais aussi d'évaluer les différentes techniques relatives au fait de passer d'une forme d'énergie liquide (le mazout) à une forme solide (le granulé).

Tremblay, Stephan

110

Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization  

E-print Network

Polarization of the cosmic microwave background, though not yet detected, provides a source of information about cosmological parameters complementary to temperature fluctuations. This paper provides a complete theoretical treatment of polarization fluctuations. After a discussion of the physics of polarization, the Boltzmann equation governing the evolution of the photon density matrix is derived from quantum theory and applied to microwave background fluctuations, resulting in a complete set of transport equations for the Stokes parameters from both scalar and tensor metric perturbations. This approach is equivalent at lowest order in scattering kinematics to classical radiative transfer, and provides a general framework for treating the cosmological evolution of density matrices. The metric perturbations are treated in the physically appealing longitudinal gauge. Expressions for various temperature and polarization correlation functions are derived. Detection prospects and theoretical utility of microwave background polarization are briefly discussed.

Arthur Kosowsky

1995-02-03

111

Studying the specific features pertinent to combustion of chars obtained from coals having different degrees of metamorphism and biomass chars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Better conditions for igniting low-reaction coal (anthracite) can be obtained, higher fuel burnout ratio can be achieved, and the problem of shortage of a certain grade of coal can be solved by firing coal mixtures and by combusting coal jointly with solid biomass in coal-fired boilers. Results from studying the synergetic effect that had been revealed previously during the combustion of coal mixtures in flames are presented. A similar effect was also obtained during joint combustion of coal and wood in a flame. The kinetics pertinent to combustion of char mixtures obtained from coals characterized by different degrees of metamorphism and the kinetics pertinent to combustion of wood chars were studied on the RSK-1D laboratory setup. It was found from the experiments that the combustion rate of char mixtures obtained from coals having close degrees of metamorphism is equal to the value determined as a weighted mean rate with respect to the content of carbon. The combustion rate of char mixtures obtained from coals having essentially different degrees of metamorphism is close to the combustion rate of more reactive coal initially in the process and to the combustion rate of less reactive coal at the end of the process. A dependence of the specific burnout rate of carbon contained in the char of two wood fractions on reciprocal temperature in the range 663—833 K is obtained. The combustion mode of an experimental sample is determined together with the reaction rate constant and activation energy.

Bestsennyi, I. V.; Shchudlo, T. S.; Dunaevskaya, N. I.; Topal, A. I.

2013-12-01

112

4.4 RELEVANCE AND SIGNIFICANCE This proposal addresses the following published topic areas pertinent to the 14.3 Animal Manure  

E-print Network

pertinent to the 14.3 Animal Manure Management program: (a) Determination of the effects of animal manure and implementation of alternative waste treatment technologies and alternative animal production systems

Kentucky, University of

113

USE OF PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODELS TO QUANTIFY THE IMPACT OF HUMAN AGE AND INTERINDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY PERTINENT TO RISK (FINAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This final report, Use of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models to Quantify the Impact of Human Age and Interindividual Differences in Physiology and Biochemistry Pertinent to Risk Final R...

114

The University of Oklahoma Background Check Authorization (updated 02/05/2013) Hiring department completes this section. Incomplete information will delay the hiring process.  

E-print Network

for termination of past employment, financial/credit history, criminal history records from any criminal justice to substantiate their qualifications for employment. Criminal background checks will be conducted in addition

Oklahoma, University of

115

Primer on Durability of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Review of Pertinent Factors  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide a primer on the environmental effects that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant concrete structures. As concrete ages, changes in its properties will occur as a result of continuing microstructural changes (i.e., slow hydration, crystallization of amorphous constituents, and reactions between cement paste and aggregates), as well as environmental influences. These changes do not have to be detrimental to the point that concrete will not be able to meet its performance requirements. Concrete, however, can suffer undesirable changes with time because of improper specifications, a violation of specifications, or adverse performance of its cement paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either physical or chemical attack. Contained in this report is a discussion on concrete durability and the relationship between durability and performance, a review of the historical perspective related to concrete and longevity, a description of the basic materials that comprise reinforced concrete, and information on the environmental factors that can affect the performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Commentary is provided on the importance of an aging management program.

Naus, Dan J [ORNL

2007-02-01

116

Microwave Background, Backgrounds Hierarchy - Polyphony of Universe  

E-print Network

We discuss the structure, physical nature, dynamic genesis of clearly detected diffuse backgrounds (radiations) in the Universe. From the point of view of Wave Universe concept it is shown, that observed Backgrounds Hierarchy (Polyphony of Universe) is close connected and causely determined by the sound velocity Hierarchy of the physical medium, cosmic (polycomponent) plasma. The well-known Microwave Background (Cosmic Background Radiation - CBR) corresponds to the F[3] Background, that is characterized by the calculated sound velocity C*[3]=11.483 km/s, by the calculated temperature T*[3]=2.9 grad.K and by wavelength of the radiation intensity maximum lambda*[3]=1 mm.

A. M. Chechelnitsky

2001-05-18

117

The Evolution–Intelligent Design Debate: A Meaningful Context for Teaching the Nature of Science in Information Literacy. Part 1: Historical Background and Philosophical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although absent from the ACRL Information Literacy Standards for Science and Technology, the ability to distinguish between what is and is not science is an essential component of information literacy. Addressing this question requires the librarian to introduce concepts such as the nature of science, its realm, rules, and limits, as well as the nature of pseudoscience and nonscience before

Claudia Lascar; Loren D. Mendelsohn

2011-01-01

118

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry -- Background information for promulgated air emission standards: Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, semi-chemical, mechanical, and secondary and non-wood fiber mills. Final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being promulgated for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. This background information document provides technical information and analyses used in the development of the promulgated pulp and paper NESHAP, and contains responses to comments from the proposed rule. This document covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills (i.e., mills that combine on-site production of both pulp and paper).

NONE

1997-10-01

119

The Evolving National Information Network: Background and Challenges. A Report of the Technology Assessment Advisory Committee to the Commission on Preservation and Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapidly developing and changing networking and telecommunications environment now being implemented in the United States and across the globe is explored. The creation of a flexible and inexpensive digital network allowing instantaneous access by any individual to information of any type is now within our grasp. A primer on the technology…

Van Houweling, Douglas E.; McGill, Michael J.

120

Evaluation and promotion strategy research on information communication ability of public crisis under the background of public relations in the crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the progress of science and technology and the development of the economic globalization, social is in an open system environment, in which government's image and executive force will be affected by internal and external factors and so on, so the crisis of public relations possible happens at any time, and the information communication of public crisis is an important

Xi-bo Sun; Qi Wang

2011-01-01

121

The Background of PER People: A Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from a survey given to about 50 PER community members were analyzed to determine the backgrounds of the members. The type of college attended, the type of graduate school, when they chose physics, when they chose PER, and other interesting background information will be presented. Also presented will be gender analyses of background differences. Remarkably little difference in background was found between men and women in the sample.

McCullough, Laura

2006-12-01

122

Impact of the U.S. National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS) on Building Energy Performance Simulation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS) started the development of the National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS). Its goal is to define standard sets of data required to describe any given building in necessary detail so that any given AECO industry discipline application can find needed data at any point in the building lifecycle. This will include all data that are used in or are pertinent to building energy performance simulation and analysis. This paper describes the background that lead to the development of NBIMS, its goals and development methodology, its Part 1 (Version 1.0), and its probable impact on building energy performance simulation and analysis.

Bazjanac, Vladimir

2007-08-01

123

Wetlands in the Lake Champlain region of Vermont: Present and future threats to the resource. Boundary determination and background information for the EPA's proposed advanced identification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

EPA Region 1 Wetlands Protections Section is planning an Advanced Identification Project for the Lake Champlain Region of Vermont. 'Advanced Identification' refers to the two authorities EPA can utilize under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act to protect wetlands in advance of permit applications. In Vermont, a combined activities-based Advanced Identification of Sites (AIS) and Advance 404(c) project is proposed. This study determines the boundaries for the Advanced Identification action. It discusses the criteria developed to evaluate watershed considerations and both present and future threats to the resource. All towns in four counties bordering Lake Champlain were evaluated with regard to location in watershed, wetland acreage, wetland loss, population projections, historical growth trends, tax information, and housing stock estimates. Based on the criteria listed above, the towns selected are experiencing the types of growth pressures that will lead to continued wetland loss. EPA plans to restrict work at especially valuable sites with this area using Advance 404(c).

Borre, M.A.

1988-11-01

124

Background sources at PEP  

SciTech Connect

Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

1988-01-01

125

Background character research for synthetical performance of thermal imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background is assumed to be uniform usually for evaluating the performance of thermal imaging systems, however the impact of background cannot be ignored for target acquisition in reality, background character is important research content for thermal imaging technology. A background noise parameter 𝜎 was proposed in MRTD model and used to describe background character. Background experiments were designed, and some typical backgrounds (namely lawn background, concrete pavement background, trees background and snow background) character were analyzed by 𝜎. MRTD including 𝜎 was introduced into MRTD-Channel Width (CW) model, the impact of above typical backgrounds for target information quantity were analyzed by MRTD-CW model with background character. Target information quantity for different backgrounds was calculated by MRTD-CW, and compared with that of TTP model. A target acquisition performance model based on MRTD-CW with background character will be research in the future.

Chen, Song-lin; Wang, Ji-hui; Wang, Xiao-wei; Jin, Wei-qi

2014-05-01

126

Building Background Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

2014-01-01

127

Shielding and background reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background spectrum in a Low Background intrinsic germanium detector was analysed. Different possible sources of background and the influence of the materials used as well as the thickness of shielding was studied. Lead, copper, nylon, delrin and teflon of different thicknessewere used. Too much shielding material could induce some gamma rays from neutron production in the shielding due to

R. Núñez-Lagos; A. Virto

1996-01-01

128

The Cosmic Background Radiation  

E-print Network

We review the current status of experimental data for spectral distortions and angular anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, as well as discussing the relevant physical processes. This is one of a number of new articles in astrophysics and cosmology which will appear in the 1996 Review of Particle Properties (Phys. Rev. D. in press). Other relevant reviews include: "Big-Bang Cosmology" by K.A. Olive; "Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis" by K.A. Olive & D.N. Schramm; "The Hubble Constant" by C.J. Hogan; "Dark Matter" by M. Srednicki; "Cosmic Rays" by T.K. Gaisser & T. Stanev; "Solar Neutrinos" by K. Nakamura. Additional information is also available, such as astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particles such as axions and neutrinos, as well as tables of physical constants and astrophysical constants. These articles are part of a new initiative to widen the scope of the RPP by providing a regular review of some important topics and parameters in astrophysics.

G. F. Smoot; D. Scott

1996-03-28

129

Biological aerosol background characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

2011-05-01

130

How moving backgrounds influence interception.  

PubMed

Reaching movements towards an object are continuously guided by visual information about the target and the arm. Such guidance increases precision and allows one to adjust the movement if the target unexpectedly moves. On-going arm movements are also influenced by motion in the surrounding. Fast responses to motion in the surrounding could help cope with moving obstacles and with the consequences of changes in one's eye orientation and vantage point. To further evaluate how motion in the surrounding influences interceptive movements we asked subjects to tap a moving target when it reached a second, static target. We varied the direction and location of motion in the surrounding, as well as details of the stimuli that are known to influence eye movements. Subjects were most sensitive to motion in the background when such motion was near the targets. Whether or not the eyes were moving, and the direction of the background motion in relation to the direction in which the eyes were moving, had very little influence on the response to the background motion. We conclude that the responses to background motion are driven by motion near the target rather than by a global analysis of the optic flow and its relation with other information about self-motion. PMID:25767873

Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

2015-01-01

131

How Moving Backgrounds Influence Interception  

PubMed Central

Reaching movements towards an object are continuously guided by visual information about the target and the arm. Such guidance increases precision and allows one to adjust the movement if the target unexpectedly moves. On-going arm movements are also influenced by motion in the surrounding. Fast responses to motion in the surrounding could help cope with moving obstacles and with the consequences of changes in one’s eye orientation and vantage point. To further evaluate how motion in the surrounding influences interceptive movements we asked subjects to tap a moving target when it reached a second, static target. We varied the direction and location of motion in the surrounding, as well as details of the stimuli that are known to influence eye movements. Subjects were most sensitive to motion in the background when such motion was near the targets. Whether or not the eyes were moving, and the direction of the background motion in relation to the direction in which the eyes were moving, had very little influence on the response to the background motion. We conclude that the responses to background motion are driven by motion near the target rather than by a global analysis of the optic flow and its relation with other information about self-motion. PMID:25767873

Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

2015-01-01

132

2. Social, ethical, and economic background  

E-print Network

technology raise social issues and enable changes in society? David Keil Information Technology and Society 12. Social, ethical, and economic background David Keil Information Technology and Society 1/12 David Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 135 Information Technology and Society Topic 2: Social

Keil, David M.

133

Cosmological String Backgrounds  

E-print Network

Talk given at the ``4th Hellenic School on Elementary Particle Physics", Corfu, 2-20 September 1992: The propagation of strings in cosmological space-time backgrounds is reviewed. We show the relation of a special class of cosmological backgrounds to exact conformal field theory. Particular emphasis is put on the singularity structure of the cosmological space-time and on the discrete duality symmetries of the string background.

Dieter Luest

1993-03-31

134

The Cosmic Background Explorer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

1990-01-01

135

Thermogravimetric studies of systems pertinent to the in-situ combustion process for enhanced oil recovery. Part 1. Development of a high-pressure thermobalance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-pressure (0–1000 psig) thermobalance experiment has been developed in order to obtain thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry data (DTG) pertinent to the in-situ combustion process for enhanced oil recovery. Studies on the pressured thermo-oxidative behaviour of 20\\/80 (W\\/W) oil\\/sand and coked sand samples are reported.In the case of the oil\\/sand sample under a 100 psig non-oxidising atmosphere, distillation\\/evaporation occurred

S. Indrijarso; J. S. Oklany; A. Millington; D. Price; R. Hughes

1996-01-01

136

Health and Well-Being in Old Age: The Pertinence of a Gender Mainstreaming Approach in Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The demographic and societal changes of the past decades, such as longevity and improvements in public health, have created new and often very distinct realities for men and women. However, these diversities have only marginally and fragmentally been the topic of research endeavours. There is a growing awareness of the societal phenomenon ‘feminization of old age’, yet the topic

Pasqualina Perrig-Chiello; Sara Hutchison

2010-01-01

137

Background Check Consent Statement This Background Check Consent Statement documents your consent for Indiana University to obtain a background  

E-print Network

Background Check Consent Statement This Background Check Consent Statement documents your consent on file with the University). Failure to provide consent or the required information will result. This consent will apply throughout my employment in any position at Indiana University or during my

Zhou, Yaoqi

138

The Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

Arthur Kosowsky

2001-02-23

139

Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

Mello Koch, Robert de [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

2009-01-15

140

The Physics of Microwave Background Anisotropies  

E-print Network

Cosmic microwave background anisotropies provide a vast amount of information on both structure formation in the universe and the background dynamics and geometry. The full physical content and detailed structure of anisotropies can be understood in a simple and intuitive fashion through a systematic investigation of the individual mechanisms for anisotropy formation, based on elementary gravitational and fluid dynamics.

Wayne Hu; Naoshi Sugiyama; Joseph Silk

1995-04-18

141

Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal Bureau…

Fagnoni, Cynthia

142

Teaching ICT to Pacific Island Background Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes that in order for students from Pacific Islands backgrounds in multicultural information and communication technology (ICT) classrooms to gain maximum benefit from their studies, teachers must be aware of their cultural background and expectations. Technologies and teaching approaches which are foreign to indigenous Pacific islanders must be introduced cautiously so that all involved may fully appreciate the

Savae Latu; Alison Young

2004-01-01

143

Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

SciTech Connect

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of volcanic aerosol is over 30% faster than one would obtain without this correction. At background, the aerosol size distribution is found to remain remarkably constant between the tropopause and an altitude of approx.25 km, with a sudden transition to a distribution dominated by smaller particles above this altitude. The observations, in some respects, compare favorably with equilibrium one-dimensional stratospheric aerosol models and thus to some extent support the concept of relatively inert tropospheric sulfurous gases, such as carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide, as the main background stratospheric aerosol sulfur source. Models which incorporate sulfur chemistry are apparently not able to predict the observed variation of particle size with altitude. The 2-year background period is not long enough in itself to establish long-term trends. The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in May 1980 has considerably disrupted the background stratospheric aerosol which will probably not recover for several years. A comparison of the 1978--79 observations with Junge's original measurements made some 20 years earlier, also during a period void of volcanic perturbations, does not preclude a long-term increase in the background stratospheric aerosol level.

Hofmann, D.J.; Rosen, J.M.

1981-01-01

144

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR VOLUNTARY GRADE STANDARDS  

E-print Network

················································· ··········································· Weight additives ········································· Exterior sand, shell, coral, stone, etc··················· Interior sand, shell, coral, stone, etc

145

January 7, 2002 Background Information on  

E-print Network

Experiments In 1967, Andrei Sakharov showed that a matter-dominated universe (rather than one with equal parts violation have been observed lending support to the consistency of Sakharov's hypothesis. However

146

Background information on high voltage fields.  

PubMed Central

The increased demand for power has led to higher voltages for overhead transmission lines. Environmentalists, governmental agencies, and some members of the scientific community have questioned if past biological effects research and experience with lower voltage lines provide adequate bases for predicting the possible health and environmental effects of the higher voltage lines. Only a small amount of work has been done to explore the possible effects, especially long term effects, of the exposure of biological systems to electric fields from transmission lines. Research in Western Europe and the United States has not identified any prompt or acute effects other than spark and electric discharge and no permanent effects. Contrasted with this are the studies of workers in Soviet and Spanish high voltage switchyards that report effects, such as excitability, headaches, drowsiness, fatique, and nausea, that are not found in Soviet line maintenance workers. The results of current and planned research, supported by both U.S. Government agencies and the private sector, should resolve a number of the present uncertanties and provide answers for the many questions concerning potential effects. PMID:598346

Janes, D E

1977-01-01

147

Cosmic microwave background images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmology concerns itself with the fundamental questions about the formation, structure, and evolution of the Universe as a whole. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is one of the foremost pillars of physical cosmology. Joint analyses of CMB and other astronomical observations are able to determine with ever increasing precision the value of the fundamental cosmological parameters and to provide us with valuable insight about the dynamics of the Universe in evolution. The CMB radiation is a relic of the hot and dense first moments of the Universe: a extraordinarily homogeneous and isotropic blackbody radiation, which shows small temperature anisotropies that are the key for understanding the conditions of the primitive Universe, testing cosmological models and probing fundamental physics at the very dawn of time. CMB observations are obtained by imaging of the sky at microwave wavelengths. However, the CMB signal is mixed with other astrophysical signals of both Galactic and extragalactic origin. To properly exploit the cosmological information contained in CMB images, they must be cleansed of these other astrophysical emissions first. Blind source separation (BSS) has been a very active field in the last few years. Conversely, the term "compact sources" is often used in the CMB literature referring to spatially bounded, small features in the images, such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. Compact sources and diffuse sources are usually treated separately in CMB image processing. We devote this tutorial to the case of compact sources. Many of the compact source-detection techniques that are widespread inmost fields of astronomy are not easily applicable to CMB images. In this tutorial, we present an overview of the fundamentals of compact object detection theory keeping in mind at every moment these particularities. Throughout the article, we briefly consider Bayesian object detection, model selection, optimal linear filtering, nonlinear filtering, and multif- requency detection of compact sources in CMB images. This article's goal is to present a tutorial on the detection, parameter estimation and statistical analysis of compact sources (far galaxies, galaxy clusters, and Galactic dense emission regions) in CMB observations.

Herranz, D.; Vielva, P.

2010-01-01

148

The Cosmic Background Radiation  

E-print Network

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and anisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the update of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle Properties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

1997-11-08

149

Building Background Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on

Donna Ross

2010-01-01

150

Introduction Biological Background  

E-print Network

@mail.sdsu.eduUBC Biomath Seminar -- (1/39) #12;Introduction Biological Background Mathematical Models Conclusions Tunicate ­ Ciona intestinalis Ciona intestinalis ­ Tunicate ­ Sea Squirt Joseph M. Mahaffy, jmahaffy

Mahaffy, Joseph M.

151

Introduction 1 Background 1  

E-print Network

squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). The grey squirrel was introduced to Britain in the late 19 th century populations in Northern Ireland. Background The red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) was once ubiquitous

152

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J. F. [University of Denver (United States); Atwood, W. [University of California at Santa Cruz (United States); Burnett, T. [University of Washington (United States); Grove, E. [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Longo, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)-Pisa (Italy); McEnery, J.; Ritz, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Mizuno, T. [Hiroshima University (Japan)

2007-07-12

153

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J.F.; /Denver U.; Atwood, W.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Burnett, T.; /Washington U., Seattle; Grove, E.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Longo, F.; /INFN, Pisa; McEnery, J.; /NASA, Goddard; Mizuno, T.; /Hiroshima U.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

2007-10-17

154

The Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

I review the discovery of the temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The underlying theory and the implications for cosmology are reviewed, and I describe the prospects for future progress.

Joseph Silk

2002-12-12

155

Arbitrary background picture segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new method for real time arbitrary background picture segmentation. We consider the following picture conditions: color picture, noisy picture, scene light changes, and still image arbitrary background. They are typical for many applications, e.g. for video security system, videophone, videoconference, V-commerce, etc. A set-theoretic approach has been used for picture model creation, adaptive picture

S. Itzikowitz; S. Sheraizin

2002-01-01

156

Matching Background Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter introduces an especially important subject in the concealment of animals--countershading. One observes many animals with colors that match the general color of their usual backgrounds. Many leaf-eating insects appear green, for example, making them relatively inconspicuous against their normal background of leaves. The manner of coloration that will provide such a color match is not as obvious as one might imagine. It depends significantly on the nature of the lighting. The inquiry-based activities included in this section effectively illustrate this concept.

David Ipsen

2008-04-01

157

The cosmic microwave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

Silk, Joseph

1991-01-01

158

The Cosmic Background Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

1990-01-01

159

Cosmic Microwave Background  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the cosmic microwave background to understand why it permeates the universe and why it peaks as microwave radiation. Students should be able to explain that the origin of the background radiation is the uniform thermal radiation of the big bang and that the radiation produced was evenly distributed around the small early universe, causing it to permeate today's universe. This activity is part of the Cosmic Times teachers guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1965 Cosmic Times Poster.

160

CMB with the background primordial magnetic field  

E-print Network

We investigate the effects of the background primordial magnetic field (PMF) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The sound speed of the tightly coupled photon-baryon fluid is increased by the background PMF. The increased sound speed causes the odd peaks of the CMB temperature fluctuations to be suppressed and the CMB peak positions to be shifted to a larger scale. The background PMF causes a stronger decaying potential and increases the amplitude of the CMB. These two effects of the background PMF on a smaller scale cancel out, and the overall effects of the background PMF are the suppression of the CMB around the first peak and the shifting of peaks to a large scale. We also discuss obtaining information about the PMF generation mechanisms, and we examine the nonlinear evolution of the PMF by the constraint on the maximum scale for the PMF distributions. Finally, we discuss degeneracies between the PMF parameters and the standard cosmological parameters.

Dai G. Yamazaki

2014-04-21

161

Cosmic background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and\\u000aanisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the\\u000aupdate of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle\\u000aProperties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

2000-01-01

162

Local microwave background radiation  

E-print Network

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos Soares

2014-11-13

163

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing  

E-print Network

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

Rambaut, Andrew

164

EBSD Images Theoretical Background  

E-print Network

function during a welding procedure. Consistent grain growth curves were obtained with this techniqueMotivation EBSD Images Theoretical Background Defects in the Weld Grain Growth Low Speed Welding High Speed Welding Conclusion Heat-Affected Zone Observations Welding Experiments The low density

Candea, George

165

Microsoft External Research Backgrounder  

E-print Network

Microsoft External Research Backgrounder has been a part of a number of highly successful, cutting-edge collaborative projects over the years. In fact, in fiscal year 2008, Microsoft External Research supported External Research supports long-term initiatives to enhance teaching and learning through the creative use

Narasayya, Vivek

166

David Smith Academic background  

E-print Network

David Smith Academic background Ph.D. in Mathematics (Algebra), Université de Sherbrooke, Canada project program (I. Assem, F. Bergeron, C. Reutenauer, D. Smith) $132,000 ($44,000 per year for 3 years. Schiffler and D. Smith, Friezes, strings and cluster variables, to appear in Glasgow Mathematcal Journal. 2

167

Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies have and will continue to revolutionize our understanding of cosmology. The recent discovery of the previously predicted acoustic peaks in the power spectrum has established a working cosmological model: a critical density universe consisting of mainly dark matter and dark energy, which formed its structure through gravitational instability from quantum fluctuations during an inflationary

Wayne Hu; Scott Dodelson

2002-01-01

168

Cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is widely interpreted as the thermal afterglow of a hot big bang. Measurements of the CMBR intensity as a function of frequency constrain the history of cosmic energetics. Measurements of the anisotropy in the CMBR temperature provide a snapshot of the distribution of fluctuations in the gravitational potential at the earliest stages of cosmic

Lyman Page; David Wilkinson

1999-01-01

169

Radioactive Decay 1. Background  

E-print Network

Radioactive Decay 1. Background It is well known that many nuclei are unstable and are transformed into other nuclear species by means of either alpha decay or beta decay. The rate at which those radioactive on the number N of radioactive nuclei in the sample and also on the probability for each nucleus to decay

Elster, Charlotte

170

Wandering in the Background: A Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer  

E-print Network

Wandering in the Background: A Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer by Wayne T. Hu B.A. (Princeton Spinrad 1995 #12;1 Wandering in the Background: A Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer by Wayne T. Hu and geometry. Stressing model independent results, we show how the microwave background can be used to extract

Hu, Wayne

171

The cosmic microwave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

Silk, Joseph

1989-01-01

172

Giants On Deformed Backgrounds  

E-print Network

We study giant graviton probes in the framework of the three--parameter deformation of the AdS_5 x S^5 background. We examine both the case when the brane expands in the deformed part of the geometry and the case when it blows up into AdS. Performing a detailed analysis of small fluctuations around the giants, the configurations turn out to be stable. Our results hold even for the supersymmetric Lunin-Maldacena deformation.

Marco Pirrone

2006-12-07

173

Case Study: On a Deep-tow Piggy Back system, DAI-PACK - Pertinent information is coordinates, but tool is even more important -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep submergence vehicles bring us closer to the target we want to see in better resolution. It is difficult to obtain very detailed scale seafloor or sub-bottom structure profiling by a conventional surface-towed survey system, in which the horizontal spatial resolution in data obtained is poor because of the great distance between the sensors and the targets (seafloor/sub-bottom). To improve this horizontal resolution of the profiling, we have been developing and using deep-tow profiling systems for more than two decades at the Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. In our presentation we show our latest tool for the deep-sea mapping, named DAI-PACK (Deep-sea Acoustic Imaging Package) system, which has been tested and used in fields for more than four years now. It is not easy, however, to bring the tool deep and to maneuver and keep the towing altitude sufficiently close to the seafloor. To overcome this problem, we made the system work stand-alone and also made it portable in size and weight to be accommodated to ROVs (Remotely Operated Vehicle) or manned submersibles. We have chosen two sensors to be installed in the system, i.e. (1) deep-sea side-scan sonar and (2) deep-sea sub-bottom profiler. All components except sensors are packaged in an aluminum pressure sphere, which can be installed as a piggy back payload on many vehicles available today. From our recent experiments using the DAI-PACK on several vehicles, e.g. ROVs (the Hyper Dolphin in '03~'06, the ROPOS in '04, the Kaiko7000II in '06), and HOV (Shinkai6500 in '04, '05), we have learned several pros and cons regarding the use of the DSVs. We can discuss on the topics, such as (1) noise problem of the vehicles; ROVs were more noisy than Shinkai6500, (2) importance and need of good positioning of the vehicles;any DSVs we have used have not been installed a navigation system good enough to be collocated with the imagery data of the DAI-PACK, and (3) usefulness of sub-bottom profiling, based on real good/bad data we have collected. We haven't had a chance to use AUVs yet, but we can discuss about the advantage/disadvantage of using AUVs to some extent as well.

Kisimoto, K.; Joshima, M.; Nishimura, K.

2006-12-01

174

75 FR 48642 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Tag Recapture Card  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection; Comment Request; Tag Recapture Card AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric...II. Method of Collection The recapture cards will be sent out to the constituents who will fill in the cards with the pertinent information when...

2010-08-11

175

Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds  

E-print Network

Chapter 3 Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds New physics is often discovered by pushing;Chapter 3: Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds 104 the rate of background. High-energy neutrino to find suitable construction materials. 3.1 External Backgrounds External backgrounds are those in which

176

Coordination, microprotonation equilibria and conformational changes of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate with pertinence to its biological function.  

PubMed

Within all the eukaryotic cells there is an important group of biomolecules that has been potentially related to signalling functions: the myo-inositol phosphates (InsPs). In nature, the most abundant member of this family is the so called InsP6 (phytate, L(12-)), for which our group has strived in the past to elucidate its intricate chemical behaviour. In this work we expand on our earlier findings, shedding light on the inframolecular details of its protonation and complexation processes. We evaluate systematically the chemical performance of InsP6 in the presence and absence of alkali and alkaline earth metal ions, through (31)P NMR measurements, in a non-interacting medium and over a wide pH range. The analysis of the titration curves by means of a model based on the cluster expansion method allows us to describe in detail the distribution of the different protonated microspecies of the ligand. With the aid of molecular modelling tools, we assess the energetic and geometrical characteristics of the protonation sequence and the conformational transition suffered by InsP6 as the pH changes. By completely characterizing the protonation pattern, conformation and geometry of the metal complexes, we unveil the chemical and structural basis behind the influence that the physiologically relevant cations, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) have over the phytate chemical reactivity. This information is essential in the process of gaining reliable structural knowledge about the most important InsP6 species in the in vitro and in vivo experiments, and how these features modulate their probable biological functions. PMID:25058574

Veiga, Nicolás; Torres, Julia; Macho, Israel; Gómez, Kerman; González, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos

2014-11-21

177

Chiristmas Carol Background Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find out more information about the book A Christmas Carol. Use the websites below to answer the questions about A Christmas Carol . Write your answers to these questions on a piece of paper or a word document you can print and turn in. The answers must be in your own words! 1. This story takes place in Victorian London. This time ...

Mrs. Jansa

2012-11-28

178

Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

179

Kolmogorov cosmic microwave background sky  

E-print Network

A new map of the sky representing the degree of randomness in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature has been obtained. The map based on estimation of the Kolmogorov stochasticity parameter clearly distinguishes the contribution of the Galactic disk from the CMB and reveals regions of various degrees of randomness that can reflect the properties of inhomogeneities in the Universe. For example, among the high randomness regions is the southern non-Gaussian anomaly, the Cold Spot, with a stratification expected for the voids. Existence of its counterpart, a Northern Cold Spot with almost identical randomness properties among other low-temperature regions is revealed. By its informative power, Kolmogorov's map can be complementary to the CMB temperature and polarization sky maps.

V. G. Gurzadyan; A. E. Allahverdyan; T. Ghahramanyan; A. L. Kashin; H. G. Khachatryan; A. A. Kocharyan; H. Kuloghlian; S. Mirzoyan; E. Poghosian; G. Yegorian

2009-02-26

180

23. Cosmic microwave background 1 23. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

23. Cosmic microwave background 1 23. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND Revised August 2009 by D. Scott from beyond our Galaxy is dominated by the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), discovered in 1965 [1;2 23. Cosmic microwave background 23.2.1. The Monopole : The CMB has a mean temperature of T = 2

181

25. Cosmic microwave background 1 25. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

25. Cosmic microwave background 1 25. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND Revised August 2011 by D. Scott from beyond our Galaxy is dominated by the cosmic microwave background (CMB), discovered in 1965 [1://pdg.lbl.gov) June 18, 2012 16:19 #12;2 25. Cosmic microwave background 25.2.1. The Monopole : The CMB has a mean

182

23. Cosmic microwave background 1 23. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

23. Cosmic microwave background 1 23. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND Revised August 2011 by D. Scott from beyond our Galaxy is dominated by the cosmic microwave background (CMB), discovered in 1965 [1 update for the 2012 edition (pdg.lbl.gov) February 16, 2012 14:07 #12;2 23. Cosmic microwave background

183

Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation  

E-print Network

Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation Signals from the early universe, or pigeon droppings? #12;Microwave Background Radiation The spectrum is a near- perfect match energy reaching us from all directions. #12;Origin of the Microwave Background Back at z > 0, microwave

Barnes, Joshua Edward

184

BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY AUTHORIZATION FOR LIMITED RELEASE OF MEDICAL INFORMATION  

E-print Network

medical information (including pertinent medical records), and to discuss my medical condition providers.) 1. 2. 3. I understand that the forgoing records and medical information are limited onlyBOISE STATE UNIVERSITY AUTHORIZATION FOR LIMITED RELEASE OF MEDICAL INFORMATION ("Release") I

Barrash, Warren

185

Cosmic microwave background theory.  

PubMed

A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant. PMID:9419321

Bond, J R

1998-01-01

186

Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN) is dedicated to improving Earth system literacy through increased communication and collaboration among providers of informal Earth system education. The collection is designed for museum professionals (educators, exhibits designers, developers) as a resource of ideas, tools, traveling exhibits and online materials. The resources are web portals to organizations providing substantial informal Earth system science education. They describe educational programming, resources and exhibits that are pertinent to an informal educator.

187

Collective Bargaining Information Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest online resource from the always excellent Catherwood Library of the School of Industrial and Labor, Cornell University, was created as a compilation of resources to help Cornell students with a "mock bargaining" exercise. From the table of contents across the left side of page, users can access a collection of full-text resources and citations, including industry and economic information, costs of the labor contracts, news and trends, and wage and benefit information. Sources are thoughtfully annotated, including the paths to access information most pertinent to collective bargaining.

188

Background and Foreground: Audience Education from Theory to Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as all perceptions are of figures differentiated from a larger background, a play takes place against the background of the audience's knowledge and feelings. While audience members generally bring to a performance a large body of background information--they evaluate the storyline, for example, using a lifetime of personal experience--at…

Davis, Ken

189

X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

1996-01-01

190

Background Check Policy 4.15  

E-print Network

employment either voluntarily or involuntarily for any period of time. Criminal conviction Being found guilty law that regulates collection, dissemination and use of consumer credit information. Final candidate of discrimination and harassment. II. Regulations A. Background checks must be conducted on internal and external

Howat, Ian M.

191

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE Background  

E-print Network

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE INDIVIDUAL Background: Pregnant women are considered to be a 'higher risk group' for swine flu. This means that for a small minority of cases, complications could workplace adjustments regarding swine flu, it is your responsibility to inform Occupational Health

Davies, Christopher

192

Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present in the standard big bang model. In the present calculation, evolutionary effects on grain opacity and abundance are estimated. At wavelengths used in studying the microwave background, the optical depth of the grains is found to be 0.18 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.03, and 0.05 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.5. The results indicate that microwave background can provide information on an early dense phase of the universe.

Pollaine, S.

1978-01-01

193

Kolmogorov complexity as a descriptor of cosmic microwave background maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information theory approach is suggested to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) problem for negatively curved homogeneous and isotropic Universe. Namely, the Kolmogorov complexity of anisotropy spots of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation sky maps is proposed as a new descriptor for revealing crucial cosmological information, particularly on the curvature of the Universe. Such profound descriptor can be especially valuable

V. G. Gurzadyan

1999-01-01

194

Historical Background and Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty and twenty years after the two books published by Einar Tandberg-Hanssen (Solar prominences (Geophysics and astrophysics monographs), Vol. 12. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1974; The nature of solar prominences, astrophysics and space science library, Vol. 199. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995) on solar prominences, it is time to update our knowledge and understanding of these fascinating solar structures. After a brief history which overviews first eclipse observations (drawings and then photography), spectrographic, coronagraphic and later on polarimetric measurements, the chapter presents samples of the most spectacular results of the last two decades, obtained whether from space or on the ground. It discusses the contents of the book in order to encourage the reader to dip into the following 17 chapters which provide comprehensive and detailed observations, information about the methods used, and interpretation of the results on the basis of the latest theoretical and modelling works.

Vial, Jean-Claude

195

START Background Report START, September 2013 1 BACKGROUND REPORT  

E-print Network

START Background Report © START, September 2013 1 BACKGROUND REPORT Al-Shabaab Attack on Westgate evening, Sept. 24. Media sources report that Somali militant organization al-Shabaab has claimed deaths as of Sept. 25. START has developed this background report highlighting attacks attributed to al-Shabaab

Hill, Wendell T.

196

Integrable Background Geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ?-manifold, determines a (k+?)-dimensional geometry (k+??4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ?-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+?)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(?) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(?^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently , degenerate or null reductions have attracted increased interest. Two of these reductions and their gauge theories (arguably, the two most significant) are also described.

Calderbank, David M. J.

2014-03-01

197

Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coleridge's famous line about water everywhere without a drop to drink may serve as a useful metaphor for the contemporary design studio. Engulfed within a sea of information, where does the designer look for references? This paper outlines the results of an ongoing research project entitled 'Interactive Multimedia within the Design Studio' (grant awarded by FAPEMIG - Fundação de Amparo

Philip Rhodes

1991-01-01

198

The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention Citation: Hall, R. and Hanna, P. (2004), The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention, Behaviour & Information Technology, forthcoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text\\/background color combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioral intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four color-combination conditions. Major findings were: a) Colors with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater

Richard H. Hall

199

REPORT NO. 5 background material  

E-print Network

REPORT NO. 5 background material for the development of radiation protection standards July 1964 Staff Report of the FEDERAL RADIATION COUNCIL #12;REPORT NO. 5 background material for the development INTRODUCTION This report contains background material used in the development of guidance for Federal agencies

200

Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km - 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRlS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

Bernacki, Bruce; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean; Jordan, David; Kulisek, Jonathan; Stewart, Trevor; Seifert, Carolyn

2014-06-01

201

Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

2014-06-13

202

Image segmentation algorithm based on contourlet transform and background complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In infrared image, the grey distribution of background and target are instability, so it has much difficulty in the target segmentation. In this paper, a novel image segmentation algorithm is presented which is based on Contourlet transform and background complexity. Firstly, using Contourlet transform, the structure information of target and background is obtained. Next, structure similarity of target and background is computed. Finally, through the structure similarity of target and background, segmentation threshold is adjusted adaptively. If the structure similarity of target and background is low, it indicates that background is simple, segmentation threshold is set with the grey information. If the structure similarity of target and background is high, segmentation threshold is set with the structure information. The simulation experiments show that the target can be segmented truly in the complex background environment. The algorithm not only reserves the advantage of the grey segmentation in simple background environment, but overcomes the limitation of the grey segmentation in complex background environment, shows better adaptability than the traditional image segmentation methods.

Li, Xue; Meng, Wei-hua; Xiang, Jingbo

2013-09-01

203

Summary of Information Relating to Gust Loads on Airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Available information on gust structure, airplane reactions, and pertinent operating statistics has been examined. This report attempts to coordinate this information with reference to the prediction of gust loads on airplanes. The material covered represents research up to October 1947. (author)

Donely, Philip

1950-01-01

204

Background modeling for the GERDA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The neutrinoless double beta (0???) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0??? decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ??} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and ? emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

2013-08-08

205

1. Disciplinary content outcome: Demonstrate mastery or competence in a specific area or period of art history (including pertinent terminology, major achievements, works of major artists in cultural and historic contexts)  

E-print Network

not previously known to them in a more successful way. Students develop skills essential in art historical of art history (including pertinent terminology, major achievements, works of major artists in cultural and historic contexts) Direct Assessment measure: Essay assignments, exams, group projects and image sleuthing

Asaithambi, Asai

206

How do hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background estimate their language skills and their comprehension of medical information – a prospective cross-sectional study and comparison to native patients in Germany to assess the language barrier and the need for translation  

PubMed Central

Background Today more than two million people with Turkish migration background live in Germany making them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Data concerning language skills and the perception of medical information in hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background (T) are scarce. Our study is the first to gather quantitative information on this important subject. Methods T and hospitalised German patients without migration background (G) of our university hospital were prospectively included into a cross-sectional study and completed a questionnaire - each group in the appropriate language (T: Turkish, G: German). Results 121 T and 121 G were included. Groups significantly differed in age (T: 44.9?±?17.8, G: 56.9?±?16.7y) and proportion of males (T: 37.2, G: 54.5%) but not regarding the proportion of college graduates (T: 19.3, G: 15.7%). The majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74% of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73% speak German at work. 74.4% of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as “average” or better while 25.6% reported it as “very bad” or “bad”. 10.7% of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physician’s information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3% of T estimated their reception of the physician’s information to be “average” or worse. 43.3% of T had the impression that it would have helped them “much” or “very much” to be aided by an interpreter at the hospital. The information transmitted while giving informed consent to invasive medical procedure was judged to be “mostly” or “completely” sufficient by the majority of T (76%) and G (89.8%). In this setting 37 of 96 T (38.5%) reported being helped by an interpreter – in most cases (64.9%) a family member. Conclusion Although the majority of patients with Turkish migration background have spent most of their lives in Germany (28.94?±?10.41y) a large part of this population has limited German language skills and difficulties obtaining medical information when hospitalised. PMID:23710582

2013-01-01

207

START Background Report START, May 2014 1 BACKGROUND REPORT  

E-print Network

START Background Report © START, May 2014 1 BACKGROUND REPORT Boko Haram Recent Attacks On Tuesday, April 15, 2014, the terrorist organization Boko Haram attacked a girls' school in Chibok, Borno state, in northern Nigeria, abducting between 250-300 young school girls. Boko Haram's leader, Abubakar Shekau

Hill, Wendell T.

208

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil  

E-print Network

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil Hundreds of indigenous people demonstrated at the National Congress in Brasilia, capital of Brazil, following the announcement in the 1990s in the midst of extensive protests in Brazil and around the world. On February 8, an indigenous

Milchberg, Howard

209

Information Security Group Information Security in the  

E-print Network

Information Security Group Information Security in the undergraduate curriculum Chris Mitchell Royal Holloway, University of London www.isg.rhul.ac.uk/~cjm 1 #12;Information Security Group Background by malicious criminal gangs. 2 #12;Information Security Group Background II · IT industry has recognised

Mitchell, Chris

210

Background  

Cancer.gov

Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls provide the highest quality, least biased dietary data. Traditional 24-hour recalls, however, are expensive and impractical for large-scale research because they rely on trained interviewers and multiple administrations to estimate usual intakes. As a result, researchers often make use of food frequency questionnaires, which are less expensive but contain substantial error.

211

Background  

E-print Network

This Provisional PDF corresponds to the article as it appeared upon acceptance. Fully formatted PDF and full text (HTML) versions will be made available soon. Embryonic diapause in humans: time to consider?

Grazyna E Ptak; Jacek A Modlinski; Grazyna E Ptak; Jacek A Modlinski; Pasqualino Loi

2013-01-01

212

Background  

Cancer.gov

The discovery that proteins and peptides are "leaked" by tumors into clinically accessible bodily fluids such as blood has led to the possibility of diagnosing cancer at an early stage or monitoring response to treatment by collecting these fluids and testing for the presence of cancer-related biomarkers. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) are examples of blood-borne cancer protein biomarkers that are currently being used in the clinic.

213

Neutron background at Boulby mine  

E-print Network

The neutron background at the underground laboratory at Boulby - a site for several dark matter experiments - is discussed. Special emphasis is put on the neutron background produced by cosmic-ray muons. The most recent versions of the muon propagation code MUSIC, and particle transport code FLUKA are used to evaluate muon and neutron fluxes. The results of simulations are compared with experimental data.

V. A. Kudryavtsev; P. K. Lightfoot; J. E. McMillan; M. Robinson; N. J. C. Spooner; P. F. Smith; N. J. T. Smith; J. D. Lewin; R. Luscher; I. Liubarsky

2003-01-31

214

Lattice QCD in Background Fields  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

2009-06-01

215

Strings in plane wave backgrounds  

E-print Network

I review aspects of string theory on plane wave backgrounds emphasising the connection to gauge theory given by the BMN correspondence. Topics covered include the Penrose limit and its role in deriving the BMN duality from AdS/CFT, light-cone string field theory in the maximally supersymmetric plane wave and extensions of the correspondence to less supersymmetric backgrounds.

A. Pankiewicz

2003-07-11

216

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation is discussed beginning with radio astronomical measuring techniques, followed by the history of the detection of background radiation, and a summary of some of its properties. Attention is given to the design and operation of a radiotelescope, its antenna and radiometer, exhibiting its advantages, including the ability to measure a collecting area

R. W. Wilson

1979-01-01

217

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize the theoretical and observational status of the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Its thermodynamic spectrum is a robust prediction of the Hot Big Bang cosmology and has been confirmed observationally. There are now 75 observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy, which we present in a table with references. We discuss the theoretical origins of these anisotropies

Eric Gawiser; Joseph Silk

2000-01-01

218

Background reduction in cryogenic detectors  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

2005-04-01

219

Mapping the gravitational wave background  

E-print Network

The gravitational wave sky is expected to have isolated bright sources superimposed on a diffuse gravitational wave background. The background radiation has two components: a confusion limited background from unresolved astrophysical sources; and a cosmological component formed during the birth of the universe. A map of the gravitational wave background can be made by sweeping a gravitational wave detector across the sky. The detector output is a complicated convolution of the sky luminosity distribution, the detector response function and the scan pattern. Here we study the general de-convolution problem, and show how LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational Observatory) and LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) can be used to detect anisotropies in the gravitational wave background.

Neil J. Cornish

2001-05-22

220

Adult Education Information and Referral Hot-Line. Adult Education Special Project. Final Report, July 1980-June 1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A toll-free adult education information and referral hotline provided information and referral services to approximately 1500 adults in Region IX in Texas from September 1980 to June 1981. Adult education co-ops and testing centers forwarded pertinent program information (class schedules, General Educational Development testing information) to the…

Morgan, Jim

221

Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility  

SciTech Connect

The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3? muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Wang, B. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-08-08

222

Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments  

E-print Network

Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10^-5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

B. Majorovits; I. Abt; M. Laubenstein; O. Volynets

2011-05-18

223

Non Thermal Features in the Cosmic Neutrino Background  

E-print Network

I review some of the basic information on the Cosmic Neutrino Background momentum distribution. In particular, I discuss how present data from several cosmological observables such as Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure power spectrum constrain possible deviations from a standard Fermi-Dirac thermal distribution.

G. Mangano

2006-03-22

224

Search for the Cosmic Neutrino Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One expects three Cosmic Backgrounds: (1) The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) originated 380000 years after the Big Bang (BB). (2) The Neutrino Background decoupled about one second after the BB, while (3) the Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background created by the inflationary expansion decoupled directly after the BB. Only the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been detected and is well studied. Its spectrum follows Planck's black body radiation formula and shows a remarkable constant temperature of T0? ? 2.7 K independent of the direction. The present photon density is about 370 photons per cm3. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 380 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T0? = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe and form the CMB. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 380 000 years after the Big Bang. The Cosmic Neutrino Background (C?B) decoupled from matter already one second after the BB at a temperature of about 1010 K. Today their temperature is ~ 1.95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos and the total density of all neutrinos about 336 per cm3. Measurement of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key elements of the Big Bang Cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe. The search for the C?B with the induced beta decay ?e+3H ? 3He + e? using KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) is the topic of this contribution.

Faessler, A.; Hodak, R.; Kovalenko, S.; Simkovic, F.

2015-02-01

225

Local covariance and background independence  

E-print Network

One of the many conceptual difficulties in the development of quantum gravity is the role of a background geometry for the structure of quantum field theory. To some extent the problem can be solved by the principle of local covariance. The principle of local covariance was originally imposed in order to restrict the renormalization freedom for quantum field theories on generic spacetimes. It turned out that it can also be used to implement the request of background independence. Locally covariant fields then arise as background independent entities.

Klaus Fredenhagen; Katarzyna Rejzner

2011-02-11

226

THE UBIQUITY OF BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE  

E-print Network

; this knowl- edge is treated as undisputed, if only for the time being and for the problem at hand (Popper for falsification by making modifications in the background knowledge (Kuipers 2001, p.225/p.244). This paper

Kamps, Jaap

227

Michael Yates KROLL Background Checks  

E-print Network

Advisor VC Areas: AA, ER DOJ/FBI Background Checks x46338 Pearl White Sr. Employment Advisor VC Areas: SOM II Outreach x49691 DOJ/FBI/Kroll BG Check Backup MSP Backup EMPLOYMENT, STAFFING & OUTREACH BACK UP

Jun, Suckjoon

228

Inflation and the microwave background  

E-print Network

I discuss the interplay between inflation and microwave background anisotropies, stressing in particular the accuracy with which inflation predictions need to be made, and the importance of inflation as an underlying paradigm for cosmological parameter estimation.

Andrew R Liddle

1998-03-13

229

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

E-print Network

We summarize the theoretical and observational status of the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Its thermodynamic spectrum is a robust prediction of the Hot Big Bang cosmology and has been confirmed observationally. There are now 76 observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy, which we present in a table with references. We discuss the theoretical origins of these anisotropies and explain the standard jargon associated with their observation.

Eric Gawiser; Joseph Silk

2000-02-02

230

Making maps of the cosmic microwave background: The MAXIMAexample  

SciTech Connect

This work describes cosmic microwave background (CMB) data analysis algorithms and their implementations, developed to produce a pixelized map of the sky and a corresponding pixel-pixel noise correlation matrix from time ordered data for a CMB mapping experiment. We discuss in turn algorithms for estimating noise properties from the time ordered data, techniques for manipulating the time ordered data, and a number of variants of the maximum likelihood map-making procedure. We pay particular attention to issues pertinent to real CMB data, and present ways of incorporating them within the framework of maximum likelihood map making. Making a map of the sky is shown to be not only an intermediate step rendering an image of the sky, but also an important diagnostic stage, when tests for and/or removal of systematic effects can efficiently be performed. The case under study is the MAXEMA-I data set. However, the methods discussed are expected to be applicable to the analysis of other current and forthcoming CMB experiments.

Stompor, R.; Balbi, A.; Borrill, J.D.; Ferreira, P.G.; Hanany,S.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lee, A.T.; Oh, S.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P.L.; Smoot,G.F.; Winant, C.D.; Wu, J.H.P.

2001-06-25

231

Making Maps Of The Cosmic Microwave Background: The MAXIMA Example  

E-print Network

This work describes Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data analysis algorithms and their implementations, developed to produce a pixelized map of the sky and a corresponding pixel-pixel noise correlation matrix from time ordered data for a CMB mapping experiment. We discuss in turn algorithms for estimating noise properties from the time ordered data, techniques for manipulating the time ordered data, and a number of variants of the maximum likelihood map-making procedure. We pay particular attention to issues pertinent to real CMB data, and present ways of incorporating them within the framework of maximum likelihood map-making. Making a map of the sky is shown to be not only an intermediate step rendering an image of the sky, but also an important diagnostic stage, when tests for and/or removal of systematic effects can efficiently be performed. The case under study is the MAXIMA data set. However, the methods discussed are expected to be applicable to the analysis of other current and forthcoming CMB experiments.

R. Stompor; A. Balbi; J. D. Borrill; P. G. Ferreira; S. Hanany; A. H. Jaffe; A. T. Lee; S. Oh; B. Rabii; P. L. Richards; G. F. Smoot; C. D. Winant; J. -H. P. Wu

2002-01-12

232

Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported that the highest power fluctuations occur at scales of about one degree. A number of ground-based interferometers provided measurements of the fluctuations with higher accuracy over the next three years, including the Very Small Array [16], Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) [61], and the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) [78]. DASI was the first to detect the polarization of the CMB and the CBI provided the first E-mode polarization spectrum with compelling evidence that it is out of phase with the T-mode spectrum. In June 2001, NASA launched its second CMB mission (after COBE), Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Explorer (WMAP) [44], to make much more precise measurements of the CMB sky. WMAP measured the differences in the CMB temperature across the sky creating a full-sky map of the CMB in five different frequency bands. The mission also measured the CMB's E-mode and the foreground polarization. As of October 2010, the WMAP spacecraft has ended its mission after nine years of operation. Although WMAP provided very accurate measurements of the large angular-scale fluctuations in the CMB, it did not have the angular resolution to cover the smaller-scale fluctuations that had been observed by previous ground-based interferometers. A third space mission, the Planck Surveyor [1], was launched by ESA* in May 2009 to measure the CMB on smaller scales than WMAP, as well as making precise measurements of the polarization of CMB. Planck represents an advance over WMAP in several respects: it observes in higher resolution, hence allowing one to probe the CMB power spectrum to smaller scales; it has a higher sensitivity and observes in nine frequency bands rather than five, hence improving the astrophysical foreground models. The mission has a wide variety of scientific aims, including: (1) detecting the total intensity/polarization of the primordial CMB anisotropies; (2) creating a galaxy-cluster catalogue through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect [93]; (3) observing the gravitational lensing of the CMB and the integrated Sachs Wolfe (ISW) effect [82]; (4) observing br

Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

2012-03-01

233

The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment  

E-print Network

We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rocket flight CIBER has sensitivity to probe fluctuations 100 times fainter than IRTS/DIRBE. By jointly observing regions of the sky studied by Spitzer and ASTRO-F, CIBER will build a multi-color view of the near-infrared background, accurately assessing the contribution of local (z = 1-3) galaxies to the observed background fluctuations, allowing a deep and comprehensive survey for first-light galaxy background fluctuations. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for a redshifted Lyman cutoff feature between 0.8 - 2.0 microns. The high-resolution spectrometer will trace zodiacal light using the intensity of scattered Fraunhofer lines, providing an independent measurement of the zodiacal emission and a new check of DIRBE zodiacal dust models. The combination will systematically search for the infrared excess background light reported in near-infrared DIRBE/IRTS data, compared with the small excess reported at optical wavelengths.

James Bock; John Battle; Asantha Cooray; Mitsunobu Kawada; Brian Keating; Andrew Lange; Dae-Hea Lee; Toshio Matsumoto; Shuji Matsuura; Soojong Pak; Tom Renbarger; Ian Sullivan; Kohji Tsumura; Takehiko Wada; Toyoki Watabe

2005-10-19

234

Trial SNAPSHOT: measurements for terrain background characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and spectral characteristics of targets and backgrounds must be known and understood for a wide variety of reasons such as: synthetic scene simulation and validation; target description for modelling; in- service target material characterisation and background variability assessment. Without this information it will be impossible to design effective camouflage systems and to maximise the capabilities of new sensors. Laboratory measurements of background materials are insufficient to provide the data required. A series of trials are being undertaken in the UK to quantify both diurnal and seasonal changes of a terrain background, as well as the statistical variability within a scene. These trials are part of a collaborative effort between the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK), Defence Clothing and Textile Agency (UK) and the T.A.C.O.M., USA). Data are being gathered at a single site consisting primarily of south facing mixed coniferous and deciduous woodland, but also containing uncultivated grassland and tracks. Ideally each point in the scene needs to be characterized at all relevant wavelengths but his is unrealistic. In addition there are a number of important environmental variables that are required. The goal of the measurement programme is to acquire data across the spectrum from 0.4 - 14 microns. Sensors used to include visible band imaging spectroradiometers, telespectroradiometers (visual, NIR, SWIR and LWIR), calibrate colour cameras, broad band SWIR and LWIR imagers and contact reflectance measurement equipment. Targets consist of painted panels with known material properties and a wheeled vehicle, which is in some cases covered with camouflage netting. Measurements have bene made of the background with and without the man- made objects present. This paper will review the results to date and present an analysis of the spectral characteristics fo different surfaces. In addition some consideration will be given to the implications of the data obtained for camouflage design.

Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Mitchell, Alistair A.; Bell, Christopher R.; Thomas, David J.; Evans, Roger

2000-07-01

235

Low Background Micromegas in CAST  

E-print Network

Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

J. G. Garza; S. Aune; D. Calvet; J. F. Castel; F. E. Christensen; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; T. Decker; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. Galán; J. A. García; I. Giomataris; R. M. Hill; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; A. C. Jakobsen; D. Jourde; H. Mirallas; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; J. Ruz; A. Tomás; T. Vafeiadis; J. K. Vogel

2015-03-17

236

BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of

Ruth Durrer

2009-01-01

237

Confidentiality Agreement for Access to HRS and Banner Background  

E-print Network

Confidentiality Agreement for Access to HRS and Banner Background: HRS and Banner are the data. Many of these records contain personal information about employees and are confidential and private, use, and become aware of information regarding employees and applicants that is confidential. I

238

Gravitino condensation in fivebrane backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the tension of the D3-brane in the fivebrane background which is described by the exactly solvable SU(2)k×U(1) world-sheet conformal field theory with large Ka?-Moody level k. The D3-brane tension is extracted from the amplitude of one closed string exchange between two parallel D3-branes, and the amplitude is calculated by utilizing the open-closed string duality. The tension of the D3-brane in the background does not coincide with the one in the flat space-time even in the flat space-time limit: k-->?. The finite curvature effect should vanish in the flat space-time limit and only the topological effect can remain. Therefore, the deviation suggests the condensation of the gravitino and/or dilatino which has been expected in the fivebrane background as a gravitational instanton.

Kitazawa, Noriaki

2002-04-01

239

Background simulations and shielding calculations  

SciTech Connect

Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

2011-04-27

240

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

Silk, Joseph

1992-01-01

241

Detector Background at Muon Colliders  

SciTech Connect

Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

242

Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.  

PubMed

When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

2010-06-25

243

Exotic Branes and Nongeometric Backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries.

Boer, Jan de; Shigemori, Masaki [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2010-06-25

244

MACSIMS : multiple alignment of complete sequences information management system  

PubMed Central

Background In the post-genomic era, systems-level studies are being performed that seek to explain complex biological systems by integrating diverse resources from fields such as genomics, proteomics or transcriptomics. New information management systems are now needed for the collection, validation and analysis of the vast amount of heterogeneous data available. Multiple alignments of complete sequences provide an ideal environment for the integration of this information in the context of the protein family. Results MACSIMS is a multiple alignment-based information management program that combines the advantages of both knowledge-based and ab initio sequence analysis methods. Structural and functional information is retrieved automatically from the public databases. In the multiple alignment, homologous regions are identified and the retrieved data is evaluated and propagated from known to unknown sequences with these reliable regions. In a large-scale evaluation, the specificity of the propagated sequence features is estimated to be >99%, i.e. very few false positive predictions are made. MACSIMS is then used to characterise mutations in a test set of 100 proteins that are known to be involved in human genetic diseases. The number of sequence features associated with these proteins was increased by 60%, compared to the features available in the public databases. An XML format output file allows automatic parsing of the MACSIM results, while a graphical display using the JalView program allows manual analysis. Conclusion MACSIMS is a new information management system that incorporates detailed analyses of protein families at the structural, functional and evolutionary levels. MACSIMS thus provides a unique environment that facilitates knowledge extraction and the presentation of the most pertinent information to the biologist. A web server and the source code are available at . PMID:16792820

Thompson, Julie D; Muller, Arnaud; Waterhouse, Andrew; Procter, Jim; Barton, Geoffrey J; Plewniak, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier

2006-01-01

245

Raman background photobleaching as a possible method of cancer diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetics of photobleaching of background in Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of plant toxins ricin and ricin agglutinin, ricin binding subunit, and normal and malignant human blood serum were measured. For the excitation of the spectra cw and pulsed laser radiation were used. The spectra of Raman background change upon laser irradiation. Background intensity is lower for the samples with small molecular weight. The cyclization of amino acid residues in the toxin molecules as well as in human blood serum can be a reason of the Raman background. The model of the background photobleaching is proposed. The differences in photobleaching kinetics in the cases of cw and pulsed laser radiation are discussed. It is shown that Raman background photobleaching can be very informative for cancer diagnostics.

Brandt, Nikolai N.; Brandt, Nikolai B.; Chikishev, Andrey Y.; Gangardt, Mihail G.; Karyakina, Nina F.

2001-06-01

246

Why the Information Highway? Lessons from Open & Distance Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Containing practical applications supported by pertinent theory and analysis, this book is designed for educators navigating the information highway. The 13 chapters are divided into three sections--emerging issues, case studies, and analysis--and are as follows: (1) "Distinctions in Distance: Is Distance Education an Obsolete Term?" (M. Haughey);…

Roberts, Judith M., Ed.; Keough, Erin M., Ed.

247

PART 1. STUDENT INFORMATIONPART 1. STUDENT INFORMATION UNDERGRADUATE ACADEMIC  

E-print Network

of the college of the student's major, as listed below. Thank you for your assistance in this matter. Late Add-974-2833 Nursing, MDC 22, 813-974-9305 Lakeland Campus, LLC2101, 813-677-7000 Undeclared, IT, Hospitality Mgmt statement, and other pertinent information to the ARC representative of the student's major, as listed below

Meyers, Steven D.

248

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, provides an overview of how scientists are working to explain the origin of the universe. Specifically, it discusses the two major theories about the origin of the universe (Big Bang and Steady State), the search for microwave background radiation, and the discovery of the first observational evidence to support the Big Bang theory.

249

Shark Fact or Fiction? Background  

E-print Network

Shark Fact or Fiction? Background: This is a fun classroom activity based on the basic biology of sharks. This goes well with the enclosed Project Shark Awareness PowerPoint and should be used in conjunction with the presentation. Materials: Shark Fact of Fiction activity sheet and answer key

Watson, Craig A.

250

Low Background Micromegas in CAST  

E-print Network

Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

Garza, J G; Calvet, D; Castel, J F; Christensen, F E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Decker, T; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Giomataris, I; Hill, R M; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jakobsen, A C; Jourde, D; Mirallas, H; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Ruz, J; Tomás, A; Vafeiadis, T; Vogel, J K

2015-01-01

251

Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background  

E-print Network

- 1 - Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background: Over the last 20 years, hurricane research at AOML has focused on improved scientific understanding of hurricanes and of tropical meteorology scientific goals for AOMLs hurricane research derive from the U.S. Weather Research Programs (USWRP

252

ACQUISITION MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE I. BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

CHARTER ACQUISITION MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE I. BACKGROUND: In 1972, the NIH established the Research Committee (CMAC). In 1994, the CMAC was expanded to encompass simplified acquisition and was renamed the Acquisition Management Committee (AMC). II. P U R P O S E : As the leaders in the NIH acquisition community

Baker, Chris I.

253

Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

Hansen, Janet S.

2008-01-01

254

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found

Joseph Silk

1981-01-01

255

Simulation of HEAO 3 background  

SciTech Connect

A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91, nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database, and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, {beta}{sup -}, {beta}{sup +}, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both {beta}{sup -} and {beta}{sup +}. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

Graham, B. L. [George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Phlips, B. F. [USRA, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia (United States)

1997-05-10

256

Simulation of HEAO 3 background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91 [2], nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database [3], and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) [4] using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, ?-, ?+, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both ?- and ?+. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

Graham, B. L.; Phlips, B. F.; Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.

1997-05-01

257

Background rejection in schlieren visualization  

E-print Network

Background rejection in schlieren visualization P.B. NAGY It was recently suggested that an image schlieren images of ultrasonic beams is verified by experimental results. KEYWORDS: ultrasonics, schlieren visualization, image orthicons Introduction Schlieren visualization is one of the simplest ways of deter- mining

Nagy, Peter B.

258

Background Data for Freight Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Goal and Scope. The ecoinvent database is a refer- ence work for life cycle inventory data covering the areas of energy, building materials, metals, chemicals, paper and card- board, forestry, agriculture, detergents, transport services and waste treatment. Generic inventories are available for freight and passenger transport including air, rail, road, and water trans- port. The goal of freight transport

Michael Spielmann; Roland W. Scholz

259

Teaching about Natural Background Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

2013-01-01

260

The cosmic infrared background experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extragalactic background, based on absolute measurements reported by DIRBE and IRTS at 1.2 and 2.2 ?m, exceeds the brightness derived from galaxy counts by up to a factor 5. Furthermore, both DIRBE and the IRTS report fluctuations in the near-infrared sky brightness that appear to have an extra-galactic origin, but are larger than expected from local ( z = 1-3) galaxies. These observations have led to speculation that a new class of high-mass stars or mini-quasars may dominate primordial star formation at high-redshift ( z ˜ 10-20), which, in order to explain the excess in the near-infrared background, must be highly luminous but produce a limited amount of metals and X-ray photons. Regardless of the nature of the sources, if a significant component of the near-infrared background comes from first-light galaxies, theoretical models generically predict a prominent near-infrared spectral feature from the redshifted Lyman cutoff, and a distinctive fluctuation power spectrum. We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7? to 2°, where a first-light galaxy signature is expected to peak, over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rocket flight CIBER has sensitivity to probe fluctuations 100× fainter than IRTS/DIRBE, with sufficient resolution to remove local-galaxy correlations. By jointly observing regions of the sky studied by Spitzer and ASTRO-F, CIBER will build a multi-color view of the near-infrared background, accurately assessing the contribution of local ( z = 1-3) galaxies to the observed background fluctuations, allowing a deep and comprehensive survey for first-light galaxy background fluctuations. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for a redshifted Lyman cutoff feature between 0.8 and 2.0 ?m. The high-resolution spectrometer will trace zodiacal light using the intensity of scattered Fraunhofer lines, providing an independent measurement of the zodiacal emission and a new check of DIRBE zodiacal dust models. The combination will systematically search for the infrared excess background light reported in near-infrared DIRBE/IRTS data, compared with the small excess reported at optical wavelengths.

Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki

2006-03-01

261

Wandering in the Background: A CMB Explorer  

E-print Network

We develop and examine the principles governing the formation of distortions in the cosmic microwave background. Distortions in the frequency or spectral distribution of the background probe the thermal history of the universe whereas those in the angular temperature distribution probe its dynamics and geometry. Stressing model independent results, we show how the microwave background can be used to extract information on the mass density, vacuum density, baryon content, radiation content, expansion rate and some aspects of structure formation in the universe. To address these issues, we systematically develop relativistic kinetic and perturbation theory addressing issues such as fluctuation representation, or gauge, normal mode analysis in an open geometry, and second order effects. Through analytic and numerical results, we construct anisotropies in a critical, open, or cosmological constant universe with adiabatic and/or isocurvature initial conditions allowing for possible early reionization. We find that anisotropy formation is a simple process governed by the Compton scattering of photons and electrons and their gravitational coupling to the other particle species in the universe.

Wayne Hu

2009-07-16

262

22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. 96.53 Section... Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. (a) The...Information that demonstrates that consents were obtained in accordance with...

2012-04-01

263

22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. 96.53 Section... Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases. (a) The...Information that demonstrates that consents were obtained in accordance with...

2013-04-01

264

Aggregations from using inadvertent social information: a form of ideal habitat selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social information in breeding site selection has received extensive study; however, few attempts have been made to link this process to pre-existing models. We examine the importance of social information to three pertinent models of habitat selection that describe breeding aggregations and spatial patterns: 1) the ideal despotic distribution (IDD) which considers conspecific competition and habitat availability, 2) the perceptual

Joseph J. Nocera; Graham J. Forbes; Luc-Alain Giraldeau

2009-01-01

265

Strings in homogeneous background spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The string equations of motion for some homogeneous (Kantowski-Sachs, Bianchi type I and Bianchi type IX) background spacetimes are given, and solved explicitly in some simple cases. This is motivated by the recent developments in string cosmology, where it has been shown that, under certain circumstances, such spacetimes appear as string vacua. Both tensile and null strings are considered. Generally, it is much simpler to solve for the null strings since then we deal with the null geodesic equations of general relativity plus some additional constraints. We consider in detail an Ansatz corresponding to circular strings, and we discuss the possibility of using an elliptic-shape string Ansatz in the case of homogeneous (but anisotropic) backgrounds.

Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Larsen, Arne L.

1998-04-01

266

WFC3/UVIS Sky Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the on-orbit background levels present in WFC3/UVIS full-frame images. The results are based on nearly all standard readout images taken since the installation of WFC3 on HST in May 2009, with a relatively small number of exclusions e.g. images with obvious anomalous backgrounds (such as extended targets filling the field of view) or those taken with the quad filters (different bandpass in each amp). Comparisons are provided to estimates from the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). We anticipate these results to be helpful in fine-tuning the level of post-flash required to achieve the optimum balance of charge transfter efficiency (CTE) loss mitigation versus noise penalty. Observers considering the use of post-flash should refer to the White Paper (MacKenty & Smith 2012) on the CTE WWW page (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/ins_performance/CTE/).

Baggett, Sylvia; Anderson, Jay

2012-06-01

267

Low background aspects of GERDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in 76Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end

Hardy Simgen

2011-01-01

268

THE WITHIN-SITE AND REGIONAL IMPACTS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA): HIERARCHIAL BAYESIAN METHODS ESTIMATE INVASIVE WEED IMPACTS AT PERTINENT SPATIAL SCALES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Without information on the severity of invasive weed impacts, natural resource managers cannot compare the costs and benefits of weed management strategies. The spatial scale of interest to weed managers ranges from very local (e.g. ranchers, park managers) to regional (e.g. policy makers). Our go...

269

Tumor detection in nonstationary backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

The author introduces two detectors which are used to locate simulated tumors of fixed size in clinical gamma-ray images. The first method was conceived when it was observed that small tumors possess an identifiable signature in curvature feature space, where curvature'' is the local curvature of the image data when viewed as a relief map. Computed curvature values are mapped to a normalized significance space using a windowed t-statistic. The resulting test statistic is thresholded at a chosen level of significance to give a positive detection. Nonuniform anatomic background activity is effectively suppressed. The second detector is an adaptive prewhitening matched filter, which uses a form of preprocessing known as statistical scaling to adaptively prewhiten the background. Tests are performed using simulated Gaussian-shaped tumors superimposed on twelve clinical gamma-ray images. When the tumors to be detected are small -- less than 3 pixels in diameter - the curvature detector out-performs the matched filter in true positive/false positive tests. A mean true positive rate of 95% at one false positive per image is achieved when the local signal-to-noise ratio of the tumor-background is [>=] 2. At larger tumor sizes the best performance is displayed by a different form of matched filter, namely the statistical correlation function proposed by Pratt.

Stickland, R.N. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States))

1994-09-01

270

The isotropic radio background revisited  

E-print Network

We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

Nicolao Fornengo; Roberto A. Lineros; Marco Regis; Marco Taoso

2014-05-05

271

The Cosmic Background Explorer /COBE/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, under study by NASA since 1976, will map the spectrum and the angular distribution of diffuse radiation from the universe over the entire wavelength range from 1 micron to 1.3 cm. It carries three instruments: a set of differential microwave radiometers (DMR) at 23.5, 31.4, 53, and 90GHz, a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 1 to 100 per cm, and a diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) covering 1 to 300 microns. They will use the ideal space environment, a one year lifetime, and standard instrument techniques to achieve orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity and accuracy, providing a fundamental data base for cosmology. The instruments are united by common purpose as well as similar environmental and orbital requirements. The data from all three experiments will be analyzed together, to distinguish nearby sources of radiation from the cosmologically interesting diffuse background radiations. Construction is planned to begin in 1982 for a launch in 1988.

Mather, J. C.

1982-01-01

272

The effect of background cuing on prey detection.  

PubMed

Studies of prey detection have typically focused on how search image affects the capture of cryptic items. This study also considers how background vegetation influences cryptic prey detection. Blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata, searched digitized images for two Catocala moths: C. ilia, which is cryptic on oak, and C. relicta, which is cryptic on birch. Some images contained moths while others did not. The ability of blue jays to detect prey during repeated presentations of one prey type within a session was compared with their performance during randomly alternating presentations of both prey types within a session to examine search-image formation under two background conditions (informative and ambiguous). In the informative background condition, both trees in the image were of the same species and therefore, the background was a reliable indicator of which prey type might be present. In the ambiguous background condition, there was one tree of each species in the image and either prey type could be present. The results indicate that: (1) a search-image effect was observed only for the more cryptic prey type and only when the background was informative; (2) as accuracy on prey images (those with moths) increased, response latency remained unchanged; (3) performance on nonprey images (those without moths) was primarily determined by the difficulty of searching the background and not by the prey type in the accompanying prey images; and (4) search-image effects disappeared with extended practice. These results suggest that the ability to detect prey is influenced by background and that the presence of either multiple backgrounds or multiple prey types interferes with search-image formation. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790707

Kono; Reid; Kamil

1998-10-01

273

Beta Decay and the Cosmic Neutrino Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1964 Penzias and Wilson detected the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Its spectrum follows Planck's black body radiation formula and shows a remarkable constant temperature of T0? ? 2:7 K independent of the direction. The present photon density is about 370 photons per cm3. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 380 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T0? = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and the 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 380 000 years after the Big Bang. Information about earlier times can, in principle, be derived from the Cosmic Neutrino Background (C?B). The neutrinos decouple already 1 second after the Big Bang at a temperature of about 1010 K. Today their temperature is ˜ 1:95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos per cm3. Registration of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key element of the Big Bang cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe evolution. The search for the C?B with the induced beta decay ?e + 3H ? 3He + e- is the topic of this contribution. The signal would show up by a peak in the electron spectrum with an energy of the neutrino mass above the Q value. We discuss the prospects of this approach and argue that it is able to set limits on the C?B density in our vicinity. We also discuss critically ways to increase with modifications of the present KATRIN spectrometer the source intensity by a factor 100, which would yield about 170 counts of relic neutrino captures per year. This would make the detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Background possible. Presently such an increase seems not to be possible. But one should be able to find an upper limit for the local density of the relic neutrinos (Cosmic Neutrino Background) in our galaxy.

Faessler, Amand; Hodak, Rastislav; Kovalenko, Sergey; Šimkovic, Fedor

2014-04-01

274

Direct Imaging of Exoplanets Without Background Subtraction: Implications for ELTs  

E-print Network

The ultra-high contrast capability required to form images of other solar systems is arguably the highest-profile challenge in astronomy today. The current high-contrast imaging efforts all require background subtraction to separate the planetary image from the image of the host star. Background estimation is difficult due to the presence of non-common path aberrations (NCPAs) that change with time. The only major source of information that is not being utilized by current efforts is the random encoding of the planetary image and the NCPAs by the atmosphere on millisecond time-scales. Here, a method that utilizes this information in order to avoid background subtraction altogether is proposed. This new paradigm will allow simultaneous estimation of the time-dependent NCPAs and the planetary image via rigorous statistical inference procedures. These procedures are fully compatible with other information sources, such as diurnal field rotation and spectral diversity. Given the open-ended nature of the backgroun...

Frazin, Richard A

2015-01-01

275

Density measurements using near-field background-oriented Schlieren  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification of the constant correction factor in the known equations of the background-oriented Schlieren is presented in order to be applicable to the near-field. Near-Field background-oriented Schlieren has the advantage over standard background-oriented Schlieren of being able to obtain reliable density distributions for set-ups in which the background pattern is placed directly behind the investigated flow field. It is proven that the modified correction factor depends solely on the distance between the background pattern and the flow field and on the external shape of the investigated flow field itself. The proof of principle and the accuracy of the proposed technique are obtained by the simulation of a 2D density variation with the use of glass wedge prism. The measurement of the whole-field density information of a supersonic underexpanded free jet is presented as an example that confirms the theoretical predictions.

van Hinsberg, N. P.; Rösgen, T.

2014-04-01

276

The cosmological background radiation. Echo of the early universe.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an introduction to the physics, astrophysics and cosmology of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The standard big bang model of the universe is adopted at the outset. The topics then covered include the origin of the background, then intrinsic fluctuations, followed by the universe and background radiation after recombination. Finally, measurement of the radiation and its anisotropies is presented, together with a review of the current status of results and experiments. The authors assume that the reader has a basic understanding of the central concepts of general relativity, but they avoid rigorous mathematical proofs and manipulations, preferring instead to concentrate on the information needed by hands-on cosmologists and astrophysicists.

Lachièze-Rey, M.; Gunzig, E.

277

Teaching about natural background radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

2013-07-01

278

Background issues for on-line aircraft documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, almost all aircraft documentation in commercial aircraft cockpits is presented via hardcopy manuals. Several recent projects are aimed at eliminating all paper documentation in cockpits using electronic libraries. Electronic libraries encompass diverse information bases including aircraft system documentation, operations and procedures, checklists, maintenance logs, minimum equipment lists, maps and charts, and flight management information. These electronic libraries are envisioned to be embedded in the avionics so as to provide real time monitoring and display of information. Background issues are examined (motivation, information retrieval models, and preliminary designs) for the on-line presentation of aircraft systems documentation including operations, procedures, and checklists.

Russell, C. Ray

1991-01-01

279

Computerized background-oriented schlieren  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A schlieren measurement technique based on computer evaluation of image variations due to refractive index variations in the propagation medium is presented; in what follows, this concept is referred to as the "background-oriented schlieren" (BOS) method. The differences between BOS and other optical techniques for refractive index measurement are the governing role of numerical methods, the extremely small amount of optical equipment, the high accuracy, the bidirectional sensitivity, the fast evaluation, and the missing field limitations. The principle of the method is the numerical comparison of a schlieren distorted and an undistorted image of a deliberate background. The method has become usable in practice owing to the immense progress in computing power and to newly developed fast-correlation algorithms. The extension of this method to space resolving techniques is possible. Some experimental studies show the applicability. Examples are a mixing turbulent jet, a supersonic jet, a shed vortex, and the sound wave of a gun shot. These few results underline the encouraging prospect for the future applicability of this technique. The BOS method offers not only the possibility of qualitative and quantitative schlieren investigations but also has the potential to determine density fields by integration of the measured gradient fields.

Meier, G. E. A.

2002-06-01

280

[Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

Silk, Joseph

1998-01-01

281

Video coding with dynamic background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

2013-12-01

282

Building Better Career Futures: Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource booklet, one of the three components that make up the Building Better Career Futures (BBCF) program, provides information on theories and approaches of BBCF; articles on themes of the program; and group activities addressing the specific career development outcomes of BBCF. This booklet is organized into four parts. The first part,…

Bezanson, Lynne; Hopkins, Sareena

283

Korean Basic Course: Area Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

284

Precision cosmology with the cosmic microwave background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a cornerstone of modern cosmology; extracting cosmological information from it requires high accuracy instruments as well as a great deal of signal processing. This article highlights a critical step of the CMB data processing pipeline: the construction of a likelihood function for the statistical exploitation of CMB data. Since this task is based on a sky map of CMB anisotropies, it requires some understanding of spherical analysis. The aim of this article is to introduce the reader to some of the issues related to spherical analysis for the CMB. It opens with a short overview of the CMB and explain how to build a spherical likelihood for it, starting with an idealized case of perfect (fullsky, noise-free) CMB observations and then moving to the actual computations with imperfect data using specific tools for signal processing on the sphere.

Cardoso, J.-F.

2010-01-01

285

Bayesian Analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background! Experiments designed to map the microwave sky are returning a flood of data (time streams of instrument response as a beam is swept over the sky) at several different frequencies (from 30 to 900 GHz), all with different resolutions and noise properties. The resulting analysis challenge is to estimate, and quantify our uncertainty in, the spatial power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background given the complexities of "missing data", foreground emission, and complicated instrumental noise. Bayesian formulation of this problem allows consistent treatment of many complexities including complicated instrumental noise and foregrounds, and can be numerically implemented with Gibbs sampling. Gibbs sampling has now been validated as an efficient, statistically exact, and practically useful method for low-resolution (as demonstrated on WMAP 1 and 3 year temperature and polarization data). Continuing development for Planck - the goal is to exploit the unique capabilities of Gibbs sampling to directly propagate uncertainties in both foreground and instrument models to total uncertainty in cosmological parameters.

Jewell, Jeffrey

2007-01-01

286

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found that spectral distortions at the 3-sigma level near the peak of the blackbody spectrum, although inconsistent with the predicted distortions due to Compton scattering in the early universe, are elegantly interpreted in terms of radiation from an early, pregalactic generation of massive stars which had been thermalized by a modest amount of dust at high redshift. The quadrupole anisotropy at the 4-sigma level is most simply interpreted in terms of the large-scale structure of the universe.

Silk, J.

1981-01-01

287

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

288

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1996-06-11

289

Gauging the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect

We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behavior of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behavior. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behavior. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

Zibin, J. P.; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2008-12-15

290

Deleterious background selection with recombination  

SciTech Connect

An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Hudson, R.R. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kaplan, N.L. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-12-01

291

Backgrounder: Council on Foreign Relations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations provides a number of services for the general public, and in the past they have offered up public discussions, forums, and other outreach activities. In addition, they offer the "Backgrounders" series, which offer succinct explanations of current political and economic issues. First-time users can visit the "Most Recent" area to peruse the latest piece, or they can click on the "Daily Analysis" or "Daily Brief" sections. The profiles cover everything from the role of delegates in the U.S. presidential nominating process to understanding Kenya's politics. Also, visitors can click on complementary materials, such as podcasts, interactive features, and online debates. Finally, visitors can also search for specific materials via the search engine offered here.

292

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

2011-04-01

293

Texture induced microwave background anisotropies  

SciTech Connect

We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

1994-03-01

294

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

295

Low background aspects of GERDA  

SciTech Connect

The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-04-27

296

The microwave background anisotropies: observations.  

PubMed

Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation-fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 microK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 degrees and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe--the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century. PMID:9419320

Wilkinson, D

1998-01-01

297

Cosmic microwave?background?theory  

PubMed Central

A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in ?-space are consistent with a ?T flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are ?(10?5)2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at ? ? 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted ? cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 ± 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 ± 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 ± 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 ± 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on ? and moderate constraints on ?tot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant. PMID:9419321

Bond, J. Richard

1998-01-01

298

US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions  

SciTech Connect

A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

1984-03-01

299

Sales Representative or Contractor Completion of Background Information Sheet  

E-print Network

violations, or any offense settled in juvenile court or under a youth offender law) YES NO If "YES" list all as a youthful offender (C.G.S. § 54-76o), a criminal charge that has been dismissed or nolled, a criminal charge side if necessary. Date Place Agency Funding Current Status For the CMHC program, fingerprints taken

Oliver, Douglas L.

300

LANL-IPF responses to isotopes workshop background information survey  

SciTech Connect

Responses to the following are provided: (A) Which isotopes do you (company, agency, university, community) currently use in your activities or distribute (repackage) to end-users? (B) Describe generally what these isotopes are used for, i.e. the science or application. (C) Which isotope(s) do you anticipate may have significant future increase in demand. Identify the isotope(s), its priority, possible chemical form and for what purpose it would be used. (D) Are there other isotopes that you might use but are currently unavilable or not available in difficient quantities? If so, please identify this isotope, from whom have you tired to obtain it and for what prupose would it be used. (E) Do you have any specific issues with respect to the purity, availability, reliability of supply, etc. of isotopes at present?

Nortier, Francois Meiring [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

301

Rawlsian Relativism and Background Theories  

E-print Network

that one would, along with all others, have chosen certain moral principles if one had been making a choice behind a veil of ignorance, in the 'original position'?" (TGR, 243). Brandt suggests that this sort of information would not justify the chosen... more or less as it is although allowing for the smoothing out of certain irregularities. (TJ, 49) This state of affairs is clearly inadequate. Rawls de­ mands more: (When one is) presented with all possible de­ scriptions to which one might...

Weissbord, David

302

Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA): Learning Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Systems Security and Information Assurance (CSSIA) provides this page of learning resources useful for information technology courses. Most of these materials fall under the category of course outlines and syllabi. Topics include cyber ethics, forensic accounting, disaster recovery, security awareness, wireless security, VOIP security and other pertinent subjects to this field. Users are encouraged to visit the center's site and create a free login to view these and other learning resources.

303

The Cosmic Background Radiation, Snowmass Workshop  

E-print Network

Observations of the Cosmic Microwave background have provided many of the most powerful constraints we have on cosmology and events in the early universe. The spectrum and isotropy of CBR have long been a pillar of Big Bang models. The discovery of low levels on anisotropy has provided new information and tools for our understanding of the early universe. Further observations promise to enhance greatly our knowledge of processes in the early universe and cosmological parameters. We can anticipate rapid advance in this field up to and through the year 2000 which will dramatically focus our efforts in cosmology during the next millenium. This paper outlines the primary science likely to be discovered and defined by a vigorous airborne and ground-based program which should be strongly supported. If successfully excuted, we an anticipate a measurement of the CBR anisotropy spectrum to within a factor of two of the confidence level unavoidably set by cosmic variance. Even so, observations of the CBR are the best and often the only way to obtain information on many critical parameters so that an ambitious satellite experiment that maps the full-sky to the delta T/T ~ 10^{-6} level is well justified. Draft CBR description and recommendations from the Snowmass Workshop comments to smoot@cosmos.lbl.gov

George F. Smoot

1995-05-31

304

TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the TIMSS 2011 background variables. Background questionnaire adaptations…

Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

2013-01-01

305

PIRLS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background variables. Background

Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Drucker, Kathleen T., Ed.

2013-01-01

306

Large-scale polarization of the microwave background and foreground Angelica de Oliveira-Costa,1,  

E-print Network

Large-scale polarization of the microwave background and foreground Ange´lica de Oliveira-Costa,1 microwave background CMB polarization has opened a new chapter in cosmology. Most of the useful information, 98.80.Es I. INTRODUCTION The recent discovery of cosmic microwave background CMB polarization

Timbie, Peter

307

Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Data analysis for the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be complicated by the huge number of sources in the LISA band. In the frequency band {approx}10{sup -4}-2x10{sup -3} Hz, galactic white dwarf binaries (GWDBs) are sufficiently dense in frequency space that it will be impossible to resolve most of them, and ''confusion noise'' from the unresolved Galactic binaries will dominate over instrumental noise in determining LISA's sensitivity to other sources in that band. Confusion noise from unresolved extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) could also contribute significantly to LISA's total noise curve. To date, estimates of the effect of LISA's confusion noise on matched-filter searches and their detection thresholds have generally approximated the noise as Gaussian, based on the central limit theorem. However in matched-filter searches, the appropriate detection threshold for a given class of signals may be located rather far out on the tail of the signal-to-noise probability distribution, where a priori it is unclear whether the Gaussian approximation is reliable. Using the Edgeworth expansion and the theory of large deviations, we investigate the probability distribution of the usual matched-filter detection statistic, far out on the tail of the distribution. We apply these tools to four somewhat idealized versions of LISA data searches: searches for EMRI signals buried in GWDB confusion noise, and searches for massive black hole binary signals buried in (i) GWDB noise, (ii) EMRI noise, and (iii) a sum of EMRI noise and Gaussian noise. Assuming reasonable short-distance cutoffs in the populations of confusion sources (since the very closest and hence strongest sources will be individually resolvable), modifications to the appropriate detection threshold, due to the non-Gaussianity of the confusion noise, turn out to be quite small for realistic cases. The smallness of the correction is partly due to the fact that these three types of sources evolve on quite different time scales, so no single background source closely resembles any search template. We also briefly discuss other types of LISA searches where the non-Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds could perhaps have a much greater impact on search reliability and efficacy.

Racine, Etienne [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Cutler, Curt [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

2007-12-15

308

Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)

Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

1988-01-01

309

Verification and Trust: Background Investigations Preceding Faculty Appointment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many employers in the United States have been initiating or expanding policies requiring background checks of prospective employees. The ability to perform such checks has been abetted by the growth of computerized databases and of commercial enterprises that facilitate access to personal information. Employers now have ready access to public…

Academe, 2004

2004-01-01

310

Current Status and Perspectives of Cosmic Microwave Background Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation provide a unique opportunity for a direct study of the primordial cosmic plasma at redshift z ~103. The angular power spectra of temperature and polarisation fluctuations are powerful observational objectives as they encode information on fundamental cosmological parameters and on the physics of the early universe. A large number of increasingly ambitious

Marco Bersanelli; Davide Maino; Aniello Mennella

2004-01-01

311

Seeking Solution: High-Performance Computing for Science. Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second publication from the Office of Technology Assessment's assessment on information technology and research, which was requested by the House Committee on Science and Technology and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. The first background paper, "High Performance Computing & Networking for Science,"…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

312

Cosmological-parameter determination with microwave background maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) contains information on virtually all cosmological parameters of interest, including the geometry of the Universe (Ω), the baryon density, the Hubble constant ({ital h}), the cosmological constant (Î), the number of light neutrinos, the ionization history, and the amplitudes and spectral indices of the primordial scalar and tensor perturbation spectra.

Gerard Jungman; M. Kamionkowski; A. Kosowsky; David N. Spergel

1996-01-01

313

Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies and the Geometry of the Universe  

E-print Network

In this talk, I review some recent work on cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in an open universe. I emphasize that the observed CMB anisotropies are still consistent with a low value of $\\Omega$, and I address the question of whether future CMB measurements will be able to provide information on the geometry of the Universe.

Marc Kamionkowski

1994-07-20

314

Statistical challenges in the analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enormous amount of observations on Cosmic Microwave Background radiation has been collected in the last decade, and much more data are expected in the near future from planned or operating satellite missions. These datasets are a goldmine of information for Cosmology and Theoretical Physics; their efficient exploitation posits several intriguing challenges from the statistical point of view. In this

Paolo Cabella; Domenico Marinuccu

2009-01-01

315

Issue Backgrounder : Downstream Fish Migration : Improving the Odds of Survival.  

SciTech Connect

Background information is given on the problems caused to anadromous fish migrations, especially salmon and steelhead trout, by the development of hydroelectric power dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Programs arising out of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and conservation Act of 1980 to remedy these problems and restore fish and wildlife populations are described. (ACR)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1985-05-01

316

Median model for background subtraction in intelligent transportation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is generally divided into two phases: the first phase deals with background image generation and vehicle detection, the second phase deals with vehicle tracking and video handoff. In the first phase we view the image as a mixture of three data distributions: vehicle, background and shadow. Thus the problem is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian problem and our goal is to separate the background data from other data distributions. We proposed a median model and an improved median model to separate the background data from mixture data and to generate background reference images. In median model we keep track of deviation between the median and its neighbors in a reordered pixel sequence. When sample size is big enough, the reordered pixel sequence is in what we called balanced-median model. This model is indicated by a very small deviation value. In this case the median of the pixel sequence falls in background set and could be used for background estimation. When sample size is not big enough, the reordered pixel sequence is in what we called shifted-median model. This model is indicated by a much bigger deviation value. In this case the median falls out of background set and are excluded for background estimation. This median model has an impressive performance to handle slow moving or even stationary vehicles. But the time complexity is still expensive for real time image processing. The improved median model is proposed to reduce the time complexity to a reasonable level. In improved median model, we take samples in a bigger time interval to make it capable of dealing with slow moving and stationary vehicles. The sample size from experimentation is obtained as a small constant value between 5 and 20. This small sample constant size could dramatically reduce the time complexity. As a complementary to this improved median model, a mask-classified updating method is introduced to update the background image in a short term and only classified background pixels are being used for updating. Threshold, erosion, dilation and connected components labeling are used for noise removing and object labeling. After the first phase, the vehicle information is separated from image and input to the second phase for video hand-off and vehicle tracking. In the second phase, the weighted intensity information and shape information for each vehicle is scored and minimum-distance classification method is used for vehicle match. More than 400 vehicles are tested. An overall detection rate of 100% and tracking rate of 74% are obtained in this system.

Shi, Peijun; Jones, Elizabeth G.; Zhu, Qiuming

2004-05-01

317

Informed consent.  

PubMed

Disclosure of information prior to consent is a very complex area of medical ethics. On the surface it would seem to be quite clear cut, but on closer inspection the scope for 'grey areas' is vast. In practice, however, it could be argued that the number of cases that result in complaint or litigation is comparatively small. However, this does not mean that wrong decisions or unethical scenarios do not occur. It would seem that in clinical practice these ethical grey areas concerning patients' full knowledge of their condition or treatment are quite common. One of the barometers for how much disclosure should be given prior to consent could be the feedback obtained from the patients. Are they asking relevant questions pertinent to their condition and do they show a good understanding of the options available? This should be seen as a positive trait and should be welcomed by the healthcare professionals. Ultimately it gives patients greater autonomy and the healthcare professional can expand and build on the patient's knowledge as well as allay fears perhaps based on wrongly held information. Greater communication with the patient would help the healthcare professional pitch their explanations at the right level. Every case and scenario is different and unique and deserves to be treated as such. Studies have shown that most patients can understand their medical condition and treatment provided communication has been thorough (Gillon 1996). It is in the patients' best interests to feel comfortable with the level of disclosure offered to them. It can only foster greater trust and respect between them and the healthcare profession which has to be mutually beneficial to both parties. PMID:16939165

Steevenson, Grania

2006-08-01

318

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

2013-11-07

319

Sources of Information on Medical Geography  

PubMed Central

Adequate research in the peripheral field of medical geography requires familiarity with the literature of medicine, geography, and other environmentally oriented fields. The pertinent literature of the two primary disciplines, as well as that of anthropology, nutrition, and human bioclimatology, is surveyed from a bibliographical point of view. A brief review of historical sources is presented, followed by a discussion of the contemporary organizations, both international and national, active in the field. Emphasis is placed on the publishing programs and projects, maps, atlases, symposia, reports, and other literature sponsored or stimulated by these organizations. Regional bibliographical surveys for East Africa, India, and the Soviet Union are also noted. Pertinent aspects of bibliographies, indexes, abstracts, library card catalogs and accession lists, and other resources are listed, with emphasis on the various subject headings and other approaches to them. Throughout, the sources of information are approached from a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary viewpoint. PMID:5329543

Mullins, Lynn S.

1966-01-01

320

Cosmic Infrared Background and Early Galaxy Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cosmic infrared background (CIB) reflects the sum total of galactic luminosities integrated over the entire age of the universe. From its measurement the red-shifted starlight and dust-absorbed and re-radiated starlight of the CIB can be used to determine (or constrain) the rates of star formation and metal production as a function of time and deduce information about objects at epochs currently inaccessible to telescopic studies. This review discusses the state of current CIB measurements and the (mostly space-based) instruments with which these measurements have been made, the obstacles (the various foreground emissions) and the physics behind the CIB and its structure. Theoretical discussion of the CIB levels can now be normalized to the standard cosmological model narrowing down theoretical uncertainties. We review the information behind and theoretical modeling of both the mean (isotropic) levels of the CIB and their fluctuations. The CIB is divided into three broad bands: near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and far-IR (FIR). For each of the bands we review the main contributors to the CIB flux and the epochs at which the bulk of the flux originates. We also discuss the data on the various quantities relevant for correct interpretation of the CIB levels: the star-formation history, the present-day luminosity function measurements, resolving the various galaxy contributors to the CIB, etc. The integrated light of all galaxies in the deepest NIR galaxy counts to date fails to match the observed mean level of the CIB, probably indicating a significant high-redshift contribution to the CIB. Additionally, Population III stars should have left a strong and measurable signature via their contribution to the CIB anisotropies for a wide range of their formation scenarios, and measuring the excess CIB anisotropies coming from high z would provide direct information on the epoch of the first stars.

Kashlinsky, Alexander

2005-01-01

321

What are the pertinent quality-of-life issues for melanoma cancer patients? Aiming for the development of a new module to accompany the EORTC core questionnaire.  

PubMed

Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the impact of melanoma on the quality of life (QoL) of patients. Only two clinically validated QoL instruments have been reported in the literature. The present study has identified contemporary QoL issues during a time of great change for melanoma treatment, as a precursor to an international study to develop a new melanoma-specific QoL instrument. Twenty-two melanoma patients (American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I-IV) and 10 close family members were recruited from a metropolitan tertiary referral clinical and research centre in Sydney, Australia, to participate in interview or focus group discussions. Verbatim transcripts of these recorded interviews were systematically analysed. Seventy-three issues across seven health-related QoL domains were identified. Issues across three domains featured highly; psychosocial, availability of support and information. Given the current rapid evolution of systemic therapies for melanoma, the challenges associated with treatment choices and clinical trial participation were also highlighted in this sample. Although some issues were generic in nature, experienced by many cancer patients, this study revealed that the wide range and intensity of QoL issues reported by melanoma patients are not adequately evaluated in current QoL instruments. With the increasing importance of patient reported outcome measurement, this list has been transformed into questionnaire items, in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life Group, for testing a new melanoma-specific QoL module for use with the EORTC core questionnaire (QLQ-C30). PMID:23358427

Winstanley, Julie B; White, Edward G; Boyle, Frances M; Thompson, John F

2013-04-01

322

BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of experiments and has gradually yielded up answers to the deepest questions about the origin of our Universe. Most recently, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has made a full-sky analysis of the pattern of temperature and polarization variations that helped establish a new standard cosmological model, confirmed the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and provided strong evidence that there was an epoch of primordial inflation. Ruth Durrer's book reflects the importance of the CMB for future developments in this field. Aimed at graduate students and established researchers, it consists of a basic introduction to cosmology and the theory of primordial perturbations followed by a detailed explanation of how these manifest themselves as measurable variations in the present-day radiation field. It then focuses on the statistical methods needed to obtain accurate estimates of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and finishes with a discussion of the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB and on the evolution of its spectrum. The book apparently grew out of various lecture notes on CMB anisotropies for graduate courses given by the author. Its level and scope are well matched to the needs of such an audience and the presentation is clear and well-organized. I am sure that this book will be a useful reference for more senior scientists too. If I have a criticism, it is not about what is in the book but what is omitted. In my view, one of the most exciting possibilities for future CMB missions, including Planck, is the possibility that they might discover physics beyond that which the current standard model can describe. 'Thinking outside the box' has become a cliché, but it is what graduate students should be encouraged to do. For example, the standard cosmological model entails the assumption, motivated by the simplest theories of inflation, that the primordial density fluctuations are described by Gaussian statistics. The detection of any deviations from Gaussian behaviour in the radiation field would therefore offer us an exciting window into the detailed physics of inflation or other departures from the standard model. Although primordial non-Gaussianity is an extremely active subject of contemporary cosmological research, it is barely mentioned in this book. This is a regrettable omission in an otherwise commendable volume.

Coles, Peter

2009-08-01

323

Cancer caregivers information needs and resource preferences.  

PubMed

This study sought to characterize the need for information about personal psychosocial care, providing direct care, and managing care among cancer caregivers and to explore preferred resources for caregiving information. Data come from cross-sectional telephone interviews of 1,247 family caregivers, which included 104 cancer caregivers. A majority of cancer caregivers expressed one or more information need for each of the three content categories. Four out of ten caregivers expressed needing information about managing physical and emotional stress. A significantly higher percentage of male caregivers reported needing more information pertinent to providing direct care than females. Heightened objective burden was significantly associated with caregivers preferring to receive information from health professionals than informal sources (e.g., Internet), while the opposite was found among caregivers with lower objective burden. These findings suggest that specific types of information and resources may be most relevant to specific subgroups of cancer caregivers. PMID:23553000

Longacre, Margaret L

2013-06-01

324

Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect  

PubMed Central

The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1–4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring. PMID:25400572

Dekerle, Marie; Boulenger, Véronique; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

2014-01-01

325

Background radiation from fission pulses  

SciTech Connect

Extensive source terms for beta, gamma, and neutrons following fission pulses are presented in various tabular and graphical forms. Neutron results from a wide range of fissioning nuclides (42) are examined and detailed information is provided for four fuels: /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 239/Pu; these bracket the range of the delayed spectra. Results at several cooling (decay) times are presented. For ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. spectra, only /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu results are given; fission-product data are currently inadequate for other fuels. The data base consists of all known measured data for individual fission products extensively supplemented with nuclear model results. The process is evolutionary, and therefore, the current base is summarized in sufficient detail for users to judge its quality. Comparisons with recent delayed neutron experiments and total ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. decay energies are included. 27 refs., 47 figs., 9 tabs.

England, T.R.; Arthur, E.D.; Brady, M.C.; LaBauve, R.J.

1988-05-01

326

Genetic background of supernumerary teeth  

PubMed Central

Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico–Rhino–Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed. PMID:25713500

Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

2015-01-01

327

Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information in NDAs and ANDAs, Supplements, Annual Reports, and Other Regulatory Filings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advice to the pharmaceutical industry regarding the chemistry, manufacturing, and controls and microbiology (sterility assurance) information to be included in regulatory submissions to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) can be found in the pertinent statutes, regulations, and guidances. The primary statute is the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (the Act); applicable regulations appear in 21 CFR

Eric Sheinin; Roger Williams

2002-01-01

328

U.S. Army Research and Development Information Program, FY 1968 - FY 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pertinent aspects of the U.S. Army Research and Development Information Program are delinated, including the program initiation bases and scope; purpose, objectives, and guidelines; value and benefits; basic concept; and project interrelationships. The specific projects described are: (1) Army Technical Library Improvement Studies; (2) Symposia…

Vincent, Dale, L.

329

The Information Revolution, Security, and International Relations: (IR)relevant Theory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is twofold: to analyze the impact of the information revolution on security and to clarify what existing international relations theory can say about this challenge. These pertinent questions are initially addressed by a critical review of past research. This review shows that the concern for security issues is largely confined to a specialist literature on

Johan Eriksson; Giampiero Giacomello

2006-01-01

330

Direction dependent background fitting for the Fermi GBM data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. We present a method for determining the background of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) using the satellite positional information and a physical model. Since the polynomial fitting method typically used for GRBs is generally only indicative of the background over relatively short timescales, this method is particularly useful in the cases of long GRBs or those that have autonomous repoint request (ARR) and a background with much variability on short timescales. Aims: Modern space instruments, like Fermi, have some specific motion to survey the sky and catch gamma-ray bursts in the most effective way. However, GBM bursts sometimes have highly varying backgrounds (with or without ARR), and modelling them with a polynomial function of time is not efficient - one needs more complex, Fermi-specific methods. This article presents a new direction dependent background fitting method and shows how it can be used for filtering the lightcurves. Methods: First, we investigate how the celestial position of the satellite may have influence on the background and define three underlying variables with physical meaning: celestial distance of the burst and the detector's orientation, the contribution of the Sun and the contribution of the Earth. Then, we use multi-dimensional general least square fitting and Akaike model selection criterion for the background fitting of the GBM lightcurves. Eight bursts are presented as examples, of which we computed the duration using background fitted cumulative lightcurves. Results: We give a direction dependent background fitting (DDBF) method for separating the motion effects from the real data and calculate the duration (T90, T50, and confidence intervals) of the nine example bursts, from which two resulted an ARR. We also summarize the features of our method and compare it qualitatively with the official GBM Catalogue. Conclusions: Our background filtering method uses a model based on the physical information of the satellite position. Therefore, it has many advantages compared to previous methods. It can fit long background intervals, remove all the features caused by the rocking behaviour of the satellite, and search for long emissions or not-triggered events. Furthermore, many parts of the fitting have now been automatised, and the method has been shown to work for both sky survey mode and ARR mode data. Future work will provide a burst catalogue with DDBF.

Szécsi, D.; Bagoly, Z.; Kóbori, J.; Horváth, I.; Balázs, L. G.

2013-09-01

331

Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background in String Cosmology  

E-print Network

String cosmology models predict a stochastic cosmic background of gravitational waves with a characteristic spectrum. I describe the background, present astrophysical and cosmological bounds on it, and outline how it may be possible to detect it with gravitational wave detectors.

Ram Brustein

1998-04-29

332

32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

2013-07-01

333

32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

2014-07-01

334

32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

2012-07-01

335

32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

2011-07-01

336

32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

2010-07-01

337

Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial )  

E-print Network

Module 9 Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial ) · sources of background radiation · various risk models. · estimating risk and on the sources of background radiation, both of risk at low doses. #12;Risk Models (absolute, relative, and time-dependent relative risk models

Massey, Thomas N.

338

Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum Estimation using  

E-print Network

Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum Estimation using Non­circular Beams Anand S. Sengupta­linear growth and red shift surveys), the study of temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background experiments have reported detections of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB

Souradeep, Tarun

339

Dictionary learning for robust background modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background subtraction is a fundamental task in many computer vision applications, such as robotics and automated surveillance systems. The performance of high-level visions tasks such as object detection and tracking is dependent on effective foreground detection techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel background modeling algorithm that represents the background as a linear combination of dictionary atoms and the

Ravishankar Sivalingam; Alden D'Souza; Michael Bazakos; Roland Miezianko

2011-01-01

340

Current status of federal involvement in US aquaculture. Background paper  

SciTech Connect

The United States lacks a strong national aquaculture policy and supporting federal presence. Over the years, levels and focii of agency involvement in aquaculture development have shifted in response to legislation and its differing interpretations. The National Aquaculture Act (NAA), the primary piece of aquaculture-related legislation, is slated for reauthorization of the NAA and related legislation is the federal role in research and regulation of this emerging industry. Congress requested this Background Paper to provide information on technology issues of immediate importance to the U.S. aquaculture industry. This is a companion piece to the Background Paper on Selected Technology Issues in U.S. Aquaculture.

NONE

1995-09-01

341

Geographical information systems and tropical medicine  

PubMed Central

In terms of their applicability to the field of tropical medicine, geographical information systems (GIS) have developed enormously in the last two decades. This article reviews some of the pertinent and representative applications of GIS, including the use of such systems and remote sensing for the mapping of Chagas disease and human helminthiases, the use of GIS in vaccine trials, and the global applications of GIS for health-information management, disease epidemiology, and pandemic planning. The future use of GIS as a decision-making tool and some barriers to the widespread implementation of such systems in developing settings are also discussed. PMID:20659391

KHAN, O. A.; DAVENHALL, W.; ALI, M.; CASTILLO-SALGADO, C.; VAZQUEZ-PROKOPEC, G.; KITRON, U.; SOARES MAGALHÃES, R. J.; CLEMENTS, A. C. A.

2013-01-01

342

Probing Inflation via Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been a rich source of information about the early Universe. Detailed measurements of its spectrum and spatial distribution have helped solidify the Standard Model of Cosmology. However, many questions still remain. Standard Cosmology does not explain why the early Universe is geometrically flat, expanding, homogenous across the horizon, and riddled with a small anisotropy that provides the seed for structure formation. Inflation has been proposed as a mechanism that naturally solves these problems. In addition to solving these problems, inflation is expected to produce a spectrum of gravitational waves that will create a particular polarization pattern on the CMB. Detection of this polarized signal is a key test of inflation and will give a direct measurement of the energy scale at which inflation takes place. This polarized signature of inflation is expected to be -9 orders of magnitude below the 2.7 K monopole level of the CMB. This measurement will require good control of systematic errors, an array of many detectors having the requisite sensitivity, and a reliable method for removing polarized foregrounds, and nearly complete sky coverage. Ultimately, this measurement is likely to require a space mission. To this effect, technology and mission concept development are currently underway.

Chuss, David T.

2008-01-01

343

Handwritten character recognition using background analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a low-cost handwritten character recognizer. It is constituted by three modules: the `acquisition' module, the `binarization' module, and the `core' module. The core module can be logically partitioned into six steps: character dilation, character circumscription, region and `profile' analysis, `cut' analysis, decision tree descent, and result validation. Firstly, it reduces the resolution of the binarized regions and detects the minimum rectangle (MR) which encloses the character; the MR partitions the background into regions that surround the character or are enclosed by it, and allows it to define features as `profiles' and `cuts;' a `profile' is the set of vertical or horizontal minimum distances between a side of the MR and the character itself; a `cut' is a vertical or horizontal image segment delimited by the MR. Then, the core module classifies the character by descending along the decision tree on the basis of the analysis of regions around the character, in particular of the `profiles' and `cuts,' and without using context information. Finally, it recognizes the character or reactivates the core module by analyzing validation test results. The recognizer is largely insensible to character discontinuity and is able to detect Arabic numerals and English alphabet capital letters. The recognition rate of a 32 X 32 pixel character is of about 97% after the first iteration, and of over 98% after the second iteration.

Tascini, Guido; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

1993-04-01

344

Full length background papers can be found at globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/news-events/malaria-elimination-background-paper-series Ideal surveillance for malaria elimination  

E-print Network

APRIL 2014 Full length background papers can be found at globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/news-events/malaria-elimination-background-paper-series Ideal surveillance for malaria elimination key messages what does surveillance for malaria elimination entail? Surveillance for malaria control aims to estimate the burden of malaria and inform population

Mullins, Dyche

345

Decomposing background topics from keywords by principal component pursuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-dimensional topic models have been proven very useful for modeling a large corpus of documents that share a relatively small number of topics. Dimensionality reduction tools such as Principal Component Analysis or Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) have been widely adopted for document modeling, analysis, and retrieval. In this paper, we contend that a more pertinent model for a document corpus

Kerui Min; Zhengdong Zhang; John Wright; Yi Ma

2010-01-01

346

Improved Upper Limits on the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from 2009–2010 LIGO and Virgo Data  

E-print Network

Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the Universe that is ...

Aasi, J.

347

Center for Information Services, Phase II: Detailed System Design and Programming, Part 4 - Development Scheduling and Planning, Phase IIA Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This portion of the Center for Information Services (CIS) project report contains development schedules, task assignments, and discussions of pertinent issues as they relate to the projects next phase (IIB). Sections II, III and IV (including Appendix A) contain current schedule, organization, and task information accompanied by the appropriate…

Carmichael, Robert L.

348

Development of tool for the assessment of comprehension of informed consent form in healthy volunteers participating in first-in-human studies.  

PubMed

Informed consent is a process that involves providing all pertinent study information to the potential study participant. The information imparted in the form gives all such information as would enable a potential participant to come to a decision regarding his/her participation in the study. Various study related aspects are outlined in the participant information leaflet including the background of the study, the benefits and risks, treatment alternatives; the methodology of the study, follow up schedules, confidentiality of the data, compensations and remunerations and right to not participate or withdraw from the study. We have continued a similar exercise for a phase I, first-in-human study, conducted by our center. Here, the volunteers were asked certain questions pertaining to the trial background, design, patients' rights and miscellaneous categories. They were then assessed and the scores compared to come up with certain conclusions. The median (range) for the entire comprehension score was calculated and statistically analyzed on various aspects. Readability of the ease of reading of the consent form was also analyzed on a Flesch-Kinkaid reading scale. A total of 69 volunteers were screened out of which 50 were enrolled in the study. The median (range) score was 27 (19 to 33) and the mean (S.D.) score was 28.9 (3.1). The maximum correct responses were observed for the questions falling under the volunteers' rights category. The Flesch reading ease score was 54 and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade level score was 9.8. Investigators may be encouraged to incorporate such tools in their informed consent process. PMID:21664491

Arora, A; Rajagopalan, S; Shafiq, N; Pandhi, P; Bhalla, A; Dhibar, D P; Malhotra, S

2011-11-01

349

Public Information Use in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Children (Homo sapiens)  

PubMed Central

The discernment of resource quality is pertinent to many daily decisions faced by animals. Public information is a critical information source that promotes quality assessments, attained by monitoring others’ performance. Here we provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use public information to guide resource selection. Thirty-two chimpanzees were presented with two simultaneous video demonstrations depicting a conspecific acquiring resources at a fast (resource-rich) or slow (resource-poor) rate. Subsequently, subjects selected the resource-rich site above chance expectation. As a comparison, we report evidence of public information use in young children. Investigation of public information use in primates is pertinent, as it can enhance foraging success and potentially facilitate payoff-biased social learning. PMID:24060244

Vale, Gill L.; Flynn, Emma G.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Kendal, Rachel L.

2014-01-01

350

29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hours of work, labor turnover, absenteeism, productivity, learning periods, rejection rates, and similar factors; (b...volume and value of production, market outlets, price changes, style factors, consumer demand, competitive relationships,...

2010-07-01

351

29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hours of work, labor turnover, absenteeism, productivity, learning periods, rejection rates, and similar factors; (b...volume and value of production, market outlets, price changes, style factors, consumer demand, competitive relationships,...

2011-07-01

352

[Melatonin, a pertinent prototype for therapeutic innovation].  

PubMed

Melatonin fulfils most of the requirements of a typical lead compound for rational drug design. We have rationally modified each of its structural features with a view to clarifying their role in drug-receptor interactions (affinity and activity) and to obtain agonist and antagonist ligands which could be used as pharmacological tools and/or as drugs. Molecular modelling studies allow us to propose a pharmacophore model. The naphthalenic bioisostere of melatonin (agomelatin) is currently under clinical (phase II) evaluation and two other compounds have been selected for development. PMID:9921034

Lesieur, D; Leclerc, V; Chavatte, P; Marot, C; Renard, P; Guardiola-Lemaitre, B

1998-01-01

353

Lessons Pertinent for Teaching with Computers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internet's growth and its impact on learners has been phenomenal and accessing the Web is the norm in our daily lives. Youths use the Internet to support their school activities in many ways. The National Science Foundation supported a qualitative research project that was designed to better understand the Internet's impact. It involved…

Hiemstra, Roger; Poley, Janet

2007-01-01

354

IRST infrared background analysis of bay environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day naval operations take place in coastal environments as well as narrow straits all over the world. Coastal environments around the world are exhibiting a number of threats to naval forces. In particular a large number of asymmetric threats can be present in environments with cluttered backgrounds as well as rapidly varying atmospheric conditions. During trials executed in False Bay a large amount of target, background and atmosphere data was gathered that is of use in analysis of optical characteristics of targets and backgrounds. During the trials a variety of backgrounds were recorded. We have used these backgrounds to validate the TNO background model MIBS to incorporate also coastal backgrounds and sunlit sea backgrounds. In the paper we show results of the background analysis, for coastal bay backgrounds. In particular the detection of small targets by automatic system may be hampered by small surface structure variations at the surface and near the horizon. The data that we analyzed are sea surface structure, temporal behaviour, and spectral differences during different environmental conditions that occurred during the trials. This data is essential to feed detection algorithms, and performance models for the assessment of sensor performance in coastal environment. Some sensor management approaches for application in IRST systems is discussed.

Schwering, Piet B. W.; Bezuidenhout, Dirk F.; Gunter, Willem H.; le Roux, Francois P. J.; Sieberhagen, Rheinhardt H.

2008-04-01

355

Infrared background analysis of bay environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day naval operations take place in coastal environments as well as narrow straits all over the world. Coastal environments around the world are exhibiting a number of threats to naval forces. In particular a large number of asymmetric threats can be present in environments with cluttered backgrounds as well as rapidly varying atmospheric conditions. During trials executed in False Bay a large amount of target, background and atmosphere data was gathered that is of use in analysis of optical characteristics of targets and backgrounds. During the trials a variety of backgrounds were recorded. We have used these backgrounds to validate the TNO background model MIBS to incorporate also coastal backgrounds and sunlit sea backgrounds. In the paper we show results of the background analysis, for coastal bay backgrounds. In particular the detection of small targets by automatic system may be hampered by small surface structure variations at the surface and near the horizon. The data that we analyzed are sea surface structure, temporal behaviour, and spectral differences during different environmental conditions that occurred during the trials. This data is essential to feed detection algorithms, and performance models for the assessment of sensor performance in coastal environment.

Schwering, Piet B. W.; Gunter, Willem H.; Bezuidenhout, Dirk F.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.

2008-08-01

356

Using multiple perspectives to suppress information and complexity  

SciTech Connect

Dissemination of battlespace information involves getting information to particular warfighters that is both useful and in a form that facilitates the tasks of those particular warfighters. There are two issues which motivate this problem of dissemination. The first issue deals with disseminating pertinent information to a particular warfighter. This can be thought of as information suppression. The second issue deals with facilitating the use of the information by tailoring the computer interface to the specific tasks of an individual warfighter. This can be thought of as interface complexity suppression. This paper presents a framework for suppressing information using an object-based knowledge representation methodology. This methodology has the ability to represent knowledge and information in multiple perspectives. Information can be suppressed by creating a perspective specific to an individual warfighter. In this way, only the information pertinent and useful to a warfighter is made available to that warfighter. Information is not removed, lost, or changed, but spread among multiple perspectives. Interface complexity is managed in a similar manner. Rather than have one generalized computer interface to access all information, the computer interface can be divided into interface elements. Interface elements can then be selected and arranged into a perspective-specific interface. This is done in a manner to facilitate completion of tasks contained in that perspective. A basic battlespace domain containing ground and air elements and associated warfighters is used to exercise the methodology.

Kelsey, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)]|[New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (US). Computer Science Dept.; Webster, R.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Hartley, R.T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (US). Computer Science Dept.

1998-09-01

357

Statistical challenges in the analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation  

E-print Network

An enormous amount of observations on Cosmic Microwave Background radiation has been collected in the last decade, and much more data are expected in the near future from planned or operating satellite missions. These datasets are a goldmine of information for Cosmology and Theoretical Physics; their efficient exploitation posits several intriguing challenges from the statistical point of view. In this paper we review a number of open problems in CMB data analysis and we present applications to observations from the WMAP mission.

Paolo Cabella; Domenico Marinucci

2009-05-15

358

Medical waste management: Regulatory and technical background report  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility companies need to be familiar with the regulatory and technical issues of medical waste disposal in order to help their healthcare facility customers remain competitive and meet increasingly stringent environmental regulations. This report addresses this need for background information by describing the characterization, generation, handling, regulation, and treatment of medical waste. The report also provides a qualitative assessment and comparison of processes that are now available or under development to treat and dispose of medical waste.

Urbanowicz, G. (Doucet and Mainka, Peekskill, NY (United States))

1992-09-01

359

The Effect of Background Music on Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The research of Dr. Anne Savan considers the effects of background music on the coordination of pupils with special educational\\u000a needs and emotional and behavioural difficulties. Previous research has shown that background music has an effect on certain\\u000a physiological and biochemical pathways in pupils with special educational needs and emotional and behavioural difficulties.\\u000a When background music is played during practical

Anne Savan

360

Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide unique constraints on cosmological models, i.e. on the content, history, and evolution of the Universe. I discuss the latest measurements of the spectral and spatial properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Recent measurements from NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, and from balloon-borne and ground-based platforms, are summarized and their cosmological implications are discussed.

C. L. Bennett

1994-08-12

361

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

1989-01-01

362

Skewness in the cosmic microwave background anisotropy from an inflationary gravity wave background  

E-print Network

Skewness in the cosmic microwave background anisotropy from an inflationary gravity wave background In the context of inflationary scenarios, the observed large angle anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background , the cosmic microwave background CMB has proved to be an ex- tremely significant observational guide in our

Souradeep, Tarun

363

Skewness in the cosmic microwave background anisotropy from an inflationary gravity wave background  

E-print Network

Skewness in the cosmic microwave background anisotropy from an inflationary gravity wave background microwave background ~CMB! temperature is believed to probe the primordial metric perturbations from. INTRODUCTION Since its discovery by Penzias and Wilson @1#, the cosmic microwave background ~CMB! has proved

Souradeep, Tarun

364

Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

Not Available

1993-04-01

365

A Thermal Graviton Background from Extra Dimensions  

E-print Network

Inflationary cosmology predicts a low-amplitude graviton background across a wide range of frequencies. This Letter shows that if one or more extra dimensions exist, the graviton background may have a thermal spectrum instead, dependent on the fundamental scale of the extra dimensions. The energy density is shown to be significant enough that it can affect nucleosynthesis in a substantial way. The possibility of direct detection of a thermal graviton background using the 21-cm hydrogen line is discussed. Alternative explanations for the creation of a thermal graviton background are also examined.

E. R. Siegel; J. N. Fry

2005-04-05

366

Aquaculture information package  

SciTech Connect

This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

1998-08-01

367

Background Error Statistics for Assimilation of Atmospheric CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent improvements in the CO2 observational density have spurred the development and application of data assimilation systems for extracting information about global CO2 distributions from available observations. A novel application that has been pursued at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), as part of the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) project, is to use a state-of-the-art 4DVAR system to assimilate CO2 observations, along with meteorological variables to obtain a consistent estimate of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Global CO2 fields generated in this way enhance the observational database, because the data assimilation procedure uses physical and dynamical laws, along with the available observations, to constrain the analysis. As in any data assimilation framework, the background error covariance matrix plays the critical role of filtering the observed information and propagating it to nearby grid points and levels of the assimilating model. For atmospheric CO2 assimilation, however, the errors in the background are not only impacted by the uncertainties in the CO2 transport but also by the spatial and temporal variability of the carbon exchange at the Earth surface. The background errors cannot be prescribed via traditional forecast-based methods as these fail to account for the uncertainties in the carbon emissions and uptake, resulting in an overall underestimation of the errors. We present a unique approach for characterizing the background error statistics whereby the differences between two CO2 model concentrations are used as a proxy for the statistics of the background errors. The resulting error statistics - 1) vary regionally and seasonally to better capture the changing degree of variability in the background CO2 field, 2) are independent of the observation density, and 3) have a discernible impact on the analysis estimates by allowing observations to adjust predictions over a larger area. In this presentation, we will show the results of assimilating observations from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) into the ECMWF-4DVAR system using both the new error statistics and those based on a traditional forecast-based technique ('standard' NMC method). We will also present the validation results against independent CO2 observations for a couple of representative months (January and June 2010). Results confirm that the performance of the data assimilation system significantly improves in the summer (winter) over the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere, when significant variability and uncertainty in the fluxes are present, and are correctly accounted for in the background error statistics. The proposed approach is also relevant for other trace gas assimilation applications, especially ones in which the background errors are influenced by both atmospheric transport and the emission patterns.

Chatterjee, A.; Engelen, R. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Sweeney, C.; Michalak, A. M.

2012-12-01

368

Revised Aug, 2013 CRIMINAL BACKGROUND CHECK PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

, Adjuncts Faculty, Post Doc, and Graduate Assistants) National criminal background checks on all new hires. Faculty, Adjunct Faculty, Post Doc & Courtesy Appointments · A national criminal background check is required for all faculty new hires including all regular faculty line, adjunct faculty, Post Doc

Van Stryland, Eric

369

The GENIUS Project - Background and technical studies  

E-print Network

The potential of GENIUS as a dark matter detector is discussed. A study was performed to demonstrate the good behaviour of the proposed detector design of naked HPGe-crystals in liquid nitrogen. The expected background components were simulated and are discussed in some detail.With the obtained background GENIUS could cover a large part of the favoured MSSM parameter-space.

L. Baudis; G. Heusser; B. Majorovits; Y. Ramachers; H. Strecker; H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus

1998-11-11

370

The GENIUS Project Background and technical studies  

E-print Network

The potential of GENIUS as a dark matter detector is discussed. A study was performed to demonstrate the good behaviour of the proposed detector design of naked HPGe-crystals in liquid nitrogen. The expected background components were simulated and are discussed in some detail.With the obtained background GENIUS could cover a large part of the favoured MSSM parameter-space.

Baudis, L; Majorovits, B; Ramachers, Y; Strecker, H; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H V

1998-01-01

371

Background and motivation Classical projective structures  

E-print Network

of a parabolic geometry, namely classical projective structures. This leads to surprising relations to algebraic for the other parabolic geometries. Andreas Cap Projective BGG equations and polynomial systems #12;BackgroundBackground and motivation Classical projective structures Projective BGG equations and polynomial

Drmota, Michael

372

Gifted Students from Low-Education Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gifted children from low-education backgrounds often experience barriers to educational and career success. This article reviews the growing body of literature regarding gifted students from low-education backgrounds and the related literature on the challenges and characteristics of first-generation college students. A mother and daughter…

Gibbons, Melinda M.; Pelchar, Taylor K.; Cochran, Jeff L.

2012-01-01

373

Algorithms: Background Amotz Bar-Noy  

E-print Network

Bar-Noy (CUNY) Algorithms: Background Fall 2012 2 / 56 #12;The Pythagorean Theorem c b a Theorem: c2) Algorithms: Background Fall 2012 6 / 56 #12;Prime Numbers Theorem: There are infinitely many prime numbers, then a new prime is found. Otherwise, Q is a product of two or more primes. The Fundamental Theorem

Bar-Noy, Amotz

374

Cosmic Microwave Background: The New Cosmology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This AstroBulletin article takes an in-depth look at the newest technology and instruments used to study the Cosmic Microwave Background. The site includes text and a seven minute video. There are links to three essays: "What Is the Cosmic Microwave Background?", "Antarctica: A Hotbed of Cold-Weather Research" and "DASI Does It."

375

Inflation and the cosmic microwave background  

E-print Network

Various issues concerning the impact of inflationary models on parameter estimation from the cosmic microwave background are reviewed, with particular focus on the range of possible outcomes of inflationary models and on the amount which might be learnt about inflation from the microwave background.

Andrew R Liddle

1999-01-05

376

Topology of microwave background fluctuations - Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topological measures are used to characterize the microwave background temperature fluctuations produced by 'standard' scenarios (Gaussian) and by cosmic strings (non-Gaussian). Three topological quantities: total area of the excursion regions, total length, and total curvature (genus) of the isotemperature contours, are studied for simulated Gaussian microwave background anisotropy maps and then compared with those of the non-Gaussian anisotropy pattern produced

J. Richard Gott III; Roman Juszkiewicz; William E. Bies; David P. Bennett; Albert Stebbins

1990-01-01

377

THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND B. Winstein  

E-print Network

THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND RADIATION B. Winstein Center for Cosmological Physics by the NSF #12;1 Introduction By studying the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation field, cosmologists and promise in studies of the microwave radiation left over from the early universe. They are aimed

Collar, Juan I.

378

Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present

STEPHEN POLLAINE

1978-01-01

379

Anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical predictions of the angular anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on both small and large angular scales are presented, and the effect of massive neutrinos on both the background radiation anisotropy and on the galaxy correlation function over very large scales is reviewed. Current observations show that the quadrupole anisotropy provides the greatest constraint on theory, and the

J. Silk

1981-01-01

380

Font and Background Color Independent Text Binarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel method for binarization of color documents whereby the foreground text is output as black and the background as white regardless of the polarity of foreground-background shades. The method employs an edge-based connected component approach and automati- cally determines a threshold for each component. It has sev- eral advantages over existing binarization methods. Firstly, it can handle

T Kasar; J Kumar; A G Ramakrishnan

381

Low-Background Counting at Homestake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from

Iseley Marshall

2009-01-01

382

Background Defect Density Reduction Using Automated Defect Inspection And Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yield maintenance and improvement is a major area of concern in any integrated circuit manufacturing operation. A major aspect of this concern is controlling and reducing defect density. Obviously, large defect excursions must be immediately addressed in order to maintain yield levels. However, to enhance yields, the subtle defect mechanisms must be reduced or eliminated as well. In-line process control inspections are effective for detecting large variations in the defect density on a real time basis. Examples of in-line inspection strategies include after develop or after etch inspections. They are usually effective for detecting when a particular process segment has gone out of control. However, when a process is running normally, there exists a background defect density that is generally not resolved by in-line process control inspections. The inspection strategies that are frequently used to monitor the background defect density are offline inspections. Offline inspections are used to identify the magnitude and characteristics of the background defect density. These inspections sample larger areas of product wafers than the in-line inspections to allow identification of the defect generating mechanisms that normally occur in the process. They are used to construct a database over a period of time so that trends may be studied. This information enables engineering efforts to be focused on the mechanisms that have the greatest impact on device yield. Once trouble spots in the process are identified, the data base supplies the information needed to isolate and solve them. The key aspect to the entire program is to utilize a reliable data gathering mechanism coupled with a flexible information processing system. This paper describes one method of reducing the background defect density using automated wafer inspection and analysis. The tools used in this evaluation were the KLA 2020 Wafer Inspector, KLA Utility Terminal (KLAUT), and a new software package developed by KLA called "Product Wafer Defect Audit" (PWDA). Automating the wafer inspection task has several advantages over a manual inspection. Among these are consistency of defect capture over time and consistency of sample size. Additional information such as exact location, size, and classifications is retained for each defect found. The software package, PWDA, automatically maintains a database of this defect information. This database allows quick retrieval and manipulation of the data in a variety of ways. The use of PWDA software coupled with auto-matic inspection for an offline inspection program in a fab environment is discussed. This includes examples of setting up and collecting a database, evaluation of the data, and the actions taken to decrease the background defect density level.

Weirauch, Steven C.

1988-01-01

383

Integrated far-infrared background from galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The integrated radiation from galaxies is calculated at far-IR and submillimeter wavelengths. The peak of the far-IR background radiation is 100-130 microns, and its total energy content is 0.5-6 percent of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). At wavelengths longward of 400 microns, the CMB dominates over the far-IR radiation from galaxies in intensity. The autocorrelation of fluctuations from the average angle of the far-IR background of galaxies is calculated. The contribution of galaxies to the anisotropy of the background radiation at wavelengths longer than about 400 microns where the CMB is predominant is obtained. It is found that, in general, earlier galaxy formation predicts stronger far-IR background radiation. The prompt initial enrichment model for the chemical evolution of disk galaxies, in particular those with an exponential star formation rate, produces much larger intensity of the integrated radiation than the accretion model.

Wang, Boqi

1991-01-01

384

Information Quality in Regulatory Decision Making: Peer Review versus Good Laboratory Practice  

PubMed Central

Background: There is an ongoing discussion on the provenance of toxicity testing data regarding how best to ensure its validity and credibility. A central argument is whether journal peer-review procedures are superior to Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) standards employed for compliance with regulatory mandates. Objective: We sought to evaluate the rationale for regulatory decision making based on peer-review procedures versus GLP standards. Method: We examined pertinent published literature regarding how scientific data quality and validity are evaluated for peer review, GLP compliance, and development of regulations. Discussion: Some contend that peer review is a coherent, consistent evaluative procedure providing quality control for experimental data generation, analysis, and reporting sufficient to reliably establish relative merit, whereas GLP is seen as merely a tracking process designed to thwart investigator corruption. This view is not supported by published analyses pointing to subjectivity and variability in peer-review processes. Although GLP is not designed to establish relative merit, it is an internationally accepted quality assurance, quality control method for documenting experimental conduct and data. Conclusions: Neither process is completely sufficient for establishing relative scientific soundness. However, changes occurring both in peer-review processes and in regulatory guidance resulting in clearer, more transparent communication of scientific information point to an emerging convergence in ensuring information quality. The solution to determining relative merit lies in developing a well-documented, generally accepted weight-of-evidence scheme to evaluate both peer-reviewed and GLP information used in regulatory decision making where both merit and specific relevance inform the process. PMID:22343028

Borgert, Christopher J.; Mihaich, Ellen M.

2012-01-01

385

How Adolescents Use Technology for Health Information: Implications for Health Professionals from Focus Group Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescents present many challenges in providing them effective preventive services and health care. Yet, they are typically the early adopters of new technology (eg, the Internet). This creates important opportunities for engaging youths via eHealth. Objective To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents. Methods Using an inductive qualitative research design, 27 focus groups were conducted in Ontario, Canada. The 210 participants (55% female, 45% male; median age 16 years) were selected to reflect diversity in age, sex, geographic location, cultural identity, and risk. An 8-person team analyzed and coded the data according to major themes. Results Study participants most-frequently sought or distributed information related to school (89%), interacting with friends (85%), social concerns (85%), specific medical conditions (67%), body image and nutrition (63%), violence and personal safety (59%), and sexual health (56%). Finding personally-relevant, high-quality information was a pivotal challenge that has ramifications on the depth and types of information that adolescents can find to answer their health questions. Privacy in accessing information technology was a second key challenge. Participants reported using technologies that clustered into 4 domains along a continuum from highly-interactive to fixed information sources: (1) personal communication: telephone, cell phone, and pager; (2) social communication: e-mail, instant messaging, chat, and bulletin boards; (3) interactive environments: Web sites, search engines, and computers; and (4) unidirectional sources: television, radio, and print. Three emerging roles for health professionals in eHealth include: (1) providing an interface for adolescents with technology and assisting them in finding pertinent information sources; (2) enhancing connection to youths by extending ways and times when practitioners are available; and (3) fostering critical appraisal skills among youths for evaluating the quality of health information. Conclusions This study helps illuminate adolescent health-information needs, their use of information technologies, and emerging roles for health professionals. The findings can inform the design and more-effective use of eHealth applications for adolescent populations. PMID:14713660

Biscope, Sherry; Poland, Blake; Goldberg, Eudice

2003-01-01

386

Tailoring online information retrieval to user's needs based on a logical semantic approach to natural language processing and UMLS mapping.  

PubMed

Depression can derail teenagers' lives and cause serious chronic health problems. Acquiring pertinent knowledge and skills supports care management, but retrieving appropriate information can be difficult. This poster presents a strategy to tailor online information to user attributes using a logical semantic approach to natural language processing (NLP) and mapping propositions to UMLS terms. This approach capitalizes on existing NLM resources and presents a potentially sustainable plan for meeting consumers and providers information needs. PMID:18694113

Kossman, Susan; Jones, Josette; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

2007-01-01

387

Background of SIFs and Stress Indices for Moment Loadings of Piping Components  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information, references, and equations for twenty-four piping components (thirteen component SIFs and eleven component stress indices) that justify the values or expressions for the SIFs and indices.

E. A. Wais; E. C. Rodabaugh

2005-06-15

388

Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and near-infrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo.

Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W.; Girard, Emily J.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

2014-07-01

389

Some computations of partition functions and tachyon potentials in background independent off-shell string theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss what information can be safely extracted from background independent off-shell string theory. The major obstacle in doing so is that renormalization conditions of the underlying world-sheet theories are not exactly known. To get some insight, we first consider the tachyon and gauge field backgrounds and carry out computations in different renormalization schemes for both, bosonic string and superstring.

Oleg Andreev

2001-01-01

390

Improved mean shift target tracking approach under the interference of background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at the earlier stage tracking of strapdown image terminal guidance system, this paper propose a tracking approach which can not only enhance the distinction between targets and background effectively, but also can constrain the interference of target positioning suffered from background information. Among various target tracking approaches, the Mean Shift tracking algorithm is an excellent one due to its efficiency and simplicity, while it can not effective restrain the disturbance from background information. Thus, in this paper, an only target model background-weighted histogram target tracking algorithm, which can restrain the interference from background information, is presented under the Mean Shift framework. If the histogram of target model and target candidate model are both transformed, the probability of remarkable background features in the target model and target candidate model will simultaneously decrease. Thus it is equivalent to a proportional transformation of the weights obtained by the conventional target representation method. Meanwhile, the Mean Shift iteration formula is invariant to the proportional transformation of weights. Therefore, simultaneously transform the histogram of target model and target candidate model is exactly the same as the Mean Shift tracking with traditional target representation. So the proposed algorithm only transforms the histogram of target model and decreases the probability of target model features that are prominent in the background, but do nothing to target candidate model. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only restrain the disturbance from background information and improve the tracking accuracy, but also not increases the execution time.

Guo, Xiaoran; Cui, Shaohui; Fang, Dan

2014-11-01

391

A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy

P. de Bernardis; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; A. Boscaleri; K. Coble; B. P. Crill; G. De Gasperis; P. C. Farese; P. G. Ferreira; K. Ganga; M. Giacometti; E. Hivon; V. V. Hristov; A. Iacoangeli; A. H. Jaffe; A. E. Lange; L. Martinis; S. Masi; P. V. Mason; P. D. Mauskopf; A. Melchiorri; L. Miglio; T. Montroy; C. B. Netterfield; E. Pascale; F. Piacentini; D. Pogosyan; S. Prunet; S. Rao; G. Romeo; J. E. Ruhl; F. Scaramuzzi; D. Sforna; N. Vittorio

2000-01-01

392

A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total

P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; A. Boscaleri; K. Coble; B. P. Crill; G. De Gasperis; P. C. Farese; P. G. Ferreira; K. Ganga; M. Giacometti; E. Hivon; V. V. Hristov; A. Iacoangeli; A. H. Jaffe; A. E. Lange; L. Martinis; S. Masi; P. V. Mason; P. D. Mauskopf; A. Melchiorri; L. Miglio; T. Montroy; C. B. Netterfield; E. Pascale; F. Piacentini; D. Pogosyan; S. Prunet; S. Rao; G. Romeo; J. E. Ruhl; F. Scaramuzzi; D. Sforna; N. Vittorio; P. de Bernardis

2000-01-01

393

DASI: A Degree Angular Scale Interferometer for Imaging Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

microwave background, cosmology 1. INTRODUCTION The angular power spectrum of the CMB contains informationDASI: A Degree Angular Scale Interferometer for Imaging Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background N. W. Halverson a , J. E. Carlstrom, M. Dragovan, W. L. Holzapfel, and J. Kovac Department

Gardel, Margaret

394

Academic Achievement, School Quality and Family Background: Study in Seven Latin American Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational production can be studied by correlating levels of academic achievement with three independent variables: student's family background, student's mental ability, and school quality. To examine family background and school quality, information was gathered from schools in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru.…

Sanguinetty, Jorge A.

395

Real-World User-Centered Design: The Michigan Workforce Background Check System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Michigan Workforce Background Check system demonstrates how an iterative user-centered design (UCD) process enhances organizational\\u000a level communication practices and efficiency. Well-designed information communication technology is an essential component\\u000a of effective public health management. Usability and accessibility testing informed subsequent design and development. The\\u000a iterative improvement in the background check application demonstrates that UCD should be a component of public

Sarah J. Swierenga; Fuad Abujarad; Toni A. Dennis; Lori A. Post

396

Sources of the Radio Background Considered  

SciTech Connect

We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

2011-08-22

397

Cosmological string backgrounds from gauged WZW models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the four-dimensional target-space interpretation of bosonic strings based on gauge WZW models, in particular of those based on the non-compact coset space SL (2, R)×SO(1, 1). We show that these theories lead, apart from the recently broadly discussed black-hole type of backgrounds, to cosmological string backgrounds, such as an expanding Universe. Which of the two cases is realized depends on the sign of the level of the corresponding Kac-Moody algebra. We discuss various aspects of these new cosmological string backgrounds. Heisenberg Fellow.

Kounnas, Costas; Lüst, Dieter

1992-09-01

398

Background considerations for SuperCDMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 × 10-46 cm2 for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

Cooley, J.; SuperCDMS Collaboration

2013-08-01

399

Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation  

SciTech Connect

Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.

Burr, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

400

Low background physics at the Kimballton Mine  

SciTech Connect

The Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) is home to several experiments. One consists to two HPGe detectors designed to screen candidate materials to be used in low-background experiments for radioactivity. Analysis techniques, including our efficiency calculations will be presented. We have also deployed a customized BEGe (Broad Energy Germanium) detector in a low-background cryostat. This paper will focus on the shield design, detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a detector in a low-background environment.

MacMullin, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-04-27

401

Background considerations for SuperCDMS  

SciTech Connect

Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 × 10{sup ?46} cm{sup 2} for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

Cooley, J. [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Collaboration: SuperCDMS Collaboration

2013-08-08

402

Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus  

SciTech Connect

The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

Fritz, Brad G.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

2014-12-18

403

Partnering industry to develop clinical information systems.  

PubMed

Over the past six months, the nursing team from the Department of Health's Informatics Directorate has been working with colleagues in industry to promote and share learning and understanding of issues surrounding the nursing profession. Team members were asked among other things to identify key questions senior nursing colleagues and suppliers should ask one another when considering the implementation of a new system for recording clinical information and extracting pertinent data. This article aims to encourage collaborative working and understanding of the importance of senior nurse involvement in choosing and delivering the right system for staff and patients. PMID:23008903

Hughes, Victoria; Hamer, Susan

2012-09-01

404

Comparison of commingled backgrounded feeder cattle to non-backgrounded counterparts  

E-print Network

premiums from late winter to early summer when there is more demand for backgrounded cattle. Lower premiums revealed less of a demand for heavy weight backgrounded cattle especially during summer months....

Geistweidt, Adam Robert

2013-02-22

405

Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise  

PubMed Central

It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity. PMID:25426029

Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.; Xiao, Zhongju

2014-01-01

406

The Ethical Role of Information in Sustainable Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of sustainable communities, or sustainable development, focuses on the ethical role of information in fostering sustainable environmental development. Topics include background information, developments in information technology, permaculture in the area of horticulture and information ethics, information ethics models, hardware…

Lockway, Larry

1995-01-01

407

23 CFR 777.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background...1977 Comp., p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A, 1 Preservation of the Nation's Wetlands, emphasize the important...

2013-04-01

408

23 CFR 777.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background...1977 Comp., p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A, 1 Preservation of the Nation's Wetlands, emphasize the important...

2011-04-01

409

23 CFR 777.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background...1977 Comp., p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A, 1 Preservation of the Nation's Wetlands, emphasize the important...

2014-04-01

410

23 CFR 777.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background...1977 Comp., p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A, 1 Preservation of the Nation's Wetlands, emphasize the important...

2012-04-01

411

23 CFR 777.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENT MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background...1977 Comp., p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A, 1 Preservation of the Nation's Wetlands, emphasize the important...

2010-04-01

412

Rejection of Surface Background in Thermal Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenging aspect of the next generation detector for rare events searches (i.e. neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter searches) is the reduction of the background in the region of interest that can mimic the expected signals. In the field of thermal detectors, which have a leading role in rare events searches thanks to their excellent energy resolution and to the wide choice of absorber materials, the background coming from surface contaminations is frequently dominant. A background surface rejection detector is a scintillation-based approach for tagging this type of background. We discuss the innovative application of this technique in non-scintillating thermal detectors. We will report on the performances of the prototype bolometric detector, realized to prove the feasibility of this new technique.

Canonica, L.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Calvano, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Goett, J.; Gorla, P.; Pavan, M.; Yeh, M.

2014-09-01

413

16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CB BASE STATION ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background...contacted powerlines with CB base station and outside TV antennas while putting these antennas up or taking...

2014-01-01

414

36 CFR 401.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.3 Background. Following...governmental entities sought to create memorials in Europe commemorating the service...Monuments Commission to generally oversee all memorials created by Americans or American...

2012-07-01

415

36 CFR 401.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.3 Background. Following...governmental entities sought to create memorials in Europe commemorating the service...Monuments Commission to generally oversee all memorials created by Americans or American...

2011-07-01

416

36 CFR 401.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.3 Background. Following...governmental entities sought to create memorials in Europe commemorating the service...Monuments Commission to generally oversee all memorials created by Americans or American...

2013-07-01

417

36 CFR 401.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.3 Background. Following...governmental entities sought to create memorials in Europe commemorating the service...Monuments Commission to generally oversee all memorials created by Americans or American...

2014-07-01

418

36 CFR 401.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.3 Background. Following...governmental entities sought to create memorials in Europe commemorating the service...Monuments Commission to generally oversee all memorials created by Americans or American...

2010-07-01

419

The cosmic X-ray background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present knowledge about the overall spectrum of the isotropic extragalactic background of electromagnetic radiation is summarized. The role of the HEAO program is discussed. Spectral measurements from HEAO are examined.

Boldt, Elihu A.

1987-01-01

420

Dyonic branes and linear dilaton background  

SciTech Connect

We study dyonic solutions to the gravity-dilaton-antisymmetric form equations with the goal of identifying new p-brane solutions on the fluxed linear dilaton background. Starting with the generic solutions constructed by reducing the system to decoupled Liouville equations for certain values of parameters, we identify the most general solution whose singularities are hidden behind a regular event horizon, and then explore the admissible asymptotic behaviors. In addition to known asymptotically flat dyonic branes, we find two classes of asymptotically nonflat solutions which can be interpreted as describing magnetically charged branes on the electrically charged linear dilaton background (and the S-dual configuration of electrically charged branes on the magnetically charged background), and uncharged black branes on the dyonically charged linear dilaton background. This interpretation is shown to be consistent with the first law of thermodynamics for the new solutions.

Clement, Gerard; Leygnac, Cedric [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique LAPTH (CNRS), B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Gal'tsov, Dmitri [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique LAPTH (CNRS), B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Department of Theoretical Physics, Moscow State University, 119899, Moscow (Russian Federation); Orlov, Dmitri [Department of Theoretical Physics, Moscow State University, 119899, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-02-15

421

32 CFR 770.42 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental...

2010-07-01

422

32 CFR 770.42 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental...

2011-07-01

423

32 CFR 770.42 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental...

2012-07-01

424

32 CFR 770.42 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental...

2013-07-01

425

32 CFR 770.42 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut § 770.42 Background. Naval Submarine Base New London maintains and operates facilities to support training and experimental...

2014-07-01

426

25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 556.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GAMING LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR...management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation. (a) A tribe shall...

2010-04-01

427

32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2014-07-01

428

32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2012-07-01

429

32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2013-07-01

430

32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2011-07-01

431

40 CFR 761.360 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Double Wash/Rinse Method for Decontaminating Non-Porous Surfaces § 761.360 Background. The double wash/rinse procedure is used to quickly and effectively remove PCBs on...

2013-07-01

432

40 CFR 761.360 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Double Wash/Rinse Method for Decontaminating Non-Porous Surfaces § 761.360 Background. The double wash/rinse procedure is used to quickly and effectively remove PCBs on...

2014-07-01

433

40 CFR 761.360 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Double Wash/Rinse Method for Decontaminating Non-Porous Surfaces § 761.360 Background. The double wash/rinse procedure is used to quickly and effectively remove PCBs on...

2012-07-01

434

40 CFR 761.360 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Double Wash/Rinse Method for Decontaminating Non-Porous Surfaces § 761.360 Background. The double wash/rinse procedure is used to quickly and effectively remove PCBs on...

2011-07-01

435

40 CFR 761.360 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Double Wash/Rinse Method for Decontaminating Non-Porous Surfaces § 761.360 Background. The double wash/rinse procedure is used to quickly and effectively remove PCBs on...

2010-07-01

436

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2010-07-01

437

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background...determined that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed...indicates that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed...

2010-01-01

438

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background...determined that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed...indicates that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed...

2011-01-01

439

Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields  

SciTech Connect

We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields.

William Detmold, Brian C. Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

2010-02-01

440

Counseling Battered Women from Fundamentalist Christian Backgrounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines biblical issues (spouse roles, separation and divorce, forgiveness, faith) that are of concern to battered women from fundamentalist Christian backgrounds. Offers counselors suggestions on how to address them. (Author/ABL)

Whipple, Vicky

1988-01-01

441

32 CFR 770.17 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

2012-07-01

442

32 CFR 770.17 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

2014-07-01

443

32 CFR 770.17 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

2010-07-01

444

32 CFR 770.17 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

2013-07-01

445

32 CFR 770.17 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Base Entry Regulations for Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Silverdale, Washington § 770.17 Background...has been designated as the West Coast home port of the Trident Submarine. Facilities for the repair or overhaul of naval...

2011-07-01

446

Cosmological Birefringence and the Microwave Background  

E-print Network

We show that significant anisotropy in electromagnetic propagation generates a distinctive signature in the microwave background. The anisotropy may be determined by looking at the cross correlator of the $E$-mode and $B$-mode polarisation spectrum.

Nathan F. Lepora

1998-12-21

447

Inflation and the cosmic microwave background  

E-print Network

I give a status report and outlook concerning the use of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies to constrain the inflationary cosmology, and stress its crucial role as an underlying paradigm for the estimation of cosmological parameters.

Andrew R Liddle

1998-01-15

448

14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

2011-01-01

449

14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

2013-01-01

450

14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

2010-01-01

451

14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

2012-01-01

452

14 CFR 1217.102 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DUTY-FREE ENTRY OF SPACE ARTICLES § 1217.102 Background...use of NASA's launch services for the exploration and use of space, section 116 of Public Law...

2014-01-01

453

32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2010-07-01

454

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background. ...that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed too close...that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed even...

2014-01-01

455

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background. ...that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed too close...that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed even...

2013-01-01

456

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.2 Background. ...that fires can occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed too close...that fires may occur where cellulose insulation is improperly installed even...

2012-01-01

457

16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STATION ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background...furnished with these antennas and their supporting structures so that consumers...antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact...

2013-01-01

458

16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATION ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background...furnished with these antennas and their supporting structures so that consumers...antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact...

2010-01-01

459

16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STATION ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background...furnished with these antennas and their supporting structures so that consumers...antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact...

2011-01-01

460

16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STATION ANTENNAS, TV ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background...furnished with these antennas and their supporting structures so that consumers...antennas, outside TV antennas, and supporting structures due to contact...

2012-01-01

461

Capabilities of the cosmic background explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cosmic background explorer, now being redesigned for a launch on a Delta rocket in 1989, will carry three instruments to measure the cosmic infrared and microwave background radiation and other diffuse sources from 1 micron to 1 cm wavelength. These instruments will be orders of magnitude more sensitive and accurate than previous equipment and will help determine the structure of the early universe. The instruments are (1) an absolute spectrophotometer, covering 100 microns to 1 cm, (2) an absolute infrared radiometer covering 1 to 300 microns, and (3) differential microwave radiometers at 32, 53, and 90 GHz. They will measure the large scale anisotropy and the spectrum of the 3 K cosmic background, and search for the extragalactic infrared background, to a sensitivity limited by the astrophysical environment. The first two instruments require liquid helium cooling, limiting their lifetime to about 14 months.

Mather, J. C.

1987-01-01

462

Background Reading: Ethical Perspectives and Theories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides short background reading describing values, morals, and ethics, as well as these perspectives: Moral Rules and Duties, Outcomes, Virtues, Principles, and Care/Feminist.

2008-01-01

463

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2011-01-01

464

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2014-01-01

465

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2012-01-01

466

41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...128-1.8001 Background. The Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977...establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to...life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699...

2013-07-01

467

32 CFR 770.27 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

2011-07-01

468

32 CFR 770.27 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

2012-07-01

469

32 CFR 770.27 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

2013-07-01

470

32 CFR 770.27 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

2010-07-01

471

32 CFR 770.27 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for Naval Installations in the State of Hawaii § 770.27 Background. (a) Naval installations in Hawaii constitute a significant element...industrial areas within naval installations in Hawaii wherein construction activities and...

2014-07-01

472

Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

2013-08-01

473

Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2013-08-08

474

IIB backgrounds with five-form flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate all N=2 supersymmetric IIB supergravity backgrounds with non-vanishing five-form flux. The Killing spinors have stability subgroups Spin(7)?R8, SU(4)?R8 and G2. In the SU(4)?R8 case, two different types of geometry arise depending on whether the Killing spinors are generic or pure. In both cases, the backgrounds admit a null Killing vector field which leaves invariant the SU(4)?R8 structure, and

U. Gran; J. Gutowski; G. Papadopoulos

2008-01-01

475

BKGE: Fermi-LAT Background Estimator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fermi-LAT Background Estimator (BKGE) is a publicly available open-source tool that can estimate the expected background of the Fermi-LAT for any observational conguration and duration. It produces results in the form of text files, ROOT files, gtlike source-model files (for LAT maximum likelihood analyses), and PHA I/II FITS files (for RMFit/XSpec spectral fitting analyses). Its core is written in C++ and its user interface in Python.

Vasileiou, Vlasios

2014-11-01

476

The pregalactic cosmic gravitational wave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution. The spectral region of cosmically generated and cosmically limited radiation is, at long periods, P greater than 1 year, in contrast to more recent cosmological sources, which have P approx. 10 to 10(exp -3).

Matzner, Richard A.

1989-01-01

477

Gravitational wave background from binary systems  

SciTech Connect

Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter {Omega}(f), commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, {Omega}(f) is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the frequencies of all existing and planned detectors. A semi-analytical formula for {Omega}(f) is derived in the case of stellar binaries (containing white dwarfs, neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes). Besides a realistic expectation of the level of background, upper and lower limits are given, to account for the uncertainties in some astrophysical parameters such as binary coalescence rates. One interesting result concerns all current and planned ground-based detectors (including the Einstein Telescope). In their frequency range, the background of binaries is resolvable and only sporadically present. In other words, there is no stochastic background of binaries for ground-based detectors.

Rosado, Pablo A. [Albert Einstein Institute, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2011-10-15

478

The physics of microwave background anisotropies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The residual radiation from the Big Bang is observable as the cosmic microwave background-a near-uniform sea of photons with an average temperature of 2.7 K. Small variations in the temperature of the microwave background reflect the conditions that prevailed in the early Universe. Analysis of the physical mechanisms by which these anisotropies formed shows how they may be used to

Wayne Hu; Naoshi Sugiyama; Joseph Silk

1997-01-01

479

Parylene background fluorescence study for biomems applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parylene is a commonly used material in bio-MEMS field. Background fluorescence of parylene film itself can be a major obstacle for parylene-based devices used in fluorescent detection. We report here an in-depth study of the fluorescence mechanisms of parylene-C and parylene-HT films with fluorescent microscopy, fluorimeter, and infrared spectroscopy. Influences of fabrication process on background fluorescence of the devices are

Bo Lu; Siyang Zheng; Yu-Chong Tai

2009-01-01

480

Low-background counting systems compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of special low-background germanium counting systems used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory will be presented. These vary from specially modified instruments in the laboratory to low-cosmic-exposure detectors operated deep underground. The underground detectors have copper cryostats completely electroformed from low-background copper. Electroforming is a process analogous to zone refining in its ability to remove chemical impurities. Shielding techniques

H. S. Miley; R. L. Brodzinski; J. H. Reeves

1992-01-01

481

Low-background counting systems compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of special low-background germanium counting systems used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory will be presented. These vary from specially modified instruments in the laboratory to low-cosmic-exposure detectors operated deep underground. The underground detectors have copper cryostats completely electroformed from low-background copper. Electroforming is a process analogous to zone refining in its ability to remove chemical impurities. Shielding techniques

H. S. Miley; R. L. Brodzinski; J. H. Reeves

1991-01-01

482

The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 mum. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps

M. G. Hauser; R. G. Arendt; T. Kelsall; E. Dwek; N. Odegard; J. L. Weiland; H. T. Freudenreich; W. T. Reach; R. F. Silverberg; S. H. Moseley; Y. C. Pei; P. Lubin; J. C. Mather; R. A. Shafer; G. F. Smoot; R. Weiss; D. T. Wilkinson; E. L. Wright

1998-01-01

483

Background matrix subtraction (BMS): A novel background removal algorithm for GPR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background noise is a common type of coherent noise that severely compromises the integrity of the high-resolution images provided by ground penetrating radar survey. Several existing techniques employ different approaches to attenuate background noise. In this study, we present the background matrix subtraction (BMS) as an alternative technique to remove horizontal background noise and we compare its efficiency to that of the conventional background removal technique. Instead of calculating an average trace that is subtracted from the GPR data in the conventional background removal methods, the BMS technique is based on calculating a complete background matrix of the same size of the GPR section. The background matrix is created through a series of windowing, sample exclusion, weighting, and iteration. This series of processes guarantees that the background matrix is least affected by target response and is composed purely of horizontal background noise. The computed background matrix is then subtracted from the GPR data to remove horizontal events. Results of experiments conducted on both synthetic and real GPR data show that the BMS technique yields better results than the commonly used background removal technique.

Rashed, Mohamed; Harbi, Hussein

2014-07-01

484

COBE Observations of the Cosmic Infrared Background  

E-print Network

The Diffuse InfraRed Background Experiment on COBE measured the total infrared signal seen from space at a distance of 1 astronomical unit from the Sun. Using time variations as the Earth orbits the Sun, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by the interplanetary dust cloud [zodiacal light]. By correlating the DIRBE signal with the column density of atomic hydrogen measured using the 21 cm line, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by interstellar dust, although one must still be concerned by dust associated with H_2 (molecular gas) and H II (the warm ionized medium). DIRBE was not able to determine the CIRB in the 5-60 micron wavelength range, but did detect both a far infrared background and a near infrared background. The far infrared background has an integrated intensity of about 34 nW/m^2/sr, while the near infrared and optical extragalactic background has about 59 nW/m^2/sr. The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on COBE has been used to constrain the long wavelength tail of the far infrared background but a wide range of intensities at 850 microns are compatible with the FIRAS data. Thus the fraction of the CIRB produced by SCUBA sources has large uncertainties in both the numerator and the denominator.

E. L. Wright

2003-06-03

485

Background Assay and Rejection in DRIFT  

E-print Network

The DRIFT-IId dark matter detector is a m$^3$-scale low-pressure TPC with directional sensitivity to WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. Its primary backgrounds were due to alpha decays from contamination on the central cathode. Efforts to reduce these backgrounds led to replacing the 20 \\mu m wire central cathode with one constructed from 0.9 \\mu m aluminized mylar, which is almost totally transparent to alpha particles. Detailed modeling of the nature and origin of the remaining backgrounds led to an in-situ, ppt-sensitive assay of alpha decay backgrounds from the central cathode. This led to further improvements in the thin-film cathode resulting in over 2 orders of magnitude reduction in backgrounds compared to the wire cathode. Finally, the addition of O$_2$ to CS$_2$ gas was found to produce multiple species of electronegative charge carriers, providing a method to determine the absolute position of nuclear recoils and reject all known remaining backgrounds while retaining a high efficiency for nuclear recoil detection.

Jeff Brack; Ed Daw; Alexei Dorofeev; Anthony Ezeribe; Jean-Luc Gauvreau; Michael Gold; John Harton; Randy Lafler; Robert Lauer; Eric R. Lee; Dinesh Loomba; John Matthews; Eric H. Miller; Alissa Monte; Alex Murphy; Sean Paling; Nguyen Phan; Steve Sadler; Andrew Scarff; Daniel Snowden-Ifft; Neil Spooner; Sam Telfer; Daniel Walker; Matt Williams; Leonid Yuriev

2014-04-08

486

Genetic testing in asymptomatic minors Background considerations towards ESHG Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Although various guidelines and position papers have discussed, in the past, the ethical aspects of genetic testing in asymptomatic minors, the European Society of Human Genetics had not earlier endorsed any set of guidelines exclusively focused on this issue. This paper has served as a background document in preparation of the development of the policy recommendations of the Public and Professional Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics. This background paper first discusses some general considerations with regard to the provision of genetic tests to minors. It discusses the concept of best interests, participation of minors in health-care decisions, parents' responsibilities to share genetic information, the role of clinical genetics and the health-care system in communication within the family. Second, it discusses, respectively, the presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing for adult-onset disorders, childhood-onset disorders and carrier testing. PMID:19277061

Borry, Pascal; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Cornel, Martina C; Clarke, Angus; Dierickx, Kris

2009-01-01

487

Genetic testing in asymptomatic minors: background considerations towards ESHG Recommendations.  

PubMed

Although various guidelines and position papers have discussed, in the past, the ethical aspects of genetic testing in asymptomatic minors, the European Society of Human Genetics had not earlier endorsed any set of guidelines exclusively focused on this issue. This paper has served as a background document in preparation of the development of the policy recommendations of the Public and Professional Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics. This background paper first discusses some general considerations with regard to the provision of genetic tests to minors. It discusses the concept of best interests, participation of minors in health-care decisions, parents' responsibilities to share genetic information, the role of clinical genetics and the health-care system in communication within the family. Second, it discusses, respectively, the presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing for adult-onset disorders, childhood-onset disorders and carrier testing. PMID:19277061

Borry, Pascal; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Cornel, Martina C; Clarke, Angus; Dierickx, Kris

2009-06-01

488

THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT  

SciTech Connect

The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Suzuki, K., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

2013-08-15

489

The background in the experiment Gerda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) of INFN is searching for neutrinoless double beta () decay of Ge. The signature of the signal is a monoenergetic peak at 2039 keV, the value of the decay. To avoid bias in the signal search, the present analysis does not consider all those events, that fall in a 40 keV wide region centered around . The main parameters needed for the analysis are described. A background model was developed to describe the observed energy spectrum. The model contains several contributions, that are expected on the basis of material screening or that are established by the observation of characteristic structures in the energy spectrum. The model predicts a flat energy spectrum for the blinding window around with a background index ranging from 17.6 to 23.8 cts/(keV kg yr). A part of the data not considered before has been used to test if the predictions of the background model are consistent. The observed number of events in this energy region is consistent with the background model. The background at is dominated by close sources, mainly due to K, Bi, Th, Co and emitting isotopes from the Ra decay chain. The individual fractions depend on the assumed locations of the contaminants. It is shown, that after removal of the known peaks, the energy spectrum can be fitted in an energy range of 200 keV around with a constant background. This gives a background index consistent with the full model and uncertainties of the same size.

Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

2014-04-01

490

Optical and infrared backgrounds from the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sum total of the energy released by the earliest era of star formation should show up today within the diffuse extragalactic background light (EBL), its signature peaking in the near-infrared. There is considerable controversy over estimates of the average EBL per steradian at optical and infrared wavelengths, over measurements of background fluctuations, and over the interpretation of the measurements. Resolving this controversy is important because the EBL constrains the history of galaxy evolution. The fluctuations and their colors may also contain important information about Population III stars and the earliest era of star formation. We compare number counts from recent galaxy surveys, correcting for their differing passbands. With some assumptions about galaxy sizes and surface-brightness profiles, we account for the light missed in standard photometric estimates, integrating the resulting corrected counts to estimate the total EBL due to resolved galaxies as well as undetected galaxies. We then present an analysis of background fluctuations in observations of the HUDF, the GOODS field, and the CANDELS fields obtained with WFC3. The fluctuation signal provides a constraint on the slope of galaxy counts fainter than the levels of individual detection, as well as their typical angular sizes. The color dependence of the fluctuations provides a constraint on the redshift distribution of these very faint sources. The spatial and spectral information from these anisotropies, even in their non-detection, provide valuable information about the era of reionization, when the first stars and galaxies formed. Via various analysis tools such as power spectra and P(D) fitting, best-fit models to faint sources can be obtained.

Dolch, Timothy

491

The Background Field Approximation in (quantum) cosmology  

E-print Network

We analyze the Hamilton-Jacobi action of gravity and matter in the limit where gravity is treated at the background field approximation. The motivation is to clarify when and how the solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation lead to the Schr\\"odinger equation in a given background. To this end, we determine when and how the total action, solution of the constraint equations of General Relativity, leads to the HJ action for matter in a given background. This is achieved by comparing two neighboring solutions differing slightly in their matter energy content. To first order in the change of the 3-geometries, the change of the gravitational action equals the integral of the matter energy evaluated in the background geometry. Higher order terms are governed by the ``susceptibility'' of the geometry. These classical properties also apply to quantum cosmology since the conditions which legitimize the use of WKB gravitational waves are concomitant with those governing the validity of the background field approximation.

R. Parentani

1998-03-12

492

Measurements of the cosmic background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the attributes of the 2.7-K microwave background radiation (CBR) are reviewed, with emphasis on the analytic phase of CBR studies. Methods for the direct measurement of the CBR spectrum are discussed; attention is given to receivers, antennas, absolute receiver calibration, atmospheric emission and absorption, the galactic background contribution, the analysis of LF measurements, and recent HF observations of the CBR spectrum. Measurements of the large-angular-scale intensity distribution of the CBR (the most convincing evidence that the radiation is of cosmological origin) are examined, along with limits on the linear polarization of the CBR. A description is given of the NASA-sponsored Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite mission. The results of the COBE mission will be a set of sky maps showing, in the wave number range from 1 to 10,000 kaysers, the galactic background radiation due to synchrotron emission from galactic cosmic rays, to diffuse thermal emission from H II regions, and to diffuse thermal emission from interstellar and interplanetary dust, as well as a residue consisting of the CBR and whatever other cosmological background might exist.

Weiss, R.

1980-01-01

493

A review on natural background radiation.  

PubMed

The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly (232)Th and (238)U series, and their decay products, as well as (40)K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

2013-01-01

494

A review on natural background radiation  

PubMed Central

The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly 232Th and 238U series, and their decay products, as well as 40K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

2013-01-01

495

The background and theory of integrated risk management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While all good managers have always considered risk in their decision making, only recently have formal programs to do so been introduced. This report covers the logical structure behind the formulation of an integrated risk management plan (IRM). Included in the report are factors forcing the development of a formal plan to consider risk, the basic objective or purpose of an IRM, and desirable traits of such a plan. The report moves on to a discussion of background issues, seeks to formalize some definitions, and then discusses required information on threats. The report concludes with the steps for an IRM.

Hunsucker, John L.

1995-01-01

496

Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background: Are These Guys Serious?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) could contain the oldest information in the universe, dating from an inflationary epoch just after the Big Bang. Detecting this signal presents an experimental challenge, as it is both faint and hidden behind complicated foregrounds. The rewards, however, are great, as a positive detection would not only establish inflation as a physical reality but also provide a model-independent measurement of the relevant energy scale. I will present the scientific motivation behind measurements of the CMB polarization and discuss how recent experimental progress could lead to a detection in the not-very-distant future.

Kogut, Alan

2007-01-01

497

Modeling Ambient Background in Complex Detection Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Radiation detection instrumentation is being widely deployed as a countermeasure against the movement and use of radiological dispersal devices and nuclear weapons. Accurate ambient background modeling is critical for accurate simulation of detection scenarios of interest; these background source terms influence minimum detectable limits and are thus a significant factor in overall system performance. Described below are the methods used to characterize ambient background source terms in the at-sea maritime cargo container environment, how statistical distributions on those source terms are defined, and how the resulting radiation fields are calibrated using available measurement data from aboard large ocean-going ships. Although the maritime environment is the demonstration case study, these methods are broadly applicable to modeling of all complex detection scenarios.

Kiff, Scott D.; Smith, Leon E.; Jarman, Kenneth D.

2008-08-01

498

Cosmological origin of anomalous radio background  

SciTech Connect

The ARCADE 2 collaboration has reported a significant excess in the isotropic radio background, whose homogeneity cannot be reconciled with clustered sources. This suggests a cosmological origin prior to structure formation. We investigate several potential mechanisms and show that injection of relativistic electrons through late decays of a metastable particle can give rise to the observed excess radio spectrum through synchrotron emission. However, constraints from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, on injection of charged particles and on the primordial magnetic field, present a challenge. The simplest scenario is with a ?>9 GeV particle decaying into e{sup +}e{sup ?} at a redshift of z ? 5, in a magnetic field of ? 5?G, which exceeds the CMB B-field constraints, unless the field was generated after decoupling. Decays into exotic millicharged particles can alleviate this tension, if they emit synchroton radiation in conjunction with a sufficiently large background magnetic field of a dark U(1)' gauge field.

Cline, James M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montréal, Québec, H3A 2T8 Canada (Canada); Vincent, Aaron C., E-mail: jcline@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: vincent@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València - CSIC, 46071, Valencia (Spain)

2013-02-01

499

High voltage capacitors for low background experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low background experiments place stringent constraints on amount of radioactive impurities in the materials used for their assembly. Often these are in conflict with the constraints placed on the materials by their roles in the experiment. This is especially true for certain electronic components. A high value, high voltage capacitor for use in low background experiments has been developed from specially selected radiopure materials. Electroformed copper foils are separated by polyethylene napthalate (PEN) foils and supported within a PTFE teflon spiral coil tube. The electrical performance as well as radiopurity are scrutinized here. With some minor modifications to tune the performance for the application, this capacitor can be well suited for a variety of applications in low background experiments. Here the use of the capacitor for high voltage (HV) decoupling in the operation of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is demonstrated.

O'Shaughnessy, C.; Andreotti, E.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Hult, M.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Majorovits, B.; Schönert, S.; Smolnikov, A.

2013-05-01

500

Involvement of Neurospora mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase in RNA splicing. A new method for purifying the protein and characterization of physical and enzymatic properties pertinent to splicing.  

PubMed

The Neurospora CYT-18 protein, the mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, functions in the splicing of group I introns. Here, bacterially expressed CYT-18 protein, purified by a new procedure involving polyethyleneimine precipitation to remove tightly bound nucleic acids, was used to characterize properties pertinent to RNA splicing. Analytical ultracentrifugation and other methods showed that the CYT-18 protein is an asymmetric homodimer. The measured frictional ratio, f/fo = 1.55, corresponds to an axial ratio of 10 for a prolate ellipsoid or 12 for an oblate ellipsoid. Like bacterial TyrRSs, the CYT-18 protein exhibits half-sites reactivity, each homodimer having one active site for tyrosyl adenylation and RNA splicing. The splicing activity of CYT-18 was unaffected by aminoacylation substrates at concentrations used in aminoacylation reactions, whereas the TyrRS activity was inhibited by physiological concentrations of the splicing cofactor GTP, as well as CTP or UTP, or by low concentrations of a group I intron RNA. Kinetic measurements suggest that the binding of CYT-18 to a group I intron substrate is a two-step process, with an initial biomolecular step that is close to diffusion limited (3.24 +/- 0.03 x 10(7) M-1s-1) followed by a slower conformational change (0.54 +/- 0.07 s-1). After CYT-18 binding, splicing occurs at a rate of 0.0025 s-1, within 6-fold of the rate of self-splicing of the Tetrahymena large rRNA intron in vitro. The Kd for the complex between the CYT-18 protein and a group I intron substrate, calculated from koff/kon, was < 0.3 pM, substantially lower than determined by presumed equilibrium measurements [Guo, Q., & Lambowitz, A. M. (1992) Genes Dev. 6, 1357-1372]. As a result of this tight binding, the CYT-18 protein functions stoichiometrically in in vitro splicing reactions due to its extremely slow dissociation from the excised intron RNA. The very tight binding of the CYT-18 protein to the intron RNA raises the possibility that specific mechanisms exist for dissociating the protein from the excised intron in vivo. PMID:7530051

Saldanha, R J; Patel, S S; Surendran, R; Lee, J C; Lambowitz, A M

1995-01-31