Note: This page contains sample records for the topic background information pertinent from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Background Information on Ammonia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the synthesis, production, and use of ammonia (7664417) is reviewed. The importance of a catalyst in the process of uniting hydrogen and nitrogen to form ammonia, producers of ammonia between 1961 and 1974, their annual production capacity,...

R. Hartle

1975-01-01

2

Developing Pupil Background Information for Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are often provided with background information before reading an assigned selection. This background information functions differently in the following reading variations: individualized reading; basal reading; big book approaches; programmed reading, the language experience approach; and predictable books. Students often pick subjects…

Ediger, Marlow

3

Information Pertinent to the Migration of Radionuclides in Ground Water at the Nevada Test Site. Part 2: Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part 2 of UCRL-52078 consists of the bibliography and abstracts that were compiled in the course of searching the literature for information on the migration of radionuclides in groundwater at the Nevada Test Site. The bibliography also includes numerous ...

I. Y. Borg R. Stone H. B. Levy L. D. Ramspott

1976-01-01

4

Nonfossil fuel fired industrial boilers: background information  

SciTech Connect

This document provides background information about air emissions and controlling these emissions for the nonfossil fuel fired boiler (NFFB) source category. This source category includes boilers firing wood, bagasse (sugar cane residue), municipal type solid waste, and refuse derived fuels. This document identifies the industries which use NFFBs and the numbers of new NFFBs expected to be built in 1982 through 1990. The uncontrolled emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides are quantified and factors affecting these emissions are discussed. State and Federal regulations which apply to the NFFB source category are summarized. Control technologies to reduce these emissions are identified and emission test data are presented. Factors which affect the performance of emission control technologies are also discussed. Finally, environmental, energy and cost impacts of applying these control technologies to nonfossil fuel fired boilers are presented and discussed. This information was developed in support of a potential new source performance standard for nonfossil fuel fired boilers.

Not Available

1982-03-01

5

Organizational performance and regulatory compliance as measured by clinical pertinence indicators before and after implementation of anesthesia information management system (AIMS).  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that electronic medical records (EMR) can lead to a greater reduction of medical errors and better adherence to regulatory compliance than paper medical records (PMR). In order to assess the organizational performance and regulatory compliance, we tracked different clinical pertinence indicators (CPI) in our anesthesia information management system (AIMS) for 5 years. These indicators comprised of the protocols from the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP), elements of performance (EP) from The Joint Commission (TJC), and guidelines from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). A comprehensive AIMS was initiated and the CPI were collected from October 5, 2009 to December 31, 2010 (EMR period) and from January 1, 2006 to October 4, 2009 (PMR period). Fourteen CPI were found to be common between the EMR and PMR periods. Based on the statistical analysis of the 14 common CPI, there was a significant increase (p?

Choi, Clark K; Saberito, Darlene; Tyagaraj, Changa; Tyagaraj, Kalpana

2014-01-01

6

76 FR 81523 - Proposed Information Collection; Federal Advisory Committee Background Information Nomination Form  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Federal Advisory Committee Background Information Nomination Form AGENCY...Title: Federal Advisory Committee Background Information Nomination Form. Forms: Resource Advisory Council Background Information Nomination Form....

2011-12-28

7

Compulsive Gambling: Background Information for Security Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of compulsive gambling pulls together in one place information useful to personnel security Policy-makers, practitioners, and researchers when reviewing standards and procedures, establishing priorities or developing training programs. It focus...

R. J. Heuer

1992-01-01

8

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Breast CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the materials cited below.

9

Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child  

MedlinePLUS

... Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child Email Order (Free) ... rated. Series: Factsheets for Families Author(s): Child Welfare Information Gateway Year Published: 2012 ( PDF - 470 KB) This ...

10

American Memory: Background Papers and Content Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this site, newly updated and reorganized, the Library of Congress continues to share its experience in the digitization of images, text, maps, sound files, and movies. In addition to American Memory White papers (some previously described in the August 7, 1998 Scout Report), which are technical papers based on the experience gained during the American Memory Pilot Project, the site also includes a variety of resources to help any library or institution embarking on a digitizing project, such as sample Requests for Proposals (RFPs) for scanning and text conversion services, the National Digital Library Project Planning checklist, final reports, workshop proceedings, and recommendations. Also included are some background readings produced outside the Library of Congress on the concept of creating digital library collections.

11

Background Information Framework for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This framework will define the purpose and scope of NAEP's system of collecting background information, including background questionnaires and other sources of non-cognitive data. It will establish criteria for reporting background information as part of the National Assessment. The approach it suggests provides for asking various groups of…

National Assessment Governing Board, Washington, DC.

12

42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION...Background information on this part. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation...employees, of the United States Department of Energy (âDOEâ), its predecessor...

2012-10-01

13

Community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constrained clustering has been well-studied in the unsupervised learning society. However, how to encode constraints into community structure detection, within complex networks, remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised learning framework for community structure detection. This framework implicitly encodes the must-link and cannot-link constraints by modifying the adjacency matrix of network, which can also be regarded as de-noising the consensus matrix of community structures. Our proposed method gives consideration to both the topology and the functions (background information) of complex network, which enhances the interpretability of the results. The comparisons performed on both the synthetic benchmarks and the real-world networks show that the proposed framework can significantly improve the community detection performance with few constraints, which makes it an attractive methodology in the analysis of complex networks.

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

2013-02-01

14

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

15

Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the importance of fuel properties in design of aircraft fuel systems the present report has been prepared to provide information on the characteristics of current jet fuels. In addition to information on fuel properties, discussions are presented on fuel specifications, the variations among fuels supplied under a given specification, fuel composition, and the pertinence of fuel composition and physical properties to fuel system design. In some instances the influence of variables such as pressure and temperature on physical properties is indicated. References are cited to provide fuel system designers with sources of information containing more detail than is practicable in the present report.

Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, R R

1953-01-01

16

Background Information: National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Apollo Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The origins and development of NASA are detailed, with related information about the Space Act of 1958. Additionally, a historical summary of the Apollo program is presented. This document additionally covers NASA installations, milestones and budget hist...

1969-01-01

17

Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.  

PubMed

Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses. PMID:24807935

Kerren, A

2013-01-01

18

Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation. A Review Pertinent to Air Force Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents analyses studies, research results, and other pertinent information related to investigations of human exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR). The topics discussed are the ANSI/IEEE RFR-exposure guidelines; environmental levels in...

L. N. Heynick P. Polson

1996-01-01

19

Building Digital Collections: Technical Information and Background Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced on May 9, this newly updated site from the Library of Congress National Digital Library Program (NDLP) documents "technical activities relating to the procedures and practices employed by the NDLP, and its precursor American Memory Program, over the past decade." Of use to anyone involved in digital library projects, the highlight of the site is probably the Building Digital Collections section, which links to the technical documents (included with most American Memory Collections) describing how the collection was digitized and what technology was used. The site also contains descriptions of technical practices, workflow production, and a selection of background papers.

20

How to decide which are the most pertinent overly-represented features during gene set enrichment analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The search for enriched features has become widely used to characterize a set of genes or proteins. A key aspect of this technique is its ability to identify correlations amongst heterogeneous data such as Gene Ontology annotations, gene expression data and genome location of genes. Despite the rapid growth of available data, very little has been proposed in terms of formalization and optimization. Additionally, current methods mainly ignore the structure of the data which causes results redundancy. For example, when searching for enrichment in GO terms, genes can be annotated with multiple GO terms and should be propagated to the more general terms in the Gene Ontology. Consequently, the gene sets often overlap partially or totally, and this causes the reported enriched GO terms to be both numerous and redundant, hence, overwhelming the researcher with non-pertinent information. This situation is not unique, it arises whenever some hierarchical clustering is performed (e.g. based on the gene expression profiles), the extreme case being when genes that are neighbors on the chromosomes are considered. Results We present a generic framework to efficiently identify the most pertinent over-represented features in a set of genes. We propose a formal representation of gene sets based on the theory of partially ordered sets (posets), and give a formal definition of target set pertinence. Algorithms and compact representations of target sets are provided for the generation and the evaluation of the pertinent target sets. The relevance of our method is illustrated through the search for enriched GO annotations in the proteins involved in a multiprotein complex. The results obtained demonstrate the gain in terms of pertinence (up to 64% redundancy removed), space requirements (up to 73% less storage) and efficiency (up to 98% less comparisons). Conclusion The generic framework presented in this article provides a formal approach to adequately represent available data and efficiently search for pertinent over-represented features in a set of genes or proteins. The formalism and the pertinence definition can be directly used by most of the methods and tools currently available for feature enrichment analysis.

Barriot, Roland; Sherman, David J; Dutour, Isabelle

2007-01-01

21

76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Investigation National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency...Department of Justice (DOJ) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division's National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS)...

2011-11-08

22

Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nat

23

Oublis de Mots: Pertinence et Complementarite (Forgetting Words: Pertinence and Complementarity)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of the linguistic analysis of Mounin and the psychoanalytic work of Freud on forgetting of words. Martinet's thesis regarding pertinence is confirmed. In the study Devereux's theories are used to study relationships among diverse disciplines and the epistomology of multidisciplinary research. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

Charron, Ghyslain

1977-01-01

24

Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very nearly the speed of light. Optical studies of a December 1997 burst (GRB 971214) indicated a distance for it of nearly 12 billion light-years. With distances known, astronomers could calculate the amount of energy released during the explosion. The answers were astounding. GRB 970508, in a mere 15 seconds, released nearly ten times more energy than our Sun will release in its entire, 10-billion-year lifetime. GRB 971214, for one or two seconds, outshone the entire rest of the universe. These energies ruled out many of the numerous theories for the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts that had arisen over the previous three decades. Many answers about the origins of Gamma Ray Bursts and the physics of the fireballs will come from radio telescopes. The VLA, with its combination of sensitivity and resolving power, "has a unique role to play in deciphering GRB fireball physics," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. First, radio astronomers can see the GRB fireball far longer than it is visible at other wavelengths. A Gamma Ray Burst is visible in the gamma rays for typically seconds or minutes, in X-rays for days, and in visible light for weeks, based on the past year's experience. "With radio telescopes, we can see the fireballs for months, gaining new information every day," said Greg Taylor, also of NRAO in Socorro. "Also, at other wavelengths, they see the emission only as it is rapidly getting weaker. At radio wavelengths, we can study the emission as it rises in strength, peaks, then slowly decays." In addition, radio observations can measure the size of the fireball. "Only radio telescopes can measure the size, and we can do it in three different ways," Frail said. These techniques involve studying the scintillation, or "twinkling" of the radio emission; absorption characteristics of the emission; and, for bright, energetic afterglows, direct measurements of sizes can be made through the great resolving power of continent-wide radio telescope arrays such as t

25

Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

2014-05-01

26

42 CFR 83.0 - Background information on the procedures in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EMPLOYEES AS MEMBERS OF THE SPECIAL EXPOSURE COHORT UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000...Background information on the procedures in this part. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act, as...

2012-10-01

27

Background Information on Hydrocarbon Emissions from Marine Terminal Operations. Volume I. Discussion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents results of a study to develop background information necessary for the accurate assessment of hydrocarbon emissions from ship and barge loading and unloading of gasoline and crude oil. The report assesses marine terminal facilities, m...

C. E. Burklin J. D. Colley M. L. Owen

1976-01-01

28

Students Seeking Access to Four-Year Institutions: Community College Transfers [Background Information].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides background information for a hearing by the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education and Outreach on December 3, 1997. The Introduction presents the Committee announcement, press release, agenda, information about transfer efforts in California, facts and figures about the community colleges, and the text of…

Moore, Jamillah

29

Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of Northwest rental housing owners and, to a lesser extent, tenants toward energy conservation and energy-efficiency improvements. Available market research data on these subjects were found to be quite limited. The most useful data were two surveys of Seattle rental housing owners conducted in late 1984 for Seattle City Light. Several other surveys provided supplemental market research information in selected areas. In addition to market research information, the report also includes background information on rental housing characteristics in the Northwest.

Hendrickson, P.L.

1986-02-01

30

A moving ship detection based on edge information of single image and background subtraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship detection based on video is important in the application of surveillance and marine safety, the detection results of tradition methods, such as background subtraction, have much noise because of background noise such as ocean wave. In this paper we present a simple but efficient method for ship detection, It is based on the edge information of single image and movement information of multi images. Firstly, detect those movement pixels used the background subtraction to the video image, and the distance transformation is operation on the difference images; Secondly, we detect the edge of video image used Canny detector , and morphological operation on the edge image, lastly, eliminate the movement pixels if their distance transformation value is bigger than the threshold. The experimental results demonstrate that is efficient to eliminate the background noise and detect the real target.

Shi, Tingyan; Yang, Lichun; Liu, Zhicheng

2013-10-01

31

Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

1982-03-01

32

REVIEW OF IN-PLACE TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS. VOLUME 2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR IN SITU TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This two-volume report presents information on in-place treatment technologies applicable to contaminated soils at shallow depths. This volume provides background information and relevant chemical data. The information presented on monitoring to determine treatment effectiveness,...

33

Electroencephalogram Background Activity Characterization with Approximate Entropy and Auto Mutual Information in Alzheimer's Disease Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze the electroencephalogram (EEG) background activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with two non-linear methods: Approximate Entropy (ApEri) and Auto Mutual Information (AMI). ApEn quantifies the regularity in data, while AMI detects linear and non-linear dependencies in time series. EEGs were recorded from the 19 scalp loci of the international 10-20 system in 11

Daniel Abásolo; Roberto Hornero; Pedro Espino; Javier Escudero; Carlos Gómez

2007-01-01

34

Discriminating direction of motion trajectories from angular speed and background information  

PubMed Central

The effects of a background scene on the perception of the trajectory of an approaching object and its relation to changes in angular speed and angular size were examined in 5 experiments. Observers judged the direction (upward or downward) of two sequentially presented motion trajectories simulating a sphere traveling towards the observer at a constant 3D speed from a fixed distance. In Experiments 1 – 4 we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and the presence of a scene background, with changes in angular size based either on the trajectories being discriminated or on an intermediate trajectory. In Experiment 5 we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and scene background with angular size either constant or consistent with an intermediate 3D trajectory. Overall, we found that: (1) observers were able to judge the direction of object motion trajectories from angular speed changes; (2) observers were more accurate with a 3D scene background as compared to a uniform background, suggesting that scene information is important for recovering object motion trajectories; and (3) observers were more accurate in judging motion trajectories based on angular speed when the angular size function was consistent with motion in depth than when the angular size was constant.

Bian, Zheng; Braunstein, Myron L.; Andersen, George J.

2013-01-01

35

Leading Court Decision Pertinent to Public School Desegregation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises eight federal court decisions pertinent to public school desegregation: (1) "Brown v. Board of Education," 347 U.S. 483 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (2) "Bolling v. Sharpe," 374 U.S. 497 (1954); Mr. Chief Justice Warren delivered the opinion of the Supreme Court; (3) "Brown v.…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

36

77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...them a wide variety of backgrounds, cultures, and experiences...relating to the diverse background of those customers...including employees of all backgrounds, all DOI employees...measure of knowledge, background, experience, and...

2012-04-12

37

77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...background investigation. The minimum background investigation is the National...required to complete the criminal history background checks mandated in the Crime...in leased space must undergo a background check. According to GSA...

2012-05-24

38

77 FR 41999 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: OMB Control Number 1091-0001, Applicant Background...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...them a wide variety of backgrounds, cultures, and experiences...relating to the diverse background of those customers...including employees of all backgrounds, all DOI employees...measure of knowledge, background, experience, and...

2012-07-17

39

Shock tube studies of pyrolyses pertinent to soot formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shock tube coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is utilized to investigate the chemical kinetics of reactions pertinent to soot formation. Three projects are covered. 1. High temperature pyrolyses of acetylene and diacetylene. The acetylene decomposition mechanism is developed further by incorporating new thermodynamic and chemical kinetic parameters. A sub-mechanism valid for the experimental conditions is derived, revealing several

1993-01-01

40

Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information  

PubMed Central

Background Although described in several reports, imported malaria in Europe has not been surveyed nationwide with overall coverage of patients and individually rechecked background information. Plasmodium falciparum infections have been reported despite regularly taken appropriate chemoprophylaxis, yet the reliability of such questionnaire-based retrospective data has been questioned. This was the starting-point for conducting a prospective nationwide survey of imported malaria where compliance data was double-checked. Methods Data was collected on all cases of imported malaria confirmed and recorded by the reference laboratory of Finland (population 5.4 million) from 2003 to 2011, and these were compared with those reported to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR). Background information was gathered by detailed questionnaires sent to the clinicians upon diagnosis; missing data were enquired by telephone of clinician or patient. Special attention was paid to compliance with chemoprophylaxis: self-reported use of anti-malarials was rechecked for all cases of P. falciparum. Results A total of 265 malaria cases (average annual incidence rate 0.5/100,000 population) had been recorded by the reference laboratory, all of them also reported to NIDR: 54% were born in malaria-endemic countries; 86% were currently living in non-endemic regions. Malaria was mainly (81%) contracted in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasmodium falciparum proved to be the most common species (72%). Immigrants constituted the largest group of travellers (44%). Pre-travel advice was received by 20% of those born in endemic regions and 81% of those from non-endemic regions. Of those with P. falciparum, 4% reported regular use of appropriate chemoprophylaxis (mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with chloroquine-resistant and atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with mefloquine-resistant P. falciparum); after individual rechecking, however, it was found that none of them had been fully compliant. Conclusions Information on compliance with chemoprophylactic regimen cannot be relied on, and it should be rechecked if malaria is suspected. The results of the present study suggest that mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil and doxycycline are effective as chemoprophylaxis against P. falciparum malaria, when taken conscientiously.

2013-01-01

41

77 FR 10508 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks for Contractor Employees (Renewal...to www.regulations.gov. Title: Background Checks for Contractor Employees. ICR...these types of incidents to conduct background checks and apply...

2012-02-22

42

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

43

Chromium Emissions from Chromium Electroplating and Chromic Acid Anodizing Operations. Background Information for Proposed Standards. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being proposed for the chromium electroplating and chromic acid anodizing industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. This background information...

1993-01-01

44

Analysis of the magnetoencephalogram background activity in Alzheimer's disease patients with auto-mutual information.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyse the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) background activity in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the most frequent disorders among elderly population. For this pilot study, we recorded the MEGs with a 148-channel whole-head magnetometer in 20 patients with probable AD and 21 age-matched control subjects. Artefact-free epochs of 3392 samples were analysed with auto-mutual information (AMI). Average AMI decline rates were lower for the AD patients' recordings than for control subjects' ones. Statistically significant differences were found using a Student's t-test (p<0.01) in 144 channels. Mean AMI values were analysed with a receiver operating characteristic curve. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of 75%, 90.5% and 82.9% were obtained. Our results show that AMI estimations of the magnetic brain activity are different in both groups, hence indicating an abnormal type of dynamics associated with AD. This study suggests that AMI might help medical doctors in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:17686545

Gómez, Carlos; Hornero, Roberto; Abásolo, Daniel; Fernández, Alberto; Escudero, Javier

2007-09-01

45

Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information  

SciTech Connect

This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

None

1980-11-01

46

The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R. J.; Case, J. E.

1992-01-01

47

THE RELEVANCE OF EXPLOITATION CASH-FLOW AND TRADITIONAL FINANCIAL INFORMATION IN THE FORECAST OF THE FINANCIAL DISTRESS OF TUNISIAN COMPANIES LA PERTINENCE DES CASH-FLOWS D'EXPLOITATION ET DE L'INFORMATION FINANCIERE TRADITIONNELLE DANS LA PRÉVISION DE LA DÉTRESSE FINANCIÈRE DES ENTREPRISES TUNISIENNES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to evaluate the relevance of operating cash flow information in the prediction of financial distress. Precisely, we are investigating the predictive power of cash flow information over accrual information for assessing financial distress. The results, using a sample of 116 Tunisian firms, showed that LOGIT models including cash flow based ratios have a predictive

Hassouna FEDHILA; Saoussen BOUJELBENE

48

76 FR 67182 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...felony convictions, and parties prohibited from receiving federal contracts. (2) Drug tests are for the presence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP). Contractors shall maintain records of all background...

2011-10-31

49

Are Racial Differences in Patient–Physician Cancer Communication and Information Explained by Background, Predisposing, and Enabling Factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research shows that African Americans tend to have poorer and less informative patient–physician communication than Whites. We analyzed survey data from 248 African American and 244 White cancer patients to examine whether this disadvantage could be explained by race variability on several other variables commonly reported to affect communication. These variables were organized into background, enabling, and predisposing factors, based

Clara Manfredi; Karen Kaiser; Alicia K. Matthews; Timothy P. Johnson

2010-01-01

50

29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION Selection practices. §§ 1605.2 &1605.3, App. A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3âBackground...

2013-07-01

51

Scientific results from the cosmic background explorer (COBE). [Information on cosmic radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 [+-] 0.06 K, with no deviation from

C. L. Bennett; N. W. Boggess; E. S. Cheng; M. G. Hauser; T. Kelsall; J. C. Mather; S. H. Jr. Moseley; R. A. Shafer; R. F. Silverberg; T. L. Murdock; G. F. Smoot; R. Weiss; E. L. Wright

1993-01-01

52

Unraveling the molecular targets pertinent to junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis using the Adjudin-induced germ cell depletion model  

PubMed Central

During spermatogenesis, extensive restructuring takes place at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface, which is regulated via intriguing interactions among cytokines, proteases, protease inhibitors, kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors. This in turn determines the steady-state levels of integral membrane proteins at the cell junctions. We sought to further expand these observations using the Adjudin model. Adjudin is a potential male contraceptive that targets Sertoli–germ cell adhesion, causing exfoliation of spermatids and spermatocytes, but not spermatogonia, from the seminiferous epithelium. This model thus provides the means to identify crucial regulatory molecules and signaling pathways pertinent to junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis. In this study, genome-wide expression profiling of rat testes after treatment with Adjudin at the time of extensive junction restructuring was performed. Differentially regulated genes, such as cytokines, proteases, protease inhibitors, cell junction-associated proteins, and transcription factors pertinent to junction restructuring were identified. These data were consistent with earlier findings; however, much new information was obtained which has been deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus data repository website: http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/geo/ with Accession number: GSE5131. The primary signaling events pertinent to junction restructuring in the testis induced by Adjudin were also delineated using bioinformatics. These findings were also consistent with recently published reports. The identified molecular signatures or targets pertinent to junction dynamics in the testis as reported herein, many of which have not been investigated, thus offer a framework upon which the regulation of junction restructuring events at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface pertinent to spermatogenesis can be further studied.

Xia, Weiliang; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

2009-01-01

53

Product information with enhanced background description for improved revision of decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of products has been organized around product lifecycle management (PLM) systems during the past decade in leading industries. In mechatronics, where product structures are very complex and inhomogeneous, it is urgent to apply high level information technology for engineering purposes. The new style of engineering, where engineers work in remote workplaces and communicate through sophisticated model of product is

László Horváth; Imre J. Rudas; Nicola Belfiore

2008-01-01

54

Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

Sutter, S. L.

1982-05-01

55

Enhanced community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information.  

PubMed

Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework. PMID:24247657

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi

2013-01-01

56

Enhanced Community Structure Detection in Complex Networks with Partial Background Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework.

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi

2013-11-01

57

Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

Kuvich, Gary

2006-06-01

58

Planning serials cancellations and cooperative collection development in the health sciences: methodology and background information.  

PubMed

In an era of steady-state budgets many research and academic libraries must cancel a significant number of current serials to maintain acquisitions of monographs. Thus paper reviews several techniques that have been used or that are of potential use in a rational selection of titles for cancellation. The context of the proposed methodology involves a network of libraries rather than an individual library. The methodology was tested with specific health sciences serial titles held by University of California libraries and resource libraries in NLM Region XI. As a test for the proposed methodology, background data were collected on 600 current foreign language serial titles included in SERLINE and held by at least one of the libraries in the networks of interest. Price, major secondary service coverage with productivity/impact factors, extent of holdings, and average number of recorded circulations per year in several of the libraries were recorded for each title. With the use of several different rules, estimates were made of the subscription savings that might be realized. It seems feasible to extend the same methodology to other groups of serial titles. PMID:1191822

Bourne, C P

1975-10-01

59

Planning serials cancellations and cooperative collection development in the health sciences: methodology and background information.  

PubMed Central

In an era of steady-state budgets many research and academic libraries must cancel a significant number of current serials to maintain acquisitions of monographs. Thus paper reviews several techniques that have been used or that are of potential use in a rational selection of titles for cancellation. The context of the proposed methodology involves a network of libraries rather than an individual library. The methodology was tested with specific health sciences serial titles held by University of California libraries and resource libraries in NLM Region XI. As a test for the proposed methodology, background data were collected on 600 current foreign language serial titles included in SERLINE and held by at least one of the libraries in the networks of interest. Price, major secondary service coverage with productivity/impact factors, extent of holdings, and average number of recorded circulations per year in several of the libraries were recorded for each title. With the use of several different rules, estimates were made of the subscription savings that might be realized. It seems feasible to extend the same methodology to other groups of serial titles.

Bourne, C P

1975-01-01

60

Municipal-waste combustion: Background information for materials separation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Several issues related to materials separation from municipal solid waste (MSW) are discussed. Current nationwide rates of materials separation and recycling, as well as the methodology for determining municipal solid waste separation rates, are presented. Case studies of four community curbside separation programs include performance data and program costs. Two centralized materials separation facilities which separate materials from unsorted MSW are described with respect to the separation mechanisms employed, performance, and available cost data. Available data on the impacts of materials separation on municipal waste combustor (MWC) air emissions, combustor operation, and MWC ash are presented. The potential occupational risks of the handpicking process used to separate materials from MSW at some centralized separation facilities are discussed. The use of mercury in household batteries, and current information on community battery separation and collection programs and recycling efforts, are also discussed.

Not Available

1991-01-01

61

Pertinence generation in radiological diagnosis: Spreading activation and the nature of expertise  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical study of human expert reasoning processes is presented. Its purpose is to test a model of how a human expert's cognitive system learns to detect, and does detect, pertinent data and hypotheses. This process is called pertinence generation. The model is based on the phenomenon of spreading activation within semantic networks. Twenty-two radiologists were asked to produce diagnoses

Eric Raufaste; Hélène Eyrolle; Claudette Mariné

1998-01-01

62

Intérêt de la normalisation comptable : pertinence des chiffres comptables et opportunités de croissance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les caractéristiques de l'entreprise et les normalisations comptables conditionnent la pertinence des chiffres comptables. Nous montrons que la pertinence du résultat est influencée par les opportunités de croissance des entreprises. Cependant, ceci ne peut s'expliquer par le degré de prudence du résultat, sous-jacent aux normalisations comptables.

Charlotte Disle

2004-01-01

63

Technical support for amending standards for management of uranium byproduct materials: 40 cfr part 192-subpart d. Background information document  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is amending 40 CFR 192, Subpart D, dealing with disposal of uranium mill tailings at non-operational sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or an agreement state pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. The Background Information Document (BID) was prepared in support of the rulemaking proceedings for EPA's action. The BID only considers long-term disposal of tailings at facilities licensed by the NRC or an agreement state, and designated Title II facilities in the UMTRCA.

Not Available

1993-10-01

64

Ground-water protection standards for inactive uranium tailings sites (40 CFR 192): Background information for final rule. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Final Background Information Document summarizes the information and data considered by the Agency in developing the ground-water protection standards. The report presents a brief description of the Title II ground water standard and how it can be used to develop the Title I rulemaking. A description of the 24 designated uranium-tailings sites and their current status in the DOE remedial-action program is included as well as a detailed analysis of the available data on the ground water in the vicinity of 14 of the 24 sites. It also describes different methods that can be used for the restoration of ground water and the costs of using these restoration methods.

Not Available

1989-03-01

65

Background Information for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

2001-01-01

66

Background Information about PLCO  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large population-based randomized trial evaluating screening programs for these cancers. The primary goal of this long-term trial of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and on secondary endpoints.

67

Radon calibration chamber assembly, detector accuracy, and pertinent operational findings.  

PubMed

Reliable radon laboratory operations motivated the construction of three radon gas calibration chambers. One chamber is used for background calibrations while the other two cover a radon gas concentration range of 110 to >5,550 Bq m(-3) (3-150 pCi L(-1)). The chambers entered commercial service, for tertiary radon calibration chambers, after review and listing by the National Radon Safety Board. The chambers were used since 2003 to calibrate over 500 activated charcoal (AC) detectors, half open face, and the remainder a diffusion barrier type, and >150 continuous radon (CR) monitors. Nearly all the CR devices were Sun Nuclear model 1027. Analysis of the calibration results show the overall AC measurement uncertainties, expressed as standard deviations of the relative percent differences, R%D, were <10% and were about the same as the Sun Nuclear CR devices. The diffusion barrier AC detectors displayed a smaller uncertainty than the CR monitor group. All but one CR monitor satisfied the U.S. EPA Radon Proficiency Program requirement of +/-25%. In view of the similar R%D between CR and AC detectors, good agreement was found for all simultaneous field radon measurements with CR and single AC devices. The U.S. EPA appears to have adopted a position that CR devices are superior to AC detectors. Neither the present results nor U.S. EPA's published detector uncertainties support this presumed position. PMID:17630640

Distenfeld, C H

2007-08-01

68

Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

1970-01-01

69

Pertinence Generation in Radiological Diagnosis: Spreading Activation and the Nature of Expertise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract An empirical study of human expert reasoning processes is presented. Its purpose is to test a model of how a human expert’s cognitive system learns to detect, and does detect, pertinent data and hypotheses. This process is called pertinence generation. The model is based on the phenomenon,of spreading activation within semantic networks. Twenty-two radiologists were asked to produce diagnoses

Eric Raufaste; Hélène Eyrolle; Claudette Mariné

1998-01-01

70

Personnel Reactions to Incentives, Naval Conditions and Experiences (PRINCE): Demographic and Background Information, Expectations, Attitudes, Values and Motivations of New Recruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a longitudinal study of the reactions of enlisted personnel incentives, Naval conditions and experiences, information on backgrounds, expectations, attitudes, values and motivations were obtained at entry into the Navy from 6,795 recruits in Ca...

A. Katz

1971-01-01

71

Strategic Analysis of New-type Industrialization Which is Under the Background of Information-Based Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of information and economic globalization, Chinese economy is stepping from industrialization age into information age. The advent of information age gives an impetus to the emergence of a completely new type of Business known as “Information-based Business”. It has become not only a new way for social and economic development characterized by high added-value, high growth, high

Delin Sun; Gaoxiang Xu; Xinhua Xie; Nana Ai; Yongyong Qu; Zhipeng Guo; Changqing Liang

2010-01-01

72

Neighborhood Information Service Centers. Public Library "Information and Referral" Provides Significant New Personal Service to the Individual Library User. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of background papers for the White House Conference, presents information and referral services as one of the ways libraries are developing programs to discharge their responsibilities to the public they serve. It details the determination of a woman librarian in Detroit to develop the first comprehensive I&R service…

Layne, Elizabeth N.

73

A review of vapor explosion information pertinent to the SRS reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor explosions are explosive events resulting from the mixing of two liquids, one of which is heated to a temperature well above the boiling point of the second. Under some circumstances mixing of the liquids can boil part of the lower boiling liquid so quickly that the expanding vapor generates a strong pressure wave and explosion. If the lower boiling

M. L. Hyder; D. K. Allison

1992-01-01

74

Hydrogeologic and stratigraphic data pertinent to uranium mining, Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. Information series 12  

SciTech Connect

Recoverable low-grade uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Laramie Formation in the Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. One of these deposits, the Grover deposit, has been test mined on a pilot scale using in-situ solution-mining techniques. A second deposit, the Keota deposit, is currently being licensed and will produce about 500,000 lb/yr (227,000 kg/yr) of yellowcake also using in-situ solution-mining techniques. Other uranium deposits exist in this area and will also probably be solution mined, although open-pit mining may possibly be employed at a few locations in the Cheyenne Basin. One of the principal environmental impacts of this uranium-mining activity is the potential effect on ground-water quality and quantity. In order to fully assess potential ground-water impacts, regulatory agencies and mine planners and operators must be familiar with regional geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the basin. The Oligocene White River Group and Upper Cretaceous Laramie Formation, Fox Hills Sandstone, and Pierre Shale contain important aquifers which supply water for domestic, stock-watering, irrigation, and municipal purposes in the study area. Should uranium mining seriously impact shallower aquifers, the upper Pierre and lower Fox Hills aquifers may become important sources of water. Water samples collected and analyzed from over 100 wells during this investigation provide baseline water-quality data for much of the study area. These analyses indicate water quality is highly variable not only between aquifers, but also within a particular aquifer. Many of the wells yield water that exceeds US Public Health drinking water standards for pH, TDS, sulfate, manganese, iron and selenium. Uranium, molybdenum, and vanadium concentrations are also high in many of these wells. 8 figures.

Kirkham, R.M.; O'Leary, W.; Warner, J.W.

1980-01-01

75

Lifelong Learning on the Knowledge Highway. Access to Lifelong Learning Opportunities on Canada's Information Highway. A Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines access to lifelong learning opportunities on Canada's information highway. The report begins with a glossary and a learner-centered model in which the information highway links learners with learning opportunities provided through educational institutions, community organizations, government, and business and industry.…

Faris, Ron

76

Malignant Melanoma With Neural Differentiation: An Exceptional Case Report and Brief Review of the Pertinent Literature  

PubMed Central

The term neurotropic melanoma has been used to refer to malignant melanoma with associated infiltration of nerve or “neural differentiation”—that is, melanoma cells exhibiting cytological characteristics of nerve cells. Historically, neurotropic melanoma has generally been discussed within the context of desmoplastic melanoma. We report an exceptional case of melanoma notable for a very well-differentiated neural component that was contiguous with obvious overlying melanoma. After careful consideration of all pertinent histological features, the overall diagnostic impression was that of melanoma with associated “malignant neurotization.” We have not encountered a previously reported case with such a well-differentiated neural component. The following article details our exceptional case of melanoma with “malignant neurotization” and presents a discussion of the differential diagnosis and brief review of the pertinent literature.

Su, Albert; Dry, Sarah M.; Binder, Scott W.; Said, Jonathan; Shintaku, Peter; Sarantopoulos, G. Peter

2014-01-01

77

Draft Environmental Impact Statement Sulfur Oxides Emissions from Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit Regenerators: Background Information for Proposed Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standards of performance to control emissions of sulfur oxides (SOX) from new, modified, and reconstructed fluid catalytic cracking unit regenerators are being proposed under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. This document contains information on the back...

1984-01-01

78

SOME NEUTRON INDUCED CROSS SECTIONS FOR ELEMENTS PERTINENT TO XMA, PART 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuation of a previous report (DC 59-5-45) is presented in which a ; preliminary compilation of the empirical cross sections for neutron-induced ; reactions of elements pertinent to the XMlA Project are given. Data on neutron ; cross sections for the remaining elements after O¹⁶, and the heavy elements ; are given for the energy range fifteen to twenty

Gerardo

1959-01-01

79

Air/helium ground-test simulation pertinent to the definition of slender body hypersonic aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of air/helium simulations pertinent to the definition of slender body hypersonic aerodynamics is tested, using exact inviscid analytical comparisons to characterize the Mach number and bluntness effects. Comparisons are made with experiments conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s. The results indicate no general rule for air/helium simulation. A feasibility for obtaining sufficient simulation for many types of aero/fluid dynamic studies is demonstrated.

Woods, W. C.; Thompson, R. A.

1993-01-01

80

The effects of problem content and scientific background on information search and the assessment and valuation of correlations.  

PubMed

The effects of problem contents and one's scientific background on the detection of correlations and the assessment of their strength were studied using a task that required active data search, assessment of the strength of a correlation, and monetary valuation of the correlation's predictive utility. Participants (N = 72) who were trained either in the natural sciences or in the social sciences and humanities explored data sets differing in contents and actual strength of correlation. Data search was consistent across all variables: Participants drew relatively small samples whose relative sizes would favor the detection of a correlation, if one existed. In contrast, the assessment of the correlation strength and the valuation of its predictive utility were strongly related not only to its objective strength, but also to the correspondence between problem contents and one's scientific background: When the two matched, correlations were judged to be stronger and more valuable than when they did not. PMID:21264572

Soffer, Shira; Kareev, Yaakov

2011-01-01

81

Dynamics, control and sensor issues pertinent to robotic hands for the EVA retriever system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic dynamics, sensor, control, and related artificial intelligence issues pertinent to smart robotic hands for the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever system are summarized and discussed. These smart hands are to be used as end effectors on arms attached to manned maneuvering units (MMU). The Retriever robotic systems comprised of MMU, arm and smart hands, are being developed to aid crewmen in the performance of routine EVA tasks including tool and object retrieval. The ultimate goal is to enhance the effectiveness of EVA crewmen.

Mclauchlan, Robert A.

1987-01-01

82

Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

1985-06-01

83

[Are German information materials on colorectal cancer screening understandable or do they fail? Rating of health information by users with different educational backgrounds].  

PubMed

Evidence-based patient information is an essential part of decision making in health issues. A qualitative study was conducted to examine whether consumers consider the health information on colorectal cancer screening in Germany helpful in supporting their decision making. In this study, eight texts from different German authors about colorectal cancer screening were evaluated with a criteria-based selection. The texts were tested for understandability, structure, design, and effect on readers. Thirteen semi-structured focus groups were formed including 59 higher-educated and 15 lower-educated testers, 46?% of them being male with a mean age of 62.9 years. The transcripts were analyzed by content-analytic assessment. The testers provided detailed comments on the content and design of the texts. They revealed inaccuracies and suggested improvements of the texts. The testers differed from each other in terms of the intensity of their participation in the discussions and comprehension of the material. The reception of the flyers and brochures varied according to the educational level of the testers. Lower-educated testers often skipped passages of texts about risks as well as passages containing numbers and graphics. The texts had different effects on the testers, regardless of the level of education. If adverse effects were presented, some testers became scared while others were reassured because they felt informed. Most of the testers appreciated a call for participation as a central message of the text. Sometimes, if there was no clear appeal to attend the screening, the testers even asked for it. The recently introduced political strategy of promoting an informed choice is applied to an unprepared population who was used to getting a clear yes-or-no recommendation. Thus, at first, the population has to learn how to make an informed choice. This topic must be addressed and taken into account in the process of developing health information. Since this is not always the case, we conclude that current materials are limited in their contribution toward the decision of attending CRC screening. PMID:24562713

Seidel, G; Münch, I; Dreier, M; Borutta, B; Walter, U; Dierks, M-L

2014-03-01

84

Integrin ?5?1, the Fibronectin Receptor, as a Pertinent Therapeutic Target in Solid Tumors  

PubMed Central

Integrins are transmembrane heterodimeric proteins sensing the cell microenvironment and modulating numerous signalling pathways. Changes in integrin expression between normal and tumoral cells support involvement of specific integrins in tumor progression and aggressiveness. This review highlights the current knowledge about ?5?1 integrin, also called the fibronectin receptor, in solid tumors. We summarize data showing that ?5?1 integrin is a pertinent therapeutic target expressed by tumoral neovessels and tumoral cells. Although mainly evaluated in preclinical models, ?5?1 integrin merits interest in particular in colon, breast, ovarian, lung and brain tumors where its overexpression is associated with a poor prognosis for patients. Specific ?5?1 integrin antagonists will be listed that may represent new potential therapeutic agents to fight defined subpopulations of particularly aggressive tumors.

Schaffner, Florence; Ray, Anne Marie; Dontenwill, Monique

2013-01-01

85

Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information  

MedlinePLUS

... a botanical? A botanical is a plant or plant part valued for its medicinal or therapeutic properties, flavor, and/or scent. Herbs are a subset of botanicals. Products made from botanicals that are used to maintain or ... species of the plant. Under this system the botanical black cohosh is ...

86

SCHOOL AND FAMILY BACKGROUND CORRELATES OF CHILDREN'S SCHOOL ANXIETY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHILDREN'S SCHOOL MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS TO (1) THEIR INTELLECTUAL, ACADEMIC, AND SOCIAL PERFORMANCE AND (2) CERTAIN FAMILY, SCHOOL, AND COMMUNITY BACKGROUND VARIABLES. LITERATURE PERTINENT TO THE PROBLEM IS REVIEWED. THE SAMPLE CONSISTED OF 400 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS. GROUP INTELLIGENCE TESTS, AN…

DUNN, JAMES A.

87

Feline dermatophytosis: Aspects pertinent to disease management in single and multiple cat situations.  

PubMed

Practical relevance: Dermatophytosis (ringworm) is a superficial fungal skin disease of cats that, depending on the geographic region and practice caseload, may be encountered uncommonly through to commonly. This is a self-curing disease in an immunocompetent cat. Global importance: Dermatophytosis is prevalent worldwide and is one of a number of zoonotic skin diseases that cat owners are at risk of contracting. Clinical challenges: Dermatophytosis causes non-specific signs of hair loss, erythema and scaling, making it a differential diagnosis for many skin diseases of cats. The fact that this disease is infectious and contagious, and does not have any one classic clinical presentation, makes knowledge of diagnostic tools important in detection. The veterinarian's role is in early disease recognition and institution of appropriate therapy to hasten resolution of the disease. Aim: The focus of this article is to provide an update and review of the most pertinent aspects that may be helpful in the management of dermatophytosis in any single or multiple cat situation. Evidence base: Where appropriate, evidence from the literature is used to supplement a summary of the author's clinical experience and research in feline dermatophytosis. PMID:24794038

Moriello, Karen

2014-05-01

88

Regularities pertinent to formation of hydraulic nonuniformities at the outlet from the reactor plant header system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintaining the preset distribution of coolant mass flow rate at the outlet from the header system organized as a back turn with lateral admission of coolant to the header and central removal of coolant from it is one of the conditions essential for securing reliable and efficient operation of a reactor plant. In the header system, coolant passes through the annular lateral channel formed by the vessel and central barrel, after which it enters into the header, changes the motion direction in it, and goes out through the channels of the grid placed in the central barrel. The results obtained from experimental investigations of the hydrodynamics in the header system flow paths carried out on models with flat and cylindrical shapes are presented. A previously unknown regularity pertinent to formation of hydraulic irregularities at the header system outlet is revealed, and semi-empirical correlations for determining the coolant mass flow rate distribution at the header system outlet are obtained. The regularity connected with formation of hydrodynamic nonuniformities at the header system outlet lies in the fact that the position of the maximum coolant velocity at the grid outlet coincides with the position of the maximum velocity in the core of the incident jet attacking the grid, and that the maximal average coolant velocity in the grid holes is proportional to the average coolant velocity in the incident jet.

Gabrianovich, B. N.; Del'nov, V. N.

2014-05-01

89

Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2007 School Year. National Goals for Schooling. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to collect student background information as required by Education Ministers. The purpose is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century. It involves the collection of information on…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

90

Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2008 School Year. National Goals for Schooling in the 21st Century. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to collect student background information as required by Education Ministers. The purpose is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the "National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." It involves the collection of information on…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2007

2007-01-01

91

Body Functions and Structures Pertinent to Infrared Thermography-Based Access for Clients with Severe Motor Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infrared thermography has been recently proposed as an access technology for individuals with disabilities, but body functions and structures pertinent to its use have not been documented. Seven clients (2 adults, 5 youth) with severe disabilities and their primary caregivers participated in this study. All clients had a Gross Motor Functional…

Memarian, Negar; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.; Chau, Tom

2011-01-01

92

Executive summary: Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background information on, and the objectives of, the NASA Global Biology Research Program are given. The following issues were addressed: (1) geographic distribution of wetland parameters, (2) the processes of wetland material fluxes, and (3) the relation of local fluxes with global processes. Wetland inventorying and categorizing, gas-phase exchanges with the atmosphere, material exchange with the aquatic environment, and material storage in wetland sediments were identified as topics requiring further research.

1983-01-01

93

Classification Structures for Career Information. Volume III: Technical Information. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC)…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

94

Pertinence de l'implantation de la filiere granule de bois pour le Quebec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Les spécialistes avancent que le marché mondial de l'énergie en forte demande et en offre limitée nécessitera bientôt toutes les formes d'énergie disponibles. Le granulé de bois est une forme de bioénergie principalement utilisée pour le chauffage des bâtiments et pourrait être davantage considéré dans l'offre énergétique du Québec. Comme le Québec est un territoire où il fait froid et donc susceptible de pouvoir se tourner vers cette forme d'énergie, l'objectif de ce mémoire est d'en analyser les avantages. Pour ce faire, nous commencerons par démontrer la croissance des besoins énergétiques sur les plans national et international et dresser un portrait des différentes formes d'énergies consommées au Québec. Puisque la majorité des Québécois chauffent leurs bâtiments à l'hydroélectricité, nous analyserons à travers le plan d'approvisionnement d'Hydro-Québec le portrait de la production et de la consommation de cette forme d'énergie renouvelable. Cela nous permettra de constater le défi face à la gestion de surplus importants, sauf pendant la période hivernale, et ce faisant, l'obligation de la société d'État d'utiliser davantage ses centrales au gaz ou de se tourner vers l'importation de l'électricité. Dans la même lignée, un regard sera porté sur les perspectives d'utilisation de l'hydroélectricité sur les plans de la production d'aluminium, de l'exportation et de l'utilisation dans l'électrification des transports au Québec. Cette analyse se fera dans l'objectif de s'interroger sur la pertinence d'utiliser cette source d'énergie dans le chauffage plutôt que dans des secteurs plus créateurs de richesse. Nous poserons ensuite l'hypothèse que le granulé de bois pourrait être un bon substitut à une autre forme d'énergie utilisée dans le chauffage, soit le mazout. Avant de dresser un portrait de ce combustible fossile, nous ferons celui de la production et de la consommation de granulés sur les plans régional, québécois, canadien, européen et mondial. Cela nous amènera par la suite à comparer les deux formes d'énergie sous les angles de l'économie et des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES). Après cette comparaison théorique, a suivi une comparaison réelle faite à partir des résultats d'une expérience terrain où cinq maisons chauffant au mazout ont été converties aux granulés de bois. Cela nous a permis de constater d'une part la véracité de nos comparaisons théoriques, mais aussi d'évaluer les différentes techniques relatives au fait de passer d'une forme d'énergie liquide (le mazout) à une forme solide (le granulé).

Tremblay, Stephan

95

General Model for Cortical Capillary Networks and an Investigation on Pertinent Functional Reactivity to the Different Blood Inflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The cerebrocortical capillary circulations are irregular, tortuous which leads to difficulties in measuring the pertinent\\u000a hemodynamic parameters. To achieve such a task and better understand the functional response of terminal cerebrovascular beds\\u000a to the different input flows, a generic computational model is required. The approach developed here is capable of simulating\\u000a a cerebral capillary network of any part of the

Navid Safaeian; Tim David; Mathieu Sellier

96

The acoustic background noise of an operating liquid metal fast breeder reactor, EBR-II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upper Plenum Acoustic Experiment (UPAE) at the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) has obtained acoustic data pertinent to the understanding of the reactor ambient noise background. The primary purpose of these measurements was to characterize the noise background as a function of reactor operating state. These data provide a basis for the system design and normality criteria for an acoustic

W. Carey; A. Gavin; J. Bobis

1977-01-01

97

US ITER background summary papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following brief summaries were prepared by members of the US ITER Home Team to provide background information on the ITER CDA design and in several instances to provide personal observations and suggestions regarding continuation of the ITER Conceptua...

J. N. Doggett C. A. Flanagan D. E. Post J. C. Wesley

1991-01-01

98

TRANSFER TO ADULT COURT: A National Study of How Juvenile Court Judges Weigh Pertinent Kent Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of juvenile offenders considered for transfer to adult court entails consideration of three factors: (a) potential risk of dangerousness, (b) level of sophistication–maturity, and (c) treatment amenability. Despite the centrality of these concepts to dispositional decision making, virtually no information or guidelines exist describing how juvenile court judges or mental health professionals should weigh these constructs when making vivid

Dia N. Brannen; Randall T. Salekin; Patricia A. Zapf; Karen L. Salekin; Franz A. Kubak; Jamie DeCoster

2006-01-01

99

LITERATURE PERTINENT TO A STEAM GENERATOR DESIGN FOR A GAS-COOLED REACTOR SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

References to signiflcant design information for a steam generator in a ; gas-cooled reactor system are presented. Papers concerning heat transfer and ; pressure drop correlations for gas flow across banks of bare and circular finned ; tubes and for subcooled waters boiling water, and superheated steam flow inside ; pipes are listed and briefly discussed. (auth);

Gray

1958-01-01

100

Hanford Site background: Part 3, Groundwater background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents and interprets groundwater background data collected from the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site, a U.S. Department of Energy complex located near Richland, Washington. Characterization of background composition is an importa...

1997-01-01

101

Interindividual differences in the flexibility of human temporal organization: pertinence to jet lag and shiftwork.  

PubMed

Interindividual variability in the human temporal structure is seldom taken into account, especially in studies devoted to the effects of shiftwork and jet lag. The understated postulate is that humans can be treated as a pure strain species. This paper reviews some facts and concepts with special reference to interindividual changes in the rhythm period tau and the resulting dyschronism. The following points are addressed. (1) Subjects and methods (importance of longitudinal field studies on shift workers). (2) Criteria for tolerance to shiftwork and jet lag. (3) Interindividual differences and shiftwork problems (subject type; the association between good shiftwork tolerance and stable temporal structure; dychronism with tau s differing from 24h and from variable to variable. (4) The genetic background of circadian dyschronism. The Dian-circadian genetic model of biological rhythms. It allows understanding of one's susceptibility to dyschronism, which was actually observed in approximately equal to 30% of subjects studied longitudinally. (5) Practical implications of interindividual differences (dissociate problems of passengers after a transmeridian flight-who have to adjust their temporal structure to local time-from problems of shiftworkers-who need to prevent alteration of their temporal structure; the advantage for the latter of participating in a rapid rotation system rather than a weekly rotation; emphasis that the suitability of a given subject for a given shiftworking condition is likely to be estimated only after a trial span of time including longitudinal study of a set of rhythms. PMID:9095371

Ashkenazi, I E; Reinberg, A E; Motohashi, Y

1997-03-01

102

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks: Background Information for Proposed Standards. Marvin Branscome and Sandra Burns, RTI and Lula Melton.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes the background information used in the development of MACT standards for the coke ovens: pushing, quenching, and battery stacks source category. All references cited in this document are available in EPA Docket A-2000-34. In addit...

L. Melton M. Branscome S. Burns

2001-01-01

103

Implementation frameworks and MSW curricula: encouraging pursuit and use of model pertinent data.  

PubMed

Graduate preparation of social workers and the infrastructure of service delivery too often limit the pursuit and use of data to inform practice. We review literature addressing student and practitioner motivation and interests, as well as masters-level social work curriculum content. This establishes a context for presentation of Masters in Social Work (MSW) student evaluations of program implementation at 34 field placement sites throughout the greater Kansas City region. Their evaluations focus through frameworks identified by the National Implementation Research Network to examine patterns of implementation and program data usage. Based on student lessons learned, we suggest MSW curricula revision to foster student and program appreciation and use of data. PMID:24405143

Bertram, Rosalyn M; King, Kelli; Pederson, Rachel; Nutt, Justin

2014-01-01

104

Studying the specific features pertinent to combustion of chars obtained from coals having different degrees of metamorphism and biomass chars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Better conditions for igniting low-reaction coal (anthracite) can be obtained, higher fuel burnout ratio can be achieved, and the problem of shortage of a certain grade of coal can be solved by firing coal mixtures and by combusting coal jointly with solid biomass in coal-fired boilers. Results from studying the synergetic effect that had been revealed previously during the combustion of coal mixtures in flames are presented. A similar effect was also obtained during joint combustion of coal and wood in a flame. The kinetics pertinent to combustion of char mixtures obtained from coals characterized by different degrees of metamorphism and the kinetics pertinent to combustion of wood chars were studied on the RSK-1D laboratory setup. It was found from the experiments that the combustion rate of char mixtures obtained from coals having close degrees of metamorphism is equal to the value determined as a weighted mean rate with respect to the content of carbon. The combustion rate of char mixtures obtained from coals having essentially different degrees of metamorphism is close to the combustion rate of more reactive coal initially in the process and to the combustion rate of less reactive coal at the end of the process. A dependence of the specific burnout rate of carbon contained in the char of two wood fractions on reciprocal temperature in the range 663—833 K is obtained. The combustion mode of an experimental sample is determined together with the reaction rate constant and activation energy.

Bestsennyi, I. V.; Shchudlo, T. S.; Dunaevskaya, N. I.; Topal, A. I.

2013-12-01

105

Markle Foundation: The Task Force on National Security in the Information Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main feature of this Web site is the report titled "Protecting America's Freedom in the Information Age," released in October 2002. It examines how to effectively use information technology to collect and analyze information pertinent to national security. The report states that current government practices are insufficient in this area, and it is laden with recommendations for improving the situation. The task force's final findings and views are expressed in the first part of the report, some analyses of various working groups are given in the second part, and the final part is a collection of background research articles. Other sections of the site mainly constitute supporting documents for the report.

106

Primer on Durability of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Review of Pertinent Factors  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide a primer on the environmental effects that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant concrete structures. As concrete ages, changes in its properties will occur as a result of continuing microstructural changes (i.e., slow hydration, crystallization of amorphous constituents, and reactions between cement paste and aggregates), as well as environmental influences. These changes do not have to be detrimental to the point that concrete will not be able to meet its performance requirements. Concrete, however, can suffer undesirable changes with time because of improper specifications, a violation of specifications, or adverse performance of its cement paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either physical or chemical attack. Contained in this report is a discussion on concrete durability and the relationship between durability and performance, a review of the historical perspective related to concrete and longevity, a description of the basic materials that comprise reinforced concrete, and information on the environmental factors that can affect the performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Commentary is provided on the importance of an aging management program.

Naus, Dan J [ORNL

2007-02-01

107

Backgrounds Data Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) is the designated archive for backgrounds data collected by Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) programs, some of which include ultraviolet sensors. Currently, the BDC holds ultraviolet data from the IBSS, UVPI, UVLIM, and FUVCAM sensors. The BDC will also be the prime archive for Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) data and is prepared to negotiate with program managers to handle other datasets. The purpose of the BDC is to make data accessible to users and to assist them in analyzing it. The BDC maintains the Science Catalog Information Exchange System (SCIES) allowing remote users to log in, read or post notices about current programs, search the catalogs for datasets of interest, and submit orders for data. On-site facilities are also available for the analysis of data, and consist of VMS and UNIX workstations with access to software analysis packages such as IDL, IRAF, and Khoros. Either on-site or remotely, users can employ the BDC-developed graphical user interface called the Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) to generate catalog queries and to display and analyze data. SCIES and VISTA permit nearly complete access to BDC services and capabilities without the need to be physically present at the data center.

Snyder, William A.; Gursky, Herbert; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Lucke, Bob L.; Dorland, Bryan N.; Kessel, R. A.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.

1994-09-01

108

The Backgrounds Data Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

1993-01-01

109

Summary Report of the History and Events Pertinent to the Civil Aeromedical Institute's Evaluation of Providing Smoke/Fume Protective Breathing Equipment for Airline Passenger Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a summary of the history and events pertinent to the Civil Aeromedical Institute's evaluation of the feasibility of providing smoke/fume protective breathing equipment for passenger use, including research undertaken, reports produced...

E. A. Higgins

1987-01-01

110

USE OF PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODELS TO QUANTIFY THE IMPACT OF HUMAN AGE AND INTERINDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY PERTINENT TO RISK (FINAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This final report, Use of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models to Quantify the Impact of Human Age and Interindividual Differences in Physiology and Biochemistry Pertinent to Risk Final R...

111

Evaluation and promotion strategy research on information communication ability of public crisis under the background of public relations in the crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the progress of science and technology and the development of the economic globalization, social is in an open system environment, in which government's image and executive force will be affected by internal and external factors and so on, so the crisis of public relations possible happens at any time, and the information communication of public crisis is an important

Xi-bo Sun; Qi Wang

2011-01-01

112

Wetlands in the Lake Champlain region of Vermont: Present and future threats to the resource. Boundary determination and background information for the EPA's proposed advanced identification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

EPA Region 1 Wetlands Protections Section is planning an Advanced Identification Project for the Lake Champlain Region of Vermont. 'Advanced Identification' refers to the two authorities EPA can utilize under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act to protect wetlands in advance of permit applications. In Vermont, a combined activities-based Advanced Identification of Sites (AIS) and Advance 404(c) project is proposed. This study determines the boundaries for the Advanced Identification action. It discusses the criteria developed to evaluate watershed considerations and both present and future threats to the resource. All towns in four counties bordering Lake Champlain were evaluated with regard to location in watershed, wetland acreage, wetland loss, population projections, historical growth trends, tax information, and housing stock estimates. Based on the criteria listed above, the towns selected are experiencing the types of growth pressures that will lead to continued wetland loss. EPA plans to restrict work at especially valuable sites with this area using Advance 404(c).

Borre, M.A.

1988-11-01

113

Advanced Network Technology. Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This background paper analyzes technologies for tomorrow's information superhighways. Advanced networks will first be used to support scientists in their work, but will soon be deployed more widely in business, entertainment, health care, and education. Significant progress has been made toward the development of gigabit network technology since…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

114

The Cosmological Background Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides an introduction to the physics, astrophysics and cosmology of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Adopting the Standard Big Bang model of the universe, the authors cover topics including the origin of the background, intrinsic fluctuations, and the universe and background radiation after recombination. Finally they present measurement of the radiation and its anisotropies, along with a review

Marc Lachièze-Rey; Edgard Gunzig

1999-01-01

115

The Cosmic Background Explorer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

1990-01-01

116

Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

Mello Koch, Robert de [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

2009-01-15

117

Tautatietoa energiaturpeesta. (Background information of energy peat).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of Finnish energy policy is to maintain well operating energy supply, to improve the energy independence, to maintain alternatives in energy production and to decentralize energy production. The energy independence of Finland is only 38%, while in...

1990-01-01

118

Water Watch Program Overview. Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lakes, streams, and wetlands serve many purposes for the people of the state of Kentucky and are necessary and valued elements of its natural resources. The Water Watch program promotes individual responsibility for a common resource, educates people about the use and protection of local water resources, provides recreational opportunities through…

Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

119

Individually Prescribed Instruction: Background Information and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of individually prescribed instruction (IPI) in reading as compared to the traditional mode of instruction are examined. The IPI model includes four components: analysis of subject matter content, diagnosis of student preinstructional behavior, sequencing of materials to facilitate learning, and evaluation strategies. Elementary…

DeRenzis, Joseph J.

120

LED Roadway Lighting Volume 1: Background Information.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Roadway lighting is a fundamental public service that leads to a safer environment for both pedestrians and drivers. It is estimated that lighting alone accounts for around 3% of the total U.S. electricity consumption. Currently, street lighting applicati...

J. Medina K. A. Avrenli R. R. Benekohal

2012-01-01

121

Design philosophy of Eurocodes — background information  

Microsoft Academic Search

ENV 1993-1.4 — Supplementary rules for stainless steels — may be used as a complementary part to Eurocode 3 Part 1.1 — General rules and rules for buildings — to design structural elements made of stainless steel. The rules specified in ENV 1993-1.4 are based on the design rules for carbon steels although the stress–strain curves for austenitic stainless steels

Gerhard Sedlacek; Heiko Stangenberg

2000-01-01

122

Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

SciTech Connect

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of volcanic aerosol is over 30% faster than one would obtain without this correction. At background, the aerosol size distribution is found to remain remarkably constant between the tropopause and an altitude of approx.25 km, with a sudden transition to a distribution dominated by smaller particles above this altitude. The observations, in some respects, compare favorably with equilibrium one-dimensional stratospheric aerosol models and thus to some extent support the concept of relatively inert tropospheric sulfurous gases, such as carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide, as the main background stratospheric aerosol sulfur source. Models which incorporate sulfur chemistry are apparently not able to predict the observed variation of particle size with altitude. The 2-year background period is not long enough in itself to establish long-term trends. The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in May 1980 has considerably disrupted the background stratospheric aerosol which will probably not recover for several years. A comparison of the 1978--79 observations with Junge's original measurements made some 20 years earlier, also during a period void of volcanic perturbations, does not preclude a long-term increase in the background stratospheric aerosol level.

Hofmann, D.J.; Rosen, J.M.

1981-01-01

123

Adaptive background model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adaptive background model aiming at outdoor vehicle detection is presented in this paper. This model is an improved model of PICA (pixel intensity classification algorithm), it classifies pixels into K-distributions by color similarity, and then a hypothesis that the background pixel color appears in image sequence with a high frequency is used to evaluate all the distributions to determine which presents the current background color. As experiments show, the model presented in this paper is a robust, adaptive and flexible model, which can deal with situations like camera motions, lighting changes and so on.

Lu, Xiaochun; Xiao, Yijun; Chai, Zhi; Wang, Bangping

2007-11-01

124

The cosmic neutrino background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

Dar, Arnon

1991-01-01

125

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Statements, Volume I. Part 3. SOC Numbers 6699 to 9900. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee provides…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

126

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Characteristics, Volume II. Part 2. SOC Numbers 4499 to 6560. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee provides…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

127

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Characteristics, Volume II. Part 1. SOC Numbers 1099 to 4490. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee provides…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

128

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Characteristics, Volume II. Part 3B. SOC Numbers 7700 to 9900. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee provides…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

129

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Statements, Volume I. Part 2. SOC Numbers 4499 to 6560. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee provides…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

130

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Characteristics, Volume II. Part 3A. SOC Numbers 6699 to 7679. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee provides…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

131

Classification Structures for Career Information. Occupational Statements, Volume I. Part 1. SOC Numbers 1099 to 4490. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classification Structures for Career Information" was created to provide Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS) staff with pertinent and useful occupational information arranged according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) structure. Through this publication, the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee provides…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

132

Building Background Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on

Ross, Donna; Fisher, Douglas; Grant, Maria

2010-01-01

133

Background and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

Background & Statistics FAQ About Homeless Veterans Homeless Veterans Facts Demographics of Homeless Veterans Incarcerated Veterans Research Briefs Sources FAQ ... VETERANS In May 2007, the Bureau of Justice Statistics released a special report on incarcerated veterans. The ...

134

Background Oriented Schlieren Demonstrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this project report we present the application of a novel schlieren technique for two different tests. The optical method is referred to as 'Background Oriented Schlieren' (BOS) in the following. Additionally the differences between BOS and an extensio...

H. Richard M. Raffel

2000-01-01

135

Unitarity and singular backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the graviton Kaluza-Klein spectrum on a gravity-dilaton background with a naked singularity for all possible boundary conditions at the singularity which are consistent with unitary evolution. We apply methods from nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with singular Schrödinger potentials. In general, the spectrum contains a tachyon, a sign of instability. Only for a particular boundary condition at the singularity is the spectrum free of tachyons. In this case, the lowest-lying graviton mode is massless. We argue that this result will also hold for other backgrounds with similar geometry near the curvature singularity. We complete our study with a brief discussion on radion perturbations and the Higgs mechanism on this singular background.

Brouzakis, Nikolaos; Quiros, Mariano

2013-11-01

136

The Cosmic Background Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

1990-01-01

137

Cosmic Microwave Background  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the cosmic microwave background to understand why it permeates the universe and why it peaks as microwave radiation. Students should be able to explain that the origin of the background radiation is the uniform thermal radiation of the big bang and that the radiation produced was evenly distributed around the small early universe, causing it to permeate today's universe. This activity is part of the Cosmic Times teachers guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1965 Cosmic Times Poster.

138

Cosmic Background Bose Condensation (CBBC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degeneracy effects for bosons are more important for smaller particle mass, smaller temperature and higher number density. Bose condensation requires that particles be in the same lowest energy quantum state. We propose a cosmic background Bose condensation, present everywhere, with its particles having the lowest quantum energy state, ?c/ ?, with ? about the size of the visible universe, and therefore unlocalized. This we identify with the quantum of the self gravitational potential energy of any particle, and with the bit of information of minimum energy. The entropy of the universe (˜10122 bits) has the highest number density (˜1036 bits/cm3) of particles inside the visible universe, the smallest mass, ˜10-66 g, and the smallest temperature, ˜10-29 K. Therefore it is the best candidate for a Cosmic Background Bose Condensation (CBBC), a completely calmed fluid, with no viscosity, in a superfluidity state, and possibly responsible for the expansion of the universe.

Alfonso-Faus, A.; Fullana i Alfonso, M. J.

2013-09-01

139

Targets, backgrounds, and discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present volume discusses a model-based aircraft identification technique, target intensity and angle scintillations, spatiotemporal nonstationary scene generation, an overview of the Strategic Scene Generation Model (SSGM), nuclear backgrounds for SSGM, and an atmospheric and transmittance code for 50-300 km altitudes. Also discussed are a data base for airborne target signatures, the auroral module of the Strategic High Altitude Radiance

J. S. Accetta; G. H. Kelley

1992-01-01

140

Cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is widely interpreted as the thermal afterglow of a hot big bang. Measurements of the CMBR intensity as a function of frequency constrain the history of cosmic energetics. Measurements of the anisotropy in the CMBR temperature provide a snapshot of the distribution of fluctuations in the gravitational potential at the earliest stages of cosmic

Lyman Page; David Wilkinson

1999-01-01

141

The Cosmic Background Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the current status of experimental data for spectral distortions and angular anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, as well as discussing the relevant physical processes. This is one of a number of new articles in astrophysics and cosmology which will appear in the 1996 Review of Particle Properties (Phys. Rev. D. in press). Other relevant reviews include: \\

G. F. Smoot; D. Scott

1996-01-01

142

The other backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of the cosmic microwave background or CMB (3K, ther- mal, relict, black body, isotropic, etc) radiation in confirming a hot big bang model of the early Universe and in setting precise values of many of the parameters of that model is widely known and has recently been enhanced by the results of three years of operation of the

Virginia Trimble

2006-01-01

143

Iran: The Background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The set is composed of three reports which are also available individually from NTIS. The set was assembled to provide scholars and other interested persons with historical background to the U.S.-Iran crisis of 1979-80. ;Titles included in the set are: IR...

1979-01-01

144

Cosmic Microwave Background: Past, Future, and Present.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) carry an enormous amount of information about the early universe. The anisotropy spectrum depends sensitively on close to a dozen cosmological parameters, some of which have never been measured before....

S. Dodelson

2000-01-01

145

47 CFR 215.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It...

2010-10-01

146

47 CFR 215.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It...

2013-10-01

147

47 CFR 215.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It...

2009-10-01

148

How to decide which are the most pertinent overly-represented features during gene set enrichment analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The search for enriched features has become widely used to characterize a set of genes or proteins. A key aspect of this technique is its ability to identify correlations amongst heterogeneous data such as Gene Ontology annotations, gene expression data and genome location of genes. Despite the rapid growth of available data, very little has been proposed in terms

Roland Barriot; David J. Sherman; Isabelle Dutour

2007-01-01

149

What the Information Professional Can Learn from the Information Technology and Project Management Knowledge Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are various forces driving change in the knowledge and skills areas for information professionals: 1) technologies, 2) changing environments, and 3) the changing role of information technology management. These forces affect all levels of information technology-based professionals--those responsible for information processing and those responsible for information services. This paper discusses and reviews the pertinent literature that deals with the

Edwin M. Cortez; Edward Kazlauskas; Sanjay K. Dutta

2004-01-01

150

Health Information Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of health information technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 14 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 6 units specific to the occupation of emergency medical technician. The following…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

151

Diffuse UV Background Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse UV sky is expected to glow with significant amounts of starlight that is scattered from the interstellar dust. The albedo and scattering pattern of the dust in the ultraviolet are both well established, and are both fairly independent of wavelength from 912 Å to 3000 Å. We present 1943 Voyager spectra of the diffuse cosmic background radiation from 500 Å to 1200 Å, and we compare their brightnesses, and their distribution on the sky, to those observed (Murthy et al., ApJ 724, 1389, 2010) from the GALEX mission at longer wavelengths (1530 Å). Significant differences appear, suggesting that background radiation components in addition to dust-scattered starlight may be present in both spectral regions.

Conn Henry, Richard; Murthy, J.

2012-01-01

152

Background illumination simulator  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a testing apparatus for testing and evaluating the performance of laser seeking warheads for missiles, under simulated weather conditions. It comprises support means for supporting a warhead seeker; laser means for generating a laser beam and for directing a laser beam towards the seeker; a diffusion screen interposed between the seeker support means and the laser means for diffusing the laser beam; a collimating lens interposed between the diffusion screen and the seeker support means for collimating the diffused laser beam and for directing the collimated laser beam onto a warhead seeker, supported in the seeker support; background illuminator means for illuminating the seeker support and a seeker disposed therein, supported for movement into and out of an operating position between the diffusion means and the collimating lens for providing background lighting in simulation of weather lighting conditions; and control means for controlling the intensity of the light provided by the illuminator means to simulate various weather conditions.

Towry, E.R.

1992-05-12

153

Language and Cultural Background  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language is inseparable from its cultural context. Considered here are: aspects of culture to be learned (not just odd differences); method; use of suitable, well-balanced materials; aims - informational, communicative (for life situations), and motivational. Motivation is higher in students with favorable attitudes toward the foreign people.…

Littlewood, William T.

1978-01-01

154

Presentation 1: Background  

Cancer.gov

The Objectives of this presentation are to explain why, and a bit about how, the new rules were developed; to describe the Hematopoietic Working Group; to provide some general information about the Hematopoietic Working Group and its membership, and the objectives of the Working Group.

155

Population distribution of flexible molecules from maximum entropy analysis using different priors as background information: application to the ?, ?-conformational space of the ?-(1-->2)-linked mannose disaccharide present in N- and O-linked glycoproteins.  

PubMed

The conformational space available to the flexible molecule ?-D-Manp-(1-->2)-?-D-Manp-OMe, a model for the ?-(1-->2)-linked mannose disaccharide in N- or O-linked glycoproteins, is determined using experimental data and molecular simulation combined with a maximum entropy approach that leads to a converged population distribution utilizing different input information. A database survey of the Protein Data Bank where structures having the constituent disaccharide were retrieved resulted in an ensemble with >200 structures. Subsequent filtering removed erroneous structures and gave the database (DB) ensemble having three classes of mannose-containing compounds, viz., N- and O-linked structures, and ligands to proteins. A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the disaccharide revealed a two-state equilibrium with a major and a minor conformational state, i.e., the MD ensemble. These two different conformation ensembles of the disaccharide were compared to measured experimental spectroscopic data for the molecule in water solution. However, neither of the two populations were compatible with experimental data from optical rotation, NMR (1)H,(1)H cross-relaxation rates as well as homo- and heteronuclear (3)J couplings. The conformational distributions were subsequently used as background information to generate priors that were used in a maximum entropy analysis. The resulting posteriors, i.e., the population distributions after the application of the maximum entropy analysis, still showed notable deviations that were not anticipated based on the prior information. Therefore, reparameterization of homo- and heteronuclear Karplus relationships for the glycosidic torsion angles ? and ? were carried out in which the importance of electronegative substituents on the coupling pathway was deemed essential resulting in four derived equations, two (3)J(COCC) and two (3)J(COCH) being different for the ? and ? torsions, respectively. These Karplus relationships are denoted JCX/SU09. Reapplication of the maximum entropy analysis gave excellent agreement between the MD- and DB-posteriors. The information entropies show that the current reparametrization of the Karplus relationships constitutes a significant improvement. The ?(H) torsion angle of the disaccharide is governed by the exo-anomeric effect and for the dominating conformation ?(H) = -40 degrees and ?(H) = 33 degrees. The minor conformational state has a negative ?(H) torsion angle; the relative populations of the major and the minor states are approximately 3 : 1. It is anticipated that application of the methodology will be useful to flexible molecules ranging from small organic molecules to large biomolecules. PMID:20574564

Säwén, Elin; Massad, Tariq; Landersjö, Clas; Damberg, Peter; Widmalm, Göran

2010-08-21

156

Holography for Schrödinger backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss holography for Schrödinger solutions of both topologically massive gravity in three dimensions and massive vector theories in ( d + 1) dimensions. In both cases the dual field theory can be viewed as a d-dimensional conformal field theory (two dimensional in the case of TMG) deformed by certain operators that respect the Schrödinger symmetry. These operators are irrelevant from the viewpoint of the relativistic conformal group but they are exactly marginal with respect to the non-relativistic conformal group. The spectrum of linear fluctuations around the background solutions corresponds to operators that are labeled by their scaling dimension and the lightcone momentum k v . We set up the holographic dictionary and compute 2-point functions of these operators both holographically and in field theory using conformal perturbation theory and find agreement. The counterterms needed for holographic renormalization are non-local in the v lightcone direction.

Guica, Monica; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika; van Rees, Balt C.

2011-02-01

157

Background level care.  

PubMed

The framework enabled by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System to allow appropriate, patient-centred caries management includes a frequently encountered scenario in which a comprehensive assessment of the teeth and the patient reveals no lesions in need of active preventive or operative care. The issue addressed here is: what background care is appropriate for patients attending a dental practice for routine caries care who, at present, appear to have no active or progressing caries lesions? It is proposed that, in addition to the use of criteria for lesion extent, treatment planning systems should also express the results of lesion assessments in terms of background level care (BLC), preventive treatment options and operative treatment options. The specific treatment options recommended for specific lesions and patients will depend upon a variety of other factors, including lesion activity, monitoring lesion behaviour over time and a range of other prognostic factors. Over recent decades, there has been comparatively little focus on appropriate BLC in a general practice setting. There are a range of issues around the need to support caries prevention and health maintenance from a behavioural and patient-focussed perspective. Even if a patient is deemed to be at low risk of future caries at a particular examination, there is a need for maintenance care. Intrinsic issues which need to be managed for both patients and their caries lesions in this patient group are: (1) the possibility of a change in caries risk status and (2) the impact of incorrect lesion assessments/diagnoses. PMID:19494681

Pitts, N B

2009-01-01

158

Impact of the U.S. National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS) on Building Energy Performance Simulation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS) started the development of the National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS). Its goal is to define standard sets of data required to describe any given building in necessary detail so that any given AECO industry discipline application can find needed data at any point in the building lifecycle. This will include all data that are used in or are pertinent to building energy performance simulation and analysis. This paper describes the background that lead to the development of NBIMS, its goals and development methodology, its Part 1 (Version 1.0), and its probable impact on building energy performance simulation and analysis.

Bazjanac, Vladimir

2007-08-01

159

19 CFR 201.9 - Methods employed in obtaining information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...general, the Commission obtains pertinent information from its own files, from other agencies of the Government, through questionnaires and correspondence, through field work by members of the Commission's staff, and from testimony and other...

2013-04-01

160

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: background.  

PubMed

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a fascinating disease for the cytogeneticist, as so many cases have a clone detectable by cytogenetics or FISH, and because identifying the abnormalities provides such useful information to the clinician. However, it is also a frustrating disease, as it has technical challenges such as a marked tendency for the sample to clot during harvesting, frequently poor chromosome morphology, and, especially in the high count cases, failure to provide any divisions at all for analysis. For these reasons, this book includes two chapters on the practical aspects of undertaking cytogenetic studies in ALL to illustrate contrasting approaches. The first is from a laboratory that is a world leader in its success rates, which has an enviably low sample/cytogeneticist ratio, and which is usually able to expect a good-sized sample commensurate with the importance given to a diagnostic cytogenetic study. The second is from a laboratory that also has a good success rate, despite having to cope with a higher workload and often much smaller samples. This is not to imply that each technique is limited to such circumstances; both are worthy of study and emulation. PMID:12744206

Swansbury, John

2003-01-01

161

Integrable Background Geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ?-manifold, determines a (k+?)-dimensional geometry (k+??4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ?-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+?)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(?) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(?^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently , degenerate or null reductions have attracted increased interest. Two of these reductions and their gauge theories (arguably, the two most significant) are also described.

Calderbank, David M. J.

2014-03-01

162

Histone-Modifying Complexes Regulate Gene Expression Pertinent to the Differentiation of the Protozoan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii†  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic apicomplexan parasites like Toxoplasma and Plasmodium (malaria) have complex life cycles consisting of multiple stages. The ability to differentiate from one stage to another requires dramatic transcriptional changes, yet there is a paucity of transcription factors in these protozoa. In contrast, we show here that Toxoplasma possesses extensive chromatin remodeling machinery that modulates gene expression relevant to differentiation. We find that, as in other eukaryotes, histone acetylation and arginine methylation are marks of gene activation in Toxoplasma. We have identified mediators of these histone modifications, as well as a histone deacetylase (HDAC), and correlate their presence at target promoters in a stage-specific manner. We purified the first HDAC complex from apicomplexans, which contains novel components in addition to others previously reported in eukaryotes. A Toxoplasma orthologue of the arginine methyltransferase CARM1 appears to work in concert with the acetylase TgGCN5, which exhibits an unusual bias for H3 [K18] in vitro. Inhibition of TgCARM1 induces differentiation, showing that the parasite life cycle can be manipulated by interfering with epigenetic machinery. This may lead to new approaches for therapy against protozoal diseases and highlights Toxoplasma as an informative model to study the evolution of epigenetics in eukaryotic cells.

Saksouk, Nehme; Bhatti, Micah M.; Kieffer, Sylvie; Smith, Aaron T.; Musset, Karine; Garin, Jerome; Sullivan, William J.; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali

2005-01-01

163

Infrared Target/Background Discrimination - Background Spectral Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the development of statistical models for signals in the background radiance distribution. Techniques for analyzing multispectral line scan data are developed and demonstrated on background data obtained by the Environmental Research...

L. J. Pinson P. M. Goggans

1978-01-01

164

Molecules in the mirror: how SERS backgrounds arise from the quantum method of images† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional derivation of eqn (5). See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp00093e Click here for additional data file.  

PubMed Central

The Raman coupling of light to molecular vibrations is strongly modified when they are placed near a plasmonic metal surface, with the appearance of a strong broad continuum background in addition to the normal surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peaks. Using a quantum method of images approach, we produce a simple but quantitative explanation of the inevitable presence of the background, due to the resistive damping of the image molecule. This model thus suggests new strategies for enhancing the SERS peak to background ratio.

Barnett, Stephen M.; Harris, Nadine

2014-01-01

165

The Cosmic Background Radiation, Snowmass Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the Cosmic Microwave background have provided many of the most powerful constraints we have on cosmology and events in the early universe. The spectrum and isotropy of CBR have long been a pillar of Big Bang models. The discovery of low levels on anisotropy has provided new information and tools for our understanding of the early universe. Further

George F. Smoot

1995-01-01

166

X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

1996-01-01

167

Radar Background Signal Reduction Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a study whose objective was to identify materials and/or techniques to reduce radar background signals for ground plane radar cross section (RCS) ranges. Background signal reduction is essential for improving the accuracy of RCS mea...

E. F. Knott C. J. Ray M. S. West R. J. Wohlers

1980-01-01

168

Pregalactic Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution....

R. A. Matzner

1989-01-01

169

Infrared Background and Target Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis describes measurements of IR background radiance. To provide background radiance values for the development of the AN/SAR - 8 (IRSTD) system, the radiance of clouds and buildings was measured using the AGA Thermovision 780. The measurement val...

A. Manolopoulos

1985-01-01

170

The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention Citation: Hall, R. and Hanna, P. (2004), The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention, Behaviour & Information Technology, forthcoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text\\/background color combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioral intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four color-combination conditions. Major findings were: a) Colors with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater

Richard H. Hall

171

Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present in the standard big bang model. In the present calculation, evolutionary effects on grain opacity and abundance are estimated. At wavelengths used in studying the microwave background, the optical depth of the grains is found to be 0.18 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.03, and 0.05 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.5. The results indicate that microwave background can provide information on an early dense phase of the universe.

Pollaine, S.

1978-01-01

172

IRST testing methodologies: maritime infrared background simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss methodologies to incorporate the effects of environments and scenarios in the testing of IRST systems. The proposed methodology is based on experience with sea based IRST trials combining the possibilities of performance assessment in required scenarios to the real performance in available coastal scenarios. For this purpose testing procedures depend strongly on accurate infrared target, background and atmosphere models. In particular, background effects can be dominating the performance in clutter conditions and can also dominate contrast values. For this purpose a maritime background model has been developed for use in test procedures. The model generates a scene image sequence containing background structure, including sea, sky, clouds, coastal and sun glint information up to a frame rate of 25 Hz.

Schwering, Piet B. W.

2006-06-01

173

Fast Lighting Independent Background Subtraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a simple method of fast background subtraction based upon disparity verification that is invariant to arbitrarily rapid run-time changes in illumination. Using two or more cameras, the method requires the off-line construction of disparity fields mapping the primary background images. At runtime, segmentation is performed by checking background image to each of the additional auxiliary color intensity

Yuri Ivanov; Aaron Bobick; John Liu

2000-01-01

174

Background  

Cancer.gov

Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls provide the highest quality, least biased dietary data. Traditional 24-hour recalls, however, are expensive and impractical for large-scale research because they rely on trained interviewers and multiple administrations to estimate usual intakes. As a result, researchers often make use of food frequency questionnaires, which are less expensive but contain substantial error.

175

Coal development information packet. Supplement 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This supplement to the Coal Development Information Packet prepared and distributed by the Montana Energy Advisory Council in December 1974 is intended to provide a brief summary of ''socio-economic'' information pertinent to existing and potential energy development activities in Montana. The benefits of industrialization of Eastern Montana's coal reserves have been much touted. Increased revenues to state, county and local

1975-01-01

176

New Technology for Libraries. A Layman's Guide to Reducing Public Library Costs and Improving Services through Scientific Methods and Tools. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of background papers for the White House Conference, explores the potential of new technologies to improve library services while reducing library costs. Separate subsections describe the application of technology to the following library functions: acquisitions, catalogs and cataloging, serials control, circulation…

Weisbrod, David L.

177

Solving the background mystery in acoustical resonance scattering theory (RST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acoustical resonance scattering theory (RST) aims to solving inverse scattering problems by decomposing the backscattering echoes into a background part and a resonance part. The former contains scatterers shape information, and the latter contains the material composition information. RST assumes the existence of an intermediate background for general scatterer and surrounding combinations. However, despite the efforts taken in the

Changzheng Huang

2002-01-01

178

Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coleridge's famous line about water everywhere without a drop to drink may serve as a useful metaphor for the contemporary design studio. Engulfed within a sea of information, where does the designer look for references? This paper outlines the results of an ongoing research project entitled 'Interactive Multimedia within the Design Studio' (grant awarded by FAPEMIG - Fundação de Amparo

Philip Rhodes

1991-01-01

179

Laboratory Information Management Systems for Forensic Laboratories: A White Paper for Directors and Decision Makers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modern, forensics laboratories need Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) implementations that allow the lab to track evidentiary items through their examination life cycle and also serve all pertinent laboratory personnel. The research present...

A. Hendrickson A. Townsend B. Mennecke K. Scheibe

2005-01-01

180

40 CFR 125.124 - Information required to be submitted by applicant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...any other pertinent information: (a) An analysis of the chemical constituents of any discharge; (b) Appropriate bioassays necessary to determine the limiting permissible concentrations for the discharge; (c) An analysis of initial...

2013-07-01

181

Background reduction in cryogenic detectors  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

2005-04-01

182

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation is discussed beginning with radio astronomical measuring techniques, followed by the history of the detection of background radiation, and a summary of some of its properties. Attention is given to the design and operation of a radiotelescope, its antenna and radiometer, exhibiting its advantages, including the ability to measure a collecting area

R. W. Wilson

1979-01-01

183

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize the theoretical and observational status of the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Its thermodynamic spectrum is a robust prediction of the Hot Big Bang cosmology and has been confirmed observationally. There are now 75 observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy, which we present in a table with references. We discuss the theoretical origins of these anisotropies

Eric Gawiser; Joseph Silk

2000-01-01

184

Simulation of HEAO 3 Background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma- ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, the decay of ...

B. F. Phlips B. L. Graham J. D. Kurfess R. A. Kroeger

2007-01-01

185

Background modeling for the GERDA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The neutrinoless double beta (0???) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0??? decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ??} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and ? emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

2013-08-08

186

Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility  

SciTech Connect

The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3? muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Wang, B. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-08-08

187

Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3? muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO2 for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

Thomas, K. J.; Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Norman, E. B.; Wang, B. S.; Hurley, D. L.

2013-08-01

188

Effects of critical information saliency on task performance: Application of ecological information augmentation in a cockpit display of traffic information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis reports the examination, implementation, and evaluation of a case study in Ecological Information Augmentation (EIA). EIA is a heuristic encompassing the method and practice of enhancing the perceptual\\/cognitive salience of task-critical display information. Three experiments were conducted in which the EIA heuristic was used to identify task-specific, pertinent information in a visual display, augment that information, and compare

William Robert Knecht

2001-01-01

189

The Cosmic Background Radiation, Snowmass Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the Cosmic Microwave background have provided many of the\\u000amost powerful constraints we have on cosmology and events in the early\\u000auniverse. The spectrum and isotropy of CBR have long been a pillar of Big Bang\\u000amodels. The discovery of low levels on anisotropy has provided new information\\u000aand tools for our understanding of the early universe. Further

George F. Smoot

1995-01-01

190

Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN) is dedicated to improving Earth system literacy through increased communication and collaboration among providers of informal Earth system education. The collection is designed for museum professionals (educators, exhibits designers, developers) as a resource of ideas, tools, traveling exhibits and online materials. The resources are web portals to organizations providing substantial informal Earth system science education. They describe educational programming, resources and exhibits that are pertinent to an informal educator.

2007-04-03

191

Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN) is dedicated to improving Earth system literacy through increased communication and collaboration among providers of informal Earth system education. The collection is designed for museum professionals (educators, exhibits designers, developers) as a resource of ideas, tools, traveling exhibits and online materials. The resources are web portals to organizations providing substantial informal Earth system science education. They describe educational programming, resources and exhibits that are pertinent to an informal educator.

192

Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2005 and 2006 School Years. National Goals for Schooling. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. First Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to implement changes required by Education Ministers to enrolment forms (and associated data collection and storage processes). This is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the "National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." The…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2004

2004-01-01

193

Impacts of Neuroscience: Background Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The background paper surveys the scientific basis of research on the nervous system, identifies several medical applications, examines some of the social effects, and discusses some of the difficult ethical and political issues that may arise from discove...

1984-01-01

194

Characterisation of Background Biological Aerosol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sampling of ambient air using a glass cyclone system for fluorescence background determination is described. Weekly samples over 12 hour sampling periods are taken at the University College Galway 5 atmospheric research field station at Mace Head, on the ...

S. G. Jennings C. M. Kenny

1997-01-01

195

Nongeometric fluxes as supergravity backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider examples of D=4 string theory vacua which, although globally nongeometric, admit a local description in terms of D=10 supergravity backgrounds. We analyze such backgrounds and find that the supersymmetry spinors vary nontrivially along the internal manifold, reproducing the interpolating supergravity solutions found by Frey and Graña. Finally, we propose a simple, local expression for nongeometric fluxes in terms of the internal spinors of the compactification.

Marchesano, Fernando; Schulgin, Waldemar

2007-08-01

196

Nongeometric fluxes as supergravity backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We consider examples of D=4 string theory vacua which, although globally nongeometric, admit a local description in terms of D=10 supergravity backgrounds. We analyze such backgrounds and find that the supersymmetry spinors vary nontrivially along the internal manifold, reproducing the interpolating supergravity solutions found by Frey and Grana. Finally, we propose a simple, local expression for nongeometric fluxes in terms of the internal spinors of the compactification.

Marchesano, Fernando [ASC, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Munich (Germany); Schulgin, Waldemar [Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

2007-08-15

197

How do hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background estimate their language skills and their comprehension of medical information - a prospective cross-sectional study and comparison to native patients in Germany to assess the language barrier and the need for translation  

PubMed Central

Background Today more than two million people with Turkish migration background live in Germany making them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Data concerning language skills and the perception of medical information in hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background (T) are scarce. Our study is the first to gather quantitative information on this important subject. Methods T and hospitalised German patients without migration background (G) of our university hospital were prospectively included into a cross-sectional study and completed a questionnaire - each group in the appropriate language (T: Turkish, G: German). Results 121 T and 121 G were included. Groups significantly differed in age (T: 44.9?±?17.8, G: 56.9?±?16.7y) and proportion of males (T: 37.2, G: 54.5%) but not regarding the proportion of college graduates (T: 19.3, G: 15.7%). The majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74% of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73% speak German at work. 74.4% of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as “average” or better while 25.6% reported it as “very bad” or “bad”. 10.7% of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physician’s information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3% of T estimated their reception of the physician’s information to be “average” or worse. 43.3% of T had the impression that it would have helped them “much” or “very much” to be aided by an interpreter at the hospital. The information transmitted while giving informed consent to invasive medical procedure was judged to be “mostly” or “completely” sufficient by the majority of T (76%) and G (89.8%). In this setting 37 of 96 T (38.5%) reported being helped by an interpreter – in most cases (64.9%) a family member. Conclusion Although the majority of patients with Turkish migration background have spent most of their lives in Germany (28.94?±?10.41y) a large part of this population has limited German language skills and difficulties obtaining medical information when hospitalised.

2013-01-01

198

Oregon Coaches Background Survey. Background of Coaches in Oregon High Schools 1984-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey questionnaire sought information on the background of paid coaches in Oregon high schools during 1984-85. Specific questions addressed coaches' teacher certification status, preparation for coaching, and training for athletic injury management. Additionally, the gender of the coach was identified. A secondary purpose of the study was to…

Sisley, Becky L.; Capel, Susan A.

199

Center for Information Services, Phase II: Detailed System Design and Programming, Part 4 - Development Scheduling and Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This portion of the Center for Information Services (CIS) project report contains development schedules, task assignments, and discussions of pertinent issues as they relate to the projects next phase (IIB). Sections II, III and IV (including Appendix A) ...

R. L. Carmichael

1971-01-01

200

Background simulations and shielding calculations  

SciTech Connect

Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

2011-04-27

201

Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.  

PubMed

When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

2010-06-25

202

Detector Background at Muon Colliders  

SciTech Connect

Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

203

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE): Emergency support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Mission will measure the diffuse radiation from the universe in the wavelength band 1 micron to 9.6 mm. The band includes the 3 K cosmic background radiation, the known relic of the primeval cosmic explosion. The COBE satellite will be launched from the Western Space and Missile Center (EWSMC) via a Delta launch vehicle into a circular parking orbit of about 300 km. COBE will be placed into a 900-km altitude circular orbit. Coverage will be provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN) for COBE emergencies that would prevent communications via the normal channels of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Emergency support will be provided by the DSN 26-m subnetwork. Information is given in tabular form for DSN network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, and command.

Stanford, R.; Mattson, R.

1991-01-01

204

Comparing cosmic microwave background datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

To extract reliable cosmic parameters from cosmic microwave background datasets, it is essential to show that the data are not contaminated by residual non-cosmological signals. We describe general statistical approaches to this problem, with an emphasis on the case in which there are two datasets that can be checked for consistency. A first visual step is the Wiener filter mapping

L. Knox; J. R. Bond; A. H. Jaffe; M. Segal; D. Charbonneau

1998-01-01

205

Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

Hansen, Janet S.

2008-01-01

206

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found

Joseph Silk

1981-01-01

207

Wormhole on the Lobachevsky background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The exact spherical symmetric static solution of Rosen like equations of the bi metric theory is investigated. The background metric is not flat, but curved, with the Lobachevsky spatial sections and 'cosmic time' c(sup 2) d t(sup 2). There are two branch...

M. N. Tentyukov

1994-01-01

208

Educational Choice. A Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

209

Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

Behrends, Ehrhard

2004-05-01

210

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, provides an overview of how scientists are working to explain the origin of the universe. Specifically, it discusses the two major theories about the origin of the universe (Big Bang and Steady State), the search for microwave background radiation, and the discovery of the first observational evidence to support the Big Bang theory.

211

Surface induced background in CUORE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bolometers are very promising detectors for neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0?DBD) searches because of their excellent energy resolution, the high detector efficiency and a wide choice of different materials used as absorber. In order to further improve the achievable sensitivity, many studies have been done in recent years in order to understand and thereby reduce the radioactive background. The current model of the background in the 0?DBD region assumes that it is mainly due to degraded ?'s from surface contamination of materials facing the crystals. This model is derived from the Cuoricino experience and it is mainly based on the study of coincident events between TeO2 bolometers since conventional techniques have not enough sensitivity to study the very low level of surface contaminations reached. In order to be able to identify the nature of the background observed in all the TeO2 bolometric tests and then confirm the background model, a very accurate measurement with BGO scintillating bolometers was performed.

Gironi, L.; CUORE Collaboration

2013-08-01

212

User's manual for the Gas Research Institute coal-gasification environmental, health, and safety information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

GRI has developed an information system to provide member companies and other participating researchers access to a carefully screened collection of technical information relevant to controlling potential environmental, health, and safety (EHandS) impacts of coal gasification. The information system does not contain data, but rather a short review of that data or other information, and a rating of its pertinent

G. E. Brown; N. P. Meserole; J. Esh-Sheikh

1985-01-01

213

Heritage Learners in the Chinese Language Classroom: Home Background  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies from information-processing and language comprehension research have reported that background knowledge facilitates reading and writing. By comparing Chinese language development of heritage students who had home background in Chinese language and culture with those who did not, this study found that heritage learners did significantly…

Xiao, Yun

2006-01-01

214

The Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) is the weak glow of megaelectronvolt neutrinos and antineutrinos from distant core-collapse supernovae. The DSNB has not been detected yet, but the Super-Kamiokande (SK) 2003 upper limit on the [Formula: see text] flux is close to predictions, now quite precise, that are based on astrophysical data. If SK is modified with dissolved gadolinium to reduce detector backgrounds and increase the energy range for analysis, then it should detect the DSNB at a rate of a few events per year, providing a new probe of supernova neutrino emission and the cosmic core-collapse rate. If the DSNB is not detected, then new physics will be required. Neutrino astronomy, although uniquely powerful, has proven extremely difficult—only the Sun and the nearby Supernova 1987A have been detected to date—so the promise of detecting new sources soon is exciting indeed.

Beacom, John F.

2010-11-01

215

Background stratospheric aerosol reference model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

1989-01-01

216

WFC3/UVIS Sky Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the on-orbit background levels present in WFC3/UVIS full-frame images. The results are based on nearly all standard readout images taken since the installation of WFC3 on HST in May 2009, with a relatively small number of exclusions e.g. images with obvious anomalous backgrounds (such as extended targets filling the field of view) or those taken with the quad filters (different bandpass in each amp). Comparisons are provided to estimates from the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). We anticipate these results to be helpful in fine-tuning the level of post-flash required to achieve the optimum balance of charge transfter efficiency (CTE) loss mitigation versus noise penalty. Observers considering the use of post-flash should refer to the White Paper (MacKenty & Smith 2012) on the CTE WWW page (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/ins_performance/CTE/).

Baggett, Sylvia; Anderson, Jay

2012-06-01

217

Conductivity in an anisotropic background  

SciTech Connect

By using the gauge/gravity duality, we investigate the dual field theories of the anisotropic backgrounds, which are exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with a Liouville potential. When we turn on the bulk gauge field fluctuation A{sub x} with a nontrivial dilaton coupling, the AC conductivity of this dual field theory is proportional to the frequency with an exponent depending on parameters of the anisotropic background. In some parameter regions, we find that this conductivity can have the negative exponent like the strange metal. In addition, we also investigate another U(1) gauge field fluctuation, which is not coupled with a dilaton field. We classify all possible conductivities of this system and find that the exponent of the conductivity is always positive.

Lee, Bum-Hoon [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Siyoung [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Pang, Da-Wei; Park, Chanyong [Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15

218

Superspace geometry for supermembrane backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct part of the superspace vielbein and tensor gauge field in terms of the component fields of 11-dimensional on-shell supergravity. The result can be utilized to describe supermembranes and corresponding matrix models for Dirichlet particles in non-trivial supergravity backgrounds to second order in anticommuting coordinates. We exhibit the ?-invariance of the corresponding supermembrane action, which at this order holds

Bernard de Wit; Kasper Peeters; Jan Plefka

1998-01-01

219

Compressive Sensing for Background Subtraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressive sensing (CS) is an emerging field that provides a framework for image recovery using sub-Nyquist sampling rates.\\u000a The CS theory shows that a signal can be reconstructed from a small set of random projections, provided that the signal is\\u000a sparse in some basis, e.g., wavelets. In this paper, we describe a method to directly recover background subtracted images\\u000a using

Volkan Cevher; Aswin C. Sankaranarayanan; Marco F. Duarte; Dikpal Reddy; Richard G. Baraniuk; Rama Chellappa

2008-01-01

220

Plutonium measurements near background levels  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of a nationwide nuclear weapons research, development, and production complex administered by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Low-levels of environmental Plutonium occurs in and about RFP as a result of plant operations. Plutonium is a key element in remediation investigations and surface water discharge limits. Most of the plutonium analyses at RFP measure concentrations at or near background levels. Measurements often show little, if any, plutonium in the media being sampled, except at known contamination sites. Many plutonium results are less than the calculated minimum detectable-level (MDL). (MDL is an a priori estimate of the activity concentration that can be practically achieved under a specified set of typical measurement conditions.) This paper investigates the relationship between plutonium concentrations and the counting uncertainty when measurements are near background, and suggests why the MDL should not be used as a criteria for limiting data. Issues with defining site background and determining attainment of standards are presented.

Not Available

1992-01-01

221

Plutonium measurements near background levels  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of a nationwide nuclear weapons research, development, and production complex administered by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Low-levels of environmental Plutonium occurs in and about RFP as a result of plant operations. Plutonium is a key element in remediation investigations and surface water discharge limits. Most of the plutonium analyses at RFP measure concentrations at or near background levels. Measurements often show little, if any, plutonium in the media being sampled, except at known contamination sites. Many plutonium results are less than the calculated minimum detectable-level (MDL). (MDL is an a priori estimate of the activity concentration that can be practically achieved under a specified set of typical measurement conditions.) This paper investigates the relationship between plutonium concentrations and the counting uncertainty when measurements are near background, and suggests why the MDL should not be used as a criteria for limiting data. Issues with defining site background and determining attainment of standards are presented.

Not Available

1992-08-01

222

Summary of Information Relating to Gust Loads on Airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Available information on gust structure, airplane reactions, and pertinent operating statistics has been examined. This report attempts to coordinate this information with reference to the prediction of gust loads on airplanes. The material covered represents research up to October 1947. (author)

Donely, Philip

1950-01-01

223

Summary of information relating to gust loads on airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Available information on gust structure, airplane reactions, and pertinent operating statistics has been examined. This report attempts to coordinate this information with reference to the prediction of gust loads on airplanes. The material covered represents research up to October 1947. (author)

Donely, Philip

1950-01-01

224

Status, plans, and capabilities of the Nuclear Criticality Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS), in preparation since 1981, has substantially evolved and now contains a growing number of resources pertinent to nuclear criticality safety. These resources include bibliographic compilations, experimental data, communications media, and the International Directory of Nuclear Criticality Safety Personnel. These resources are part of the LLNL Technology Information System (TIS) which provides the host computer

Koponen

1984-01-01

225

An effective recognition algorithm for multiple targets under sea surface background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an effective multiple targets recognition algorithm under the circumstances that the targets are with a sea surface background. The proposed algorithm relies on three steps. Firstly, an improved canny operator was adopted to get the edge characteristics of the image templates of airplanes, naval ships and islands , compared to the classical canny operator, the proposed canny operator can generate more accurate edges because of the anisotropic Gaussian filtering and the self-adaptive threshold estimate method it used. Secondly, to calculate the valid objects' positions and generate their edge binary images in the current image, region grown algorithm and improved canny algorithm were adopted. Finally, a hausdorff distance based categorizer was implemented to classify the objects already been located. Experimental results show that the approach performs well in multiple targets recognition in images with sea surface background , the proposed algorithm has strong pertinency and high efficiency to similar problems.

Wang, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Biao

2011-06-01

226

Background reionization history from omniscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurements of the 21-cm brightness temperature fluctuations from the neutral hydrogen at the Epoch of Reionization should inaugurate the next generation of cosmological observables. In this respect, many works have concentrated on the disambiguation of the cosmological signals from the dominant reionization foregrounds. However, even after perfect foregrounds removal, our ignorance on the background reionization history can significantly affect the cosmological parameter estimation. In particular, the interdependence between the hydrogen ionized fraction, the baryon density and the optical depth to the redshift of observation induce nontrivial degeneracies between the cosmological parameters that have not been considered so far. Using a simple but consistent reionization model, we revisit their expected constraints for a futuristic giant 21-cm omniscope by using for the first time Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods on multiredshift full sky simulated data. Our results agree well with the usual Fisher matrix analysis on the three-dimensional flat sky power spectrum but only when the above-mentioned degeneracies are kept under control. In the opposite situation, Fisher results can be inaccurate. We show that these conditions can be fulfilled by combining cosmic microwave background measurements with multiple observation redshifts probing the beginning of the Epoch of Reionization. This allows a precise reconstruction of the total optical depth, reionization duration and maximal spin temperature. Finally, we discuss the robustness of these results in presence of unresolved ionizing sources. Although most of the standard cosmological parameters remain weakly affected, we find a significant degradation of the background reionization parameter estimation in presence of nuisance ionizing sources.

Clesse, Sébastien; Lopez-Honorez, Laura; Ringeval, Christophe; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Tytgat, Michel H. G.

2012-12-01

227

Cuba: Background to a Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

De La Fuente, Alejandro

2000-01-01

228

Building Better Career Futures: Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource booklet, one of the three components that make up the Building Better Career Futures (BBCF) program, provides information on theories and approaches of BBCF; articles on themes of the program; and group activities addressing the specific career development outcomes of BBCF. This booklet is organized into four parts. The first part,…

Bezanson, Lynne; Hopkins, Sareena

229

Teaching about natural background radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

2013-07-01

230

Zero background yeast reporter plasmids.  

PubMed

UAS-less reporter plasmids are widespread and powerful tools for the identification and analysis of binding sites for transcriptional activators. The common reporter plasmids for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are multicopy (2mu) vectors with the CYC1 core promoter upstream of the lacZ gene. Insertion of putative or known activator binding sites upstream of the core promoter puts lacZ (beta-galactosidase) expression under the control of the corresponding activator. Although these constructs have proved to work well for most purposes, they have certain limitations: (1) they give significant and carbon-source-dependent lacZ background expression; (2) unlike most other yeast promoters, the CYC1 upstream region has a partially open chromatin structure with an accessible TATA box; (3) they use only a single, moderately sensitive reporter; and (4) the use of multicopy vectors can result in activator titration. Here, we introduce novel reporter plasmids based on the yeast MEL1 (alpha-galactosidase) gene that can overcome all of these limitations. It is also shown that background expression is due to fortuitous activator binding sites within the plasmid backbones that are insufficiently shielded from the core promoters in the common CYC1 reporter plasmids. PMID:10773444

Melcher, K; Sharma, B; Ding, W V; Nolden, M

2000-04-18

231

Video coding with dynamic background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

2013-12-01

232

21-cm background anisotropies can discern primordial non-Gaussianity.  

PubMed

The non-Gaussianity of initial perturbations provides information on the mechanism that generated primordial density fluctuations. We find that 21-cm background anisotropies due to inhomogeneous neutral hydrogen distribution prior to reionization captures information on primordial non-Gaussianity better than a high-resolution cosmic microwave background anisotropy map. An all-sky 21-cm experiment over the frequency range from 14 to 40 MHz with angular information out to a multipole of 10(5) can limit the primordial non-Gaussianity parameter f(NL) <, similar 0.01. PMID:17280413

Cooray, Asantha

2006-12-31

233

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

234

Deleterious background selection with recombination  

SciTech Connect

An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Hudson, R.R. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kaplan, N.L. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-12-01

235

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1996-06-11

236

The microwave background anisotropies: Observations  

PubMed Central

Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation—fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 ?K fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1° and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe—the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century.

Wilkinson, David

1998-01-01

237

Raman background photobleaching as a possible method of cancer diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetics of photobleaching of background in Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of plant toxins ricin and ricin agglutinin, ricin binding subunit, and normal and malignant human blood serum were measured. For the excitation of the spectra cw and pulsed laser radiation were used. The spectra of Raman background change upon laser irradiation. Background intensity is lower for the samples with small molecular weight. The cyclization of amino acid residues in the toxin molecules as well as in human blood serum can be a reason of the Raman background. The model of the background photobleaching is proposed. The differences in photobleaching kinetics in the cases of cw and pulsed laser radiation are discussed. It is shown that Raman background photobleaching can be very informative for cancer diagnostics.

Brandt, Nikolai N.; Brandt, Nikolai B.; Chikishev, Andrey Y.; Gangardt, Mihail G.; Karyakina, Nina F.

2001-06-01

238

Beverage can surface coating industry: background information for promulgated standards  

SciTech Connect

On November 26, 1980, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed standards of performance for the beverage can surface coating industry (45 CFR 78980) under authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. Public comments were requested on the proposal in the Federal Register. Eighteen comments were received, mostly from beverage can makers. Also commenting were State air pollution control agencies, coating suppliers, a trade association, and federal agencies. Four presentations were made at the public hearing on January 6, 1981. The comments that were submitted, along with responses to those comments, are summarized in this document. The summary of comments and responses serves as the basis for the revisions made to the standards between proposal and promulgation.

Not Available

1983-08-01

239

LANL-IPF responses to isotopes workshop background information survey  

SciTech Connect

Responses to the following are provided: (A) Which isotopes do you (company, agency, university, community) currently use in your activities or distribute (repackage) to end-users? (B) Describe generally what these isotopes are used for, i.e. the science or application. (C) Which isotope(s) do you anticipate may have significant future increase in demand. Identify the isotope(s), its priority, possible chemical form and for what purpose it would be used. (D) Are there other isotopes that you might use but are currently unavilable or not available in difficient quantities? If so, please identify this isotope, from whom have you tired to obtain it and for what prupose would it be used. (E) Do you have any specific issues with respect to the purity, availability, reliability of supply, etc. of isotopes at present?

Nortier, Francois Meiring [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

240

Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information. Updated October 6, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DOD) through the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) component called DLA Disposition Services formerly the Defense Utilization and Marketing Service (DRMS) has a policy for disposing of government equipment and supplies considered s...

V. B. Grasso

2010-01-01

241

Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information. Updated September 10, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DOD) through a Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) component called DLA Disposition Services formerly the Defense Utilization and Marketing Service (DRMS) has a policy for disposing of government equipment and supplies considered sur...

V. B. Grasso

2013-01-01

242

Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information (October 6, 2010).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DOD) through the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) component called DLA Disposition Services (formerly the Defense Utilization and Marketing Service (DRMS)) has a policy for disposing of government equipment and supplies considered...

V. B. Grasso

2010-01-01

243

Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information, February 28, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DoD) has a policy for disposing of government equipment and supplies considered 'surplus' for a different mission, or deemed unnecessary to the agency's designated mission. The effort to dispose of surplus military equipment dat...

V. B. Grasso

2005-01-01

244

US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions  

SciTech Connect

A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

1984-03-01

245

42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...compensation may be provided are cancers. There are two categories of covered employees with cancer under EEOICPA for whom...category is employees with cancer for whom a dose...

2013-10-01

246

Polymer manufacturing industry - background information for promulgated standards. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Standards of performance for the control of volatile organic compoud emissions from the polymer manufacturing industry are being promulgated under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. These standards apply to new, modified, and reconstructed facilities that manufacture polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, or poly(ethylene terephthalate). The document contains a summary of public comments, EPA responses, and a discussion of differences between the proposed and promulgated standard.

Not Available

1990-10-01

247

Polymer manufacturing industry - background information for proposed standards  

SciTech Connect

Promulgation of standards to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from process and fugitive sources in the polymer and resins industry is proposed. Standards would affect new and modified or reconstructed facilities that produce the following basic polymers: polyproplyene, polyethylene, polystyrene, and poly(ethylene terephthalate). The standards would not apply to poly(ethylene terephthalate) processing facilities. Twelve model plants and regulatory alternatives, including continuation of current control levels within each industry segment, have been developed. All alternatives, except the alternative involving continuation of existing controls, would reduce VOC emissions significantly. VOC emission reductions would range from 20 to 62.2%. Some additional solid wastes and noise emissions could be generated by control apparatus. Operation of controls would result in net increases in energy uses. The regulations would increase operating costs, capital costs, and reporting requirements. Small cost increases would be passed on to consumers in the form of price increases.

Not Available

1985-09-01

248

Background Information Bearing Upon Panama Canal Treaty Implementing Legislation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Treaty calls for the establishment of the Panama Canal Commission to replace on October 1, 1979, the Canal Zone Government and Panama Canal Company presently responsible for administering Canal operations. The Treaty expires on December 31, 1999, at w...

1979-01-01

249

Harnessing the Power of Education Research Databases with the Pearl-Harvesting Methodological Framework for Information Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital technologies enable the storage of vast amounts of information, accessible with remarkable ease. However, along with this facility comes the challenge to find pertinent information from the volumes of nonrelevant information. The present article describes the pearl-harvesting methodological framework for information retrieval. Pearl…

Sandieson, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Lori C.; Sandieson, Rachel M.; Zimmerman, Walter

2010-01-01

250

Maintenance and Development of the California Manpower Management Information System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California Manpower Management Information System (CMMIS) Project reported here was done to provide a means of coordinating manpower supply and demand information with pertinent demographic information which will enable state, regional, and local agencies to fulfill various legislative mandates and legal responsibilities. This report covers…

Ventura County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

251

Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Data analysis for the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be complicated by the huge number of sources in the LISA band. In the frequency band {approx}10{sup -4}-2x10{sup -3} Hz, galactic white dwarf binaries (GWDBs) are sufficiently dense in frequency space that it will be impossible to resolve most of them, and ''confusion noise'' from the unresolved Galactic binaries will dominate over instrumental noise in determining LISA's sensitivity to other sources in that band. Confusion noise from unresolved extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) could also contribute significantly to LISA's total noise curve. To date, estimates of the effect of LISA's confusion noise on matched-filter searches and their detection thresholds have generally approximated the noise as Gaussian, based on the central limit theorem. However in matched-filter searches, the appropriate detection threshold for a given class of signals may be located rather far out on the tail of the signal-to-noise probability distribution, where a priori it is unclear whether the Gaussian approximation is reliable. Using the Edgeworth expansion and the theory of large deviations, we investigate the probability distribution of the usual matched-filter detection statistic, far out on the tail of the distribution. We apply these tools to four somewhat idealized versions of LISA data searches: searches for EMRI signals buried in GWDB confusion noise, and searches for massive black hole binary signals buried in (i) GWDB noise, (ii) EMRI noise, and (iii) a sum of EMRI noise and Gaussian noise. Assuming reasonable short-distance cutoffs in the populations of confusion sources (since the very closest and hence strongest sources will be individually resolvable), modifications to the appropriate detection threshold, due to the non-Gaussianity of the confusion noise, turn out to be quite small for realistic cases. The smallness of the correction is partly due to the fact that these three types of sources evolve on quite different time scales, so no single background source closely resembles any search template. We also briefly discuss other types of LISA searches where the non-Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds could perhaps have a much greater impact on search reliability and efficacy.

Racine, Etienne [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Cutler, Curt [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

2007-12-15

252

Improving GHG inventories by regional information exchange: a report from Asia  

PubMed Central

Background The Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are required to develop and report a national inventory of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. In the Asia region, "Workshops on Greenhouse Gas Inventories in Asia (WGIA)" have been organised annually since 2003 under the support of the government of Japan. WGIAs promote information exchange in the region to support countries' efforts to improve the quality of greenhouse gas inventories. This paper reports the major outcomes of the WGIAs and discusses the key aspects of information exchange in the region for the improvement of inventories. Results The major outcomes of WGIAs intended to help countries improve GHG inventories, can be summarised as follows: (1) identification of common issues and possible solutions by sector, (2) reporting country inventory practices, and (3) verification of the UNFCCC reporting requirements. Conclusion The workshops provided the opportunity for countries to share common issues and constraints pertinent to GHG inventories and to exchange information regarding possible solutions for those issues based on their own experience. The relevance of information exchange is determined due to emission sources, emitting mechanisms from sources, and technologies used. Information exchange about emission sources that are unique to Asia, like those of the agriculture sector, contributes significantly to the accumulation of knowledge at the regional and global levels. Enabling countries to verify their national circumstances with the reporting requirements under UNFCCC is also an essential part of the WGIA information exchange activities.

Umemiya, Chisa

2006-01-01

253

Bayesian rule-based complex background modeling and foreground detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting foreground objects from image sequences has played an important role in many machine vision applications. Background modeling, which is a preliminary processing step for foreground detection, is a challenging task due to the complexity and variety of background regions, unexpected situations, and image artifacts such as noise factors, impairments, etc. In this work, we propose a pixel-based background modeling method that uses nonparametric kernel density estimation and foreground/background classification based on the Bayesian decision rule. To reduce the complexity of the kernel density estimation technique, we estimate the probability density function for the background regions using histograms. Hue, saturation, and value (HSV) color and gradient information is also used to represent the background features. After the background statistics are estimated, we detect the foreground regions by using a background subtracting method based on the Bayesian decision rule, which eliminates the need to select and tune the threshold value for foreground/background region classification. The proposed algorithm is validated using datasets acquired in indoor and outdoor environments with a fixed camera. The proposed algorithm is quantitatively compared with two existing background modeling methods. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm produces more accurate and stable results.

Park, Jong Geun; Lee, Chulhee

2010-02-01

254

Genetic background of febrile seizures.  

PubMed

Febrile seizures (FSs) occur in children older than 1 month and without prior afebrile seizures in the absence of a central nervous system infection or acute electrolyte imbalance. Their pathogenesis is multifactorial. The most relevant familial studies evidence an occurrence rate ranging from 10% to 46% and median recurrence rate of 36% in children with positive familial history for FS. The main twin studies demonstrated a higher concordance rate in monozygotic twins with FS than in dizygotic ones. Linkage studies have proposed 11 chromosomal locations responsible to FS attributed to FEB1 to FEB11. Population-based association studies have shown at least one positive association for 14 of 41 investigated genes with FS. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1? (IL-1?) was the most investigated and also gene associated with susceptibility to FS. A possible role in the overlapping of epilepsy and FS was found for 16 of 36 investigated genes. SCN1A, IL-1?, CHRNA4, and GABRG2 were the most commonly involved genes in this context. The genetic background of FS involves the regulation of different processes, including individual and familial susceptibility, modulation of immune response, and neuronal excitability and interactions with exogenous agents such as viruses. PMID:24399675

Saghazadeh, Amene; Mastrangelo, Mario; Rezaei, Nima

2014-01-01

255

Cosmic Infrared Background and Early Stellar Populations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmic infrared background (CIB) contains information about galaxy luminosities over the entire history of the Universe and can be a powerful diagnostic of the early populations otherwise inaccessible to telescopic studies. Its measurements are very difficult because of the strong IR foregrounds from the Solar system and the Galaxy. Nevertheless, substantial recent progress in measuring the CIB and its structure has been made. The measurements now allow to set significant constraints on early galaxy evolution and, perhaps, even detect the elusive Population III era. We discuss briefly the theory behind the CIB, review the latest measurements of the CIB and its structure, and discuss their implications for detecting and/or constraining the first stars and their epochs.

Kashlinsky, A.

2005-01-01

256

Background radiation from fission pulses  

SciTech Connect

Extensive source terms for beta, gamma, and neutrons following fission pulses are presented in various tabular and graphical forms. Neutron results from a wide range of fissioning nuclides (42) are examined and detailed information is provided for four fuels: /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 239/Pu; these bracket the range of the delayed spectra. Results at several cooling (decay) times are presented. For ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. spectra, only /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu results are given; fission-product data are currently inadequate for other fuels. The data base consists of all known measured data for individual fission products extensively supplemented with nuclear model results. The process is evolutionary, and therefore, the current base is summarized in sufficient detail for users to judge its quality. Comparisons with recent delayed neutron experiments and total ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. decay energies are included. 27 refs., 47 figs., 9 tabs.

England, T.R.; Arthur, E.D.; Brady, M.C.; LaBauve, R.J.

1988-05-01

257

Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}

Tsujikawa, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Tamaki, Takashi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tavakol, Reza, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp, E-mail: r.tavakol@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)] [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

2009-05-15

258

Organic acids in continental background aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a newly developed method aerosol samples from three distinctly different continental sites were analyzed: an urban site (Vienna), a savanna site in South Africa (Nylsvley Nature Reserve, NNR) and a free tropospheric continental background site (Sonnblick Observatory, SBO). In all samples a range of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) and dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) has been identified and quantified. The three most abundant MCAs in Vienna were the C18, C16 and C14 acids with concentrations of 66, 45 and 36 ng m -3, respectively. At the mid tropospheric background site (SBO) the three most abundant MCAs were the C18, C16 and C12 acid. For the DCAs at all three sites oxalic, malonic and succinic acid were the dominant compounds. For some individual compounds an information about the sources could be obtained. For example the determined unsaturated MCAs in South Africa appear to result from biogenic sources whereas in Vienna those acids are considered to be derived from combustion processes. Oxalic and glyoxalic acid appear to have a free tropospheric air chemical source. The relative high amounts at SBO in comparison to Vienna can only be explained by secondary formation of oxalic acid in the atmosphere.

Limbeck, Andreas; Puxbaum, Hans

259

Background-Oriented Schlieren Pattern Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a test series to investigate background patterns used for the Background-Oriented Schlieren field density measurement technique. Several varying background patterns were substituted under similar fluid density conditions to visualize ...

J. E. Hartberger

2011-01-01

260

Survey of the Target Audience for the Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS), with a Review of Pertinent Research Studies. A Report to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide information on the target audience for the Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS), a television series being developed by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, interviews were conducted with a small national sample of potential viewers. The main focus of the study was an examination of the social-psychological aspects of a decision…

Center for Urban Education, New York, NY.

261

The peak region of the extragalactic background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cosmic X-ray background carries the information of cosmic accretion onto super-massive black holes. The intensity at its peak can be used to constrain the integrated space density of highly obscured AGNs. Determining the shape and intensity of the Cosmic X-ray background radiation represents, however, a first step towards the understanding of the population of Comptonthick AGNs. The study of

Marco Ajello

2009-01-01

262

Genetic background of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a one of the group of diseases labeled as "common complex". Virtually all common complex traits, genetic and environmental components have important roles, both independently and interactively, in disease susceptibility and stochastic and epigenetic effects cannot be overlooked. Data presented are largely part of the Canada-wide prospective, population-based longitudinal Canadian Collaborative Project on Genetic Susceptibility to MS (CCPGSMS) which includes over 30,000 unique families having at least 1 member with MS. Findings do not support a general propensity to autoimmune disease in MS families, but clearly highlight the importance of controlling for gender (patient, informant) when conducting such studies. The MHC class II association has been fine-mapped to the HLA-DRB5*0101-HLA-DRB1*1501-HLA-DQA1*0102-HLA-DQB1*0602 extended haplotype. This HLA haplotype confers a relative risk of approximately 3 and homozygosity for this haplotype increases the risk by over 6 fold. However, the HLA haplotype loci interactions are complex and include, epistasis, trans and cis effects, and parent-of-origin effects. As well, there may be interactions of EBV and vitamin D with the HLA, In conclusion, using MS as an example, susceptibility for common complex disease most likely results from interactions of genes, environmental interactions and gene/environment interactions. PMID:21619948

Sadovnick, A Dessa

2012-01-01

263

Density measurements using near-field background-oriented Schlieren  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification of the constant correction factor in the known equations of the background-oriented Schlieren is presented in order to be applicable to the near-field. Near-Field background-oriented Schlieren has the advantage over standard background-oriented Schlieren of being able to obtain reliable density distributions for set-ups in which the background pattern is placed directly behind the investigated flow field. It is proven that the modified correction factor depends solely on the distance between the background pattern and the flow field and on the external shape of the investigated flow field itself. The proof of principle and the accuracy of the proposed technique are obtained by the simulation of a 2D density variation with the use of glass wedge prism. The measurement of the whole-field density information of a supersonic underexpanded free jet is presented as an example that confirms the theoretical predictions.

van Hinsberg, N. P.; Rösgen, T.

2014-04-01

264

The cosmological background radiation. Echo of the early universe.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an introduction to the physics, astrophysics and cosmology of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The standard big bang model of the universe is adopted at the outset. The topics then covered include the origin of the background, then intrinsic fluctuations, followed by the universe and background radiation after recombination. Finally, measurement of the radiation and its anisotropies is presented, together with a review of the current status of results and experiments. The authors assume that the reader has a basic understanding of the central concepts of general relativity, but they avoid rigorous mathematical proofs and manipulations, preferring instead to concentrate on the information needed by hands-on cosmologists and astrophysicists.

Lachièze-Rey, M.; Gunzig, E.

265

Cosmic Infrared Background and Early Galaxy Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cosmic infrared background (CIB) reflects the sum total of galactic luminosities integrated over the entire age of the universe. From its measurement the red-shifted starlight and dust-absorbed and re-radiated starlight of the CIB can be used to determine (or constrain) the rates of star formation and metal production as a function of time and deduce information about objects at epochs currently inaccessible to telescopic studies. This review discusses the state of current CIB measurements and the (mostly space-based) instruments with which these measurements have been made, the obstacles (the various foreground emissions) and the physics behind the CIB and its structure. Theoretical discussion of the CIB levels can now be normalized to the standard cosmological model narrowing down theoretical uncertainties. We review the information behind and theoretical modeling of both the mean (isotropic) levels of the CIB and their fluctuations. The CIB is divided into three broad bands: near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and far-IR (FIR). For each of the bands we review the main contributors to the CIB flux and the epochs at which the bulk of the flux originates. We also discuss the data on the various quantities relevant for correct interpretation of the CIB levels: the star-formation history, the present-day luminosity function measurements, resolving the various galaxy contributors to the CIB, etc. The integrated light of all galaxies in the deepest NIR galaxy counts to date fails to match the observed mean level of the CIB, probably indicating a significant high-redshift contribution to the CIB. Additionally, Population III stars should have left a strong and measurable signature via their contribution to the CIB anisotropies for a wide range of their formation scenarios, and measuring the excess CIB anisotropies coming from high z would provide direct information on the epoch of the first stars.

Kashlinsky, Alexander

2005-01-01

266

Suppression of Background Odor Effect in Odor Sensing System Using Olfactory Adaptation Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a new method for suppressing the background odor effect is proposed. Since odor sensors response to background odors in addition to a target odor, it is difficult to detect the target odor information. In the conventional odor sensing systems, the effect of the background odors are compensated by subtracting the response to the background odors (the baseline response). Although this simple subtraction method is effective for constant background odors, it fails in the compensation for time-varying background odors. The proposed method for the background suppression is effective even for the time-varying background odors.

Ohba, Tsuneaki; Yamanaka, Takao

267

77 FR 39709 - Proposed Information Collection Activity; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Form: Under 45 CFR parts 211 and 212, ORR is to make findings setting forth the pertinent...services received. This form authorizes ORR to release personal identifiable information...Section 1113 of the Social Security Act, ORR is authorized to provide temporary...

2012-07-05

268

78 FR 53770 - Proposed Information Collection Activity; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Form: Under 45 CFR parts 211 and 212, ORR is to make findings setting forth the pertinent...services received. This form authorizes ORR to release personal identifiable information...Section 1113 of the Social Security Act, ORR is authorized to provide temporary...

2013-08-30

269

Extending the Information Commons: From Instructional Testbed to Internet2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's conceptualization of an Information Commons (IC) is revisited and elaborated in reaction to Bailey and Tierney's article. The IC's role as testbed for instructional support and knowledge discovery is explored, and progress on pertinent research is reviewed. Prospects for media-rich learning environments relate the IC to the…

Beagle, Donald

2002-01-01

270

Interferometry of background acoustic-gravity waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to acoustic-gravity waves generated in the ocean and atmosphere by strong transient events such as earthquakes and tsunamis, there exists a certain background level of acoustic-gravity waves. Because of their large free path length and a wide spatial distribution of the wave sources, background acoustic-gravity waves form a diffuse (but not necessarily isotropic), random wave field. Wave fields generated by uncorrelated sources are known to retain finite correlation at ranges large compared to the wavelength and spatial dimensions of the random wave sources. A technique known as noise (or wave) interferometry has been shown in seismology, helioseismology, acoustics, and other fields to be an effective tool for retrieving information about the deterministic propagation environment and the random wave field from two-point cross-correlation functions of diffuse noise. Here, we apply wave interferometry to acoustic-gravity waves in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The primary dataset analyzed in this study was obtained by 30 differential pressure gauges deployed from January 2009 to February 2010 on the seafloor offshore the South Island of New Zealand in the course of the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) Seismic Experiment [Yang, Z., A. Sheehan, J. A. Collins, and G. Laske (2012), The character of seafloor ambient noise recorded offshore New Zealand: Results from the MOANA ocean bottom seismic experiment, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q10011]. By applying time-reversal ideas to processing of cross-correlations of random wave fields, we have developed a compressed cross-correlation function technique to compensate for wave dispersion in evaluating the cross-correlation function of a random wave field. When applied to the seafloor pressure data, the technique drastically reduces the signal averaging times necessary for emergence of deterministic features and allows for accurate passive measurements of wave travel times and directivity. The reduction in the averaging time makes it possible to study dynamics on the acoustic-gravity wave field and helps to identify specific wave types that contribute to observed pressure variations. We will discuss implications of the seafloor measurements for observations of acoustic-gravity waves in air above the ocean and feasibility of extending the wave interferometry to other modalities of observation of background acoustic-gravity waves, including ionospheric radio sounding performed with Dynasonde systems.

Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Godin, Oleg A.; Sheehan, Anne F.

2013-04-01

271

Image segmentation by background extraction refinements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image segmentation method refining background extraction in two phases is presented. In the first phase, the method detects homogeneous-background blocks and estimates the local background to be extracted throughout the image. A block is classified homogeneous if its left and right standard deviations are small. The second phase of the method refines background extraction in nonhomogeneous blocks by recomputing the shoulder thresholds. Rules that predict the final background extraction are derived by observing the behavior of successive background statistical measurements in the regions under the presence of dark and/or bright object pixels. Good results are shown for a number of outdoor scenes.

Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Mitchell, O. Robert

1990-01-01

272

VNIR hyperspectral background characterization methods in adverse weather conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral technology is currently being used by the military to detect regions of interest where potential targets may be located. Weather variability, however, may affect the ability for an algorithm to discriminate possible targets from background clutter. Nonetheless, different background characterization approaches may facilitate the ability for an algorithm to discriminate potential targets over a variety of weather conditions. In a previous paper, we introduced a new autonomous target size invariant background characterization process, the Autonomous Background Characterization (ABC) or also known as the Parallel Random Sampling (PRS) method, features a random sampling stage, a parallel process to mitigate the inclusion by chance of target samples into clutter background classes during random sampling; and a fusion of results at the end. In this paper, we will demonstrate how different background characterization approaches are able to improve performance of algorithms over a variety of challenging weather conditions. By using the Mahalanobis distance as the standard algorithm for this study, we compare the performance of different characterization methods such as: the global information, 2 stage global information, and our proposed method, ABC, using data that was collected under a variety of adverse weather conditions. For this study, we used ARDEC's Hyperspectral VNIR Adverse Weather data collection comprised of heavy, light, and transitional fog, light and heavy rain, and low light conditions.

Romano, João M.; Rosario, Dalton; Roth, Luz

2009-05-01

273

Ideal-Observer Performance under Signal and Background Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the performance of the Bayesian ideal observer as a flgure of merit for hardware optimization because this observer makes optimal use of signal-detection information. Due to the high dimen- sionality of certain integrals that need to be evaluated, it is di-cult to compute the ideal observer test statistic, the likelihood ratio, when background variability is taken into account.

Matthew A. Kupinski; Eric Clarkson; Harrison H. Barrett

2003-01-01

274

Statistical challenges in the analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enormous amount of observations on Cosmic Microwave Background radiation has been collected in the last decade, and much more data are expected in the near future from planned or operating satellite missions. These datasets are a goldmine of information for Cosmology and Theoretical Physics; their efficient exploitation posits several intriguing challenges from the statistical point of view. In this

Paolo Cabella; Domenico Marinuccu

2009-01-01

275

Collection and evaluation of false alarm signatures in background data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant amount of background airborne data was collected as part of May 2005 tests for airborne minefield detection at an arid site. The locations of false alarms which occurred consistently during different runs, were identified and geo-referenced by MultiSensor Science LLC. Ground truth information, which included pictures, type qualifiers and some hyperspectral data for these identified false alarm locations,

Sanjeev Agarwal; Shivakar Vulli; Neil J. Malloy; Elizabeth M. Lord; Josh R. Fairley; Bruce M. Sabol; Wesley Johnson; Richard Ess; Anh H. Trang

2009-01-01

276

Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy's FY2011 budget proposes canceling the CG(X) program as unaffordable and instead building an improved version of the Arleigh Burke (DDG- 51) class Aegis destroyer called the Flight III version. This report provides background information on the C...

R. O'Rourke

2010-01-01

277

Source Counts and Background Fluctuations in X Rays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurement of the cell to cell fluctuations in X-ray background radiation contains information equivalent to a source count below the minimum resolvable source. The parameters of a power law distribution of the sources vs. flux can be bounded from the an...

A. Cavaliere

1973-01-01

278

Political Correctness: Background, Perspective, and Implications for Student Affairs Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information about the Political Correctness debate, encourages student affairs administrators to reflect on their own perceptions and actions, offers ideas and suggestions about the debate, and explores the debate's implications for student affairs staff. Is intended to promote both individual reflection and group discussions…

Forney, Deanna S.

1996-01-01

279

The Cosmic Background Radiation and the New Aether Drift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discussion of the cosmic background radiation covers the origin of this radiation, is used as an information source for the universe, temperature constancy, the effects of gravity wave generation, the ether drift, possible experiments to detect this drift, and the velocity of milky way motion. (JFP)

Richard A. Muller

1978-01-01

280

Background Checks for Firearm Transfers, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Brady Act) mandates criminal history background checks on persons applying to purchase firearms from federally licensed firearm dealers. The act established the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (...

M. Bowling G. Lauver M. J. Hickman D. B. Adams

2006-01-01

281

32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

2013-07-01

282

Biomedical Computing Technology Information Center: introduction and report of early progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1975, the Biomedical Computing Technology Information Center (BCTIC) was established by the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research of the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. BCTIC collects, organizes, evaluates, and disseminates information on computing technology pertinent to biomedicine, providing needed routes of communication between installations and serving as a

B. F. Maskewitz; R. L. Henne; W. J. McClain

1976-01-01

283

Median model for background subtraction in intelligent transportation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is generally divided into two phases: the first phase deals with background image generation and vehicle detection, the second phase deals with vehicle tracking and video handoff. In the first phase we view the image as a mixture of three data distributions: vehicle, background and shadow. Thus the problem is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian problem and our goal is to separate the background data from other data distributions. We proposed a median model and an improved median model to separate the background data from mixture data and to generate background reference images. In median model we keep track of deviation between the median and its neighbors in a reordered pixel sequence. When sample size is big enough, the reordered pixel sequence is in what we called balanced-median model. This model is indicated by a very small deviation value. In this case the median of the pixel sequence falls in background set and could be used for background estimation. When sample size is not big enough, the reordered pixel sequence is in what we called shifted-median model. This model is indicated by a much bigger deviation value. In this case the median falls out of background set and are excluded for background estimation. This median model has an impressive performance to handle slow moving or even stationary vehicles. But the time complexity is still expensive for real time image processing. The improved median model is proposed to reduce the time complexity to a reasonable level. In improved median model, we take samples in a bigger time interval to make it capable of dealing with slow moving and stationary vehicles. The sample size from experimentation is obtained as a small constant value between 5 and 20. This small sample constant size could dramatically reduce the time complexity. As a complementary to this improved median model, a mask-classified updating method is introduced to update the background image in a short term and only classified background pixels are being used for updating. Threshold, erosion, dilation and connected components labeling are used for noise removing and object labeling. After the first phase, the vehicle information is separated from image and input to the second phase for video hand-off and vehicle tracking. In the second phase, the weighted intensity information and shape information for each vehicle is scored and minimum-distance classification method is used for vehicle match. More than 400 vehicles are tested. An overall detection rate of 100% and tracking rate of 74% are obtained in this system.

Shi, Peijun; Jones, Elizabeth G.; Zhu, Qiuming

2004-05-01

284

Probing Inflation via Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been a rich source of information about the early Universe. Detailed measurements of its spectrum and spatial distribution have helped solidify the Standard Model of Cosmology. However, many questions still remain. Standard Cosmology does not explain why the early Universe is geometrically flat, expanding, homogenous across the horizon, and riddled with a small anisotropy that provides the seed for structure formation. Inflation has been proposed as a mechanism that naturally solves these problems. In addition to solving these problems, inflation is expected to produce a spectrum of gravitational waves that will create a particular polarization pattern on the CMB. Detection of this polarized signal is a key test of inflation and will give a direct measurement of the energy scale at which inflation takes place. This polarized signature of inflation is expected to be -9 orders of magnitude below the 2.7 K monopole level of the CMB. This measurement will require good control of systematic errors, an array of many detectors having the requisite sensitivity, and a reliable method for removing polarized foregrounds, and nearly complete sky coverage. Ultimately, this measurement is likely to require a space mission. To this effect, technology and mission concept development are currently underway.

Chuss, David T.

2008-01-01

285

Worst-Case Background Knowledge in Privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work has shown the necessity of considering an attacker's background knowledge when reasoning about privacy in data publishing. However, in practice, the data publisher does not know what background knowledge the attacker possesses. Thus, it is important to consider the worst-case. In this paper, we initiate a formal study of worst-case background knowledge. We propose a language that can

David Martin; Daniel Kifer; Ashwin Machanavajjhala; Johannes Gehrke; Joseph Halpern

2007-01-01

286

Natural-background-oriented schlieren imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) flow visualization method has the potential for large-scale flow imaging outside the laboratory by using natural backgrounds instead of the artificial patterns normally used indoors. The natural surroundings of an outdoor test site can sometimes be used as such a background, subject to criteria of fine scale, randomness and contrast that are developed here. Some natural

Michael John Hargather; Gary S. Settles

2010-01-01

287

Background removal procedure for rapid scan EPR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rapid scan EPR the changing magnetic field creates a background signal with components at the scan frequency and its harmonics. The amplitude of the background signal increases with scan width and is more significant for weak EPR signals such as are obtained in the presence of magnetic field gradients. A procedure for distinguishing this background from the EPR signal

Mark Tseitlin; Tomasz Czechowski; Richard W. Quine; Sandra S. Eaton; Gareth R. Eaton

2009-01-01

288

Direction dependent background fitting for the Fermi GBM data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. We present a method for determining the background of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) using the satellite positional information and a physical model. Since the polynomial fitting method typically used for GRBs is generally only indicative of the background over relatively short timescales, this method is particularly useful in the cases of long GRBs or those that have autonomous repoint request (ARR) and a background with much variability on short timescales. Aims: Modern space instruments, like Fermi, have some specific motion to survey the sky and catch gamma-ray bursts in the most effective way. However, GBM bursts sometimes have highly varying backgrounds (with or without ARR), and modelling them with a polynomial function of time is not efficient - one needs more complex, Fermi-specific methods. This article presents a new direction dependent background fitting method and shows how it can be used for filtering the lightcurves. Methods: First, we investigate how the celestial position of the satellite may have influence on the background and define three underlying variables with physical meaning: celestial distance of the burst and the detector's orientation, the contribution of the Sun and the contribution of the Earth. Then, we use multi-dimensional general least square fitting and Akaike model selection criterion for the background fitting of the GBM lightcurves. Eight bursts are presented as examples, of which we computed the duration using background fitted cumulative lightcurves. Results: We give a direction dependent background fitting (DDBF) method for separating the motion effects from the real data and calculate the duration (T90, T50, and confidence intervals) of the nine example bursts, from which two resulted an ARR. We also summarize the features of our method and compare it qualitatively with the official GBM Catalogue. Conclusions: Our background filtering method uses a model based on the physical information of the satellite position. Therefore, it has many advantages compared to previous methods. It can fit long background intervals, remove all the features caused by the rocking behaviour of the satellite, and search for long emissions or not-triggered events. Furthermore, many parts of the fitting have now been automatised, and the method has been shown to work for both sky survey mode and ARR mode data. Future work will provide a burst catalogue with DDBF.

Szécsi, D.; Bagoly, Z.; Kóbori, J.; Horváth, I.; Balázs, L. G.

2013-09-01

289

Infrared background analysis of bay environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day naval operations take place in coastal environments as well as narrow straits all over the world. Coastal environments around the world are exhibiting a number of threats to naval forces. In particular a large number of asymmetric threats can be present in environments with cluttered backgrounds as well as rapidly varying atmospheric conditions. During trials executed in False Bay a large amount of target, background and atmosphere data was gathered that is of use in analysis of optical characteristics of targets and backgrounds. During the trials a variety of backgrounds were recorded. We have used these backgrounds to validate the TNO background model MIBS to incorporate also coastal backgrounds and sunlit sea backgrounds. In the paper we show results of the background analysis, for coastal bay backgrounds. In particular the detection of small targets by automatic system may be hampered by small surface structure variations at the surface and near the horizon. The data that we analyzed are sea surface structure, temporal behaviour, and spectral differences during different environmental conditions that occurred during the trials. This data is essential to feed detection algorithms, and performance models for the assessment of sensor performance in coastal environment.

Schwering, Piet B. W.; Gunter, Willem H.; Bezuidenhout, Dirk F.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.

2008-08-01

290

IRST infrared background analysis of bay environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day naval operations take place in coastal environments as well as narrow straits all over the world. Coastal environments around the world are exhibiting a number of threats to naval forces. In particular a large number of asymmetric threats can be present in environments with cluttered backgrounds as well as rapidly varying atmospheric conditions. During trials executed in False Bay a large amount of target, background and atmosphere data was gathered that is of use in analysis of optical characteristics of targets and backgrounds. During the trials a variety of backgrounds were recorded. We have used these backgrounds to validate the TNO background model MIBS to incorporate also coastal backgrounds and sunlit sea backgrounds. In the paper we show results of the background analysis, for coastal bay backgrounds. In particular the detection of small targets by automatic system may be hampered by small surface structure variations at the surface and near the horizon. The data that we analyzed are sea surface structure, temporal behaviour, and spectral differences during different environmental conditions that occurred during the trials. This data is essential to feed detection algorithms, and performance models for the assessment of sensor performance in coastal environment. Some sensor management approaches for application in IRST systems is discussed.

Schwering, Piet B. W.; Bezuidenhout, Dirk F.; Gunter, Willem H.; le Roux, Francois P. J.; Sieberhagen, Rheinhardt H.

2008-05-01

291

Informed consent.  

PubMed

Disclosure of information prior to consent is a very complex area of medical ethics. On the surface it would seem to be quite clear cut, but on closer inspection the scope for 'grey areas' is vast. In practice, however, it could be argued that the number of cases that result in complaint or litigation is comparatively small. However, this does not mean that wrong decisions or unethical scenarios do not occur. It would seem that in clinical practice these ethical grey areas concerning patients' full knowledge of their condition or treatment are quite common. One of the barometers for how much disclosure should be given prior to consent could be the feedback obtained from the patients. Are they asking relevant questions pertinent to their condition and do they show a good understanding of the options available? This should be seen as a positive trait and should be welcomed by the healthcare professionals. Ultimately it gives patients greater autonomy and the healthcare professional can expand and build on the patient's knowledge as well as allay fears perhaps based on wrongly held information. Greater communication with the patient would help the healthcare professional pitch their explanations at the right level. Every case and scenario is different and unique and deserves to be treated as such. Studies have shown that most patients can understand their medical condition and treatment provided communication has been thorough (Gillon 1996). It is in the patients' best interests to feel comfortable with the level of disclosure offered to them. It can only foster greater trust and respect between them and the healthcare profession which has to be mutually beneficial to both parties. PMID:16939165

Steevenson, Grania

2006-08-01

292

PIRLS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background variables. Background…

Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Drucker, Kathleen T., Ed.

2013-01-01

293

TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the TIMSS 2011 background variables. Background questionnaire adaptations…

Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

2013-01-01

294

Current status of federal involvement in US aquaculture. Background paper  

SciTech Connect

The United States lacks a strong national aquaculture policy and supporting federal presence. Over the years, levels and focii of agency involvement in aquaculture development have shifted in response to legislation and its differing interpretations. The National Aquaculture Act (NAA), the primary piece of aquaculture-related legislation, is slated for reauthorization of the NAA and related legislation is the federal role in research and regulation of this emerging industry. Congress requested this Background Paper to provide information on technology issues of immediate importance to the U.S. aquaculture industry. This is a companion piece to the Background Paper on Selected Technology Issues in U.S. Aquaculture.

NONE

1995-09-01

295

Natural-background-oriented schlieren imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) flow visualization method has the potential for large-scale flow imaging outside the\\u000a laboratory by using natural backgrounds instead of the artificial patterns normally used indoors. The natural surroundings\\u000a of an outdoor test site can sometimes be used as such a background, subject to criteria of fine scale, randomness and contrast\\u000a that are developed here. Some natural

Michael John Hargather; Gary S. Settles

2010-01-01

296

The Effect of Background Music on Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The research of Dr. Anne Savan considers the effects of background music on the coordination of pupils with special educational\\u000a needs and emotional and behavioural difficulties. Previous research has shown that background music has an effect on certain\\u000a physiological and biochemical pathways in pupils with special educational needs and emotional and behavioural difficulties.\\u000a When background music is played during practical

Anne Savan

297

Background Removal Procedure for Rapid Scan EPR  

PubMed Central

In rapid scan EPR the changing magnetic field creates a background signal with components at the scan frequency and its harmonics. The amplitude of the background signal increases with scan width and is more significant for weak EPR signals such as are obtained in the presence of magnetic field gradients. A procedure for distinguishing this background from the EPR signal is proposed, mathematically described, and tested for various experimental conditions.

Tseitlin, Mark; Czechowski, Tomasz; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

2009-01-01

298

Relativistic plasma in a homogeneous cosmological background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linearized theory of a relativistic plasma in a radiation background, proposed recently by Holcomb and Tajima, is extended for a more general background with the metric components being an arbitrary power function of time (~tn). It is noted that the electric field falls off faster and the redshift of the electromagnetic radiation frequency is also greater in a more rapidly expanding background universe. The dispersion relation for the transverse vibration of the electromagnetic field, however, appears to be independent of the parameter n. The wave equation for the electric field is solved for a de Sitter background also.

Banerjee, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Sil, A.; Banerjee, N.

1994-07-01

299

Modeling and Reproducibility of Suzaku HXD PIN/GSO Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suzaku Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) achieved the lowest background level than any other previously or currently operational missions sensitive in the energy range of 10--600keV, by utilizing PIN photodiodes and GSO scintillators mounted in BGO active shields to reject particle background and Compton-scattered events as much as possible. Because it does not have an imaging capability nor rocking mode for the background monitor, the sensitivity is limited by the reproducibility of the non X-ray background (NXB) model. We modeled the HXD NXB, which varies with time as well as other satellites with a low-Earth orbit, by utilizing several parameters, including particle monitor counts and satellite orbital/attitude information. The model background is supplied as an event file in which the background events are generated by random numbers, and can be analyzed in the same way as the real data. The reproducibility of the NXB model depends on the event selection criteria (such as cut-off rigidity and energy band) and the integration time, and the 1? systematic error is estimated to be less than 3% (PIN 15--40keV) and 1% (GSO 50--100keV) for more than 10ks exposure.

Fukazawa, Yasushi; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Watanabe, Shin; Kokubun, Motohide; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Kawano, Naomi; Nishino, Sho; Sasada, Mahito; Shirai, Hirohisa; Takahashi, Takuya; Umeki, Yudai; Yamasaki, Tomonori; Yasuda, Tomonori; Bamba, Aya; Ohno, Masanori; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Ushio, Masayoshi; Enoto, Teruaki; Kitaguchi, Takao; Makishima, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Uehara, Yuichi; Yamada, Shin'ya; Yuasa, Takayuki; Isobe, Naoki; Kawaharada, Madoka; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Terada, Yukikatsu; Yamaoka, Kazutaka

2009-01-01

300

Verification of DICOM GSDF in complex backgrounds.  

PubMed

While previous research has determined the contrast detection threshold in medical images, it has focused on uniform backgrounds, has not used calibrated monitors, or has involved a low number of readers. With complex clinical images, how the Grayscale Standard Display Function (GSDF) affects the detection threshold and whether the median background intensity shift has been minimized by GSDF remains unknown. We set out to determine if the median background affected the detection of a low-contrast object in a clustered lumpy background, which simulated a mammography image, and to define the contrast detection threshold for these complex images. Clustered lumpy background images were created of different median intensities and disks of varying contrasts were inserted. A reader study was performed with 17 readers of varying skill level who scored with a five-point confidence scale whether a disk was present. The results were analyzed using reader operating characteristic (ROC) methodology. Contingency tables were used to determine the contrast detection threshold. No statistically significant difference was seen in the area under the ROC curve across all of the backgrounds. Contrast detection fell below 50 % between +3 and +2 gray levels. Our work supports the conclusion that Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine GSDF calibrated monitors do perceptually linearize detection performance across shifts in median background intensity. The contrast detection threshold was determined to be +3 gray levels above the background for an object of 1° visual angle. PMID:22535193

Leong, David L; Rainford, Louise; Haygood, Tamara Miner; Whitman, Gary J; Tchou, Philip M; Geiser, William R; Carkaci, Selin; Brennan, Patrick C

2012-10-01

301

Segmenting Geometric Reliefs from Textured Background Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Segmentation of geometric reliefs from a textured background has various applications in reverse engineering. We consider two approaches to solve this problem. The first classifies parts of a surface mesh as relief or background, and then uses a snake which moves inwards towards the desired relief boundary, which is coarsely located using an energy based on the classification. The second

Shenglan Liu; Ralph R. Martin; Frank C. Langbein; Paul L. Rosin

2007-01-01

302

Fast Background Initialization with Recursive Hadamard Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new and fast technique for background estimation from cluttered image sequences. Most of the background initialization approaches developed so far collect a number of initial frames and then require a slow estimation step which introduces a delay whenever it is applied. Conversely, the proposed technique redistributes the computational load among all the frames by

Davide Baltieri; Roberto Vezzani; Rita Cucchiara

2010-01-01

303

Anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical predictions of the angular anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on both small and large angular scales are presented, and the effect of massive neutrinos on both the background radiation anisotropy and on the galaxy correlation function over very large scales is reviewed. Current observations show that the quadrupole anisotropy provides the greatest constraint on theory, and the

J. Silk

1981-01-01

304

Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present

STEPHEN POLLAINE

1978-01-01

305

COBE observations of the cosmic background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite was developed to measure the diffuse infrared and microwave radiation from the early universe, to the limits set by the astrophysical foregrounds. COBE has three instruments: The Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) maps the cosmic radiation precisely. The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) compares the cosmic background radiation spectrum with that of a precise blackbody.

G. F. Smoot

1994-01-01

306

Background and Importance of ‘Minnesota 13’ Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background knowledge of germplasm helps corn (Zea mays L.) breeders develop inbreds and predict hybrids. The background of 'Min- nesota 13' is still not generally understood. We provide an explanation for the mystery and pro- vide conclusive evidence for Minnesota 13's origin from plant breeding records at the Univer- sity of Minnesota, whose archives contain corn breeding nursery books. We

A. Forrest Troyer; Lois G. Hendrickson

2007-01-01

307

Statistical Background Subtraction for a Mobile Observer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical background modelling and subtraction has proved to be a popular and effective class of algorithms for segmenting independently moving foreground objects out from a static background, without requiring any a priori in- formation of the properties of foreground objects. This pa- per presents two contributions on this topic, aimed towards robotics where an active head is mounted on a

Eric Hayman; Jan-olof Eklundh

2003-01-01

308

Supermembrane actions for Gaiotto-Maldacena backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We write down the supermembrane actions for M-theory backgrounds dual to general N=2 four-dimensional superconformal field theories. The actions are given to all orders in fermions and are in a particular ?-gauge. When an extra U(1) isometry is present, our actions reduce to ?-gauge fixed Green-Schwarz actions for the corresponding Type IIA backgrounds.

Stefa?ski, Bogdan

2014-06-01

309

Gifted Students from Low-Education Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gifted children from low-education backgrounds often experience barriers to educational and career success. This article reviews the growing body of literature regarding gifted students from low-education backgrounds and the related literature on the challenges and characteristics of first-generation college students. A mother and daughter…

Gibbons, Melinda M.; Pelchar, Taylor K.; Cochran, Jeff L.

2012-01-01

310

COBE observations of the cosmic infrared background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) on the COsmic Background Explorer (COBE) measured the total infrared signal seen from space at a distance of 1 AU from the Sun. Using time variations as the Earth went around the Sun, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by the interplanetary dust cloud [zodiacal light]. By correlating the DIRBE signal with the column density of atomic hydrogen measured using the 21 cm line, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by interstellar dust, although one must still be concerned by dust associated with H 2 (molecular gas) and H II (the warm ionized medium). DIRBE was not able to determine the cosmic infrared background (CIRB) in the 5-60 ?m wavelength range, but does detect both a far infrared background and a near infrared background. The far infrared background has an integrated intensity of about 34 nW/m 2/sr, while the near infrared and optical extragalactic background has about 59 nW/m 2/sr. The far infrared absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on COBE has been used to constrain the long wavelength tail of the far infrared background but a wide range of intensities at 850 ?m are compatible with the FIRAS data. Thus the fraction of the CIRB produced by SCUBA sources has large uncertainties in both the numerator and the denominator.

Wright, E. L.

2004-04-01

311

Study UV background by the ISUAL experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UV background is an important noise for space borne air-fluorescent experiments such as OWL. However, very little is known about the UV background. One of its possible sources is lightning. Some upper atmosphere lightning could emit strong UV light and be misidentified as an up-going neutrino signal. The ISUAL (Image of Sprite: Upper Atmosphere Lightning) experiment on ROCSAT 2

M. A. Huang

2001-01-01

312

Understanding Cancer Series: Patient's Genetic Background  

Cancer.gov

While attention must be paid to the changes discovered within the genomic profile of a cancerous growth, equal attention must be paid to the intrinsic genetic background of each patient. Cancer does not develop in a vacuum, but within a patient, and each patient's distinctive genetic background results from both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

313

Nuclear Recoil Background Evaluation for WIMP Searches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear recoils produced by neutrons, alphas and neutrinos as they scatter from target nuclei are important sources of background which must be considered in WIMP searches. PMTs and other detector components may contribute neutrons which generate a source of background. Alphas on the surface of the vessel can also be a serious issue for some of the experiments. And, neutrino-induced

Dongming Mei; Andrew Hime; Christina Keller; Zhongbao Yin

2007-01-01

314

Background Subtraction Approach based on Independent Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

In this work, a new approach to background subtraction based on independent component analysis is presented. This approach assumes that background and foreground information are mixed in a given sequence of images. Then, foreground and background components are identified, if their probability density functions are separable from a mixed space. Afterwards, the components estimation process consists in calculating an unmixed matrix. The estimation of an unmixed matrix is based on a fast ICA algorithm, which is estimated as a Newton-Raphson maximization approach. Next, the motion components are represented by the mid-significant eigenvalues from the unmixed matrix. Finally, the results show the approach capabilities to detect efficiently motion in outdoors and indoors scenarios. The results show that the approach is robust to luminance conditions changes at scene.

Jimenez-Hernandez, Hugo

2010-01-01

315

Natural-background-oriented schlieren imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) flow visualization method has the potential for large-scale flow imaging outside the laboratory by using natural backgrounds instead of the artificial patterns normally used indoors. The natural surroundings of an outdoor test site can sometimes be used as such a background, subject to criteria of fine scale, randomness and contrast that are developed here. Some natural backgrounds are more appropriate than others for a given application. Backgrounds used here to visualize both high- and low-speed schlieren disturbances include a sunlit cornfield and a backlit grove of trees. A range of image post-processing methods is considered for qualitative BOS. It is found that high sensitivity and a broad measuring range are in conflict here, much as they are in traditional schlieren instruments. Applications of natural-BOS include explosive characterization, firearms and artillery testing, chemical and natural-gas leak detection, and related phenomena.

Hargather, Michael John; Settles, Gary S.

2010-01-01

316

29 CFR 511.11 - Pertinent data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hours of work, labor turnover, absenteeism, productivity, learning periods, rejection rates, and similar factors; (b...volume and value of production, market outlets, price changes, style factors, consumer demand, competitive relationships,...

2013-07-01

317

Hand Transplantation: Pertinent Data and Future Outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transplantation of composite tissue allografts, such as a hand, offers immense potential in reconstructive surgery. Review of current replantation literature suggests the prospect for significant functional return following hand transplant, provided appropriate patient is selected and allograft rejection is prevented. Experimental studies of limb transplantation in rodents have demonstrated the efficacy of combination therapy using multiple immunosuppressants. However, long-term survival

W. P. Andrew Lee; David W. Mathes

1999-01-01

318

The National School Lunch Program: Background, Trends, and Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is the Nation’s second largest food and nutrition assistance program. In 2006, it operated in over 101,000 public and nonprofit private schools and provided over 28 million low-cost or free lunches to children on a typical school day at a Federal cost of $8 billion for the year. This report provides background information on

Katherine L. Ralston; Constance Newman; Annette L. Clauson; Joanne F. Guthrie; Jean C. Buzby

2008-01-01

319

Background Rejection for the MAJORANA Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MAJORANA project is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment based on the use of high purity, enriched, ^76Ge crystals housed in ultra low background Cu cryostats as both the source ans the detector. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the experiment, the collaboration is currently building a demonstrator consisting of up to 30 kg of enriched High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors and 10 kg of natural HPGe detectors. These detectors, which will take a P-type Point Contact (PPC) geometry, are designed to maximise performance in terms of energy resolution and background rejection efficacy. In order to achieve the background goal of 1 count per tonne-year in a 4 keV wide region of interest around the 2039 keV neutrinoless double beta decay Q-value, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will be constructed using ultra-clean materials and will employ sophisticated background rejection techniques. One such technique, which is key to achieving this background goal, is the ability to distinguish between single-site events from neutrinoless double beta decay and multiple-site events resulting from background gamma rays. This will be achieved through analysis of the digitised signal response of the HPGe detectors. The physics goals of the MAJORANA experiment will be discussed, along with the roles played by digital electronics and digital pulse processing techniques. Details of key background rejection algorithms will also be presented.

Cooper, Reynold

2011-10-01

320

Sources of the Radio Background Considered  

SciTech Connect

We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

2011-08-22

321

Low background physics at the Kimballton Mine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) is home to several experiments. One consists to two HPGe detectors designed to screen candidate materials to be used in low-background experiments for radioactivity. Analysis techniques, including our efficiency calculations will be presented. We have also deployed a customized BEGe (Broad Energy Germanium) detector in a low-background cryostat. This paper will focus on the shield design, detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a detector in a low-background environment.

Macmullin, S.

2011-04-01

322

Gravitational wave background from rotating neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background of gravitational waves produced by the ensemble of rotating neutron stars (which includes pulsars, magnetars, and gravitars) is investigated. A formula for ?(f) (a function that is commonly used to quantify the background, and is directly related to its energy density) is derived, without making the usual assumption that each radiating system evolves on a short time scale compared to the Hubble time; the time evolution of the systems since their formation until the present day is properly taken into account. Moreover, the formula allows one to distinguish the different parts of the background: the unresolvable (which forms a stochastic background or confusion noise, since the waveforms composing it cannot be either individually observed or subtracted out of the data of a detector) and the resolvable. Several estimations of the background are obtained, for different assumptions on the parameters that characterize neutron stars and their population. In particular, different initial spin period distributions lead to very different results. For one of the models, with slow initial spins, the detection of the background by present or planned detectors can be rejected. However, other models do predict the detection of the background, that would be unresolvable, by the future ground-based gravitational wave detector ET. A robust upper limit for the background of rotating neutron stars is obtained; it does not exceed the detection threshold of two cross-correlated Advanced LIGO interferometers. If gravitars exist and constitute more than a few percent of the neutron star population, then they produce an unresolvable background that could be detected by ET. Under the most reasonable assumptions on the parameters characterizing a neutron star, the background is too faint to be detected. Previous papers have suggested neutron star models in which large magnetic fields (like the ones that characterize magnetars) induce big deformations in the star, which produce a stronger emission of gravitational radiation. Considering the most optimistic (in terms of the detection of gravitational waves) of these models, an upper limit for the background produced by magnetars is obtained; it could be detected by ET, but not by BBO or DECIGO. Simple approximate formulas to characterize both the total and the unresolvable backgrounds are given for the ensemble of rotating neutron stars, and, for completion, also for the ensemble of binary star systems.

Rosado, Pablo A.

2012-11-01

323

Background considerations for SuperCDMS  

SciTech Connect

Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 × 10{sup ?46} cm{sup 2} for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

Cooley, J. [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Collaboration: SuperCDMS Collaboration

2013-08-08

324

Spatial variations of groundwater background concentrations in coastal aquifers, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coastal aquifers the mixing between fresh terrestrial water and seawater occurs, which influences groundwater quality. Due to mixing elevated chloride concentrations are often observed in coastal aquifers. In coastal areas terrestrial water-seawater mixing can be caused by anthropogenic activities or natural factors such as tides and sea level changes. Therefore, it is difficult or even impossible to characterize groundwater background concentrations in coastal aquifers. Although it is usual to exclude coastal aquifer when characterizing background concentrations, it is essential to accurately characterize naturally-affected groundwater quality in coastal areas because groundwater is a major water resource for potable, irrigation, domestic uses. So in this work we define groundwater background concentrations as naturally occurring ambient concentrations with excluding groundwater abstraction. Based on this definition, we evaluate groundwater background concentrations in various geologic formations and analyze characteristics of groundwater quality in coastal aquifers by utilizing Groundwater Quality Monitoring System (GQMS) data. The results show that high concentrations of chloride are observed in some coastal areas but not always. Tidal effects and topographical characteristics are thought to be as factors affecting such spatial variations. In some coastal areas high concentrations of chloride are observed with high nitrate concentrations. This means that agricultural practices can attribute to anthropogenic background, leading to elevated concentrations of nitrate. These results provide some essential information for groundwater resources management in coastal areas. Further data collection and analysis is required for evaluating the effect of tide and sea level changes on groundwater quality.

Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Soojae

2014-05-01

325

Characterizing gravitational wave stochastic background anisotropy with pulsar timing arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting a stochastic gravitational wave background, particularly radiation from individually unresolvable supermassive black hole binary systems, is one of the primary targets for pulsar timing arrays. Increasingly more stringent upper limits are being set on these signals under the assumption that the background radiation is isotropic. However, some level of anisotropy may be present and the characterization of the gravitational wave energy density at different angular scales carries important information. We show that the standard analysis for isotropic backgrounds can be generalized in a conceptually straightforward way to the case of generic anisotropic background radiation by decomposing the angular distribution of the gravitational wave energy density on the sky into multipole moments. We introduce the concept of generalized overlap reduction functions which characterize the effect of the anisotropy multipoles on the correlation of the timing residuals from the pulsars timed by a pulsar timing array. In a search for a signal characterized by a generic anisotropy, the generalized overlap reduction functions play the role of the so-called Hellings and Downs curve used for isotropic radiation. We compute the generalized overlap reduction functions for a generic level of anisotropy and pulsar timing array configuration. We also provide an order of magnitude estimate of the level of anisotropy that can be expected in the background generated by supermassive black hole binary systems.

Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Sidery, T.; Mandel, I.; Vecchio, A.

2013-09-01

326

Background nitrogen concentrations in fresh waters in Denmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative information on the background loading of nitrogen is important when establishing the pressure-impact pathway for Danish springs, streams, lakes and estuaries The background nitrogen loading thus determines present day lowest nitrogen loadings without influence from point sources and agriculture but includes present day atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. We have mapped the background concentration of nitrogen in Danish soil water, springs and streams based on monitoring in one soil water station (1990-2010), 11 springs, 7 small streams draining undisturbed catchments (1990-2010) and 19 streams draining small undisturbed catchments (2004-11). The concentration of ammonium-N (NH4+) and organic N was found to be nearly constant within six major landscape types in Denmark, respectively, 0.05 mg ± 0.06 mg N L-1 and 0.53 mg ± 0.29 mg N L-1. On contrary, the concentration of nitrate-nitrite-N (NO3- + NO2-) was found to vary between 0.06-0.83 mg N L-1 within the six landscape types. We have also time series of background total nitrogen concentrations from 7 small undisturbed catchments covering the period 1990-2010. No significant trends have been observed for total nitrogen concentrations from these streams during the period 1990-2010. The measured average nitrate-N concentrations in streams has been modelled against dominant landscape geology and a 5x5 km grid map of Denmark showing background concentrations of nitrate-N and total N has been produced. This map has been used during the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive as a baseline for estimating background nitrogen losses to surface waters in Denmark. Thus, the average annual background loss of total nitrogen amounts to 13,000 tonnes N or 20% of the total loading of nitrogen from the Danish land to sea during the period 2005-2009.

Windolf, Jørgen; Bøgestrand, Jens; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Kronvang, Brian

2013-04-01

327

The Background to Current Theories of Scuffing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lubricant failure problems reviewed in literature were examined as a background for further experimental investigations. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication in line contact, lubrication breakdown under boundary conditions, action of oil additives, and metallur...

P. B. Macpherson

1974-01-01

328

Background Checks for Firearm Transfers, 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (the Brady Act) provides for the legal transfer of firearms by mandating criminal history background checks on persons applying for firearms from federally licensed firearm dealers (Federal Firearm Licensees or FF...

M. Bowling G. Lauver S. L. Gifford D. B. Adams

2001-01-01

329

23 CFR 777.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background...p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A...and management of impacts to wetlands and natural habitats which result...

2013-04-01

330

33 CFR 236.4 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENGINEERS PARTICIPATION IN IMPROVEMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 236.4 Background...protection, hydroelectric power, recreation, water supply, water quality, fish and wildlife...decade require that the quality of the...

2012-07-01

331

40 CFR 761.360 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Double Wash/Rinse Method for Decontaminating Non-Porous Surfaces § 761.360 Background. The double wash/rinse procedure is used to quickly and effectively remove PCBs on...

2013-07-01

332

45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.16 Background rights...technology only in exceptional circumstances where, due to the nature of the research being supported, the Foundation requires...

2013-10-01

333

Terrain Categorization Using a Background Spectral Library.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We describe development of a background spectral library for northeastern Virginia, USA, based on hyperspectral images and an extensive land cover database. The library consists of mean spectra and standard deviations measured in 14 areas of uniform land ...

T. Cooley J. Cipar R. Lockwood P. Grigsby

2002-01-01

334

Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2013-08-08

335

28 CFR 23.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.2 Background...activities. However, because the collection and exchange of intelligence data necessary to support control of serious criminal...

2013-07-01

336

Estimation of Background Levels of Contaminants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chapter describes a statistical approach for assessing background levels from a dataset. These elevated values that may be associated with a plume or contaminated area of the site are separated from lower values that are assumed to represent backgroun...

A. Singh A. K. Singh G. Flatman

1994-01-01

337

42 CFR 81.0 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DETERMINING PROBABILITY OF CAUSATION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION...Introduction § 81.0 Background. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation...employees, of the United States Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies and...

2012-10-01

338

The cosmic X-ray background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present knowledge about the overall spectrum of the isotropic extragalactic background of electromagnetic radiation is summarized. The role of the HEAO program is discussed. Spectral measurements from HEAO are examined.

Boldt, Elihu A.

1987-01-01

339

16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT...ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background...have occurred when consumers contacted powerlines...and their supporting structures so that consumers can be made...

2009-01-01

340

16 CFR 1402.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT...ANTENNAS, AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES § 1402.2 Background...have occurred when consumers contacted powerlines...and their supporting structures so that consumers can be made...

2010-01-01

341

Background TV May Hinder Toddlers' Language Development  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Background TV May Hinder Toddlers' Language Development Communication skills benefit when parents focus solely on ... play with your toddler could hinder the child's language development, according to a new study. Researchers observed interaction ...

342

Counseling Battered Women from Fundamentalist Christian Backgrounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines biblical issues (spouse roles, separation and divorce, forgiveness, faith) that are of concern to battered women from fundamentalist Christian backgrounds. Offers counselors suggestions on how to address them. (Author/ABL)

Whipple, Vicky

1988-01-01

343

Computer Software and Intellectual Property. Background Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The background paper reviews copyright, patent, and trade secret protections; discusses current issues regarding legal protection for computer software; and identifies some of the normative and positive questions that Congress should consider in its conti...

1990-01-01

344

40 CFR 105.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT General § 105.1 Background...Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Water Act (CWA) Recognition Awards...

2013-07-01

345

40 CFR 761.380 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent...4) § 761.380 Background. This subpart provides self-implementing criteria for validating the conditions for...

2013-07-01

346

32 CFR 1290.5 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Background. 1290.5 Section 1290.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2013-07-01

347

Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields  

SciTech Connect

We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields.

William Detmold, Brian C. Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

2010-02-01

348

Rejection of Surface Background in Thermal Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenging aspect of the next generation detector for rare events searches (i.e. neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter searches) is the reduction of the background in the region of interest that can mimic the expected signals. In the field of thermal detectors, which have a leading role in rare events searches thanks to their excellent energy resolution and to the wide choice of absorber materials, the background coming from surface contaminations is frequently dominant. A background surface rejection detector is a scintillation-based approach for tagging this type of background. We discuss the innovative application of this technique in non-scintillating thermal detectors. We will report on the performances of the prototype bolometric detector, realized to prove the feasibility of this new technique.

Canonica, L.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Calvano, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Goett, J.; Gorla, P.; Pavan, M.; Yeh, M.

2014-03-01

349

Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

2013-08-01

350

The pregalactic cosmic gravitational wave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution. The spectral region of cosmically generated and cosmically limited radiation is, at long periods, P greater than 1 year, in contrast to more recent cosmological sources, which have P approx. 10 to 10(exp -3).

Matzner, Richard A.

1989-01-01

351

Numerical scene simulation for cloudy atmospheric background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for cloud scene simulation are analyzed and studied based on the properties of real cloud edge and distribution of the atmospheric background radiance. A new method is proposed to simulate cloud scene by means of the fractal geometry algorithm after effects of clouds on the atmospheric background radiation are analyzed. Firstly, spectral radiance of cloudless and cloudy atmospheric background is respectively calculated according to the radiative transfer theory. Secondly, a simulation method for cloud edge is developed based on the improved random generator after studying the properties of real cloud edge and self-similar character of the fractal principle. Finally, an algorithm implemented to create cloud texture is designed by employing the radiance distribution of cloudy atmospheric background, quadric random method and Diamond-Square interpolation. All 2-D atmospheric background radiance within given view filed has been computed with the mixed modified delta-Eddington approximation method. Some numerical scenes for cloudy atmospheric background are triumphantly simulated with the radiative transfer theory and the fractal geometry algorithm.

Yang, Chunping; Zhang, Yan; Kang, Meilin; Guo, Jing; Wu, Jian

2009-10-01

352

Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

Willshire, K. F.

1984-01-01

353

Background environmental pollution of the Eurasian continent.  

PubMed

(1) The interest to studying pollution of environmental media on the background level has grown in the recent years. There arose a necessity to establish a specialized observational system for conducting observations of changes in the state of the environment, and of ecological consequences of pollution as well as to produce assessments of the current and predicted states. The realized program of background monitoring and first results of integrated background measurements have already been published. The paper presented illustrates time-and-space features of the background pollution of natural environmental media according to data from various background stations. (2) Long-term systematic measurements at the 'Borovoe' station (Kazakh SSR) commenced in 1976 have been supplemented with the results of the background pollution studies carried out in Berezinskyi, Caucasian, Central-Chernozem, Sary-Chelek, and Repetek Biosphere Reserves and in locations of the background stations in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The data from the Hungarian and Czechoslovak stations were obtained during joint expeditions. Details are given in the relevant publications. (3) Ozone. Ozone measurements show the diurnal variation with the day-time maxima from 35 up to 160 ?g m(-3). The correlation between day-time and nocturnal concentrations is a good indicator of the anthropogenic effect. (4) Sulphur dioxide and sulphates. The annual variation of sulphur dioxide characterised by winter maximum and summer minimum indicates the direct dependence on the amount of fuel burnt in the given region. Mean values of the sulphur dioxide content in the surface layer of the atmosphere correlates with the extent of the region urbanization and varies within 0.2-12.5 ?g m(-3). The value of sulphur dioxide and sulphates correlation in the atmosphere is rather stable and varies within 0.18-0.37 ?g m(-3). (5) Heavy metals. The annual cycle of the atmospheric content of lead, cadmium and arsenic is well expressed by winter maximum and summer minimum (which is opposite in case of mercury). As for lead and mercury, their annual variation is more distinct than that of cadmium and arsenic; their time-and-space variation is also more distinct. The content of these metals in the urbanized regions of Europe is 5 times higher than in Asia and the Caucasus. Atmospheric contents of arsenic and cadmium vary insignificantly from region to region. The content of all these metals in other environmental media (soil, water, vegetation) is of insignificant spatial variability. Observations in the Caucasian Biosphere Reserve showed minimum levels of the background atmospheric pollution: lead-16 ?g m(-3), mercury-5 ng m(-3), arsenic-3.9 ng m(-3), cadmium-0.5 ng m(-3). (6) Organochloride pesticides. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in the environmental media of European background regions are 3 times higher than those in Asia ('Borovoe'). (7) PAH. Atmospheric content of BaP has a well expressed annual variation with winter maximum; the difference between winter and summer periods reaches the magnitude of an order. Background concentrations in European regions (Hungary, Berzinskyi Biosphere Reserve) are noticeably higher than in Asia; the difference reaches 3-5 times. (8) Comparisons with literature data on the background pollution show that observational materials from the background monitoring stations supplement to a considerable extent, and extent, the current notions on the background pollution and show the effects of the man-made impact on the background regions. PMID:24264348

Rovinsky, F Y; Afanasjev, M I; Burtseva, L V; Yegorov, V I

1982-12-01

354

Detection of a small target in infrared images based on a multiband background model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main Infrared Search and Track systems (IRST) purpose is to realize optimal discrimination between true targets and background clutter (false alarm). In such single band systems, background prediction is frequently used for detecting small targets. However, detection performances are strongly influenced by background gurgitation. The method based on maximum background model can reduce this kind of influence. But present background prediction methods choose background pixels around the prediction pixel from every direction, as a result, background pixels around the target will be 'poisoned' by target, and contrast will be greatly reduced accordingly. Threshold chosen to detect the target in the predicted residual image will decrease, and this will result in too many false targets and increase false alarms. For the small targets detection in IR images, a method of background prediction based on multi-band background model is proposed. For the purpose of removing the target poison, an improved rule of selecting background pixels according to the certain spectral difference between the expected target and background has been developed in this method. The use of this information is based on theoretical spectral radiance discrimination in LWIR and MWIR bands, between targets and backgrounds. When the current spectral parameter matches spectral background response, the current pixel is judged as a background pixel, and involve in background prediction operation, otherwise, it is judged as a target pixel, and will not involve in this operation. The multi-band background model, which improves the performance of small targets detection, eliminates the effect of target on the background prediction, achieves more accurate prediction of background, and increases the contrast of target and background. This is a significant development to the background prediction algorithm by extending to multi-band domain. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the algorithm in this paper.

Huang, Xi; Zhang, Jian-qi

2005-01-01

355

The background in the experiment Gerda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) of INFN is searching for neutrinoless double beta () decay of Ge. The signature of the signal is a monoenergetic peak at 2039 keV, the value of the decay. To avoid bias in the signal search, the present analysis does not consider all those events, that fall in a 40 keV wide region centered around . The main parameters needed for the analysis are described. A background model was developed to describe the observed energy spectrum. The model contains several contributions, that are expected on the basis of material screening or that are established by the observation of characteristic structures in the energy spectrum. The model predicts a flat energy spectrum for the blinding window around with a background index ranging from 17.6 to 23.8 cts/(keV kg yr). A part of the data not considered before has been used to test if the predictions of the background model are consistent. The observed number of events in this energy region is consistent with the background model. The background at is dominated by close sources, mainly due to K, Bi, Th, Co and emitting isotopes from the Ra decay chain. The individual fractions depend on the assumed locations of the contaminants. It is shown, that after removal of the known peaks, the energy spectrum can be fitted in an energy range of 200 keV around with a constant background. This gives a background index consistent with the full model and uncertainties of the same size.

Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

2014-04-01

356

Background matrix subtraction (BMS): A novel background removal algorithm for GPR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background noise is a common type of coherent noise that severely compromises the integrity of the high-resolution images provided by ground penetrating radar survey. Several existing techniques employ different approaches to attenuate background noise. In this study, we present the background matrix subtraction (BMS) as an alternative technique to remove horizontal background noise and we compare its efficiency to that of the conventional background removal technique. Instead of calculating an average trace that is subtracted from the GPR data in the conventional background removal methods, the BMS technique is based on calculating a complete background matrix of the same size of the GPR section. The background matrix is created through a series of windowing, sample exclusion, weighting, and iteration. This series of processes guarantees that the background matrix is least affected by target response and is composed purely of horizontal background noise. The computed background matrix is then subtracted from the GPR data to remove horizontal events. Results of experiments conducted on both synthetic and real GPR data show that the BMS technique yields better results than the commonly used background removal technique.

Rashed, Mohamed; Harbi, Hussein

2014-07-01

357

Geographical information systems and tropical medicine.  

PubMed

In terms of their applicability to the field of tropical medicine, geographical information systems (GIS) have developed enormously in the last two decades. This article reviews some of the pertinent and representative applications of GIS, including the use of such systems and remote sensing for the mapping of Chagas disease and human helminthiases, the use of GIS in vaccine trials, and the global applications of GIS for health-information management, disease epidemiology, and pandemic planning. The future use of GIS as a decision-making tool and some barriers to the widespread implementation of such systems in developing settings are also discussed. PMID:20659391

Khan, O A; Davenhall, W; Ali, M; Castillo-Salgado, C; Vazquez-Prokopec, G; Kitron, U; Soares Magalhães, R J; Clements, A C A

2010-06-01

358

Automatic hypertext information retrieval in a corporate memory using noun phrases in context  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a method to generate an information retrieval hypertext structure on a large collection of homogeneous documents by generating links only between noun phrases that are pertinent for navigation. Noun phrases are selected by automatic extraction and filtered on the basis of the linguistic context class where they appear, also determined automatically.

Maria Nav; Daniela Garcia

359

CONTEXTUALISER LA VALEUR DE L'ENTREPRISE A L'AIDE DES INFORMATIONS FINANCIERES  

Microsoft Academic Search

La prise en compte du contexte de l'entreprise permet de rendre compte des conditions de pertinence des chiffres comptables en matière d'évaluation. La présente recherche propose de considérer et de mesurer le niveau technologique, les opportunités de croissance et les phases du cycle de vie à partir des informations financières.

Charlotte Disle

2005-01-01

360

Adaptive control is enhanced by background estimation.  

PubMed

The automated control of physiological variables must often contend with an unknown and time-varying background (i.e., the output level corresponding to no input). To allow for simultaneous real-time identification of background as well as the parameters of an autoregressive moving average model with exogenous inputs (ARMAX model) during adaptive control, a "floating identifier" (FI) approach was developed which may be used with most recursive identification algorithms. This method separates input and output data into low- and high-frequency components. The high-frequency components are used to identify the ARMAX model parameters and the low-frequency components to identify background. This approach was evaluated in computer simulations and animal experiments comparing an adaptive controller coupled to the FI with the same controller coupled to two other standard least squares identifiers. In the animal experiments, sodium nitroprusside was used to control mean arterial pressure of anesthetized dogs in the presence of background changes. Results showed that with the FI, the controller performed satisfactorily, while with the other identifiers, it sometimes failed. It is concluded that the FI approach is useful when applying ARMAX-based adaptive controllers to systems in which a change in background is likely. PMID:2066141

Timmons, W D; Chizeck, H J; Katona, P G

1991-03-01

361

Gravitational wave background from Population III binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Current star formation models imply that the binary fraction of Population III stars is non-zero. The evolution of these binaries must have led to the formation of compact object binaries. Aims: We estimate the gravitational wave background originating in these binaries and discuss its observability. Methods: The properties of the Population III binaries are investigated using a binary population synthesis code. We numerically model the background and take into account the evolution of eccentric binaries. Results: The gravitational wave background from Population III binaries dominates the spectrum below 100 Hz. If the binary fraction is larger than 10-2, the background will be detectable by Einstein Telescope (ET), Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), and DECi-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO). Conclusions: The gravitational wave background from Population III binaries will dominate the spectrum below 100 Hz. The instruments LISA, ET, and DECIGO should either see it easily or, in the case of non-detection, provide very strong constraints on the properties of the Population III stars.

Kowalska, I.; Bulik, T.; Belczynski, K.

2012-05-01

362

A review on natural background radiation.  

PubMed

The world is naturally radioactive and approximately 82% of human-absorbed radiation doses, which are out of control, arise from natural sources such as cosmic, terrestrial, and exposure from inhalation or intake radiation sources. In recent years, several international studies have been carried out, which have reported different values regarding the effect of background radiation on human health. Gamma radiation emitted from natural sources (background radiation) is largely due to primordial radionuclides, mainly (232)Th and (238)U series, and their decay products, as well as (40)K, which exist at trace levels in the earth's crust. Their concentrations in soil, sands, and rocks depend on the local geology of each region in the world. Naturally occurring radioactive materials generally contain terrestrial-origin radionuclides, left over since the creation of the earth. In addition, the existence of some springs and quarries increases the dose rate of background radiation in some regions that are known as high level background radiation regions. The type of building materials used in houses can also affect the dose rate of background radiations. The present review article was carried out to consider all of the natural radiations, including cosmic, terrestrial, and food radiation. PMID:24223380

Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Gholami, Mehrdad; Setayandeh, Samaneh

2013-01-01

363

High voltage capacitors for low background experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low background experiments place stringent constraints on amount of radioactive impurities in the materials used for their assembly. Often these are in conflict with the constraints placed on the materials by their roles in the experiment. This is especially true for certain electronic components. A high value, high voltage capacitor for use in low background experiments has been developed from specially selected radiopure materials. Electroformed copper foils are separated by polyethylene napthalate (PEN) foils and supported within a PTFE teflon spiral coil tube. The electrical performance as well as radiopurity are scrutinized here. With some minor modifications to tune the performance for the application, this capacitor can be well suited for a variety of applications in low background experiments. Here the use of the capacitor for high voltage (HV) decoupling in the operation of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is demonstrated.

O'Shaughnessy, C.; Andreotti, E.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Hult, M.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Majorovits, B.; Schönert, S.; Smolnikov, A.

2013-05-01

364

Magnetohydrodynamics in a homogeneous cosmological background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetohydrodynamic waves through a plasma with a general equation of state P ~ ?? in the presence of a homogeneous ambient background magnetic field are studied in a general Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background universe with the metric components being an arbitrary power function of time (~tn). We find that for a suitable choice of ? and n our results reduce to those found by Holcomb and Tajima [Phys. Rev. D 40, 3809 (1989)] and later by Holcomb [Astrophys. J. 362, 381 (1990)]. Our general approach to this problem makes it possible to realize the existence of an extra term in the equation for the velocity of the fluid, which until now had remained unnoticed. This extra term has no Newtonian analogue. Unlike the usual results in magnetohydrodynamics, transverse waves traveling perpendicular to the background magnetic field are found to exist.

Sil, A.; Banerjee, N.; Chatterjee, S.

1996-06-01

365

The homogeneity conjecture for supergravity backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These notes record three lectures given at the workshop "Higher symmetries in Physics", held at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in November 2008. In them we explain how to construct a Lie (super)algebra associated to a spin manifold, perhaps with extra geometric data, and a notion of privileged spinors. The typical examples are supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds; although there are more classical instances of this construction. We focus on two results: the geometric constructions of compact real forms of the simple Lie algebras of type B4, F4 and E8 from S7, S8 and S15, respectively; and the construction of the Killing superalgebra of eleven-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. As an application of this latter construction we show that supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds with enough supersymmetry are necessarily locally homogeneous.

Figueroa-O'Farrill, José Miguel

2009-06-01

366

Improved Background Corrections for Uranium Holdup Measurements  

SciTech Connect

In the original Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) model, all holdup deposits were modeled as points, lines, and areas[1, 5]. Two improvements[4] were recently made to the GGH model and are currently in use at the Y-12 National Security Complex. These two improvements are the finite-source correction CF{sub g} and the self-attenuation correction. The finite-source correction corrects the average detector response for the width of point and line geometries which in effect, converts points and lines into areas. The result of a holdup measurement of an area deposit is a density-thickness which is converted to mass by multiplying it by the area of the deposit. From the measured density-thickness, the true density-thickness can be calculated by correcting for the material self-attenuation. Therefore the self-attenuation correction is applied to finite point and line deposits as well as areas. This report demonstrates that the finite-source and self-attenuation corrections also provide a means to better separate the gamma rays emitted by the material from the gamma rays emitted by background sources for an improved background correction. Currently, the measured background radiation is attenuated for equipment walls in the case of area deposits but not for line and point sources. The measured background radiation is not corrected for attenuation by the uranium material. For all of these cases, the background is overestimated which causes a negative bias in the measurement. The finite-source correction and the self-attenuation correction will allow the correction of the measured background radiation for both the equipment attenuation and material attenuation for area sources as well as point and line sources.

Oberer, R.B.; Gunn, C.A.; Chiang, L.G.

2004-06-21

367

Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is argued that the 'surface of last scattering' of the observed microwave background radiation corresponds to the distribution of dust in galaxies or protogalaxies with a temperature of about 110 K at the epoch corresponding to Z roughly equal to 40. This is in contrast with the plasma temperature of over 3,000 K at an earlier epoch (Z greater than about 1,000), as given by the canonical model of big bang cosmologies. In view of this, the claim that the microwave background radiation lends strong support to hot big bang cosmologies is without foundation.

Alfven, H.; Mendis, A.

1977-01-01

368

Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background.  

PubMed

The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background, is investigated by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse, we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density, there is focusing and the subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed. PMID:14611403

Marklund, Mattias; Brodin, Gert; Stenflo, Lennart

2003-10-17

369

Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

1988-01-01

370

Low-background direct readout array performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation of an integrated array of antimony-doped silicon detectors is described. The spectral range of extrinsic silicon-integrated arrays useful for low-background IR astronomical applications is extended to about 31 microns with this development. The 58 x 62-element array is accessed by a direct readout multiplexer. The device is evaluated with a flexible microcomputer-based drive and readout electronics system in a low-background test dewar. Acceptance testing indicates single-pixel NEPs in the mid-10 to the -18th W/sq rt Hz range, and good global uniformity statistics.

Goebel, J. H.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Mccreight, C. R.; Anderson, G. M.

1986-01-01

371

Pulsed laser/background light simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a pulsed laser/background simulator used for debugging and testing system performance of laser range finer (LRF) is introduced. This simulator is composed of a 1064nm- laser diode, an iodine tungsten lamp and its power supply, a collimating optics system, drive circuit, synchronal and delay circuit, simulating and computing code. This simulator can simulate the laser echo signal and the background radiation of a pulsed LRF when LRF ranges target with different distances and different characteristics under various atmosphere conditions.

Yang, Yi; Ni, Xuxiang; Lu, Zukang; Ding, Xiancheng

2000-10-01

372

Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

1992-01-01

373

The Background to Current Theories of Scuffing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lubrication Laboratory at Imperial College is undertaking a series of investigations into scuffing phenomena on behalf of Westland Helicopters Ltd. The background to the work to be undertaken is set out in the present report in the form of a literatur...

P. B. MacPherson

1973-01-01

374

Dim point target detection against bright background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For target detection within a large-field cluttered background from a long distance, several difficulties, involving low contrast between target and background, little occupancy, illumination ununiformity caused by vignetting of lens, and system noise, make it a challenging problem. The existing approaches to dim target detection can be roughly divided into two categories: detection before tracking (DBT) and tracking before detection (TBD). The DBT-based scheme has been widely used in practical applications due to its simplicity, but it often requires working in the situation with a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In contrast, the TBD-based methods can provide impressive detection results even in the cases of very low SNR; unfortunately, the large memory requirement and high computational load prevents these methods from real-time tasks. In this paper, we propose a new method for dim target detection. We address this problem by combining the advantages of the DBT-based scheme in computational efficiency and of the TBD-based in detection capability. Our method first predicts the local background, and then employs the energy accumulation and median filter to remove background clutter. The dim target is finally located by double window filtering together with an improved high order correlation which speeds up the convergence. The proposed method is implemented on a hardware platform and performs suitably in outside experiments.

Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Qiheng; Xu, Zhiyong; Xu, Junping

2010-04-01

375

The cosmic microwave background: Gaussianity and polarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is a window to the earliest parts of the universe that we can still directly see. As such, it provides excellent data for testing the currently accepted model of cosmology: an expanding Friedmann- Robertson-Walker spacetime that is statistically described by about six parameters. This dissertation presents three tools for probing that standard model of cosmology

David Leonard Larson

2006-01-01

376

Background noise levels in PC home environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was designed and conducted to determine the background noise levels in the home environment. This is an important factor in determining the acoustic performance of the computing devices that go into these environments. A specialized methodology was developed and measurements were carried out in homes in the United States, Sweden, Germany, and China. The sound levels in three rooms in 15-18 homes in each country were collected over 24-h periods. The results indicated that the background noise levels ranged between 30 and 40 dBA across the four countries. Variations in the background noise levels between the different rooms in the homes were minimal. No significant variations were found between home types (detached, semi-detached, and apartment) and community types (urban, suburban). However, European homes were quieter than United States and Chinese homes. The variations between countries were statistically significant. In addition to the background noise levels, the acoustical characteristics of the rooms were measured. The results indicated that the reverberation radius was typically below 1 m and was fairly consistent between geographies.

Doherty, Rina; Salskov, Eric; Corriveau, Philip J.; Sorenson, Paul; Gabel, Doug; Beltman, Willem M.

2005-09-01

377

AdS Backgrounds from Asymmetric Orientifolds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

I present asymmetric orientifold models that, with the addition of RR fluxes, fix all the NS NS moduli including the dilaton. In critical string theory, this gives new AdS backgrounds with (discretely tunably) weak string coupling. Extrapolating to super-...

E. M. Silverstein

2001-01-01

378

Characterization of background reflectivity for MEDUSA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DARPA MEDUSA program goal is to detect, locate, and identify electro-optical threats in the vicinity of a moving platform. Laser sensing will be employed to find these threats by looking for anomalous reflections from threat sensors. However, the reflectivity variability (clutter) in both natural and manmade backgrounds will inherently limit target detection levels. In parallel with advanced component development

R. C. Oldenborg; J. J. Tiee; B. R. Foy; R. R. Petrin; C. W. Wilson

2003-01-01

379

THE TEMPERATURE OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer data are independently recalibrated using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data to obtain a cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature of 2.7260 +- 0.0013. Measurements of the temperature of the CMB are reviewed. The determination from the measurements from the literature is CMB temperature of 2.72548 +- 0.00057 K.

Fixsen, D. J. [University of Maryland, Goddard Space Flight Center, MD (United States)

2009-12-20

380

Polarization of cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of the cosmic microwave background radiation polarization in observations of standard recombination is discussed. The polarization level in observations using antennas with different sizes of directivity patterns over the angle range varying from 3 to 15° has been calculated. The formation of polarization was calculated in models with different kinds of spectra (for the spectrum index n =

M. V. Sazhin; V. V. Shul'Ga

1996-01-01

381

Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that the 'surface of last scattering' of the observed microwave background radiation corresponds to the distribution of dust in galaxies or protogalaxies with a temperature of about 110 K at the epoch corresponding to Z roughly equal to 40. This is in contrast with the plasma temperature of over 3,000 K at an earlier epoch (Z greater

HANNES ALFVEN; ASOKA MENDIS

1977-01-01

382

Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maps of the large scale structure (theta is greater than 6 deg) of the cosmic background radiation covering 90 percent of the sky are now available. The data show a very strong 50-100 sigma (statistical error) dipole component, interpreted as being due to...

P. Lubin T. Villela

1987-01-01

383

CA-CFAR in Weibull background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) processors are the commonly used detectors in radar to maintain control of the false alarm rate in the face of local variations in the background noise level. For this paper, the Cell-Averaging Constant False Alarm Rate (CA-CFAR) was studied and later simulated in a Weibull environment with the use of the Signal Workbench (SPW), to

Char Ming Wong; Chee Hang Chang; Weixian Liu; Jeffrey S Fu

2000-01-01

384

Contemporary Rhetoric: A Conceptual Background with Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use by composition students as well as teachers, the essays and background discussions in this book address themselves to questions of theory and practice in rhetoric. The book is divided into sections on invention, form, and style, and contains articles by such authors as Janet Emig, Wayne C. Booth, Richard L. Larson, Kenneth Burke,…

Winterowd, W. Ross, Ed.

385

The cosmic background radiation circa ?2K  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the implications of cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations and galaxy and cluster surveys of large scale structure (LSS) for theories of cosmic structure formation, especially emphasizing the recent Boomerang and Maxima CMB balloon experiments. The inflation-based cosmic structure formation paradigm we have been operating with for two decades has never been in better shape. Here we primarily focus

J. Richard Bond; Dmitry Pogosyan; Simon Prunet; A. Balbi; J. Bock; J. Borrill; A. Boscaleri; K. Coble; B. Crill; P. de Bernardis; P. Farese; P. Ferreira; K. Ganga; M. Giacometti; S. Hanany; E. Hivon; V. Hristov; A. Iacoangeli; A. Jaffe; A. Lange; A. Lee; L. Martinis; S. Masi; P. Mauskopf; A. Melchiorri; T. Montroy; B. Netterfield; S. Oh; E. Pascale; F. Piacentini; B. Rabii; S. Rao; P. Richards; G. Romeo; J. Ruhl; F. Scaramuzzi; D. Sforna; G. Smoot; R. Stompor; C. Winant; P. Wu

2001-01-01

386

COBE observations of cosmic background anisotropies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) have put the standard model of cosmology, the big bang, on firm footing and provide tests of various ideas of large scale structure formation. CMB observations now let us test the role of gravity and general relativity in cosmology including the geometry, topology, and dynamics of the universe. Foreground Galactic emissions, dust

G. F. Smoot

1996-01-01

387

String propagation in gravitational wave backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Conformal Field Theory of the current algebra of the centrally extended 2-d Euclidean group is analyzed. Its representations can be written in terms of four free fields (without background charge) with signature (-+++). We construct all irreducible representations of the current algebra with unitary base out of the free fields and their orbifolds. This is used to investigate the

Elias Kiritsis; Costas Kounnas

1994-01-01

388

Background Document: Bagasse Combustion in Sugar Mills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a background document in support of the contents of Section 1.8 of AP-2, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Second Edition. It concerns the major criteria pollutants emitted during the combustion of bagasse (a fiberous waste product in...

R. Baker T. F. Lahre

1977-01-01

389

ESTIMATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples from hazardous waste site investigations frequently come from two or more statistical populations. Assessment of "background" levels of contaminants can be a significant problem. This problem is being investigated at the US EPA's EMSL in Las Vegas. This paper describes a ...

390

IRST Infrared Background analysis of Bay environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present-day naval operations take place in coastal environments as well as narrow straits all over the world. Coastal environments around the world are exhibiting a number of threats to naval forces. In particular a large number of asymmetric threats can be present in environments with cluttered backgrounds as well as rapidly varying atmospheric conditions. During trials executed in False Bay

Piet B. W. Schwering; Dirk F. Bezuidenhout; Willem H. Gunter; Francois P. J. le Roux; Rheinhardt H. Sieberhagen

391

WMAP: Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site discusses the cosmic microwave background, radiation left over from the Big Bang. Particular emphasis is upon tiny fluctuations in the temperature of the radiation, which are believed to reflect fluctuations in the density of matter in the early universe.

392

Computer Software & Intellectual Property. Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This background paper reviews copyright, patent, and trade secret protections as these issues are related to computer software. Topics discussed include current issues regarding legal protection for computer software including the necessity for defining intellectual property, determining what should or should not be protected, commerical piracy,…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

393

A Complete and Comprehensive Sky Background Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current era of precision astronomy, a complete sky background model is crucial, especially as the telescopes become even larger in the next decade. Such a model is needed for planning observations as well as understanding and correcting the data for the sky background. We have developed a sky model for this purpose, and it is the most complete and universal sky model that we know of to date. It covers a wide range of wavelengths from 0.3 to 30 micron up to a resolution of 1,000,000 and is instrument independent. Currently it is optimized for the telescopes at Cerro Paranal and the future site Cerro Armazones in Chile. Our sky model includes several components necessary to describe the sky background flux, such as scattered moonlight and starlight, zodiacal light, airglow emission and continuum, thermal emission from the telescope and lower atmosphere, and scattering and absorption within the Earth's atmosphere. Each component was designed with the latest knowledge and results in the field and was thoroughly checked with archival ESO data. Our sky background model will be a valuable asset for astronomical observatories and the community.

Jones, A. M.; Noll, S.; Kausch, W.; Kimeswenger, S.; Szyszka, C.

2014-05-01

394

Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

Tiruneh, Gizachew

2013-01-01

395

BACKGROUND RADIATION IN THE UNIVERSE - Short Contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A determination of the motion of the Sun and Local Group relative to the backdrop of galaxies extending to 70 Mpc is used to correct the observed dipole anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background. The resultant intrinsic dipole component of ?T/T = 3±2×10-4 is consistent with no detected anisotropy.

Davies, R. D.

396

FBOS - Foreground/Background Operating System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A batch operating system is converted to a Foreground/Background Operating System (FBOS) for use on a Varian 620/f Minicomputer system. Entry to port no. 1 (the foreground) is via an interrupt generating graphics console facilitating user interaction with...

D. J. Turner

1974-01-01

397

Suppression of quantum corrections by classical backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use heat-kernel techniques in order to compute the one-loop effective action in the cubic Galileon theory for a background that realizes the Vainshtein mechanism. We find that the UV divergences are suppressed relative to the predictions of standard perturbation theory at length scales below the Vainshtein radius.

Brouzakis, Nikolaos; Tetradis, Nikolaos

2014-06-01

398

A Simple Model for Urban Background Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple urban background pollution model is presented. Contributions from the individual area sources, subdivided into a grid net of a resolution of 2km × 2km, are integrated along the wind direction path assuming linear dispersion with the distance to the receptor point. Horizontal dispersion is accounted for by averaging the calculated concentrations over a certain, wind speed dependent wind

Ruwim Berkowicz

2000-01-01

399

Building Background Knowledge within Literature Circles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the strength of literature circles in developing background knowledge--an acknowledged sticking point in the development of understanding for middle graders--with a special focus on the literature circle role of "investigator," where it is student initiative and not teacher direction that guides comprehension. Observing…

Barone, Diane; Barone, Rebecca

2012-01-01

400

Marine environment background synthesis using MODTRAN 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, physically accurate and reasonably fast background generation in a marine environment has been an elusive objective. The pursuit has been plagued by slow radiative transfer codes and sea BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution functions) implementations that traded accuracy for speed. Recent developments in both these fields have put this goal into our grasp. In this paper, we show that

Vincent Ross; Denis Dion

2006-01-01

401

32 CFR 732.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

2013-07-01

402

Background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lamb waves of the Earth's atmosphere in the millihertz band have been considered as transient phenomena excited only by large events [e.g. the major volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1833, the impact of Siberian meteorite in 1908, the testing of large nuclear tests and the huge earthquakes, Garrett1969]. In a case of the solid Earth, observation of background free oscillations in the millihertz band-now known as Earth's background free oscillations or seismic hum, has been firmly established. Above 5 mHz, their dominant excitation sources are oceanic infragravity waves. At 3.7 and 4.4 mHz an elasto-acoustic resonance between the solid Earth and the atmosphere was observed [Nishida et al., 2000]. These seismic observations show that the contribution of atmospheric disturbances to the seismic hum is dominant below 5 mHz. Such contribution implies background excitations of acoustic-gravity waves in this frequency range. For direct detection of the background acoustic-gravity waves, our group conducted observations using an array of barometers [Nishida et al. 2005]. However, the spatial scale of the array of about 10 km was too small to detect acoustic modes below 10 mHz. Since then, no direct observations of these waves have been reported. In 2011, 337 high-resolution microbarometers were installed on a continental scale at USArray Transportable Array. The large and dense array enables us to detect the background atmospheric waves. Here, we show the first evidence of background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere from 0.2 to 10 mHz, based on the array analysis of microbarometer data from the USArray in 2012. The observations suggest that the excitation sources are atmospheric disturbances in the troposphere. Theoretically, their energy in the troposphere tunnels into the thermosphere at a resonant frequency via thermospheric gravity wave, where the observed amplitudes indeed take a local minimum. The energy leak through the frequency window could partly contribute to thermospheric wave activity. Tropospheric disturbances exciting background Lamb waves may also be responsible for seismic hum at frequencies below 5 mHz.

Nishida, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Fukao, Y.

2013-12-01

403

Light Water Breeder Reactor Program. Final Environmental Statement. Volume 1. Summary and Background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The environmental impact of the LWBR technology development program and of the potential commercial development of LWBR technology is summarized. Background information on the U.S. energy economy, the LWBR program, and the relationship between the two is ...

1976-01-01

404

Application of Monte Carlo algorithms to the Bayesian analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power spectrum estimation and evaluation of associated errors in the presence of incomplete sky coverage; nonhomogeneous, correlated instrumental noise; and foreground emission are problems of central importance for the extraction of cosmological information from the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

Jewell, J.; Levin, S.; Anderson, C. H.

2004-01-01

405

Background of SIFs and Stress Indices for Moment Loadings of Piping Components  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information, references, and equations for twenty-four piping components (thirteen component SIFs and eleven component stress indices) that justify the values or expressions for the SIFs and indices.

E. A. Wais; E. C. Rodabaugh

2005-06-15

406

Using multiple perspectives to suppress information and complexity  

SciTech Connect

Dissemination of battlespace information involves getting information to particular warfighters that is both useful and in a form that facilitates the tasks of those particular warfighters. There are two issues which motivate this problem of dissemination. The first issue deals with disseminating pertinent information to a particular warfighter. This can be thought of as information suppression. The second issue deals with facilitating the use of the information by tailoring the computer interface to the specific tasks of an individual warfighter. This can be thought of as interface complexity suppression. This paper presents a framework for suppressing information using an object-based knowledge representation methodology. This methodology has the ability to represent knowledge and information in multiple perspectives. Information can be suppressed by creating a perspective specific to an individual warfighter. In this way, only the information pertinent and useful to a warfighter is made available to that warfighter. Information is not removed, lost, or changed, but spread among multiple perspectives. Interface complexity is managed in a similar manner. Rather than have one generalized computer interface to access all information, the computer interface can be divided into interface elements. Interface elements can then be selected and arranged into a perspective-specific interface. This is done in a manner to facilitate completion of tasks contained in that perspective. A basic battlespace domain containing ground and air elements and associated warfighters is used to exercise the methodology.

Kelsey, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)]|[New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (US). Computer Science Dept.; Webster, R.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Hartley, R.T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (US). Computer Science Dept.

1998-09-01

407

Public information use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens).  

PubMed

The discernment of resource quality is pertinent to many daily decisions faced by animals. Public information is a critical information source that promotes quality assessments, attained by monitoring others' performance. Here we provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use public information to guide resource selection. Thirty-two chimpanzees were presented with two simultaneous video demonstrations depicting a conspecific acquiring resources at a fast (resource-rich) or slow (resource-poor) rate. Subsequently, subjects selected the resource-rich site above chance expectation. As a comparison, we report evidence of public information use in young children. Investigation of public information use in primates is pertinent, as it can enhance foraging success and potentially facilitate payoff-biased social learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24060244

Vale, Gill L; Flynn, Emma G; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Kendal, Rachel L

2014-05-01

408

Public Information Use in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Children (Homo sapiens)  

PubMed Central

The discernment of resource quality is pertinent to many daily decisions faced by animals. Public information is a critical information source that promotes quality assessments, attained by monitoring others’ performance. Here we provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use public information to guide resource selection. Thirty-two chimpanzees were presented with two simultaneous video demonstrations depicting a conspecific acquiring resources at a fast (resource-rich) or slow (resource-poor) rate. Subsequently, subjects selected the resource-rich site above chance expectation. As a comparison, we report evidence of public information use in young children. Investigation of public information use in primates is pertinent, as it can enhance foraging success and potentially facilitate payoff-biased social learning.

Vale, Gill L.; Flynn, Emma G.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Kendal, Rachel L.

2014-01-01

409

Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, which will be updated as events warrant, provides an overview and analysis of issues related to the processing and distribution of congressional information by the Government Printing Office. Subsequent sections address several issues, includ...

R. E. Petersen

2009-01-01

410

On the observability of collective flavor oscillations in diffuse supernova neutrino background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collective flavor oscillations are known to bring multiple splits in the supernova (SN) neutrino and antineutrino spectra. These spectral splits depend not only on the mass hierarchy of the neutrinos but also on the initial relative flux composition. Observation of spectral splits in a future galactic supernova signal is expected to throw light on the mass hierarchy pattern of the neutrinos. However, since the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background (DSNB) comprises of a superposition of neutrino fluxes from all past supernovae, and since different supernovae are expected to have slightly different initial fluxes, it is pertinent to check if the hierarchy dependent signature of collective oscillations can survive this averaging of the flux spectra. Since the actual distribution of SN with initial relative flux spectra of the neutrinos and antineutrinos is unknown, we assume a log-normal distribution for them. We study the dependence of the hierarchy sensitivity to the mean and variance of the log-normal distribution function. We find that the hierarchy sensitivity depends crucially on the mean value of the relative initial luminosity. The effect of the width is to reduce the hierarchy sensitivity for all values of the mean initial relative luminosity. We find that in the very small mixing angle (?) limit considering only statistical errors even for very moderate values of variance, there is almost no detectable hierarchy sensitivity if the mean relative luminosities of ? and ? are greater than 1.

Chakraborty, Sovan; Choubey, Sandhya; Kar, Kamales

2011-08-01

411

Backgrounder - caHUB.Cancer.Gov  

Cancer.gov

Biospecimens are materials taken from the human body, such as tissue, blood, and urine that can be used for cancer diagnosis and analysis. Biobanks are repositories or "libraries" where these biological materials, along with any associated clinical, pathological, or molecular information, are managed, stored, and distributed. Biospecimens are critical to cancer research because they contain an extraordinary amount of biological information, written in the language of cells, genes, and proteins that can identify the biological characteristics of cancer cells over time.

412

Real-World User-Centered Design: The Michigan Workforce Background Check System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Michigan Workforce Background Check system demonstrates how an iterative user-centered design (UCD) process enhances organizational\\u000a level communication practices and efficiency. Well-designed information communication technology is an essential component\\u000a of effective public health management. Usability and accessibility testing informed subsequent design and development. The\\u000a iterative improvement in the background check application demonstrates that UCD should be a component of public

Sarah J. Swierenga; Fuad Abujarad; Toni A. Dennis; Lori A. Post

413

In-Home Respite Care Program Development. Background. Coordinator's Manual. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume consists of a background discussion, coordinator's manual, and training manual dealing with developing programs for the in-home respite care (IHRC) of the developmentally disabled. Addressed in the background information unit are the nature of developmental disabilities; program variables, planning, and funding; and practical…

Parham, J. D.; And Others

414

A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total

P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; A. Boscaleri; K. Coble; B. P. Crill; G. De Gasperis; P. C. Farese; P. G. Ferreira; K. Ganga; M. Giacometti; E. Hivon; V. V. Hristov; A. Iacoangeli; A. H. Jaffe; A. E. Lange; L. Martinis; S. Masi; P. V. Mason; P. D. Mauskopf; A. Melchiorri; L. Miglio; T. Montroy; C. B. Netterfield; E. Pascale; F. Piacentini; D. Pogosyan; S. Prunet; S. Rao; G. Romeo; J. E. Ruhl; F. Scaramuzzi; D. Sforna; N. Vittorio; P. de Bernardis

2000-01-01

415

A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy

P. de Bernardis; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; A. Boscaleri; K. Coble; B. P. Crill; G. De Gasperis; P. C. Farese; P. G. Ferreira; K. Ganga; M. Giacometti; E. Hivon; V. V. Hristov; A. Iacoangeli; A. H. Jaffe; A. E. Lange; L. Martinis; S. Masi; P. V. Mason; P. D. Mauskopf; A. Melchiorri; L. Miglio; T. Montroy; C. B. Netterfield; E. Pascale; F. Piacentini; D. Pogosyan; S. Prunet; S. Rao; G. Romeo; J. E. Ruhl; F. Scaramuzzi; D. Sforna; N. Vittorio

2000-01-01

416

US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with

Robin T. Harrison; Lawrence Hartmann

1990-01-01

417

Does theoretical background influence therapists' attitudes to therapist self-disclosure? A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study investigated therapists' attitudes towards therapist self-disclosure over different theoretical orientations and to establish how classical theoretical background and training effected and informed practice. Classical theoretical background was intended to refer to traditional Psychodynamic understanding. Method: Participants were experienced therapists drawn from four groups by a recruitment screening measure. Three groups were from the students’ cohort within a

Lynda Carew

2009-01-01

418

Some computations of partition functions and tachyon potentials in background independent off-shell string theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss what information can be safely extracted from background independent off-shell string theory. The major obstacle in doing so is that renormalization conditions of the underlying world-sheet theories are not exactly known. To get some insight, we first consider the tachyon and gauge field backgrounds and carry out computations in different renormalization schemes for both, bosonic string and superstring.

Oleg Andreev

2001-01-01

419

Properties of a background electromagnetic field near mechanically loaded conductors and dielectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A background electromagnetic field near conductors and dielectrics as a carrier of information about processes occurring in the material is analytically and experimentally analyzed. Methods to discriminate weak deterministic variations of electromagnetic signals generated by the object from the chaotic variations of a much larger amplitude background electromagnetic field are suggested.

Teterin, E. P.; Anisimova, S. A.; Teterin, P. E.; Lukicheva, V. K.

2013-10-01

420

The ?-ray Background Constrains the Origins of the Radio and X-ray Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic ray protons generate ?-rays, neutrinos, and secondary electrons and positrons (e ±) through pion-producing collisions with gas atoms. Any synchrotron or inverse Compton (IC) radiation from secondary e ± is therefore accompanied by pionic ?-rays. Using the extragalactic ?-ray background, we constrain the contribution of secondary e ± to the cosmic radio, X-ray, and soft ?-ray backgrounds. These bounds depend on the unknown hadronic contribution to the ?-ray background and the backgrounds' source redshifts. With our assumptions, we find that IC-upscattered light from secondaries is lsim1/4 of the MeV-GeV ?-ray background and lsim10% of the 0.5 keV-1 MeV background (for sources at a redshift z <~ 10). The low intensity of the observed ?-ray background is marginally inconsistent with a secondary e ± origin for the radio background reported by ARCADE at ~3 GHz, unless the magnetic field strength in their sources is milligauss or greater. These limits on the magnetic field strength are sensitive to uncertainties. However, any contribution to the ?-ray background from sources not responsible for the ARCADE excess increases the inconsistency.

Lacki, Brian C.

2011-03-01

421

THE {gamma}-RAY BACKGROUND constrains the ORIGINS OF THE RADIO AND X-RAY BACKGROUNDS  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic ray protons generate {gamma}-rays, neutrinos, and secondary electrons and positrons (e{sup {+-}}) through pion-producing collisions with gas atoms. Any synchrotron or inverse Compton (IC) radiation from secondary e {sup {+-}} is therefore accompanied by pionic {gamma}-rays. Using the extragalactic {gamma}-ray background, we constrain the contribution of secondary e {sup {+-}} to the cosmic radio, X-ray, and soft {gamma}-ray backgrounds. These bounds depend on the unknown hadronic contribution to the {gamma}-ray background and the backgrounds' source redshifts. With our assumptions, we find that IC-upscattered light from secondaries is {approx}<1/4 of the MeV-GeV {gamma}-ray background and {approx}<10% of the 0.5 keV-1 MeV background (for sources at a redshift z {approx}< 10). The low intensity of the observed {gamma}-ray background is marginally inconsistent with a secondary e{sup {+-}} origin for the radio background reported by ARCADE at {approx}3 GHz, unless the magnetic field strength in their sources is milligauss or greater. These limits on the magnetic field strength are sensitive to uncertainties. However, any contribution to the {gamma}-ray background from sources not responsible for the ARCADE excess increases the inconsistency.

Lacki, Brian C., E-mail: lacki@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2011-03-01

422

A background model for the MAJORANA low-background broad energy germanium detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MAJORANA Collaboration will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of germanium-76 with an array of enriched germanium detectors called the DEMONSTRATOR. MAJORANA Collaborators operate a low-background research and development detector in a shielded environment at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility near Ripplemeade, Virginia. The contents of the detector cryostat are well known, making it a good candidate for testing the MAJORANA background model. This talk describes the creation of a background energy-spectrum model for the Kimballton detector. Energy spectra measured with the detector at Kimballton are compared to results of the background model, and implications for the DEMONSTRATOR are explored.

Schubert, Alexis

2013-04-01

423

Cosmic Microwave Background Bispectrum from Recombination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum generated by nonlinearities at recombination on all scales. We use CosmoLib2nd, a numerical Boltzmann code at second order to compute cosmic microwave background bispectra on the full sky. We consistently include all effects except gravitational lensing, which can be added to our result using standard methods. The bispectrum is peaked on squeezed triangles and agrees with the analytic approximation in the squeezed limit at the few percent level for all the scales where this is applicable. On smaller scales, we recover previous results on perturbed recombination. For cosmic-variance limited data to lmax?=2000, its signal-to-noise ratio is S/N=0.47, corresponding to fNLeff=-2.79, and will bias a local signal by fNLloc?0.82.

Huang, Zhiqi; Vernizzi, Filippo

2013-03-01

424

Anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical predictions of the angular anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on both small and large angular scales are presented, and the effect of massive neutrinos on both the background radiation anisotropy and on the galaxy correlation function over very large scales is reviewed. Current observations show that the quadrupole anisotropy provides the greatest constraint on theory, and the values for the gravitational potential fluctuations indicate that small amplitude but sufficiently large-scale density fluctuations, both at the present epoch and on the surface of last scattering, can produce significant large angular scale variations in the radiation temperature. Most importantly, it is proposed that the quadrupole moment is most simply and elegantly interpreted in terms of the density fluctuations on very large scales whose presence is inferred from the requirement that an initial fluctuation spectrum is required in order for structure to develop.

Silk, J.

1981-01-01

425

Topology of microwave background fluctuations - Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topological measures are used to characterize the microwave background temperature fluctuations produced by 'standard' scenarios (Gaussian) and by cosmic strings (non-Gaussian). Three topological quantities: total area of the excursion regions, total length, and total curvature (genus) of the isotemperature contours, are studied for simulated Gaussian microwave background anisotropy maps and then compared with those of the non-Gaussian anisotropy pattern produced by cosmic strings. In general, the temperature gradient field shows the non-Gaussian behavior of the string map more distinctively than the temperature field for all topology measures. The total contour length and the genus are found to be more sensitive to the existence of a stringy pattern than the usual temperature histogram. Situations when instrumental noise is superposed on the map, are considered to find the critical signal-to-noise ratio for which strings can be detected.

Gott, J. Richard, III; Park, Changbom; Bies, William E.; Bennett, David P.; Juszkiewicz, Roman

1990-01-01

426

The technical background to standards for shackles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical background to British and international standards for shackles is documented in order to provide a reference for future drafting and revisions of standards. The following are discussed: the stress analysis of shackles, a test program for shackles, the work performed by a working group set up to rationalize the design of cage suspension gear, shackle design formula, the development of International Standards Organization (ISO) standards for shackles, and the development of revised British standards. Under the technical background to the revision of BS3032, the following are considered: marking, material and heat treatment, hardness, mechanical properties, form and dimensions, tolerances, and screw threads. The decisions upon which the revision of the BS3551 were based are described.

Gorley, T. A. E.; Anthony, G. T.

1992-03-01

427

Polarization observations with the Cosmic Background Imager.  

PubMed

Polarization observations of the cosmic microwave background with the Cosmic Background Imager from September 2002 to May 2004 provide a significant detection of the E-mode polarization and reveal an angular power spectrum of polarized emission showing peaks and valleys that are shifted in phase by half a cycle relative to those of the total intensity spectrum. This key agreement between the phase of the observed polarization spectrum and that predicted on the basis of the total intensity spectrum provides support for the standard model of cosmology, in which dark matter and dark energy are the dominant constituents, the geometry is close to flat, and primordial density fluctuations are predominantly adiabatic with a matter power spectrum commensurate with inflationary cosmological models. PMID:15472038

Readhead, A C S; Myers, S T; Pearson, T J; Sievers, J L; Mason, B S; Contaldi, C R; Bond, J R; Bustos, R; Altamirano, P; Achermann, C; Bronfman, L; Carlstrom, J E; Cartwright, J K; Casassus, S; Dickinson, C; Holzapfel, W L; Kovac, J M; Leitch, E M; May, J; Padin, S; Pogosyan, D; Pospieszalski, M; Pryke, C; Reeves, R; Shepherd, M C; Torres, S

2004-10-29

428

Lidar backscattering measurements of background stratospheric aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparative lidar-dustsonde experiment was conducted in San Angelo, Texas, in May 1974 in order to estimate the uncertainties in stratospheric-aerosol backscatter for the NASA Langley 48-inch lidar system. The lidar calibration and data-analysis procedures are discussed. Results from the Texas experiment indicate random and systematic uncertainties of 35 and 63 percent, respectively, in backscatter from a background stratospheric-aerosol layer at 20 km.

Remsberg, E. E.; Northam, G. B.; Butler, C. F.

1979-01-01

429

Lidar backscattering measurements of background stratospheric aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative lidar-dustsonde experiment was conducted in San Angelo, Texas, in May 1974 in order to estimate the uncertainties in stratospheric-aerosol backscatter for the NASA Langley 48-inch lidar system. The lidar calibration and data-analysis procedures are discussed. Results from the Texas experiment indicate random and systematic uncertainties of 35 and 63 percent, respectively, in backscatter from a background stratospheric-aerosol layer

E. E. Remsberg; G. B. Northam; C. F. Butler

1979-01-01

430

COS SMOV Calibration: Detector Background Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), installed in May 2009 into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was designed with two low noise, photon counting detectors. The FUV channel utilizes a windowless, cross delay line (XDL) microchannel plate detector, with heritage from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mission. The NUV side employs a closed tube MAMA detector, which had been the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight spare. The background performance of both channels was measured during the COS Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV) program. For the FUV detector, the background rate is as expected from prelaunch estimates, 2.4×10-6 counts/sec/pixel, except at times when HST is close to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Close to the SAA boundary, the rate can be as high as 8×10-5. Several weak structures are found in the dark exposures. Some of these are likely due to energetic particles trapped in the geomagnetic field and can be recognized by their large pulse heights. Others are low gain events. For TIME-TAG exposures, most features are removed in ground processing by pulse height filtering of the individual events. For ACCUM mode, which is only used for bright objects, suspect regions of the spectra will be marked by data quality flags, but the features are expected to be too weak to be of consequence. For the NUV detector, the background rate is 6.7×10-5 counts/sec/pixel, about three times lower than predicted from prelaunch estimates and about 15 times lower than the pre-Servicing Mission 4 performance of the STIS NUV detector. A difference in windows between the MAMAs accounts for much of the improvement. In particular, although the COS background is elevated near the SAA, up to 1×10-3 counts/sec/pixel, no long-term phosphorescence occurs in the window after HST passes through the SAA. Little structure is seen in the NUV darks.

Ake, Thomas B., III; McPhate, J.; Osterman, S.; Sahnow, D.; Penton, S.; Keyes, C.; STScI COS Team; COS IDT Team

2010-01-01

431

Testing Isotropy of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce new symmetry-based methods to test for isotropy in cosmic\\u000amicrowave background radiation. Each angular multipole is factored into unique\\u000aproducts of power eigenvectors, related multipoles and singular values that\\u000aprovide 2 new rotationally invariant measures mode by mode. The power entropy\\u000aand directional entropy are new tests of randomness that are independent of the\\u000ausual CMB power. Simulated

Pramoda Kumar Samal; Rajib Saha; Pankaj Jain; John P. Ralston

2007-01-01

432

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

433

Semiconductor Bolometers Give Background-Limited Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiconductor bolometers that are capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation over most or all of the infrared spectrum and that give background-limited performance at operating temperatures from 20 to 300 K have been invented. The term background-limited performance as applied to a bolometer, thermopile, or other infrared detector signifies that the ability to detect infrared signals that originate outside the detector is limited primarily by thermal noise attributable to the background radiation generated external to the bolometer. The signal-to-noise ratios and detectivities of the bolometers and thermopiles available prior to this invention have been lower than those needed for background-limited performance by factors of about 100 and 10, respectively. Like other electrically resistive bolometers, a device according to the invention exhibits an increase in electrical resistance when heated by infrared radiation. Depending on whether the device is operated under the customary constant- current or constant-voltage bias, the increase in electrical resistance can be measured in terms of an increase in voltage across the device or a decrease in current through the device, respectively. In the case of a semiconductor bolometer, it is necessary to filter out visible and shorter-wavelength light that could induce photoconductivity and thereby counteract all or part of the desired infrared- induced increase in resistance. The basic semiconductor material of a bolometer according to the invention is preferably silicon doped with one or more of a number of elements, each of which confers a different variable temperature coefficient of resistance. Suitable dopants include In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, As, P, and Sb. The concentration of dopant preferably lies in the range between 0.1 and 1,000 parts per billion.

Goebel, John; McMurray, Robert

2006-01-01

434

Personality, social background, and occupational career success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pooled cross-sectional and life-history data from the Dutch Family Survey 1998 and 2000 (N=4000) were used to investigate whether personality was directly related to income attainment and occupational career transitions after controlling for human capital indicators, working hours, and parental social background. The results indicated that there were substantive direct relations between personality traits and occupational career success. Extraversion related

J. P. T. M. Gelissen; Paul M. de Graaf

2006-01-01

435

Measurements of Diffuse Night Sky Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results of measurements of night sky background in the range 300-650 nm and several sub-intervals. Measurements were performed at Piano Battaglia (Sicily) pointing both to the zenithal direction and towards a mountain about 1 km far. These results are very useful for studying the sensitivity ? of fluorescence and Cerenkov on-ground telescopes, and for fluorescence on-space detectors looking down to the Earth to observe cosmic-rays and neutrinos.

Catalano, O.; Mineo, T.; Catalano, O.; Agnetta, G.; Biondo, B.; Cusumano, G.; Giarruso, S.; Gugliotta, G.; Mangano, A.; Russo, F.

2003-07-01

436

Observing cosmic microwave background polarization through ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice crystal clouds in the upper troposphere can generate polarization signals at the muK level. This signal can seriously affect very sensitive ground-based searches for E and B modes of cosmic microwave background polarization. In this paper, we estimate this effect within the ClOVER experiment observing bands (97, 150 and 220 GHz) for the selected observing site (Llano de Chajnantor,

Luca Pietranera; Stefan A. Buehler; Paolo G. Calisse; Claudia Emde; Darren Hayton; Viju Oommen John; Bruno Maffei; Lucio Piccirillo; Giampaolo Pisano; Giorgio Savini; T. R. Sreerekha

2007-01-01

437

Background, Principles and Promise of Nanodielectrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Electrical insulation based on nanodielectric technology stems from the use of fillers in polymeric materials which has been\\u000a common practice since polymer insulation was first introduced. However, when the filler size is reduced to nanometric size,\\u000a the internal interface becomes dominant and unique properties can be obtained. The basic processes and effects are introduced\\u000a in order to provide background and

J. Keith Nelson

438

A study on natural background neutron dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to monitor the neutron dose in the environment of the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, the sensitivity of the monitor system to the natural background cosmic-ray neutrons must be established. Large-size BF3 counters with and without an 8.5-cm polyethylene enclosure were used to measure the cosmic-ray neutrons in the Nuclear Engineering Building, NTHU. The response functions of the BF3

S. H. Jiang; J. J. Yeh; R. Y. Lin; J. H. Liang; R. J. Hsu; J. R. Chen; J. C. Liu; J. P. Wang; F. D. Chang

1994-01-01

439

Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions  

DOEpatents

The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

1998-11-10

440

Adaptive control is enhanced by background estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To allow for simultaneous real-time identification of background as well as the parameters of an autoregressive moving average model with exogenous inputs (ARMAX model) during adaptive control, a floating identifier (FI) approach is developed which may be used with most recursive identification algorithms. This method separates input and output data into low- and high-frequency components. The high-frequency components are used

William Donald Timmons; Howard J. Chizeck; Peter G. Katona

1991-01-01

441

Radio brightness distribution within cosmic background fluctuations  

SciTech Connect

The angular fluctuations deltaT in the microwave background temperature constitute a random process. Calculations are performed for the number of ''pips'' above a base level T/sub s/ that might be produced by primordial scalar density perturbations or gravitational waves. The flux density expected for typical pips is determined, as well as the mean solid angle subtended by a pip that would exceed a level three times the dispersion in deltaT.

Sazhin, M.V.

1985-07-01

442

SPECTRUM OF RADIATION BACKGROUND UNDER WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis was made of the radiation background under water with a ; scintillation spectrometer consisting of Nal(T1) crystal and a transistorized 118-; channel analyzer for pulse-height sorting. The spectral results showed ; essentially three major energy peaks at 1.46. 2.6. and 3.3 Mev. and two minor ; peaks at 1.8 and 2.1 Mev. The peak at 1.46 Mev, K⁴°.

GORDON K. RIEL; JOHN P. DOLFIS; DONALD G. SIMONS

1960-01-01

443

BACKGROUND RADIATION IN THE UNIVERSE - Short Contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors predict the possible microwave background temperature distributions in anisotropic and inhomogeneous universes close to the Friedmann model. Homogeneous, anisotropic universes are found to possess either quadrupole or hot-spot temperature variations. The detailed appearance of the hot-spot is predicted. The discovery of such a feature would demonstrate the universe to be open and allow the total density to be measured directly.

Barrow, J. D.; Juszkiewicz, R.; Sonoda, D. H.

444

Teacher Background: The Dancing Lights Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dancing Lights: Exploring the Aurora through Art and Writing is a science-in-literacy program about the aurora. Students in grades 3-5 write and illustrate their perceptions, ideas, and facts pertaining to auroral science. This short educator background primer was based upon interactions with teachers during Dancing Lights workshops and is meant as a quick guide to the science of the aurora.

445

Dynamic texture as foreground and background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depending on application, temporal texture can be viewed as either foreground or background. We address two related problems:\\u000a finding regions of dynamic texture in a video and detecting moving targets in a dynamic texture. We propose efficient and\\u000a fast methods for both cases. The methods can be potentially used in real-time applications of machine vision. First, we show\\u000a how the

Dmitry Chetverikov; Sándor Fazekas; Michal Haindl

446

Improving the EOTDA ocean background model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electro-Optical Tactical Decision Aid (EOTDA) is a strike warfare mission planning tool originally developed by the US Air Force. The US Navy has added navy sensors and targets to the EOTDA and installed it into current fleet mission planning and support systems. Fleet experience with the EOTDA and previous studies have noted the need for improvement, especially for scenarios involving ocean backgrounds. In order to test and improve the water background model in the EOTDA, a modified version has been created that replaces the existing semi-empirical model with the SeaRad model that was developed by Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Systems (NRaD). The SeaRad model is a more rigorous solution based on the Cox-Munk wave-slope probabilities. During the April 1996 Electrooptical Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments (EOPACE) trials, data was collected to evaluate the effects of the SeaRad version of the EOTDA. Data was collected using a calibrated airborne infrared imaging system and operational FUR systems against ship targets. A modified version of MODTRAN also containing the SeaRad model is used to correct the data for the influences of the atmosphere. This report uses these data along with the modified EOTDA to evaluate the effects of the SeaRad model on ocean background predictions under clear and clouded skies. Upon using the more accurate water reflection model, the significance of the sky and cloud radiance contributions become more apparent leading to recommendations for further improvements.

McGrath, Charles P.; Badzik, Gregory D.

1997-09-01

447

[Genetic background of juvenile idiopathic arthritis].  

PubMed

Several genetic factors have recently been observed as having an influence on susceptibility, course and prognosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): 1. Affected sib pairs were observed to have a low concordance in terms of disease incidence, but significant concordance in terms of subtype and course of disease. 2. Each subtype of JIA was observed to have a distinct genetic background. 3. Some JIA patients do not carry any of the defined risk genes. 4. Most subtypes of JIA have a distinct different genetic background to rheumatoid arthritis in adults. 5. Multiple factors have been observed to be involved in pathogenesis implying genetic and environmental factors. 6. Systemic JIA differs from all other subtypes in terms of genetic background and treatment options. It is currently assumed to be an autoinflammatory disease. 7. Genetic factors not only affect the course of the disease, but also response and complication rate. Increasing knowledge on the factors involved in the pathogenesis of JIA as well as analysis of large patient cohorts in consortiums cooperating on an international level have helped define many important polymorphisms; these are currently the subject of further investigation. PMID:20665039

Haas, J P

2010-08-01

448

Gamma Reaction History Backgrounds at the NIF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at NIF detects gamma-rays, emitted directly from DT fusion reactions (DT?), through the use of four Gas Cherenkov detectors with adjustable gamma-ray energy thresholds. It is primarily used to determine bang time, burn width and total DT yield of the implosion. Background interference to the signal is insignificant when capsules are driven directly by the lasers, but can be significant during indirect-drive using a hohlraum, forming an approximately 20 ns plateau under the narrow ˜200 ps FWHM fusion signal. This background is independent of fusion yield and most likely the result of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) induced hot electron bremsstrahlung radiation. These hard x-rays stream out target chamber ports and take multiple scatter paths to reach the GRH photomultiplier tubes (PMT), where they then bypass the Cherenkov conversion process and generate signal by direct interaction with the PMT microchannel plates. An examination of this background contribution to the GRH signal and possible mitigation strategies will be presented.

Church, J. A.; Stoeffl, W. S.; Watts, P. W.; Carpenter, A. C.; Liebman, J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Grafil, E.

2011-11-01

449

Low-Background Counting at Homestake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from materials used still interferes. Specifically, our group is working on designing the first low-background counting facility at the Homestake mine. Using a high-purity germanium crystal detector from ORTEC, measurements will be taken within a shield that is made to specifically account for radiation underground and fits the detector. Currently, in the design, there is a layer of copper surrounded by an intricate stainless steel casing, which will be manufactured air tight to accommodate for nitrogen purging. Lead will surround the stainless steel shell to further absorb gamma rays. A mobile lift system has been designed for easy access to the detector. In the future, this project will include multiple testing stations located in the famous Davis Cavern where future experiments will have the ability to use the site as an efficient and accurate counting facility for their needs (such as measuring radioactive isotopes in materials). Overall, this detector (and its shield system) is the beginning of a central testing facility that will serve Homestake's scientific community.

Marshall, Iseley

2009-10-01

450

Using Correlated Photons to Suppress Background Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed method of suppressing the effect of background noise in an optical communication system would exploit the transmission and reception of correlated photons at the receiver. The method would not afford any advantage in a system in which performance is limited by shot noise. However, if the performance of the system is limited by background noise (e.g., sunlight in the case of a free-space optical communication system or incoherently scattered in-band photons in the case of a fiber-optic communication system), then the proposed method could offer an advantage: the proposed method would make it possible to achieve a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) significantly greater than that of an otherwise equivalent background- noise-limited optical communication system based on the classical transmission and reception of uncorrelated photons. The figure schematically depicts a classical optical-communication system and a system according to the proposed method. In the classical system, a modulated laser beam is transmitted along an optical path to a receiver, the optics of which include a narrow-band-pass filter that suppresses some of the background noise. A photodetector in the receiver detects the laser-beam and background photons, most or all of which are uncorrelated. In the proposed system, correlated photons would be generated at the transmitter by making a modulated laser beam pass through a nonlinear parametric down-conversion crystal. The sum of frequencies of the correlated photons in each pair would equal the frequency of the incident photon from which they were generated. As in the classical system, the correlated photons would travel along an optical path to a receiver, where they would be band-pass filtered and detected. Unlike in the classical system, the photodetector in the receiver in this system would be one that intrinsically favors the detection of pairs of correlated photons over the detection of uncorrelated photons. Even though there would be no way of knowing the precise location and time of creation of a given pair of correlated signal photons in the nonlinear down-conversion crystal, the fact that the photons are necessarily created at the same time and place makes it possible to utilize conventional geometrical imaging optics to reunite the photons in coincidence in the receiving photodetector. Because most or all of the signal photons would be correlated while most or all of the noise photons would be uncorrelated, the S/N would be correspondingly enhanced in the photodetector output. An additional advantage to be gained by use of a correlated-photon detector is that it could be capable of recovering the signal even in the presence of background light so bright that a classical uncorrelated-photon detector would be saturated. A blocked-impurity-band (BIB) photodetector that preferentially detects pairs of correlated photons over uncorrelated ones and that operates at a quantum efficiency of 88 percent is commercially available. This detector must be cooled to the temperature of liquid helium to obtain the desired low-noise performance. It is planned to use this detector in a proof-of-principle demonstration. In addition, it may be possible to develop GaN-based photodetectors that could offer the desired low-noise performance at room temperature.

Jackson, Deborah; Hockney, George; Dowling, Jonathan

2003-01-01

451

Spectral observations of the extreme ultraviolet background.  

PubMed

A grazing incidence spectrometer was designed to measure the diffuse extreme ultraviolet background. It was flown on a sounding rocket, and data were obtained on the diffuse background between 80 and 650 angstroms. These are the first spectral measurements of this background below 520 angstroms. Several emission features were detected, including interplanetary He I 584 angstroms emission and geocoronal He II 304 angstroms emission. Other features observed may originate in a hot ionized interstellar gas, but if this interpretation is correct, gas at several different temperatures is present. The strongest of these features is consistent with O V emission at 630 angstroms. This emission, when combined with upper limits for other lines, restricts the temperature of this component to 5.5 < log T < 5.7, in agreement with temperatures derived from O VI absorption studies. A power-law distribution of temperatures is consistent with this feature only if the power-law coefficient is negative, as is predicted for saturated evaporation of clouds in a hot medium. In this case, the O VI absorption data confine the filling factor of the emission of f < or = 4% and the pressure to more than 3.7 x 10(4) cm-3 K, substantially above ambient interstellar pressure. Such a pressure enhancement has been predicted for clouds undergoing saturated evaporation. Alternatively, if the O V emission covers a considerable fraction of the sky, it would be a major source of ionization. A feature centered at about 99 angstroms is well fitted by a cluster of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX lines from gas at log T = 6.6-6.8. These results are consistent with previous soft X-ray observations with low-resolution detectors. A feature found near 178 angstroms is consistent with Fe X and Fe XI emission from gas at log T = 6; this result is consistent with results from experiments employing broad-band soft X-ray detectors. PMID:11538706

Labov, S E; Bowyer, S

1991-04-20

452

CT detector evaluation with complex random backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern computed tomography (CT) uses detector arrays consisting of large numbers of photodiodes with scintil- lator crystals. The number of pixels in the array can play an important role in system performance. Considerable research has been performed on signal detection in flat backgrounds under various conditions, but little has been done with complex, random backgrounds in CT; our work investigates in particular the effect of the number of detector elements on signal detection by a channelized Hotelling observer in a complex background. For this project, a simulated three-dimensional phantom is generated with its attenuation equal to that of water. The phantom contains a smaller central section with random variations to simulate random anatomical structures. Cone-beam projections of the phantom are acquired at different angles and used to calculate the covariance matrix of the raw projection data. Laguerre-Gauss channels are used to reduce the dimensionality of each 2D projection and hence the size of the covariance matrix, but the covariance is still a function of two projection angles. A strong cross-channel correlation is observed as a function of the difference between the angles. A signal with known location and size is used, and the performance of the observer is calculated from the channel outputs at multiple projection angles. A contrast-detail diagram is computed for different variables such as signal size, number of incident x-ray photons, pixel size, etc. At a fixed observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the contrast required to detect a signal increases dramatically as the signal size decreases.

Fan, Helen; Barrett, Harrison H.

2012-02-01

453

Background — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

The goal of this Web site is to enable access to existing measures of the food environment and stimulate the development of the next generation of tools. Robust measures of the food environment will strengthen research on the effects of the community-level food environment on individual dietary behavior, inform policymaking, and help reduce the prevalence of obesity through targeted interventions.

454

Abstracting Background Knowledge for Concept Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the current approach to automatic concept acquisition is criticized. In particular, it is argued that using only generalization, coupled with a simplicity criterion for selecting hypotheses, generates concept descriptions which are poor with respect to their information content, difficult to agree upon by humans and strictly task dependent.

Attilio Giordana; Davide Roverso; Lorenza Saitta

1991-01-01

455

Ponderable soliton stars and cosmic background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory is developed to describe the possible perturbations of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) by radiation from ponderable soliton stars in the early universe. Since the temperature of such stars is in the range of 10 to the 6th K, thermalization of their emitted radiation is possible. Two models are considered: one in which thermalization is ignored and one in which decoupling from thermalization is considered as a sudden process. The expected perturbation of the CBR is probably less than 1 percent and is largely around the short-wavelength end, in the form of point radio sources. This result is consistent with the most recent COBE measurements.

Chiu, Hong-Yee

1990-01-01

456

An Introduction to the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site presents a basic introduction to the cosmic background radiation and cosmology. It includes terms, graphs, and animations to present the key principles and ideas of cosmology, the expansion of the universe, properties of light, the history of the universe since the Big Bang, inflation, the curvature of spacetime, and its implications on the fate of the universe. The presentation ends with a review of the terms and a list of links to other resources. This material is based on a public presentation by the author.

Hu, Wayne

2013-11-28

457

Low background shielding of HPGe detector.  

PubMed

National Radiation Protection Institute in Prague is equipped with 14 HPGe detectors with relative efficiency up to 150%. Steel shielding with one of these detectors (relative efficiency 100%) was chosen to be rebuilt to decrease minimum detectable activity (MDA). Additional lead and copper shielding was built up inside the original steel shielding to reduce the volume of the inner space and filled with nitrogen by means of evaporating liquid nitrogen. MDA values decreased for Compton background up to 0.67 of original value. PMID:19243960

Trnková, L; Rulík, P

2009-05-01

458

Cosmic string collision in cosmological backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

The collisions of cosmic string loops and the dynamics of junction formations in expanding backgrounds are studied. The key parameter controlling the dynamics of junction formation, the cosmic strings zipping and unzipping, is the relative size of the loops compared to the Hubble radius at the time of collision. We study analytically and numerically these processes for large superhorizon size loops, for small subhorizon size loops as well as for loops with the radii comparable to the Hubble radius at the time of collision.

Firouzjahi, Hassan [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoeini-Moghaddam, Salomeh [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Mo'allem University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khosravi, Shahram [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Mo'allem University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-06-15

459

Dips in the diffuse supernova neutrino background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scalar (fermion) dark matter with mass in the MeV range coupled to ordinary neutrinos and another fermion (scalar) is motivated by scenarios that establish a link between radiatively generated neutrino masses and the dark matter relic density. With such a coupling, cosmic supernova neutrinos, on their way to us, could resonantly interact with the background dark matter particles, giving rise to a dip in their redshift-integrated spectra. Current and future neutrino detectors, such as Super-Kamiokande, LENA and Hyper-Kamiokande, could be able to detect this distortion.

Farzan, Yasaman; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio

2014-06-01

460

Beam Delivery WG Summary: Optics, Collimation & Background  

SciTech Connect

The presented paper partially summarizes the work of the Beam Delivery working group (WG4) at Snowmass, concentrating on status of optics, layout, collimation, and background. The strawman layout with 2 interaction regions was recommended at the first ILC workshop at KEK in November 2004. Two crossing-angle designs were included in this layout. The design of the ILC BDS has evolved since the first ILC workshop. The progress on the BDS design and extraction line design has been reviewed and the design issues were discussed during the optics and layout session at the Snowmass.

Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jackson, F.; /Daresbury; Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab; Kuroda, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Seryi, A.A.; /SLAC

2006-01-20

461

Background atoms and decoherence in optical lattices  

SciTech Connect

All experiments with ultracold atoms are performed in the presence of background residual gas. With the help of a suitable master equation we investigate a role of these fast atoms on the loss of coherence in optical lattices. We present an exact solution of the master equation and give the analytic formulas for all correlation functions in the presence of one-body losses. Additionally we discuss the existence of a Schroedinger cat state predicted in this system in Greiner et al. [Nature 419, 51 (2002)].

Pawlowski, Krzysztof [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland); RzaPzewski, Kazimierz [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, ul. Dewajtis 5, PL-01-815, Warsaw (Poland)

2010-01-15

462

A Report on the Development of a Natural Resources and Land Use Information System for the Rural Areas of Utah.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project report describes the Utah Natural Resources and Land Use Information System, designed and implemented to establish a systematic process for the collection, organization and subsequent availability of land use planning sources and pertinent materials for use by citizens, planners and elected officials. It presents the general system…

Woolley, Robert D.

463

Improving Vocabulary and Comprehension Skills of Secondary-Level Students from Diverse Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary-level students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds who struggle with reading need strategies for aligning new information with their previous knowledge as well as for obtaining and retaining essential information from the text. Important components of all secondary literacy support must include instruction in…

McCollin, Michelle; O'Shea, Doris J.; McQuiston, Kathleen

2009-01-01

464

Neutron background characterization of deep underground laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-energy (,) reactions in stellar helium and carbon burning provide the neutrons for the formation of elements beyond iron by the slow neutron capture process. The very low cross sections at stellar energies necessitate the use of high-efficiency detectors as well as measuring in a very low neutron background environment. By going deep underground the neutron flux can be reduced by orders of magnitude compared to surface levels, enabling the measurement of reactions for nuclear astrophysics at previously inaccessible energies. The remaining neutron flux is mostly due to spontaneous fission of ^238U in the cavity walls and (,) reactions induced by ?-particles from the natural radioactivity of the underground environment. Using a portable setup consisting of 4 ^3He counters and polyethylene moderators the DIANA collaboration is conducting neutron background measurements at various deep underground laboratories in the US. We present first results from the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory and the 4100 feet level of the Sanford Undeground Research Facility (SURF). Measurements at other depths in SURF and at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are in planning.

Best, Andreas; Görres, Joachim; Long, Alex; Smith, Karl; Stech, Ed; Wiescher, Michael

2012-10-01

465

Role of genetic background in induced instability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genomic instability is effectively induced by ionizing radiation. Recently, evidence has accumulated supporting a relationship between genetic background and the radiation-induced genomic instability phenotype. This is possibly due to alterations in proteins responsible for maintenance of genomic integrity or altered oxidative metabolism. Studies in human cell lines, human primary cells, and mouse models have been performed predominantly using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, or high doses of low LET radiation. The interplay between genetics, radiation response, and genomic instability has not been fully determined at low doses of low LET radiation. However, recent studies using low doses of low LET radiation suggest that the relationship between genetic background and radiation-induced genomic instability may be more complicated than these same relationships at high LET or high doses of low LET radiation. The complexity of this relationship at low doses of low LET radiation suggests that more of the population may be at risk than previously recognized and may have implications for radiation risk assessment.

Kadhim, Munira A.; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

466

Electromagnetic polarizabilities: Lattice QCD in background fields  

SciTech Connect

Chiral perturbation theory makes definitive predictions for the extrinsic behavior of hadrons in external electric and magnetic fields. Near the chiral limit, the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pions, kaons, and nucleons are determined in terms of a few well-known parameters. In this limit, hadrons become quantum mechanically diffuse as polarizabilities scale with the inverse square-root of the quark mass. In some cases, however, such predictions from chiral perturbation theory have not compared well with experimental data. Ultimately we must turn to first principles numerical simulations of QCD to determine properties of hadrons, and confront the predictions of chiral perturbation theory. To address the electromagnetic polarizabilities, we utilize the background field technique. Restricting our attention to calculations in background electric fields, we demonstrate new techniques to determine electric polarizabilities and baryon magnetic moments for both charged and neutral states. As we can study the quark mass dependence of observables with lattice QCD, the lattice will provide a crucial test of our understanding of low-energy QCD, which will be timely in light of ongoing experiments, such as at COMPASS and HI gamma S.

W. Detmold, B.C. Tiburzi, A. Walker-Loud

2012-04-01

467

New window into stochastic gravitational wave background.  

PubMed

A stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) would gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons. We correct the results provided in existing literature for modifications to the CMB polarization power spectra due to lensing by gravitational waves. Weak lensing by gravitational waves distorts all four CMB power spectra; however, its effect is most striking in the mixing of power between the E mode and B mode of CMB polarization. This suggests the possibility of using measurements of the CMB angular power spectra to constrain the energy density (?(GW)) of the SGWB. Using current data sets (QUAD, WMAP, and ACT), we find that the most stringent constraints on the present ?(GW) come from measurements of the angular power spectra of CMB temperature anisotropies. In the near future, more stringent bounds on ?(GW) can be expected with improved upper limits on the B modes of CMB polarization. Any detection of B modes of CMB polarization above the expected signal from large scale structure lensing could be a signal for a SGWB. PMID:23368112

Rotti, Aditya; Souradeep, Tarun

2012-11-30

468

DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane  

DOEpatents

A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

1992-05-12

469

DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane  

DOEpatents

A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

Caldwell, Karin D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chu, Tun-Jen (Salt Lake City, UT); Pitt, William G. (Orem, UT)

1992-01-01

470

Estimating background precipitation quality from network data.  

PubMed

Assessments of the relative merits of alternative acid-rain control strategies revolve around considerations of potential benefit per unit effort and/or cost. A question that often arises concerns the changes in deposition that would follow if all industrial (or societal) emissions were eliminated, in which case precipitation chemistry would be dominated by emissions from natural sources. Estimates of the 'natural background' of precipitation chemistry can be based on (a) measurements made at distant locations, (b) reducing emissions to zero in numerical simulations, or (c) examinations of existing data. Each alternative is flawed because (a) of the assumption that natural emissions in one location are like those in another, (b) no existing model contains descriptions of chemical processes involving all of the chemical species of importance, and (c) all contemporary data records or relevance are affected by precisely the emissions we wish to reduce. Here, the third alternative is explored in detail, using event precipitation chemistry data from North America. The analysis reveals a background pH level that varies from site to site, but always lies in the range 5.0-5.3. PMID:15092027

Hicks, B B; Artz, R S

1992-01-01

471

Measurements of the cosmic background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maps of the large scale structure (theta is greater than 6 deg) of the cosmic background radiation covering 90 percent of the sky are now available. The data show a very strong 50-100 sigma (statistical error) dipole component, interpreted as being due to our motion, with a direction of alpha = 11.5 + or - 0.15 hours, sigma = -5.6 + or - 2.0 deg. The inferred direction of the velocity of our galaxy relative to the cosmic background radiation is alpha = 10.6 + or - 0.3 hours, sigma = -2.3 + or - 5 deg. This is 44 deg from the center of the Virgo cluster. After removing the dipole component, the data show a galactic signature but no apparent residual structure. An autocorrelation of the residual data, after substraction of the galactic component from a combined Berkeley (3 mm) and Princeton (12 mm) data sets, show no apparent structure from 10 to 180 deg with a rms of 0.01 mK(sup 2). At 90 percent confidence level limit of .00007 is placed on a quadrupole component.

Lubin, P.; Villela, T.

1987-01-01

472

Electromagnetic polarizabilities: Lattice QCD in background fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chiral perturbation theory makes definitive predictions for the extrinsic behavior of hadrons in external electric and magnetic fields. Near the chiral limit, the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pions, kaons, and nucleons are determined in terms of a few well-known parameters. In this limit, hadrons become quantum mechanically diffuse as polarizabilities scale with the inverse square-root of the quark mass. In some cases, however, such predictions from chiral perturbation theory have not compared well with experimental data. Ultimately we must turn to first principles numerical simulations of QCD to determine properties of hadrons, and confront the predictions of chiral perturbation theory. To address the electromagnetic polarizabilities, we utilize the background field technique. Restricting our attention to calculations in background electric fields, we demonstrate new techniques to determine electric polarizabilities and baryon magnetic moments for both charged and neutral states. As we can study the quark mass dependence of observables with lattice QCD, the lattice will provide a crucial test of our understanding of low-energy QCD, which will be timely in light of ongoing experiments, such as at COMPASS and HI?S.

Detmold, W.; Tiburzi, B. C.; Walker-Loud, A.

2012-04-01

473

Power Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation from the Cosmic Background Imager  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) is an interferometer array designed to measure the power spectrum of fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The CBI is located at an altitude of 5080 m in northern Chile. It consists of 13 0.9-m diameter antennas on a 6-m diameter tracking platform. Each antenna has a cooled, low-noise receiver operating in the 26--36

T. J. Pearson

2002-01-01

474

Double Layered-Background Removal Filter for Detecting Small Infrared Targets in Heterogenous Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting small targets is essential for mitigating the sea-based Infrared search and track (IRST) problem. It is easy to detect small targets in homogeneous backgrounds such as the sky. When targets are on the border line of heterogeneous backgrounds such as the horizon in the sky and sea surface, solving the problem of detection becomes difficult. This paper presents a novel spatial filtering method, called Double Layered-Background Removal Filter (DL-BRF), for achieving high detection rates and low false alarm rates. DL-BRF consists of a Modified-Mean Subtraction Filter (M-MSF) and a consecutive Local-Directional Background Removal Filter (L-DBRF). M-MSF enhances the target signal and reduces background noise. L-DBRF removes horizontal structures, which upgrade the signal-to-clutter ratio and background suppression factor. L-DBRF used after M-MSF enhances the synergistic performance of horizontal target detection. Additionally, the adaptive Hysteresis threshold-based scheme is a suitable detection method. We validate the superior performance of the proposed method via three types of evaluation tests, including a real test scenario.

Kim, Sungho

2011-01-01

475

Advanced information society (1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In considering the relationship of informationization and industrial structure, this paper analize some factors such as information revolution, informationization of industries and industrialization of information as background of informationization of Japanese society. Next, some information indicators such as, information coefficient of household which is a share of information related expenditure, information coefficient of industry which is a share of information related cost to total cost of production, and information transmission census developed by Ministry of Post and Telecommunication are introduced. Then new information indicator by Economic Planning Agency, that is, electronic info-communication indicator is showed. In this study, the information activities are defined to produce message or to supply services on process, stores or sale of message using electronic information equipment. International comparisons of information labor force are also presented.

Ohira, Gosei

476

DBI Galileon inflation in background SUGRA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a model of potential driven DBI Galileon inflation in background N=1, D=4 SUGRA. Starting from D4-D4¯ brane-antibrane in the bulk N=2, D=5 SUGRA including quadratic Gauss-Bonnet corrections, we derive an effective N=1, D=4 SUGRA by dimensional reduction, that results in a Coleman-Weinberg type Galileon potential. We employ this potential in modeling inflation and in subsequent study of primordial quantum fluctuations for scalar and tensor modes. Further, we estimate the major observable parameters in both de Sitter (DS) and beyond de Sitter (BDS) limits and confront them with recent observational data from WMAP7 by using the publicly available code CAMB.

Choudhury, Sayantan; Pal, Supratik

2013-09-01

477

The hermeneutic background of C. G. Jung.  

PubMed

Hermeneutics has been central to the practice of Jung's psychology from the beginning, although he never fully and consistently developed a hermeneutic method of inquiry and the literature addressing this aspect of his psychology is not extensive. In this paper(1) we undertake a critical re-examination of Jung's relationship to hermeneutic thought, based on his explicit references to hermeneutics in the Collected Works and his theoretical development of the notion of archetypes. Although Jung did not consistently formulate a hermeneutic approach to inquiry, his theoretical development of archetypes is rich in hermeneutic implications. In particular, his notion of the archetype as such can be understood hermeneutically as a form of non-conceptual background understanding. Some implications of this construal of archetypes for Jungian hermeneutics as a form of inquiry are considered. PMID:22288541

Smythe, William E; Baydala, Angelina

2012-02-01

478

Polarization of the cosmic background radiation  

SciTech Connect

The results and technique of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation are discussed. The ground-based experiment utilizes a single horn (7/sup 0/ beam width) Dicke-type microwave polarimeter operating at 33 GHz (9.1 mm). Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. = 38/sup 0/N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. = 12/sup 0/S) show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. For the 38/sup 0/ declination data the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component is 0.3 mK for the average and 12 and 24 hour periods. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits.

Lubin, P.M.

1980-03-01

479

Polarization of the cosmic background radiation  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the technique and results of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation. Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. 38{sup o}N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. 12{sup o}s) over 11 declinations from -37{sup o} to +63{sup o} show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. A fit of all data to the anisotropic axisymmetric model of Rees (1968) yields a 95% confidence level limit of 0.15 mK for the magnitude of the polarized component. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits.

Lubin, Philip M.; Smoot, George F.

1980-08-01

480

Radioactive krypton background evaluation using atom counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beta-decay of 85Kr is a significant radioactive background for experiments that use liquified noble gases to search for dark matter and measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux. While there are several proposed methods for reducing Kr levels in these experiments, an independent technique is needed for measuring very low Kr levels. By selectively exciting Kr atoms to a metastable state, capturing them in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), and detecting fluorescence from the trapped atoms, individual Kr atoms can be counted with a high signal-to-noise ratio. This approach could be used to ascertain Kr impurity levels in other noble gases, with an estimated sensitivity of 3×10.

McKinsey, D. N.; Orzel, C.

2005-06-01

481

Observations and Modeling of Seismic Background Noise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The preparation of this report had two purposes. One was to present a catalog of seismic background noise spectra obtained from a worldwide network of seismograph stations. The other purpose was to refine and document models of seismic background noise that have been in use for several years. The second objective was, in fact, the principal reason that this study was initiated and influenced the procedures used in collecting and processing the data. With a single exception, all of the data used in this study were extracted from the digital data archive at the U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). This archive dates from 1972 when ASL first began deploying digital seismograph systems and collecting and distributing digital data under the sponsorship of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). There have been many changes and additions to the global seismograph networks during the past twenty years, but perhaps none as significant as the current deployment of very broadband seismographs by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of California San Diego (UCSD) under the scientific direction of the IRIS consortium. The new data acquisition systems have extended the bandwidth and resolution of seismic recording, and they utilize high-density recording media that permit the continuous recording of broadband data. The data improvements and continuous recording greatly benefit and simplify surveys of seismic background noise. Although there are many other sources of digital data, the ASL archive data were used almost exclusively because of accessibility and because the data systems and their calibration are well documented for the most part. Fortunately, the ASL archive contains high-quality data from other stations in addition to those deployed by the USGS. Included are data from UCSD IRIS/IDA stations, the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) deployed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the TERRAscope network deployed by the California Institute of Technology in cooperation with other institutions. A map showing the approximate locations of the stations used in this study is provided in Figure 1. One might hope for a better distribution of stations in the southern hemisphere, especially Africa and South America, in order to look for regional variations in seismic noise (apart from the major differences between continental, coastal and island sites). Unfortunately, anyone looking for subtle regional variations in seismic noise is probably going to be disappointed by the spectral data presented in this report because much of the station data appear to be dominated by local disturbances caused by instrumental, environmental, cultural, or surf noise. Better instruments and better instrument siting, or a well-funded field program, will be needed before a global isoseismal noise map can be produced. However, by assembling a composite of background noise from a large network of stations, many of the local station variables are masked, and it is possible to create generalized spectral plots of Earth noise for hypothetical quiet and noisy station sites.

Peterson, Jon R.