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1

Mars Background Information General Information  

E-print Network

Mars Background Information General Information Here are some quick facts about Mars in comparison with Earth: Mars Earth Atmosphere 95% CO2, 5% N2, Ar & trace gasses 0.007 atm pressure 78% N2, 21% O2, 1 successful fly-by Mariner 9 11/71 - 10/72 Orbit of Mars Viking 1&2 6/76 - 1987 Orbiter and First lander

Dennis, Robert G.

2

Scientific results from the cosmic background explorer (COBE). [Information on cosmic radiation  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 [+-] 0.06 K, with no deviation from a black-body spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant cosmic microwave background anisotropy, consistent with a scale-invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservation upper limits to the cosmic infrared background. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the cosmic infrared background limits. 104 refs., 1 tab.

Bennett, C.L.; Boggess, N.W.; Cheng, E.S.; Hauser, M.G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J.C.; Moseley, S.H. Jr.; Shafer, R.A.; Silverberg, R.F. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Murdock, T.L. (General Research Corp., Danvers, MA (United States)); Smoot, G.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Weiss, R. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge (United States)); Wright, E.L. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

1993-06-01

3

Background Information 1. What are stem cells?  

E-print Network

Background Information 1. What are stem cells? 2. What might stem cell research achieve? 3. Why we need to continue research using embryonic stem cells? 4. Time taken for discoveries 5. Examples of stem cell therapies in clinical trials 6. Patentability of human embryonic stem cell therapies 7. Creation

Rambaut, Andrew

4

Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

1994-10-01

5

Background Information Framework for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This framework will define the purpose and scope of NAEP's system of collecting background information, including background questionnaires and other sources of non-cognitive data. It will establish criteria for reporting background information as part of the National Assessment. The approach it suggests provides for asking various groups of…

National Assessment Governing Board, Washington, DC.

6

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Colon CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the descriptive manuscript cited below.

7

Background information on the SSC project  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning.

Warren, J.

1991-10-01

8

Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

Schulte, Roger R.

1987-01-01

9

Background information on high voltage fields.  

PubMed Central

The increased demand for power has led to higher voltages for overhead transmission lines. Environmentalists, governmental agencies, and some members of the scientific community have questioned if past biological effects research and experience with lower voltage lines provide adequate bases for predicting the possible health and environmental effects of the higher voltage lines. Only a small amount of work has been done to explore the possible effects, especially long term effects, of the exposure of biological systems to electric fields from transmission lines. Research in Western Europe and the United States has not identified any prompt or acute effects other than spark and electric discharge and no permanent effects. Contrasted with this are the studies of workers in Soviet and Spanish high voltage switchyards that report effects, such as excitability, headaches, drowsiness, fatique, and nausea, that are not found in Soviet line maintenance workers. The results of current and planned research, supported by both U.S. Government agencies and the private sector, should resolve a number of the present uncertanties and provide answers for the many questions concerning potential effects. PMID:598346

Janes, D E

1977-01-01

10

Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in  

E-print Network

Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in the Interior Cedar is to share information with other forest professionals on biodiversity management in Interior Cedar Hemlock of the Integrated Land Management Bureau (ILMB) that this paper will provide useful information; however, ILMB would

Coxson, Darwyn

11

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information  

E-print Network

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepared by Joel. Introduction_______________________________________________ 1 1.1. Goals of the IMRC's Smog Check Evaluation for the IMRC Smog Check Evaluation _________________ 2 3. Evaluation Process

Denver, University of

12

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

13

Background  

E-print Network

Efficiency of the EMDR procedure is based on a presumption of neuropsychological changes in therapeutic process.The aim of the investigation is to scann and give evidence of electroactivity changes, during the process of EMDR procedure and after finishing it. Materials and methods We have recorded a continual polygraph EEG, before, during and after EMDR therapy, in patient with combat-related PTSD. Results Before the treatment, EEG recorded basic activity of low voltage (attenuation) of 20 ?V, frequency of beta range (17-26 Hz), bioccipital, with no pathologic activity. Patient had prominent vegetative symptoms (anxiety, heart rate 100/min). Background activity immediately

Grozdanko Grbesa; Maja Simonovic; Dorjanka Jankovic

14

UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information  

E-print Network

1 UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information: Re-employment compensation position. Re-employment compensation is a federal-state partnership based upon federal law but it is administered at the state level. Re-employment compensation is a temporary, partial wage replacement

Wu, Shin-Tson

15

Acquisition of background and technical information and class trip planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instructors who are very familiar with a study area, as well as those who are not, find the field trip information acquisition and planning process speeded and made more effective by organizing it in stages. The stage follow a deductive progression: from the associated context region, to the study area, to the specific sample window sites, and from generalized background information on the study region to specific technical data on the environmental and human use systems to be interpreted at each site. On the class trip and in the follow up laboratory, the learning/interpretive process are at first deductive in applying previously learned information and skills to analysis of the study site, then inductive in reading and interpreting the landscape, imagery, and maps of the site, correlating them with information of other samples sites and building valid generalizations about the larger study area, its context region, and other (similar and/or contrasting) regions.

Mackinnon, R. M.; Wake, W. H.

1981-01-01

16

Background  

E-print Network

Background: Although the outcomes of caustic ingestion differ between children and adults, it is unclear whether such outcomes differ among adults as a function of their age. This retrospective study was performed to ascertain whether the clinical outcomes of caustic ingestion differ significantly between elderly and non-elderly adults. Methods: Medical records of patients hospitalized for caustic ingestion between June 1999 and July 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. Three hundred eighty nine patients between the ages of 17 and 107 years were divided into two groups: non-elderly (ingestion, substance ingested, systemic and gastrointestinal complications, psychological and systemic comorbidities, severity of mucosal injury, and time to expiration. Results: The incidence of psychological comorbidities was higher for the non-elderly group. By contrast, the incidence of systemic comorbidities, the grade of severity of mucosal damage, and the incidence of systemic complications were higher for the elderly group. The percentages of ICU admissions and deaths in the ICU were higher and the cumulative survival rate was lower for the elderly group. Elderly subjects, those with systemic complications had the greatest mortality risk due to caustic ingestion. Conclusions: Caustic ingestion by subjects ?65 years of age is associated with poorer clinical outcomes as compared to subjects < 65 years of age; elderly subjects with systemic complications have the poorest clinical outcomes. The severity of gastrointestinal tract injury appears to have no impact on the survival of elderly subjects.

Jui-min Chang; Nai-jen Liu; Betty Chien-jung Pai; Yun-hen Liu; Ming-hung Tsai; Ching-song Lee; Yin-yi Chu; Chih-chuan Lin; Cheng-tang Chiu; Hao-tsai Cheng

17

Wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing industry - background information for proposed standards  

SciTech Connect

A Standard of Performance for the control of emissions from wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing facilities is being proposed under authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. This standard would apply to new, modified, or reconstructed wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing lines that utilize the rotary spin forming process and that commence construction on or after the date of proposal of the regulation. This document contains background information and environmental and economic impact assessments of the regulatory alternatives considered in developing the proposed standard. 79 references, 280 tables.

Not Available

1983-12-01

18

Background  

E-print Network

This summary was completed upon request to provide information for the Town of Ancram for land use planning and decision-making. It identifies major natural features, as well as significant ecosystems and valuable stream, forest, wetland, and other habitats with important biological resources based on information available to the NYSDEC. It should not be considered a complete biological inventory because it is based only on existing information gleaned from various complementary, but not comprehensive, sources. In the case of Ancram, a large amount of information is available. However, there are areas for which we had no information, particularly in the western part of town. Additional general information about habitats can be found in the Wildlife and Habitat Conservation Framework developed by the Hudson River Estuary Program (Penhollow et al. 2006). If you have any questions about this summary, or want to know if it needs to be updated, please contact Karen Strong, Biodiversity Outreach Coordinator. NYSDEC’s Hudson River Estuary Program protects and improves the historic and scenic Hudson River watershed for all its residents. The program was created in 1987 and extends from the Troy dam to the Verrazano Narrows. Its core mission is to: • Ensure clean water; • Protect and restore fish and wildlife habitats;

Joe Martens

2011-01-01

19

Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services: Speak Out. Conference Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as background material for the 1978 Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services, this document provides information in six areas of concern for Ohio libraries: (1) library and information services--library users, library collections, special user needs; (2) public awareness--definition, current status, suggestions for…

Ohio State Library, Columbus.

20

DARPA background clutter data collection experiment: excavation results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most technologies in use or proposed for use to detect landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) suffer from unacceptably high false-alarm rates, even at modest probabilities of detection. High false-alarm rates are a consequence of the inability to discriminate real UXO and landmines from man-made and naturally occurring clutter. The goal of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA)- sponsored Background Clutter Data Collection Experiment is to provide data which will support the development of techniques that are more adept at discriminating UXO from benign, man- made objects. During the fall of 1996, high areal density site surveys were completed using the following sensor types: magnetometer, infrared, electromagnetic induction, and ground- penetrating radar. Preliminary analysis of the data confirmed that a large number of anomalies in the sensor data are visually indistinguishable from anomalies that are a result of emplaced inert UXO or landmines. The Firing Point 20 site at Fort A. P. Hill exhibits the largest number of these ordnance- like anomalies. To determine the source of a subset of these sensor response anomalies, a 1-week excavation effort was conducted. This paper presents an analysis of the data to determine the candidate locations for, the procedures used during, and the results of the excavation.

George, Vivian; Altshuler, Thomas W.; Rosen, Erik M.

1998-09-01

21

Scientific results from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)  

PubMed Central

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 ± 0.06 K, with no deviation from a black-body spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant cosmic microwave background anisotropy, consistent with a scale-invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservative upper limits to the cosmic infrared background. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the cosmic infrared background limits. PMID:11607383

Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H.; Murdock, T. L.; Shafer, R. A.; Silverberg, R. F.; Smoot, G. F.; Weiss, R.; Wright, E. L.

1993-01-01

22

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Simultaneous Confidence Intervals with more  

E-print Network

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Outline Bounds Illustrations Women's Health Initiative #12;Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence

Stark, Philip B.

23

A moving ship detection based on edge information of single image and background subtraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship detection based on video is important in the application of surveillance and marine safety, the detection results of tradition methods, such as background subtraction, have much noise because of background noise such as ocean wave. In this paper we present a simple but efficient method for ship detection, It is based on the edge information of single image and movement information of multi images. Firstly, detect those movement pixels used the background subtraction to the video image, and the distance transformation is operation on the difference images; Secondly, we detect the edge of video image used Canny detector , and morphological operation on the edge image, lastly, eliminate the movement pixels if their distance transformation value is bigger than the threshold. The experimental results demonstrate that is efficient to eliminate the background noise and detect the real target.

Shi, Tingyan; Yang, Lichun; Liu, Zhicheng

2013-10-01

24

Background  

Cancer.gov

Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls provide the highest quality, least biased dietary data. Traditional 24-hour recalls, however, are expensive and impractical for large-scale research because they rely on trained interviewers and multiple administrations to estimate usual intakes. As a result, researchers often make use of food frequency questionnaires, which are less expensive but contain substantial error.

25

GRIS background reduction results using isotopically enriched Ge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gamma Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) was flown twice from Alice Springs, Australia, in the spring of 1992 for a total of 32 hr at float altitude. One of the seven Ge detectors was isotopically enriched (greater than 97% Ge-70). This was the first time an enriched-Ge detector was used for astrophysical observations. Because of its thick anticoincidence shield, the GRIS instrument background is dominated by internal beta-decay in the energy range of 200-1000 keV. Half of the contribution in this beta-decay 'hump' is due to neutron-activated Ge-74. In this energy range, GRIS observed a factor of 2 reduction in the background in the enriched detector, as predicted. In future instruments (e.g., INTEGRAL), with thicker anticoincidence shields and smaller apertures, the background reduction will be even larger. Three strong instrumental background lines (54, 67, and 139 keV) are also eliminated. The elimination of the first two is particularly important for cylotron line observations.

Barthelmy, S. D.; Bartlett, L. M.; Gehrels, N.; Leventhal, M.; Teegarden, B. J.; Tueller, J.; Belyaev, S.; Lebedev, V.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.

1994-01-01

26

Immunological background Mathematical model Results Conclusions and future work T cell repertoire maintenance  

E-print Network

Immunological background Mathematical model Results Conclusions and future work T cell repertoire, March 2008 #12;Immunological background Mathematical model Results Conclusions and future work History cell activation) Effector T cell PERIPHERY (or mature T cell) #12;Immunological background Mathematical

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

27

Early results from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)  

SciTech Connect

The Cosmic Background Explorer, launched November 18, 1989, has nearly completed its first full mapping of the sky with all three of its instruments: a Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 0.1 to 10 mm, a set of Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) operating at 3.3, 5.7, and 9.6 mm, and a Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) spanning 1 to 300 {mu}m in ten bands. A preliminary map of the sky derived from DIRBE data is presented. Initial cosmological implications include: a limit on the Comptonization {ital y} parameter of 10{sup {minus}3}, on the chemical potential {mu} parameter of 10{sup {minus}2}, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy has the spectrum expected from a Doppler shift of a blackbody. There are no significant anisotropies in the microwave sky detected, other than from our own galaxy and a cos {theta} dipole anisotropy whose amplitude and direction agree with previous data. At shorter wavelengths, the sky spectrum and anisotropies are dominated by emission from local' sources of emission within our Galaxy and Solar System. Preliminary comparison of {ital IRAS} and {ital DIRBE} sky brightnesses toward the ecliptic poles shows the {ital IRAS} values to be significantly higher than found by {ital DIRBE} at 100 {mu}m. We suggest the presence of gain and zero-point errors in the {ital IRAS} total brightness data. The spacecraft, instrument designs, and data reduction methods are described.

Mather, J.C.; Hauser, M.G.; Bennett, C.L.; Boggess, N.W.; Cheng, E.S.; Eplee, R.E. Jr.; Freudenreich, H.T.; Isaacman, R.B.; Kelsall, T.; Lisse, C.M.; Moseley, S.H. Jr.; Shafer, R.A.; Silverberg, R.F.; Spiesman, W.J.; Toller, G.N.; Weiland, J.L. (Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)); Gulkis, S.; Jansssen, M. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 169-506, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)); Lubin, P.M. (UCSB Department of Physics, Goleta, California 93106 (United States)); Meyer, S.S.; Weiss, R. (Room 20F-001, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)); Murdock, T.L. (General Research Corporation, 5 Cherry Hill Drive, Suite 220, Danvers, Massachusetts 01923 (United States)); Smoot, G.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 50-232, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); Wilkinson, D.T. (Dep

1992-01-10

28

Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

2014-05-01

29

The Graphic Information Research Unit: Background and Recent Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses projects of the Graphic Information Research Unit at the Royal College of Art (England), which relates to the legibility of scientific and technical information. Summarizes the Unit's survey of problems in providing adequate guiding in libraries and museums, and reports two studies of Computer Output Microfilm library catalogues. (GT)

Reynolds, Linda

1979-01-01

30

Research Results and Information Update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research Results Monsoon behavior balanced by glaciers Research Discovers Frequent Mutations of Chromatin Significant Progress in Water Photochemistry Research Structural signature in amorphous alloy formation and plastic deformation The neural basis of Drosophila larval light/darkness preference Important roles of brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase and ceramide metabolism in leptin hypothalamic control of feeding Integrin activation and internalization on soft ECM as a mechanism of induction of stem cell differentiation by ECM elasticity Determination of electron pairing symmetry of iron-based superconductor FeSe Long-Range Topological Order in Metallic Glass Information Update List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and CNRS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and ESRC in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RSE in 2011 Funding of Major Program Projects in 2010 Funding of Key Program Projects in 2010

2011-01-01

31

Building Digital Collections: Technical Information and Background Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced on May 9, this newly updated site from the Library of Congress National Digital Library Program (NDLP) documents "technical activities relating to the procedures and practices employed by the NDLP, and its precursor American Memory Program, over the past decade." Of use to anyone involved in digital library projects, the highlight of the site is probably the Building Digital Collections section, which links to the technical documents (included with most American Memory Collections) describing how the collection was digitized and what technology was used. The site also contains descriptions of technical practices, workflow production, and a selection of background papers.

32

Information from Text: Overview of Background and Opportunities  

E-print Network

now. . . 4 #12;Exploiting Weak Structure: Text Mining 5 #12;PageRankTM 1. Underlies Google 2. How does it work? 3. Lession #1: There are clever ways to extract information automatically from weakly of the web by using its vast link structure as an indicator of an individual page's value. In essence, Google

Kimbrough, Steven Orla

33

Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

Rosenblatt, D.H.

1996-11-01

34

Distinguishing vegetation from soil background information. [by gray mapping of Landsat MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In aircraft and satellite multispectral scanner data, soil background signals are superimposed on or intermingled with information about vegetation. A procedure which accounts for soil background would, therefore, make a considerable contribution to an operational use of Landsat and other spectral data for monitoring the productivity of range, forest, and crop lands. A description is presented of an investigation which was conducted to obtain information for the development of such a procedure. The investigation included a study of the soil reflectance that supplies the background signal of vegetated surfaces. Landsat data as recorded on computer compatible tapes were used in the study. The results of the investigation are discussed, taking into account a study reported by Kauth and Thomas (1976). Attention is given to the determination of Kauth's plane of soils, sun angle effects, vegetation index modeling, and the evaluation of vegetation indexes. Graphs are presented which show the results obtained with a gray mapping technique. The technique makes it possible to display plant, soil, water, and cloud conditions for any Landsat overpass.

Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.

1977-01-01

35

Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nat

36

A Neural Mechanism for Background Information-Gated Learning Based on Axonal-Dendritic Overlaps  

PubMed Central

Experiencing certain events triggers the acquisition of new memories. Although necessary, however, actual experience is not sufficient for memory formation. One-trial learning is also gated by knowledge of appropriate background information to make sense of the experienced occurrence. Strong neurobiological evidence suggests that long-term memory storage involves formation of new synapses. On the short time scale, this form of structural plasticity requires that the axon of the pre-synaptic neuron be physically proximal to the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron. We surmise that such “axonal-dendritic overlap” (ADO) constitutes the neural correlate of background information-gated (BIG) learning. The hypothesis is based on a fundamental neuroanatomical constraint: an axon must pass close to the dendrites that are near other neurons it contacts. The topographic organization of the mammalian cortex ensures that nearby neurons encode related information. Using neural network simulations, we demonstrate that ADO is a suitable mechanism for BIG learning. We model knowledge as associations between terms, concepts or indivisible units of thought via directed graphs. The simplest instantiation encodes each concept by single neurons. Results are then generalized to cell assemblies. The proposed mechanism results in learning real associations better than spurious co-occurrences, providing definitive cognitive advantages. PMID:25767887

Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

2015-01-01

37

A neural mechanism for background information-gated learning based on axonal-dendritic overlaps.  

PubMed

Experiencing certain events triggers the acquisition of new memories. Although necessary, however, actual experience is not sufficient for memory formation. One-trial learning is also gated by knowledge of appropriate background information to make sense of the experienced occurrence. Strong neurobiological evidence suggests that long-term memory storage involves formation of new synapses. On the short time scale, this form of structural plasticity requires that the axon of the pre-synaptic neuron be physically proximal to the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron. We surmise that such "axonal-dendritic overlap" (ADO) constitutes the neural correlate of background information-gated (BIG) learning. The hypothesis is based on a fundamental neuroanatomical constraint: an axon must pass close to the dendrites that are near other neurons it contacts. The topographic organization of the mammalian cortex ensures that nearby neurons encode related information. Using neural network simulations, we demonstrate that ADO is a suitable mechanism for BIG learning. We model knowledge as associations between terms, concepts or indivisible units of thought via directed graphs. The simplest instantiation encodes each concept by single neurons. Results are then generalized to cell assemblies. The proposed mechanism results in learning real associations better than spurious co-occurrences, providing definitive cognitive advantages. PMID:25767887

Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A

2015-03-01

38

Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very nearly the speed of light. Optical studies of a December 1997 burst (GRB 971214) indicated a distance for it of nearly 12 billion light-years. With distances known, astronomers could calculate the amount of energy released during the explosion. The answers were astounding. GRB 970508, in a mere 15 seconds, released nearly ten times more energy than our Sun will release in its entire, 10-billion-year lifetime. GRB 971214, for one or two seconds, outshone the entire rest of the universe. These energies ruled out many of the numerous theories for the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts that had arisen over the previous three decades. Many answers about the origins of Gamma Ray Bursts and the physics of the fireballs will come from radio telescopes. The VLA, with its combination of sensitivity and resolving power, "has a unique role to play in deciphering GRB fireball physics," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. First, radio astronomers can see the GRB fireball far longer than it is visible at other wavelengths. A Gamma Ray Burst is visible in the gamma rays for typically seconds or minutes, in X-rays for days, and in visible light for weeks, based on the past year's experience. "With radio telescopes, we can see the fireballs for months, gaining new information every day," said Greg Taylor, also of NRAO in Socorro. "Also, at other wavelengths, they see the emission only as it is rapidly getting weaker. At radio wavelengths, we can study the emission as it rises in strength, peaks, then slowly decays." In addition, radio observations can measure the size of the fireball. "Only radio telescopes can measure the size, and we can do it in three different ways," Frail said. These techniques involve studying the scintillation, or "twinkling" of the radio emission; absorption characteristics of the emission; and, for bright, energetic afterglows, direct measurements of sizes can be made through the great resolving power of continent-wide radio telescope arrays such as t

39

US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions  

SciTech Connect

A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

1984-03-01

40

Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information  

PubMed Central

Background Although described in several reports, imported malaria in Europe has not been surveyed nationwide with overall coverage of patients and individually rechecked background information. Plasmodium falciparum infections have been reported despite regularly taken appropriate chemoprophylaxis, yet the reliability of such questionnaire-based retrospective data has been questioned. This was the starting-point for conducting a prospective nationwide survey of imported malaria where compliance data was double-checked. Methods Data was collected on all cases of imported malaria confirmed and recorded by the reference laboratory of Finland (population 5.4 million) from 2003 to 2011, and these were compared with those reported to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR). Background information was gathered by detailed questionnaires sent to the clinicians upon diagnosis; missing data were enquired by telephone of clinician or patient. Special attention was paid to compliance with chemoprophylaxis: self-reported use of anti-malarials was rechecked for all cases of P. falciparum. Results A total of 265 malaria cases (average annual incidence rate 0.5/100,000 population) had been recorded by the reference laboratory, all of them also reported to NIDR: 54% were born in malaria-endemic countries; 86% were currently living in non-endemic regions. Malaria was mainly (81%) contracted in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasmodium falciparum proved to be the most common species (72%). Immigrants constituted the largest group of travellers (44%). Pre-travel advice was received by 20% of those born in endemic regions and 81% of those from non-endemic regions. Of those with P. falciparum, 4% reported regular use of appropriate chemoprophylaxis (mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with chloroquine-resistant and atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with mefloquine-resistant P. falciparum); after individual rechecking, however, it was found that none of them had been fully compliant. Conclusions Information on compliance with chemoprophylactic regimen cannot be relied on, and it should be rechecked if malaria is suspected. The results of the present study suggest that mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil and doxycycline are effective as chemoprophylaxis against P. falciparum malaria, when taken conscientiously. PMID:23497115

2013-01-01

41

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

42

SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF TX-TY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH GROUND PENETRATING RADAR  

SciTech Connect

Ground penetrating radar surveys of the TX and TY tank farms were performed to identify existing infrastructure in the near surface environment. These surveys were designed to provide background information supporting Surface-to-Surface and Well-to-Well resistivity surveys of Waste Management Area TX-TY. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with GPR to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity{trademark} surveys. The results of the background characterization confirm the existence of documented infrastructure, as well as highlight locations of possible additional undocumented subsurface metallic objects.

MYERS DA; CUBBAGE R; BRAUCHLA R; O'BRIEN G

2008-07-24

43

First results of the COBE satellite measurement of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept and operation of the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) instrument aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer satellite are reviewed, with emphasis on the software identification and subtraction of potential systematic effects. Preliminary results obtained from the first six months of DMR data are presented, and implications for cosmology are discussed.

Smoot, G. F.; Aymon, J.; De Amici, G.; Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.; Gulkis, S.; Backus, C.; Galuk, K.; Jackson, P. D.; Keegstra, P.

1991-01-01

44

Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

1982-03-01

45

The Effects of Color and Background Information in Motion Visuals on Children's Memory and Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether color and background information in motion visuals have different effects on memory and comprehension of students in various grade levels. A three-by-three factorial pretest-posttest design was used, comparing levels of visual complexity and grade levels. The instructional content was a 12-minute computer animation…

Chen, Lin Ching

46

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information  

SciTech Connect

Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

Wang, Gen-sheng; /Case Western Reserve U.

2005-01-01

47

State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979  

SciTech Connect

Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

1981-11-01

48

CUORE crystal validation runs: Results on radioactive contamination and extrapolation to CUORE background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CUORE Crystal Validation Runs (CCVRs) have been carried out since the end of 2008 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories, in order to test the performance and the radiopurity of the TeO2 crystals produced at SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for the CUORE experiment. In this work the results of the first 5 validation runs are presented. Results have been obtained for bulk contaminations and surface contaminations from several nuclides. An extrapolation to the CUORE background has been performed.

Alessandria, F.; Andreotti, E.; Ardito, R.; Arnaboldi, C.; Avignone, F. T.; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Bloxham, T.; Brofferio, C.; Bryant, A.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Canonica, L.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; De Biasi, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Deninno, M. M.; de Waard, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Ejzak, L.; Faccini, R.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Foggetta, L.; Freedman, S. J.; Frossati, G.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Guardincerri, E.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Huang, H. Z.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kogler, L.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kraft, S.; Lenz, D.; Li, Y. L.; Liu, X.; Longo, E.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maier, G.; Martinez, C.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Newman, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rimondi, F.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Salvioni, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Schaeffer, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Stivanello, F.; Taffarello, L.; Terenziani, G.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Whitten, C. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Xu, N.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

2012-07-01

49

Discriminating direction of motion trajectories from angular speed and background information  

PubMed Central

The effects of a background scene on the perception of the trajectory of an approaching object and its relation to changes in angular speed and angular size were examined in 5 experiments. Observers judged the direction (upward or downward) of two sequentially presented motion trajectories simulating a sphere traveling towards the observer at a constant 3D speed from a fixed distance. In Experiments 1 – 4 we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and the presence of a scene background, with changes in angular size based either on the trajectories being discriminated or on an intermediate trajectory. In Experiment 5 we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and scene background with angular size either constant or consistent with an intermediate 3D trajectory. Overall, we found that: (1) observers were able to judge the direction of object motion trajectories from angular speed changes; (2) observers were more accurate with a 3D scene background as compared to a uniform background, suggesting that scene information is important for recovering object motion trajectories; and (3) observers were more accurate in judging motion trajectories based on angular speed when the angular size function was consistent with motion in depth than when the angular size was constant. PMID:23824599

Bian, Zheng; Braunstein, Myron L.; Andersen, George J.

2013-01-01

50

4-Year COBE DMR Cosmic Microwave Background Observations: Maps and Basic Results  

E-print Network

The cosmic microwave background radiation provides unique constraints on cosmological models. In this Letter we present a summary of the spatial properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation based on the full 4 years of COBE DMR observations, as detailed in a set of companion Letters. The anisotropy is consistent with a scale-invariant power law model and Gaussian statistics. With full use of the multi-frequency 4-year DMR data, including our estimate of the effects of Galactic emission, we find a power-law spectral index of $n=1.2\\pm 0.3$ and a quadrupole normalization $Q_{rms-PS}=15.3^{+3.8}_{-2.8}$ $\\mu$K. For $n=1$ the best-fit normalization is $Q_{rms-PS}\\vert_{n=1}=18\\pm 1.6$ $\\mu$K. These values are consistent with both our previous 1-year and 2-year results. The results include use of the $\\ell=2$ quadrupole term; exclusion of this term gives consistent results, but with larger uncertainties. The 4-year sky maps, presented in this Letter, portray an accurate overall visual impression of the anisotropy since the signal-to-noise ratio is ~2 per 10 degree sky map patch. The improved signal-to-noise ratio of the 4-year maps also allows for improvements in Galactic modeling and limits on non-Gaussian statistics.

C. L. Bennett; A. Banday; K. M. Gorski; G. Hinshaw; P. Jackson; P. Keegstra; A. Kogut; G. F. Smoot; D. T. Wilkinson; E. L. Wright

1996-01-12

51

The Effects of Background Information and Syntactic Cues in Reading French Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared two groups of intermediate/advanced L2 French learners on a reading comprehension test when presented with or without background knowledge of the text. This study also compared intermediate and intermediate/advanced L2 French learners' reading comprehension when presented with increasing syntactic complexity. The results of…

Garrott, Carl L.

2009-01-01

52

Simulation results of Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) for background reduction in INTEGRAL Spectrometer (SPI) germanium detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) for background reduction will be used in the INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) imaging spectrometer (SPI) to improve the sensitivity from 200 keV to 2 MeV. The observation of significant astrophysical gamma ray lines in this energy range is expected, where the dominant component of the background is the beta(sup -) decay in the Ge detectors due to the activation of Ge nuclei by cosmic rays. The sensitivity of the SPI will be improved by rejecting beta(sup -) decay events while retaining photon events. The PSD technique will distinguish between single and multiple site events. Simulation results of PSD for INTEGRAL-type Ge detectors using a numerical model for pulse shape generation are presented. The model was shown to agree with the experimental results for a narrow inner bore closed end cylindrical detector. Using PSD, a sensitivity improvement factor of the order of 2.4 at 0.8 MeV is expected.

Slassi-Sennou, S. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Feffer, P. T.; Lin, R. P.

1997-01-01

53

Planck 2013 results. XVIII. The gravitational lensing-infrared background correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-frequency capability of the Planck satellite provides information both on the integrated history of star formation (via the cosmic infrared background, or CIB) and on the distribution of dark matter (via the lensing effect on the cosmic microwave background, or CMB). The conjunction of these two unique probes allows us to measure directly the connection between dark and luminous matter in the high redshift (1 ? z ? 3) Universe. We use a three-point statistic optimized to detect the correlation between these two tracers, using lens reconstructions at 100, 143, and 217 GHz, together with CIB measurements at 100-857 GHz. Following a thorough discussion of possible contaminants and a suite of consistency tests, we report the first detection of the correlation between the CIB and CMB lensing. The well matched redshift distribution of these two signals leads to a detection significance with a peak value of 42/19? (statistical/statistical + systematics) at 545 GHz and a correlation as high as 80% across these two tracers. Our full set of multi-frequency measurements (both CIB auto- and CIB-lensing cross-spectra) are consistent with a simple halo-based model, with a characteristic mass scale for the halos hosting CIB sources of log10(M/M?) = 10.5 ± 0.6. Leveraging the frequency dependence of our signal, we isolate the high redshift contribution to the CIB, and constrain the star formation rate (SFR) density at z ? 1. We measure directly the SFR density with around 2? significance for three redshift bins between z = 1 and 7, thus opening a new window into the study of the formation of stars at early times.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

54

Background frequency, information content, and the scoring matrix in sequence alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequence alignment tools for protein/DNA sequences have been widely used to find homologous biosequences over the past few decades. In these automated procedures, the target similarity between the two sequences compared is largely determined by the scoring matrix used. Theoretically, each matrix element of the scoring matrix is a log-odd ratio, i.e., the logarithm of the target frequency over the background frequency. In real alignment applications, however, the theoretical criterion is often overlooked. In this talk, we will present a sensible solution to forcibly maintain the theoretical criterion. We will also discuss the information content of the scoring matrix.

Yu, Yi-Kuo; Altschul, Stephen

2003-03-01

55

Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

2014-12-01

56

Cosmic background radiation anisotropy at degree angular scales - Further results from the South Pole  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report further results from the University of California at Santa Barbara program to measure anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation at angular scales near 1 deg, an angular range corresponding to the largest scales where structure is observed. A 30 GHz high electron mobility transistor amplifier-based detector was coupled to the Advanced Cosmic Microwave Explorer, a 1 m off-axis Gregorian telescope. We present data that represent 64 of the total of 500 hr acquired with this system during the 1990-1991 season. The data have a statistical error of 13.5/micro-K/pixel. These are the smallest error bars of any data set of this type published to date. The data contain a significant signal with a maximum likelihood Delta T/T roughly 1 x 10 exp -5. The spectrum of the signal seen in slightly less than 2 sigma away from the thermal spectrum expected of primordial fluctuations in the cosmic background radiation. If the source of the fluctuations is primordial, then the data are consistent with cold dark matter scenarios when normalized to the large-scale anisotropy observed by COBE, while if the origin of the signal is foreground emission or another form of contaminant then the data are marginally inconsistent with standard cold dark matter models. In either case, the data are sufficiently sensitive to provide a crucial test of many models.

Schuster, Jeffrey; Gaier, Todd; Gundersen, Joshua; Meinhold, Peter; Koch, Timothy; Seiffert, Michael; Wuensche, Carlos A.; Lubin, Philip

1993-01-01

57

Simulated cosmic microwave background maps at 0.5 deg resolution: Basic results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have simulated full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy expected from cold dark matter (CDM) models at 0.5 deg and 1.0 deg angular resolution. Statistical properties of the maps are presented as a function of sky coverage, angular resolution, and instrument noise, and the implications of these results for observability of the Doppler peak are discussed. The rms fluctuations in a map are not a particularly robust probe of the existence of a Doppler peak; however, a full correlation analysis can provide reasonable sensitivity. We find that sensitivity to the Doppler peak depends primarily on the fraction of sky covered, and only secondarily on the angular resolution and noise level. Color plates of the simulated maps are presented to illustrate the anisotropies.

Hinshaw, G.; Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.

1995-01-01

58

Planck 2013 results. XXX. Cosmic infrared background measurements and implications for star formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new measurements of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using Planck. Combining HFI data with IRAS, the angular auto- and cross-frequency power spectrum is measured from 143 to 3000 GHz, and the auto-bispectrum from 217 to 545 GHz. The total areas used to compute the CIB power spectrum and bispectrum are about 2240 and 4400 deg2, respectively. After careful removal of the contaminants (cosmic microwave background anisotropies, Galactic dust, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission), and a complete study of systematics, the CIB power spectrum is measured with unprecedented signal to noise ratio from angular multipoles ? ~ 150 to 2500. The bispectrum due to the clustering of dusty, star-forming galaxies is measured from ? ~ 130 to 1100, with a total signal to noise ratio of around 6, 19, and 29 at 217, 353, and 545 GHz, respectively. Two approaches are developed for modelling CIB power spectrum anisotropies. The first approach takes advantage of the unique measurements by Planck at large angular scales, and models only the linear part of the power spectrum, with a mean bias of dark matter haloes hosting dusty galaxies at a given redshift weighted by their contribution to the emissivities. The second approach is based on a model that associates star-forming galaxies with dark matter haloes and their subhaloes, using a parametrized relation between the dust-processed infrared luminosity and (sub-)halo mass. The two approaches simultaneously fit all auto- and cross-power spectra very well. We find that the star formation history is well constrained up to redshifts around 2, and agrees with recent estimates of the obscured star-formation density using Spitzer and Herschel. However, at higher redshift, the accuracy of the star formation history measurement is strongly degraded by the uncertainty in the spectral energy distribution of CIB galaxies. We also find that the mean halo mass which is most efficient at hosting star formation is log (Meff/M?) = 12.6 and that CIB galaxies have warmer temperatures as redshift increases. The CIB bispectrum is steeper than that expected from the power spectrum, although well fitted by a power law; this gives some information about the contribution of massive haloes to the CIB bispectrum. Finally, we show that the same halo occupation distribution can fit all power spectra simultaneously. The precise measurements enabled by Planck pose new challenges for the modelling of CIB anisotropies, indicating the power of using CIB anisotropies to understand the process of galaxy formation.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Blagrave, K.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Winkel, B.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

59

Four-year COBE DMR cosmic microwave background observations: Mapsand basic results  

SciTech Connect

In this Letter we present a summary of the spatial properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation based on the full 4 yr of COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) observations, with additional details in a set of companion Letters. The anisotropy is consistent with a scale-invariant power-law model and Gaussian statistics. With full use of the multifrequency 4 yr DMR data, including our estimate of the effects of Galactic emission, we find a power-law spectral index of n = 1.2 +/- 0.3 and a quadrupole normalization Q(rms-PS) = 15.31(-2.8)(+3.8) mu K. For n = 1 the best-fit normalization is Q(rms-PS/n=1) = 18 +/- 1.6 mu K. These values are consistent with both our previous 1 yr and 2 yr results. The results include use of the l = 2 quadrupole term; exclusion of this term gives consistent results, but with larger uncertainties. The final DMR 4 yr sky maps, presented in this Letter, portray an accurate overall visual impression of the anisotropy since the signal-to-noise ratio is similar to 2 per 10 degrees sky map patch. The improved signal-to-noise ratio of the 4 yr maps also allows for improvements in Galactic modeling and limits on non-Gaussian statistics.

Bennett, C.L.; Banday, A.J.; Gorski, K.M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jackson,P.; Keegstra, P.; Kogut, A.; Smoot, G.F.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Wright, E.L.

1996-01-10

60

SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF B & BX & BY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH MAGNETICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of preliminary surface geophysical exploration activities performed between October and December 2006 at the B, BX, and BY tank farms (B Complex). The B Complex is located in the 200 East Area of the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity survey. Results of the background characterization show there are several areas located around the site with large metallic subsurface debris or metallic infrastructure.

MYERS DA

2007-09-28

61

Arctic transitions in the Land - Atmosphere System (ATLAS): Background, objectives, results, and future directions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper briefly reviews the background, objectives, and results of the Arctic Transitions in the Land-Atmosphere System (ATLAS) Project to date and provides thoughts on future directions. The key goal of the ATLAS Project is to improve understanding of controls over spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial processes in the Arctic that have potential consequences for the climate system, i.e., processes that affect the exchange of water and energy with the atmosphere, the exchange of radiatively active gases with the atmosphere, and the delivery of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. Three important conclusions have emerged from research associated with the ATLAS Project. First, associated with the observation that the Alaskan Arctic has warmed significantly in the last 30 years, permafrost is warming, shrubs are expanding, and there has been a temporary release of carbon dioxide from tundra soils. Second, the winter is a more important period of biological activity than previously appreciated. Biotic processes, including shrub expansion and decomposition, affect snow structure and accumulation and affect the annual carbon budget of tundra ecosystems. Third, observed vegetation changes can have a significant positive feedback to regional warming. These vegetation effects are, however, less strong than those exerted by land-ocean heating contrasts and the topographic constraints on air mass movements. The papers of this special section provide additional insights related to these conclusions and to the overall goal of ATLAS.

McGuire, A.D.; Sturm, M.; Chapin, F. S., III

2003-01-01

62

4Year COBE DMR Cosmic Microwave Background Observations: Maps and Basic Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosmic microwave background radiation provides unique constraints on\\u000acosmological models. In this Letter we present a summary of the spatial\\u000aproperties of the cosmic microwave background radiation based on the full 4\\u000ayears of COBE DMR observations, as detailed in a set of companion Letters. The\\u000aanisotropy is consistent with a scale-invariant power law model and Gaussian\\u000astatistics. With

C. L. Bennett; A. Banday; K. M. Gorski; G. Hinshaw; P. Jackson; P. Keegstra; A. Kogut; G. F. Smoot; D. T. Wilkinson; E. L. Wright

1996-01-01

63

The two-dimensional one-component plasma in a doubly periodic background: Exact results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We revisit the equilibrium classical statistical mechanics of the two-dimensional one-component plasma, for the special value G=2 of the coupling constant. Using a new method, we find that the model is solvable (then-body densities can be explicitly computed) for a larger class of inhomogeneous backgrounds. In particular, we can deal with a doubly periodic background; this is a classical model

Françoise Cornu; Bernard Jancovici; Lesser Blum

1988-01-01

64

Degree-scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background: SP94 results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results from two observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) performed from the South Pole during the 1993-1994 austral summer. Each observation employed a 3 deg peak-to-peak sinusoidal, single-difference chop and consisted of a 20 deg x 1 deg strip on the sky. The first observation used a receiver which operates in three channels between 38 and 45 GHz (Q-band) with a full width half maximum (FWHM) beam which varies from 1 deg to 1.15 deg. The second observation overlapped the first observation and used a receiver which operates in four channels between 26 and 36 GHz (Ka-band) with a FWHM beam which varies from 1.5 deg to 1.7 deg. Significant correlated structure is observed in all channels for each observation. The spectrum of the structure is consistent with a CMB spectrum and is formally inconsistent with diffuse synchrotron and free-free emission at the 5 sigma level. The amplitude of the structure is inconsistent with 20 K interstellar dust; however, the data do not discriminate against flat or inverted spectrum point sources. The root mean square amplitude (+/- 1 sigma) of the combined (Ka + Q) data is Delta T(sub rms) = 41.2(sup +15.5, sub -6.7) micro-K for an average window function which has a peak value of 0.97 at l = 68 and drops to e(exp -0.5) of the peak value at l = 36 and l = 106. A band power estimate of the CMB power spectrum, C(sub l), gives average value of (C(sub l)l(l + 1)/(2 pi))(sub B) = 1.77(sup +1.58, sub -0.54) x 10(exp -10).

Gundersen, J. O.; Lim, M.; Staren, J.; Wuensche, C. A.; Figueiredo, N.; Gaier, T. C.; Koch, T.; Meinhold, P. R.; Seiffert, M. D.; Cook, G.

1995-01-01

65

Early Results on Radioactive Background Characterization for Sanford Laboratory and DUSEL Experiments  

E-print Network

Measuring external sources of background for a deep underground laboratory at the Homestake Mine is an important step for the planned low-background experiments. The naturally occurring $\\gamma$-ray fluxes at different levels in the Homestake Mine are studied using NaI detectors and Monte Carlo simulations. A simple algorithm is developed to convert the measured $\\gamma$-ray rates into $\\gamma$-ray fluxes. A good agreement between the measured and simulated $\\gamma$-ray fluxes is achieved with the knowledge of the chemical composition and radioactivity levels in the rock. The neutron fluxes and $\\gamma$-ray fluxes are predicted by Monte Carlo simulations for different levels including inaccessible levels that are under construction for the planned low background experiments.

D. -M. Mei; C. Zhang; K. Thomas; F. Gray

2010-03-22

66

SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF SX TANK FARM AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH MAGNETICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the background characterization of the cribs and trenches surrounding the SX tank farm prepared by HydroGEOPHYSICS Inc, Columbia Energy & Environmental Services Inc and Washington River Protection Solutions.

MYERS DA; RUCKER D; LEVIT M; CUBBAGE B; HENDERSON C

2009-09-24

67

The two-dimensional two-component plasma plus background on a sphere: Exact results  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exact solution is given for a two-dimensional model of a Coulomb gas, more general than the previously solved ones. The system is made up of a uniformly charged background, positive particles, and negative particles, on the surface of a sphere. At the special value ?=2 of the reduced inverse temperature, the classical equilibrium statistical mechanics is worked out: the

P. J. Forrester; B. Jancovici

1996-01-01

68

Background Data Confidence Bounds Results The other side The Effectiveness of Internet Content Filters  

E-print Network

?_r=1&nl=todaysheadlines&emc=edit_th_20120522 · Study commissioned by USDoJ re Child Online Protection CHILD PORNOGRAPHY · Exemptions for literary, artistic, and educational content, ISPs, search engines. · Requires age screen for commercial porn. · Credit card number deemed adequate proof of age. #12;Background

Stark, Philip B.

69

First results from the Very Small Array - III. The cosmic microwave background power spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the power spectrum of the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background detected by the Very Small Array (VSA) in its first season of observations in its compact configuration. We find clear detections of first and second acoustic peaks at l~ 200 and ~550, plus detection of power on scales up to l= 800. The VSA power spectrum is

Paul F. Scott; Pedro Carreira; Kieran Cleary; Rod D. Davies; Richard J. Davis; Clive Dickinson; Keith Grainge; Carlos M. Gutiérrez; Michael P. Hobson; Michael E. Jones; Rüdiger Kneissl; Anthony Lasenby; Klaus Maisinger; Guy G. Pooley; Rafael Rebolo; José Alberto Rubiño-Martin; Pedro J. Sosa Molina; Ben Rusholme; Richard D. E. Saunders; Richard Savage; Anze Slosar; Angela C. Taylor; David Titterington; Elizabeth Waldram; Robert A. Watson; Althea Wilkinson

2003-01-01

70

Degree Angular Scale Interferometer First Results: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Angular Power Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present measurements of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first season of observations with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI). The instrument was deployed at the South Pole in the austral summer 1999-2000, and we made observations throughout the following austral winter. We present a measurement of the CMB angular power spectrum in the range 100

N. W. Halverson; E. M. Leitch; C. Pryke; J. Kovac; J. E. Carlstrom; W. L. Holzapfel; M. Dragovan; J. K. Cartwright; B. S. Mason; S. Padin; T. J. Pearson; A. C. S. Readhead; M. C. Shepherd

2002-01-01

71

First results from the Very Small Array - II. Observations of the cosmic microwave background  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations in eight fields covering three separated areas of sky with the Very Small Array at 34 GHz. A total area of 101 square degrees has been imaged, with sensitivity on angular scales of (equivalent to angular multipoles l= 150-900). We describe the field selection and observing strategy for these observations.

Angela C. Taylor; Pedro Carreira; Kieran Cleary; Rod D. Davies; Richard J. Davis; Clive Dickinson; Keith Grainge; Carlos M. Gutiérrez; Michael P. Hobson; Michael E. Jones; Rüdiger Kneissl; Anthony Lasenby; J. P. Leahy; Klaus Maisinger; Guy G. Pooley; Rafael Rebolo; José Alberto Rubiño-Martin; Ben Rusholme; Richard D. E. Saunders; Richard Savage; Paul F. Scott; Anze Slosar; Pedro J. Sosa Molina; David Titterington; Elizabeth Waldram; Robert A. Watson; Althea Wilkinson

2003-01-01

72

Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information  

SciTech Connect

This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

Blaser, Richard

1980-11-01

73

76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Department of Justice (DOJ) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS...and Program Analyst, FBI, Criminal Justice Information Services Division...Number: 1110-0043. Sponsor: Criminal Justice Information Services...

2011-11-08

74

Background Error Covariance Estimation Using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory.SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume

2014-01-01

75

The two-dimensional two-component plasma plus background on a sphere: Exact results  

SciTech Connect

An exact solution is given for a two-dimensional model of a Coulomb gas, more general than the previously solved ones. The system is made up of a uniformly charged background, positive particles, and negative particles, on the surface of a sphere. At the special value {Gamma} = 2 of the reduced inverse temperature, the classical equilibrium statistical mechanics is worked out: the correlations and the grand potential are calculated. The thermodynamic limit is taken, and as it is approached the grand potential exhibits a finite-size correction of the expected universal form.

Forrester, P.J. [Univ. of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Jancovici, B. [Univ. of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)]|[Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

1996-08-01

76

Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) optics module breadboard alignment methods and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) optics module will be assembled at ambient temperature but will operate at liquid helium temperature. The challenging task of ensuring that is possible to maintain alignment through cryogenic cooling and cryogenic vibration has been demonstrated in a DIRBE optics module breadboard program. This paper discusses the configuration of the DIRBE optics module breadboard, ambient temperature optical alignment methods used to assemble the breadboard, and cryogenic testing of the breadboard. The alignment of the optical assembly at ambient temperature, at 77 K, and after a 77 K vibration was within specification.

Magner, Thomas J.

1987-01-01

77

A NEW RESULT ON THE ORIGIN OF THE EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we repeatedly use the method of image stacking to study the origin of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) at GeV bands, and find that the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters (FIRST) sources undetected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope can contribute about (56 {+-} 6)% of the EGB. Because FIRST is a flux-limited sample of radio sources with incompleteness at the faint limit, we consider that point sources, including blazars, non-blazar active galactic nuclei, and starburst galaxies, could produce a much larger fraction of the EGB.

Zhou Ming; Wang Jiancheng, E-mail: mzhou@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

2013-06-01

78

Digital Pulse-Shape Discrimination Applied to an Ultra-Low-Background Gas-Proportional Counting System: First Results  

SciTech Connect

Abstract A new ultra-low-background proportional counter (ULBPC) design was recently developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This design, along with an ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS) which provides passive and active shielding with radon exclusion, has been developed to complement a new shallow underground laboratory (~30 meters water-equivalent) constructed at PNNL. After these steps to mitigate dominant backgrounds (cosmic rays, external gamma-rays, radioactivity in materials), remaining background events do not exclusively arise from ionization of the proportional counter gas. Digital pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) is thus employed to further improve measurement sensitivity. In this work, a template shape is generated for each individual sample measurement of interest, a "self-calibrating" template. Differences in event topology can also cause differences in pulse shape. In this work, the temporal region analyzed for each event is refined to maximize background discrimination while avoiding unwanted sensitivity to event topology. This digital PSD method is applied to sample and background data, and initial measurement results from a biofuel methane sample are presented in the context of low-background measurements currently being developed.

Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; Myers, A. W.; Overman, Cory T.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Richard M.

2013-05-01

79

[State and development of background information for the evaluation of Czech cancer screening programmes].  

PubMed

Czech cancer screening programmes feature a comprehensive multimodal information system which covers all the levels of assessment needed - population-based monitoring (Czech National Cancer Registry), monitoring of results in the diagnostic databases of centres, as well as the quantification of coverage and outputs of primary care according to the administrative data of health care payers. A system of personalised invitations to cancer screening programmes was launched in 2014, based on a stand-alone component of the information system which makes it possible to identify eligible clients in health care payers databases. The system was fully standardised and uniformly implemented in all health insurance companies; its functionalities also involve both continuous and retrospective assessment of the results of personalised invitation. The legislative framework in force will have to be applied and implemented for a more comprehensive and integrated employment of all involved data sources, i.e. cancer registries, screening registries, and administrative data. The system must be able to analyse de-identified individual records on clients participation in screening programmes, and thus to ensure an adequate analysis of performance indicators in compliance with international recommendations. PMID:25494889

Dušek, L; Májek, O; Klimeš, D; Bláha, M; Brabec, P; Gregor, J

2014-01-01

80

Planck early results. XVIII. The power spectrum of cosmic infrared background anisotropies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Planck maps of six regions of low Galactic dust emission with a total area of about 140 deg2, we determine the angular power spectra of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies from multipole ? = 200 to ? = 2000 at 217, 353, 545 and 857 GHz. We use 21-cm observations of Hi as a tracer of thermal dust emission to reduce the already low level of Galactic dust emission and use the 143 GHz Planck maps in these fields to clean out cosmic microwave background anisotropies. Both of these cleaning processes are necessary to avoid significant contamination of the CIB signal. We measure correlated CIB structure across frequencies. As expected, the correlation decreases with increasing frequency separation, because the contribution of high-redshift galaxies to CIB anisotropies increases with wavelengths. We find no significant difference between the frequency spectrum of the CIB anisotropies and the CIB mean, with ?I / I = 15% from 217 to 857 GHz. In terms of clustering properties, the Planck data alone rule out the linear scale- and redshift-independent bias model. Non-linear corrections are significant. Consequently, we develop an alternative model that couples a dusty galaxy, parametric evolution model with a simple halo-model approach. It provides an excellent fit to the measured anisotropy angular power spectra and suggests that a different halo occupation distribution is required at each frequency, which is consistent with our expectation that each frequency is dominated by contributions from different redshifts. In our best-fit model, half of the anisotropy power at ? = 2000 comes from redshifts z < 0.8 at 857 GHz and z < 1.5 at 545 GHz, while about 90% come from redshifts z > 2 at 353 and 217 GHz, respectively. Corresponding author: G. Lagache, e-mail: guilaine.lagache@ias.u-psud.fr

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Blagrave, K.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Grain, J.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lockman, F. J.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Oliver, S.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pinheiro Gonçalves, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2011-12-01

81

Thailand radiation monitoring program: a preliminary result analysis of the country's background radiation.  

PubMed

Environmental monitoring in the context of nuclear-related activities refers to the measurements of ambient gamma dose rates in the environment and radioactivity in air, water, soil etc. Since nuclear power programme in Thailand has not yet been in place, the environment surveillance programme in Thailand currently focuses on establishing 'baseline' environmental radiation levels and radioactivity for the purpose of establishing impacts of future possible sources such as nuclear accidents. The objective is to assure assessments concerning radiation safety for the environment and public. At present, Thailand's monitoring programme operates eight fixed monitoring stations installed in various regions of Thailand; four of which have been in operation since late 2010. The ambient gamma dose rate data are routinely collected from those four real-time monitoring stations starting from October 2010 to September 2011 as described in this study. Also, the radiation data from each station are statically analysed. This study found that the dose rate from the stations located in north and north-east of Thailand showed an apparent tendency towards a diurnal pattern. With these routine data, the average exposure dose rate was possible to estimate in Thailand. Additionally, the assessment of the equivalent dose from natural background radiation was estimated. PMID:24570484

Krisanangkura, Piyawan; Udomsomporn, Suchin

2014-08-01

82

2003 --Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT-BACKGROUND COLOR  

E-print Network

2003 -- Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT guidelines posed by "web gurus". Introduction Web Design Guidelines and Font-Background Color Combinations black on white. "Web gurus" are quick to make definitive statements about design and readable text

Missouri-Rolla, University of

83

76 FR 67182 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...felony convictions, and parties prohibited from receiving federal contracts. (2) Drug tests are for the presence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP). Contractors shall maintain records of all background...

2011-10-31

84

Comprehensive Employment and Training Act. Review and Oversight. Part I: Background and First Year Results. Part II: Public Policy Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews the establishment and early performance of the comprehensive manpower system established by the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA). The report is divided into two major sections. Part 1 examines the background and first year results of the CETA program. The legislative and programmatic antecedents to CETA are…

Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

85

Background When an electrical potential is applied to human tissue, the pattern of the resulting current flow is determined by  

E-print Network

. By measurement of the electrical current patterns over a range of frequencies, and use of an inverse modellingSummary Background When an electrical potential is applied to human tissue, the pattern of the resulting current flow is determined by the shapes, arrangements, and internal structure of the tissue cells

Smallwood, Rod

86

Planck 2013 results. XXVI. Background geometry and topology of the Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps from Planck provide the highest-quality full-sky view of the surface of last scattering available to date. This allows us to detect possible departures from the standard model of a globally homogeneous and isotropic cosmology on the largest scales. We search for correlations induced by a possible non-trivial topology with a fundamental domain intersecting, or nearly intersecting, the last scattering surface (at comoving distance ?rec), both via a direct search for matched circular patterns at the intersections and by an optimal likelihood search for specific topologies. For the latter we consider flat spaces with cubic toroidal (T3), equal-sided chimney (T2) and slab (T1) topologies, three multi-connected spaces of constant positive curvature (dodecahedral, truncated cube and octahedral) and two compact negative-curvature spaces. These searches yield no detection of the compact topology with the scale below the diameter of the last scattering surface. For most compact topologies studied the likelihood maximized over the orientation of the space relative to the observed map shows some preference for multi-connected models just larger than the diameter of the last scattering surface. Since this effect is also present in simulated realizations of isotropic maps, we interpret it as the inevitable alignment of mild anisotropic correlations with chance features in a single sky realization; such a feature can also be present, in milder form, when the likelihood is marginalized over orientations. Thus marginalized, the limits on the radius ?i of the largest sphere inscribed in topological domain (at log-likelihood-ratio ?ln ? > -5 relative to a simply-connected flat Planck best-fit model) are: in a flat Universe, ?i> 0.92?rec for the T3 cubic torus; ?i> 0.71?rec for the T2 chimney; ?i> 0.50?rec for the T1 slab; and in a positively curved Universe, ?i> 1.03?rec for the dodecahedral space; ?i> 1.0?rec for the truncated cube; and ?i> 0.89?rec for the octahedral space. The limit for a wider class of topologies, i.e., those predicting matching pairs of back-to-back circles, among them tori and the three spherical cases listed above, coming from the matched-circles search, is ?i> 0.94?rec at 99% confidence level. Similar limits apply to a wide, although not exhaustive, range of topologies. We also perform a Bayesian search for an anisotropic global Bianchi VIIh geometry. In the non-physical setting where the Bianchi cosmology is decoupled from the standard cosmology, Planck data favour the inclusion of a Bianchi component with a Bayes factor of at least 1.5 units of log-evidence. Indeed, the Bianchi pattern is quite efficient at accounting for some of the large-scale anomalies found in Planck data. However, the cosmological parameters that generate this pattern are in strong disagreement with those found from CMB anisotropy data alone. In the physically motivated setting where the Bianchi parameters are coupled and fitted simultaneously with the standard cosmological parameters, we find no evidence for a Bianchi VIIh cosmology and constrain the vorticity of such models to (?/H)0< 8.1 × 10-10 (95% confidence level).

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fabre, O.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

87

Results from the Rothney Astrophysical Observatory Variable Star Search Program: Background, Procedure, and Results from RAO Field 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a variable star search program and present the fully reduced results of a search in a 19 square degree (4.4 × 4.4) field centered on J2000 RA = 22:03:24, DEC= +18:54:32. The search was carried out with the Baker-Nunn Patrol Camera located at the Rothney Astrophysical Observatory in the foothills of the Canadian Rockies. A total of 26,271 stars were detected in the field, over a range of about 11-15 (instrumental) magnitudes. Our image processing made use of the IRAF version of the DAOPHOT aperture photometry routine and we used the ANOVA method to search for periodic variations in the light curves. We formally detected periodic variability in 35 stars, that we tentatively classify according to light curve characteristics: 6 EA (Algol), 5 EB (?? Lyrae), 19 EW (W UMa), and 5 RR (RR Lyrae) stars. Eleven of the detected variable stars have been reported previously in the literature. The eclipsing binary light curves have been analyzed with a package of light curve modeling programs and 25 have yielded converged solutions. Ten of these are of systems that are detached, 3 semi-detached, 10 overcontact, and 2 are of systems that appear to be in marginal contact. We discuss these results as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the instrument and of the program.

Williams, Michael D.; Milone, E. F.

2013-12-01

88

Free Wake Techniques for Rotor Aerodynamic Analysis. Volume 1: Summary of Results and Background Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results obtained during the development of a consistent aerodynamic theory for rotors in hovering flight are discussed. Methods of aerodynamic analysis were developed which are adequate for general design purposes until such time as more elaborate solutions become available, in particular solutions which include real fluids effects. Several problems were encountered in the course of this development, and many remain to be solved, however it is felt that a better understanding of the aerodynamic phenomena involved was obtained. Remaining uncertainties are discussed.

Miller, R. H.

1982-01-01

89

How to Make Maps from Cosmic Microwave Background Data without Losing Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments can measure cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy---in principle. To achieve this in practice when faced with such gigantic data sets, elaborate data analysis methods are needed to make it computationally feasible. An important step in the data pipeline is to make a map, which typically reduces the size of the data

Max Tegmark

1997-01-01

90

The research of rural logistics distribution information under the background of new rural construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural informatization is the national economy and the important aspects of the information society, is an inevitable trend in the development of agriculture and the content of the agricultural modernization.The production and circulation of agricultural products is restricted greatly by the ineffective information and logistics.This paper introduces the meaning of the construction of the new countryside informationization and analyzes the

Haiqiong Zhou; WangQing

2011-01-01

91

The effects of spontaneous activity, background noise, and the stimulus ensemble on information transfer in neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information theory is playing an increasingly important role in the analysis of neural data as it can precisely quantify the reliability of stimulus-response functions. Estimating the mutual information between a neural spike train and a time varying stimulus is, however, not trivial in practice and requires assumptions about the specific computations being performed by the neuron under study. Consequently, estimates

Maurice J. Chacron; André Longtin; Leonard Maler

2003-01-01

92

Background for Builders--Related Science and Trade Information for the Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primarily intended for instructors but also useful to students, this guide provides a set of lessons (interlaced with humorous phrases and cartoons) for teaching fundamental information for the building trades. Each lesson contains objectives, related information, and a review or summary. Unit I is a brief, humorous message to the student on the…

Lucas, Joseph

93

77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...there are barriers in our recruitment and selection processes, DOI must track the demographic...at various stages of the recruitment process. Response is optional...information is used for evaluating recruitment only, and plays no...

2012-04-12

94

[A Packet of Information on the Background of the AFT-NEA Merger Break.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains informational materials about the breakdown in merger talks between the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and the National Education Association (NEA). Included in the packet are (a) the AFT statement on the breakup of unity talks; (b) transcripts of two news conferences by David Selden, president of the AFT, on the…

American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

95

Radiation and mixed-waste incineration. Background information document. Volume 1. Technology. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report provides a broad look at technology issues surrounding the incineration of radioactive and mixed wastes. It is intended to high light major considerations and to provide direction that would enable the reader who must deal in depth with incineration to focus on and seek specific information on concerns appropriate to a particular situation. It is not a comprehensive

Nawar

1991-01-01

96

The gravitational wave contribution to cosmic microwave background anisotropies and the amplitude of mass fluctuations from COBE results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A stochastic background of primordial gravitational waves may substantially contribute, via the Sachs-Wolfe effect, to the large-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies recently detected by COBE. This implies a bias in any resulting determination of the primordial amplitude of density fluctuations. We consider the constraints imposed on n is less than 1 ('tilted') power-law fluctuation spectra, taking into account the contribution from both scalar and tensor waves, as predicted by power-law inflation. The gravitational wave contribution to CMB anisotropies generally reduces the required rms level of mass fluctuation, thereby increasing the linear bias parameter, even in models where the spectral index is close to the Harrison-Zel'dovich value n = 1. This 'gravitational wave bias' helps to reconcile the predictions of CDM models with observations on pairwise galaxy velocity dispersion on small scales.

Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Mollerach, Silvia

1992-01-01

97

Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

Sutter, S. L.

1982-05-01

98

Background Essential to the Proper Use of Results of Step 1 and Step 2 of the USMLE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General information about Steps 1 and 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) are offered to support proper use of the results for three general, nonlicensure applications: (1) evaluation of academic achievement; (2) program evaluation; and (3) selection for residencies. (Author/MSE)

O'Donnell, M. J.; And Others

1993-01-01

99

A comparison of approximate reasoning results using information uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

An Approximate Reasoning (AR) model is a useful alternative to a probabilistic model when there is a need to draw conclusions from information that is qualitative. For certain systems, much of the information available is elicited from subject matter experts (SME). One such example is the risk of attack on a particular facility by a pernicious adversary. In this example there are several avenues of attack, i.e. scenarios, and AR can be used to model the risk of attack associated with each scenario. The qualitative information available and provided by the SME is comprised of linguistic values which are well suited for an AR model but meager for other modeling approaches. AR models can produce many competing results. Associated with each competing AR result is a vector of linguistic values and a respective degree of membership in each value. A suitable means to compare and segregate AR results would be an invaluable tool to analysts and decisions makers. A viable method would be to quantify the information uncertainty present in each AR result then use the measured quantity comparatively. One issue of concern for measuring the infornlation uncertainty involved with fuzzy uncertainty is that previously proposed approaches focus on the information uncertainty involved within the entire fuzzy set. This paper proposes extending measures of information uncertainty to AR results, which involve only one degree of membership for each fuzzy set included in the AR result. An approach to quantify the information uncertainty in the AR result is presented.

Chavez, Gregory [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Key, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zerkle, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shevitz, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

100

Planning serials cancellations and cooperative collection development in the health sciences: methodology and background information.  

PubMed

In an era of steady-state budgets many research and academic libraries must cancel a significant number of current serials to maintain acquisitions of monographs. Thus paper reviews several techniques that have been used or that are of potential use in a rational selection of titles for cancellation. The context of the proposed methodology involves a network of libraries rather than an individual library. The methodology was tested with specific health sciences serial titles held by University of California libraries and resource libraries in NLM Region XI. As a test for the proposed methodology, background data were collected on 600 current foreign language serial titles included in SERLINE and held by at least one of the libraries in the networks of interest. Price, major secondary service coverage with productivity/impact factors, extent of holdings, and average number of recorded circulations per year in several of the libraries were recorded for each title. With the use of several different rules, estimates were made of the subscription savings that might be realized. It seems feasible to extend the same methodology to other groups of serial titles. PMID:1191822

Bourne, C P

1975-10-01

101

Intermountain Community Learning and Information Centers Concept, Processes and Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intermountain Community Learning and Information Centers are the result of work begun in 1977 by Utah State University and are based on use of rural libraries in a new information and education function. Support from the Western Rural Development Center permitted the Cooperative Extension Services, state libraries, and continuing educators from…

Wilde, Glenn R.

102

Commissioned by the NHMRC as background information for the SRDC’s Illicit Drug Research Program. Prepared by  

E-print Network

this summary of research undertaken in the past ten years into illicit drug use in Australia. This information was used at a workshop in Sydney in November 1998 where key stakeholders were brought together by the SRDC to assist in the design of a research agenda around illicit drug use. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this document is correct as at the time of printing, but the Commonwealth accepts no liability for any loss or damage resulting directly or indirectly from reliance on this information or from subsequent changes to the currency of the information. i CONTENTS

Julie H; Wayne Hall; Scott Rutter; Kate Dolan

1998-01-01

103

29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2013-07-01

104

29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2014-07-01

105

29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2012-07-01

106

29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2011-07-01

107

29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2010-07-01

108

15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The intent behind these rules is to identify as “fundamental research” basic and applied research in science and engineering, where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the...

2012-01-01

109

15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The intent behind these rules is to identify as “fundamental research” basic and applied research in science and engineering, where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the...

2013-01-01

110

15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...The intent behind these rules is to identify as “fundamental research” basic and applied research in science and engineering, where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the...

2014-01-01

111

15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The intent behind these rules is to identify as “fundamental research” basic and applied research in science and engineering, where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the scientific...

2011-01-01

112

MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT. VOLUME II. MEG CHARTS AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the derivation of Multimedia Environmental Goals (MEG's). MEG's are levels of significant contaminants or degradents (in ambient air, water, or land, or in emissions or effluents conveyed to the ambient media) that are judged to be: appropri...

113

Surveys for presence of Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa): background information and field methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) is the most aquatic of the native frogs in the Pacific Northwest. The common name derives from the pattern of black, ragged-edged spots set against a brown or red ground color on the dorsum of adult frogs. Oregon spotted frogs are generally associated with wetland complexes that have several aquatic habitat types and sizeable coverage of emergent vegetation. Like other ranid frogs native to the Northwest, Oregon spotted frogs breed in spring, larvae transform in summer of their breeding year, and adults tend to be relatively short lived (3-5 yrs). Each life stage (egg, tadpole, juvenile and adult) has characteristics that present challenges for detection. Breeding can be explosive and completed within 1-2 weeks. Egg masses are laid in aggregations, often in a few locations in large areas of potential habitat. Egg masses can develop, hatch, and disintegrate in <2 weeks during warm weather. Tadpoles can be difficult to identify, have low survival, and spend most of their 3-4 months hidden in vegetation or flocculant substrates. Juveniles and adults are often difficult to capture and can spend summers away from breeding areas. Moreover, a substantial portion of extant populations are of limited size (<100 breeding adults), and field densities of all life stages are often low. An understanding of the biology of the species and use of multiple visits are thus important for assessing presence of Oregon spotted frogs. This report is meant to be a resource for USDA Region 6 Forest Service (FS) and OR/WA Bureau of Land Management (BLM) personnel tasked with surveying for the presence of Oregon spotted frogs. Our objective was to summarize information to improve the efficiency of field surveys and increase chances of detection if frogs are present. We include overviews of historical and extant ranges of Oregon spotted frog. We briefly summarize what is known of Oregon spotted frog habitat associations and review aspects of behavior and ecology that are likely to affect detectability in the field. We summarize characteristics that can help differentiate Oregon spotted frog life stages from other northwestern ranid frogs encountered during surveys. Appendices include examples of data collection formats and a protocol for disinfecting field gear.

Pearl, Christopher A.; Clayton, David; Turner, Lauri

2010-01-01

114

Sox17 haploinsufficiency results in perinatal biliary atresia and hepatitis in C57BL/6 background mice.  

PubMed

Congenital biliary atresia is an incurable disease of newborn infants, of unknown genetic causes, that results in congenital deformation of the gallbladder and biliary duct system. Here, we show that during mouse organogenesis, insufficient SOX17 expression in the gallbladder and bile duct epithelia results in congenital biliary atresia and subsequent acute 'embryonic hepatitis', leading to perinatal death in ~95% of the Sox17 heterozygote neonates in C57BL/6 (B6) background mice. During gallbladder and bile duct development, Sox17 was expressed at the distal edge of the gallbladder primordium. In the Sox17(+/-) B6 embryos, gallbladder epithelia were hypoplastic, and some were detached from the luminal wall, leading to bile duct stenosis or atresia. The shredding of the gallbladder epithelia is probably caused by cell-autonomous defects in proliferation and maintenance of the Sox17(+/-) gallbladder/bile duct epithelia. Our results suggest that Sox17 plays a dosage-dependent function in the morphogenesis and maturation of gallbladder and bile duct epithelia during the late-organogenic stages, highlighting a novel entry point to the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of human congenital biliary atresia. PMID:23293295

Uemura, Mami; Ozawa, Aisa; Nagata, Takumi; Kurasawa, Kaoruko; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Nobuhisa, Ikuo; Taga, Tetsuya; Hara, Kenshiro; Kudo, Akihiko; Kawakami, Hayato; Saijoh, Yukio; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kanai, Yoshiakira

2013-02-01

115

Background Information for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

2001-01-01

116

Mononucleosis Background Information  

E-print Network

the respiratory system, the liver, and the lymphatic system. It is most often caused by the Epstein-Barr virus to a cold, tonsillitis or digestive disturbances. Blood tests are usually delayed until the second week

Suzuki, Masatsugu

117

Background Information about PLCO  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large population-based randomized trial evaluating screening programs for these cancers. The primary goal of this long-term trial of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and on secondary endpoints.

118

First background-free limit from a directional dark matter experiment: results from a fully fiducialised DRIFT detector  

E-print Network

The addition of O2 to gas mixtures in time projection chambers containing CS2 has recently been shown to produce multiple negative ions that travel at slightly different velocities. This allows a measurement of the absolute position of ionising events in the z (drift) direction. In this work, we apply the z-fiducialisation technique to a directional dark matter search. In particular, we present results from a 46.3 live-day source-free exposure of the DRIFT-IId detector run in this completely new mode. With full-volume fiducialisation, we have achieved the first background-free operation of a directional detector. The resulting exclusion curve for spin-dependent WIMP-proton interactions reaches 1.1 pb at 100 GeV/c2, a factor of 2 better than our previous work. We describe the automated analysis used here, and argue that detector upgrades, implemented after the acquisition of these data, will bring an additional factor of >3 improvement in the near future.

J. B. R. Battat; J. Brack; E. Daw; A. Dorofeev; A. C. Ezeribe; J. -L. Gauvreau; M. Gold; J. L. Harton; J. M. Landers; E. Law; E. R. Lee; D. Loomba; A. Lumnah; J. A. J. Matthews; E. H. Miller; A. Monte; F. Mouton; A. StJ. Murphy; S. M. Paling; N. Phan; M. Robinson; S. W. Sadler; A. Scarff; F. Schuckman; D. P. Snowden-Ifft; N. J. C. Spooner; S. Telfer; S. E. Vahsen; D. Walker; D. Warner; L. Yuriev

2014-12-02

119

A JOINT MODEL OF THE X-RAY AND INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUNDS. I. MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present an extragalactic population model of the cosmic background light to interpret the rich high-quality survey data in the X-ray and IR bands. The model incorporates star formation and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion in a co-evolution scenario to fit simultaneously 617 data points of number counts, redshift distributions, and local luminosity functions (LFs) with 19 free parameters. The model has four main components, the total IR LF, the SMBH accretion energy fraction in the IR band, the star formation spectral energy distribution (SED), and the unobscured SMBH SED extinguished with a H I column density distribution. As a result of the observational uncertainties about the star formation and SMBH SEDs, we present several variants of the model. The best-fit reduced {chi}{sup 2} reaches as small as 2.7-2.9 of which a significant amount (>0.8) is contributed by cosmic variances or caveats associated with data. Compared to previous models, the unique result of this model is to constrain the SMBH energy fraction in the IR band that is found to increase with the IR luminosity but decrease with redshift up to z {approx} 1.5; this result is separately verified using aromatic feature equivalent-width data. The joint modeling of X-ray and mid-IR data allows for improved constraints on the obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN), especially the Compton-thick AGN population. All variants of the model require that Compton-thick AGN fractions decrease with the SMBH luminosity but increase with redshift while the type 1 AGN fraction has the reverse trend.

Shi, Yong; Helou, George; Armus, Lee; Stierwalt, Sabrina [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dale, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

2013-02-10

120

A Search Result Clustering Method using Informatively Named Entities  

E-print Network

on the American presidential elections and he inputs "presidential election" to the search system, he can also category information of labels, which is generated by NE extraction. We implement a prototype system based indicate the desired document[1], the typical retrieval system outputs the many results returned as a long

Lee, Dongwon

121

Information systems outsourcing success factors: a review and some results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to offer the results of a survey about information systems (IS) outsourcing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology is a questionnaire survey of 357 IS managers in Spanish firms. Findings – IS outsourcing is a widespread activity that has been growing on a worldwide basis in recent years. The main outsourcing success factors for large Spanish firms

Reyes-G. Gonzalez; Jose Gasco; Juan Llopis

2005-01-01

122

Finite state automata resulting from temporal information maximization  

E-print Network

Finite state automata resulting from temporal information maximization Thomas Wennekers1 Infomax in that case leads to finite state automata, either completely de- terministic or at most weakly non-deterministic. Transitions between internal states of these systems are almost perfectly

Wennekers, Thomas

123

Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L. [and others

1993-10-01

124

Writing with Others' Words: Native and Non-Native University Students' Use of Information from a Background Reading Text in Academic Compositions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the use of background information by native and non-native English-speaking university students in explaining, summarizing, paraphrasing, quoting, and copying information from a reading text. Thirty students in composition courses (10 native speakers and 20 non-native speakers, 10 each from a remedial and a standard class) wrote…

Campbell, Cherry

125

Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization  

E-print Network

Polarization of the cosmic microwave background, though not yet detected, provides a source of information about cosmological parameters complementary to temperature fluctuations. This paper provides a complete theoretical treatment of polarization fluctuations. After a discussion of the physics of polarization, the Boltzmann equation governing the evolution of the photon density matrix is derived from quantum theory and applied to microwave background fluctuations, resulting in a complete set of transport equations for the Stokes parameters from both scalar and tensor metric perturbations. This approach is equivalent at lowest order in scattering kinematics to classical radiative transfer, and provides a general framework for treating the cosmological evolution of density matrices. The metric perturbations are treated in the physically appealing longitudinal gauge. Expressions for various temperature and polarization correlation functions are derived. Detection prospects and theoretical utility of microwave background polarization are briefly discussed.

Arthur Kosowsky

1995-02-03

126

How to Interpret Candidate Results in Truescreen Once the background check is complete, the Divisional HR Manager will receive an email for  

E-print Network

How to Interpret Candidate Results in Truescreen Once the background check is complete will contain a link that will take you directly to the candidate's results. This document details how results are displayed in Truescreen and when communication should be sent to the hiring department. Pass- The candidate

Stuart, Steven J.

127

Background Error Covariance Estimation using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation into the GEOS-5 Coupled Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory. SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele M.; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume; Koster, Randal D. (Editor)

2014-01-01

128

Health Information Literacy and Competencies of Information Age Students: Results From the Interactive Online Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA)  

PubMed Central

Background In an era of easy access to information, university students who will soon enter health professions need to develop their information competencies. The Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA) is based on the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, and it measures proficiency in obtaining health information, evaluating the quality of health information, and understanding plagiarism. Objective This study aimed to measure the proficiency of college-age health information consumers in finding and evaluating electronic health information; to assess their ability to discriminate between peer-reviewed scholarly resources and opinion pieces or sales pitches; and to examine the extent to which they are aware of their level of health information competency. Methods An interactive 56-item online assessment, the Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA), was used to measure the health information competencies of university students. We invited 400 students to take part in the study, and 308 participated, giving a response rate of 77%. The RRSA included multiple-choice questions and problem-based exercises. Declarative and procedural knowledge were assessed in three domains: finding health information, evaluating health information, and understanding plagiarism. Actual performance was contrasted with self-reported skill level. Upon answering all questions, students received a results page that summarized their numerical results and displayed individually tailored feedback composed by an experienced librarian. Results Even though most students (89%) understood that a one-keyword search is likely to return too many documents, few students were able to narrow a search by using multiple search categories simultaneously or by employing Boolean operators. In addition, nearly half of the respondents had trouble discriminating between primary and secondary sources of information as well as between references to journal articles and other published documents. When presented with questionable websites on nonexistent nutritional supplements, only 50% of respondents were able to correctly identify the website with the most trustworthy features. Less than a quarter of study participants reached the correct conclusion that none of the websites made a good case for taking the nutritional supplements. Up to 45% of students were unsure if they needed to provide references for ideas expressed in paraphrased sentences or sentences whose structure they modified. Most respondents (84%) believed that their research skills were good, very good, or excellent. Students’ self-perceptions of skill tended to increase with increasing level of education. Self-reported skills were weakly correlated with actual skill level, operationalized as the overall RRSA score (Cronbach alpha = .78 for 56 RRSA items). Conclusions While the majority of students think that their research skills are good or excellent, many of them are unable to conduct advanced information searches, judge the trustworthiness of health-related websites and articles, and differentiate between various information sources. Students’ self-reports may not be an accurate predictor of their actual health information competencies. PMID:16867969

O’Boyle, Irene; Casey, Anne Marie

2006-01-01

129

Tectonic background of a unique hydrogen-rich Kairei Hydrothermal Field, Central Indian Ridge: Results from Taiga Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Indian Ridge (CIR) is slow~intermediate spreading systems and its southern end forms a R-R-R triple junction with SWIR and SEIR. The southern CIR shows slow-spreading morphology, where the axial valley develops along the ridge crest and an oceanic core complex has been reported near the triple junction. Kairei Hydrothermal Field (KHF) is unique hydrothermal system, located at the southern end of CIR. The fluids venting from the KHF are characterized by its high concentration of hydrogen with low methane/hydrogen ratio, and a hydrogen-based hyperthermophilic subsurface lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystem was confirmed (Takai et al., 2004). The KHF lies on basaltic lava area on the shoulder of ridge axial wall, being different from other hydrogen-rich hydrothermal fields hosted by ultramafic rocks. We selected this area as an integrated site for the Taiga Project, and conducted series of research cruises to characterize this unique system and to understand how the tectonic setting controls the fluid and ecosystem. We discover that the KHF itself is located above basaltic lava field but gabbro and ultramafic rocks are widely exhumed around the KHF. Besides a previously known oceanic core complex, small oceanic core complexes exist just east of the KHF (Kumagai et al., 2008) and the NTO massif north of the KHF shows peridotite exposure on its top. The unique fluid geochemistry of the KHF can be attributed to serpentinization of troctolites around or beneath the KHF and subsequent hydrothermal reactions with basaltic wall rocks (Nakamura et al., 2009). We also find several small hills where we collect deep crustal and mantle rocks. These hills suggesting melt-limited environment extend mainly along 2nd order segment boundary from the axial valley to 30km off-axis, i.e. ~1.7 Ma. The regional surface geophysical mapping and deep-tow magnetic profiling show high mantle Bouguer anomaly and prominent asymmetric spreading in the southernmost CIR segment. These observations are consistent with limited melt supply and possible implication of detachment faults. The collected peridotites might preserve relics of older partial melting events, resulting in the formation of heterogeneous mantle material beneath the current CIR axis. The latest stage of decompression melting beneath the CIR might be limited because the presence of depleted peridotite formed by ancient partial melting. The similar evolution process is proposed in the eastern SWIR, so the tectonic background of the KHF may be closely related to the evolution of triple junction. We also discover dead chimneys on the NTO massif north of the KHF. The AUV-attached magnetometer detects a higher positive magnetization around the chimney sites, suggesting hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks. Although densely operated CTD tow-yo surveys and micro-sensors attached to the wire during dredge and net operations do not detect clear evidence of another active hydrothermal vent, an ultramafic-hosted hydrothermalism exists or at least existed on the NTO massif.

Okino, K.; Nakamura, K.; Morishita, T.; SATO, H.; Sato, T.; Mochizuki, N.; Okamura, K.; Fukuba, T.; Sunamura, M.

2012-12-01

130

Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

1981-01-01

131

Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a 'Y' junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re-entry survey, and routine surveys around the crater lip did not identify alpha contamination. Background information includes several radiological surveys conducted after these two tests. The MULLET area has been surveyed frequently. The early surveys indicate the area as both contaminated and containing buried radioactive material. A survey conducted in 1970 found the radiological/chemical piping partially intact, including the 'Y' junction, and shows two runs of intact piping running past the U2am crater lip. The survey focused on the piping system itself and detected alpha contamination from 4 counts per minute (cpm) to 900,000 cpm. The highest value was at a pipe flange between a dirt pile and a dirt berm within the current site fence line. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. A 1972 survey was essentially a repeat of the 1970 survey; however, it does not show the 'Y' junction nor does it show piping extending past the U2am crater lip. It also shows a new fence line separating the radiological/chemical piping from the U2am crater area with all piping within the fence. Alpha contamination was detected on pipe flanges during the survey, but alpha contamination was not detected on the dirt pile or the dirt berm. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. Additional surveys were conducted in 1986, 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996. One of the surveys focused on determining the extent of soil contamination around GZ. An alpha contamination plume extending approximately 200 feet south of GZ was detected in a swath approximately 100 feet wide. The maximum measurement was 15,000 cpm alpha. All surveys show the piping within the fence line. Recent surveys (2007 and 2008) were performed around the current fence line by the demarcation group. No removable contamination was identified during these surveys. In late 2008, a visual inspection of the site was conducted by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Restoration group. All piping is within the fence line. Photos taken during this site visit are attached.

none,

2012-06-26

132

Correlated Adiabatic and Isocurvature Cosmic Microwave Background Fluctuations in the Wake of the Results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general correlated models, in addition to the usual adiabatic component with a spectral index nad1 there is another adiabatic component with a spectral index nad2 generated by entropy perturbation during inflation. We extend the analysis of a correlated mixture of adiabatic and isocurvature cosmic microwave background fluctuations of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) group, who set the two adiabatic spectral indices equal. Allowing nad1 and nad2 to vary independently we find that the WMAP data favor models where the two adiabatic components have opposite spectral tilts. Using the WMAP data only, the 2? upper bound for the isocurvature fraction fiso of the initial power spectrum at k0=0.05 Mpc-1 increases somewhat, e.g., from 0.76 of nad2=nad1 models to 0.84 with a prior niso<1.84 for the isocurvature spectral index.

Väliviita, Jussi; Muhonen, Vesa

2003-09-01

133

Tribal connections health information outreach: results, evaluation, and challenges  

PubMed Central

In 1997, the National Library of Medicine (NLM), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), initiated a program of intensified outreach to Native Americans, initially focusing on the Pacific Northwest in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest Regional Medical Library (PNRML). This initiative, known as the Tribal Connections Project, emphasized the establishment or strengthening of Internet connections at select Indian reservations and Alaska Native villages and related needs assessment and training. The hope was that these efforts would improve tribal access to health information available via the Internet and the Web. Phase I included sixteen tribal sites—eight in Washington, four in Alaska, two in Montana, and one each in Oregon and Idaho. Phase I results indicate that the project was successful in assessing local needs and building awareness of the Internet, forging new partnerships with and between the participating Indian reservations and Alaska Native villages and other organizations, making real improvements in the information technology (IT) infrastructure and Internet connectivity at fifteen of sixteen sites, and conducting training sessions with several hundred tribal participants across thirteen sites. Most importantly, the project demonstrated the key role of tribal community involvement and empowerment and contributed to development of an outreach evaluation field manual and the evolving concept of community-based outreach. The knowledge gained from Tribal Connections Project Phase I is helping refine and enhance subsequent NLM-sponsored tribal connections and similar community outreach efforts. PMID:12568158

Wood, Fred B.; Sahali, Roy; Press, Nancy; Burroughs, Catherine; Mala, Theodore A.; Siegel, Elliot R.; Fuller, Sherrilynne S.; Rambo, Neil

2003-01-01

134

Child Care Providers' Use of HIV/AIDS Information Resources: Links to Professional Background Variables and Feelings about Caring for an HIV-Infected Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined child caregivers' use of various HIV/AIDS information resources in relation to professional background and attitudes. Found that providers' education level, child care experience, and the age group for which they were responsible correlated with use of newspaper/magazine articles, pamphlets, and educational workshops. Use of…

Coleman, Mick; Toledo, Carlos; Wallinga, Charlotte

2002-01-01

135

A new advanced surface modification technique--titanium oxide ceramic surface implants: the background and long-term results.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the background of advanced surface modification technologies and presents a new technique that forms a titanium oxide ceramic coating with relatively long-term clinical use. Three general techniques are used to modify surfaces: adding or removing material, or changing material already present. Surface properties can also be changed through laser or electron beam thermal treatment without adding or removing material. The new technique outlined in this paper describes producing a corrosion-resistant, 2000 A to 2500 A thick, coherent crystalline oxide ceramic layer on the surface of titanium implants. The layer is grown electrochemically from the bulk of the metal and modified by heat treatment. Compared with implants covered with other coatings, the improved properties of such oxide ceramic-coated implants include the advantages of higher external hardness and greater adherence between the titanium and the ceramic oxide coating. The virtually perfect insulation between the tissue and the metal prevents metal allergy. The coated implants were subjected to various physical and chemical tests and electron microscopy for a qualitative characterization. Finally, these implants (plates, screws for maxillofacial osteosynthesis, and dental root implants) were followed in surgical practice for 10 years. Tests demonstrated and the acquired experience confirmed the good properties of the titanium oxide ceramic-coated implants. PMID:10847966

Szabó, G; Kovács, L; Vargha, K; Barabás, J; Németh, Z

1999-01-01

136

Early results from the MIT millimeter and sub-millimeter balloon-borne anisotropy measurement. [of cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MIT balloon-borne bolometric search for Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) anisotropies places the most stringent constraints to date on fluctuations in the CMBR. Four maps of half of the Northern Hemisphere at 1.8, 1.1, 0.63 and 0.44 mm wavelength, have a beam size of 3.8 deg with a 1 sigma sensitivity of less than 0.1 mK (thermodynamic) per FOV in each of the first two channels. Analysis of the sky map at 1.8 mm wavelength using a likelihood ratio test for galactic latitudes of 15 deg and greater yields a 95 percent confidence level (CL) upper limit on fluctuations of the CMBR at DeltaT/T less than or equal to 1.6 x 10 exp -5 with a statistical power of 92 percent for Gaussian fluctuations at a correlation angle of 13 deg. Between 3 deg and 22 deg, the upper limit for fluctuations is DeltaT/T less than or equal to 4.0 x 10 exp -5 (95 percent CL).

Meyer, Stephan S.; Cheng, Edward S.; Page, Lyman A.

1991-01-01

137

49 CFR 655.72 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 655.72 Section...Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) Each recipient...employer, you must use the Management Information System (MIS) form and...

2012-10-01

138

49 CFR 382.403 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 382.403 Section...Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) An employer...employer must use the Management Information System (MIS) form and...

2011-10-01

139

49 CFR 382.403 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 382.403 Section...Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) An employer...employer must use the Management Information System (MIS) form and...

2012-10-01

140

49 CFR 382.403 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 382.403 Section...Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) An employer...employer must use the Management Information System (MIS) form and...

2013-10-01

141

49 CFR 655.72 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 655.72 Section...Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) Each recipient...employer, you must use the Management Information System (MIS) form and...

2014-10-01

142

49 CFR 655.72 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 655.72 Section...Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) Each recipient...employer, you must use the Management Information System (MIS) form and...

2011-10-01

143

49 CFR 382.403 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 382.403 Section...Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) An employer...employer must use the Management Information System (MIS) form and...

2014-10-01

144

49 CFR 655.72 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 655.72 Section...Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) Each recipient...employer, you must use the Management Information System (MIS) form and...

2013-10-01

145

49 CFR 382.403 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Reporting of results in a management information system. 382... Reporting of results in a management information system...The employer must use the Management Information System (MIS...for these employees in the event of a DOT agency...

2010-10-01

146

Background Check Consent Statement This Background Check Consent Statement documents your consent for Indiana University to obtain a background  

E-print Network

Background Check Consent Statement This Background Check Consent Statement documents your consent on file with the University). Failure to provide consent or the required information will result. This consent will apply throughout my employment in any position at Indiana University or during my

Zhou, Yaoqi

147

Background Information for Think Tank on Planning, Governance and System Building Early Care and Education--NYC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides some background on early childhood planning and system building around the country. Since mid-December, the author has been studying these efforts for Child Care, Inc. (CCI) interviewing national experts and reading widely. This outline provides insights and lesson learned from those inquiries. The goal at this meeting will…

Boressoff, Todd

2008-01-01

148

"Micro-syntax, macro-syntax, foregrounding and backgrounding in discourse: When indexicals target discursively subsidiary information"*  

E-print Network

1 "Micro-syntax, macro-syntax, foregrounding and backgrounding in discourse: When indexicals target.'s (forthcoming) distinction between "micro-syntax" and "macro-syntax", as well as the orthogonal dichotomy in terms of "macro-syntax". The overall aim is to characterise the limits of discourse-anaphoric reference

Boyer, Edmond

149

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, VOL. 11, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2007 537 Variable Background Active Contour Model for  

E-print Network

(US). I. INTRODUCTION THYROID nodules are solid or cystic lumps formed in the thyroid gland, and can Variable Background Active Contour Model for Computer-Aided Delineation of Nodules in Thyroid Ultrasound-aided approach for nodule delineation in thyroid ultrasound (US) images. The devel- oped algorithm is based

Athens, University of

150

Annual report on the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Results of Phase 1 investigation  

SciTech Connect

Many constituents of potential concern for human health occur naturally at low concentrations in undisturbed soils. The Background soil Characterization Project (BSCP) was undertaken to provide background concentration data on potential contaminants in natural soils on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objectives of the BSCP are to provide baseline data for contaminated site assessment and estimates of potential human health risk associated with background concentrations of hazardous and other constituents in native soils. This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in Phase I of the project. It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program.

Watkins, D.R.; Goddard, P.L.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Kimbrough, C.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Lietzke, D.A.; McGin, C.W.; Nourse, B.D.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Shaw, R.A.; Stinnette, S.E.; Switek, J.; Wright, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.; Burgoa, B.B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science; Lietzke, D.A. [Lietzke (David A.), Rutledge, TN (United States)

1993-05-01

151

Background Study and Proposals for Development of Information Provision in Science and Technology in Ethiopia. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provision of information for research and development in science and technology in Ethiopia was studied by 50 participants in a seminar on evaluation and analysis of a national information policy and plan. Policy makers and planners, users, producers and suppliers of information, information specialists, and representatives of Unesco (United…

Schwarz, Stephan; Winkel, Annette

152

Preliminary results from the COBE differential microwave radiometers - Large angular scale isotropy of the cosmic microwave background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary but precise micowave maps are presented of the sky, and thus of the early universe, derived as the first results from the Differential Microwave Radiometers experiment aboard COBE. The dipole anisotropy attributed to the motion of the solar system with respect to the CMB reference frame shows strongly in all six sky maps and is consistent with a Doppler-shifted

G. F. Smoot; C. L. Bennett; A. Kogut; J. Aymon; C. Backus; G. de Amici; K. Galuk; P. D. Jackson; P. Keegstra; L. Rokke; L. Tenorio; S. Torres; S. Gulkis; M. G. Hauser; M. A. Janssen; J. C. Mather; R. Weiss; D. T. Wilkinson; E. L. Wright; N. W. Boggess; E. S. Cheng; T. Kelsall; P. Lubin; S. Meyer; S. H. Moseley; T. L. Murdock; R. A. Shafer; R. F. Silverberg

1991-01-01

153

The Effect of Background Knowledge on Young Children's Comprehension of Explicit and Implicit Information. Technical Report No. 116.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate the applicability of schema-theoretic notions to young children's comprehension of textually explicit and inferrable information, slightly above-average second grade readers with strong and weak schemata for knowledge about spiders read a passage about spiders and answered wh-questions tapping both explicitly stated information and…

Pearson, P. David; And Others

154

Integrating Numerical Groundwater Modeling Results With Geographic Information Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many different types of data are used to create numerical models of flow and transport of groundwater in the vadose zone. Results from water balance studies, infiltration models, hydrologic properties, and digital elevation models (DEMs) are examples of such data. Because input data comes in a variety of formats, for consistency the data need to be assembled in a coherent fashion on a single platform. Through the use of a geographic information system (GIS), all data sources can effectively be integrated on one platform to store, retrieve, query, and display data. In our vadoze zone modeling studies in support of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Restoration Project, we employ a GIS comprised of a Raid storage device, an Oracle database, ESRI's spatial database engine (SDE), ArcView GIS, and custom GIS tools for three-dimensional (3D) analysis. We store traditional GIS data, such as, contours, historical building footprints, and study area locations, as points, lines, and polygons with attributes. Numerical flow and transport model results from the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM) are stored as points with attributes, such as fluid saturation, or pressure, or contaminant concentration at a given location. We overlay traditional types of GIS data with numerical model results, thereby allowing us to better build conceptual models and perform spatial analyses. We have also developed specialized analysis tools to assist in the data and model analysis process. This approach provides an integrated framework for performing tasks such as comparing the model to data and understanding the relationship of model predictions to existing contaminant source locations and water supply wells. Our process of integrating GIS and numerical modeling results allows us to answer a wide variety of questions about our conceptual model design: - Which set of locations should be identified as contaminant sources based on known historical building operations? - Which locations need to be assigned different infiltration rates based on physiographic and hydrologic setting? - Which regions of the Laboratory are likely problem areas based on the hydrostratigrahphy, infiltration rate, and location of contaminant sources? By integrating GIS technology with 3D numerical modeling techniques, we provide an effective means to analyze, store, and view a wide range of data, which has proven useful for modeling groundwater flow and transport. An example presented in this study is a 3D flow and transport model for the vadose zone beneath Los Alamos canyon in northern New Mexico, the site of past contaminant releases by Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Witkowski, M. S.; Robinson, B. A.; Linger, S. P.

2001-12-01

155

Accounting for results: how conservation organizations report performance information.  

PubMed

Environmental program performance information is in high demand, but little research suggests why conservation organizations differ in reporting performance information. We compared performance measurement and reporting by four private-land conservation organizations: Partners for Fish and Wildlife in the US Fish and Wildlife Service (national government), Forest Stewardship Council-US (national nonprofit organization), Land and Water Conservation Departments (local government), and land trusts (local nonprofit organization). We asked: (1) How did the pattern of performance reporting relationships vary across organizations? (2) Was political conflict among organizations' principals associated with greater performance information? and (3) Did performance information provide evidence of program effectiveness? Based on our typology of performance information, we found that most organizations reported output measures such as land area or number of contracts, some reported outcome indicators such as adherence to performance standards, but few modeled or measured environmental effects. Local government Land and Water Conservation Departments reported the most types of performance information, while local land trusts reported the fewest. The case studies suggest that governance networks influence the pattern and type of performance reporting, that goal conflict among principles is associated with greater performance information, and that performance information provides unreliable causal evidence of program effectiveness. Challenging simple prescriptions to generate more data as evidence, this analysis suggests (1) complex institutional and political contexts for environmental program performance and (2) the need to supplement performance measures with in-depth evaluations that can provide causal inferences about program effectiveness. PMID:25549998

Rissman, Adena R; Smail, Robert

2015-04-01

156

Behavioral Information Security: An Overview, Research Agenda, and Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over recent decades, most work organizations have come to depend on information technology for their operations. As connectivity among computer devices has increased, so has the likelihood of intrusion, theft, defacement, and other forms of information resource loss. Surprisingly, although organizations sometimes focus more on vulnerability to external attack than internal, recent industry research by Ernst and Young (2002) suggests

Jeffrey M. Stanton; Cavinda Caldera; Indira Guzman; Ashley Isaac; Peyina Lin; Mala Mathur; Joshua Seymour; Christiane Spitzmueller; Kathryn Stam; Isabelle Yamodo; Norhayati Zakaria

157

Air/ground wind shear information integration: Flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. High level microburst products were extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the wind shear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in the core of each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which in situ 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne in situ measurements. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurement would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the feasibility of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

Hinton, David A.

1992-01-01

158

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry-background information for proposed air emission standards. Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, and semi-chemical mills. Interim final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being proposed for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. The document provides technical background information and analyses used in the development of the proposed pulp and paper NESHAP. It covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills. Effluent guideline limitations for pulp and paper mills are being developed concurrently under the Clean Water Act. Technical information used for the development of effluent guideline limitations is in separate documents.

Not Available

1993-10-01

159

Preliminary results from the COBE differential microwave radiometers - Large angular scale isotropy of the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary but precise micowave maps are presented of the sky, and thus of the early universe, derived as the first results from the Differential Microwave Radiometers experiment aboard COBE. The dipole anisotropy attributed to the motion of the solar system with respect to the CMB reference frame shows strongly in all six sky maps and is consistent with a Doppler-shifted thermal spectrum. The best-fitted dipole has amplitude 3.3 + or - 0.2 mK in the direction (alpha, delta) = 11.2 h + or - 0.2 h, -7 deg + or - 2 deg (J2000) or (l,b) = 265 deg + or - 2 deg, 48 deg + or - 2 deg. There is no clear evidence in the maps for any other large angular-scale feature. Limits on Delta T/T0 of 3 x 10 to the -5th (T0 = 2.735 K), 4 x 10 to the -5th, and 4 x 10 to the -5th are found for the rms quadrupole amplitude, monochromatic fluctuations, and Gaussian fluctuations, respectively. These measurements place the most severe constraints to date on many potential physical processes in the early universe. 25 refs.

Smoot, G.F.; Aymon, J.; Bennett, C.L.; Kogut, A.; Backus, C. (California, University, Berkeley (USA) NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA) ST Systems, Inc., Lanham, MD (USA))

1991-04-01

160

Preliminary results from the COBE differential microwave radiometers - Large angular scale isotropy of the cosmic microwave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary but precise micowave maps are presented of the sky, and thus of the early universe, derived as the first results from the Differential Microwave Radiometers experiment aboard COBE. The dipole anisotropy attributed to the motion of the solar system with respect to the CMB reference frame shows strongly in all six sky maps and is consistent with a Doppler-shifted thermal spectrum. The best-fitted dipole has amplitude 3.3 + or - 0.2 mK in the direction (alpha, delta) = 11.2 h + or - 0.2 h, -7 deg + or - 2 deg (J2000) or (l,b) = 265 deg + or - 2 deg, 48 deg + or - 2 deg. There is no clear evidence in the maps for any other large angular-scale feature. Limits on Delta T/T0 of 3 x 10 to the -5th (T0 = 2.735 K), 4 x 10 to the -5th, and 4 x 10 to the -5th are found for the rms quadrupole amplitude, monochromatic fluctuations, and Gaussian fluctuations, respectively. These measurements place the most severe constraints to date on many potential physical processes in the early universe.

Smoot, G. F.; Aymon, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.; Backus, C.

1991-01-01

161

Heterogeneous Genetic Background of the Association of Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma and Pituitary Adenoma: Results From a Large Patient Cohort  

PubMed Central

Context: Pituitary adenomas and pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (pheo/PGL) can occur in the same patient or in the same family. Coexistence of the two diseases could be due to either a common pathogenic mechanism or a coincidence. Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the possible coexistence of pituitary adenoma and pheo/PGL. Design: Thirty-nine cases of sporadic or familial pheo/PGL and pituitary adenomas were investigated. Known pheo/PGL genes (SDHA-D, SDHAF2, RET, VHL, TMEM127, MAX, FH) and pituitary adenoma genes (MEN1, AIP, CDKN1B) were sequenced using next generation or Sanger sequencing. Loss of heterozygosity study and pathological studies were performed on the available tumor samples. Setting: The study was conducted at university hospitals. Patients: Thirty-nine patients with sporadic of familial pituitary adenoma and pheo/PGL participated in the study. Outcome: Outcomes included genetic screening and clinical characteristics. Results: Eleven germline mutations (five SDHB, one SDHC, one SDHD, two VHL, and two MEN1) and four variants of unknown significance (two SDHA, one SDHB, and one SDHAF2) were identified in the studied genes in our patient cohort. Tumor tissue analysis identified LOH at the SDHB locus in three pituitary adenomas and loss of heterozygosity at the MEN1 locus in two pheochromocytomas. All the pituitary adenomas of patients affected by SDHX alterations have a unique histological feature not previously described in this context. Conclusions: Mutations in the genes known to cause pheo/PGL can rarely be associated with pituitary adenomas, whereas mutation in a gene predisposing to pituitary adenomas (MEN1) can be associated with pheo/PGL. Our findings suggest that genetic testing should be considered in all patients or families with the constellation of pheo/PGL and a pituitary adenoma. PMID:25494863

Dénes, Judit; Swords, Francesca; Rattenberry, Eleanor; Stals, Karen; Owens, Martina; Cranston, Treena; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Moran, Linda; Kumar, Ajith; Wassif, Christopher; Fersht, Naomi; Baldeweg, Stephanie E.; Morris, Damian; Lightman, Stafford; Agha, Amar; Rees, Aled; Grieve, Joan; Powell, Michael; Boguszewski, Cesar Luiz; Dutta, Pinaki; Thakker, Rajesh V.; Srirangalingam, Umasuthan; Thompson, Chris J.; Druce, Maralyn; Higham, Claire; Davis, Julian; Eeles, Rosalind; Stevenson, Mark; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Taniere, Phillipe; Skordilis, Kassiani; Gabrovska, Plamena; Barlier, Anne; Webb, Susan M.; Aulinas, Anna; Drake, William M.; Bevan, John S.; Preda, Cristina; Dalantaeva, Nadezhda; Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio; Garcia, Isabel Tena; Yordanova, Galina; Iotova, Violeta; Evanson, Jane; Grossman, Ashley B.; Trouillas, Jacqueline; Ellard, Sian; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Maher, Eamonn R.; Roncaroli, Federico

2015-01-01

162

49 CFR 655.72 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...management information system. 655.72 Section...of results in a management information system. (a) Each...Office of Safety and Security, or its designated...you must use the Management Information System (MIS) form...

2010-10-01

163

Using Twitter to Assess Information Needs: Early Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information needs tell us why search terms are used, helping to disambiguate, for example, what exactly people are looking for with queries such as 'Orange' or 'Java'. It is hard to understand goals and motivations, however, from the keywords entered into search engines alone. This paper discusses the pilot analysis of 180,000 tweets, containing search-related terms, to try and understand

Max L. Wilson

164

Undergraduates' academic information and library behaviors: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper proposes to present preliminary findings from a larger study which examine and describe five issues of undergraduates' academic information and library behaviors: where students begin their research; how they evaluate online sources; what library resources they use; what formats they prefer for reading academic material; and specific laptop behaviors. Student perspectives on these issues and their

Diane Mizrachi

2010-01-01

165

Hurricane Backgrounder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides basic information on hurricanes. topics include the definition of hurricane , where they are likely to form, and their potential for damage, including high winds, heavy rainfall, flooding, tornadoes, and microbursts. There is also an illustration showing the Saffir-Simpson scale for classifying hurricane intensity, information on naming hurricanes, and a set of links to additional information.

2007-12-12

166

Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year.

Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

1980-10-01

167

Results of phase one of land use information Delphi study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS) is being developed for the city portion of the Santa Monica mountains. LUMIS incorporates data developed from maps and aerial photos as well as traditional land based data associated with routine city and county record keeping activities and traditional census data. To achieve the merging of natural resource data with governmental data LUMIS is being designed in accordance with restrictions associated with two other land use information systems currently being constructed by Los Angeles city staff. The two city systems are LUPAMS (Land Use Planning and Management System) which is based on data recorded by the County Assessor's office for each individual parcel of land in the city, and Geo-BEDS, a geographically based environmental data system.

Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.

1975-01-01

168

Informed citizen and empowered citizen in health: results from an European survey  

PubMed Central

Background The knowledge about the relationship between health-related activities on the Internet (i.e. informed citizens) and individuals' control over their own experiences of health or illness (i.e. empowered citizens) is valuable but scarce. In this paper, we investigate the correlation between four ways of using the Internet for information on health or illness and citizens attitudes and behaviours toward health professionals and health systems and establish the profile of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe. Methods Data was collected during April and May 2007 (N = 7022), through computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). Respondents from Denmark, Germany, Greece, Latvia, Norway, Poland and Portugal participated in the survey. The profiles were generated using logistic regressions and are based on: a) socio-demographic and health information, b) the level of use of health-related online services, c) the level of use of the Internet to get health information to decide whether to consult a health professional, prepare for a medical appointment and assess its outcome, and d) the impact of online health information on citizens' attitudes and behavior towards health professionals and health systems. Results Citizens using the Internet to decide whether to consult a health professional or to get a second opinion are likely to be frequent visitors of health sites, active participants of online health forums and recurrent buyers of medicines and other health related products online, while only infrequent epatients, visiting doctors they have never met face-to-face. Participation in online health communities seems to be related with more inquisitive and autonomous patients. Conclusions The profiles of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe are situational and country dependent. The number of Europeans using the Internet to get health information to help them deal with a consultation is raising and having access to online health information seems to be associated with growing number of inquisitive and self-reliant patients. Doctors are increasingly likely to experience consultations with knowledgeable and empowered patients, who will challenge them in various ways. PMID:21496309

2011-01-01

169

Learning to rank diversified results for biomedical information retrieval from multiple features  

PubMed Central

Background Different from traditional information retrieval (IR), promoting diversity in IR takes consideration of relationship between documents in order to promote novelty and reduce redundancy thus to provide diversified results to satisfy various user intents. Diversity IR in biomedical domain is especially important as biologists sometimes want diversified results pertinent to their query. Methods A combined learning-to-rank (LTR) framework is learned through a general ranking model (gLTR) and a diversity-biased model. The former is learned from general ranking features by a conventional learning-to-rank approach; the latter is constructed with diversity-indicating features added, which are extracted based on the retrieved passages' topics detected using Wikipedia and ranking order produced by the general learning-to-rank model; final ranking results are given by combination of both models. Results Compared with baselines BM25 and DirKL on 2006 and 2007 collections, the gLTR has 0.2292 (+16.23% and +44.1% improvement over BM25 and DirKL respectively) and 0.1873 (+15.78% and +39.0% improvement over BM25 and DirKL respectively) in terms of aspect level of mean average precision (Aspect MAP). The LTR method outperforms gLTR on 2006 and 2007 collections with 4.7% and 2.4% improvement in terms of Aspect MAP. Conclusions The learning-to-rank method is an efficient way for biomedical information retrieval and the diversity-biased features are beneficial for promoting diversity in ranking results. PMID:25560088

2014-01-01

170

Speech synthesis in background noise: effects of message formulation and visual information on the intelligibility of American English DECTalk.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current research was to investigate the intelligibility of synthesized speech in noise, when listeners are able to watch an individual using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) formulate messages on-line and when they are listening to a speaker without any visual information. A total of 80 participants were randomly assigned to four groups, with 20 participants in each group. Each group listened to sentences delivered using a different message formulation strategy: prestored; audibly formulated (messages are formulated on-line and the listener is able to hear the formulation as the message is being encoded); audibly formulated with no repeat (the full sentence at the end is not repeated); and quietly formulated (the message is formulated on-line, but the listener is not able to hear the system feedback throughout the formulation). The speaker for this study was a 35-year-old woman with cerebral palsy who used a VOCA with DECTalk (Beautiful Betty, American English) to communicate. Half of the sentences were presented in an auditory-only condition and half were presented in an auditory-visual condition. The dependent variable was intelligibility, as measured by the percentage of words correctly transcribed by each listener. The overall intelligibility of the sentences in the Audibly Formulated with No Repeat group was statistically significantly lower than in each of the other message formulation type groups. Visual information did not have an effect on intelligibility for this speaker. Clinical implications, limitations, and directions for future research and development are discussed. PMID:17487630

Drager, Kathryn D R; Anderson, Jessie L; Debarros, Julie; Hayes, Elizabeth; Liebman, Jamie; Panek, Elizabeth

2007-06-01

171

The temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation at 3. 8 GHz - Results of a measurement from the South Pole site  

SciTech Connect

As part of an international collaboration to measure the low-frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, its temperature was measured at a frequency of 3.8 GHz, during the austral spring of 1989, obtaining a brightness temperature, T(CMB), of 2.64 {plus minus}0.07 K (68 percent confidence level). The new result is in agreement with previous measurements at the same frequency obtained in 1986-88 from a very different site and has comparable error bars. Combining measurements from all years, T(CMB) = 2.64 {plus minus}0.06 K is obtained. 19 refs.

De amici, G.; Limon, M.; Smoot, G.F.; Bersanelli, M.; Kogut, A.; Levin, S. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (USA) California University, Berkeley (USA) CNR, Istituto di Fisica Cosmica e Tecnologie Relative, Milan (Italy) NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA) JPL, Pasadena, CA (USA))

1991-11-01

172

The temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation at 3.8 GHz - Results of a measurement from the South Pole site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an international collaboration to measure the low-frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, its temperature was measured at a frequency of 3.8 GHz, during the austral spring of 1989, obtaining a brightness temperature, T(CMB), of 2.64 +/-0.07 K (68 percent confidence level). The new result is in agreement with previous measurements at the same frequency obtained in 1986-88 from a very different site and has comparable error bars. Combining measurements from all years, T(CMB) = 2.64 +/-0.06 K is obtained.

De Amici, Giovanni; Limon, Michele; Smoot, George F.; Bersanelli, Marco; Kogut, AL; Levin, Steve

1991-01-01

173

15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...734.11 of this part provide specific rules that will be used...research in science and engineering, where the resulting...proprietary reasons or specific national security...its researchers accept specific national security...

2010-01-01

174

Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

1985-06-01

175

Wandering in the Background: A Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer  

E-print Network

Wandering in the Background: A Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer by Wayne T. Hu B.A. (Princeton Spinrad 1995 #12;1 Wandering in the Background: A Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer by Wayne T. Hu and geometry. Stressing model independent results, we show how the microwave background can be used to extract

Hu, Wayne

176

Does googling for preconception care result in information consistent with international guidelines: a comparison of information found by Italian women of childbearing age and health professionals  

PubMed Central

Background Preconception counseling is effective in reducing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The Internet is commonly used by women and health professionals to search for health information. We compared the consistency of preconception information found on the Internet with the recommendations published by American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (AJOG) simulating a web search by women of childbearing age and health professionals. Methods We reviewed websites resulting from a Google search performed using search strings selected by Italian women of childbearing age and health professionals. We investigated if retrieved information was consistent with AJOG recommendations for preconception care. Logistic regression was used to compare presence of consistent recommendations between women and health professionals. Results The highest frequency of correct recommendations was found for folic acid supplementation (39.4% of websites). Consistency of preconception information did not significantly differ between search strategies except for folic acid supplementation. “Communities and blogs” website category provided less frequently correct recommendations compared with “Medical/Public Agency" category (i.e. folic acid supplementation (aOR 0.254; CI 0.098-0.664; p?=?<0.01). Commercial links, found in 60% of websites, were associated with presence of correct recommendations excepting few items (i.e. physical exercise (aOR 1.127; CI 0.331-3.840; p?=?0.848). Conclusions Preconception information found is poor and inaccurate regardless of the search is performed by women or health professionals. It is unlikely that information found on the web have any positive impact among women and health professionals in our setting. Strategies to improve preconception information on the web and education of health professionals for web searching of health information should be considered. PMID:23347453

2013-01-01

177

Advanced information processing system: Fault injection study and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the AIPS program is to achieve a validated fault tolerant distributed computer system. The goals of the AIPS fault injection study were: (1) to present the fault injection study components addressing the AIPS validation objective; (2) to obtain feedback for fault removal from the design implementation; (3) to obtain statistical data regarding fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration responses; and (4) to obtain data regarding the effects of faults on system performance. The parameters are described that must be varied to create a comprehensive set of fault injection tests, the subset of test cases selected, the test case measurements, and the test case execution. Both pin level hardware faults using a hardware fault injector and software injected memory mutations were used to test the system. An overview is provided of the hardware fault injector and the associated software used to carry out the experiments. Detailed specifications are given of fault and test results for the I/O Network and the AIPS Fault Tolerant Processor, respectively. The results are summarized and conclusions are given.

Burkhardt, Laura F.; Masotto, Thomas K.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

1992-01-01

178

Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information  

MedlinePLUS

... plant, but many compounds may be responsible for valerian's relaxing effect. Are botanical dietary supplements safe? Many ... before their full effects are achieved. For example, valerian may be effective as a sleep aid after ...

179

Improving Access to HIV and AIDS Information Resources for Patients, Caregivers, and Clinicians: Results from the SHINE Project  

PubMed Central

Background Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) remains a significant international public health challenge. The Statewide HIV/AIDS Information Network (SHINE) Project was created to improve HIV/AIDS health information use and access for health care professionals, patients, and affected communities in Indiana. Objective: Our objective was to assess the information-seeking behaviors of health care professionals and consumers who seek information on the testing, treatment, and management of HIV/AIDS and the usability of the SHINE Project’s resources in meeting end user needs. The feedback was designed to help SHINE Project members improve and expand the SHINE Project’s online resources. Methods: A convenience sample of health care professionals and consumers participated in a usability study. Participants were asked to complete typical HIV/AIDS information-seeking tasks using the SHINE Project website. Feedback was provided in the form of standardized questionnaire and usability “think-aloud” responses. Results: Thirteen participants took part in the usability study. Clinicians generally reported the site to be “very good,” while consumers generally found it to be “good.” Health care professionals commented that they lack access to comprehensive resources for treating patients with HIV/AIDS. They requested new electronic resources that could be integrated in clinical practice and existing information technology infrastructures. Consumers found the SHINE website and its collected information resources overwhelming and difficult to navigate. They requested simpler, multimedia-content rich resources to deliver information on HIV/AIDS testing, treatment, and disease management. Conclusions: Accessibility, usability, and user education remain important challenges that public health and information specialists must address when developing and deploying interventions intended to empower consumers and support coordinated, patient-centric care. PMID:23569627

Dixon, Brian E.; Kaneshiro, Kellie

2012-01-01

180

Urban Chinese Smokers From Lower Socioeconomic Backgrounds Face More Barriers to Quitting: Results From the International Tobacco Control-China Survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Research findings on social disparities in barriers to quitting faced by smokers from mainly Western English-language countries may or may not generalize to smokers in China. This paper sought to determine whether nicotine dependence, quitting self-efficacy, quitting interest differ by socio-economic status (SES), and whether they mediate the relationship between SES and quitting behavior of urban Chinese smokers. Methods: Data come from 7,309 adult smokers who participated in the first 3 waves of the International Tobacco Control-China survey conducted in 7 cities across China. The association of socio-economic indicators with nicotine dependence, quitting self-efficacy, quitting interest, and behavior was evaluated using generalized estimating equations models along with a formal test of mediational effects. Results: The SES index indicated that those from lower SES were significantly more addicted (p < .001), less confident (p < .001), and less interested in quitting (p < .05). This finding was replicated by education and employment status, but it was not clearly related to income. Mediational analyses revealed that the effects of SES on making quit attempts and quit success among those who tried were indirect. For quit attempts, self-efficacy, interest to quit, and heaviness of smoking index (HSI) were all significant mediators of the SES effect (p < .001), but for maintenance, only HSI was a significant mediator (p < .001). Conclusions: Urban Chinese smokers from lower socio- economic backgrounds experience greater levels of psychological and behavioral barriers to quitting than their counterparts from higher socio-economic backgrounds and as such, they need more help to quit and do so successfully. PMID:23125438

2013-01-01

181

Backgrounds of women applying for hymen reconstruction, the effects of counselling on myths and misunderstandings about virginity, and the results of hymen reconstruction.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective To study the backgrounds of women requesting hymen 'repair', to assess the effects of extensive counselling, and the effects of hymen reconstruction. Methods A two-centre qualitative study, consisting of a semi-structured interview, education, discussion of alternatives, and instructions for self-examination (first visit), educational examination (second visit), decision on operation or alternative (third visit), and follow-up (fourth visit). Results Eighty-two women were interviewed at first visit. Sixty-eight women were followed until their decision to be operated upon or not. Forty-eight percent of all subjects reported a history of sexual violence, and 37% had had one or more abortions. Only 29% eventually decided to be operated. Seventeen of the 19 women who submitted to an operation and attended the follow-up visit reported no blood loss at first marital intercourse. Conclusions Most women requesting hymen reconstruction had a history complicated by critical life events related to their request. All women were afraid they would not bleed and/or would not be 'tight' enough during the wedding night. For 75% of the women empowerment by means of extensive counselling resulted in a decision against operation. Hymenoplasty alone does not help women because most operated women will not bleed and because they often also have to prove to be 'tight' enough. PMID:22292534

van Moorst, Bianca R; van Lunsen, Rik H W; van Dijken, Dorenda K E; Salvatore, Concetta M

2012-04-01

182

Extracting remaining information from an inconclusive result in optimal unambiguous state discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In unambiguous state discrimination, the measurement results consist of the error-free results and an inconclusive result, and an inconclusive result is conventionally regarded as a useless remainder from which no information about initial states is extracted. In this paper, we investigate the problem of extracting remaining information from an inconclusive result, provided that the optimal total success probability is determined. We present three simple examples. An inconclusive answer in the first two examples can be extracted partial information, while an inconclusive answer in the third one cannot be. The initial states in the third example are defined as the highly symmetric states.

Zhang, Gang; Yu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Wen-Hai; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

2014-12-01

183

Building Background Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on

Donna Ross

2010-01-01

184

Improving the Compilation of Prolog to C Using Type and Determinism Information: Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the current status of and provide preliminary performance results for a compiler of Prolog to C. The compiler is novel in that it is designed to accept different kinds of high-level information (typically ob- tained via an analysis of the initial Prolog program and expressed in a standardized language of assertions) and use this information to optimize the

J. Morales; M. Carro; M. Hermenegildo

185

LETTER Communicated by Peter Tino Finite State Automata Resulting from Temporal Information  

E-print Network

LETTER Communicated by Peter Tino Finite State Automata Resulting from Temporal Information processes providing input to the system. Tem- poral Infomax in that case leads to finite state automata, either com- pletely deterministic or weakly nondeterministic. Transitions between internal states

Wennekers, Thomas

186

Preliminary test Results for a 25K Sorption Cryocooler Designed for the UCSB Long Duration Balloon Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuous operation, vibration-free, long-life 25K sorption cryocooler has been built and is now in final integration and performance testing. This cooler wil be flown on the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Experiment.

Wade, L. A.; Levy, A. R.

1996-01-01

187

Fear information and social phobic beliefs in children: a prospective paradigm and preliminary results.  

PubMed

This paper presents a first attempt to develop a prospective paradigm to test Rachman's (Behav. Res. Ther. 15 (1977) 375) theory of fear acquisition for social fears. Following the prospective paradigm for animal fears developed by Field et al. (Behav. Res. Ther. 39 (2001) 1259) an attempt is made to adapt this paradigm to look at the effect of fear information in the development of social fears. A large group of normal children (N=135) who were at an age (10-13 years) at which social concerns are most pertinent were tested using this paradigm. They were given positive, negative or neutral information about three social situations: public speaking, eating in public, and meeting a new group of children. Children's fear beliefs were measured before and after the information was given and the information was given by a teacher, a same age peer or no information was given (a control). The results indicate that although information can change social fear beliefs it is dependent upon the type of social activity and who provides the information. The implications of these initial results for our understanding of both the role of fear information in the development of social fear beliefs, and the limitations of this current paradigm are discussed. PMID:12488124

Field, A P; Hamilton, S J; Knowles, K A; Plews, E L

2003-01-01

188

Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present in the standard big bang model. In the present calculation, evolutionary effects on grain opacity and abundance are estimated. At wavelengths used in studying the microwave background, the optical depth of the grains is found to be 0.18 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.03, and 0.05 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.5. The results indicate that microwave background can provide information on an early dense phase of the universe.

Pollaine, S.

1978-01-01

189

Barriers to implementation of a redesign of information transfer and feedback in acute care: results from a multiple case study  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate information transfer is an important element of continuity of care and patient safety. Despite the demonstrated urge for improvement of communication in acute care, there is a lack of data on improvements of communication. This study aims to describe the barriers to implementation of a redesign of the existing model for information transfer and feedback. Methods A case study with six cases (i.e. acute care chains), using mixed methods was carried out in the Netherlands. The redesign was implemented in one acute care chain while the five other acute care chains served as control groups. Focus group interviews were held with members of the acute care chains and questionnaires were sent to care providers working in the acute care chains. Results Respondents reported three sets of barriers for implementation of the model: (a) existing routines for information transfer and feedback in organizations within the acute care chain; (b) barriers related to the implementation method and time period; and (c) the absence of a high ‘sense of urgency’ amongst providers in the acute care chain which would aid in improving the communication process. Conclusions This study shows that organizational factors play an important role in the success or failure of redesigning a communication process. Organizational routines can hamper implementation of a redesign if it differs too much from the routines of care providers involved. Besides focussing on provider characteristics in the implementation of a redesigned process, specific attention should be paid to unlearning existing organizational routines. PMID:24694305

2014-01-01

190

Genetic Background Can Result in a Marked or Minimal Effect of Gene Knockout (GPR55 and CB2 Receptor) in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Models of Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Endocannabinoids and some phytocannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid one (TRPV1) receptor and the orphan G protein receptor fifty-five (GPR55). Studies using C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 (Cnr2tm1Zim) CB2 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice have demonstrated an immune-augmenting effect in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis. However, other EAE studies in Biozzi ABH mice often failed to show any treatment effect of either CB2 receptor agonism or antagonism on inhibition of T cell autoimmunity. The influence of genetic background on the induction of EAE in endocannabinoid system-related gene knockout mice was examined. It was found that C57BL/6.GPR55 knockout mice developed less severe disease, notably in female mice, following active induction with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide. In contrast C57BL/6.CB2 (Cnr2Dgen) receptor knockout mice developed augmented severity of disease consistent with the genetically and pharmacologically-distinct, Cnr2tm1Zim mice. However, when the knockout gene was bred into the ABH mouse background and EAE induced with spinal cord autoantigens the immune-enhancing effect of CB2 receptor deletion was lost. Likewise CB1 receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid one knockout mice on the ABH background demonstrated no alteration in immune-susceptibility, in terms of disease incidence and severity of EAE, in contrast to that reported in some C57BL/6 mouse studies. Furthermore the immune-modulating influence of GPR55 was marginal on the ABH mouse background. Whilst sedative doses of tetrahydrocannabinol could induce immunosuppression, this was associated with a CB1 receptor rather than a CB2 receptor-mediated effect. These data support the fact that non-psychoactive doses of medicinal cannabis have a marginal influence on the immune response in MS. Importantly, it adds a note of caution for the translational value of some transgenic/gene knockout and other studies on low-EAE susceptibility backgrounds with inconsistent disease course and susceptibility. PMID:24130809

Jackson, Samuel J.; Tanner, Carolyn; Ross, Ruth A.; Michael, Gregory J.; Selwood, David L.; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

2013-01-01

191

How do patient characteristics influence informal payments for inpatient and outpatient health care in Albania: Results of logit and OLS models using Albanian LSMS 2005  

PubMed Central

Background Informal payments for health care are common in most former communist countries. This paper explores the demand side of these payments in Albania. By using data from the Living Standard Measurement Survey 2005 we control for individual determinants of informal payments in inpatient and outpatient health care. We use these results to explain the main factors contributing to the occurrence and extent of informal payments in Albania. Methods Using multivariate methods (logit and OLS) we test three models to explain informal payments: the cultural, economic and governance model. The results of logit models are presented here as odds ratios (OR) and results from OLS models as regression coefficients (RC). Results Our findings suggest differences in determinants of informal payments in inpatient and outpatient care. Generally our results show that informal payments are dependent on certain characteristics of patients, including age, area of residence, education, health status and health insurance. However, they are less dependent on income, suggesting homogeneity of payments across income categories. Conclusions We have found more evidence for the validity of governance and economic models than for the cultural model. PMID:21605459

2011-01-01

192

The University of Oklahoma Background Check Authorization (updated 02/05/2013) Hiring department completes this section. Incomplete information will delay the hiring process.  

E-print Network

for termination of past employment, financial/credit history, criminal history records from any criminal justice to substantiate their qualifications for employment. Criminal background checks will be conducted in addition

Oklahoma, University of

193

OneBusAway: Results from Providing Real-Time Arrival Information for Public Transit  

E-print Network

OneBusAway: Results from Providing Real-Time Arrival Information for Public Transit Brian Ferris@cs.washington.edu ABSTRACT Public transit systems play an important role in combating traffic congestion, reducing carbon emissions, and promot- ing compact, sustainable urban communities. The usability of public transit can

Anderson, Richard

194

UD Credit Card Information Noncompliance with University or Departmental Policy may result in UD Credit Card  

E-print Network

UD Credit Card Information Noncompliance with University or Departmental Policy may result in UD Credit Card cancelation or credit limit reduction. 1. Review the credit card tutorials at: http forgotten your username, contact Procurement Services at 302-831-2161. 3. UD Credit Card Activation When

Firestone, Jeremy

195

Impact of Using Information Technology in Central University Libraries in India: Results of a Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research study conducted to assess the perceptions and opinions of 100 staff working in libraries on the impact of using IT on library housekeeping operations and information services, in eight central university libraries in India. Design/methodology/approach: Data gathering…

Peyala, Venkataramana

2011-01-01

196

Finite state automata resulting from temporal information maximization and a temporal learning rule  

E-print Network

Finite state automata resulting from temporal information maximization and a temporal learning rule; processes providing input to the system. Temporal Infomax in that case leads to finite state automata, either completely deterministic or weakly non­deterministic. Transi­ tions between internal states

Wennekers, Thomas

197

Using TIMSS and PISA Results to Inform Educational Policy: A Study of Russia and Its Neighbours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we develop a multi-level comparative approach to analyse Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS) and Programme of International Student Achievement (PISA) mathematics results for a country, Russia, where the two tests provide contradictory information about students' relative performance. Russian students…

Carnoy, Martin; Khavenson, Tatiana; Ivanova, Alina

2015-01-01

198

Decision-Making in Flight with Different Convective Weather Information Sources: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports preliminary and partial results of a flight experiment to address how General Aviation (GA) pilots use weather cues to make flight decisions. This research presents pilots with weather cue conditions typically available to GA pilots in visual meteorological conditions (VMC) and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) today, as well as in IMC with a Graphical Weather Information System (GWIS). These preliminary data indicate that both VMC and GWIS-augmented IMC conditions result in better confidence, information sufficiency and perceived performance than the current IMC condition. For all these measures, the VMC and GWIS-augmented conditions seemed to provide similar pilot support. These preliminary results are interpreted for their implications on GWIS display design, training, and operational use guidelines. Final experimental results will compare these subjective data with objective data of situation awareness and decision quality.

Latorella, Kara A.; Chamberlain, James P.

2004-01-01

199

Informal Care and Inter-vivos Transfers: Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women  

PubMed Central

Informal care is the largest source of long-term care for elderly, surpassing home health care and nursing home care. By definition, informal care is unpaid. It remains a puzzle why so many adult children give freely of their time. Transfers of time to the older generation may be balanced by financial transfers going to the younger generation. This leads to the question of whether informal care and inter-vivos transfers are causally related. We analyze data from the 1999 and 2003 waves of National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. We examine whether the elderly parents give more inter-vivos monetary transfers to adult children who provide informal care, by examining both the extensive and intensive margins of financial transfers and of informal care. We find statistically significant results that a child who provides informal care is more likely to receive inter-vivos transfers than a sibling who does not. If a child does provide care, there is no statistically significant effect on the amount of the transfer. PMID:25285181

Norton, Edward C.; Nicholas, Lauren H.; Huang, Sean Sheng-Hsiu

2013-01-01

200

Public library consumer health information pilot project: results of a National Library of Medicine evaluation  

PubMed Central

In October 1998, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) launched a pilot project to learn about the role of public libraries in providing health information to the public and to generate information that would assist NLM and the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) in learning how best to work with public libraries in the future. Three regional medical libraries (RMLs), eight resource libraries, and forty-one public libraries or library systems from nine states and the District of Columbia were selected for participation. The pilot project included an evaluation component that was carried out in parallel with project implementation. The evaluation ran through September 1999. The results of the evaluation indicated that participating public librarians were enthusiastic about the training and information materials provided as part of the project and that many public libraries used the materials and conducted their own outreach to local communities and groups. Most libraries applied the modest funds to purchase additional Internet-accessible computers and/or upgrade their health-reference materials. However, few of the participating public libraries had health information centers (although health information was perceived as a top-ten or top-five topic of interest to patrons). Also, the project generated only minimal usage of NLM's consumer health database, known as MEDLINEplus, from the premises of the monitored libraries (patron usage from home or office locations was not tracked). The evaluation results suggested a balanced follow-up by NLM and the NN/LM, with a few carefully selected national activities, complemented by a package of targeted activities that, as of January 2000, are being planned, developed, or implemented. The results also highlighted the importance of building an evaluation component into projects like this one from the outset, to assure that objectives were met and that evaluative information was available on a timely basis, as was the case here. PMID:11055298

Wood, Fred B.; Lyon, Becky; Schell, Mary Beth; Kitendaugh, Paula; Cid, Victor H.; Siegel, Elliot R.

2000-01-01

201

Microwave Background, Backgrounds Hierarchy - Polyphony of Universe  

E-print Network

We discuss the structure, physical nature, dynamic genesis of clearly detected diffuse backgrounds (radiations) in the Universe. From the point of view of Wave Universe concept it is shown, that observed Backgrounds Hierarchy (Polyphony of Universe) is close connected and causely determined by the sound velocity Hierarchy of the physical medium, cosmic (polycomponent) plasma. The well-known Microwave Background (Cosmic Background Radiation - CBR) corresponds to the F[3] Background, that is characterized by the calculated sound velocity C*[3]=11.483 km/s, by the calculated temperature T*[3]=2.9 grad.K and by wavelength of the radiation intensity maximum lambda*[3]=1 mm.

A. M. Chechelnitsky

2001-05-18

202

Return of results in translational iPS cell research: considerations for donor informed consent  

PubMed Central

Efforts have emerged internationally to recruit donors with specific disease indications and to derive induced pluripotent cell lines. These disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cell lines have the potential to accelerate translational goals such as drug discovery and testing. One consideration for donor recruitment and informed consent is the possibility that research will result in findings that are clinically relevant to the cell donor. Management protocols for such findings should be developed a priori and disclosed during the informed consent process. The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has developed recommendations for informing donors in sponsored research. These recommendations include obtaining consent to recontact tissue donors for a range of scientific, medical and ethical considerations. This article reviews the basis for these recommendations and suggests conditions that may be appropriate when reporting findings to donors. PMID:23336317

2013-01-01

203

Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km - 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRlS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

Bernacki, Bruce; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean; Jordan, David; Kulisek, Jonathan; Stewart, Trevor; Seifert, Carolyn

2014-06-01

204

Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

2014-06-13

205

Demographic Risk Factors and Gambling Preference May Not Explain the High Prevalence of Gambling Problems Among the Population with Migration Background: Results from a German Nationwide Survey.  

PubMed

There are high proportions of problem gamblers among individuals who themselves or whose parents immigrated to Germany. This study aimed to examine whether demographic risk factors and gambling preference may explain the higher prevalence of gambling problems among those with migration background (MB). Data was obtained from a nationwide telephone survey which was part of the project "Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology" (PAGE). The sample comprised 15,023 study participants aged 14-64 years living in Germany. Participants who had reported gambling within their lifetime (n = 6,406) were defined as gamblers and categorized according to their MB (n = 1,209 with MB), additional demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, household size, education, occupation), preferred types of gambling (21 categories covering the gambling types available in Germany), and the count of lifetime gambling problem symptoms (0-10 criteria of the fourth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). Estimates from a negative binomial regression revealed that there is a 146.2 % increase in the expected count of gambling problem symptoms for gamblers with MB compared to those without MB. The percentage decreased to 102.5 and 97.6 % after adjustment for demographic characteristics and further adjustment for preferred types of gambling, respectively. Demographic risk factors and gambling preference may partially mediate but not completely explain the higher prevalence of gambling problems among the population with MB. Having an MB may be considered as an independent risk factor for gambling problems, which indicates a need for culturally sensitive prevention and treatment measures. PMID:24722950

Kastirke, Nadin; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian

2014-04-11

206

Giants On Deformed Backgrounds  

E-print Network

We study giant graviton probes in the framework of the three--parameter deformation of the AdS_5 x S^5 background. We examine both the case when the brane expands in the deformed part of the geometry and the case when it blows up into AdS. Performing a detailed analysis of small fluctuations around the giants, the configurations turn out to be stable. Our results hold even for the supersymmetric Lunin-Maldacena deformation.

Marco Pirrone

2006-12-07

207

The Evolution–Intelligent Design Debate: A Meaningful Context for Teaching the Nature of Science in Information Literacy. Part 1: Historical Background and Philosophical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although absent from the ACRL Information Literacy Standards for Science and Technology, the ability to distinguish between what is and is not science is an essential component of information literacy. Addressing this question requires the librarian to introduce concepts such as the nature of science, its realm, rules, and limits, as well as the nature of pseudoscience and nonscience before

Claudia Lascar; Loren D. Mendelsohn

2011-01-01

208

Results of an assessment of information needs among speech-language pathologists and audiologists in Idaho*  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The research assesses the information needs of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and audiologists in Idaho and identifies specific needs for training in evidence-based practice (EBP) principles and searching EBP resources. Methods: A survey was developed to assess knowledge and skills in accessing information. Questionnaires were distributed to 217 members of the Idaho Speech-Language-Hearing Association, who were given multiple options to return the assessment survey (web, email, mail). Data were analyzed descriptively and statistically. Results: The total response rate was 38.7% (84/217). Of the respondents, 87.0% (73/84) indicated insufficient knowledge and skills to search PubMed. Further, 47.6% (40/84) indicated limited knowledge of EBP. Of professionals responding, 52.4% (44/84) reported interest in learning more about EBP and 47.6% (40/84) reported interest in learning to search PubMed. SLPs and audiologists who graduated within the last 10 years were more likely to respond online, while those graduating prior to that time preferred to respond via hard copy. Discussions/Conclusion: More effort should be made to ensure that SLPs and audiologists develop skills in locating information to support their practice. Results from this information needs assessment were used to design a training and outreach program on EBP and EBP database searching for SLPs and audiologists in Idaho. PMID:18379669

Guo, Ruiling; Bain, Barbara A.; Willer, Janene

2008-01-01

209

Do men make informed decisions about prostate cancer screening? Baseline results from the “Take the Wheel” Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The efficacy of prostate cancer (CaP) screening with the prostate specific antigen test is debated. Most medical organizations recommend that men make individual, informed decisions about whether to undergo screening. Informed decision-making (IDM) requires: adequate knowledge about CaP as well as the risks and benefits of screening; confidence in the ability to participate in decision-making at a personally desired level (decision self-efficacy); and decision-making that reflects one’s values and preferences (decisional consistency). Methods Baseline data from a randomized trial in 12 worksites were analyzed. Men aged 45+ (n=812) completed surveys documenting screening history, screening preferences and decisions, CaP knowledge, decision self-efficacy and decisional consistency. Psychosocial and demographic correlates of IDM were also assessed. Results Approximately half of the sample had a prior PSA test, although only 35% reported having made an explicit screening decision. Across the sample, CaP knowledge was low (mean=56%), though decision self-efficacy was high (mean=78%), and the majority of men (81%) made decisions consistent with their stated values. Compared with those who were undecided, men who made an explicit screening decision had significantly higher levels of knowledge, greater decisional self-efficacy, and were more consistent in terms of making a decision in alignment with their values. They tended to be White, have high levels of income and education, and had discussed screening with their health care provider. Conclusions Many men undergo CaP screening without being fully informed about the decision. These findings support the need for interventions aimed at improving IDM about screening, particularly among men of color, those with lower levels of income and education, and those who have not discussed screening with their provider. PMID:20484092

Allen, Jennifer D.; Othus, Megan K. D.; Hart, Alton; Mohllajee, Anshu P.; Li, Yi; Lathan, Christopher; Bowen, Deborah

2015-01-01

210

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry -- Background information for promulgated air emission standards: Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, semi-chemical, mechanical, and secondary and non-wood fiber mills. Final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being promulgated for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. This background information document provides technical information and analyses used in the development of the promulgated pulp and paper NESHAP, and contains responses to comments from the proposed rule. This document covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills (i.e., mills that combine on-site production of both pulp and paper).

NONE

1997-10-01

211

Non-extensitivity vs. informative moments for financial models —A unifying framework and empirical results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information-theoretic approaches still play a minor role in financial market analysis. Nonetheless, there have been two very similar approaches evolving during the last years, one in the so-called econophysics and the other in econometrics. Both generalize the notion of GARCH processes in an information-theoretic sense and are able to capture kurtosis better than traditional models. In this article we present both approaches in a more general framework. The latter allows the derivation of a wide range of new models. We choose a third model using an entropy measure suggested by Kapur. In an application to financial market data, we find that all considered models - with similar flexibility in terms of skewness and kurtosis - lead to very similar results.

Herrmann, K.

2009-11-01

212

A study of cloud-generated radiative heating and its generation of available potential energy. I - Theoretical background. II - Results for a climatological zonal mean January  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of radiative heating and cooling by clouds on the available potential energy (APE) is theoretically discussed. It is shown that the cloud radiative contribution to the generation of APE is determined by the net cloud radiative heating and the efficiency factor, which is a function of the temperature distribution of the atmosphere. Results are presented for low and middle cloud effects for three atmospheric layers. Cloud radiative heating is found to be a single function of cloud optical thickness for all classes designed in terms of cloud top heights and optical thickness. Low clouds at low latitudes destroy APE an midclouds generate APE. A concept is developed to relate the cloud radiative heating to cloud heights and optical depths. Cloud-generated radiative heating is computed for January zonal mean conditions for low and midclouds. For both cases, the strongest influence is found in the low troposphere, with marked differences in signs and magnitudes. At extratropical latitudes, both cloud classes generate net radiative cooling. In the tropics, the effect of low cloud changes from net cooling to the net heating as the optical thickness increases, and midclouds cause net heating. A mechanism is described whereby this dependence produces a strong positive feedback effect on the development of SST anomalies in the tropical oceans.

Stuhlmann, R.; Smith, G. L.

1988-01-01

213

Neutron background at Boulby mine  

E-print Network

The neutron background at the underground laboratory at Boulby - a site for several dark matter experiments - is discussed. Special emphasis is put on the neutron background produced by cosmic-ray muons. The most recent versions of the muon propagation code MUSIC, and particle transport code FLUKA are used to evaluate muon and neutron fluxes. The results of simulations are compared with experimental data.

V. A. Kudryavtsev; P. K. Lightfoot; J. E. McMillan; M. Robinson; N. J. C. Spooner; P. F. Smith; N. J. T. Smith; J. D. Lewin; R. Luscher; I. Liubarsky

2003-01-31

214

FROM QUERIES TO TOP-K RESULTS Dr. Gjergji Kasneci | Introduction to Information Retrieval | WS 2012-13 1  

E-print Network

FROM QUERIES TO TOP-K RESULTS Dr. Gjergji Kasneci | Introduction to Information Retrieval | WS 2012 evaluation Link analysis From queries to top-k results Query processing Index construction Top-k search-consumption? #12;Computing top-k results (1) Dr. Gjergji Kasneci | Introduction to Information Retrieval | WS 2012

Weske, Mathias

215

The Evolving National Information Network: Background and Challenges. A Report of the Technology Assessment Advisory Committee to the Commission on Preservation and Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapidly developing and changing networking and telecommunications environment now being implemented in the United States and across the globe is explored. The creation of a flexible and inexpensive digital network allowing instantaneous access by any individual to information of any type is now within our grasp. A primer on the technology…

Van Houweling, Douglas E.; McGill, Michael J.

216

Evaluation and promotion strategy research on information communication ability of public crisis under the background of public relations in the crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the progress of science and technology and the development of the economic globalization, social is in an open system environment, in which government's image and executive force will be affected by internal and external factors and so on, so the crisis of public relations possible happens at any time, and the information communication of public crisis is an important

Xi-bo Sun; Qi Wang

2011-01-01

217

A high-density wireless underground sensor network (WUSN) to quantify hydro-ecological interactions for a UK floodplain; project background and initial results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplain meadows support some of the most diverse vegetation in the UK, and also perform key ecosystem services, such as flood storage and sediment retention. However, the UK now has less than 1500 ha of this unique habitat remaining. In order to conserve and better exploit the services provided by this grassland, an improved understanding of its functioning is essential. Vegetation functioning and species composition are known to be tightly correlated to the hydrological regime, and related temperature and nutrient regime, but the mechanisms controlling these relationships are not well established. The FUSE* project aims to investigate the spatiotemporal variability in vegetation functioning (e.g. photosynthesis and transpiration) and plant community composition in a floodplain meadow near Oxford, UK (Yarnton Mead), and their relationship to key soil physical variables (soil temperature and moisture content), soil nutrient levels and the water- and energy-balance. A distributed high density Wireless Underground Sensor Network (WUSN) is in the process of being established on Yarnton Mead. The majority, or ideally all, of the sensing and transmitting components will be installed below-ground because Yarnton Mead is a SSSI (Site of Special Scientific Interest, due to its unique plant community) and because occasionally sheep or cattle are grazing on it, and that could damage the nodes. This prerequisite has implications for the maximum spacing between UG nodes and their communications technologies; in terms of signal strength, path losses and requirements for battery life. The success of underground wireless communication is highly dependent on the soil type and water content. This floodplain environment is particularly challenging in this context because the soil contains a large amount of clay near the surface and is therefore less favourable to EM wave propagation than sandy soils. Furthermore, due to high relative saturation levels (as a result of high groundwater levels and occasional overland flooding) considerable path losses are expected. Finally, the long-term below-ground installation of the nodes means that batteries cannot be replaced easily, therefore energy conservation schemes are required to be deployed on the nodes. We present a brief overview of the project and initial findings of the approach we have adopted to address these wireless communication issues. This involves tests covering a range of transmission frequencies, antennae types, and node placements. *FUSE, Floodplain Underground SEnsors, funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, NE/I007288/1, start date 1-3-2011)

Verhoef, A.; Choudhary, B.; Morris, P. J.; McCann, J.

2012-04-01

218

How do hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background estimate their language skills and their comprehension of medical information – a prospective cross-sectional study and comparison to native patients in Germany to assess the language barrier and the need for translation  

PubMed Central

Background Today more than two million people with Turkish migration background live in Germany making them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Data concerning language skills and the perception of medical information in hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background (T) are scarce. Our study is the first to gather quantitative information on this important subject. Methods T and hospitalised German patients without migration background (G) of our university hospital were prospectively included into a cross-sectional study and completed a questionnaire - each group in the appropriate language (T: Turkish, G: German). Results 121 T and 121 G were included. Groups significantly differed in age (T: 44.9?±?17.8, G: 56.9?±?16.7y) and proportion of males (T: 37.2, G: 54.5%) but not regarding the proportion of college graduates (T: 19.3, G: 15.7%). The majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74% of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73% speak German at work. 74.4% of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as “average” or better while 25.6% reported it as “very bad” or “bad”. 10.7% of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physician’s information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3% of T estimated their reception of the physician’s information to be “average” or worse. 43.3% of T had the impression that it would have helped them “much” or “very much” to be aided by an interpreter at the hospital. The information transmitted while giving informed consent to invasive medical procedure was judged to be “mostly” or “completely” sufficient by the majority of T (76%) and G (89.8%). In this setting 37 of 96 T (38.5%) reported being helped by an interpreter – in most cases (64.9%) a family member. Conclusion Although the majority of patients with Turkish migration background have spent most of their lives in Germany (28.94?±?10.41y) a large part of this population has limited German language skills and difficulties obtaining medical information when hospitalised. PMID:23710582

2013-01-01

219

Developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. Methods GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Discussion Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems globally. PMID:23302501

2013-01-01

220

The Geographic Climate Information System Project (GEOCLIMA): Overview and preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project GEOCLIMA aims at developing an integrated Geographic Information System (GIS) allowing the user to manage, analyze and visualize the information which is directly or indirectly related to climate and its future projections in Greece. The main components of the project are: a) collection and homogenization of climate and environmental related information, b) estimation of future climate change based on existing regional climate model (RCM) simulations as well as a supplementary high resolution (10 km x 10 km) simulation over the period 1961-2100 using RegCM3, c) compilation of an integrated uniform geographic database, and d) mapping of climate data, creation of digital thematic maps, and development of the integrated web GIS application. This paper provides an overview of the ongoing research efforts and preliminary results of the project. First, the trends in the annual and seasonal time series of precipitation and air temperature observations for all available stations in Greece are assessed. Then the set-up of the high resolution RCM simulation (10 km x 10 km) is discussed with respect to the selected convective scheme. Finally, the relationship of climatic variables with geophysical features over Greece such as altitude, location, distance from the sea, slope, aspect, distance from climatic barriers, land cover etc) is investigated, to support climate mapping. The research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program COOPERATION 2009.

Feidas, H.; Zanis, P.; Melas, D.; Vaitis, M.; Anadranistakis, E.; Symeonidis, P.; Pantelopoulos, S.

2012-04-01

221

The cosmological background radiation. Echo of the early universe.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an introduction to the physics, astrophysics and cosmology of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The standard big bang model of the universe is adopted at the outset. The topics then covered include the origin of the background, then intrinsic fluctuations, followed by the universe and background radiation after recombination. Finally, measurement of the radiation and its anisotropies is presented, together with a review of the current status of results and experiments. The authors assume that the reader has a basic understanding of the central concepts of general relativity, but they avoid rigorous mathematical proofs and manipulations, preferring instead to concentrate on the information needed by hands-on cosmologists and astrophysicists.

Lachièze-Rey, M.; Gunzig, E.

222

The Background of PER People: A Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from a survey given to about 50 PER community members were analyzed to determine the backgrounds of the members. The type of college attended, the type of graduate school, when they chose physics, when they chose PER, and other interesting background information will be presented. Also presented will be gender analyses of background differences. Remarkably little difference in background was found between men and women in the sample.

McCullough, Laura

2006-12-01

223

12 CFR 1238.5 - Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related information...FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS STRESS TESTING OF REGULATED ENTITIES § 1238.5 Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related...

2014-01-01

224

The effect of background cuing on prey detection.  

PubMed

Studies of prey detection have typically focused on how search image affects the capture of cryptic items. This study also considers how background vegetation influences cryptic prey detection. Blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata, searched digitized images for two Catocala moths: C. ilia, which is cryptic on oak, and C. relicta, which is cryptic on birch. Some images contained moths while others did not. The ability of blue jays to detect prey during repeated presentations of one prey type within a session was compared with their performance during randomly alternating presentations of both prey types within a session to examine search-image formation under two background conditions (informative and ambiguous). In the informative background condition, both trees in the image were of the same species and therefore, the background was a reliable indicator of which prey type might be present. In the ambiguous background condition, there was one tree of each species in the image and either prey type could be present. The results indicate that: (1) a search-image effect was observed only for the more cryptic prey type and only when the background was informative; (2) as accuracy on prey images (those with moths) increased, response latency remained unchanged; (3) performance on nonprey images (those without moths) was primarily determined by the difficulty of searching the background and not by the prey type in the accompanying prey images; and (4) search-image effects disappeared with extended practice. These results suggest that the ability to detect prey is influenced by background and that the presence of either multiple backgrounds or multiple prey types interferes with search-image formation. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790707

Kono; Reid; Kamil

1998-10-01

225

Wetlands in the Lake Champlain region of Vermont: Present and future threats to the resource. Boundary determination and background information for the EPA's proposed advanced identification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

EPA Region 1 Wetlands Protections Section is planning an Advanced Identification Project for the Lake Champlain Region of Vermont. 'Advanced Identification' refers to the two authorities EPA can utilize under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act to protect wetlands in advance of permit applications. In Vermont, a combined activities-based Advanced Identification of Sites (AIS) and Advance 404(c) project is proposed. This study determines the boundaries for the Advanced Identification action. It discusses the criteria developed to evaluate watershed considerations and both present and future threats to the resource. All towns in four counties bordering Lake Champlain were evaluated with regard to location in watershed, wetland acreage, wetland loss, population projections, historical growth trends, tax information, and housing stock estimates. Based on the criteria listed above, the towns selected are experiencing the types of growth pressures that will lead to continued wetland loss. EPA plans to restrict work at especially valuable sites with this area using Advance 404(c).

Borre, M.A.

1988-11-01

226

Background sources at PEP  

SciTech Connect

Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

1988-01-01

227

Background character research for synthetical performance of thermal imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background is assumed to be uniform usually for evaluating the performance of thermal imaging systems, however the impact of background cannot be ignored for target acquisition in reality, background character is important research content for thermal imaging technology. A background noise parameter 𝜎 was proposed in MRTD model and used to describe background character. Background experiments were designed, and some typical backgrounds (namely lawn background, concrete pavement background, trees background and snow background) character were analyzed by 𝜎. MRTD including 𝜎 was introduced into MRTD-Channel Width (CW) model, the impact of above typical backgrounds for target information quantity were analyzed by MRTD-CW model with background character. Target information quantity for different backgrounds was calculated by MRTD-CW, and compared with that of TTP model. A target acquisition performance model based on MRTD-CW with background character will be research in the future.

Chen, Song-lin; Wang, Ji-hui; Wang, Xiao-wei; Jin, Wei-qi

2014-05-01

228

Building Background Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

2014-01-01

229

Shielding and background reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background spectrum in a Low Background intrinsic germanium detector was analysed. Different possible sources of background and the influence of the materials used as well as the thickness of shielding was studied. Lead, copper, nylon, delrin and teflon of different thicknessewere used. Too much shielding material could induce some gamma rays from neutron production in the shielding due to

R. Núñez-Lagos; A. Virto

1996-01-01

230

A Method for the Design and Development of Medical or Health Care Information Websites to Optimize Search Engine Results Page Rankings on Google  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet is a widely used source of information for patients searching for medical/health care information. While many studies have assessed existing medical/health care information on the Internet, relatively few have examined methods for design and delivery of such websites, particularly those aimed at the general public. Objective This study describes a method of evaluating material for new medical/health care websites, or for assessing those already in existence, which is correlated with higher rankings on Google's Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs). Methods A website quality assessment (WQA) tool was developed using criteria related to the quality of the information to be contained in the website in addition to an assessment of the readability of the text. This was retrospectively applied to assess existing websites that provide information about generic medicines. The reproducibility of the WQA tool and its predictive validity were assessed in this study. Results The WQA tool demonstrated very high reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95) between 2 independent users. A moderate to strong correlation was found between WQA scores and rankings on Google SERPs. Analogous correlations were seen between rankings and readability of websites as determined by Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores. Conclusions The use of the WQA tool developed in this study is recommended as part of the design phase of a medical or health care information provision website, along with assessment of readability of the material to be used. This may ensure that the website performs better on Google searches. The tool can also be used retrospectively to make improvements to existing websites, thus, potentially enabling better Google search result positions without incurring the costs associated with Search Engine Optimization (SEO) professionals or paid promotion. PMID:23981848

Cummins, Niamh Maria; Hannigan, Ailish; Shannon, Bill; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter

2013-01-01

231

Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coleridge's famous line about water everywhere without a drop to drink may serve as a useful metaphor for the contemporary design studio. Engulfed within a sea of information, where does the designer look for references? This paper outlines the results of an ongoing research project entitled 'Interactive Multimedia within the Design Studio' (grant awarded by FAPEMIG - Fundação de Amparo

Philip Rhodes

1991-01-01

232

The Cosmic Background Radiation  

E-print Network

We review the current status of experimental data for spectral distortions and angular anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, as well as discussing the relevant physical processes. This is one of a number of new articles in astrophysics and cosmology which will appear in the 1996 Review of Particle Properties (Phys. Rev. D. in press). Other relevant reviews include: "Big-Bang Cosmology" by K.A. Olive; "Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis" by K.A. Olive & D.N. Schramm; "The Hubble Constant" by C.J. Hogan; "Dark Matter" by M. Srednicki; "Cosmic Rays" by T.K. Gaisser & T. Stanev; "Solar Neutrinos" by K. Nakamura. Additional information is also available, such as astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particles such as axions and neutrinos, as well as tables of physical constants and astrophysical constants. These articles are part of a new initiative to widen the scope of the RPP by providing a regular review of some important topics and parameters in astrophysics.

G. F. Smoot; D. Scott

1996-03-28

233

Biological aerosol background characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

2011-05-01

234

Finite state automata resulting from temporal information maximization and a temporal learning rule.  

PubMed

We extend Linkser's Infomax principle for feedforward neural networks to a measure for stochastic interdependence that captures spatial and temporal signal properties in recurrent systems. This measure, stochastic interaction, quantifies the Kullback-Leibler divergence of a Markov chain from a product of split chains for the single unit processes. For unconstrained Markov chains, the maximization of stochastic interaction, also called Temporal Infomax, has been previously shown to result in almost deterministic dynamics. This letter considers Temporal Infomax on constrained Markov chains, where some of the units are clamped to prescribed stochastic processes providing input to the system. Temporal Infomax in that case leads to finite state automata, either completely deterministic or weakly nondeterministic. Transitions between internal states of these systems are almost perfectly predictable given the complete current state and the input, but the activity of each single unit alone is virtually random. The results are demonstrated by means of computer simulations and confirmed analytically. It is furthermore shown numerically that Temporal Infomax leads to a high information flow from the input to internal units and that a simple temporal learning rule can approximately achieve the optimization of temporal interaction. We relate these results to experimental data concerning the correlation dynamics and functional connectivities observed in multiple electrode recordings. PMID:16105225

Wennekers, Thomas; Ay, Nihat

2005-10-01

235

Information Literacy Standards and the World Wide Web: Results from a Student Survey on Evaluation of Internet Information Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This paper aims to determine how appropriate information literacy instruction is for preparing students for these unmediated searches using commercial search engines and the Web. Method. A survey was designed using the 2000 Association of College and Research Libraries literacy competency standards for higher education. Survey…

Taylor, Arthur; Dalal, Heather A.

2014-01-01

236

How moving backgrounds influence interception.  

PubMed

Reaching movements towards an object are continuously guided by visual information about the target and the arm. Such guidance increases precision and allows one to adjust the movement if the target unexpectedly moves. On-going arm movements are also influenced by motion in the surrounding. Fast responses to motion in the surrounding could help cope with moving obstacles and with the consequences of changes in one's eye orientation and vantage point. To further evaluate how motion in the surrounding influences interceptive movements we asked subjects to tap a moving target when it reached a second, static target. We varied the direction and location of motion in the surrounding, as well as details of the stimuli that are known to influence eye movements. Subjects were most sensitive to motion in the background when such motion was near the targets. Whether or not the eyes were moving, and the direction of the background motion in relation to the direction in which the eyes were moving, had very little influence on the response to the background motion. We conclude that the responses to background motion are driven by motion near the target rather than by a global analysis of the optic flow and its relation with other information about self-motion. PMID:25767873

Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

2015-01-01

237

How Moving Backgrounds Influence Interception  

PubMed Central

Reaching movements towards an object are continuously guided by visual information about the target and the arm. Such guidance increases precision and allows one to adjust the movement if the target unexpectedly moves. On-going arm movements are also influenced by motion in the surrounding. Fast responses to motion in the surrounding could help cope with moving obstacles and with the consequences of changes in one’s eye orientation and vantage point. To further evaluate how motion in the surrounding influences interceptive movements we asked subjects to tap a moving target when it reached a second, static target. We varied the direction and location of motion in the surrounding, as well as details of the stimuli that are known to influence eye movements. Subjects were most sensitive to motion in the background when such motion was near the targets. Whether or not the eyes were moving, and the direction of the background motion in relation to the direction in which the eyes were moving, had very little influence on the response to the background motion. We conclude that the responses to background motion are driven by motion near the target rather than by a global analysis of the optic flow and its relation with other information about self-motion. PMID:25767873

Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

2015-01-01

238

2. Social, ethical, and economic background  

E-print Network

technology raise social issues and enable changes in society? David Keil Information Technology and Society 12. Social, ethical, and economic background David Keil Information Technology and Society 1/12 David Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 135 Information Technology and Society Topic 2: Social

Keil, David M.

239

Cosmological String Backgrounds  

E-print Network

Talk given at the ``4th Hellenic School on Elementary Particle Physics", Corfu, 2-20 September 1992: The propagation of strings in cosmological space-time backgrounds is reviewed. We show the relation of a special class of cosmological backgrounds to exact conformal field theory. Particular emphasis is put on the singularity structure of the cosmological space-time and on the discrete duality symmetries of the string background.

Dieter Luest

1993-03-31

240

Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

2001-01-01

241

The Cosmic Background Explorer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

1990-01-01

242

Wandering in the Background: A CMB Explorer  

E-print Network

We develop and examine the principles governing the formation of distortions in the cosmic microwave background. Distortions in the frequency or spectral distribution of the background probe the thermal history of the universe whereas those in the angular temperature distribution probe its dynamics and geometry. Stressing model independent results, we show how the microwave background can be used to extract information on the mass density, vacuum density, baryon content, radiation content, expansion rate and some aspects of structure formation in the universe. To address these issues, we systematically develop relativistic kinetic and perturbation theory addressing issues such as fluctuation representation, or gauge, normal mode analysis in an open geometry, and second order effects. Through analytic and numerical results, we construct anisotropies in a critical, open, or cosmological constant universe with adiabatic and/or isocurvature initial conditions allowing for possible early reionization. We find that anisotropy formation is a simple process governed by the Compton scattering of photons and electrons and their gravitational coupling to the other particle species in the universe.

Wayne Hu

2009-07-16

243

Historical Background and Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty and twenty years after the two books published by Einar Tandberg-Hanssen (Solar prominences (Geophysics and astrophysics monographs), Vol. 12. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1974; The nature of solar prominences, astrophysics and space science library, Vol. 199. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995) on solar prominences, it is time to update our knowledge and understanding of these fascinating solar structures. After a brief history which overviews first eclipse observations (drawings and then photography), spectrographic, coronagraphic and later on polarimetric measurements, the chapter presents samples of the most spectacular results of the last two decades, obtained whether from space or on the ground. It discusses the contents of the book in order to encourage the reader to dip into the following 17 chapters which provide comprehensive and detailed observations, information about the methods used, and interpretation of the results on the basis of the latest theoretical and modelling works.

Vial, Jean-Claude

244

Unified treatment algorithm for the management of crotaline snakebite in the United States: results of an evidence-informed consensus workshop  

PubMed Central

Background Envenomation by crotaline snakes (rattlesnake, cottonmouth, copperhead) is a complex, potentially lethal condition affecting thousands of people in the United States each year. Treatment of crotaline envenomation is not standardized, and significant variation in practice exists. Methods A geographically diverse panel of experts was convened for the purpose of deriving an evidence-informed unified treatment algorithm. Research staff analyzed the extant medical literature and performed targeted analyses of existing databases to inform specific clinical decisions. A trained external facilitator used modified Delphi and structured consensus methodology to achieve consensus on the final treatment algorithm. Results A unified treatment algorithm was produced and endorsed by all nine expert panel members. This algorithm provides guidance about clinical and laboratory observations, indications for and dosing of antivenom, adjunctive therapies, post-stabilization care, and management of complications from envenomation and therapy. Conclusions Clinical manifestations and ideal treatment of crotaline snakebite differ greatly, and can result in severe complications. Using a modified Delphi method, we provide evidence-informed treatment guidelines in an attempt to reduce variation in care and possibly improve clinical outcomes. PMID:21291549

2011-01-01

245

Mothers and children as informants of bullying victimization: results from an epidemiological cohort of children.  

PubMed

Stressful events early in life can affect children's mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about children's bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers and children provide valid reports of bullying victimization, (2) examine the inter-rater reliability between the two informants, (3) test the predictive validity of their reports with children's emotional and behavioral problems and (4) compare the genetic and environmental etiology of bullying victimization as reported by mothers and children. We assessed bullying victimization in the Environmental-Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 1,116 families with twins. We collected reports from mothers and children during private interviews, including detailed narratives. Findings showed that we can rely on mothers and children as informants of bullying victimization: both informants provided information which adhered to the definition of bullying as involving repeated hurtful actions between peers in the presence of a power imbalance. Although mothers and children modestly agreed with each other about who was bullied during primary and secondary school, reports of bullying victimization from both informants were similarly associated with children's emotional and behavioral problems and provided similar estimates of genetic and environmental influences. Findings from this study suggest that collecting information from multiple informants is ideal to capture all instances of bullying victimization. However, in the absence of child self-reports, mothers can be considered as a viable alternative, and vice versa. PMID:20938734

Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R; Andreou, Penelope; Bowes, Lucy; Ambler, Antony P; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

2011-04-01

246

The Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

Arthur Kosowsky

2001-02-23

247

Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

Mello Koch, Robert de [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

2009-01-15

248

Trial SNAPSHOT: measurements for terrain background characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and spectral characteristics of targets and backgrounds must be known and understood for a wide variety of reasons such as: synthetic scene simulation and validation; target description for modelling; in- service target material characterisation and background variability assessment. Without this information it will be impossible to design effective camouflage systems and to maximise the capabilities of new sensors. Laboratory measurements of background materials are insufficient to provide the data required. A series of trials are being undertaken in the UK to quantify both diurnal and seasonal changes of a terrain background, as well as the statistical variability within a scene. These trials are part of a collaborative effort between the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK), Defence Clothing and Textile Agency (UK) and the T.A.C.O.M., USA). Data are being gathered at a single site consisting primarily of south facing mixed coniferous and deciduous woodland, but also containing uncultivated grassland and tracks. Ideally each point in the scene needs to be characterized at all relevant wavelengths but his is unrealistic. In addition there are a number of important environmental variables that are required. The goal of the measurement programme is to acquire data across the spectrum from 0.4 - 14 microns. Sensors used to include visible band imaging spectroradiometers, telespectroradiometers (visual, NIR, SWIR and LWIR), calibrate colour cameras, broad band SWIR and LWIR imagers and contact reflectance measurement equipment. Targets consist of painted panels with known material properties and a wheeled vehicle, which is in some cases covered with camouflage netting. Measurements have bene made of the background with and without the man- made objects present. This paper will review the results to date and present an analysis of the spectral characteristics fo different surfaces. In addition some consideration will be given to the implications of the data obtained for camouflage design.

Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Mitchell, Alistair A.; Bell, Christopher R.; Thomas, David J.; Evans, Roger

2000-07-01

249

The Physics of Microwave Background Anisotropies  

E-print Network

Cosmic microwave background anisotropies provide a vast amount of information on both structure formation in the universe and the background dynamics and geometry. The full physical content and detailed structure of anisotropies can be understood in a simple and intuitive fashion through a systematic investigation of the individual mechanisms for anisotropy formation, based on elementary gravitational and fluid dynamics.

Wayne Hu; Naoshi Sugiyama; Joseph Silk

1995-04-18

250

Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal Bureau…

Fagnoni, Cynthia

251

Teaching ICT to Pacific Island Background Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes that in order for students from Pacific Islands backgrounds in multicultural information and communication technology (ICT) classrooms to gain maximum benefit from their studies, teachers must be aware of their cultural background and expectations. Technologies and teaching approaches which are foreign to indigenous Pacific islanders must be introduced cautiously so that all involved may fully appreciate the

Savae Latu; Alison Young

2004-01-01

252

Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

SciTech Connect

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of volcanic aerosol is over 30% faster than one would obtain without this correction. At background, the aerosol size distribution is found to remain remarkably constant between the tropopause and an altitude of approx.25 km, with a sudden transition to a distribution dominated by smaller particles above this altitude. The observations, in some respects, compare favorably with equilibrium one-dimensional stratospheric aerosol models and thus to some extent support the concept of relatively inert tropospheric sulfurous gases, such as carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide, as the main background stratospheric aerosol sulfur source. Models which incorporate sulfur chemistry are apparently not able to predict the observed variation of particle size with altitude. The 2-year background period is not long enough in itself to establish long-term trends. The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in May 1980 has considerably disrupted the background stratospheric aerosol which will probably not recover for several years. A comparison of the 1978--79 observations with Junge's original measurements made some 20 years earlier, also during a period void of volcanic perturbations, does not preclude a long-term increase in the background stratospheric aerosol level.

Hofmann, D.J.; Rosen, J.M.

1981-01-01

253

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR VOLUNTARY GRADE STANDARDS  

E-print Network

················································· ··········································· Weight additives ········································· Exterior sand, shell, coral, stone, etc··················· Interior sand, shell, coral, stone, etc

254

January 7, 2002 Background Information on  

E-print Network

Experiments In 1967, Andrei Sakharov showed that a matter-dominated universe (rather than one with equal parts violation have been observed lending support to the consistency of Sakharov's hypothesis. However

255

The brain monitoring with Information Technology (BrainIT) collaborative network: data validation results  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Background The BrainIT group works collaboratively on developing standards for collection and analyses of data from brain injured patients\\u000a towards providing a more efficient infrastructure for assessing new health technology. Materials and methods Over a 2 year period, core dataset data (grouped by nine categories) were collected from 200 head-injured patients by local\\u000a nursing staff. Data were uploaded by the

Martin Shaw; Ian Piper; Iain Chambers; Giuseppe Citerio; Per Enblad; Barbara Gregson; Tim Howells; Karl Kiening; Julia Mattern; Pelle Nilsson; Arminas Ragauskas; Juan Sahuquillo; YH Yau

256

Unstable Price Dynamics as a Result of Information Absorption in Speculative Markets  

E-print Network

In speculative markets, risk-free profit opportunities are eliminated by traders exploiting them. Markets are therefore often described as "informationally efficient", rapidly removing predictable price changes, and leaving only residual unpredictable fluctuations. This classical view of markets absorbing information and otherwise operating close to an equilibrium is challenged by extreme price fluctuations, in particular since they occur far more frequently than can be accounted for by external news. Here we show that speculative markets which absorb mainly self-generated information can exhibit both: evolution towards efficient equilibrium states as well as their subsequent destabilization. This peculiar dynamics, a generic instability arising from an adaptive control which annihilates predictable information, is realized in a minimal agent-based market model where the impacts of agents' strategies adapt according to their trading success. This adaptation implements a learning rule for the market as a whole...

Patzelt, Felix

2012-01-01

257

76 FR 28625 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program; State Referendum Results  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Service 7 CFR 1221 [AMS-LS-11-0040] Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...Marketing Service (AMS) is announcing that sorghum producers voting in a national referendum...have approved the continuation of the Sorghum Promotion, Research, and...

2011-05-18

258

Improving Informed Consent with Minority Participants: Results from Researcher and Community Surveys  

PubMed Central

Strengthening the informed consent process is one avenue for improving recruitment of minorities into research. This study examines that process from two different perspectives, that of researchers and that of African American and Latino community members. Through the use of two separate surveys, we compared strategies used by researchers with the preferences and attitudes of community members during the informed consent process. Our data suggest that researchers can improve the informed consent process by incorporating methods preferred by the community members along with methods shown in the literature for increasing comprehension. With this approach, the informed consent process may increase both participants’ comprehension of the material and overall satisfaction, fostering greater trust in research and openness to future research opportunities. PMID:23324203

Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Garza, Mary A.; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S.; Casper, Erica T.; Thomas, Stephen B.; Barnard, David; Kim, Kevin H.

2013-01-01

259

Cosmic microwave background images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmology concerns itself with the fundamental questions about the formation, structure, and evolution of the Universe as a whole. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is one of the foremost pillars of physical cosmology. Joint analyses of CMB and other astronomical observations are able to determine with ever increasing precision the value of the fundamental cosmological parameters and to provide us with valuable insight about the dynamics of the Universe in evolution. The CMB radiation is a relic of the hot and dense first moments of the Universe: a extraordinarily homogeneous and isotropic blackbody radiation, which shows small temperature anisotropies that are the key for understanding the conditions of the primitive Universe, testing cosmological models and probing fundamental physics at the very dawn of time. CMB observations are obtained by imaging of the sky at microwave wavelengths. However, the CMB signal is mixed with other astrophysical signals of both Galactic and extragalactic origin. To properly exploit the cosmological information contained in CMB images, they must be cleansed of these other astrophysical emissions first. Blind source separation (BSS) has been a very active field in the last few years. Conversely, the term "compact sources" is often used in the CMB literature referring to spatially bounded, small features in the images, such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. Compact sources and diffuse sources are usually treated separately in CMB image processing. We devote this tutorial to the case of compact sources. Many of the compact source-detection techniques that are widespread inmost fields of astronomy are not easily applicable to CMB images. In this tutorial, we present an overview of the fundamentals of compact object detection theory keeping in mind at every moment these particularities. Throughout the article, we briefly consider Bayesian object detection, model selection, optimal linear filtering, nonlinear filtering, and multif- requency detection of compact sources in CMB images. This article's goal is to present a tutorial on the detection, parameter estimation and statistical analysis of compact sources (far galaxies, galaxy clusters, and Galactic dense emission regions) in CMB observations.

Herranz, D.; Vielva, P.

2010-01-01

260

The Cosmic Background Radiation  

E-print Network

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and anisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the update of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle Properties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

1997-11-08

261

Introduction Biological Background  

E-print Network

@mail.sdsu.eduUBC Biomath Seminar -- (1/39) #12;Introduction Biological Background Mathematical Models Conclusions Tunicate ­ Ciona intestinalis Ciona intestinalis ­ Tunicate ­ Sea Squirt Joseph M. Mahaffy, jmahaffy

Mahaffy, Joseph M.

262

Introduction 1 Background 1  

E-print Network

squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). The grey squirrel was introduced to Britain in the late 19 th century populations in Northern Ireland. Background The red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) was once ubiquitous

263

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J. F. [University of Denver (United States); Atwood, W. [University of California at Santa Cruz (United States); Burnett, T. [University of Washington (United States); Grove, E. [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Longo, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)-Pisa (Italy); McEnery, J.; Ritz, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Mizuno, T. [Hiroshima University (Japan)

2007-07-12

264

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J.F.; /Denver U.; Atwood, W.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Burnett, T.; /Washington U., Seattle; Grove, E.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Longo, F.; /INFN, Pisa; McEnery, J.; /NASA, Goddard; Mizuno, T.; /Hiroshima U.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

2007-10-17

265

The Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

I review the discovery of the temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The underlying theory and the implications for cosmology are reviewed, and I describe the prospects for future progress.

Joseph Silk

2002-12-12

266

In this article, we report results of an investigation into the effect of sponsored links on ecommerce information  

E-print Network

In this article, we report results of an investigation into the effect of sponsored links they represent actual ecommerce searching information needs. Using 60 organic and 30 sponsored Web links, the quality of the Web search en- gine results was controlled by switching nonsponsored and sponsored links

Jansen, James

267

Arbitrary background picture segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new method for real time arbitrary background picture segmentation. We consider the following picture conditions: color picture, noisy picture, scene light changes, and still image arbitrary background. They are typical for many applications, e.g. for video security system, videophone, videoconference, V-commerce, etc. A set-theoretic approach has been used for picture model creation, adaptive picture

S. Itzikowitz; S. Sheraizin

2002-01-01

268

Communicating Uncertainties in Weather and Climate Information: Results of a National Academies Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a major East Coast snowstorm was forecast during the winter of 2001, people began preparing - both the public and the decision-makers responsible for public services. There was an air of urgency, heightened because just the previous year the region had been hit hard by a storm of unpredicted strength. But this time, the storm never materialized and people were left wondering what went "wrong" with the forecast. Did something go wrong or did forecasters just fail to communicate their information in an effective way? Did they convey a sense of the likelihood of the event and keep people up to date as information changed? In the summer of 2001, the National Academies' Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate hosted a workshop designed to explore the communication of uncertainty in weather and climate information. Workshop participants examined five case studies that were chosen to illustrate a range of forecast timescales and certainty levels. The cases were: Red River Flood, Grand Forks, April 1997; East Coast Winter Storm, March 2001; Oklahoma-Kansas Tornado Outbreak, May 3, 1999; El Nino 1997-1998, and Climate Change Science, a report issued in 2001. In each of these cases, participants examined who said what, when, to whom, how, and with what effect. The last two cases specifically address climate-related topics. This paper summarizes the final workshop report (Communicating Uncertainties in Weather and Climate Information: Summary of a Workshop, NRC 2002), including an overview of the five cases and lessons learned about communicating uncertainties in weather and climate forecasts. Among other findings, the report stresses that communication and appropriate dissemination of information, including information about uncertainty in the forecasts and the forecaster's confidence in the product, should be an integral, ongoing part of the forecasting process, not an afterthought. Explaining uncertainty should be an integral part of what weather and climate forecasters do and is essential to delivering accurate and useful information.

Friday, E.; Barron, E. J.; Elfring, C.; Geller, L.

2002-12-01

269

Background rejection in schlieren visualization  

E-print Network

Background rejection in schlieren visualization P.B. NAGY It was recently suggested that an image schlieren images of ultrasonic beams is verified by experimental results. KEYWORDS: ultrasonics, schlieren visualization, image orthicons Introduction Schlieren visualization is one of the simplest ways of deter- mining

Nagy, Peter B.

270

Phase 1, Background study results under the Council of Great Lake Governors program to perform stack sampling and analysis of emissions from densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF)  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the results of the first part of the study. Chapter 2 contains a summary of the d-RDF literature which was surveyed. Chapter 3 contains a compilation of existing and proposed regulation information from the seven participating Great Lakes States. Chapter 4 includes identification of pellet producers in the region. Chapter 5 contains a description of the pellet producers and test burn facilities selected for the experimental work to be undertaken in the second part of the program study. Chapter 6 contains a list of references. 27 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1989-04-07

271

Detector Background at Muon Colliders  

SciTech Connect

Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

272

The Adoption and Use of Health Information Technology in Rural Areas: Results of a National Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Health information technology (HIT) is a national policy priority. Knowledge about the special needs, if any, of rural health care providers should be taken into account as policy is put into action. Little is known, however, about rural-urban differences in HIT adoption at the national level. Purpose: To conduct the first national…

Singh, Ranjit; Lichter, Michael I.; Danzo, Andrew; Taylor, John; Rosenthal, Thomas

2012-01-01

273

Similarity-Based Restoration of Metrical Information: Different Listening Experiences Result in Different Perceptual Inferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do perceivers apply knowledge to instances they have never experienced before? On one hand, listeners might use idealized representations that do not contain specific details. On the other, they might recognize and process information based on more detailed memory representations. The current study examined the latter possibility with respect…

Creel, Sarah C.

2012-01-01

274

An Evaluation of Selected NASA Scientific and Technical Information Products: Results of a Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pilot study was conducted to evaluate selected NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) scientific and technical information (STI) products. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire, had a two-fold purpose--to gather baseline data on the use and perceived usefulness of selected…

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron

275

Physicians' communicative strategies in interacting with Internet-informed patients: results from a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This article describes the strategies used by physicians to interact with Internet-informed patients, alongside illustrating the motives underlying such strategies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 17 physicians from primary care and medical specialist practices in the Italian part of Switzerland. The sample was diversified in terms of specialty, age, and gender. Data collection and analysis were driven by grounded theory and supported by a computer-assisted qualitative analysis program. A typology of four communicative strategies has been outlined. The adoption of these strategies is shaped by physicians' general attitude toward Internet-informed patients, based on their conception of medical information for lay people through the Internet. However, this general attitude is mediated by doctors' interpretation of the specific communicative context, that is, their appraisal of three aspects: the patient's health literacy, the relevance of the online information to be discussed, and their own communicative efficacy. At the end, the process of interpretation underlying the strategies is discussed to expand on it and to identify implications for practice and research. PMID:22260422

Caiata-Zufferey, Maria; Schulz, Peter J

2012-01-01

276

Mothers and Children as Informants of Bullying Victimization: Results from an Epidemiological Cohort of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stressful events early in life can affect children's mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about children's bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers and children provide valid reports of bullying victimization, (2) examine the inter-rater…

Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Andreou, Penelope; Bowes, Lucy; Ambler, Antony P.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2011-01-01

277

EFFECT OF BACKGROUND AND TRANSPORT DOSE ON THE RESULTS OF THE PERSONAL DOSE EQUIVALENT HP(10) MEASUREMENTS IN PHOTON FIELDS OBTAINED DURING THE INTERCOMPARISON 2013 OF THE AFRICAN REGION.  

PubMed

As part of the intercomparison on the measurement of personal dose equivalent Hp(10), jointly organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, for the African region, up to 12 dosemeters were added to the packages of the 28 participants to evaluate the background and transport dose (BGTD), received by the dosemeters before and after their irradiation at the SSDL (environmental irradiations, scanning process at the airports, etc.). Out of the 28 participants, only 17 reported the corresponding BGTD measured values, which lied between 0.03 and 0.8 mSv. The mean measured value of BG was (0.25±0.14) mSv, which is significantly high compared with the lowest dose value used in the intercomparison exercise. The BGTD correction shifted the overall results of the intercomparison from an overestimation of dose (?8 % before applying BGT dose correction) to an underestimation of dose (-9 % after correction). The measurement protocol and the detailed analysis of the results and applied corrections are discussed in this paper. PMID:25433048

Arib, M; Herrati, A; Dari, F; Lounis-Mokrani, Z

2014-11-27

278

Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect  

PubMed Central

The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1–4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring. PMID:25400572

Dekerle, Marie; Boulenger, Véronique; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

2014-01-01

279

Matching Background Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter introduces an especially important subject in the concealment of animals--countershading. One observes many animals with colors that match the general color of their usual backgrounds. Many leaf-eating insects appear green, for example, making them relatively inconspicuous against their normal background of leaves. The manner of coloration that will provide such a color match is not as obvious as one might imagine. It depends significantly on the nature of the lighting. The inquiry-based activities included in this section effectively illustrate this concept.

David Ipsen

2008-04-01

280

The cosmic microwave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

Silk, Joseph

1991-01-01

281

The Cosmic Background Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

1990-01-01

282

Cosmic Microwave Background  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the cosmic microwave background to understand why it permeates the universe and why it peaks as microwave radiation. Students should be able to explain that the origin of the background radiation is the uniform thermal radiation of the big bang and that the radiation produced was evenly distributed around the small early universe, causing it to permeate today's universe. This activity is part of the Cosmic Times teachers guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1965 Cosmic Times Poster.

283

Do Participants in Genome Sequencing Studies of Psychiatric Disorders Wish to Be Informed of Their Results? A Survey Study  

PubMed Central

Objective As large-scale genome sequencing technology advances, concerns surrounding the reporting of individual findings to study volunteers have grown and fueled controversy. This is especially true in mental health research, where the clinical importance of sequencing results is particularly unclear. The ethical, legal, and social issues are being widely debated, but less is known about the attitudes of actual study volunteers toward sequencing studies or what they wish to learn about their DNA sequence and its health implications. This study provides information on psychiatric research volunteers’ attitudes, beliefs, and concerns with respect to participation in DNA sequencing studies and reporting of individual results. Method We conducted a pilot study using a questionnaire that we developed to assess what information volunteers in an ongoing family study of bipolar disorder would like to receive if they underwent genome sequencing, what they would do with that information, and what concerns they may have. Results Almost all of the respondents were willing to participate in genome sequencing. Most respondents wished to be informed about all their health-related genetic risks, including risks for diseases without known prevention or treatment. However, few respondents felt well informed about the nature of genome sequencing or its implications for their health, insurability, or offspring. Conclusions Despite generally positive attitudes toward genome sequencing among study volunteers, most are not fully aware of the special issues raised by genome sequencing. The attitudes of study volunteers should be considered in the debate about the reporting of individual findings from genome sequencing. PMID:24983240

Bui, Elise T.; Anderson, Natalie K.; Kassem, Layla; McMahon, Francis J.

2014-01-01

284

Improved mean shift target tracking approach under the interference of background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at the earlier stage tracking of strapdown image terminal guidance system, this paper propose a tracking approach which can not only enhance the distinction between targets and background effectively, but also can constrain the interference of target positioning suffered from background information. Among various target tracking approaches, the Mean Shift tracking algorithm is an excellent one due to its efficiency and simplicity, while it can not effective restrain the disturbance from background information. Thus, in this paper, an only target model background-weighted histogram target tracking algorithm, which can restrain the interference from background information, is presented under the Mean Shift framework. If the histogram of target model and target candidate model are both transformed, the probability of remarkable background features in the target model and target candidate model will simultaneously decrease. Thus it is equivalent to a proportional transformation of the weights obtained by the conventional target representation method. Meanwhile, the Mean Shift iteration formula is invariant to the proportional transformation of weights. Therefore, simultaneously transform the histogram of target model and target candidate model is exactly the same as the Mean Shift tracking with traditional target representation. So the proposed algorithm only transforms the histogram of target model and decreases the probability of target model features that are prominent in the background, but do nothing to target candidate model. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only restrain the disturbance from background information and improve the tracking accuracy, but also not increases the execution time.

Guo, Xiaoran; Cui, Shaohui; Fang, Dan

2014-11-01

285

CMB with the background primordial magnetic field  

E-print Network

We investigate the effects of the background primordial magnetic field (PMF) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The sound speed of the tightly coupled photon-baryon fluid is increased by the background PMF. The increased sound speed causes the odd peaks of the CMB temperature fluctuations to be suppressed and the CMB peak positions to be shifted to a larger scale. The background PMF causes a stronger decaying potential and increases the amplitude of the CMB. These two effects of the background PMF on a smaller scale cancel out, and the overall effects of the background PMF are the suppression of the CMB around the first peak and the shifting of peaks to a large scale. We also discuss obtaining information about the PMF generation mechanisms, and we examine the nonlinear evolution of the PMF by the constraint on the maximum scale for the PMF distributions. Finally, we discuss degeneracies between the PMF parameters and the standard cosmological parameters.

Dai G. Yamazaki

2014-04-21

286

Bundesinformationssystem Genetische Ressourcen - Konzept und erste Ergebnisse Federal Information System Genetic Resources - concept and first results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 1998 a network project was started in Germany to establish the Federal Informa- tion System Genetic Resources (BundesInformationssystem Genetische Ressourcen, BIG, http:\\/\\/www.genres.de\\/big\\/) as an online information system on the Internet. In this project four German institutions pool their extensive databases on the wild flora of Germany, co l- lections of botanical gardens, accessions of the German genebank, and

BARBARA BECKER

287

Modeling extreme values resulting from compromising electromagnetic emanations generated by an information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic intelligence and attacks pose unacceptable risks for the security and safety of critical networks and more specifically the power network. In this paper, it is pointed out how the use of the excess model allows one to extrapolate the very high level of spurious compromising emanations induced by an information system in realistic power network models. It is shown that the design of appropriate protections and risk management methodologies can be enhanced thanks to the extreme value statistics.

Kasmi, Chaouki; Hélier, Marc; Darces, Muriel; Prouff, Emmanuel

2014-05-01

288

Information and the decision to recycle: results from a survey of US households  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper relies on a unique dataset collected during a national survey of US households to explore how different sources of information (print, television, radio, family\\/friends, work\\/school and others) influence the decision to start recycling. Although print media are influential, it is found that face-to-face communication (through family\\/friends or work\\/school) is the most effective medium to get people to start

Hilary Nixon; Jean-Daniel M. Saphores

2009-01-01

289

Direction dependent background fitting for the Fermi GBM data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. We present a method for determining the background of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) using the satellite positional information and a physical model. Since the polynomial fitting method typically used for GRBs is generally only indicative of the background over relatively short timescales, this method is particularly useful in the cases of long GRBs or those that have autonomous repoint request (ARR) and a background with much variability on short timescales. Aims: Modern space instruments, like Fermi, have some specific motion to survey the sky and catch gamma-ray bursts in the most effective way. However, GBM bursts sometimes have highly varying backgrounds (with or without ARR), and modelling them with a polynomial function of time is not efficient - one needs more complex, Fermi-specific methods. This article presents a new direction dependent background fitting method and shows how it can be used for filtering the lightcurves. Methods: First, we investigate how the celestial position of the satellite may have influence on the background and define three underlying variables with physical meaning: celestial distance of the burst and the detector's orientation, the contribution of the Sun and the contribution of the Earth. Then, we use multi-dimensional general least square fitting and Akaike model selection criterion for the background fitting of the GBM lightcurves. Eight bursts are presented as examples, of which we computed the duration using background fitted cumulative lightcurves. Results: We give a direction dependent background fitting (DDBF) method for separating the motion effects from the real data and calculate the duration (T90, T50, and confidence intervals) of the nine example bursts, from which two resulted an ARR. We also summarize the features of our method and compare it qualitatively with the official GBM Catalogue. Conclusions: Our background filtering method uses a model based on the physical information of the satellite position. Therefore, it has many advantages compared to previous methods. It can fit long background intervals, remove all the features caused by the rocking behaviour of the satellite, and search for long emissions or not-triggered events. Furthermore, many parts of the fitting have now been automatised, and the method has been shown to work for both sky survey mode and ARR mode data. Future work will provide a burst catalogue with DDBF.

Szécsi, D.; Bagoly, Z.; Kóbori, J.; Horváth, I.; Balázs, L. G.

2013-09-01

290

Cosmic background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and\\u000aanisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the\\u000aupdate of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle\\u000aProperties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

2000-01-01

291

Local microwave background radiation  

E-print Network

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos Soares

2014-11-13

292

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing  

E-print Network

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

Rambaut, Andrew

293

EBSD Images Theoretical Background  

E-print Network

function during a welding procedure. Consistent grain growth curves were obtained with this techniqueMotivation EBSD Images Theoretical Background Defects in the Weld Grain Growth Low Speed Welding High Speed Welding Conclusion Heat-Affected Zone Observations Welding Experiments The low density

Candea, George

294

Microsoft External Research Backgrounder  

E-print Network

Microsoft External Research Backgrounder has been a part of a number of highly successful, cutting-edge collaborative projects over the years. In fact, in fiscal year 2008, Microsoft External Research supported External Research supports long-term initiatives to enhance teaching and learning through the creative use

Narasayya, Vivek

295

David Smith Academic background  

E-print Network

David Smith Academic background Ph.D. in Mathematics (Algebra), Université de Sherbrooke, Canada project program (I. Assem, F. Bergeron, C. Reutenauer, D. Smith) $132,000 ($44,000 per year for 3 years. Schiffler and D. Smith, Friezes, strings and cluster variables, to appear in Glasgow Mathematcal Journal. 2

296

Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies have and will continue to revolutionize our understanding of cosmology. The recent discovery of the previously predicted acoustic peaks in the power spectrum has established a working cosmological model: a critical density universe consisting of mainly dark matter and dark energy, which formed its structure through gravitational instability from quantum fluctuations during an inflationary

Wayne Hu; Scott Dodelson

2002-01-01

297

Cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is widely interpreted as the thermal afterglow of a hot big bang. Measurements of the CMBR intensity as a function of frequency constrain the history of cosmic energetics. Measurements of the anisotropy in the CMBR temperature provide a snapshot of the distribution of fluctuations in the gravitational potential at the earliest stages of cosmic

Lyman Page; David Wilkinson

1999-01-01

298

Radioactive Decay 1. Background  

E-print Network

Radioactive Decay 1. Background It is well known that many nuclei are unstable and are transformed into other nuclear species by means of either alpha decay or beta decay. The rate at which those radioactive on the number N of radioactive nuclei in the sample and also on the probability for each nucleus to decay

Elster, Charlotte

299

Integrable Background Geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ?-manifold, determines a (k+?)-dimensional geometry (k+??4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ?-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+?)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(?) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(?^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently , degenerate or null reductions have attracted increased interest. Two of these reductions and their gauge theories (arguably, the two most significant) are also described.

Calderbank, David M. J.

2014-03-01

300

Reporting of results of interventional studies by the information service of the National Institutes of Health  

PubMed Central

The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that sponsors of applicable studies must provide results within one year of study completion. We aimed to analyze the factors associated with reporting of results from interventional studies registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. On May 20, 2010, we retrieved 20 available fields from 57,233 closed studies on the website and identified 31,161 interventional studies that were required to post results. We compared the proportion of studies with results versus studies without results by age, gender, and disease status of participants, by interventions, sponsors, phase of clinical trials, and completion dates. The results of studies were reported for 4.7% of applicable studies, 8% of industry-sponsored studies, 7.5% of Phase II and 6.5% of Phase IV clinical trials, 4.9% of drug studies, and 0% of genetic studies. Withdrawn (n = 486) and suspended (n = 414) interventions did not provide results. The percentage of studies with results varied from 0% to 21% among different sponsors. The first studies with results were completed in 1992. The proportion of studies with results increased over time. Completion dates were not available for 7446 studies. The database does not have fields available to facilitate routine analysis of the rate of compliance with federal law for posting results. The analysis of accuracy of the protocols in relation to the results and publications is not possible without time-consuming evaluation of individual postings and individual publications. PMID:22291502

Shamliyan, Tatyana

2010-01-01

301

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report number 21: US aerospace industry librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: Results of the phase 2 survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. aerospace industry librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

302

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 22: US academic librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: Results of the phase 3 survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. academic librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

303

Results and Interpretations from a Survey on Agriculturally Related Weather Information.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey Of "top" wheat farmers in 12 counties in western Nebraska was undertaken to help guide future research and extension programs (in agricultural meteorology and economics) in the region. One hundred forty-two farmers (59 percent of those receiving questionnaires) responded to the survey. Of the respondents, 42 percent own or are considering purchasing a personal computer; the vast majority of farmers own a rain gage and some form of temperature- measuring device; the respondents were moderately familiar with an existing Automated Weather Data Network in Nebraska; commercial and NOAA weather radio and commercial television are the main sources of weather data and information. short-term weather forecasts (1 day and 3-5 days) are most important to overall farm planning; respondents considered market and cost-of-production information and more-accurate weather forecasts most important in better management of their farm operations; the risk factors that impacted farm net income were economic followed by weather factors and marketing decisions; and most farmers would be willing to forward contract before the crop was half developed if good projections of crop status and yield could be made. A major constraint to preharvest forward contracting from some of the farmers' perspective appears to be variability in yield due to hail.

Weiss, A.; Robb, J. G.

1986-01-01

304

WFC3/UVIS Sky Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the on-orbit background levels present in WFC3/UVIS full-frame images. The results are based on nearly all standard readout images taken since the installation of WFC3 on HST in May 2009, with a relatively small number of exclusions e.g. images with obvious anomalous backgrounds (such as extended targets filling the field of view) or those taken with the quad filters (different bandpass in each amp). Comparisons are provided to estimates from the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). We anticipate these results to be helpful in fine-tuning the level of post-flash required to achieve the optimum balance of charge transfter efficiency (CTE) loss mitigation versus noise penalty. Observers considering the use of post-flash should refer to the White Paper (MacKenty & Smith 2012) on the CTE WWW page (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/ins_performance/CTE/).

Baggett, Sylvia; Anderson, Jay

2012-06-01

305

The cosmic microwave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

Silk, Joseph

1989-01-01

306

Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A predominant research focus in the free flight community has been on the type of information required on the flight deck to enable pilots to "autonomously" maintain separation from other aircraft. At issue are the relative utility and requirement for information exchange between aircraft regarding the current "state" and/or the "intent" of each aircraft. This paper presents the experimental design and some initial findings of an experimental research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared in a piloted simulation. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective data results are presented that generally indicate pilot consensus in favor of the strategic mode.

Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Duley, Jacqueline A.; Legan, Brian M.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

2001-01-01

307

Sediment transport processes and their resulting stratigraphy: informing science and society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment transport physically shapes planetary surfaces by producing patterns of erosion and deposition, with the relative magnitudes of geomorphic actions varying according to environmental conditions. Where sediment fills accommodation space and generates accumulation, a stratigraphic archive develops that potentially harbors a trove of information documenting dynamic conditions during the periods of sediment production, transport and deposition. By investigating the stratigraphic record, it is possible to describe changes in surface environments, as well as hypothesize about the development of regional tectonic and climate regimes. Ultimately, information contained within the stratigraphic record is critical for evaluating the geological history of terrestrial planets. The enigma of stratigraphy, however, is that sediment deposition is finicky, there is no uninterrupted record, and while deposits may reflect only a brief temporal window, they may still be used to infer about conditions that encompass much longer periods of time. Consider a case where meter-scale dune foresets, deposited in a matter of minutes to hours, are in contact with sediments above and below that reflect entirely different depositional circumstances and are separated in time by a hiatus of thousands or perhaps millions of years. To effectively unlock the scientific trove bound in stratigraphy, it is first necessary to identify where such unconformities exist and the conditions that lead to their development. This challenge is made much simpler through scientific advances in understanding sediment transport processes -- the examination of how fluid and solids interact under modern conditions -- because this is precisely where sediment patterns first emerge to produce accumulation that builds a stratigraphic record. By advancing an understanding of process-based sedimentology, it is possible to enhance diagnostic evaluations of the stratigraphic record. Fortunately, over the past several decades, there have been numerous scientific advances pertaining to the coupling of sediment transport and hydrodynamics. This research has produced new theory about how sediments accumulating in many unique environments shape the stratigraphic record. Recent studies have taken advantage of novel methods for acquiring observational data, which in turn have been used to advance numerical modeling schemes as well as experimental designs. As an example, consider fluvial deltas: here, hydrodynamics are constantly evolving over space and time. Patterns of sediment deposition and erosion (from dune to delta-lobe scales), resolved using high-resolution 3-D acoustic data, are used as input data to construct models that further show how channel dynamics (e.g., avulsions) and kinematics (e.g., lateral migration) evolve due to sediment and hydrodynamic coupling. This information is used to propose new theories of delta stratigraphy, which are then tested by examining ancient fluvial-delta systems. Finally, research efforts evaluating modern sediment-transport and depositional processes offer significant benefits to society. For example, fluvial deltas are heavily relied upon for societal welfare and yet are among the most dynamic landscapes on Earth's surface. Therefore, research examining the evolution of these landscapes not only advances basic science, but also doubles as an exercise in applied geomorphology.

Nittrouer, J. A.

2013-12-01

308

Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds  

E-print Network

Chapter 3 Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds New physics is often discovered by pushing;Chapter 3: Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds 104 the rate of background. High-energy neutrino to find suitable construction materials. 3.1 External Backgrounds External backgrounds are those in which

309

Background Error Statistics for Assimilation of Atmospheric CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent improvements in the CO2 observational density have spurred the development and application of data assimilation systems for extracting information about global CO2 distributions from available observations. A novel application that has been pursued at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), as part of the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) project, is to use a state-of-the-art 4DVAR system to assimilate CO2 observations, along with meteorological variables to obtain a consistent estimate of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Global CO2 fields generated in this way enhance the observational database, because the data assimilation procedure uses physical and dynamical laws, along with the available observations, to constrain the analysis. As in any data assimilation framework, the background error covariance matrix plays the critical role of filtering the observed information and propagating it to nearby grid points and levels of the assimilating model. For atmospheric CO2 assimilation, however, the errors in the background are not only impacted by the uncertainties in the CO2 transport but also by the spatial and temporal variability of the carbon exchange at the Earth surface. The background errors cannot be prescribed via traditional forecast-based methods as these fail to account for the uncertainties in the carbon emissions and uptake, resulting in an overall underestimation of the errors. We present a unique approach for characterizing the background error statistics whereby the differences between two CO2 model concentrations are used as a proxy for the statistics of the background errors. The resulting error statistics - 1) vary regionally and seasonally to better capture the changing degree of variability in the background CO2 field, 2) are independent of the observation density, and 3) have a discernible impact on the analysis estimates by allowing observations to adjust predictions over a larger area. In this presentation, we will show the results of assimilating observations from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) into the ECMWF-4DVAR system using both the new error statistics and those based on a traditional forecast-based technique ('standard' NMC method). We will also present the validation results against independent CO2 observations for a couple of representative months (January and June 2010). Results confirm that the performance of the data assimilation system significantly improves in the summer (winter) over the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere, when significant variability and uncertainty in the fluxes are present, and are correctly accounted for in the background error statistics. The proposed approach is also relevant for other trace gas assimilation applications, especially ones in which the background errors are influenced by both atmospheric transport and the emission patterns.

Chatterjee, A.; Engelen, R. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Sweeney, C.; Michalak, A. M.

2012-12-01

310

An evaluation of selected NASA scientific and technical information products: Results of a pilot study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pilot study was conducted to evaluate selected NASA scientific and technical information (STI) products. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire, had a two-fold purpose -- to gather baseline data regarding the use and perceived usefulness of selected NASA STI products and to develop/validate questions that could be used in a future study concerned with the role of the U.S. government technical report in aeronautics. The sample frame consisted of 25,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in the U.S. with academic, government or industrial affiliation. Simple random sampling was used to select 2000 individuals to participate in the study. Three hundred fifty-three usable questionnaires (17 percent response rate) were received by the established cutoff date. The findings indicate that: (1) NASA STI is used and is generally perceived as being important; (2) the use rate for NASA-authored conference/meeting papers, journal articles, and technical reports is fairly uniform; (3) a considerable number of respondents are unfamiliar with STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports), IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts), SCAN (Selected Current Aerospace Notices), and the RECON on-line retrieval system; (4) a considerable number of respondents who are familiar with these media do not use them; and (5) the perceived quality of NASA-authored journal articles and technical reports is very good.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron

1989-01-01

311

Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT MSS and Airborne TMS for Hydrological Applications: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Land cover information for the Clinton River Basin (Michigan) derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data was compared with that from airborne thematic mapper simulator (TMS) to investigate the probable capabilities of the thematic mapper (TM) launched aboard LANDSAT-4 in July 1982. The preliminary findings for one 7.5 minute topographic map, Mt. Clemens West, are reported. Significant improvements in land cover classification accuracy were obtained using TMS data as compared with MSS data. Overall mapping accuracy increased from 49 to 61 percent with an improvement from 71 to 84 percent in the residential category. A combination of four bands with one band in each major region of the spectrum (visible, near IR, middle IR and thermal IR) provided as good a discrimination of land cover as all seven TM bands. Based on the improved land cover classification accuracy of TM, TM data has the potential to provide more useful and effective input to US Army Corps of Engineers flood forecasting and flood damage prediction/assessment models.

Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Hallada, W. A.; Marcell, R. F.

1982-01-01

312

Bayesian Analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background! Experiments designed to map the microwave sky are returning a flood of data (time streams of instrument response as a beam is swept over the sky) at several different frequencies (from 30 to 900 GHz), all with different resolutions and noise properties. The resulting analysis challenge is to estimate, and quantify our uncertainty in, the spatial power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background given the complexities of "missing data", foreground emission, and complicated instrumental noise. Bayesian formulation of this problem allows consistent treatment of many complexities including complicated instrumental noise and foregrounds, and can be numerically implemented with Gibbs sampling. Gibbs sampling has now been validated as an efficient, statistically exact, and practically useful method for low-resolution (as demonstrated on WMAP 1 and 3 year temperature and polarization data). Continuing development for Planck - the goal is to exploit the unique capabilities of Gibbs sampling to directly propagate uncertainties in both foreground and instrument models to total uncertainty in cosmological parameters.

Jewell, Jeffrey

2007-01-01

313

How reliable are the results of large-scale information retrieval experiments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two stages in measurement of techniques for informationretrieval are gathering of documents for relevance assessment anduse of the assessments to numerically evaluate effectiveness. Weconsider both of these stages in the context of the TRECexperiments, to determine whether they lead to measurements thatare trustworthy and fair. Our detailed empirical investigation ofthe TREC results shows that the measured relative performance ofsystems appears

Justin Zobel

1998-01-01

314

The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 mum. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps

M. G. Hauser; R. G. Arendt; T. Kelsall; E. Dwek; N. Odegard; J. L. Weiland; H. T. Freudenreich; W. T. Reach; R. F. Silverberg; S. H. Moseley; Y. C. Pei; P. Lubin; J. C. Mather; R. A. Shafer; G. F. Smoot; R. Weiss; D. T. Wilkinson; E. L. Wright

1998-01-01

315

Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported that the highest power fluctuations occur at scales of about one degree. A number of ground-based interferometers provided measurements of the fluctuations with higher accuracy over the next three years, including the Very Small Array [16], Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) [61], and the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) [78]. DASI was the first to detect the polarization of the CMB and the CBI provided the first E-mode polarization spectrum with compelling evidence that it is out of phase with the T-mode spectrum. In June 2001, NASA launched its second CMB mission (after COBE), Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Explorer (WMAP) [44], to make much more precise measurements of the CMB sky. WMAP measured the differences in the CMB temperature across the sky creating a full-sky map of the CMB in five different frequency bands. The mission also measured the CMB's E-mode and the foreground polarization. As of October 2010, the WMAP spacecraft has ended its mission after nine years of operation. Although WMAP provided very accurate measurements of the large angular-scale fluctuations in the CMB, it did not have the angular resolution to cover the smaller-scale fluctuations that had been observed by previous ground-based interferometers. A third space mission, the Planck Surveyor [1], was launched by ESA* in May 2009 to measure the CMB on smaller scales than WMAP, as well as making precise measurements of the polarization of CMB. Planck represents an advance over WMAP in several respects: it observes in higher resolution, hence allowing one to probe the CMB power spectrum to smaller scales; it has a higher sensitivity and observes in nine frequency bands rather than five, hence improving the astrophysical foreground models. The mission has a wide variety of scientific aims, including: (1) detecting the total intensity/polarization of the primordial CMB anisotropies; (2) creating a galaxy-cluster catalogue through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect [93]; (3) observing the gravitational lensing of the CMB and the integrated Sachs Wolfe (ISW) effect [82]; (4) observing br

Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

2012-03-01

316

Chiristmas Carol Background Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find out more information about the book A Christmas Carol. Use the websites below to answer the questions about A Christmas Carol . Write your answers to these questions on a piece of paper or a word document you can print and turn in. The answers must be in your own words! 1. This story takes place in Victorian London. This time ...

Mrs. Jansa

2012-11-28

317

Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

318

The essential of 2012 results from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) ESRD registry.  

PubMed

The French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry began in 2002 to provide a tool for public health decision support, evaluation and research related to renal replacement therapies (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is relying on a network of nephrologists, epidemiologists, patients and public health representatives. Continuous registration covers all dialysis and transplanted patients. In 2012, in France, 10,048 patients started a RRT (154 per million inhabitants). Elders provided majority of new patients (median age at RRT start: 70 years old). New patients had a high and age increasing rate of comorbidities, especially diabetes (42% of the new patients) and cardiovascular comorbidities (>50% of the new patients). Like previous years, incidence is stabilized. On December 31, 2012, 73,491 patients were receiving a RRT in France (1127 per million inhabitants, 56% on dialysis and 44% living with a functional renal transplant). More than 50% of patients were undergoing in-center hemodialysis with significant variations among regions. An increase in medical satellite unit hemodialysis but a decrease in self-care unit hemodialysis rates were noticed across the time, whereas peritoneal dialysis remained stable at 7%. Five years after starting RRT, the overall survival rate was 51% but only 16% among patients over 85 years. Mortality rate was highly dependent on treatment and age; transplanted patients aged 60-69 had a 27/1000 patients-year mortality rate versus 133 for a dialysis patient. Patients who started dialysis had a probability of first wait-listing of 4.8% at the start of dialysis (pre-emptive registrations) and 27% at 72 months. Whatever their diabetes status was, patients older than 60 had poor access to the waiting list. Seventeen percent of the patients received a first renal transplant within 15.4 month median time; 3% had received a pre-emptive graft. Ten years after the start of the French ESRD registry, this report provides a comprehensive and nation-wide overview of dialysis and transplantation cares in France, including overseas. PMID:25457107

Lassalle, Mathilde; Ayav, Carole; Frimat, Luc; Jacquelinet, Christian; Couchoud, Cécile

2014-11-01

319

Kolmogorov cosmic microwave background sky  

E-print Network

A new map of the sky representing the degree of randomness in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature has been obtained. The map based on estimation of the Kolmogorov stochasticity parameter clearly distinguishes the contribution of the Galactic disk from the CMB and reveals regions of various degrees of randomness that can reflect the properties of inhomogeneities in the Universe. For example, among the high randomness regions is the southern non-Gaussian anomaly, the Cold Spot, with a stratification expected for the voids. Existence of its counterpart, a Northern Cold Spot with almost identical randomness properties among other low-temperature regions is revealed. By its informative power, Kolmogorov's map can be complementary to the CMB temperature and polarization sky maps.

V. G. Gurzadyan; A. E. Allahverdyan; T. Ghahramanyan; A. L. Kashin; H. G. Khachatryan; A. A. Kocharyan; H. Kuloghlian; S. Mirzoyan; E. Poghosian; G. Yegorian

2009-02-26

320

Comparison of DAMA/LIBRA and DM ICE Results using Information Theory to Rule out Dark Matter Claims  

E-print Network

We study the details of the DAMA/LIBRA results and compare those with the recent published DM Ice results of ICE Cube. In various recent papers, it was shown that the 40K peak on DAMA/LIBRA data leaves no room for a Dark Matter signal in the bulk of the data. Using Information Theory for the different types of detection environments, we show that annual variation calculations and the DM Ice data reinforce the claims that the DAMA/LIBRA detector is not observing Dark Matter WIMPs.

Cline, David

2015-01-01

321

Comparison of DAMA/LIBRA and DM ICE Results using Information Theory to Rule out Dark Matter Claims  

E-print Network

We study the details of the DAMA/LIBRA results and compare those with the recent published DM Ice results of ICE Cube. In various recent papers, it was shown that the 40K peak on DAMA/LIBRA data leaves no room for a Dark Matter signal in the bulk of the data. Using Information Theory for the different types of detection environments, we show that annual variation calculations and the DM Ice data reinforce the claims that the DAMA/LIBRA detector is not observing Dark Matter WIMPs.

David Cline; Marcus Simpson

2015-04-17

322

23. Cosmic microwave background 1 23. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

23. Cosmic microwave background 1 23. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND Revised August 2009 by D. Scott from beyond our Galaxy is dominated by the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), discovered in 1965 [1;2 23. Cosmic microwave background 23.2.1. The Monopole : The CMB has a mean temperature of T = 2

323

25. Cosmic microwave background 1 25. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

25. Cosmic microwave background 1 25. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND Revised August 2011 by D. Scott from beyond our Galaxy is dominated by the cosmic microwave background (CMB), discovered in 1965 [1://pdg.lbl.gov) June 18, 2012 16:19 #12;2 25. Cosmic microwave background 25.2.1. The Monopole : The CMB has a mean

324

23. Cosmic microwave background 1 23. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

23. Cosmic microwave background 1 23. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND Revised August 2011 by D. Scott from beyond our Galaxy is dominated by the cosmic microwave background (CMB), discovered in 1965 [1 update for the 2012 edition (pdg.lbl.gov) February 16, 2012 14:07 #12;2 23. Cosmic microwave background

325

Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation  

E-print Network

Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation Signals from the early universe, or pigeon droppings? #12;Microwave Background Radiation The spectrum is a near- perfect match energy reaching us from all directions. #12;Origin of the Microwave Background Back at z > 0, microwave

Barnes, Joshua Edward

326

School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: results from a multi-informant study.  

PubMed

School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PMID:25198617

Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley

2014-09-01

327

A preliminary exploration of the feasibility of offering men information about potential prostate cancer treatment options before they know their biopsy results  

PubMed Central

Background A small pre-test study was conducted to ascertain potential harm and anxiety associated with distributing information about possible cancer treatment options at the time of biopsy, prior to knowledge about a definitive cancer diagnosis. Priming men about the availability of multiple options before they have a confirmed diagnosis may be an opportunity to engage patients in more informed decision-making. Methods Men with an elevated PSA test or suspicious Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) who were referred to a urology clinic for a biopsy were randomized to receive either the clinic’s usual care (UC) biopsy instruction sheet (n?=?11) or a pre-biopsy educational (ED) packet containing the biopsy instruction sheet along with a booklet about the biopsy procedure and a prostate cancer treatment decision aid originally written for newly diagnosed men that described in detail possible treatment options (n?=?18). Results A total of 62% of men who were approached agreed to be randomized, and 83% of the ED group confirmed they used the materials. Anxiety scores were similar for both groups while awaiting the biopsy procedure, with anxiety scores trending lower in the ED group: 41.2 on a prostate-specific anxiety instrument compared to 51.7 in the UC group (p?=?0.13). ED participants reported better overall quality of life while awaiting biopsy compared to the UC group (76.4 vs. 48.5, p?=?0.01). The small number of men in the ED group who went on to be diagnosed with cancer reported being better informed about the risks and side effects of each option compared to men diagnosed with cancer in the UC group (p?=?0.07). In qualitative discussions, men generally reported they found the pre-biopsy materials to be helpful and indicated having information about possible treatment options reduced their anxiety. However, 2 of 18 men reported they did not want to think about treatment options until after they knew their biopsy results. Conclusions In this small sample offering pre-biopsy education about potential treatment options was generally well received by patients, appeared to be beneficial to men who went on to be diagnosed, and did not appear to increase anxiety unnecessarily among those who had a negative biopsy. PMID:23388205

2013-01-01

328

Misusing informed consent: a critique of limitations on research subjects' access to genetic research results.  

PubMed

Express denials of access to genetic research results are being drafted into consent instruments. Some commentators suggest that the principle of beneficence can justify such a denial of access. This paper provides an ethical and legal critique of the use of consent instruments to disclaim responsibility for on-going disclosure by genetic researchers. Currently, the law of torts provides only weak protection for on-going disclosure for research subjects. The most substantive rights are to be found in the law of fiduciary obligations. The author concludes that, notwithstanding arguments to the contrary, there should be a presumption of disclosure in genetic research, unless the research subject elects otherwise. The author outlines one possible exception to this general presumption. PMID:12666671

Banks, T M

2000-01-01

329

Cosmic microwave background theory.  

PubMed

A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant. PMID:9419321

Bond, J R

1998-01-01

330

Tumor detection in nonstationary backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

The author introduces two detectors which are used to locate simulated tumors of fixed size in clinical gamma-ray images. The first method was conceived when it was observed that small tumors possess an identifiable signature in curvature feature space, where curvature'' is the local curvature of the image data when viewed as a relief map. Computed curvature values are mapped to a normalized significance space using a windowed t-statistic. The resulting test statistic is thresholded at a chosen level of significance to give a positive detection. Nonuniform anatomic background activity is effectively suppressed. The second detector is an adaptive prewhitening matched filter, which uses a form of preprocessing known as statistical scaling to adaptively prewhiten the background. Tests are performed using simulated Gaussian-shaped tumors superimposed on twelve clinical gamma-ray images. When the tumors to be detected are small -- less than 3 pixels in diameter - the curvature detector out-performs the matched filter in true positive/false positive tests. A mean true positive rate of 95% at one false positive per image is achieved when the local signal-to-noise ratio of the tumor-background is [>=] 2. At larger tumor sizes the best performance is displayed by a different form of matched filter, namely the statistical correlation function proposed by Pratt.

Stickland, R.N. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States))

1994-09-01

331

IRST infrared background analysis of bay environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day naval operations take place in coastal environments as well as narrow straits all over the world. Coastal environments around the world are exhibiting a number of threats to naval forces. In particular a large number of asymmetric threats can be present in environments with cluttered backgrounds as well as rapidly varying atmospheric conditions. During trials executed in False Bay a large amount of target, background and atmosphere data was gathered that is of use in analysis of optical characteristics of targets and backgrounds. During the trials a variety of backgrounds were recorded. We have used these backgrounds to validate the TNO background model MIBS to incorporate also coastal backgrounds and sunlit sea backgrounds. In the paper we show results of the background analysis, for coastal bay backgrounds. In particular the detection of small targets by automatic system may be hampered by small surface structure variations at the surface and near the horizon. The data that we analyzed are sea surface structure, temporal behaviour, and spectral differences during different environmental conditions that occurred during the trials. This data is essential to feed detection algorithms, and performance models for the assessment of sensor performance in coastal environment. Some sensor management approaches for application in IRST systems is discussed.

Schwering, Piet B. W.; Bezuidenhout, Dirk F.; Gunter, Willem H.; le Roux, Francois P. J.; Sieberhagen, Rheinhardt H.

2008-04-01

332

Infrared background analysis of bay environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day naval operations take place in coastal environments as well as narrow straits all over the world. Coastal environments around the world are exhibiting a number of threats to naval forces. In particular a large number of asymmetric threats can be present in environments with cluttered backgrounds as well as rapidly varying atmospheric conditions. During trials executed in False Bay a large amount of target, background and atmosphere data was gathered that is of use in analysis of optical characteristics of targets and backgrounds. During the trials a variety of backgrounds were recorded. We have used these backgrounds to validate the TNO background model MIBS to incorporate also coastal backgrounds and sunlit sea backgrounds. In the paper we show results of the background analysis, for coastal bay backgrounds. In particular the detection of small targets by automatic system may be hampered by small surface structure variations at the surface and near the horizon. The data that we analyzed are sea surface structure, temporal behaviour, and spectral differences during different environmental conditions that occurred during the trials. This data is essential to feed detection algorithms, and performance models for the assessment of sensor performance in coastal environment.

Schwering, Piet B. W.; Gunter, Willem H.; Bezuidenhout, Dirk F.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.

2008-08-01

333

Observational study in ten beauty salons: results informing development of the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project.  

PubMed

Researchers from the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project conducted an observational study in 10 North Carolina beauty salons to gain insight into naturally occurring conversations between cosmetologists and customers, and to assess features of the salon environment that might be used to inform the development of salon-based health promotion interventions. Results revealed that the social environment of a salon is a place where cosmetologists and customers talk openly about many subjects, including health. Information, advice, appraisal, humor, and empathy are typically shared in these health conversations. Several features of the physical environment of the salon may be mobilized to support health--access to healthy foods, snacks, and beverages; smoking restrictions; and availability of print or video materials, signs, or displays that include healthy messages. Implications for planning salon-based health promotion interventions--including the training of licensed cosmetologists to deliver health messages--are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:15539548

Solomon, Felicia M; Linnan, Laura A; Wasilewski, Yvonne; Lee, Ann Marie; Katz, Mira L; Yang, Jingzhen

2004-12-01

334

Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise  

PubMed Central

It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity. PMID:25426029

Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.; Xiao, Zhongju

2014-01-01

335

Background matrix subtraction (BMS): A novel background removal algorithm for GPR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background noise is a common type of coherent noise that severely compromises the integrity of the high-resolution images provided by ground penetrating radar survey. Several existing techniques employ different approaches to attenuate background noise. In this study, we present the background matrix subtraction (BMS) as an alternative technique to remove horizontal background noise and we compare its efficiency to that of the conventional background removal technique. Instead of calculating an average trace that is subtracted from the GPR data in the conventional background removal methods, the BMS technique is based on calculating a complete background matrix of the same size of the GPR section. The background matrix is created through a series of windowing, sample exclusion, weighting, and iteration. This series of processes guarantees that the background matrix is least affected by target response and is composed purely of horizontal background noise. The computed background matrix is then subtracted from the GPR data to remove horizontal events. Results of experiments conducted on both synthetic and real GPR data show that the BMS technique yields better results than the commonly used background removal technique.

Rashed, Mohamed; Harbi, Hussein

2014-07-01

336

Background and Foreground: Audience Education from Theory to Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as all perceptions are of figures differentiated from a larger background, a play takes place against the background of the audience's knowledge and feelings. While audience members generally bring to a performance a large body of background information--they evaluate the storyline, for example, using a lifetime of personal experience--at…

Davis, Ken

337

A Background Geobotany Model Applied To Geologic Exploration In Tropical Forest Environments: First Results From Landsat-tm And Dtm For The Pojuca Cu-Zn Deposits, Carajas Province, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Backgroun·d G.eobotany approach has been applied for geoiogic exploration in the Archean metavolcanic Pojuca Belt,Carajas Province. The test site is characterized by rugged topography; thick latosoil profiles and almost absence of bedrock outcrops. The vegetation is typical of tropical.rainfbr est; The analysis foccused on communitilevel and has been tested through digital image processing of orbital RS (TM­ LANDSAT) and

W. R. Paradella; W. D. Bruce; J. K. HORNSBY; C. Kushigbor

1989-01-01

338

Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

samples of structured background. Results show that human visual detection degrades from the uniform background condition to the repeated background condition and degrades even further in the different back- grounds condition. These results suggest that both the contrast gain control mechanism and the background random variations degrade human performance in detection of a signal in a complex, spatially varying back-

Miguel P. Eckstein; Albert J. Ahumada

1997-01-01

339

X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

1996-01-01

340

Background Check Policy 4.15  

E-print Network

employment either voluntarily or involuntarily for any period of time. Criminal conviction Being found guilty law that regulates collection, dissemination and use of consumer credit information. Final candidate of discrimination and harassment. II. Regulations A. Background checks must be conducted on internal and external

Howat, Ian M.

341

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE Background  

E-print Network

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE INDIVIDUAL Background: Pregnant women are considered to be a 'higher risk group' for swine flu. This means that for a small minority of cases, complications could workplace adjustments regarding swine flu, it is your responsibility to inform Occupational Health

Davies, Christopher

342

A Review and Evaluation of the Langley Research Center's Scientific and Technical Information Program. Results of Phase VI-The Technical Report: A Survey and Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of a review and evaluation of the Langley Research Center's scientific and technical information program, which examined technical reports from various institutions and organizations to determine the organization of reports, the language used to convey information, and the methods used to present information.…

McCullough, Robert A.; And Others

343

Kolmogorov complexity as a descriptor of cosmic microwave background maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information theory approach is suggested to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) problem for negatively curved homogeneous and isotropic Universe. Namely, the Kolmogorov complexity of anisotropy spots of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation sky maps is proposed as a new descriptor for revealing crucial cosmological information, particularly on the curvature of the Universe. Such profound descriptor can be especially valuable

V. G. Gurzadyan

1999-01-01

344

Preliminary results of a feasibility study of the use of information technology for identification of suspected colorectal cancer in primary care: the CREDIBLE study  

PubMed Central

Background: We report the findings of a feasibility study using information technology to search electronic primary care records and to identify patients with possible colorectal cancer. Methods: An algorithm to flag up patients meeting National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) urgent referral criteria for suspected colorectal cancer was developed and incorporated into clinical audit software. This periodically flagged up such patients aged 60 to 79 years. General practitioners (GPs) reviewed flagged-up patients and decided on further clinical management. We report the numbers of patients identified and the numbers that GPs judged to need further review, investigations or referral to secondary care and the final diagnoses. Results: Between January 2012 and March 2014, 19?580 records of patients aged 60 to 79 years were searched in 20 UK general practices, flagging up 809 patients who met urgent referral criteria. The majority of the patients had microcytic anaemia (236 (29%)) or rectal bleeding (205 (25%)). A total of 274 (34%) patients needed further clinical review of their records; 199 (73%) of these were invited for GP consultation, and 116 attended, of whom 42 were referred to secondary care. Colon cancer was diagnosed in 10 out of 809 (1.2%) flagged-up patients and polyps in a further 28 out of 809 (3.5%). Conclusions: It is technically possible to identify patients with colorectal cancer by searching electronic patient records. PMID:25734384

Kidney, E; Berkman, L; Macherianakis, A; Morton, D; Dowswell, G; Hamilton, W; Ryan, R; Awbery, H; Greenfield, S; Marshall, T

2015-01-01

345

[Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

Silk, Joseph

1998-01-01

346

Video coding with dynamic background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

2013-12-01

347

START Background Report START, September 2013 1 BACKGROUND REPORT  

E-print Network

START Background Report © START, September 2013 1 BACKGROUND REPORT Al-Shabaab Attack on Westgate evening, Sept. 24. Media sources report that Somali militant organization al-Shabaab has claimed deaths as of Sept. 25. START has developed this background report highlighting attacks attributed to al-Shabaab

Hill, Wendell T.

348

Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM) VDL-3 and 1090ES Final Test Requirements, Test Plans, and Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Aviation Safety Program was created for the purpose of making a significant reduction in the incidents of weather related aviation accidents by improving situational awareness. The objectives of that program are being met in part through advances in weather sensor technology, and in part through advances in the communications technology that are developed for use in the National Airspace System. It is this latter element, i.e., the improvements in aviation communication technologies, that is the focus of the Weather Information Communications project. This report describes the final flight test results completed under the WINCOMM project at the NASA Glenn Research Center of the 1090 Extended Squitter (1090ES) and VDL Mode 3 (VDL-3) data links as a medium for weather data exchange. It presents the use of 1090ES to meet the program objectives of sending broadcast turbulence information and the use of VDL-3 to send graphical weather images. This report provides the test requirements and test plans, which led to flight tests, as well as final results from flight testing. The reports define the changes made to both avionics and ground-based receivers as well as the ground infrastructure to support implementation of the recommended architecture, with a focus on the issues associated with these changes.

Griner, James H.; Jirberg, Russ; Frantz, Brian; Kachmar, Brian A.

2006-01-01

349

Evidence of zolpidem abuse and dependence: results of the French Centre for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) network survey  

PubMed Central

Aim To show that the nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic zolpidem has a higher abuse potential than previously documented. Method An official enquiry was carried out by the Nantes Centre for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP). The authors made a review of literature and analysed French data corresponding to the drug's postmarketing period collected by the CEIP network from 1993 to 2002. Results The literature review yielded mixed results concerning the behavioural effects of zolpidem. Data from the CEIP and the 53 literature case reports highlight significant dependence and abuse potential of zolpidem. Conclusions This study adds to the growing evidence that zolpidem has the potential for abuse and dependence. As a consequence, the French drug monograph has been modified by the French Health Authorities. PMID:17324242

Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Dailly, Eric; Veyrac, Gwenaëlle; Jolliet, Pascale

2007-01-01

350

Handwritten character recognition using background analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a low-cost handwritten character recognizer. It is constituted by three modules: the `acquisition' module, the `binarization' module, and the `core' module. The core module can be logically partitioned into six steps: character dilation, character circumscription, region and `profile' analysis, `cut' analysis, decision tree descent, and result validation. Firstly, it reduces the resolution of the binarized regions and detects the minimum rectangle (MR) which encloses the character; the MR partitions the background into regions that surround the character or are enclosed by it, and allows it to define features as `profiles' and `cuts;' a `profile' is the set of vertical or horizontal minimum distances between a side of the MR and the character itself; a `cut' is a vertical or horizontal image segment delimited by the MR. Then, the core module classifies the character by descending along the decision tree on the basis of the analysis of regions around the character, in particular of the `profiles' and `cuts,' and without using context information. Finally, it recognizes the character or reactivates the core module by analyzing validation test results. The recognizer is largely insensible to character discontinuity and is able to detect Arabic numerals and English alphabet capital letters. The recognition rate of a 32 X 32 pixel character is of about 97% after the first iteration, and of over 98% after the second iteration.

Tascini, Guido; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

1993-04-01

351

The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention Citation: Hall, R. and Hanna, P. (2004), The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention, Behaviour & Information Technology, forthcoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text\\/background color combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioral intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four color-combination conditions. Major findings were: a) Colors with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater

Richard H. Hall

352

Exploratory Workshop on the Social Impacts of Robotics. Summary and Issues. A Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains a summary of the results of an exploratory workshop to discuss the future of industrial robotics and its likely impact on public policy. Background information is presented, and workshop goals are delineated. Under the general area of robot technology, these topics are covered: the roots of robotics technology, a definition of…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

353

State Profits on Tax-Exempt Student Loan Bonds: Analysis and Options. Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The source of profits earned by states as a result of tax-exempt bonds issued to raise funds for college student loans is analyzed, as are various proposals to reduce these profits. Background information about both student loan bond programs and student loans is presented, along with an explanation of how issuers of student loan bonds are able to…

Gensheimer, Cynthia Francis

354

Computerized background-oriented schlieren  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A schlieren measurement technique based on computer evaluation of image variations due to refractive index variations in the propagation medium is presented; in what follows, this concept is referred to as the "background-oriented schlieren" (BOS) method. The differences between BOS and other optical techniques for refractive index measurement are the governing role of numerical methods, the extremely small amount of optical equipment, the high accuracy, the bidirectional sensitivity, the fast evaluation, and the missing field limitations. The principle of the method is the numerical comparison of a schlieren distorted and an undistorted image of a deliberate background. The method has become usable in practice owing to the immense progress in computing power and to newly developed fast-correlation algorithms. The extension of this method to space resolving techniques is possible. Some experimental studies show the applicability. Examples are a mixing turbulent jet, a supersonic jet, a shed vortex, and the sound wave of a gun shot. These few results underline the encouraging prospect for the future applicability of this technique. The BOS method offers not only the possibility of qualitative and quantitative schlieren investigations but also has the potential to determine density fields by integration of the measured gradient fields.

Meier, G. E. A.

2002-06-01

355

REPORT NO. 5 background material  

E-print Network

REPORT NO. 5 background material for the development of radiation protection standards July 1964 Staff Report of the FEDERAL RADIATION COUNCIL #12;REPORT NO. 5 background material for the development INTRODUCTION This report contains background material used in the development of guidance for Federal agencies

356

Geodynamics: Introduction and Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of the field of geodynamics and its major scientific questions. The NASA geodynamics program is described as well as its status and accomplishments projected by 1988. Federal coordination and international cooperation in monitoring tectonic plate motion, polar motion, and Earth rotation are mentioned. The development of a GPS receiver for civilian geodesy and results obtained using satellite laser ranging and very long baseline interferometry in measuring crustal dynamics, global dynamics, and the geopotential field are reported.

1984-01-01

357

A European Network of Email and Telephone Help Lines Providing Information and Support on Rare Diseases: Results From a 1-Month Activity Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Information on rare diseases are often complex to understand, or difficult to access and additional support is often necessary. Rare diseases helplines work together across Europe to respond to calls and emails from the public at large, including patients, health care professionals, families, and students. Measuring the activity of helplines can help decision makers to allocate adequate funds when deciding to create or expand an equivalent service. Objective Data presented are referred to a monthly user profile analysis, which is one of the activities that each helpline has to carry out to be part of the network. This survey aimed to explore the information requests and characteristics of users of rare diseases helplines in different European countries. Another aim was to analyze these data with respect to users’ characteristics, helpline characteristics, topics of the inquiries, and technologies used to provide information. With this survey, we measure data that are key for planning information services on rare diseases in the context of the development of national plans for rare diseases. Methods A survey was conducted based on all calls, emails, visits, or letters received from November 1 to 30, 2012 to monitor the activity represented by 12 helplines. Data were collected by a common standardized form, using ORPHA Codes for rare diseases, when applicable. No personal data identifying the inquirer were collected. It was a descriptive approach documenting on the number and purpose of inquiries, the number of respondents, the mode of contact, the category of the inquirer in relation to the patient, the inquirer’s gender, age and region of residence, the patient’s age when applicable, the type and duration of response, and the satisfaction as scored by the respondents. Results A total of 1676 calls, emails, or letters were received from November 1 to 30, 2012. Inquiries were mostly about specific diseases. An average of 23 minutes was spent for each inquiry. The inquirer was a patient in 571/1676 inquiries (ie, 34.07% of all cases; 95% CI 31.8-36.3). Other inquirers included relatives (520/1676, 31.03%; 95% CI 28.9-33.3), health care professionals (354/1676, 21.12%; 95% CI 19.2-23.1), and miscellaneous inquirers (230/1676, 13.72%; 95% CI 12.1-15.4). Telephone remained the main mode of contact (988/1676, 58.95%; 95% CI 56.6-61.3), followed by emails (609/1676, 36.34%; 95% CI 34.0-38.6). The three main reasons of inquiries were to acquire about information on the disease (682/2242, 30.42%; 95% CI 27.8-32.1), a specialized center/expert (404/2242, 18.02%; 95% CI 15.9-19.6), and social care (240/2242, 10.70%; 95% CI 9.1-12.0). Conclusions The helplines service responds to the demands of the public, however more inquiry-categories could be responded to. This leaves the possibility to expand the scope of the helplines, for example by providing assistance to patients when they are reporting suspected adverse drug reactions as provided by Directive 2010/84/EU or by providing information on patients’ rights to cross-border care, as provided by Directive 2010/24/EU. PMID:24797216

Sanchez de Vega, Rosa; Brignol, Tuy Nga; Mazzucato, Monica; Polizzi, Agata

2014-01-01

358

Background radiation from fission pulses  

SciTech Connect

Extensive source terms for beta, gamma, and neutrons following fission pulses are presented in various tabular and graphical forms. Neutron results from a wide range of fissioning nuclides (42) are examined and detailed information is provided for four fuels: /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 239/Pu; these bracket the range of the delayed spectra. Results at several cooling (decay) times are presented. For ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. spectra, only /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu results are given; fission-product data are currently inadequate for other fuels. The data base consists of all known measured data for individual fission products extensively supplemented with nuclear model results. The process is evolutionary, and therefore, the current base is summarized in sufficient detail for users to judge its quality. Comparisons with recent delayed neutron experiments and total ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. decay energies are included. 27 refs., 47 figs., 9 tabs.

England, T.R.; Arthur, E.D.; Brady, M.C.; LaBauve, R.J.

1988-05-01

359

Deleterious background selection with recombination  

SciTech Connect

An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Hudson, R.R. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kaplan, N.L. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-12-01

360

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

2011-04-01

361

Texture induced microwave background anisotropies  

SciTech Connect

We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

1994-03-01

362

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

363

Low background aspects of GERDA  

SciTech Connect

The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-04-27

364

Light on curved backgrounds  

E-print Network

We consider the motion of light on different spacetime manifolds by calculating the deflection angle, lensing properties and by probing into the possibility of bound states. The metrics in which we examine the light motion include, among other, a general relativistic Dark Matter metric, a dirty Black Hole and a Worm Hole metric, the last two inspired by non-commutative geometry. The lensing in a Holographic Screen metric is discussed in detail. We study also the bending of light around naked singularities like, e.g., the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric and include other cases. A generic property of light behaviour in these exotic metrics is pointed out. For the standard metric like the Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter cases we improve the accuracy of the lensing results for the weak and strong regime.

D. Batic; S. Nelson; M. Nowakowski

2014-12-11

365

Image segmentation algorithm based on contourlet transform and background complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In infrared image, the grey distribution of background and target are instability, so it has much difficulty in the target segmentation. In this paper, a novel image segmentation algorithm is presented which is based on Contourlet transform and background complexity. Firstly, using Contourlet transform, the structure information of target and background is obtained. Next, structure similarity of target and background is computed. Finally, through the structure similarity of target and background, segmentation threshold is adjusted adaptively. If the structure similarity of target and background is low, it indicates that background is simple, segmentation threshold is set with the grey information. If the structure similarity of target and background is high, segmentation threshold is set with the structure information. The simulation experiments show that the target can be segmented truly in the complex background environment. The algorithm not only reserves the advantage of the grey segmentation in simple background environment, but overcomes the limitation of the grey segmentation in complex background environment, shows better adaptability than the traditional image segmentation methods.

Li, Xue; Meng, Wei-hua; Xiang, Jingbo

2013-09-01

366

Adaptive contour-based statistical background subtraction method for moving target detection in infrared video sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust contour-based statistical background subtraction method for detection of non-uniform thermal targets in infrared imagery is presented. The foremost step of the method comprises of generation of background frame using statistical information of an initial set of frames not containing any targets. The generated background frame is made adaptive by continuously updating the background using the motion information of the scene. The background subtraction method followed by a clutter rejection stage ensure the detection of foreground objects. The next step comprises of detection of contours and distinguishing the target boundaries from the noisy background. This is achieved by using the Canny edge detector that extracts the contours followed by a k-means clustering approach to differentiate the object contour from the background contours. The post processing step comprises of morphological edge linking approach to close any broken contours and finally flood fill is performed to generate the silhouettes of moving targets. This method is validated on infrared video data consisting of a variety of moving targets. Experimental results demonstrate a high detection rate with minimal false alarms establishing the robustness of the proposed method.

Akula, Aparna; Khanna, Nidhi; Ghosh, Ripul; Kumar, Satish; Das, Amitava; Sardana, H. K.

2014-03-01

367

Sakhalin tender background detailed  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that on Jan. 27, 1992, the committee constituted by order of the Russian government of Dec. 23, 1991, and headed by V.I. Danilov-Danilyan, the Russian Federation's Minister for Ecology and Natural Resources, assessed the results of a tender announced in May 1991. The tender was for foreign companies to submit feasibility studies for exploration and development of oil and gas on the continental shelf off Sakhalin Island. The announced winner was the MMM group consisting of McDermott International Inc., Marathon Oil Co., and Mitsui and Co. Ltd. In its decision the governmental tender committee (GTC) begged to differ from V. Fedorov, governor of the Territory of Sakhalin, in whose opinion the U.S.-Japanese combine of Exxon Corp.-Sakhalin Oil Development Co. (Sodeco) should have been pronounced winner at the bidding's end. GTC's decision also ran counter to the verdict by a panel of experts constituted by decision of the Examining Council under the Chairman of the Russian Government on Dec. 3, 1991, and headed by F. Salmanov, first deputy Minister of Geology of the U.S.S.R.

Konoplyanik, A. (Russian Federation Ministry for Fuels and Energy (SU))

1992-03-23

368

Background of the workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long-term effects of the Challenger accident on solar-terrestrial science resulted in the need to examine the near-term missions under development for the next five years. The workshop was organized to seek ideas and opinions about the future of solar-terrestrial flight programs. Included are considerations of all types of space platforms, i.e., balloons, rockets, free flying satellites, and the variety of platforms supported by NASA astronauts. Specific issues include: the establishment of the level of understanding to be accomplished with the completion of the current worldwide program of research in solar-terrestrial sciences; the identification of major questions to be answered by the future solar-terrestrial sciences research program as it might be if initiated within the next ten years; the identification of space capabilities to be available to the future program and provision of input about the Space Physics Division's priorities for using these to accomplish its future scientific program; and mapping a program strategy to accomplish a future program of research in the solar-terrestrial sciences within the research community's perception of capabilities and constraints.

1989-01-01

369

Background of the workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term effects of the Challenger accident on solar-terrestrial science resulted in the need to examine the near-term missions under development for the next five years. The workshop was organized to seek ideas and opinions about the future of solar-terrestrial flight programs. Included are considerations of all types of space platforms, i.e., balloons, rockets, free flying satellites, and the variety of platforms supported by NASA astronauts. Specific issues include: the establishment of the level of understanding to be accomplished with the completion of the current worldwide program of research in solar-terrestrial sciences; the identification of major questions to be answered by the future solar-terrestrial sciences research program as it might be if initiated within the next ten years; the identification of space capabilities to be available to the future program and provision of input about the Space Physics Division's priorities for using these to accomplish its future scientific program; and mapping a program strategy to accomplish a future program of research in the solar-terrestrial sciences within the research community's perception of capabilities and constraints.

1989-09-01

370

BKGE: Fermi-LAT Background Estimator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fermi-LAT Background Estimator (BKGE) is a publicly available open-source tool that can estimate the expected background of the Fermi-LAT for any observational conguration and duration. It produces results in the form of text files, ROOT files, gtlike source-model files (for LAT maximum likelihood analyses), and PHA I/II FITS files (for RMFit/XSpec spectral fitting analyses). Its core is written in C++ and its user interface in Python.

Vasileiou, Vlasios

2014-11-01

371

Background modeling for the GERDA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The neutrinoless double beta (0???) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0??? decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ??} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and ? emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

2013-08-08

372

START Background Report START, May 2014 1 BACKGROUND REPORT  

E-print Network

START Background Report © START, May 2014 1 BACKGROUND REPORT Boko Haram Recent Attacks On Tuesday, April 15, 2014, the terrorist organization Boko Haram attacked a girls' school in Chibok, Borno state, in northern Nigeria, abducting between 250-300 young school girls. Boko Haram's leader, Abubakar Shekau

Hill, Wendell T.

373

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil  

E-print Network

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil Hundreds of indigenous people demonstrated at the National Congress in Brasilia, capital of Brazil, following the announcement in the 1990s in the midst of extensive protests in Brazil and around the world. On February 8, an indigenous

Milchberg, Howard

374

Sampling and coverage issues of telephone surveys used for collecting health information in Australia: results from a face-to-face survey from 1999 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the trend of "mobile only" households, and households that have a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the telephone directory, and to describe these groups by various socio-demographic and health indicators. Method Representative face-to-face population health surveys of South Australians, aged 15 years and over, were conducted in 1999, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008 (n = 14285, response rates = 51.9% to 70.6%). Self-reported information on mobile phone ownership and usage (1999 to 2008) and listings in White Pages telephone directory (2006 to 2008), and landline telephone connection and listings in the White Pages (1999 to 2008), was provided by participants. Additional information was collected on self-reported health conditions and health-related risk behaviours. Results Mobile only households have been steadily increasing from 1.4% in 1999 to 8.7% in 2008. In terms of sampling frame for telephone surveys, 68.7% of South Australian households in 2008 had at least a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the White Pages (73.8% in 2006; 71.5% in 2007). The proportion of mobile only households was highest among young people, unemployed, people who were separated, divorced or never married, low income households, low SES areas, rural areas, current smokers, current asthma or people in the normal weight range. The proportion with landlines or mobiles telephone numbers listed in the White Pages telephone directory was highest among older people, married or in a defacto relationship or widowed, low SES areas, rural areas, people classified as overweight, or those diagnosed with arthritis or osteoporosis. Conclusion The rate of mobile only households has been increasing in Australia and is following worldwide trends, but has not reached the high levels seen internationally (12% to 52%). In general, the impact of mobile telephones on current sampling frames (exclusion or non-listing of mobile only households or not listed in the White Pages directory) may have a low impact on health estimates obtained using telephone surveys. However, researchers need to be aware that mobile only households are distinctly different to households with a landline connection, and the increase in the number of mobile-only households is not uniform across all groups in the community. Listing in the White Pages directory continues to decrease and only a small proportion of mobile only households are listed. Researchers need to be aware of these telephone sampling issues when considering telephone surveys. PMID:20738884

2010-01-01

375

Measurement of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques associated with the measurement of antenna temperature at microwave frequencies are discussed. A number of experiments designed to measure cosmic microwave background radiation are described and their results compared. These results give a very good fit to a 3°K black body curve between 1.4 and 35 GHz.

ARNO A. PENZIAS

1968-01-01

376

Impairment of shooting performance by background complexity and motion.  

PubMed

In many visual displays such as virtual environments, human tasks involve objects superimposed on both complex and moving backgrounds. However, most studies investigated the influence of background complexity or background motion in isolation. Two experiments were designed to investigate the joint influences of background complexity and lateral motion on a simple shooting task typical of video games. Participants had to perform the task on the moving and static versions of backgrounds of three levels of complexity, while their eye movements were recorded. The backgrounds displayed either an abstract (Experiment 1) or a naturalistic (Experiment 2) virtual environment. The results showed that performance was impaired by background motion in both experiments. The effects of motion and complexity were additive for the abstract background and multiplicative for the naturalistic background. Eye movement recordings showed that performance impairments reflected at least in part the impact of the background visual features on gaze control. PMID:25384639

Caroux, Loïc; Le Bigot, Ludovic; Vibert, Nicolas

2015-01-01

377

Information Security Group Information Security in the  

E-print Network

Information Security Group Information Security in the undergraduate curriculum Chris Mitchell Royal Holloway, University of London www.isg.rhul.ac.uk/~cjm 1 #12;Information Security Group Background by malicious criminal gangs. 2 #12;Information Security Group Background II · IT industry has recognised

Mitchell, Chris

378

Sources of the Radio Background Considered  

SciTech Connect

We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

2011-08-22

379

Background  

E-print Network

This Provisional PDF corresponds to the article as it appeared upon acceptance. Fully formatted PDF and full text (HTML) versions will be made available soon. Embryonic diapause in humans: time to consider?

Grazyna E Ptak; Jacek A Modlinski; Grazyna E Ptak; Jacek A Modlinski; Pasqualino Loi

2013-01-01

380

Background  

Cancer.gov

The discovery that proteins and peptides are "leaked" by tumors into clinically accessible bodily fluids such as blood has led to the possibility of diagnosing cancer at an early stage or monitoring response to treatment by collecting these fluids and testing for the presence of cancer-related biomarkers. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) are examples of blood-borne cancer protein biomarkers that are currently being used in the clinic.

381

Gravitational wave background from binary systems  

SciTech Connect

Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter {Omega}(f), commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, {Omega}(f) is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the frequencies of all existing and planned detectors. A semi-analytical formula for {Omega}(f) is derived in the case of stellar binaries (containing white dwarfs, neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes). Besides a realistic expectation of the level of background, upper and lower limits are given, to account for the uncertainties in some astrophysical parameters such as binary coalescence rates. One interesting result concerns all current and planned ground-based detectors (including the Einstein Telescope). In their frequency range, the background of binaries is resolvable and only sporadically present. In other words, there is no stochastic background of binaries for ground-based detectors.

Rosado, Pablo A. [Albert Einstein Institute, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2011-10-15

382

Lattice QCD in Background Fields  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

2009-06-01

383

Strings in plane wave backgrounds  

E-print Network

I review aspects of string theory on plane wave backgrounds emphasising the connection to gauge theory given by the BMN correspondence. Topics covered include the Penrose limit and its role in deriving the BMN duality from AdS/CFT, light-cone string field theory in the maximally supersymmetric plane wave and extensions of the correspondence to less supersymmetric backgrounds.

A. Pankiewicz

2003-07-11

384

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation is discussed beginning with radio astronomical measuring techniques, followed by the history of the detection of background radiation, and a summary of some of its properties. Attention is given to the design and operation of a radiotelescope, its antenna and radiometer, exhibiting its advantages, including the ability to measure a collecting area

R. W. Wilson

1979-01-01

385

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize the theoretical and observational status of the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Its thermodynamic spectrum is a robust prediction of the Hot Big Bang cosmology and has been confirmed observationally. There are now 75 observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy, which we present in a table with references. We discuss the theoretical origins of these anisotropies

Eric Gawiser; Joseph Silk

2000-01-01

386

Background reduction in cryogenic detectors  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

2005-04-01

387

Optical and infrared backgrounds from the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sum total of the energy released by the earliest era of star formation should show up today within the diffuse extragalactic background light (EBL), its signature peaking in the near-infrared. There is considerable controversy over estimates of the average EBL per steradian at optical and infrared wavelengths, over measurements of background fluctuations, and over the interpretation of the measurements. Resolving this controversy is important because the EBL constrains the history of galaxy evolution. The fluctuations and their colors may also contain important information about Population III stars and the earliest era of star formation. We compare number counts from recent galaxy surveys, correcting for their differing passbands. With some assumptions about galaxy sizes and surface-brightness profiles, we account for the light missed in standard photometric estimates, integrating the resulting corrected counts to estimate the total EBL due to resolved galaxies as well as undetected galaxies. We then present an analysis of background fluctuations in observations of the HUDF, the GOODS field, and the CANDELS fields obtained with WFC3. The fluctuation signal provides a constraint on the slope of galaxy counts fainter than the levels of individual detection, as well as their typical angular sizes. The color dependence of the fluctuations provides a constraint on the redshift distribution of these very faint sources. The spatial and spectral information from these anisotropies, even in their non-detection, provide valuable information about the era of reionization, when the first stars and galaxies formed. Via various analysis tools such as power spectra and P(D) fitting, best-fit models to faint sources can be obtained.

Dolch, Timothy

388

Mapping the gravitational wave background  

E-print Network

The gravitational wave sky is expected to have isolated bright sources superimposed on a diffuse gravitational wave background. The background radiation has two components: a confusion limited background from unresolved astrophysical sources; and a cosmological component formed during the birth of the universe. A map of the gravitational wave background can be made by sweeping a gravitational wave detector across the sky. The detector output is a complicated convolution of the sky luminosity distribution, the detector response function and the scan pattern. Here we study the general de-convolution problem, and show how LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational Observatory) and LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) can be used to detect anisotropies in the gravitational wave background.

Neil J. Cornish

2001-05-22

389

Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy and comorbidity in diabetes: results from the Vermont diabetes information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) reduce peripheral vascular resistance via blockage of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors are commonly used to treat congestive heart failure and high blood pressure, but other effects have been reported. In this study, we explored the association between ACE inhibitor therapy and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in adults with diabetes METHODS:

Maria E Ramos-Nino; Charles D MacLean; Benjamin Littenberg

2008-01-01

390

Granularity of the Diffuse Background Observed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

First results are reported from a program for measuring the field-to-field fluctuation level of the cosmic diffuse background by using differences between the two background positions of each deep exposure with the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE) instrument on the Remote X Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). With 8 million live seconds accumulated to date a fluctuation level on the 15-25 keV band is observed which is consistent with extrapolations from the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory-1 (HEAO-1) measurements. Positive results are expected eventually at higher energies. Models of (active galactic nuclei) AGN origin will eventually be constrained by this program.

Gruber, D. E.; MacDonald, D.; Rothschild, R. E.; Boldt, E.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Fabian, A. C.

1995-01-01

391

What Does the Public Know about Preventing Cancer? Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides information about the public's familiarity with cancer prevention strategies and examines the association between this familiarity and actual prevention behavior. Data from interviews with 5,589 adults included in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed. Most respondents were able to cite one or…

Hawkins, Nikki A.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Peipins, Lucy A.

2010-01-01

392

Results of the Collaborative Energy and Water Cycle Information Services (CEWIS) Workshop on Heterogeneous Dataset Analysis Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS), the Collaborative Energy and Water Cycle Information Services (CEWIS), sponsored by NEWS Program Manager Jared Entin, was initiated to develop an evolving set of community-based data and information services that would facilitate users to locate, access, and bring together multiple distributed heterogeneous energy and water cycle datasets. The CEWIS

S. J. Kempler; W. L. Teng; J. G. Acker; D. R. Belvedere; Z. Liu; G. G. Leptoukh

2010-01-01

393

Waiting for chiropody: contextual results from an ethnographic study of the information behaviour among attendees at community clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of including contextual factors when studying information behaviour is illustrated using findings from a recent field study in which ethnographic methods and social network theory are used to investigate the flow of human services information (HSI) among nurses, the elderly and other individuals at community-based foot clinics. Four types of contextual factors are identified: physical environment, clinic activities,

Karen E. Pettigrew

1999-01-01

394

Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility  

SciTech Connect

The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3? muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Wang, B. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-08-08

395

Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments  

E-print Network

Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10^-5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

B. Majorovits; I. Abt; M. Laubenstein; O. Volynets

2011-05-18

396

Gamma-ray Background Spectrum and Annihilation Rate in the Baryon-symmetric Big-bang Cosmology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt was made to acquire experimental information on the problem of baryon symmetry on a large cosmological scale by observing the annihilation products. Data cover absorption cross sections and background radiation due to other sources for the two main products of annihilation, gamma rays and neutrinos. Test results show that the best direct experimental test for the presence of large scale antimatter lies in the gamma ray background spectrum between 1 and 70 MeV.

Puget, J. L.

1973-01-01

397

Non Thermal Features in the Cosmic Neutrino Background  

E-print Network

I review some of the basic information on the Cosmic Neutrino Background momentum distribution. In particular, I discuss how present data from several cosmological observables such as Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure power spectrum constrain possible deviations from a standard Fermi-Dirac thermal distribution.

G. Mangano

2006-03-22

398

Ocean data assimilation with background error covariance derived from OGCM outputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background error covariance plays an important role in modern data assimilation and analysis systems by determining the spatial spreading of information in the data. A novel method based on model output is proposed to estimate background error covariance for use in Optimum Interpolation. At every model level, anisotropic correlation scales are obtained that give a more detailed description of the spatial correlation structure. Furthermore, the impact of the background field itself is included in the background error covariance. The methodology of the estimation is presented and the structure of the covariance is examined. The results of 20-year assimilation experiments are compared with observations from TOGA-TAO (The Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere-Tropical Atmosphere Ocean) array and other analysis data.

Fu, Weiwei; Zhou, Guangqing; Wang, Huijun

2004-04-01

399

Background Assay and Rejection in DRIFT  

E-print Network

The DRIFT-IId dark matter detector is a m$^3$-scale low-pressure TPC with directional sensitivity to WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. Its primary backgrounds were due to alpha decays from contamination on the central cathode. Efforts to reduce these backgrounds led to replacing the 20 \\mu m wire central cathode with one constructed from 0.9 \\mu m aluminized mylar, which is almost totally transparent to alpha particles. Detailed modeling of the nature and origin of the remaining backgrounds led to an in-situ, ppt-sensitive assay of alpha decay backgrounds from the central cathode. This led to further improvements in the thin-film cathode resulting in over 2 orders of magnitude reduction in backgrounds compared to the wire cathode. Finally, the addition of O$_2$ to CS$_2$ gas was found to produce multiple species of electronegative charge carriers, providing a method to determine the absolute position of nuclear recoils and reject all known remaining backgrounds while retaining a high efficiency for nuclear recoil detection.

Jeff Brack; Ed Daw; Alexei Dorofeev; Anthony Ezeribe; Jean-Luc Gauvreau; Michael Gold; John Harton; Randy Lafler; Robert Lauer; Eric R. Lee; Dinesh Loomba; John Matthews; Eric H. Miller; Alissa Monte; Alex Murphy; Sean Paling; Nguyen Phan; Steve Sadler; Andrew Scarff; Daniel Snowden-Ifft; Neil Spooner; Sam Telfer; Daniel Walker; Matt Williams; Leonid Yuriev

2014-04-08

400

Search for the Cosmic Neutrino Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One expects three Cosmic Backgrounds: (1) The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) originated 380000 years after the Big Bang (BB). (2) The Neutrino Background decoupled about one second after the BB, while (3) the Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background created by the inflationary expansion decoupled directly after the BB. Only the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been detected and is well studied. Its spectrum follows Planck's black body radiation formula and shows a remarkable constant temperature of T0? ? 2.7 K independent of the direction. The present photon density is about 370 photons per cm3. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 380 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T0? = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe and form the CMB. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 380 000 years after the Big Bang. The Cosmic Neutrino Background (C?B) decoupled from matter already one second after the BB at a temperature of about 1010 K. Today their temperature is ~ 1.95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos and the total density of all neutrinos about 336 per cm3. Measurement of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key elements of the Big Bang Cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe. The search for the C?B with the induced beta decay ?e+3H ? 3He + e? using KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) is the topic of this contribution.

Faessler, A.; Hodak, R.; Kovalenko, S.; Simkovic, F.

2015-02-01

401

Improved diagnosis and prognosis using Decisions Informed by Combining Entities (DICE): results from the NHLBI-sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To introduce an algorithmic approach to improve the interpretation of myocardial perfusion images in women with suspected myocardial ischemia. Background Gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance (MR) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) approaches have relatively poor diagnostic and prognostic value in women with suspected myocardial ischemia. Here we introduce an approach: Decisions Informed by Combining Entities (DICE) that forms a mathematical model utilizing MPI and cardiac dimensions generated by one modality to predict the perfusion status of another modality. The effect of the model is to systematically incorporate cardiac metrics that influence the interpretation of perfusion images, leading to greater consistency in designation of myocardial perfusion status between studies. Methods Women (n=213), with suspected myocardial ischemia, underwent MPI assessment for regional perfusion defects using two modalities: gated SPECT (n=207) and MR imaging (n=203). To determine perfusion status, MR data were evaluated qualitatively and semi-quantitatively while SPECT data were evaluated using conventional clinical criteria. These perfusion status readings were designated “Original”. Four regression models were generated to model perfusion status obtained with one modality [e.g., semi-quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] against another modality (e.g., SPECT) and a threshold applied (DICE modeling) to designate perfusion status as normal or low. The DICE models included perfusion status, left ventricular (LV) chamber volumes and myocardial wall thickness. Women were followed for 40±16 months for the development of first major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE: CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) or hospitalization for congestive heart failure). Original and DICE perfusion status were compared in their ability to detect high-grade coronary artery disease (CAD) and for prediction of MACE. Results Adverse events occurred in 25 (12%) women and CAD was present in 34 (16%). In receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis for CAD detection, the average area under the curve (AUC) for DICE vs. Original status was 0.77±0.03 vs. 0.70±0.03, P<0.01. Similarly, in Kaplan-Meier survival analysis the average log-rank statistic was higher for DICE vs. the Original readings (10.6±5.2 vs. 3.0±0.6, P<0.05). Conclusions While two data sets are required to generate the DICE models no knowledge of follow-up results is needed. DICE modeling improved diagnostic and prognostic value vs. the Original interpretation of the myocardial perfusion status. PMID:24400205

Pohost, Gerald M.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey; Shaw, Leslee J.; Sopko, George; Rogers, William J.; Sharaf, Barry L.; Pepine, Carl J.; Vido-Thompson, Diane A.; Rayarao, Geetha; Tauxe, Lindsey; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Mc Nair, Douglas; Biederman, Robert W.

2013-01-01

402

Local covariance and background independence  

E-print Network

One of the many conceptual difficulties in the development of quantum gravity is the role of a background geometry for the structure of quantum field theory. To some extent the problem can be solved by the principle of local covariance. The principle of local covariance was originally imposed in order to restrict the renormalization freedom for quantum field theories on generic spacetimes. It turned out that it can also be used to implement the request of background independence. Locally covariant fields then arise as background independent entities.

Klaus Fredenhagen; Katarzyna Rejzner

2011-02-11

403

Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of visual detection of a signal superimposed on one of two identical backgrounds show performance degradation when the background has high contrast and is similar in spatial frequency and/or orientation to the signal. To account for this finding, models include a contrast gain control mechanism that pools activity across spatial frequency, orientation and space to inhibit (divisively) the response of the receptor sensitive to the signal. In tasks in which the observer has to detect a known signal added to one of M different backgrounds grounds due to added visual noise, the main sources of degradation are the stochastic noise in the image and the suboptimal visual processing. We investigate how these two sources of degradation (contrast gain control and variations in the background) interact in a task in which the signal is embedded in one of M locations in a complex spatially varying background (structured background). We use backgrounds extracted from patient digital medical images. To isolate effects of the fixed deterministic background (the contrast gain control) from the effects of the background variations, we conduct detection experiments with three different background conditions: (1) uniform background, (2) a repeated sample of structured background, and (3) different samples of structured background. Results show that human visual detection degrades from the uniform background condition to the repeated background condition and degrades even further in the different backgrounds condition. These results suggest that both the contrast gain control mechanism and the background random variations degrade human performance in detection of a signal in a complex, spatially varying background. A filter model and added white noise are used to generate estimates of sampling efficiencies, an equivalent internal noise, an equivalent contrast-gain-control-induced noise, and an equivalent noise due to the variations in the structured background.

Eckstein, M. P.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B.

1997-01-01

404

The brain monitoring with Information Technology (BrainIT) collaborative network: EC feasibility study results and future direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The BrainIT group works collaboratively on developing standards for collection and analyses of data from brain-injured patients\\u000a and to facilitate a more efficient infrastructure for assessing new health care technology with the primary objective of improving\\u000a patient care. European Community (EC) funding supported meetings over a year to discuss and define a core dataset to be collected\\u000a from patients with

Ian Piper; Iain Chambers; Giuseppe Citerio; Per Enblad; Barbara Gregson; Tim Howells; Karl Kiening; Julia Mattern; Pelle Nilsson; Arminas Ragauskas; Juan Sahuquillo; Rob Donald; Richard Sinnott; Anthony Stell

2010-01-01

405

THE UBIQUITY OF BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE  

E-print Network

; this knowl- edge is treated as undisputed, if only for the time being and for the problem at hand (Popper for falsification by making modifications in the background knowledge (Kuipers 2001, p.225/p.244). This paper

Kamps, Jaap

406

Michael Yates KROLL Background Checks  

E-print Network

Advisor VC Areas: AA, ER DOJ/FBI Background Checks x46338 Pearl White Sr. Employment Advisor VC Areas: SOM II Outreach x49691 DOJ/FBI/Kroll BG Check Backup MSP Backup EMPLOYMENT, STAFFING & OUTREACH BACK UP

Jun, Suckjoon

407

Inflation and the microwave background  

E-print Network

I discuss the interplay between inflation and microwave background anisotropies, stressing in particular the accuracy with which inflation predictions need to be made, and the importance of inflation as an underlying paradigm for cosmological parameter estimation.

Andrew R Liddle

1998-03-13

408

Making written health information easier to read may result in improvements in knowledge gain and increased reader satisfaction.   

E-print Network

Health information leaflets are often written at too high a level to be understood by large numbers of patients. There is a direct link between low literacy and poor health; difficulties comprehending written health ...

Beddow, Andrew

2007-01-01

409

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

E-print Network

We summarize the theoretical and observational status of the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Its thermodynamic spectrum is a robust prediction of the Hot Big Bang cosmology and has been confirmed observationally. There are now 76 observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy, which we present in a table with references. We discuss the theoretical origins of these anisotropies and explain the standard jargon associated with their observation.

Eric Gawiser; Joseph Silk

2000-02-02

410

The Mystery of the Cosmic Diffuse Ultraviolet Background Radiation  

E-print Network

The Mystery of the Cosmic Diffuse Ultraviolet Background Radiation Richard Conn Henry Henry A 20771. joshua.b.tyler@nasa.gov #12;­ 2 ­ ABSTRACT The diffuse cosmic background radiation in the GALEX celestial background radiation is observed over every wavelength range. In the microwave the results

411

MARSAME Appendix B B. SOURCES OF BACKGROUND RADIOACTIVITY  

E-print Network

MARSAME Appendix B B. SOURCES OF BACKGROUND RADIOACTIVITY B.1 Introduction Background radioactivity can complicate the disposition decision for M&E. Background radioactivity may be the result of environmental radioactivity, inherent radioactivity, instrument noise, or some combination of the three. Special

412

BACKGROUND RADIATION IN THE UNIVERSE - Short Contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A determination of the motion of the Sun and Local Group relative to the backdrop of galaxies extending to 70 Mpc is used to correct the observed dipole anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background. The resultant intrinsic dipole component of ?T/T = 3±2×10-4 is consistent with no detected anisotropy.

Davies, R. D.

413

The Physics of the Cosmic Microwave Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The award of the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physics is a reminder to non-specialists that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) has yielded astonishing advances in our understanding of cosmology. Mather and Smoot received their prize for work done with NASA's COBE satellite in the early 1990s, but the subject has if anything accelerated since then. The results from NASA's WMAP

John Peacock

2007-01-01

414

Koenderink filters and the Microwave Background  

E-print Network

We introduce Koenderink filters as novel tools for statistical cosmology. Amongst several promising applications, they provide a test for the Gaussianity of random fields. We focus on this application and present some preliminary results from an analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB).

Jens Schmalzing

1997-04-16

415

Mapping gravitational-wave backgrounds using methods from CMB analysis: Application to pulsar timing arrays  

E-print Network

We describe an alternative approach to the analysis of gravitational-wave backgrounds, based on the formalism used to characterise the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background. In contrast to standard analyses, this approach makes no assumptions about the nature of the background and so has the potential to reveal much more about the physical processes that generated it. An arbitrary background can be decomposed into modes whose angular dependence on the sky is given by gradients and curls of spherical harmonics. We derive the pulsar timing overlap reduction functions for the individual modes, which are given by simple combinations of spherical harmonics evaluated at the pulsar locations. We show how these can be used to recover the components of an arbitrary background, giving explicit results for both isotropic and anisotropic uncorrelated backgrounds. We also find that the response of a pulsar timing array to curl modes is identically zero, so half of the gravitational-wave sky will never be observed using pulsar timing, no matter how many pulsars are included in the array. An isotropic, unpolarised and uncorrelated background can be accurately represented using only three modes, and so a search of this type will be only slightly more complicated than the standard cross-correlation search using the Hellings and Downs overlap reduction function. However, by measuring the components of individual modes of the background and checking for consistency with isotropy, this approach has the potential to reveal much more information. Each individual mode on its own describes a background that is correlated between different points on the sky. A measurement of the components that indicates the presence of correlations in the background on large angular scales would suggest startling new physics.

Jonathan R. Gair; Joseph D. Romano; Stephen Taylor; Chiara M. F. Mingarelli

2014-09-16

416

Mapping gravitational-wave backgrounds using methods from CMB analysis: Application to pulsar timing arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an alternative approach to the analysis of gravitational-wave backgrounds, based on the formalism used to characterize the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In contrast to standard analyses, this approach makes no assumptions about the nature of the background and so has the potential to reveal much more about the physical processes that generated it. An arbitrary background can be decomposed into modes whose angular dependence on the sky is given by gradients and curls of spherical harmonics. We derive the pulsar timing overlap reduction functions for the individual modes, which are given by simple combinations of spherical harmonics evaluated at the pulsar locations. We show how these can be used to recover the components of an arbitrary background, giving explicit results for both isotropic and anisotropic uncorrelated backgrounds. We also find that the response of a pulsar timing array to curl modes is identically zero, so half of the gravitational-wave sky will never be observed using pulsar timing, no matter how many pulsars are included in the array. An isotropic, unpolarized and uncorrelated background can be accurately represented using only three modes, and so a search of this type will be only slightly more complicated than the standard cross-correlation search using the Hellings and Downs overlap reduction function. However, by measuring the components of individual modes of the background and checking for consistency with isotropy, this approach has the potential to reveal much more information. Each individual mode on its own describes a background that is correlated between different points on the sky. A measurement of the components that indicates the presence of correlations in the background on large angular scales would suggest startling new physics.

Gair, Jonathan; Romano, Joseph D.; Taylor, Stephen; Mingarelli, Chiara M. F.

2014-10-01

417

Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

1992-01-01

418

Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background  

E-print Network

The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects, between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background is investigated, by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density there is focusing and subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed.

Mattias Marklund; Gert Brodin; Lennart Stenflo

2003-10-17

419

Monte Carlo Simulation of Homestake Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background characterization is critical to the shielding design for the incoming DUSEL experiments. A simulation is performed by applying the composition of Homestake rock samples. Then the neutron and gamma ray fluxes as a function of energy induced by natural radioactivity at Homestake mine are calculated. In particular, utilizing the rock radioactivity counted by Al Smith at LBL, the neutron flux and gamma-ray flux at the 4850-level and 7400-level are predicted. The results can be used as a reference for the shielding design for low background experiments planned at DUSEL.

Zhang, Chao; Mei, Dongming

2009-05-01

420

The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment  

E-print Network

We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rocket flight CIBER has sensitivity to probe fluctuations 100 times fainter than IRTS/DIRBE. By jointly observing regions of the sky studied by Spitzer and ASTRO-F, CIBER will build a multi-color view of the near-infrared background, accurately assessing the contribution of local (z = 1-3) galaxies to the observed background fluctuations, allowing a deep and comprehensive survey for first-light galaxy background fluctuations. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for a redshifted Lyman cutoff feature between 0.8 - 2.0 microns. The high-resolution spectrometer will trace zodiacal light using the intensity of scattered Fraunhofer lines, providing an independent measurement of the zodiacal emission and a new check of DIRBE zodiacal dust models. The combination will systematically search for the infrared excess background light reported in near-infrared DIRBE/IRTS data, compared with the small excess reported at optical wavelengths.

James Bock; John Battle; Asantha Cooray; Mitsunobu Kawada; Brian Keating; Andrew Lange; Dae-Hea Lee; Toshio Matsumoto; Shuji Matsuura; Soojong Pak; Tom Renbarger; Ian Sullivan; Kohji Tsumura; Takehiko Wada; Toyoki Watabe

2005-10-19

421

Modeling Ambient Background in Complex Detection Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Radiation detection instrumentation is being widely deployed as a countermeasure against the movement and use of radiological dispersal devices and nuclear weapons. Accurate ambient background modeling is critical for accurate simulation of detection scenarios of interest; these background source terms influence minimum detectable limits and are thus a significant factor in overall system performance. Described below are the methods used to characterize ambient background source terms in the at-sea maritime cargo container environment, how statistical distributions on those source terms are defined, and how the resulting radiation fields are calibrated using available measurement data from aboard large ocean-going ships. Although the maritime environment is the demonstration case study, these methods are broadly applicable to modeling of all complex detection scenarios.

Kiff, Scott D.; Smith, Leon E.; Jarman, Kenneth D.

2008-08-01

422

Low Background Micromegas in CAST  

E-print Network

Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

J. G. Garza; S. Aune; D. Calvet; J. F. Castel; F. E. Christensen; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; T. Decker; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. Galán; J. A. García; I. Giomataris; R. M. Hill; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; A. C. Jakobsen; D. Jourde; H. Mirallas; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; J. Ruz; A. Tomás; T. Vafeiadis; J. K. Vogel

2015-03-17

423

Measurements of the cosmic background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the attributes of the 2.7-K microwave background radiation (CBR) are reviewed, with emphasis on the analytic phase of CBR studies. Methods for the direct measurement of the CBR spectrum are discussed; attention is given to receivers, antennas, absolute receiver calibration, atmospheric emission and absorption, the galactic background contribution, the analysis of LF measurements, and recent HF observations of the CBR spectrum. Measurements of the large-angular-scale intensity distribution of the CBR (the most convincing evidence that the radiation is of cosmological origin) are examined, along with limits on the linear polarization of the CBR. A description is given of the NASA-sponsored Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite mission. The results of the COBE mission will be a set of sky maps showing, in the wave number range from 1 to 10,000 kaysers, the galactic background radiation due to synchrotron emission from galactic cosmic rays, to diffuse thermal emission from H II regions, and to diffuse thermal emission from interstellar and interplanetary dust, as well as a residue consisting of the CBR and whatever other cosmological background might exist.

Weiss, R.

1980-01-01

424

BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of

Ruth Durrer

2009-01-01

425

The Education Choice and Competition Index: Background and Results 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring the critical role of school choice in the future of education reform, Grover (Russ) Whitehurst introduces the Education Choice and Competition Index (ECCI), an interactive web application that scores large school districts based on thirteen categories of policy and practice. The intent of the ECCI is to create public awareness of the…

Whitehurst, Grover J.

2011-01-01

426

Results of Performance Assessments 34.A.1 BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

and human intrusion scenarios. For further discussion of disturbed performance, refer to CARD 32 -- Scope the human-initiated releases (e.g., via drilling intrusions) and releases by natural processes that would this definition, a future drilling intrusion through the WIPP repository that brings radioactive materials

427

Confidentiality Agreement for Access to HRS and Banner Background  

E-print Network

Confidentiality Agreement for Access to HRS and Banner Background: HRS and Banner are the data. Many of these records contain personal information about employees and are confidential and private, use, and become aware of information regarding employees and applicants that is confidential. I

428

Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples.

Not Available

1993-04-01

429

Applying the principles of knowledge translation and exchange to inform dissemination of HIV survey results to adolescent participants in South Africa.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that researchers have an obligation to inform survey participants of research results. However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of various dissemination strategies. The emerging field of knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) may offer insight given its focus on techniques to enhance the effectiveness of communicating evidence-based information. To date, KTE has focused primarily on information exchange between researchers and policy-makers as opposed to study participants; however, there are principles that may be relevant in this new context. This gap in the literature becomes even more salient in the context of public health research where research results can reveal particular misunderstandings or shortcomings in knowledge that threaten to severely compromise participants' health. The objective of this article is to describe how KTE principles were used to inform dissemination of results of a self-administered sexual health survey to adolescent study participants in a resource-deprived, peri-urban area of South Africa. Strategies for enhancing two-way information exchange included constructing interactive dissemination sessions led by young, isiZulu fieldworkers. We also employed techniques to create a safe space for dialogue, encouraged the shared ownership of results and crafted targeted messages. Particularly noteworthy was the benefit accrued by the research team through this process of exchange, including novel explanations for study findings and new ideas for future research. PMID:22237939

Nixon, Stephanie A; Casale, Marisa; Flicker, Sarah; Rogan, Michael

2013-06-01

430

Gravitino condensation in fivebrane backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the tension of the D3-brane in the fivebrane background which is described by the exactly solvable SU(2)k×U(1) world-sheet conformal field theory with large Ka?-Moody level k. The D3-brane tension is extracted from the amplitude of one closed string exchange between two parallel D3-branes, and the amplitude is calculated by utilizing the open-closed string duality. The tension of the D3-brane in the background does not coincide with the one in the flat space-time even in the flat space-time limit: k-->?. The finite curvature effect should vanish in the flat space-time limit and only the topological effect can remain. Therefore, the deviation suggests the condensation of the gravitino and/or dilatino which has been expected in the fivebrane background as a gravitational instanton.

Kitazawa, Noriaki

2002-04-01

431

Background simulations and shielding calculations  

SciTech Connect

Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

2011-04-27

432

Observational Study in Ten Beauty Salons: Results Informing Development of the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers from the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project conducted an observational study in 10 North Carolina beauty salons to gain insight into naturally occurring conversations between cosmetologists and customers, and to assess features of the salon environment that might be used to inform the development of salon-based health promotion…

Solomon, Felicia M.; Linnan, Laura A.; Wasilewski, Yvonne; Lee, Ann Marie; Katz, Mira L.; Yang, Jingzhen

2004-01-01

433

Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

2012-01-01

434

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

Silk, Joseph

1992-01-01

435

Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.  

PubMed

When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

2010-06-25

436

Exotic Branes and Nongeometric Backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries.

Boer, Jan de; Shigemori, Masaki [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2010-06-25

437

A novel background reduction strategy for high level triggers and processing in gamma-ray Cherenkov detectors  

SciTech Connect

Gamma ray astronomy is now at the leading edge for studies related both to fundamental physics and astrophysics. The sensitivity of gamma detectors is limited by the huge amount of background, constituted by hadronic cosmic rays (typically two to three orders of magnitude more than the signal) and by the accidental background in the detectors. By using the information on the temporal evolution of the Cherenkov light, the background can be reduced. We will present here the results obtained within the MAGIC experiment using a new technique for the reduction of the background. Particle showers produced by gamma rays show a different temporal distribution with respect to showers produced by hadrons; the background due to accidental counts shows no dependence on time. Such novel strategy can increase the sensitivity of present instruments.

Cabras, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M. M.; De Sabata, F.; Mansutti, O. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Udine and INFN, Udine (Italy); Frailis, M.; Persic, M. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste and Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Udine (Italy); Bigongiari, C.; Doro, M.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Saggion, A.; Scalzotto, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Padova and INFN, Padova (Italy); Paoletti, R.; Scribano, A.; Turini, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Siena and INFN, Siena (Italy); Moralejo, A.; Tescaro, D. [Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, Edifici Cn., E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

2008-05-29

438

Raman background photobleaching as a possible method of cancer diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetics of photobleaching of background in Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of plant toxins ricin and ricin agglutinin, ricin binding subunit, and normal and malignant human blood serum were measured. For the excitation of the spectra cw and pulsed laser radiation were used. The spectra of Raman background change upon laser irradiation. Background intensity is lower for the samples with small molecular weight. The cyclization of amino acid residues in the toxin molecules as well as in human blood serum can be a reason of the Raman background. The model of the background photobleaching is proposed. The differences in photobleaching kinetics in the cases of cw and pulsed laser radiation are discussed. It is shown that Raman background photobleaching can be very informative for cancer diagnostics.

Brandt, Nikolai N.; Brandt, Nikolai B.; Chikishev, Andrey Y.; Gangardt, Mihail G.; Karyakina, Nina F.

2001-06-01

439

Beta-test Results for an HPV Information Web site: GoHealthyGirls.org – Increasing HPV Vaccine Uptake in the United States  

PubMed Central

A web site, GoHealthyGirls, was developed to educate and inform parents and their adolescent daughters about human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccines. This article provides an overview of web site development and content followed by the results of a beta-test of the web site. 63 New Mexican parents of adolescent girls tested the site. Results indicated that GoHealthyGirls was a functioning and appealing web site. During this brief educational intervention, findings suggest that the web site has the potential to increase HPV vaccine uptake. This research supports the Internet as a valuable channel to disseminate health education and information to diverse populations. PMID:25221442

Nodulman, Jessica A.; Kong, Alberta S.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Buller, David B.; Woodall, W. Gill

2014-01-01

440

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, provides an overview of how scientists are working to explain the origin of the universe. Specifically, it discusses the two major theories about the origin of the universe (Big Bang and Steady State), the search for microwave background radiation, and the discovery of the first observational evidence to support the Big Bang theory.

441

Shark Fact or Fiction? Background  

E-print Network

Shark Fact or Fiction? Background: This is a fun classroom activity based on the basic biology of sharks. This goes well with the enclosed Project Shark Awareness PowerPoint and should be used in conjunction with the presentation. Materials: Shark Fact of Fiction activity sheet and answer key

Watson, Craig A.

442

Low Background Micromegas in CAST  

E-print Network

Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

Garza, J G; Calvet, D; Castel, J F; Christensen, F E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Decker, T; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Giomataris, I; Hill, R M; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jakobsen, A C; Jourde, D; Mirallas, H; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Ruz, J; Tomás, A; Vafeiadis, T; Vogel, J K

2015-01-01

443

Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background  

E-print Network

- 1 - Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background: Over the last 20 years, hurricane research at AOML has focused on improved scientific understanding of hurricanes and of tropical meteorology scientific goals for AOMLs hurricane research derive from the U.S. Weather Research Programs (USWRP

444

ACQUISITION MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE I. BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

CHARTER ACQUISITION MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE I. BACKGROUND: In 1972, the NIH established the Research Committee (CMAC). In 1994, the CMAC was expanded to encompass simplified acquisition and was renamed the Acquisition Management Committee (AMC). II. P U R P O S E : As the leaders in the NIH acquisition community

Baker, Chris I.

445

Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

Hansen, Janet S.

2008-01-01

446

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found

Joseph Silk

1981-01-01

447

Simulation of HEAO 3 background  

SciTech Connect

A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91, nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database, and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, {beta}{sup -}, {beta}{sup +}, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both {beta}{sup -} and {beta}{sup +}. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

Graham, B. L. [George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Phlips, B. F. [USRA, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia (United States)

1997-05-10

448

Simulation of HEAO 3 background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91 [2], nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database [3], and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) [4] using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, ?-, ?+, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both ?- and ?+. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

Graham, B. L.; Phlips, B. F.; Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.

1997-05-01

449

Background Data for Freight Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Goal and Scope. The ecoinvent database is a refer- ence work for life cycle inventory data covering the areas of energy, building materials, metals, chemicals, paper and card- board, forestry, agriculture, detergents, transport services and waste treatment. Generic inventories are available for freight and passenger transport including air, rail, road, and water trans- port. The goal of freight transport

Michael Spielmann; Roland W. Scholz

450

Teaching about Natural Background Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

2013-01-01

451

The cosmic infrared background experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extragalactic background, based on absolute measurements reported by DIRBE and IRTS at 1.2 and 2.2 ?m, exceeds the brightness derived from galaxy counts by up to a factor 5. Furthermore, both DIRBE and the IRTS report fluctuations in the near-infrared sky brightness that appear to have an extra-galactic origin, but are larger than expected from local ( z = 1-3) galaxies. These observations have led to speculation that a new class of high-mass stars or mini-quasars may dominate primordial star formation at high-redshift ( z ˜ 10-20), which, in order to explain the excess in the near-infrared background, must be highly luminous but produce a limited amount of metals and X-ray photons. Regardless of the nature of the sources, if a significant component of the near-infrared background comes from first-light galaxies, theoretical models generically predict a prominent near-infrared spectral feature from the redshifted Lyman cutoff, and a distinctive fluctuation power spectrum. We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7? to 2°, where a first-light galaxy signature is expected to peak, over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rock