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1

BACKGROUND INFORMATION October 4, 2004  

E-print Network

their health. Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange, Atlanta (HELIX-Atlanta) is an effort to build an EPHT network in five Metropolitan Atlanta counties (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinnett counties). The following activities are examples of how information from the HELIX-Atlanta Network could

2

Background Information 1. What are stem cells?  

E-print Network

Background Information 1. What are stem cells? 2. What might stem cell research achieve? 3. Why we need to continue research using embryonic stem cells? 4. Time taken for discoveries 5. Examples of stem of Embryonic cell lines 8. Fertility Research using human embryos and blastocysts 1. What are stem cells? Stem

Rambaut, Andrew

3

Employment and Training Legislation-1968; Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume supplied background information for employment and training legislation for the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare of the United States Senate for 1968. It includes: (1) excerpts from reports and recommendations of national committees and commissions on civil disorders, rural poverty, technology and automation, food and fiber, and…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

4

Italian Basic Course: Area Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement to the Basic Course in Italian developed by the Defense Language Institute provides area background information on a variety of topics. They include: (1) housing and servants, (2) dining and a glossary of gastronomic terminology, (3) driving in Italy, and (4) relations with the police. The appendix contains material on: the Italian…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

5

Observational constraints on Chaplygin quartessence: Background results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the constraints set by several experiments on the quartessence Chaplygin model (QCM). In this scenario, a single fluid component drives the Universe from a nonrelativistic matter-dominated phase to an accelerated expansion phase behaving, first, like dark matter and in a more recent epoch like dark energy. We consider current data from SNIa experiments, statistics of gravitational lensing, FR IIb radio galaxies, and x-ray gas mass fraction in galaxy clusters. We investigate the constraints from this data set on flat Chaplygin quartessence cosmologies. The observables considered here are dependent essentially on the background geometry, and not on the specific form of the QCM fluctuations. We obtain the confidence region on the two parameters of the model from a combined analysis of all the above tests. We find that the best fit occurs close to the ?CDM limit (?=0). The standard Chaplygin quartessence (?=1) is also allowed by the data, but only at the ˜2? level.

Makler, Martín; Quinet de Oliveira, Sérgio; Waga, Ioav

2003-12-01

6

Division of Undergraduate Education Reviewer Background Information Form  

NSF Publications Database

... information is retained for future reference in selecting reviewers. The information requested on ... of all information is entirely voluntary. The purpose of this background information is to assist in ...

7

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Colon CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the descriptive manuscript cited below.

8

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Breast CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the materials cited below.

9

Indirect Costs of University Research: Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is intended to provide a solid base of information about the treatment of indirect university research costs in various jurisdictions and to highlight some of the factors that have contributed to increased interest in the issues surrounding the funding of indirect costs of research. University research in Ontario has continued to evolve…

Voet, Tony Vander

10

Preliminary Results from the PYTHON Microwave Background Anisotropy Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will present preliminary results of our experiment to measure the anisotropy of the microwave background on medium (2.75 degree) angular scales. Observations of 14 separate regions (two rows of seven regions) on the sky were made during the 15 day period of 1 Jan to 15 Jan 1993. The observing site, the geographic South Pole, is an ideal location

M. Dragovan; J. Ruhl; G. Novak; S. R. Platt; B. Crone; R. Pernic

1993-01-01

11

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information  

E-print Network

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepared by Joel. Introduction_______________________________________________ 1 1.1. Goals of the IMRC's Smog Check Evaluation for the IMRC Smog Check Evaluation _________________ 2 3. Evaluation Process

Denver, University of

12

Community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constrained clustering has been well-studied in the unsupervised learning society. However, how to encode constraints into community structure detection, within complex networks, remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised learning framework for community structure detection. This framework implicitly encodes the must-link and cannot-link constraints by modifying the adjacency matrix of network, which can also be regarded as de-noising the consensus matrix of community structures. Our proposed method gives consideration to both the topology and the functions (background information) of complex network, which enhances the interpretability of the results. The comparisons performed on both the synthetic benchmarks and the real-world networks show that the proposed framework can significantly improve the community detection performance with few constraints, which makes it an attractive methodology in the analysis of complex networks.

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

2013-02-01

13

Preliminary Results from the PYTHON Microwave Background Anisotropy Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present preliminary results of our experiment to measure the anisotropy of the microwave background on medium (2.75 degree) angular scales. Observations of 14 separate regions (two rows of seven regions) on the sky were made during the 15 day period of 1 Jan to 15 Jan 1993. The observing site, the geographic South Pole, is an ideal location for microwave background anisotropy studies where long integration times, low sky background (10K at 90GHz), and stable atmospheric conditions are required. The geometric advantage of the Pole is that a patch of sky never rises or sets, allowing 24 hour observations of the patch with no corrections required for changes in elevation. Approximately 100 hours of usable data were obtained during this time. The instrument is a five channel bolometer array, with the detectors operating at 50 mK, cooled by a hybrid (3) He-Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. There are four pixels in the focal plane arranged in a square grid so that the angular separation between pixels on the sky is 2.75 degrees. The fifth channel is a dark channel acting as a monitor for extraneous noise or pickup. Individual pixels consist of corrugated feedhorns coupled to waveguide waffle filters combined with glass and plastics to define the high frequency cutoff (110 GHz); the low frequency cutoff is determined by the cutoff of the waveguide (75 GHz). The band was selected for minimal expected contributions from foreground sources such as free-free, synchrotron and cool dust. This detector system is coupled to the sky via a 0.75m off axis parabolic primary. A gradient free 3-beam switching pattern on the sky is obtained by moving a low moment of inertia flat plate quickly (15 msec transition time, with 85 msec spent integrating on the point) between 3 points on the sky. The plate is oriented vertically so the switching is at constant elevation. This work was supported by The Center for Astrophysics in Antarctica, PYI grant NSF AST-9057089 and the James S. McDonnell Foundation.

Dragovan, M.; Ruhl, J.; Novak, G.; Platt, S. R.; Crone, B.; Pernic, R.

1993-05-01

14

UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information  

E-print Network

1 UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information: Re-employment compensation position. Re-employment compensation is a federal-state partnership based upon federal law but it is administered at the state level. Re-employment compensation is a temporary, partial wage replacement

Wu, Shin-Tson

15

GRIS background reduction results using isotopically enriched Ge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gamma Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) was flown twice from Alice Springs, Australia, in the spring of 1992 for a total of 32 hr at float altitude. One of the seven Ge detectors was isotopically enriched (greater than 97% Ge-70). This was the first time an enriched-Ge detector was used for astrophysical observations. Because of its thick anticoincidence shield, the GRIS instrument background is dominated by internal beta-decay in the energy range of 200-1000 keV. Half of the contribution in this beta-decay 'hump' is due to neutron-activated Ge-74. In this energy range, GRIS observed a factor of 2 reduction in the background in the enriched detector, as predicted. In future instruments (e.g., INTEGRAL), with thicker anticoincidence shields and smaller apertures, the background reduction will be even larger. Three strong instrumental background lines (54, 67, and 139 keV) are also eliminated. The elimination of the first two is particularly important for cylotron line observations.

Barthelmy, S. D.; Bartlett, L. M.; Gehrels, N.; Leventhal, M.; Teegarden, B. J.; Tueller, J.; Belyaev, S.; Lebedev, V.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.

1994-01-01

16

Nearly incompressible fluids with inhomogeneous background : simulation results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we generalized the nearly incompressible theory to flows which include the large-scale inhomogeneous background (e.g. the solar wind flow). This leads to the description which already at the lowest order contains non-solenoidal velocity fluctuations and where density fluctuations behave like a passive scalar. Locally (for small length scales) this system of equations converge to the usual incompressible equations and

P. Hunana; G. Zank; D. Shaikh

2006-01-01

17

Acquisition of background and technical information and class trip planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instructors who are very familiar with a study area, as well as those who are not, find the field trip information acquisition and planning process speeded and made more effective by organizing it in stages. The stage follow a deductive progression: from the associated context region, to the study area, to the specific sample window sites, and from generalized background information on the study region to specific technical data on the environmental and human use systems to be interpreted at each site. On the class trip and in the follow up laboratory, the learning/interpretive process are at first deductive in applying previously learned information and skills to analysis of the study site, then inductive in reading and interpreting the landscape, imagery, and maps of the site, correlating them with information of other samples sites and building valid generalizations about the larger study area, its context region, and other (similar and/or contrasting) regions.

Mackinnon, R. M.; Wake, W. H.

1981-01-01

18

Background  

Cancer.gov

Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls provide the highest quality, least biased dietary data. Traditional 24-hour recalls, however, are expensive and impractical for large-scale research because they rely on trained interviewers and multiple administrations to estimate usual intakes. As a result, researchers often make use of food frequency questionnaires, which are less expensive but contain substantial error.

19

Background  

E-print Network

OCA is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by hypopigmentation and abnormalities related to ocular development. Mutations in genes regulating melanin-biosynthesis cause four classical types of OCA (OCA 1-4). The clinical spectrum of OCA often depends on the pigmentation threshold of a patient, highlighting the importance of ethnic- specific SNPs. We aimed to understand the molecular bases of OCA in India, where it is one of the four major causes of childhood blindness. Materials and methods Blood samples were collected from OCA patients and family members, mostly from eastern and southern India. Seven pigmentation related genes were screened for variations. Relevant non-synonymous changes in tyrosinase (TYR) were functionally validated. Eighteen SNPs from three OCA genes were genotyped in 552 normal individuals covering various ethnic groups of India. Results Our data suggest that defects in TYR cause albinism in 58 % (36/62) of the cases [1] (and unpublished data; see Figure 1). Functional assays with missense mutations proved that none of mutants are enzymatically active and are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum [1]. Screening of the remaining cases (43%) revealed OCA2 to be the second common locus followed by SLC45A2 [2] (Figure 1). Evaluation of SNPs in TYR, OCA2 and SLC45A2 in normal population suggested definitive bias for some of the SNPs towards specific populations.

Kunal Ray; Mainak Sengupta; Moumita Chaki; Maitreyee Mondal; Swapan Samanta

20

Wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing industry - background information for proposed standards  

SciTech Connect

A Standard of Performance for the control of emissions from wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing facilities is being proposed under authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. This standard would apply to new, modified, or reconstructed wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing lines that utilize the rotary spin forming process and that commence construction on or after the date of proposal of the regulation. This document contains background information and environmental and economic impact assessments of the regulatory alternatives considered in developing the proposed standard. 79 references, 280 tables.

Not Available

1983-12-01

21

Immunological background Mathematical model Results Conclusions and future work T cell repertoire maintenance  

E-print Network

Immunological background Mathematical model Results Conclusions and future work T cell repertoire, March 2008 #12;Immunological background Mathematical model Results Conclusions and future work History cell activation) Effector T cell PERIPHERY (or mature T cell) #12;Immunological background Mathematical

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

22

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Simultaneous Confidence Intervals with more  

E-print Network

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Outline Bounds Illustrations Women's Health Initiative #12;Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence

Stark, Philip B.

23

A moving ship detection based on edge information of single image and background subtraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship detection based on video is important in the application of surveillance and marine safety, the detection results of tradition methods, such as background subtraction, have much noise because of background noise such as ocean wave. In this paper we present a simple but efficient method for ship detection, It is based on the edge information of single image and movement information of multi images. Firstly, detect those movement pixels used the background subtraction to the video image, and the distance transformation is operation on the difference images; Secondly, we detect the edge of video image used Canny detector , and morphological operation on the edge image, lastly, eliminate the movement pixels if their distance transformation value is bigger than the threshold. The experimental results demonstrate that is efficient to eliminate the background noise and detect the real target.

Shi, Tingyan; Yang, Lichun; Liu, Zhicheng

2013-10-01

24

Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

2014-05-01

25

Building Digital Collections: Technical Information and Background Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced on May 9, this newly updated site from the Library of Congress National Digital Library Program (NDLP) documents "technical activities relating to the procedures and practices employed by the NDLP, and its precursor American Memory Program, over the past decade." Of use to anyone involved in digital library projects, the highlight of the site is probably the Building Digital Collections section, which links to the technical documents (included with most American Memory Collections) describing how the collection was digitized and what technology was used. The site also contains descriptions of technical practices, workflow production, and a selection of background papers.

26

Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

Rosenblatt, D.H.

1996-11-01

27

Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nat

28

Semi-Supervised Clustering with Partial Background Information Haibin Cheng  

E-print Network

moderate overlapping features with the unlabeled data. We formulate this as a constrained optimization improve the quality of clustering results with limited labeled examples. 1 Introduction The topic of semi. For example, in computational biology, analysts are often interested in the clustering of genes or proteins

Tan, Pang-Ning

29

Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very nearly the speed of light. Optical studies of a December 1997 burst (GRB 971214) indicated a distance for it of nearly 12 billion light-years. With distances known, astronomers could calculate the amount of energy released during the explosion. The answers were astounding. GRB 970508, in a mere 15 seconds, released nearly ten times more energy than our Sun will release in its entire, 10-billion-year lifetime. GRB 971214, for one or two seconds, outshone the entire rest of the universe. These energies ruled out many of the numerous theories for the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts that had arisen over the previous three decades. Many answers about the origins of Gamma Ray Bursts and the physics of the fireballs will come from radio telescopes. The VLA, with its combination of sensitivity and resolving power, "has a unique role to play in deciphering GRB fireball physics," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. First, radio astronomers can see the GRB fireball far longer than it is visible at other wavelengths. A Gamma Ray Burst is visible in the gamma rays for typically seconds or minutes, in X-rays for days, and in visible light for weeks, based on the past year's experience. "With radio telescopes, we can see the fireballs for months, gaining new information every day," said Greg Taylor, also of NRAO in Socorro. "Also, at other wavelengths, they see the emission only as it is rapidly getting weaker. At radio wavelengths, we can study the emission as it rises in strength, peaks, then slowly decays." In addition, radio observations can measure the size of the fireball. "Only radio telescopes can measure the size, and we can do it in three different ways," Frail said. These techniques involve studying the scintillation, or "twinkling" of the radio emission; absorption characteristics of the emission; and, for bright, energetic afterglows, direct measurements of sizes can be made through the great resolving power of continent-wide radio telescope arrays such as t

30

US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions  

SciTech Connect

A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

1984-03-01

31

Distinguishing vegetation from soil background information. [by gray mapping of Landsat MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In aircraft and satellite multispectral scanner data, soil background signals are superimposed on or intermingled with information about vegetation. A procedure which accounts for soil background would, therefore, make a considerable contribution to an operational use of Landsat and other spectral data for monitoring the productivity of range, forest, and crop lands. A description is presented of an investigation which was conducted to obtain information for the development of such a procedure. The investigation included a study of the soil reflectance that supplies the background signal of vegetated surfaces. Landsat data as recorded on computer compatible tapes were used in the study. The results of the investigation are discussed, taking into account a study reported by Kauth and Thomas (1976). Attention is given to the determination of Kauth's plane of soils, sun angle effects, vegetation index modeling, and the evaluation of vegetation indexes. Graphs are presented which show the results obtained with a gray mapping technique. The technique makes it possible to display plant, soil, water, and cloud conditions for any Landsat overpass.

Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.

1977-01-01

32

Electrical axes of TESLA-type cavities (Theoretical background, development of measurement equipment, measurement results)  

E-print Network

- 1 - Electrical axes of TESLA-type cavities (Theoretical background, development of measurement equipment, measurement results) Anton Labanc, MHF-SL, DESY, January 2008 Abstract Cells in TESLA cavities. A short overview was already published at the TESLA Report 2007-01. This paper brings more details about

33

State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979  

SciTech Connect

Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

1981-11-01

34

First upper limit analysis and results from LIGO science data: stochastic background  

E-print Network

I describe analysis of correlations in the outputs of the three LIGO interferometers from LIGO's first science run, held over 17 days in August and September of 2002, and the resulting upper limit set on a stochastic background of gravitational waves. By searching for cross-correlations between the LIGO detectors in Livingston, LA and Hanford, WA, we are able to set a 90% confidence level upper limit of h_{100}^2 Omega_0 < 23 +/- 4.6.

John T. Whelan; for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration

2004-12-04

35

Students Seeking Access to Four-Year Institutions: Community College Transfers [Background Information].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides background information for a hearing by the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education and Outreach on December 3, 1997. The Introduction presents the Committee announcement, press release, agenda, information about transfer efforts in California, facts and figures about the community colleges, and the text of…

Moore, Jamillah

36

Information Loss Paradox Tested on Chiral Fermion Coupled to a Background Dilatonic Field  

E-print Network

A model where chiral boson is coupled to a background dilatonic field is considered to study the s-wave scattering of fermion by a back ground dilatonic black hole. Unlike the conclusion drawn in \\cite{MIT} it is found that the presence of chiral fermion does not violate unitarity and information remains preserved. Regularization plays a crucial role on the information paradox.

Anisur Rahaman

2006-07-24

37

The Intego database: background, methods and basic results of a Flemish general practice-based continuous morbidity registration project  

PubMed Central

Background Intego is the only operational computerized morbidity registration network in Belgium based on general practice data. Intego collects data from over 90 general practitioners. All the information is routinely collected in the electronic health record during daily practice. Methods In this article we describe the design and methods used within the Intego network together with some of its basic results. The collected data, the quality control procedures, the ethical-legal aspects and the statistical procedures are discussed. Results Intego contains longitudinal information on 285 357 different patients, corresponding to over 2.3% of the Flemish population representative in terms of age and sex. More than 3 million diagnoses, 12 million drug prescriptions and 29 million laboratory tests have been recorded. Conclusions Intego enables us to present and compare data on health parameters, incidence and prevalence rates, laboratory results, and prescribed drugs for all relevant subgroups on a routine basis and is unique in Belgium. PMID:24906941

2014-01-01

38

CUORE crystal validation runs: results on radioactive contamination and extrapolation to CUORE background  

E-print Network

The CUORE Crystal Validation Runs (CCVRs) have been carried out since the end of 2008 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories, in order to test the performances and the radiopurity of the TeO$_2$ crystals produced at SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for the CUORE experiment. In this work the results of the first 5 validation runs are presented. Results have been obtained for bulk contaminations and surface contaminations from several nuclides. An extrapolation to the CUORE background has been performed.

F. Alessandria; E. Andreotti; R. Ardito; C. Arnaboldi; F. T. Avignone III; M. Balata; I. Bandac; T. I. Banks; G. Bari; J. W. Beeman; F. Bellini; A. Bersani; M. Biassoni; T. Bloxham; C. Brofferio; A. Bryant; C. Bucci; X. Z. Cai; L. Canonica; S. Capelli; L. Carbone; L. Cardani; M. Carrettoni; N. Chott; M. Clemenza; C. Cosmelli; O. Cremonesi; R. J. Creswick; I. Dafinei; A. Dally; A. De Biasi; M. P. Decowski; M. M. Deninno; A. de Waard; S. Di Domizio; L. Ejzak; R. Faccini; D. Q. Fang; H. Farach; E. Ferri; F. Ferroni; E. Fiorini; L. Foggetta; S. Freedman; G. Frossati; A. Giachero; L. Gironi; A. Giuliani; P. Gorla; C. Gotti; E. Guardincerri; T. D. Gutierrez; E. E. Haller; K. Han; K. M. Heeger; H. Z. Huang; K. Ichimura; R. Kadel; K. Kazkaz; G. Keppel; L. Kogler; Y. G. Kolomensky; S. Kraft; D. Lenz; Y. L. Li; X. Liu; E. Longo; Y. G. Ma; C. Maiano; G. Maier; C. Martinez; M. Martinez; R. H. Maruyama; N. Moggi; S. Morganti; S. Newman; S. Nisi; C. Nones; E. B. Norman; A. Nucciotti; F. Orio; D. Orlandi; J. Ouellet; M. Pallavicini; V. Palmieri; L. Pattavina; M. Pavan; M. Pedretti; G. Pessina; S. Pirro; E. Previtali; V. Rampazzo; F. Rimondi; C. Rosenfeld; C. Rusconi; C. Salvioni; S. Sangiorgio; D. Schaeffer; N. D. Scielzo; M. Sisti; A. R. Smith; F. Stivanello; L. Taffarello; G. Terenziani; W. D. Tian; C. Tomei; S. Trentalange; G. Ventura; M. Vignati; B. Wang; H. W. Wang; C. A. Whitten Jr; T. Wise; A. Woodcraft; N. Xu; L. Zanotti; C. Zarra; B. X. Zhu; S. Zucchelli

2011-08-24

39

Introduction/Motivation Fuchsian Groups -Background Classification Program Results/References Classification of Pairs of Fuchsian Groups  

E-print Network

Introduction/Motivation Fuchsian Groups - Background Classification Program Results Seminar - March 2, 2009 #12;Introduction/Motivation Fuchsian Groups - Background Classification Program Results/References Outline 1 Introduction/Motivation Motivation 1 - extension of actions Motivation 2

Broughton, S. Allen

40

SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF TX-TY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH GROUND PENETRATING RADAR  

SciTech Connect

Ground penetrating radar surveys of the TX and TY tank farms were performed to identify existing infrastructure in the near surface environment. These surveys were designed to provide background information supporting Surface-to-Surface and Well-to-Well resistivity surveys of Waste Management Area TX-TY. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with GPR to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity{trademark} surveys. The results of the background characterization confirm the existence of documented infrastructure, as well as highlight locations of possible additional undocumented subsurface metallic objects.

MYERS DA; CUBBAGE R; BRAUCHLA R; O'BRIEN G

2008-07-24

41

Planck 2013 results. XVIII. The gravitational lensing-infrared background correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-frequency capability of the Planck satellite provides information both on the integrated history of star formation (via the cosmic infrared background, or CIB) and on the distribution of dark matter (via the lensing effect on the cosmic microwave background, or CMB). The conjunction of these two unique probes allows us to measure directly the connection between dark and luminous matter in the high redshift (1 ? z ? 3) Universe. We use a three-point statistic optimized to detect the correlation between these two tracers, using lens reconstructions at 100, 143, and 217 GHz, together with CIB measurements at 100-857 GHz. Following a thorough discussion of possible contaminants and a suite of consistency tests, we report the first detection of the correlation between the CIB and CMB lensing. The well matched redshift distribution of these two signals leads to a detection significance with a peak value of 42/19? (statistical/statistical + systematics) at 545 GHz and a correlation as high as 80% across these two tracers. Our full set of multi-frequency measurements (both CIB auto- and CIB-lensing cross-spectra) are consistent with a simple halo-based model, with a characteristic mass scale for the halos hosting CIB sources of log10(M/M?) = 10.5 ± 0.6. Leveraging the frequency dependence of our signal, we isolate the high redshift contribution to the CIB, and constrain the star formation rate (SFR) density at z ? 1. We measure directly the SFR density with around 2? significance for three redshift bins between z = 1 and 7, thus opening a new window into the study of the formation of stars at early times.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

42

Ohio's Literacy Situation. Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services for Literacy. Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by participants in the Ohio Preconference and the 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services (WHCLIS), this background paper on one of the three major WHCLIS themes examines Ohio's literacy problem and reviews the state's current literacy programs and funding sources. Definitions of terms, a brief history of…

Luther, Barbara

43

Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

1982-03-01

44

Part 1: Background Information Part 1 will cover APEX Scope, Phases, Process, "How we got here",  

E-print Network

APEX Part 1: Background Information · Part 1 will cover APEX Scope, Phases, Process, "How we got for the Chamber Technology that might: 1. In the near-term: enable plasma experiments to more fully achieve, particulate bed, spray cooling, liquid walls, etc.) External Events: Snowmass and its impact - The physics

California at Los Angeles, University of

45

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2009Operating System Concepts 8th Edition, Lecture 15: Background Information  

E-print Network

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009Operating System Concepts ­ 8th Edition, Lecture 15: Background Information for the VMWare ESX Memory Management paper #12;14.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009OperatingKB of data each. How much physical memory needed with shared pages? #12;14.3 Silberschatz, Galvin

Iamnitchi, Adriana

46

Planck 2013 results. XXX. Cosmic infrared background measurements and implications for star formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new measurements of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using Planck. Combining HFI data with IRAS, the angular auto- and cross-frequency power spectrum is measured from 143 to 3000 GHz, and the auto-bispectrum from 217 to 545 GHz. The total areas used to compute the CIB power spectrum and bispectrum are about 2240 and 4400 deg2, respectively. After careful removal of the contaminants (cosmic microwave background anisotropies, Galactic dust, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission), and a complete study of systematics, the CIB power spectrum is measured with unprecedented signal to noise ratio from angular multipoles ? ~ 150 to 2500. The bispectrum due to the clustering of dusty, star-forming galaxies is measured from ? ~ 130 to 1100, with a total signal to noise ratio of around 6, 19, and 29 at 217, 353, and 545 GHz, respectively. Two approaches are developed for modelling CIB power spectrum anisotropies. The first approach takes advantage of the unique measurements by Planck at large angular scales, and models only the linear part of the power spectrum, with a mean bias of dark matter haloes hosting dusty galaxies at a given redshift weighted by their contribution to the emissivities. The second approach is based on a model that associates star-forming galaxies with dark matter haloes and their subhaloes, using a parametrized relation between the dust-processed infrared luminosity and (sub-)halo mass. The two approaches simultaneously fit all auto- and cross-power spectra very well. We find that the star formation history is well constrained up to redshifts around 2, and agrees with recent estimates of the obscured star-formation density using Spitzer and Herschel. However, at higher redshift, the accuracy of the star formation history measurement is strongly degraded by the uncertainty in the spectral energy distribution of CIB galaxies. We also find that the mean halo mass which is most efficient at hosting star formation is log (Meff/M?) = 12.6 and that CIB galaxies have warmer temperatures as redshift increases. The CIB bispectrum is steeper than that expected from the power spectrum, although well fitted by a power law; this gives some information about the contribution of massive haloes to the CIB bispectrum. Finally, we show that the same halo occupation distribution can fit all power spectra simultaneously. The precise measurements enabled by Planck pose new challenges for the modelling of CIB anisotropies, indicating the power of using CIB anisotropies to understand the process of galaxy formation.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Blagrave, K.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Winkel, B.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

47

Patients' perspectives on medical information: results of an informal survey.  

PubMed

The autonomy of patients in making medical decisions is increasingly recognised globally, but is not fully adhered to in India. Information is the first step for a patient to be able to make a decision on his or her health care. The objective of this survey was to ascertain patients' perspectives on the amount of information given to them by health professionals. The results of interviews with 222 patients show that perspectives vary, often according to the diagnosis. The amount of information given and the manner in which it is given are often not acceptable to the patient. PMID:18630214

Raja, Kavitha

2007-01-01

48

Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background at Degree Angular Scales: Python V Results  

E-print Network

Observations of the microwave sky using the Python telescope in its fifth season of operation at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica are presented. The system consists of a 0.75 m off-axis telescope instrumented with a HEMT amplifier-based radiometer having continuum sensitivity from 37-45 GHz in two frequency bands. With a 0.91 deg x 1.02 deg beam the instrument fully sampled 598 deg^2 of sky, including fields measured during the previous four seasons of Python observations. Interpreting the observed fluctuations as anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, we place constraints on the angular power spectrum of fluctuations in eight multipole bands up to l ~ 260. The observed spectrum is consistent with both the COBE experiment and previous Python results. There is no significant contamination from known foregrounds. The results show a discernible rise in the angular power spectrum from large (l ~ 40) to small (l ~ 200) angular scales. The shape of the observed power spectrum is not a simple linear rise but has a sharply increasing slope starting at l ~ 150.

K. Coble; M. Dragovan; J. Kovac; N. W. Halverson; W. L. Holzapfel; L. Knox; S. Dodelson; K. Ganga; D. Alvarez; J. B. Peterson; G. Griffin; M. Newcomb; K. Miller; S. R. Platt; G. Novak

1999-02-15

49

Introduction/Motivation Background/Notation Classification Results/Future Work/References Classifying Pairs of Fuchsian Groups  

E-print Network

Introduction/Motivation Background/Notation Classification Results/Future Work Regional Meeting at University of Tucson April 2007 #12;Introduction/Motivation Background/Notation Classification Results/Future Work/References Outline 1 Introduction/Motivation Motivation 1 - extension

Broughton, S. Allen

50

Early Results on Radioactive Background Characterization for Sanford Laboratory and DUSEL Experiments  

E-print Network

Measuring external sources of background for a deep underground laboratory at the Homestake Mine is an important step for the planned low-background experiments. The naturally occurring $\\gamma$-ray fluxes at different levels in the Homestake Mine are studied using NaI detectors and Monte Carlo simulations. A simple algorithm is developed to convert the measured $\\gamma$-ray rates into $\\gamma$-ray fluxes. A good agreement between the measured and simulated $\\gamma$-ray fluxes is achieved with the knowledge of the chemical composition and radioactivity levels in the rock. The neutron fluxes and $\\gamma$-ray fluxes are predicted by Monte Carlo simulations for different levels including inaccessible levels that are under construction for the planned low background experiments.

D. -M. Mei; C. Zhang; K. Thomas; F. Gray

2009-12-01

51

What a Difference Immigration Law Makes: PISA Results, Migration Background and Social Mobility in Europe and Traditional Countries of Immigration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to evaluate the importance of social class, migration background and command of national languages for the PISA school performance of teenagers living in European countries (France, Finland, Germany, United Kingdom, and Sweden) and traditional countries of immigration (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the US). Econometric results show that the influence of the socioeconomic background

Nicoleta Minoiu; Horst Entorf

2004-01-01

52

The use of prior information for extracting the post-edge background.  

PubMed

A new method for extracting the post-edge background mu0 is proposed, the method of Bayesian smoothing. A further evolution of the smoothing spline method is considered as well. Both techniques are capable to take into account prior information about the peculiarities on the mu0. In addition, since the Bayesian approach works in terms of the posterior probability density functions, it contains a natural way to determine the errors of the mu0 construction, which has always been an unresolvable problem for any other method. Even with use of the prior information, which narrows the posterior probabilities, the errors of mu0 are shown to be larger than the experimental noise. PMID:11512751

Klementev, K V

2001-03-01

53

A New Result on the Origin of the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we repeatedly use the method of image stacking to study the origin of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) at GeV bands, and find that the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters (FIRST) sources undetected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope can contribute about (56 ± 6)% of the EGB. Because FIRST is a flux-limited sample of radio sources with incompleteness at the faint limit, we consider that point sources, including blazars, non-blazar active galactic nuclei, and starburst galaxies, could produce a much larger fraction of the EGB.

Zhou, Ming; Wang, Jiancheng

2013-06-01

54

Thailand radiation monitoring program: a preliminary result analysis of the country's background radiation.  

PubMed

Environmental monitoring in the context of nuclear-related activities refers to the measurements of ambient gamma dose rates in the environment and radioactivity in air, water, soil etc. Since nuclear power programme in Thailand has not yet been in place, the environment surveillance programme in Thailand currently focuses on establishing 'baseline' environmental radiation levels and radioactivity for the purpose of establishing impacts of future possible sources such as nuclear accidents. The objective is to assure assessments concerning radiation safety for the environment and public. At present, Thailand's monitoring programme operates eight fixed monitoring stations installed in various regions of Thailand; four of which have been in operation since late 2010. The ambient gamma dose rate data are routinely collected from those four real-time monitoring stations starting from October 2010 to September 2011 as described in this study. Also, the radiation data from each station are statically analysed. This study found that the dose rate from the stations located in north and north-east of Thailand showed an apparent tendency towards a diurnal pattern. With these routine data, the average exposure dose rate was possible to estimate in Thailand. Additionally, the assessment of the equivalent dose from natural background radiation was estimated. PMID:24570484

Krisanangkura, Piyawan; Udomsomporn, Suchin

2014-08-01

55

Background information on high temperature insulation for liquid-immersed power transformers  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the availability of insulation materials having a higher temperature rating than cellulose had led to the design of high temperature power transformers for specialized applications where size and weight are important considerations. Such applications include traction transformers, mobile transformers, and power transformers with special loading requirements. Even through such equipment has been in use for many years, there are presently no standards which address high temperature materials in liquid-immersed transformers. Recognizing this deficiency, the IEEE Transformers Committee has established a Working Group to investigate what standards or guides could be formulated. As a first step, the Working Group has prepared this state-of-the-art paper to document background information on the materials and their application. It is hoped that discussion of this paper will help to establish future directions for standards.

Not Available

1994-10-01

56

Results from the Rothney Astrophysical Observatory Variable Star Search Program: Background, Procedure, and Results from RAO Field 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a variable star search program and present the fully reduced results of a search in a 19 square degree (4.4 × 4.4) field centered on J2000 RA = 22:03:24, DEC= +18:54:32. The search was carried out with the Baker-Nunn Patrol Camera located at the Rothney Astrophysical Observatory in the foothills of the Canadian Rockies. A total of 26,271 stars were detected in the field, over a range of about 11-15 (instrumental) magnitudes. Our image processing made use of the IRAF version of the DAOPHOT aperture photometry routine and we used the ANOVA method to search for periodic variations in the light curves. We formally detected periodic variability in 35 stars, that we tentatively classify according to light curve characteristics: 6 EA (Algol), 5 EB (?? Lyrae), 19 EW (W UMa), and 5 RR (RR Lyrae) stars. Eleven of the detected variable stars have been reported previously in the literature. The eclipsing binary light curves have been analyzed with a package of light curve modeling programs and 25 have yielded converged solutions. Ten of these are of systems that are detached, 3 semi-detached, 10 overcontact, and 2 are of systems that appear to be in marginal contact. We discuss these results as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the instrument and of the program.

Williams, Michael D.; Milone, E. F.

2013-12-01

57

Digital Pulse-Shape Discrimination Applied to an Ultra-Low-Background Gas-Proportional Counting System: First Results  

SciTech Connect

Abstract A new ultra-low-background proportional counter (ULBPC) design was recently developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This design, along with an ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS) which provides passive and active shielding with radon exclusion, has been developed to complement a new shallow underground laboratory (~30 meters water-equivalent) constructed at PNNL. After these steps to mitigate dominant backgrounds (cosmic rays, external gamma-rays, radioactivity in materials), remaining background events do not exclusively arise from ionization of the proportional counter gas. Digital pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) is thus employed to further improve measurement sensitivity. In this work, a template shape is generated for each individual sample measurement of interest, a "self-calibrating" template. Differences in event topology can also cause differences in pulse shape. In this work, the temporal region analyzed for each event is refined to maximize background discrimination while avoiding unwanted sensitivity to event topology. This digital PSD method is applied to sample and background data, and initial measurement results from a biofuel methane sample are presented in the context of low-background measurements currently being developed.

Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; Myers, A. W.; Overman, Cory T.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Richard M.

2013-05-01

58

Planck 2013 results. XXVI. Background geometry and topology of the Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps from Planck provide the highest-quality full-sky view of the surface of last scattering available to date. This allows us to detect possible departures from the standard model of a globally homogeneous and isotropic cosmology on the largest scales. We search for correlations induced by a possible non-trivial topology with a fundamental domain intersecting, or nearly intersecting, the last scattering surface (at comoving distance ?rec), both via a direct search for matched circular patterns at the intersections and by an optimal likelihood search for specific topologies. For the latter we consider flat spaces with cubic toroidal (T3), equal-sided chimney (T2) and slab (T1) topologies, three multi-connected spaces of constant positive curvature (dodecahedral, truncated cube and octahedral) and two compact negative-curvature spaces. These searches yield no detection of the compact topology with the scale below the diameter of the last scattering surface. For most compact topologies studied the likelihood maximized over the orientation of the space relative to the observed map shows some preference for multi-connected models just larger than the diameter of the last scattering surface. Since this effect is also present in simulated realizations of isotropic maps, we interpret it as the inevitable alignment of mild anisotropic correlations with chance features in a single sky realization; such a feature can also be present, in milder form, when the likelihood is marginalized over orientations. Thus marginalized, the limits on the radius ?i of the largest sphere inscribed in topological domain (at log-likelihood-ratio ?ln ? > -5 relative to a simply-connected flat Planck best-fit model) are: in a flat Universe, ?i> 0.92?rec for the T3 cubic torus; ?i> 0.71?rec for the T2 chimney; ?i> 0.50?rec for the T1 slab; and in a positively curved Universe, ?i> 1.03?rec for the dodecahedral space; ?i> 1.0?rec for the truncated cube; and ?i> 0.89?rec for the octahedral space. The limit for a wider class of topologies, i.e., those predicting matching pairs of back-to-back circles, among them tori and the three spherical cases listed above, coming from the matched-circles search, is ?i> 0.94?rec at 99% confidence level. Similar limits apply to a wide, although not exhaustive, range of topologies. We also perform a Bayesian search for an anisotropic global Bianchi VIIh geometry. In the non-physical setting where the Bianchi cosmology is decoupled from the standard cosmology, Planck data favour the inclusion of a Bianchi component with a Bayes factor of at least 1.5 units of log-evidence. Indeed, the Bianchi pattern is quite efficient at accounting for some of the large-scale anomalies found in Planck data. However, the cosmological parameters that generate this pattern are in strong disagreement with those found from CMB anisotropy data alone. In the physically motivated setting where the Bianchi parameters are coupled and fitted simultaneously with the standard cosmological parameters, we find no evidence for a Bianchi VIIh cosmology and constrain the vorticity of such models to (?/H)0< 8.1 × 10-10 (95% confidence level).

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fabre, O.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

59

2003 --Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT-BACKGROUND COLOR  

E-print Network

and the other consisted of information on a fictitious TV/DVD player. After studying each page they completed that the relationship between font/background color combinations and outcomes is complex and often inconsistent with web background (negative text) is almost as good. Although the contrast ratio is the same as for positive text

Missouri-Rolla, University of

60

Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information  

SciTech Connect

This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

None

1980-11-01

61

Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background  

E-print Network

We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

Misao Sasaki; Dong-han Yeom

2014-04-06

62

Mesopause Temperature Retrieval from SATI Measured Spectra with a Linear Background Component. Results from the Numerical Simulation  

E-print Network

The Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager is a ground-based spectral instrument for spatial registration of airglow emissions. The basic aim of the instrument development is the investigation of gravity waves based on the spatial characteristics of the temperature field at the altitude of mesopause and its evolution in the time. The temperature retrieval is based on matching measured and preliminary calculated synthetic spectra. Possibilities are presented for generalization of the basic regression equation which connects the measured and the synthetic spectra. A linear change of the background for the entire filter transmittance interval was presumed. Numerical experiments by Monte-Karlo simulation were conducted. The presented results show a bigger stability of the proposed approach in comparison with the traditional one, without considering the linear background.

Atanassov, Atanas Marinov

2012-01-01

63

The Temperature of the Cosmic Background Radiation: Results fromthe 1987 and 1988 Measurements at 3.8 GHz  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the temperature of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at a frequency of 3.8 GHz (7.9 cm wavelength), during two consecutive summers, obtaining a brightness temperature, T{sub CBR}, of 2.56 {+-} 0.08 K in 1987 and 2.71 {+-} 0.07 K in 1988 (68% confidence level). The new results are in agreement with our previous measurement at 3.7 GHz obtained in 1986, and have smaller error bars. Combining measurements from all three years we obtain T{sub CBR} = 2.64 {+-} 0.07 K.

De Amici, Giovanni; Bensadoun, M.; Bersanelli, M.; Kogut, A.; Levine, S.; Smoot, George F.; Witebsky, C.

1989-11-10

64

All Student Background Information (Calculus-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete this questionnaire. The information you provide will help  

E-print Network

. Computer Science D. Engineering E. Mathematics 32. A. Pre-medical B. Physics/Astrophysics C. Social ScienceAll Student Background Information (Calculus-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete this questionnaire. The information you provide will help the Physics Department evaluate the usefulness

Minnesota, University of

65

Background for Builders--Related Science and Trade Information for the Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primarily intended for instructors but also useful to students, this guide provides a set of lessons (interlaced with humorous phrases and cartoons) for teaching fundamental information for the building trades. Each lesson contains objectives, related information, and a review or summary. Unit I is a brief, humorous message to the student on the…

Lucas, Joseph

66

Fluctuation Analysis of the Far-Infrared Background - Information from the Confusion  

E-print Network

We are investigating to what extent one can use a P(D) analysis to extract number counts of unclustered sources from maps of the far infrared background. Currently available such maps, and those expected to emerge in near future are dominated by confusion noise due to poor resolution. We simulate background maps with an underlying two slope model for N(S) and we find that in an experiment of FIRBACK type we can extract the high flux slope with an error of few percent while other parameters are not so well constrained. We find, however, that in a SIRTF type experiment all parameters of this N(S) model can be extracted with errors of only few percent.

Yasmin Friedmann; Francois Bouchet

2003-10-28

67

Migrant Background and Weight Gain in Early Infancy: Results from the German Study Sample of the IDEFICS Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine variations in infant weight gain between children of parents with and without migrant background and to investigate how these differences are explained by pre- and perinatal factors. Methods We used data on birth weight and weight at six months from well-child check-up books that were collected from a population-based German sample of children in the IDEFICS study (n?=?1,287). We calculated unadjusted and adjusted means for weight z-scores at birth and six months later. We applied linear regression for change in weight z-score and we calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for rapid weight gain by logistic regression, adjusted for biological, social and behavioural factors. Results Weight z-scores for migrants and Germans differed slightly at birth, but were markedly increased for Turkish and Eastern European infants at age six months. Turkish infants showed the highest change in weight z-score during the first 6 months (ß?=?0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.56) and an increased probability of rapid weight gain compared with German infants. Examination of the joint effect of migrant and socioeconomic status (SES) showed the greatest change in weight z-scores in Turkish infants from middle SES families (ß?=?0.77; 95% CI 0.40–1.14) and infants of parents from Eastern European countries with high SES (ß?=?0.72; 95% CI 0.13–1.32). Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that migrant background is an independent risk factor for infant weight gain and suggest that the onset of health inequalities in overweight starts in early infancy. PMID:23593270

Reeske, Anna; Spallek, Jacob; Bammann, Karin; Eiben, Gabriele; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kourides, Yiannis; Nagy, Peter; Ahrens, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

68

A comparison of approximate reasoning results using information uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

An Approximate Reasoning (AR) model is a useful alternative to a probabilistic model when there is a need to draw conclusions from information that is qualitative. For certain systems, much of the information available is elicited from subject matter experts (SME). One such example is the risk of attack on a particular facility by a pernicious adversary. In this example there are several avenues of attack, i.e. scenarios, and AR can be used to model the risk of attack associated with each scenario. The qualitative information available and provided by the SME is comprised of linguistic values which are well suited for an AR model but meager for other modeling approaches. AR models can produce many competing results. Associated with each competing AR result is a vector of linguistic values and a respective degree of membership in each value. A suitable means to compare and segregate AR results would be an invaluable tool to analysts and decisions makers. A viable method would be to quantify the information uncertainty present in each AR result then use the measured quantity comparatively. One issue of concern for measuring the infornlation uncertainty involved with fuzzy uncertainty is that previously proposed approaches focus on the information uncertainty involved within the entire fuzzy set. This paper proposes extending measures of information uncertainty to AR results, which involve only one degree of membership for each fuzzy set included in the AR result. An approach to quantify the information uncertainty in the AR result is presented.

Chavez, Gregory [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Key, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zerkle, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shevitz, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

69

Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

Sutter, S. L.

1982-05-01

70

TEDIS, Pervasive Developmental Disorder' patients information system, preliminary results.  

PubMed

TEDIS, an information system dedicated to patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) was tested. Results focused on the process of behavioural changes among physicians and health professionals with regard to structured organized patient information.The experiment encouraged changes in professionals' habits for further documenting and systematizing patient information collection. TEDIS' project federated professionals for developing methods for a systematic and exhaustive patient data management, in a longitudinal and cross-domain perspective, for improving knowledge and health care management. PMID:22874197

Ben Said, Mohamed; Robel, Laurence; Pellegrin-Touati, Marie; Rousselot-Pailly, Berangere; Golse, Bernard; Jais, Jean Philippe; Landais, Paul

2012-01-01

71

Student Background Information (Algebra-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete this questionnaire. The information you provide will help  

E-print Network

Student Background Information (Algebra-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete high school math class you completed? a Algebra b Geometry or Trigonometry c Pre-calculus, Functions completed prior to taking this course? a I have not taken a college math class b Algebra, Geometry

Minnesota, University of

72

A JOINT MODEL OF THE X-RAY AND INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUNDS. I. MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present an extragalactic population model of the cosmic background light to interpret the rich high-quality survey data in the X-ray and IR bands. The model incorporates star formation and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion in a co-evolution scenario to fit simultaneously 617 data points of number counts, redshift distributions, and local luminosity functions (LFs) with 19 free parameters. The model has four main components, the total IR LF, the SMBH accretion energy fraction in the IR band, the star formation spectral energy distribution (SED), and the unobscured SMBH SED extinguished with a H I column density distribution. As a result of the observational uncertainties about the star formation and SMBH SEDs, we present several variants of the model. The best-fit reduced {chi}{sup 2} reaches as small as 2.7-2.9 of which a significant amount (>0.8) is contributed by cosmic variances or caveats associated with data. Compared to previous models, the unique result of this model is to constrain the SMBH energy fraction in the IR band that is found to increase with the IR luminosity but decrease with redshift up to z {approx} 1.5; this result is separately verified using aromatic feature equivalent-width data. The joint modeling of X-ray and mid-IR data allows for improved constraints on the obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN), especially the Compton-thick AGN population. All variants of the model require that Compton-thick AGN fractions decrease with the SMBH luminosity but increase with redshift while the type 1 AGN fraction has the reverse trend.

Shi, Yong; Helou, George; Armus, Lee; Stierwalt, Sabrina [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dale, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

2013-02-10

73

15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The intent behind these rules is to identify as “fundamental research” basic and applied research in science and engineering, where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the...

2012-01-01

74

15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The intent behind these rules is to identify as “fundamental research” basic and applied research in science and engineering, where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the...

2013-01-01

75

Three-dimensional simulation of stratospheric background aerosol: First results of a multiannual general circulation model simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sulfuric acid aerosol model has been implemented in the global general circulation model ECHAM4. This model treats the formation, the development, and the transport of stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosol. The aerosol size distribution and the sulfuric acid mass fraction are calculated as a function of the H2SO4/H2O concentration, temperature, and air pressure in a size range between 0.001 ? and 2.58 ?. Binary homogeneous nucleation of H2SO4/H2O, condensation and evaporation of H2SO4 and H2O, Brownian coagulation and gravitational sedimentation are included. The microphysical model for stratospheric sulfate aerosol and a stratospheric sulfur chemistry are combined with a representation of the tropospheric sulfur chemistry. This tropospheric scheme accounts for the natural and anthropogenic emissions, chemistry, and dry and wet deposition of DMS, SO2, and SO42-. Globally and seasonally different SO2- and SO42- sources for stratospheric aerosol can therefore be taken into account. Results of a multiannual simulation show that the simulated SO2 and H2SO4 concentrations are generally in good agreement with available observations. The formation of new particles through homogeneous nucleation takes place in the tropical lower stratosphere and upper troposphere and in polar spring. The aerosol surface area density and the aerosol mass concentration reproduce lower stratospheric background conditions quite well. Effective radius and aerosol mixing ratio agree also with satellite and in situ measurements at Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes.

Timmreck, Claudia

2001-11-01

76

A search result clustering method using informatively named entities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering the results of a search helps the user to overview the information returned. In this paper, we regard the clustering task as indexing the search results. Here, an index means a structured label list that can makes it easier for the user to comprehend the labels and search results. To realize this goal, we make three proposals. First is

Hiroyuki Toda; Ryoji Kataoka

2005-01-01

77

29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2010-07-01

78

29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2012-07-01

79

29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

2014-07-01

80

MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT. VOLUME II. MEG CHARTS AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the derivation of Multimedia Environmental Goals (MEG's). MEG's are levels of significant contaminants or degradents (in ambient air, water, or land, or in emissions or effluents conveyed to the ambient media) that are judged to be: appropri...

81

Vanderbilt Institute for Integrative Biosystems Research and Education Background Information for Guidelines for Authorship  

E-print Network

conduct in reporting results and citing the work of others is assumed. The "Uniform Requirements School, the University of Michigan Medical School, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School University of Michigan Medical School American Physical Society American Chemical Society

Wikswo, John

82

Ground-water protection standards for inactive uranium tailings sites (40 CFR 192): Background information for final rule. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Final Background Information Document summarizes the information and data considered by the Agency in developing the ground-water protection standards. The report presents a brief description of the Title II ground water standard and how it can be used to develop the Title I rulemaking. A description of the 24 designated uranium-tailings sites and their current status in the DOE remedial-action program is included as well as a detailed analysis of the available data on the ground water in the vicinity of 14 of the 24 sites. It also describes different methods that can be used for the restoration of ground water and the costs of using these restoration methods.

Not Available

1989-03-01

83

Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L. [and others

1993-10-01

84

What a Difference Immigration Law Makes: PISA results, migration background, socioeconomic status and social mobility in Europe and traditional countries of immigration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to evaluate the importance of social class, migration background and command of national languages for the PISA school performance of teenagers living in European countries (France, Finland, Germany, United Kingdom, and Sweden) and traditional countries of immigration (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the US). Econometric results show that the influence of the socioeconomic background

Horst Entorf; Nicoleta Minoiu

2004-01-01

85

Mononucleosis Background Information  

E-print Network

or drinks, and by coughing or sneezing. The incubation period (time from exposure to symptoms) is 4 to 6. · No contact sports or strenuous exercise for at least 6 weeks. Trauma to the abdomen may possibly rupture

Suzuki, Masatsugu

86

Background Information for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

2001-01-01

87

Mars Background Information General Information  

E-print Network

as fuel, oxygen or potable water. The Mars Exploration Rovers are will look for evidence of liquid water The atmosphere on Mars is mostly carbon dioxide and at very low pressure. This poses several problems relief than Moon or Earth Elevation range: +27 km (Olympus Mons) to -4km (Hellas Basin) No Liquid water

Dennis, Robert G.

88

Search for 2? decays of 96Ru and 104Ru by ultralow-background HPGe ? spectrometry at LNGS: Final results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment to search for double-? decay processes in 96Ru and 104Ru, which are accompanied by ? rays, has been realized in the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the I.N.F.N. (Italy). Ruthenium samples with masses of ?0.5-0.7 kg were measured with the help of ultralow-background high-purity Ge ?-ray spectrometry. After 2162 h of data taking the samples were deeply purified to reduce the internal contamination of 40K. The last part of the data has been accumulated over 5479 h. New improved half-life limits on 2?+/??+/2? processes in 96Ru have been established on the level of 1020 yr, in particular for decays to the ground state of 96Mo: T1/22?2?+?1.4×1020 yr, T1/22???+?8.0×1019 yr, and T1/20?2K?1.0×1021 yr (all limits are at 90% C.L.). The resonant neutrinoless double-electron captures to the 2700.2 and 2712.7 keV excited states of 96Mo are restricted as T1/20?KL?2.0×1020 yr and T1/20?2L?3.6×1020 yr, respectively. Various two-neutrino and neutrinoless 2? half-lives of 96Ru have been estimated in the framework of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation approach. In addition, the T1/2 limit for 0?2?- transitions of 104Ru to the first excited state of 104Pd has been set as ?6.5×1020 yr.

Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; d'Angelo, S.; Incicchitti, A.; Kovtun, G. P.; Kovtun, N. G.; Laubenstein, M.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Shcherban, A. P.; Solopikhin, D. A.; Suhonen, J.; Tretyak, V. I.

2013-03-01

89

COS DCE BOOT FSW v1.13 Component Test Results Requirement 5.5.3.1 CRC Background Checking on Memory Regions  

E-print Network

COS DCE BOOT FSW v1.13 Component Test Results Requirement 5.5.3.1 CRC Background Checking on Memory. Brownsberger 2-13-01 The Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy Reviewed: Approved: COS DCE BOOT FSW v1 & Space Astronomy Initial Release COS DCE BOOT FSW v1.13 Component Test Results Requirement 5.5.3.1 CRC

Colorado at Boulder, University of

90

COS DCE BOOT FSW v1.09 Component Test Results Requirement 5.5.3.1 CRC Background Checking on Memory Regions  

E-print Network

COS DCE BOOT FSW v1.09 Component Test Results Requirement 5.5.3.1 CRC Background Checking on Memory. Brownsberger 2-13-01 The Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy Reviewed: Approved: COS DCE BOOT FSW v1 & Space Astronomy Initial Release COS DCE BOOT FSW v1.09 Component Test Results Requirement 5.5.3.1 CRC

Colorado at Boulder, University of

91

Results of low energy background measurements with the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) of the Mont Blanc Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 90 tons liquid scintillation detector (LSD) is fully running since October 1984, at a depth of 5,200 hg/sq cm of standard rock underground. The main goal is to search for neutrino bursts from collapsing stars. The experiment is very sensitive to detect low energy particles and has a very good signature to gamma-rays from (n,p) reaction which follows the upsilon e + p yields n + e+ neutrino capture. The analysis of data is presented and the preliminary results on low energy measurements are discussed.

Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G. F.; Castagnoli, C.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G. C.; Vernetto, S.; Dadykin, V. L.

1985-08-01

92

Health Information Literacy and Competencies of Information Age Students: Results From the Interactive Online Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA)  

PubMed Central

Background In an era of easy access to information, university students who will soon enter health professions need to develop their information competencies. The Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA) is based on the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, and it measures proficiency in obtaining health information, evaluating the quality of health information, and understanding plagiarism. Objective This study aimed to measure the proficiency of college-age health information consumers in finding and evaluating electronic health information; to assess their ability to discriminate between peer-reviewed scholarly resources and opinion pieces or sales pitches; and to examine the extent to which they are aware of their level of health information competency. Methods An interactive 56-item online assessment, the Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA), was used to measure the health information competencies of university students. We invited 400 students to take part in the study, and 308 participated, giving a response rate of 77%. The RRSA included multiple-choice questions and problem-based exercises. Declarative and procedural knowledge were assessed in three domains: finding health information, evaluating health information, and understanding plagiarism. Actual performance was contrasted with self-reported skill level. Upon answering all questions, students received a results page that summarized their numerical results and displayed individually tailored feedback composed by an experienced librarian. Results Even though most students (89%) understood that a one-keyword search is likely to return too many documents, few students were able to narrow a search by using multiple search categories simultaneously or by employing Boolean operators. In addition, nearly half of the respondents had trouble discriminating between primary and secondary sources of information as well as between references to journal articles and other published documents. When presented with questionable websites on nonexistent nutritional supplements, only 50% of respondents were able to correctly identify the website with the most trustworthy features. Less than a quarter of study participants reached the correct conclusion that none of the websites made a good case for taking the nutritional supplements. Up to 45% of students were unsure if they needed to provide references for ideas expressed in paraphrased sentences or sentences whose structure they modified. Most respondents (84%) believed that their research skills were good, very good, or excellent. Students’ self-perceptions of skill tended to increase with increasing level of education. Self-reported skills were weakly correlated with actual skill level, operationalized as the overall RRSA score (Cronbach alpha = .78 for 56 RRSA items). Conclusions While the majority of students think that their research skills are good or excellent, many of them are unable to conduct advanced information searches, judge the trustworthiness of health-related websites and articles, and differentiate between various information sources. Students’ self-reports may not be an accurate predictor of their actual health information competencies. PMID:16867969

O'Boyle, Irene; Casey, Anne Marie

2006-01-01

93

Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

1981-01-01

94

Influence of education and working background on physicians' knowledge of secondary prevention guidelines for coronary heart disease: results from a survey in China*  

PubMed Central

Background and objective: In clinical practice, the standard of secondary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD) is quite disappointing in China. The physicians’ shortage of knowledge of secondary prevention guidelines is thought to be a key factor contributing to the inadequate and delayed translation of guidelines into clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of physicians’ characteristics, including their education and work experience, on their knowledge of secondary prevention in China. Methods: A representative questionnaire survey was made of physicians from cardiology departments in 35 tertiary hospitals in China. The survey contained 19 questions on knowledge of guideline recommendations for the secondary prevention of CHD. We collected basic information about the physicians, including their educational degree, clinical practice duration/work experience and geographic region. Results: In total, 864 physicians participated in the survey. Eight hundred and thirty-seven completed questionnaires were analyzed. For 6 of the 19 questions, physicians with a postgraduate degree were more likely to answer correctly than those without such a degree. For 11 of the 19 questions, physicians with more than three years’ clinical experience were more likely to answer correctly than those who had less than three years’ experience. For 5 of the 19 questions, physicians from eastern areas were more likely to answer correctly than those from mid/western areas. The mean total score of correct answers to the questionnaire was 11.69 points. Educational degree and clinical practice duration affected total scores significantly while practice location did not (?=0.500, P=0.004; ?=0.979, P=0.000; and ?=0.228, P=0.162, respectively). Even if a relatively low score of 12 is taken as a threshold level of acceptable knowledge (defined as a pass), the pass rate of all physicians was only 53.9%. Educational degree and clinical practice duration affected pass rate significantly while practice location did not (95% CI: 1.222–2.248, P=0.001; 95% CI: 1.773–3.140, P=0.000; and 95% CI: 0.993–1.758, P=0.056, respectively). Conclusions: Physicians with a clinical practice duration of more than three years knew more about secondary prevention guidelines than those with less experience. Physicians with a postgraduate degree knew more about secondary prevention guidelines than those without a postgraduate degree. However, overall knowledge of secondary prevention guidelines for CHD was poor among this group of physicians from tertiary hospitals. PMID:22374616

Gong, Yan-jun; Hong, Tao; Jiang, Jie; Yu, Rong-hui; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Zhao-ping; Huo, Yong

2012-01-01

95

Air/ground wind shear information integration: Flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. High level microburst products were extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the wind shear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in the core of each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which in situ 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne in situ measurements. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurement would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the feasibility of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

Hinton, David A.

1992-01-01

96

Web-scale information extraction in knowitall: (preliminary results)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manually querying search engines in order to accumulate a large bodyof factual information is a tedious, error-prone process of piecemealsearch. Search engines retrieve and rank potentially relevantdocuments for human perusal, but do not extract facts, assessconfidence, or fuse information from multiple documents. This paperintroduces KnowItAll, a system that aims to automate the tedious process ofextracting large collections of facts from

Oren Etzioni; Michael J. Cafarella; Doug Downey; Stanley Kok; Ana-Maria Popescu; Tal Shaked; Stephen Soderland; Daniel S. Weld; Alexander Yates

2004-01-01

97

Impact of Inclusion of Industry Trial Results Registries as an Information Source for Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical trial results registries may contain relevant unpublished information. Our main aim was to investigate the potential impact of the inclusion of reports from industry results registries on systematic reviews (SRs). Methods We identified a sample of 150 eligible SRs in PubMed via backward selection. Eligible SRs investigated randomized controlled trials of drugs and included at least 2 bibliographic databases (original search date: 11/2009). We checked whether results registries of manufacturers and/or industry associations had also been searched. If not, we searched these registries for additional trials not considered in the SRs, as well as for additional data on trials already considered. We reanalysed the primary outcome and harm outcomes reported in the SRs and determined whether results had changed. A “change” was defined as either a new relevant result or a change in the statistical significance of an existing result. We performed a search update in 8/2013 and identified a sample of 20 eligible SRs to determine whether mandatory results registration from 9/2008 onwards in the public trial and results registry ClinicalTrials.gov had led to its inclusion as a standard information source in SRs, and whether the inclusion rate of industry results registries had changed. Results 133 of the 150 SRs (89%) in the original analysis did not search industry results registries. For 23 (17%) of these SRs we found 25 additional trials and additional data on 31 trials already included in the SRs. This additional information was found for more than twice as many SRs of drugs approved from 2000 as approved beforehand. The inclusion of the additional trials and data yielded changes in existing results or the addition of new results for 6 of the 23 SRs. Of the 20 SRs retrieved in the search update, 8 considered ClinicalTrials.gov or a meta-registry linking to ClinicalTrials.gov, and 1 considered an industry results registry. Conclusion The inclusion of industry and public results registries as an information source in SRs is still insufficient and may result in publication and outcome reporting bias. In addition to an essential search in ClinicalTrials.gov, authors of SRs should consider searching industry results registries. PMID:24743113

Potthast, Regine; Vervolgyi, Volker; McGauran, Natalie; Kerekes, Michaela F.; Wieseler, Beate; Kaiser, Thomas

2014-01-01

98

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was established in the fall of 1995, with the cooperation and financial support of  

E-print Network

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was established in the fall in their quest for higher education. This free book rental scholarship program assists students each semester intersession for utilization in spring 2013. This free book rental scholarship program is administered

de Lijser, Peter

99

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was estab-lished in the fall of 1995, with the cooperation and financial support of Titan  

E-print Network

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was estab- lished in the fall for utilization in fall 2014. This free book rental scholarship program is administered by theAssociated Students in their quest for higher education. This free book rental scholarship program assists students each semester

de Lijser, Peter

100

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was established in the fall of 1995, with the cooperation and financial support of  

E-print Network

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was established in the fall in their quest for higher education. This free book rental scholarship program assists students each semester for utilization in spring 2014. This free book rental scholarship program is administered by the Associated

de Lijser, Peter

101

Information Technology for Harvesting NASA Earth Science Research Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Applied Sciences Program has funded the Mississippi Research Consortium (MRC) to develop information technology that will facilitate searches for potential applications of NASA assets to various needs in the earth sciences community. In particular, it will help generate ideas for new ways to use NASA missions, research, and\\/or models in conjunction with operational decision-making processes (or decision support

J. V. Aanstoos; D. Shaw; C. O'Hara; T. Frisbie

2007-01-01

102

Using Twitter to Assess Information Needs: Early Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information needs tell us why search terms are used, helping to disambiguate, for example, what exactly people are looking for with queries such as 'Orange' or 'Java'. It is hard to understand goals and motivations, however, from the keywords entered into search engines alone. This paper discusses the pilot analysis of 180,000 tweets, containing search-related terms, to try and understand

Max L. Wilson

103

Hurricane Backgrounder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides basic information on hurricanes. topics include the definition of hurricane , where they are likely to form, and their potential for damage, including high winds, heavy rainfall, flooding, tornadoes, and microbursts. There is also an illustration showing the Saffir-Simpson scale for classifying hurricane intensity, information on naming hurricanes, and a set of links to additional information.

2007-12-12

104

Readiness for Meaningful Use of Health Information Technology and Patient Centered Medical Home Recognition Survey Results  

PubMed Central

Objective Determine the factors that impact HIT use and MU readiness for community health centers (CHCs). Background The HITECH Act allocates funds to Medicaid and Medicare providers to encourage the adoption of electronic health records (EHR), in an effort to improve health care quality and patient outcomes, and to reduce health care costs. Methods We surveyed CHCs on their Readiness for Meaningful Use (MU) of Health Information Technology (HIT) and Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) Recognition, then we combined responses with 2009 Uniform Data System data to determine which factors impact use of HIT and MU readiness. Results Nearly 70% of CHCs had full or partial EHR adoption at the time of survey. Results are presented for centers with EHR adoption, by the length of time that their EHR systems have been in operation. PMID:24834365

Shin, Peter; Sharac, Jessica

2013-01-01

105

Silicon neural information transducers: current technology, perspectives, and recent results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced neural information transducers are currently under development. Novel micromachined silicon transducer fabrication techniques have been created to facilitate construction of implantable devices which can achieve a high-quality, long-term, neural-electrical interface. The basic functionality of implanted microtransducers has been demonstrated during long-term implants. Current research is focused on the study of the interface during behavioral testing of implanted animals, methods

David J. Edell; Lloyd D. Clark

1989-01-01

106

Background Use of Sensitive Information to Aid in Analysis of Non-sensitive Data on Threats and Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the 9-11 commission’s recommendations on a different way of organizing intelligence activities of the United States\\u000a was to unify the effort in information sharing across the Intelligence Community. Challenges include the need to deal with\\u000a information that is geographically distributed and held in compartmented repositories having restricted access. A demonstrated\\u000a ‘need to know’ is required before the data

Richard A. Smith

2005-01-01

107

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry-background information for proposed air emission standards. Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, and semi-chemical mills. Interim final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being proposed for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. The document provides technical background information and analyses used in the development of the proposed pulp and paper NESHAP. It covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills. Effluent guideline limitations for pulp and paper mills are being developed concurrently under the Clean Water Act. Technical information used for the development of effluent guideline limitations is in separate documents.

Not Available

1993-10-01

108

The Need for European Union Information amongst Women in the United Kingdom: Results of a Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the results of an exploratory survey by questionnaire distributed through a variety of information agencies, designed to investigate United Kingdom women's information needs and patterns of information-seeking behavior in relation to the European Union. Results explore women's attitudes to information and its value in a variety of life…

Marcella, Rita

2001-01-01

109

Improving XML search by generating and utilizing informative result snippets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snippets are used by almost every text search engine to complement the ranking scheme in order to effectively handle user searches, which are inherently ambiguous and whose relevance semantics are difficult to assess. Despite the fact that XML is a standard representation format of Web data, research on generating result snippets for XML search remains limited. To tackle this important

Ziyang Liu; Yu Huang; Yi Chen

2010-01-01

110

Results for outdoor-SLAM using sparse extended information filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In [13], a new algorithm was proposed for efficiently solving the simultaneous localization and mapping,(SLAM) problem. In this paper, we extend this algorithm to handle data associ - ation problems and report real-world results, obtained wit h an outdoor vehicle. We find that our approach performs favor- ably when,compared,to the extended Kalman filter solution from which it is derived.

Yufeng Liu; Sebastian Thrun

2003-01-01

111

Disruption of muREC2/RAD51L1 in Mice Results in Early Embryonic Lethality Which Can Be Partially Rescued in a p53?/? Background  

PubMed Central

muREC2/RAD51L1 is a radiation-inducible gene that regulates cell cycle progression. To elucidate the biological function of muREC2/RAD51L1, the gene was disrupted in embryonic stem cells by homologous recombination. Mice heterozygous for muREC2/RAD51L1 appear normal and fertile; however, no homozygous pups were born after interbreeding of heterozygous mice. Timed pregnancy studies showed that homozygous mutant embryos were severely retarded in growth as early as ca. 5 days gestation (E5.5) and were completely resorbed by E8.5. Mutant blastocyst outgrowth was also severely impaired in a double-knockout embryo, but embryonic development did progress further in a p53-null background. These results suggest that muREC2/RAD51L1 plays a role in cell proliferation and early embryonic development, perhaps through interaction with p53. PMID:10567591

Shu, Zhigang; Smith, Sheryl; Wang, Lijuan; Rice, Michael C.; Kmiec, Eric B.

1999-01-01

112

Advanced information processing system: Fault injection study and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the AIPS program is to achieve a validated fault tolerant distributed computer system. The goals of the AIPS fault injection study were: (1) to present the fault injection study components addressing the AIPS validation objective; (2) to obtain feedback for fault removal from the design implementation; (3) to obtain statistical data regarding fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration responses; and (4) to obtain data regarding the effects of faults on system performance. The parameters are described that must be varied to create a comprehensive set of fault injection tests, the subset of test cases selected, the test case measurements, and the test case execution. Both pin level hardware faults using a hardware fault injector and software injected memory mutations were used to test the system. An overview is provided of the hardware fault injector and the associated software used to carry out the experiments. Detailed specifications are given of fault and test results for the I/O Network and the AIPS Fault Tolerant Processor, respectively. The results are summarized and conclusions are given.

Burkhardt, Laura F.; Masotto, Thomas K.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

1992-01-01

113

Informed citizen and empowered citizen in health: results from an European survey  

PubMed Central

Background The knowledge about the relationship between health-related activities on the Internet (i.e. informed citizens) and individuals' control over their own experiences of health or illness (i.e. empowered citizens) is valuable but scarce. In this paper, we investigate the correlation between four ways of using the Internet for information on health or illness and citizens attitudes and behaviours toward health professionals and health systems and establish the profile of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe. Methods Data was collected during April and May 2007 (N = 7022), through computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). Respondents from Denmark, Germany, Greece, Latvia, Norway, Poland and Portugal participated in the survey. The profiles were generated using logistic regressions and are based on: a) socio-demographic and health information, b) the level of use of health-related online services, c) the level of use of the Internet to get health information to decide whether to consult a health professional, prepare for a medical appointment and assess its outcome, and d) the impact of online health information on citizens' attitudes and behavior towards health professionals and health systems. Results Citizens using the Internet to decide whether to consult a health professional or to get a second opinion are likely to be frequent visitors of health sites, active participants of online health forums and recurrent buyers of medicines and other health related products online, while only infrequent epatients, visiting doctors they have never met face-to-face. Participation in online health communities seems to be related with more inquisitive and autonomous patients. Conclusions The profiles of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe are situational and country dependent. The number of Europeans using the Internet to get health information to help them deal with a consultation is raising and having access to online health information seems to be associated with growing number of inquisitive and self-reliant patients. Doctors are increasingly likely to experience consultations with knowledgeable and empowered patients, who will challenge them in various ways. PMID:21496309

2011-01-01

114

The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

1991-01-01

115

The physics of background discrimination in liquid xenon, and first results from Xenon10 in the hunt for WIMP dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WIMP limit set by the Xenon10 experiment in 2007 signals a new era in direct detection of dark matter, with several large-scale liquid target detectors now under construction. A major challenge in these detectors will be to understand backgrounds at the level necessary to claim a positive WIMP signal. In liquid xenon, these backgrounds are dominated by electron recoils, which may be distinguished from the WIMP signal (nuclear recoils) by their higher charge-to-light ratio. During the construction and operation of Xenon10, the prototype detector Xed probed the physics of this discrimination. Particle interactions in liquid xenon both ionize and excite xenon atoms, giving charge and scintillation signals, respectively. Some fraction of ions recombine, reducing the charge signal and creating additional scintillation. The charge-to-light ratio, determined by the initial exciton-ion ratio and the ion recombination fraction, provides the basis for discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils. Intrinsic fluctuations in the recombination fraction limit discrimination. Changes in recombination induce an exact anti-correlation between charge and light, and when calibrated this anti-correlation distinguishes recombination fluctuations from uncorrelated fluctuations in the measured signals. We determine the mean recombination and recombination fluctuations as a function of energy and applied field for electron and nuclear recoils, finding that recombination fluctuations are already the limiting factor for discrimination above ~12 keVr (nuclear recoil energy). Below 12 keVr statistical fluctuations in the number of scintillation photons counted dominate, and we project a x6 improvement in background rejection with a x2 increase in light collection efficiency. We also build a simple recombination model that successfully reproduces the mean recombination in electron and nuclear recoils, including the surprising reversal of the expected trend for recombination with ionization density in low energy electron recoils. The model also reproduces the measured recombination fluctuations to within a factor of two at high energies. Surprisingly, the model suggests that recombination at low energies is independent of ionization density, and our observed discrimination is due not to the different stopping powers of electrons and nuclei as was thought, but rather to a different initial exciton-ion ratio. We suggest two possible physical models for this new result.

Dahl, Carl Eric

2009-06-01

116

An Information System for the Council of Educational Facility Planners International Membership Information Network. Volume 1: Background Report and Implementation Models. Volume 2: Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to assist the Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFP/I) in planning for the establishment of an information system for its members and other stakeholders who need information on educational facilities. The report focuses on the major activities to be accomplished and the issues to be considered when…

Hruday, Connie; And Others

117

Conejo Valley Unified School District Master Plan for an Educational Results Information System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Conejo Valley (CA) Unified School District Educational Results Information System (ERIS), a generalized District master program assessment plan to obtain results information for decision-makers at all levels, has been developed. This plan establishes guidelines, evaluates the current status of the use of educational results information and…

Maloney, Dorothy

118

The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

1992-01-01

119

Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information  

MedlinePLUS

... botanical dietary supplements? Disclaimer Can botanicals be dietary supplements? To be classified as a dietary supplement , a ... use in capsules or tablets. Are botanical dietary supplements standardized? Standardization is a process that manufacturers may ...

120

Recent Results on Fusion of Effective Retrieval Strategies in the Same Information Retrieval System1  

E-print Network

Recent Results on Fusion of Effective Retrieval Strategies in the Same Information Retrieval System Information Retrieval Laboratory Department of Computer Science Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago, IL information retrieval system. Furthermore, our experiments have shown that the ratio of relevant to non

Chowdhury, Abdur

121

Preliminary results from the first satellite of a high-resolution germanium gamma-ray spectrometer: Backgrounds from electron bremsstrahlung and from electron-positron annihilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed data are presented on the bremsstrahlung backgrounds measured by a satellite-borne high resolution Ge(Li) gamma ray spectrometer. Two bremsstrahlung classes were discussed: (1) those arising from radiation belt electrons stopping in the vicinity of the spectrometer, and (2) bremsstrahlung produced by electrons precipitating into the earth's atmosphere.

Imhof, W. L.; Nakano, G. H.; Johnson, R. G.; Reagan, J. B.

1973-01-01

122

Does googling for preconception care result in information consistent with international guidelines: a comparison of information found by Italian women of childbearing age and health professionals  

PubMed Central

Background Preconception counseling is effective in reducing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The Internet is commonly used by women and health professionals to search for health information. We compared the consistency of preconception information found on the Internet with the recommendations published by American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (AJOG) simulating a web search by women of childbearing age and health professionals. Methods We reviewed websites resulting from a Google search performed using search strings selected by Italian women of childbearing age and health professionals. We investigated if retrieved information was consistent with AJOG recommendations for preconception care. Logistic regression was used to compare presence of consistent recommendations between women and health professionals. Results The highest frequency of correct recommendations was found for folic acid supplementation (39.4% of websites). Consistency of preconception information did not significantly differ between search strategies except for folic acid supplementation. “Communities and blogs” website category provided less frequently correct recommendations compared with “Medical/Public Agency" category (i.e. folic acid supplementation (aOR 0.254; CI 0.098-0.664; p?=?<0.01). Commercial links, found in 60% of websites, were associated with presence of correct recommendations excepting few items (i.e. physical exercise (aOR 1.127; CI 0.331-3.840; p?=?0.848). Conclusions Preconception information found is poor and inaccurate regardless of the search is performed by women or health professionals. It is unlikely that information found on the web have any positive impact among women and health professionals in our setting. Strategies to improve preconception information on the web and education of health professionals for web searching of health information should be considered. PMID:23347453

2013-01-01

123

NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel: Background Noise and Flow Survey Results Prior to FY05 Construction of Facilities Modifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Langley Research Center Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel is a premier facility for model-scale testing of jet noise reduction concepts at realistic flow conditions. However, flow inside the open jet test section is less than optimum. A Construction of Facilities project, scheduled for FY 05, will replace the flow collector with a new design intended to reduce recirculation in the open jet test section. The reduction of recirculation will reduce background noise levels measured by a microphone array impinged by the recirculation flow and will improve flow characteristics in the open jet tunnel flow. In order to assess the degree to which this modification is successful, background noise levels and tunnel flow are documented, in order to establish a baseline, in this report.

Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Henderson, Brenda S.

2005-01-01

124

76 FR 80417 - Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...broad public access to unclassified digital data that result from federally funded scientific...Council's Interagency Working Group on Digital Data. Release Date: November 3, 2011....

2011-12-23

125

76 FR 68517 - Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...broad public access to unclassified digital data that result from federally funded scientific...Council's Interagency Working Group on Digital Data. Release Date: November 3, 2011....

2011-11-04

126

The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Silver City 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, New Mexico and Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Silver City 1 ? x 2 ? quadrangle, consisting of about 20,650 km2 in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona, has been investigated by a multidisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing its mineral resource potential. The results of this investigation are in a folio of 21 maps that contain detailed information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral deposits, and potential mineral resources of the quadrangle. This Circular provides background information on the various studies and integrates the component maps. It contains an extensive selected bibliography pertinent to the geology and mineral deposits of the quadrangle. The quadrangle has produced more than $3.5 billion in mineral products since about 1850 and contains significant resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, iron, manganese-iron, zeolite minerals, and possibly tin and tungsten.

Richter, Donald H.; Houser, B. B.; Watts, K. C.; Klein, D. P.; Sharp, W. N.; Drewes, Harald; Hedlund, D. C.; Raines, G. L.; Hassemer, J. R.

1987-01-01

127

Background Studies for EXIST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results from a study of the trapped proton and electron background for several orbital inclinations and altitudes. This study includes time dependent effects. In addition we describe a 3 component cosmic background model developed at the University of Southampton, UK. The three components are cosmic diffuse gamma rays, atmospheric albedo gamma rays, and cosmic ray protons. We present examples of how this model was applied to BATSE and discuss its application to EXIST.

Wilson, Colleen A.; Pendleton, G. N.; Fishman, G. J.

2004-01-01

128

Supersymmetric heterotic string backgrounds  

E-print Network

We present the main features of the solution of the gravitino and dilatino Killing spinor equations derived in hep-th/0510176 and hep-th/0703143 which have led to the classification of geometric types of all type I backgrounds. We then apply these results to the supersymmetric backgrounds of the heterotic string. In particular, we solve the gaugino Killing spinor equation together with the other two Killing spinor equations of the theory. We also use our results to classify all supersymmetry conditions of ten-dimensional gauge theory.

Ulf Gran; George Papadopoulos; Diederik Roest

2007-06-29

129

OneBusAway: results from providing real-time arrival information for public transit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public transit systems play an important role in combating traffic congestion, reducing carbon emissions, and promot- ing compact, sustainable urban communities. The usability of public transit can be significantly enhanced by providing good traveler information systems. We describe OneBus- Away, a set of transit tools focused on providing real-time ar- rival information for Seattle-area bus riders. We then present results

Brian Ferris; Kari Watkins; Alan Borning

2010-01-01

130

A study of cloud-generated radiative heating and its generation of available potential energy. I - Theoretical background. II - Results for a climatological zonal mean January  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of radiative heating and cooling by clouds on the available potential energy (APE) is theoretically discussed. It is shown that the cloud radiative contribution to the generation of APE is determined by the net cloud radiative heating and the efficiency factor, which is a function of the temperature distribution of the atmosphere. Results are presented for low and middle cloud effects for three atmospheric layers. Cloud radiative heating is found to be a single function of cloud optical thickness for all classes designed in terms of cloud top heights and optical thickness. Low clouds at low latitudes destroy APE an midclouds generate APE. A concept is developed to relate the cloud radiative heating to cloud heights and optical depths. Cloud-generated radiative heating is computed for January zonal mean conditions for low and midclouds. For both cases, the strongest influence is found in the low troposphere, with marked differences in signs and magnitudes. At extratropical latitudes, both cloud classes generate net radiative cooling. In the tropics, the effect of low cloud changes from net cooling to the net heating as the optical thickness increases, and midclouds cause net heating. A mechanism is described whereby this dependence produces a strong positive feedback effect on the development of SST anomalies in the tropical oceans.

Stuhlmann, R.; Smith, G. L.

1988-01-01

131

Selective exposure to and acquisition of information from educational television programs as a function of appeal and tempo of background music  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Exp I with 30 1st and 2nd graders, an educational program that contained no background music, appealing music of fast tempo, or unappealing music of slow tempo competed against 2 other programs. Appealing music of fast tempo produced exposure time significantly above the levels associated with the no-music control and the program with unappealing background music of slow tempo.

Jacob J. Wakshlag; Raymond Reitz; Dolf Zillmann

1982-01-01

132

A high-density wireless underground sensor network (WUSN) to quantify hydro-ecological interactions for a UK floodplain; project background and initial results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplain meadows support some of the most diverse vegetation in the UK, and also perform key ecosystem services, such as flood storage and sediment retention. However, the UK now has less than 1500 ha of this unique habitat remaining. In order to conserve and better exploit the services provided by this grassland, an improved understanding of its functioning is essential. Vegetation functioning and species composition are known to be tightly correlated to the hydrological regime, and related temperature and nutrient regime, but the mechanisms controlling these relationships are not well established. The FUSE* project aims to investigate the spatiotemporal variability in vegetation functioning (e.g. photosynthesis and transpiration) and plant community composition in a floodplain meadow near Oxford, UK (Yarnton Mead), and their relationship to key soil physical variables (soil temperature and moisture content), soil nutrient levels and the water- and energy-balance. A distributed high density Wireless Underground Sensor Network (WUSN) is in the process of being established on Yarnton Mead. The majority, or ideally all, of the sensing and transmitting components will be installed below-ground because Yarnton Mead is a SSSI (Site of Special Scientific Interest, due to its unique plant community) and because occasionally sheep or cattle are grazing on it, and that could damage the nodes. This prerequisite has implications for the maximum spacing between UG nodes and their communications technologies; in terms of signal strength, path losses and requirements for battery life. The success of underground wireless communication is highly dependent on the soil type and water content. This floodplain environment is particularly challenging in this context because the soil contains a large amount of clay near the surface and is therefore less favourable to EM wave propagation than sandy soils. Furthermore, due to high relative saturation levels (as a result of high groundwater levels and occasional overland flooding) considerable path losses are expected. Finally, the long-term below-ground installation of the nodes means that batteries cannot be replaced easily, therefore energy conservation schemes are required to be deployed on the nodes. We present a brief overview of the project and initial findings of the approach we have adopted to address these wireless communication issues. This involves tests covering a range of transmission frequencies, antennae types, and node placements. *FUSE, Floodplain Underground SEnsors, funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, NE/I007288/1, start date 1-3-2011)

Verhoef, A.; Choudhary, B.; Morris, P. J.; McCann, J.

2012-04-01

133

Real-Time Dynamic Modeling - Data Information Requirements and Flight Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Practical aspects of identifying dynamic models for aircraft in real time were studied. Topics include formulation of an equation-error method in the frequency domain to estimate non-dimensional stability and control derivatives in real time, data information content for accurate modeling results, and data information management techniques such as data forgetting, incorporating prior information, and optimized excitation. Real-time dynamic modeling was applied to simulation data and flight test data from a modified F-15B fighter aircraft, and to operational flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Estimated parameter standard errors, prediction cases, and comparisons with results from a batch output-error method in the time domain were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the identified real-time models.

Morelli, Eugene A.; Smith, Mark S.

2010-01-01

134

Real-Time Dynamic Modeling - Data Information Requirements and Flight Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Practical aspects of identifying dynamic models for aircraft in real time were studied. Topics include formulation of an equation-error method in the frequency domain to estimate non-dimensional stability and control derivatives in real time, data information content for accurate modeling results, and data information management techniques such as data forgetting, incorporating prior information, and optimized excitation. Real-time dynamic modeling was applied to simulation data and flight test data from a modified F-15B fighter aircraft, and to operational flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Estimated parameter standard errors and comparisons with results from a batch output-error method in the time domain were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the identified real-time models.

Morelli, Eugene A.; Smith, Mark S.

2008-01-01

135

Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization  

E-print Network

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is our richest source of cosmological information; the standard cosmological model was largely established thanks to study of the temperature anisotropies. By the end of the decade, the Planck satellite will close this important chapter and move us deeper into the new frontier of polarization measurements. Numerous ground--based and balloon--borne experiments are already forging into this new territory. Besides providing new and independent information on the primordial density perturbations and cosmological parameters, polarization measurements offer the potential to detect primordial gravity waves, constrain dark energy and measure the neutrino mass scale. A vigorous experimental program is underway worldwide and heading towards a new satellite mission dedicated to CMB polarization.

James G. Bartlett

2006-01-25

136

Informal Care and Inter-vivos Transfers: Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women  

PubMed Central

Informal care is the largest source of long-term care for elderly, surpassing home health care and nursing home care. By definition, informal care is unpaid. It remains a puzzle why so many adult children give freely of their time. Transfers of time to the older generation may be balanced by financial transfers going to the younger generation. This leads to the question of whether informal care and inter-vivos transfers are causally related. We analyze data from the 1999 and 2003 waves of National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. We examine whether the elderly parents give more inter-vivos monetary transfers to adult children who provide informal care, by examining both the extensive and intensive margins of financial transfers and of informal care. We find statistically significant results that a child who provides informal care is more likely to receive inter-vivos transfers than a sibling who does not. If a child does provide care, there is no statistically significant effect on the amount of the transfer.

Norton, Edward C.; Nicholas, Lauren H.; Huang, Sean Sheng-Hsiu

2013-01-01

137

Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

2001-01-01

138

Impact of Using Information Technology in Central University Libraries in India: Results of a Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research study conducted to assess the perceptions and opinions of 100 staff working in libraries on the impact of using IT on library housekeeping operations and information services, in eight central university libraries in India. Design/methodology/approach: Data gathering…

Peyala, Venkataramana

2011-01-01

139

Finite state automata resulting from temporal information maximization and a temporal learning rule  

E-print Network

#=1 H(p # ) -H(p) . (1) In (1), H(·) denotes the usual Shannon entropy and p # the #'th marginal of pFinite state automata resulting from temporal information maximization and a temporal learning rule chains, the maximization of stochastic in­ teraction ---also called ``Temporal Infomax''--- has been

Wennekers, Thomas

140

Decision-Making in Flight with Different Convective Weather Information Sources: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports preliminary and partial results of a flight experiment to address how General Aviation (GA) pilots use weather cues to make flight decisions. This research presents pilots with weather cue conditions typically available to GA pilots in visual meteorological conditions (VMC) and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) today, as well as in IMC with a Graphical Weather Information System (GWIS). These preliminary data indicate that both VMC and GWIS-augmented IMC conditions result in better confidence, information sufficiency and perceived performance than the current IMC condition. For all these measures, the VMC and GWIS-augmented conditions seemed to provide similar pilot support. These preliminary results are interpreted for their implications on GWIS display design, training, and operational use guidelines. Final experimental results will compare these subjective data with objective data of situation awareness and decision quality.

Latorella, Kara A.; Chamberlain, James P.

2004-01-01

141

Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy: Python V Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the microwave sky using the Python telescope in its fifth season of operation at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica are presented. The system consists of a 0.75 m off-axis telescope instrumented with a HEMT amplifier-based radiometer having continuum sensitivity from 37-45 GHz in two frequency bands. With a 0.91 x 1.02 deg beam the instrument fully

K. Coble; M. Dragovan; J. Kovac; N. W. Halverson; W. L. Holzapfel; L. Knox; S. Dodelson; K. Ganga; J. B. Peterson; D. Alvarez; G. Griffin; M. Newcomb; K. Miller; S. R. Platt; G. Novak

1999-01-01

142

Return of results in translational iPS cell research: considerations for donor informed consent  

PubMed Central

Efforts have emerged internationally to recruit donors with specific disease indications and to derive induced pluripotent cell lines. These disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cell lines have the potential to accelerate translational goals such as drug discovery and testing. One consideration for donor recruitment and informed consent is the possibility that research will result in findings that are clinically relevant to the cell donor. Management protocols for such findings should be developed a priori and disclosed during the informed consent process. The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has developed recommendations for informing donors in sponsored research. These recommendations include obtaining consent to recontact tissue donors for a range of scientific, medical and ethical considerations. This article reviews the basis for these recommendations and suggests conditions that may be appropriate when reporting findings to donors. PMID:23336317

2013-01-01

143

Key Informants' Perspectives on Accredited Breast Cancer Centres: Results of a Survey  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the results of a survey among key informants that was conducted between June and September 2011 in Breast Cancer Centers that were accredited according to the criteria of the German Cancer Society (DKG). The survey intended to assess the degree to which the breast cancer center concept was accepted among the key informants as well as to gain an overview over structures and processes in the centers. The Questionnaire for Breast Cancer Centres Key Informants 2011 (FRIZ 2011) was used with two reminders having been sent out. Questionnaires were sent back from 149 of the 243 initially contacted hospitals (response rate: 61.3?%). The vast majority of respondents indicated to be part of the Breast Cancer Center management. 110 of the 149 hospitals did also participate in the patient survey conducted in 2010. Among the key informants surveyed, the concept is highly accepted with regard to improvements in patient care. Overall, the concept is regarded as “good” or “very good” by almost all respondents. Both contact to resident doctors and the hospitals? reputations improved since the implementation of the concept. Quality and patient safety were more often on the agenda than financial performance in the quality circles with the main co-operation partners of the Breast Cancer Centers.

Kowalski, C.; Wesselmann, S.; Ansmann, L.; Kreienberg, R.; Pfaff, H.

2012-01-01

144

The University of Oklahoma Background Check Authorization (updated 02/05/2013) Hiring department completes this section. Incomplete information will delay the hiring process.  

E-print Network

for termination of past employment, financial/credit history, criminal history records from any criminal justice to substantiate their qualifications for employment. Criminal background checks will be conducted in addition (including the Social Security Administration and the Immigration & Naturalization Service) subject to state

Oklahoma, University of

145

The Evolution–Intelligent Design Debate: A Meaningful Context for Teaching the Nature of Science in Information Literacy. Part 1: Historical Background and Philosophical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although absent from the ACRL Information Literacy Standards for Science and Technology, the ability to distinguish between what is and is not science is an essential component of information literacy. Addressing this question requires the librarian to introduce concepts such as the nature of science, its realm, rules, and limits, as well as the nature of pseudoscience and nonscience before

Claudia Lascar; Loren D. Mendelsohn

2011-01-01

146

Analysis of the accuracy of weight loss information search engine results on the internet.  

PubMed

Objectives. We systematically identified and evaluated the quality and comprehensiveness of online information related to weight loss that users were likely to access. Methods. We evaluated the content quality, accessibility of the information, and author credentials for Web sites in 2012 that were identified from weight loss specific queries that we generated. We scored the content with respect to available evidence-based guidelines for weight loss. Results. One hundred three Web sites met our eligibility criteria (21 commercial, 52 news/media, 7 blogs, 14 medical, government, or university, and 9 unclassified sites). The mean content quality score was 3.75 (range?=?0-16; SD?=?2.48). Approximately 5% (4.85%) of the sites scored greater than 8 (of 12) on nutrition, physical activity, and behavior. Content quality score varied significantly by type of Web site; the medical, government, or university sites (mean?=?4.82, SD?=?2.27) and blogs (mean?=?6.33, SD?=?1.99) had the highest scores. Commercial (mean?=?2.37, SD?=?2.60) or news/media sites (mean?=?3.52, SD?=?2.31) had the lowest scores (analysis of variance P?information that people were likely to access online was often of substandard quality because most comprehensive and quality Web sites ranked too low in search results. PMID:25122030

Modave, François; Shokar, Navkiran K; Peñaranda, Eribeth; Nguyen, Norma

2014-10-01

147

Information needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered health care professionals: results of an Internet survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To obtain basic facts and considered opinions from health care professionals and students (nonlibrarian and librarian) about the information needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered (GLBT) health care professionals and their interactions with medical librarians. Methods: The survey instrument was a Web-based questionnaire. A nonrandom sample of health care professionals and students (librarian and nonlibrarian) was obtained by posting messages to several large Internet electronic discussion groups (GLBT and general) and to randomly selected members of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. A total of 152 forms were analyzed with about 50% of the participants being GLBT persons. Results: GLBT people have specific health information needs and concerns. More than 75% of medical librarians and students believed that GLBT persons have special information needs, with similar response rates by nonlibrarian health professionals and students. The delivery of services needs to be done with privacy and respect for the feelings of the patron. Major areas of need include the topics of health care proxy, cancer, adolescent depression and suicide, adoption, sexual health and practices, HIV infection, surrogate parenting, mental health issues, transgender health issues, intimate partner violence, and intimate partner loss. Conclusions: Most GLBT health care professionals desire GLBT-friendly health information services. Making GLBT-oriented health information resources available on a library Web page and making an effort to show acceptance of cultural diversity through signs or displays would be helpful. Education directed toward instilling an awareness of GLBT persons may also be advisable. Most survey participants make some use of medical reference services and many find medical librarians to be very helpful and resourceful. PMID:14762463

Fikar, Charles R.; Keith, Latrina

2004-01-01

148

The Geographic Climate Information System Project (GEOCLIMA): Overview and preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project GEOCLIMA aims at developing an integrated Geographic Information System (GIS) allowing the user to manage, analyze and visualize the information which is directly or indirectly related to climate and its future projections in Greece. The main components of the project are: a) collection and homogenization of climate and environmental related information, b) estimation of future climate change based on existing regional climate model (RCM) simulations as well as a supplementary high resolution (10 km x 10 km) simulation over the period 1961-2100 using RegCM3, c) compilation of an integrated uniform geographic database, and d) mapping of climate data, creation of digital thematic maps, and development of the integrated web GIS application. This paper provides an overview of the ongoing research efforts and preliminary results of the project. First, the trends in the annual and seasonal time series of precipitation and air temperature observations for all available stations in Greece are assessed. Then the set-up of the high resolution RCM simulation (10 km x 10 km) is discussed with respect to the selected convective scheme. Finally, the relationship of climatic variables with geophysical features over Greece such as altitude, location, distance from the sea, slope, aspect, distance from climatic barriers, land cover etc) is investigated, to support climate mapping. The research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program COOPERATION 2009.

Feidas, H.; Zanis, P.; Melas, D.; Vaitis, M.; Anadranistakis, E.; Symeonidis, P.; Pantelopoulos, S.

2012-04-01

149

Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km - 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRlS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

Bernacki, Bruce; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean; Jordan, David; Kulisek, Jonathan; Stewart, Trevor; Seifert, Carolyn

2014-06-01

150

Does improved exposure information for PM2.5 constituents explain differing results among epidemiological studies?  

PubMed

Contrary findings are often found among epidemiological studies examining associations of different types of airborne particulates against the same health endpoints. Some studies of heart rate variability (HRV) in humans find associations with either regional particulate material 2.5 microns or smaller (PM2.5) and/or with "sulfate" while some do not; some find associations with more local emissions such as black carbon (BC), while others do not. We explore if there might there be a consistent methodological explanation for inconsistent findings among HRV studies. To do this, we identify studies of HRV changes in humans examining associations with ambient PM2.5 and sulfate, ambient PM2.5 and BC, or all three; we briefly review findings and methodologies, including exposure issues; then we explore why studies may come to different conclusions. We tentatively conclude that differences in accuracy of subject exposure information for health-relevant emissions such as BC, which vary spatially over short distances in urban areas, may explain conflicting study results. HRV studies with accurate exposure information for BC or urban/industrial PM2.5 generally find large, significant associations with BC or urban/industrial PM2.5, but rarely with secondary sulfate or regional emissions generally. However, absent accurate exposure information for BC, studies appear more likely to find associations with less spatially variable secondary sulfate or PM2.5, and less likely to find strong associations with BC. However, research on this subject is limited, as are the number of studies evaluated here. Added research is necessary to confirm these findings (or otherwise), and to explore whether exposure misclassification might cause other health effects results to consistently vary. PMID:19234961

Grahame, Thomas J

2009-04-01

151

Preliminary results on the analysis of HYDICE data for information fusion in cartographic feature extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses ongoing research in the analysis of airborne hyperspectral imagery with application to cartographic feature extraction and surface material attribution. Preliminary results, based upon the processing and analysis of hyperspectral data acquired by the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) over Fort Hood, Texas in late 1995, are shown. Significant research issues in geopositioning, multisensor registration, spectral analysis, and surface material classification are discussed. The research goal is to measure the utility of hyperspectral imagery acquired with high spatial resolution (2 meter GSD) to support automated cartographic feature extraction. Our hypothesis is that the addition of a hyperspectral dataset, with spatial resolution comparable to panchromatic mapping imagery, enables opportunities to exploit the inherent spectral information of the hyperspectral imagery to aid in urban scene analysis for cartographic feature extraction and spatial database population. Test areas selected from the Fort Hood dataset will illustrate the process flow and serve to show current research results.

Ford, Stephen J.; Kalp, Dirk; McGlone, J. Chris; McKeown, David M., Jr.

1997-08-01

152

Information Security in the Extended Enterprise: Some Initial Results From a Field Study of an Industrial Firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the main drivers of private-section investment in information security? How exposed are firms to cyber risks arising from their reliance on the information infrastructure? Initial results are presented from a field study of a manufacturing company and four of its suppliers of different sizes. We find that many managers believe: that information security is less a competitive advantage

Scott Dynes; Hans Brechbühl; M. Eric Johnson

2005-01-01

153

Fifty Percent Law: Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides background information about a statute that affects the fiscal operation of California community colleges. The Fifty Percent Law (Education Code 84362) requires "there shall be expended each fiscal year for payment of salaries of classroom instructors by a community college district, 50 percent of the district's current expense…

Community Coll. League of California, Sacramento.

154

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry -- Background information for promulgated air emission standards: Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, semi-chemical, mechanical, and secondary and non-wood fiber mills. Final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being promulgated for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. This background information document provides technical information and analyses used in the development of the promulgated pulp and paper NESHAP, and contains responses to comments from the proposed rule. This document covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills (i.e., mills that combine on-site production of both pulp and paper).

NONE

1997-10-01

155

Cosmic Microwave Background Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Probing whether space is curved or flat, cosmologists have been searching for clues in ripples in the universe's microwave background left from the big bang. These tutorials explain the cosmic microwave background for neophytes, as well as more advanced readers.

Hu, Wayne

2003-10-10

156

Building Background Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

2014-01-01

157

12 CFR 1238.5 - Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related information.  

...Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related information...FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS STRESS TESTING OF REGULATED ENTITIES § 1238.5 Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related...

2014-01-01

158

Quantitative Results Comparing Three Intelligent Interfaces for Information Capture: A Case Study Adding Name Information into an Electronic Personal Organizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiently entering information into a computer is key to enjoying the benefits of computing. This paper describes three intelligent user interfaces: handwriting recognition, adaptive menus, and predictive fillin. In the context of adding a person's name and address to an electronic organizer, tests show handwriting recognition is slower than typing on an on-screen, soft keyboard, while adaptive menus and predictive

Jeffrey C. Schlimmer; Patricia Crane Wells

1996-01-01

159

Quantitative Results Comparing Three Intelligent Interfaces for Information Capture: A Case Study Adding Name Information into an Electronic Personal Organizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiently entering information into a computer is key to enjoying the benefits of computing. This paper describes three intelligent user interfaces: handwriting recognition, adaptive menus, and predictive fillin. In the context of adding a personUs name and address to an electronic organizer, tests show handwriting recognition is slower than typing on an on-screen, soft keyboard, while adaptive menus and predictive

J. C. Schlimmer; P. C. Wells

1996-01-01

160

Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1) measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s), and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2) better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at ˜ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

Yanagisawa, Chiaki

2014-06-01

161

The Background of PER People: A Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from a survey given to about 50 PER community members were analyzed to determine the backgrounds of the members. The type of college attended, the type of graduate school, when they chose physics, when they chose PER, and other interesting background information will be presented. Also presented will be gender analyses of background differences. Remarkably little difference in background was found between men and women in the sample.

McCullough, Laura

2006-12-01

162

Similarity-based restoration of metrical information: different listening experiences result in different perceptual inferences.  

PubMed

How do perceivers apply knowledge to instances they have never experienced before? On one hand, listeners might use idealized representations that do not contain specific details. On the other, they might recognize and process information based on more detailed memory representations. The current study examined the latter possibility with respect to musical meter perception, previously thought to be computed based on highly-idealized (isochronous) internal representations. In six experiments, listeners heard sets of metrically-ambiguous melodies. Each melody was played in a simultaneous musical context with unambiguous metrical cues (3/4 or 6/8). Cross-melody similarity was manipulated by pairing certain cues-timbre (musical instrument) and motif content (2-6-note patterns)-with each meter, or distributing cues across meters. After multiple exposures, listeners heard each melody without context, and judged metrical continuations (all Experiments) or familiarity (Experiments 5-6). Responses were assessed for "metrical restoration"-the tendency to make metrical judgments that fit the melody's previously-heard metrical context. Cross-melody similarity affected the presence and degree of metrical restoration, and timbre affected familiarity. Results suggest that metrical processing may be calculated based on fairly detailed representations rather than idealized isochronous pulses, and is dissociated somewhat from familiarity judgments. Implications for theories of meter perception are discussed. PMID:22659582

Creel, Sarah C

2012-09-01

163

Development of computational information technology for monitoring NCD risks in the Russian population: preliminary results.  

PubMed

Here, we report first results on the development of computational health information technology for monitoring chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) risks in Russia based on data of the large-scale ongoing population survey in Health Centers (HCs). The technology involve algorithms for automated raw data process and generation of joint database, tools for data standardization and visualization, the assessment of risks, and other components. The data on physical status of Russians, including height, weight, and BMI are provided and compared with Belgian (1835), Swiss (2002), and US (1988-1994) reference datasets. The age-standardized prevalence of obesity in 5-85 years-old Russians according to the conventional WHO criteria was found to be high (18.9% in males and 26.7% in females) and varied significantly across federal subjects of Russia thus suggesting an importance of the Russian NCDs risks monitoring system for planning and evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive and therapeutic measures. PMID:25000064

Chernykh, Svetlana P; Rudnev, Sergey G; Nikolaev, Dmitriy V; Starunova, Olga A

2014-01-01

164

Teacher Learning, Informal and Formal: Results of a Canadian Teachers' Federation Survey. NALL Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998, as part of a larger national study examining informal learning practices across the general population, Canadian elementary and secondary teachers were surveyed regarding their practices and attitudes related to their own ongoing learning. The 753 respondents described any informal learning experiences in the past year within their…

Smaller, Harry; Clark, Rosemary; Hart, Doug; Livingstone, David; Noormohamed, Zahra

165

Assessment of Enterprise Information Security - Estimating the Credibility of the Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are today a number of methods available for assessment of the level of information security in an enterprise. These methods attempt to evaluate to what extent the organization ensures confidentiality, integrity and availability of sensitive information resources within the enterprise. A major problem with these assessment methods is that they do not provide any indication of the credibility of

Erik Johansson; Pontus Johnson

166

Background Check Presentation  

E-print Network

·July 1, 2012 ­ The UNM Division of Human Resources engaged in an RFP process to identify a NationalBackground Check Presentation Kim Herron-Singleton, Recruitment & UNMTemps Services Manager #12 check website to include BC and FP processes and resources · New background check request e-mail box

New Mexico, University of

167

How do hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background estimate their language skills and their comprehension of medical information - a prospective cross-sectional study and comparison to native patients in Germany to assess the language barrier and the need for translation  

PubMed Central

Background Today more than two million people with Turkish migration background live in Germany making them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Data concerning language skills and the perception of medical information in hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background (T) are scarce. Our study is the first to gather quantitative information on this important subject. Methods T and hospitalised German patients without migration background (G) of our university hospital were prospectively included into a cross-sectional study and completed a questionnaire - each group in the appropriate language (T: Turkish, G: German). Results 121 T and 121 G were included. Groups significantly differed in age (T: 44.9?±?17.8, G: 56.9?±?16.7y) and proportion of males (T: 37.2, G: 54.5%) but not regarding the proportion of college graduates (T: 19.3, G: 15.7%). The majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74% of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73% speak German at work. 74.4% of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as “average” or better while 25.6% reported it as “very bad” or “bad”. 10.7% of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physician’s information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3% of T estimated their reception of the physician’s information to be “average” or worse. 43.3% of T had the impression that it would have helped them “much” or “very much” to be aided by an interpreter at the hospital. The information transmitted while giving informed consent to invasive medical procedure was judged to be “mostly” or “completely” sufficient by the majority of T (76%) and G (89.8%). In this setting 37 of 96 T (38.5%) reported being helped by an interpreter – in most cases (64.9%) a family member. Conclusion Although the majority of patients with Turkish migration background have spent most of their lives in Germany (28.94?±?10.41y) a large part of this population has limited German language skills and difficulties obtaining medical information when hospitalised. PMID:23710582

2013-01-01

168

Phase 1, Background study results under the Council of Great Lake Governors program to perform stack sampling and analysis of emissions from densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF)  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the results of the first part of the study. Chapter 2 contains a summary of the d-RDF literature which was surveyed. Chapter 3 contains a compilation of existing and proposed regulation information from the seven participating Great Lakes States. Chapter 4 includes identification of pellet producers in the region. Chapter 5 contains a description of the pellet producers and test burn facilities selected for the experimental work to be undertaken in the second part of the program study. Chapter 6 contains a list of references. 27 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1989-04-07

169

The Transformation of Institutional Research as a Result of Improving Information Technology. AIR Annual 1984 Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changing nature of institutional research due to the expanded use and capabilities of information technology was explored through a regional survey of institutional researchers, who indicated their involvement in information systems development. Results were analyzed for all respondents, by type of institution (four-year versus two-year), and…

Stevenson, Michael R.; Walleri, R. Dan

170

Improving Informed Consent with Minority Participants: Results from Researcher and Community Surveys  

PubMed Central

Strengthening the informed consent process is one avenue for improving recruitment of minorities into research. This study examines that process from two different perspectives, that of researchers and that of African American and Latino community members. Through the use of two separate surveys, we compared strategies used by researchers with the preferences and attitudes of community members during the informed consent process. Our data suggest that researchers can improve the informed consent process by incorporating methods preferred by the community members along with methods shown in the literature for increasing comprehension. With this approach, the informed consent process may increase both participants’ comprehension of the material and overall satisfaction, fostering greater trust in research and openness to future research opportunities. PMID:23324203

Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Garza, Mary A.; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S.; Casper, Erica T.; Thomas, Stephen B.; Barnard, David; Kim, Kevin H.

2013-01-01

171

Influences, usage, and outcomes of Internet health information searching: Multivariate results from the Pew surveys  

E-print Network

information (Agency for Health Care Policy and Research14 REFERENCES Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. (health resource in primary care in England? Journal of Health Services Research and Policy,

Rice, Ronald E

2006-01-01

172

76 FR 28625 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program; State Referendum Results  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service 7 CFR 1221 [AMS-LS-11-0040] Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...Marketing Service (AMS) is announcing that sorghum producers voting in a national referendum...have approved the continuation of the Sorghum Promotion, Research, and...

2011-05-18

173

Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

SciTech Connect

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of volcanic aerosol is over 30% faster than one would obtain without this correction. At background, the aerosol size distribution is found to remain remarkably constant between the tropopause and an altitude of approx.25 km, with a sudden transition to a distribution dominated by smaller particles above this altitude. The observations, in some respects, compare favorably with equilibrium one-dimensional stratospheric aerosol models and thus to some extent support the concept of relatively inert tropospheric sulfurous gases, such as carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide, as the main background stratospheric aerosol sulfur source. Models which incorporate sulfur chemistry are apparently not able to predict the observed variation of particle size with altitude. The 2-year background period is not long enough in itself to establish long-term trends. The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in May 1980 has considerably disrupted the background stratospheric aerosol which will probably not recover for several years. A comparison of the 1978--79 observations with Junge's original measurements made some 20 years earlier, also during a period void of volcanic perturbations, does not preclude a long-term increase in the background stratospheric aerosol level.

Hofmann, D.J.; Rosen, J.M.

1981-01-01

174

Diffuse Background Radiation  

E-print Network

A new determination of the upper limit to the cosmic diffuse background radiation, at ~110 nm, of 300 photons s-1 cm-2 sr-1 nm-1, is placed in the context of diffuse background measurements across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, including new optical, infrared, visible, and gamma-ray background measurements. The possibility that observed excess diffuse visible radiation is due to redshifted cosmological Lyman alpha recomination radiation is explored. Also, a new standard of units for the display of spectra is advocated.

Richard C. Henry

1999-03-18

175

Psychological impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive information on cervical cancer is currently available. Its effectiveness in reducing anxiety in women receiving abnormal Pap tests is not clear. We investigated current practices of communicating abnormal Pap results to evaluate women's reactions and determine the sources of information they use subsequently. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed in 1475 women in France, Spain and Portugal who had received an abnormal Pap smear result in the 12 months prior to completing the questionnaire. Questions covered methods of communication of the result, emotional reactions, support received (from the physician and entourage), and information sources, using pre-specified check box options and rating scales. Data were analyzed by country. Results Pap test results were mostly communicated by phone to Spanish women (76%), while physician letters were common in France (59%) and Portugal (36%). Frequent reactions were anxiety, panic and stress, which were less common in Spanish women than their French and Portuguese counterparts. After discussing with their physician, half of the participants were worried, despite rating highly the psychological support received. Over 90% of women in each country discussed their results with family or friends. Partners provided a high level of support. Overall, the abnormal diagnosis and consequences had a low to medium impact on daily, professional and family life and their relationships with their partner. Impact was higher in Spanish women than the French or Portuguese. Information on the diagnosis and its treatment was rated average, and nearly 80% of participants wanted more information, notably French women. Preferred sources were the physician and the Internet. Conclusions Women expressed a strong wish for more information about cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, and that their physician play a major role in its provision and in support. There was a heavy reliance on the close entourage and the Internet for information, highlighting the need for dissemination of accurate material. Differences between countries suggest information management strategies may need to be tailored to different geographical regions. PMID:21612599

2011-01-01

176

The Cosmic Background Radiation  

E-print Network

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and anisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the update of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle Properties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

1997-11-08

177

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J. F. [University of Denver (United States); Atwood, W. [University of California at Santa Cruz (United States); Burnett, T. [University of Washington (United States); Grove, E. [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Longo, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)-Pisa (Italy); McEnery, J.; Ritz, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Mizuno, T. [Hiroshima University (Japan)

2007-07-12

178

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J.F.; /Denver U.; Atwood, W.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Burnett, T.; /Washington U., Seattle; Grove, E.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Longo, F.; /INFN, Pisa; McEnery, J.; /NASA, Goddard; Mizuno, T.; /Hiroshima U.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

2007-10-17

179

Introduction 1 Background 1  

E-print Network

squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). The grey squirrel was introduced to Britain in the late 19 th century populations in Northern Ireland. Background The red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) was once ubiquitous

180

Background character research for synthetical performance of thermal imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background is assumed to be uniform usually for evaluating the performance of thermal imaging systems, however the impact of background cannot be ignored for target acquisition in reality, background character is important research content for thermal imaging technology. A background noise parameter 𝜎 was proposed in MRTD model and used to describe background character. Background experiments were designed, and some typical backgrounds (namely lawn background, concrete pavement background, trees background and snow background) character were analyzed by 𝜎. MRTD including 𝜎 was introduced into MRTD-Channel Width (CW) model, the impact of above typical backgrounds for target information quantity were analyzed by MRTD-CW model with background character. Target information quantity for different backgrounds was calculated by MRTD-CW, and compared with that of TTP model. A target acquisition performance model based on MRTD-CW with background character will be research in the future.

Chen, Song-lin; Wang, Ji-hui; Wang, Xiao-wei; Jin, Wei-qi

2014-05-01

181

[The National Registry of Occupational Exposures to Carcinogens (SIREP): information system and results].  

PubMed

The recording of occupational exposure to carcinogens is a fundamental step in order to assess exposure risk factors in workplaces. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of the Italian register of occupational exposures to carcinogen agents (SIREP). The core data collected in the system are: firm characteristics, worker demographics, and exposure information. Statistical descriptive analyses were performed by economic activity sector, carcinogen agent and geographic location. Currently, the information recorded regard: 12,300 firms, 130,000 workers, and 250,000 exposures. The SIREP database has been set up in order to assess, control and reduce the carcinogen risk at workplace. PMID:23393806

Scarselli, Alberto

2011-01-01

182

Preliminary Results with the Design and Implementation of an Academic Management Information System  

PubMed Central

This paper provides an overview of aspects of an academic management information system (AMIS) at Creighton University's Academic Health Center. This report summarizes briefly some of the features of the system, our experiences in implementing it, some of the reactions from our academic community to a “foreign” body (and our attempts to reduce the rejection mechanism), as well as successes to date. Lastly we describe steps underway to expand the system into a full-fledged example of the system as envisioned in the Matheson and Cooper report on “Academic Information in the Academic Health Sciences Center.”

Evans, Steven

1984-01-01

183

2. Social, ethical, and economic background  

E-print Network

­ and social problems ­ such as crime and abuse ­ influence society" David Keil Information Technology2. Social, ethical, and economic background David Keil Information Technology and Society 1/12 David Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 135 Information Technology and Society Topic 2: Social

Keil, David M.

184

Nonrelativistic superparticle in a curved background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a component formulation, we construct the supersymmetric action for a superparticle in a three-dimensional Newton-Cartan supergravity background and clarify its symmetries. Our construction proceeds by first constructing the superparticle in a flat background. Next, by boosting up the background symmetries, we replace in a first step the flat background by a Galilean supergravity background. In a second step the Galilean supergravity background is replaced by a Newton-Cartan supergravity background. We extend our results by adding a supersymmetric cosmological constant and compare the nonrelativistic superparticle with the relativistic ?-symmetric three-dimensional superparticle.

Bergshoeff, Eric; Gomis, Joaquim; Kova?evi?, Marija; Parra, Lorena; Rosseel, Jan; Zojer, Thomas

2014-09-01

185

Using the Internet to Help With Diet, Weight, and Physical Activity: Results From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet offers a viable platform for cost-effective and wide-reaching health interventions. However, little is known about use of the Internet to help with diet, weight, and physical activity (DWPA) using a nationally representative sample from the United States. Objective To (1) assess the demographic characteristics of people who use the Internet to help with DWPA, (2) assess whether usage trends changed over time, and (3) investigate the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and health behaviors. Methods Data on Internet users from the 2007 and 2011 iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), N=4827 were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the demographic correlates of using the Internet for help with DWPA. Multiple linear regression was used to test the associations between Internet use for DWPA and three health behaviors: fruit intake, vegetable intake, and physical activity. Results A larger percentage of Internet users used the Internet for DWPA in 2011 (42.83%) than in 2007 (40.43%). In general, Internet users who were younger (OR 0.98, P<.001), more educated (OR 1.40, P<.001), married (OR 1.06, P=.03), of a minority race (non-Hispanic blacks: OR 1.14, P=.02; Hispanics: OR 1.42, P=.01), and who had a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) (OR 1.04, P<.001) were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA. Across survey years, gender was not associated with using the Internet for DWPA (OR 1.03, P=.12), but there was a significant interaction between survey year and gender (OR 1.95, P=.002); in 2007, men were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA, but women were more likely to do so in 2011. Using the Internet for DWPA was associated with more vegetable intake (B=.22, P=.002), more fruit intake (B=.19, P=.001), and more moderate exercise (B=.25, P=.001), although the strength of the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and fruit intake and exercise was weaker in 2011 than in 2007. Conclusions Contrary to prior research, our population-level study did not show a pronounced gender difference in the use of the Internet for DWPA. Our results support the increasing viability of the Internet as a platform for behavior change intervention, as a growing percentage of Internet users are turning to the Internet for help with DWPA. Additionally, using the Internet for DWPA is associated with better DWPA-related health behaviors. PMID:23906945

McCully, Scout N; Don, Brian P

2013-01-01

186

Mothers and Children as Informants of Bullying Victimization: Results from an Epidemiological Cohort of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stressful events early in life can affect children's mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about children's bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers and children provide valid reports of bullying victimization, (2) examine the inter-rater…

Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Andreou, Penelope; Bowes, Lucy; Ambler, Antony P.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2011-01-01

187

OneBusAway: Results from Providing Real-Time Arrival Information for Public Transit  

E-print Network

week, increased feelings of safety, and even a health benefit in terms of increased distance walked- tainability, safety, walking, health ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2 Information Interfaces and Presentation of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made

Anderson, Richard

188

Results for Outdoor-SLAM Using Sparse Extended Information Filters Yufeng Liu and Sebastian Thrun  

E-print Network

, and instead has to rely on a sensor of incremental ego-motion for robot position estimation (e.g., odometry, these constraints are usually sparse. This insight led us to define the sparse extended information filter, or SEIF. SEIFs can be updated in constant time, which is significantly faster than the quadratic update time

Thrun, Sebastian

189

January 7, 2002 Background Information on  

E-print Network

responsible for the dominance of matter over anti-matter in the known universe. In addition, this research may The basic constituents of matter. The innermost secrets of matter and energy are being probed ever more deeply by high energy physics experiments. These particles under study compose all matter, and the laws

190

Water Watch Program Overview. Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lakes, streams, and wetlands serve many purposes for the people of the state of Kentucky and are necessary and valued elements of its natural resources. The Water Watch program promotes individual responsibility for a common resource, educates people about the use and protection of local water resources, provides recreational opportunities through…

Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

191

On Background Independence  

E-print Network

This paper concerns what Background Independence itself is (as opposed to some particular physical theory that is background independent). The notions presented mostly arose from a layer-by-layer analysis of the facets of the Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity. Part of this coincides with two relational postulates which are thus identified as classical precursors of two of the facets of the Problem of Time. These are furthemore tied to the forms of each of the GR Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Other aspects of Background Independence include the algebraic closure of these constraints, expressing physics in terms of beables, foliation independence as implemented by refoliation invariance, the reconstruction of spacetime from space. The final picture is that Background Independence - a philosophically desirable and physically implementable feature for a theory to have - has the facets of the Problem of Time among its consequences. Thus these arise naturally and are problems to be resolved, as opposed to avoided `by making one's physics background-dependent in order not to have these problems'. This serves as a selection criterion that limits the use of a number of model arenas and physical theories.

Edward Anderson

2013-10-05

192

76 FR 70176 - Request For Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting from Federally Funded Scientific...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...promote long-term preservation of and access to digital data resulting from...public access to and the preservation of broadly valuable digital data resulting from...public access to and preservation of digital data resulting...

2011-11-10

193

Unified treatment algorithm for the management of crotaline snakebite in the United States: results of an evidence-informed consensus workshop  

PubMed Central

Background Envenomation by crotaline snakes (rattlesnake, cottonmouth, copperhead) is a complex, potentially lethal condition affecting thousands of people in the United States each year. Treatment of crotaline envenomation is not standardized, and significant variation in practice exists. Methods A geographically diverse panel of experts was convened for the purpose of deriving an evidence-informed unified treatment algorithm. Research staff analyzed the extant medical literature and performed targeted analyses of existing databases to inform specific clinical decisions. A trained external facilitator used modified Delphi and structured consensus methodology to achieve consensus on the final treatment algorithm. Results A unified treatment algorithm was produced and endorsed by all nine expert panel members. This algorithm provides guidance about clinical and laboratory observations, indications for and dosing of antivenom, adjunctive therapies, post-stabilization care, and management of complications from envenomation and therapy. Conclusions Clinical manifestations and ideal treatment of crotaline snakebite differ greatly, and can result in severe complications. Using a modified Delphi method, we provide evidence-informed treatment guidelines in an attempt to reduce variation in care and possibly improve clinical outcomes. PMID:21291549

2011-01-01

194

Modeling extreme values resulting from compromising electromagnetic emanations generated by an information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic intelligence and attacks pose unacceptable risks for the security and safety of critical networks and more specifically the power network. In this paper, it is pointed out how the use of the excess model allows one to extrapolate the very high level of spurious compromising emanations induced by an information system in realistic power network models. It is shown that the design of appropriate protections and risk management methodologies can be enhanced thanks to the extreme value statistics.

Kasmi, Chaouki; Hélier, Marc; Darces, Muriel; Prouff, Emmanuel

2014-05-01

195

Cosmological Gravitational Wave Backgrounds  

E-print Network

An overview is presented of possible cosmologically distant sources of gravitational wave backgrounds, especially those which might produce detectable backgrounds in the LISA band between 0.1 and 100 mHz. Examples considered here include inflation-amplified vacuum fluctuations in inflaton and graviton fields, bubble collisions in first-order phase transitions, Goldstone modes of classical self-ordering scalars, and cosmic strings and other gauge defects. Characteristic scales and basic mechanisms are reviewed and spectra are estimated for each of these sources. The unique impact of a LISA detection on fundamental physics and cosmology is discussed.

Craig J. Hogan

1998-09-28

196

Detection of a small target in infrared images based on a multiband background model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main Infrared Search and Track systems (IRST) purpose is to realize optimal discrimination between true targets and background clutter (false alarm). In such single band systems, background prediction is frequently used for detecting small targets. However, detection performances are strongly influenced by background gurgitation. The method based on maximum background model can reduce this kind of influence. But present background prediction methods choose background pixels around the prediction pixel from every direction, as a result, background pixels around the target will be 'poisoned' by target, and contrast will be greatly reduced accordingly. Threshold chosen to detect the target in the predicted residual image will decrease, and this will result in too many false targets and increase false alarms. For the small targets detection in IR images, a method of background prediction based on multi-band background model is proposed. For the purpose of removing the target poison, an improved rule of selecting background pixels according to the certain spectral difference between the expected target and background has been developed in this method. The use of this information is based on theoretical spectral radiance discrimination in LWIR and MWIR bands, between targets and backgrounds. When the current spectral parameter matches spectral background response, the current pixel is judged as a background pixel, and involve in background prediction operation, otherwise, it is judged as a target pixel, and will not involve in this operation. The multi-band background model, which improves the performance of small targets detection, eliminates the effect of target on the background prediction, achieves more accurate prediction of background, and increases the contrast of target and background. This is a significant development to the background prediction algorithm by extending to multi-band domain. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the algorithm in this paper.

Huang, Xi; Zhang, Jian-qi

2005-01-01

197

Cosmic background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and\\u000aanisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the\\u000aupdate of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle\\u000aProperties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

2000-01-01

198

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing  

E-print Network

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

Rambaut, Andrew

199

David Smith Academic background  

E-print Network

David Smith Academic background Ph.D. in Mathematics (Algebra), Université de Sherbrooke, Canada project program (I. Assem, F. Bergeron, C. Reutenauer, D. Smith) $132,000 ($44,000 per year for 3 years. Schiffler and D. Smith, Friezes, strings and cluster variables, to appear in Glasgow Mathematcal Journal. 2

200

INDIAN BACKGROUNDS Patuxent Wildlife  

E-print Network

of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 138 #12;#12;INDIAN BACKGROUNDS of the Patuxent Wildlife Research of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 138 #12; Exhibit the Indian hunted with spear and arrow to supply the necessities of life--food, clothing, and shelter

201

Local microwave background radiation  

E-print Network

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos S. L. Soares

2006-07-11

202

Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal Bureau…

Fagnoni, Cynthia

203

Integrable Background Geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ?-manifold, determines a (k+?)-dimensional geometry (k+??4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ?-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+?)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(?) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(?^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently , degenerate or null reductions have attracted increased interest. Two of these reductions and their gauge theories (arguably, the two most significant) are also described.

Calderbank, David M. J.

2014-03-01

204

Detector Background at Muon Colliders  

SciTech Connect

Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

205

Results and Interpretations from a Survey on Agriculturally Related Weather Information.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey Of "top" wheat farmers in 12 counties in western Nebraska was undertaken to help guide future research and extension programs (in agricultural meteorology and economics) in the region. One hundred forty-two farmers (59 percent of those receiving questionnaires) responded to the survey. Of the respondents, 42 percent own or are considering purchasing a personal computer; the vast majority of farmers own a rain gage and some form of temperature- measuring device; the respondents were moderately familiar with an existing Automated Weather Data Network in Nebraska; commercial and NOAA weather radio and commercial television are the main sources of weather data and information. short-term weather forecasts (1 day and 3-5 days) are most important to overall farm planning; respondents considered market and cost-of-production information and more-accurate weather forecasts most important in better management of their farm operations; the risk factors that impacted farm net income were economic followed by weather factors and marketing decisions; and most farmers would be willing to forward contract before the crop was half developed if good projections of crop status and yield could be made. A major constraint to preharvest forward contracting from some of the farmers' perspective appears to be variability in yield due to hail.

Weiss, A.; Robb, J. G.

1986-01-01

206

Sediment transport processes and their resulting stratigraphy: informing science and society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment transport physically shapes planetary surfaces by producing patterns of erosion and deposition, with the relative magnitudes of geomorphic actions varying according to environmental conditions. Where sediment fills accommodation space and generates accumulation, a stratigraphic archive develops that potentially harbors a trove of information documenting dynamic conditions during the periods of sediment production, transport and deposition. By investigating the stratigraphic record, it is possible to describe changes in surface environments, as well as hypothesize about the development of regional tectonic and climate regimes. Ultimately, information contained within the stratigraphic record is critical for evaluating the geological history of terrestrial planets. The enigma of stratigraphy, however, is that sediment deposition is finicky, there is no uninterrupted record, and while deposits may reflect only a brief temporal window, they may still be used to infer about conditions that encompass much longer periods of time. Consider a case where meter-scale dune foresets, deposited in a matter of minutes to hours, are in contact with sediments above and below that reflect entirely different depositional circumstances and are separated in time by a hiatus of thousands or perhaps millions of years. To effectively unlock the scientific trove bound in stratigraphy, it is first necessary to identify where such unconformities exist and the conditions that lead to their development. This challenge is made much simpler through scientific advances in understanding sediment transport processes -- the examination of how fluid and solids interact under modern conditions -- because this is precisely where sediment patterns first emerge to produce accumulation that builds a stratigraphic record. By advancing an understanding of process-based sedimentology, it is possible to enhance diagnostic evaluations of the stratigraphic record. Fortunately, over the past several decades, there have been numerous scientific advances pertaining to the coupling of sediment transport and hydrodynamics. This research has produced new theory about how sediments accumulating in many unique environments shape the stratigraphic record. Recent studies have taken advantage of novel methods for acquiring observational data, which in turn have been used to advance numerical modeling schemes as well as experimental designs. As an example, consider fluvial deltas: here, hydrodynamics are constantly evolving over space and time. Patterns of sediment deposition and erosion (from dune to delta-lobe scales), resolved using high-resolution 3-D acoustic data, are used as input data to construct models that further show how channel dynamics (e.g., avulsions) and kinematics (e.g., lateral migration) evolve due to sediment and hydrodynamic coupling. This information is used to propose new theories of delta stratigraphy, which are then tested by examining ancient fluvial-delta systems. Finally, research efforts evaluating modern sediment-transport and depositional processes offer significant benefits to society. For example, fluvial deltas are heavily relied upon for societal welfare and yet are among the most dynamic landscapes on Earth's surface. Therefore, research examining the evolution of these landscapes not only advances basic science, but also doubles as an exercise in applied geomorphology.

Nittrouer, J. A.

2013-12-01

207

Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT MSS and Airborne TMS for Hydrological Applications: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Land cover information for the Clinton River Basin (Michigan) derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data was compared with that from airborne thematic mapper simulator (TMS) to investigate the probable capabilities of the thematic mapper (TM) launched aboard LANDSAT-4 in July 1982. The preliminary findings for one 7.5 minute topographic map, Mt. Clemens West, are reported. Significant improvements in land cover classification accuracy were obtained using TMS data as compared with MSS data. Overall mapping accuracy increased from 49 to 61 percent with an improvement from 71 to 84 percent in the residential category. A combination of four bands with one band in each major region of the spectrum (visible, near IR, middle IR and thermal IR) provided as good a discrimination of land cover as all seven TM bands. Based on the improved land cover classification accuracy of TM, TM data has the potential to provide more useful and effective input to US Army Corps of Engineers flood forecasting and flood damage prediction/assessment models.

Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Hallada, W. A.; Marcell, R. F.

1982-01-01

208

An evaluation of selected NASA scientific and technical information products: Results of a pilot study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pilot study was conducted to evaluate selected NASA scientific and technical information (STI) products. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire, had a two-fold purpose -- to gather baseline data regarding the use and perceived usefulness of selected NASA STI products and to develop/validate questions that could be used in a future study concerned with the role of the U.S. government technical report in aeronautics. The sample frame consisted of 25,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in the U.S. with academic, government or industrial affiliation. Simple random sampling was used to select 2000 individuals to participate in the study. Three hundred fifty-three usable questionnaires (17 percent response rate) were received by the established cutoff date. The findings indicate that: (1) NASA STI is used and is generally perceived as being important; (2) the use rate for NASA-authored conference/meeting papers, journal articles, and technical reports is fairly uniform; (3) a considerable number of respondents are unfamiliar with STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports), IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts), SCAN (Selected Current Aerospace Notices), and the RECON on-line retrieval system; (4) a considerable number of respondents who are familiar with these media do not use them; and (5) the perceived quality of NASA-authored journal articles and technical reports is very good.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron

1989-01-01

209

Test-Takers' Background, Literacy Activities, and Views of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships among students' background information and their in-school and after-school literacy activities, as well as the relationships between students' background and their views of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT). The results showed that students' literacy activities could be grouped into three…

Zheng, Ying; Klinger, Don A.; Cheng, Liying; Fox, Janna; Doe, Christine

2011-01-01

210

Relating Gap Analysis Results to Information Systems Program Attitudes: The Identification of Gap Priorities and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors utilized a gap analysis approach to assess general IS knowledge and skill voids or overages in a specific program context. The authors asked alumni to reveal the emphasis that should have been given to 10 IS knowledge and skill areas and compared the results with the emphasis that was actually given. They proceed by relating the…

Van Auken, Stuart; Chrysler, Earl; Wells, Ludmilla Gricenko; Simkin, Mark

2011-01-01

211

Preliminary results on the analysis of HYDICE data for information fusion in cartographic feature extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses ongoing research in the analysis of airborne hyperspectral imagery with application to cartographic feature extraction and surface material attribution. Preliminary results, based upon the processing and analysis of hyperspectral data acquired by the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) over Fort Hood, Texas in late 1995, are shown. Significant research issues in geopositioning,

Stephen J. Ford; Dirk Kalp; J. Chris McGlone; David M. McKeown

1997-01-01

212

How reliable are the results of large-scale information retrieval experiments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two stages in measurement of techniques for informationretrieval are gathering of documents for relevance assessment anduse of the assessments to numerically evaluate effectiveness. Weconsider both of these stages in the context of the TRECexperiments, to determine whether they lead to measurements thatare trustworthy and fair. Our detailed empirical investigation ofthe TREC results shows that the measured relative performance ofsystems appears

Justin Zobel

1998-01-01

213

Research and Technological Development Programs of the European Communities: Transfer of Information and Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the Commission of the European Community's policy and actions for the dissemination and exploitation of the results of its research and technological development programs. Technology transfer as a basic ingredient for innovation is discussed, and the importance of understanding intellectual property protection is stressed. (Contains seven…

Strub, Albert S.

1993-01-01

214

Bibliometric Information Retrieval System (BIRS): A Web Search Interface Utilizing Bibliometric Research Results  

E-print Network

, their intrinsic short- comings (out-of-date, inconsistency, lack of search variety, limitation of word's semantic-mail: asggchowdhury@ntu.edu.sg The aim of this article is to test whether the results obtained from a specific on-line databases. A preliminary user evalua- tion study of BIRS revealed that users generally found

Menczer, Filippo

215

NEWS AND INFORMATION: The `controllable dose' debate: results of the IRPA consultation exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the proposals from Professor Roger Clarke for major revisions to the ICRP system for radiological protection under the generic concept of 'controllable dose', IRPA initiated a consultation exercise among its Member Societies. This culminated in a debate at the IRPA-10 Congress in Hiroshima in May 2000. The results of this debate and the position papers developed by a number

Geoffrey A. M. Webb

2000-01-01

216

INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, REPORTS ON EVALUATION PROCEDURES AND RESULTS 1965-1967.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE RETRIEVAL EVALUATION RESULTS OBTAINED WITH THE AUTOMATIC SMART DOCUMENT RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOR DOCUMENT COLLECTIONS IN THE FIELDS OF AERODYNAMICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE, AND DOCUMENTATION IS GIVEN IN THIS REPORT. THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF FULLY AUTOMATIC DOCUMENT RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL, INCLUDING THE FORMS OF…

SALTON, GERALD

217

POLYFLOW theoretical background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the scope of the 1990-04 lecture series on computational fluid dynamics, a finite element program is described. POLYFLOW was designed for the analysis of industrial processes dominated by nonlinear viscous phenomena and viscoelastic effects. It is based on the general principles of continuum mechanics, together with phenomenological or kinetic theoretical models for describing the rheological behavior of the fluid. The theoretical background, necessary to understand the models, and numerical techniques used in POLYFLOW, are provided. The governing equations, their finite element formulations and the solution procedures are summarized.

Crochet, M. J.

218

The Iron Line Background  

E-print Network

We investigate the presence of iron line emission among faint X-ray sources identified in the 1Ms Chandra Deep Field South and in the 2Ms Chandra Deep Field North. Individual source spectra are stacked in seven redshift bins over the range z=0.5-4. We find that iron line emission is an ubiquitous property of X-ray sources up to z~3. The measured line strengths are in good agreement with those expected by simple pre-Chandra estimates based on X-ray background synthesis models. The average rest frame equivalent width of the iron line does not show significant changes with redshift.

Marcella Brusa; Roberto Gilli; Andrea Comastri

2005-01-25

219

Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coleridge's famous line about water everywhere without a drop to drink may serve as a useful metaphor for the contemporary design studio. Engulfed within a sea of information, where does the designer look for references? This paper outlines the results of an ongoing research project entitled 'Interactive Multimedia within the Design Studio' (grant awarded by FAPEMIG - Fundação de Amparo

Philip Rhodes

1991-01-01

220

Possibilities and acceptance of mobile information technologies for the elderly - first results of an empirical study.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the results of a questionnaire-study conducted for the project "Safe and mobile through accompanying assistance systems" (SIMBA) founded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The study analyzes the mobility requirements and obstacles of the 55 yearold and older seniors in three age-groups (N=210) to develop suitable health-enabling technologies. It focuses on the mobility of the elderly on foot, by public transport, by bicycle and by taxi. The usage and the acceptance of existing mobile devices are determined, to select a suitable terminal for assistance systems. The results show, that although public transport is a very important way of travelling for seniors, its role decreases with higher age. Above the age of 65 years only a small fraction of seniors uses new communication technologies. This implies that smartphones as mobility aids are only suitable for the youngest group of seniors and for future, perhaps more technology-friendly generations. PMID:23920722

Szarvas, Ildikó; Nitsch, Manuela; Lambacher, Oliver; Howe, Jürgen; Reichwaldt, Nina; von Bargen, Tobias; Haux, Reinhold

2013-01-01

221

Rocket observations of the diffuse ultraviolet background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the experiment described was to obtain information on the absolute intensity and spatial variation of the diffuse ultraviolet background and thereby gain insight into the origin of this radiation. The instrument consisted of three ulraviolet broad band photometers placed in the focal plane of a 95cm, f/2.8 normal incidence telescope flown onboard an Aries sounding rocket. The effective wavelengths of the three channels were wavelength 1590A, wavelength 1710A and wavelength 2135A. Absolute intensity measurements are presented for directions toward high galactic latitudes and along a 50.5 deg scan path at an intermediate latitude of b approximately 50. The fully reduced data indicate that the absolute intensity of the diffuse ultraviolet background is relatively high. The median observed intensities in the three channels are 2090 photons/(s sq cm sr A) at 2135A, 990 photons/(s sq cm sr A) at 1710 A and 810 photons/(s sq cm sr A) at 1590A. Based on laboratory and in-flight calibrations, the overall accuracy of these absolute intensities is expected to be better than 25%. The target intensities in all three chanels are shown to display significant large scale, as well as small scale, spatial variation and to correlate with line of sight neutral hydrogen column density as determined from 21 cm radio observations. These results are in accord with the conclusions of several previous investigations and demonstrate that there is a galactic component to the diffuse ultraviolet background. As to the origin of this galactic emission, it is shown that the observed relationship between background intensity and hydrogen column is reasonable quantitative agreement with that expcted from scattering of galactic plante starlight off high latitude interstellar grains.

Jakobsen, P.

222

Presentation 1: Background  

Cancer.gov

The Objectives of this presentation are to explain why, and a bit about how, the new rules were developed; to describe the Hematopoietic Working Group; to provide some general information about the Hematopoietic Working Group and its membership, and the objectives of the Working Group.

223

Superspace geometry for supermembrane backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct part of the superspace vielbein and tensor gauge field in terms of the component fields of 11-dimensional on-shell supergravity. The result can be utilized to describe supermembranes and corresponding matrix models for Dirichlet particles in non-trivial supergravity backgrounds to second order in anticommuting coordinates. We exhibit the ?-invariance of the corresponding supermembrane action, which at this order holds

Bernard de Wit; Kasper Peeters; Jan Plefka

1998-01-01

224

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report number 21: US aerospace industry librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: Results of the phase 2 survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. aerospace industry librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

225

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 22: US academic librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: Results of the phase 3 survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. academic librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

226

Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A predominant research focus in the free flight community has been on the type of information required on the flight deck to enable pilots to "autonomously" maintain separation from other aircraft. At issue are the relative utility and requirement for information exchange between aircraft regarding the current "state" and/or the "intent" of each aircraft. This paper presents the experimental design and some initial findings of an experimental research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared in a piloted simulation. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective data results are presented that generally indicate pilot consensus in favor of the strategic mode.

Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Duley, Jacqueline A.; Legan, Brian M.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

2001-01-01

227

Progress of Merit Scholars: Does Religious Background Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to determine whether the career progress of Merit Scholars was significantly related to their early religious backgrounds. Information about religious backgrounds and post-college religious preferences was obtained from 1,324 students who received Merit awards in 1956 and 1957. Other information concerning: family background,…

Watley, Donivan J.; Kaplan, Rosalyn

228

Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect  

PubMed Central

The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1–4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring. PMID:25400572

Dekerle, Marie; Boulenger, Véronique; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

2014-01-01

229

Background subtraction approach based on independent component analysis.  

PubMed

In this work, a new approach to background subtraction based on independent component analysis is presented. This approach assumes that background and foreground information are mixed in a given sequence of images. Then, foreground and background components are identified, if their probability density functions are separable from a mixed space. Afterwards, the components estimation process consists in calculating an unmixed matrix. The estimation of an unmixed matrix is based on a fast ICA algorithm, which is estimated as a Newton-Raphson maximization approach. Next, the motion components are represented by the mid-significant eigenvalues from the unmixed matrix. Finally, the results show the approach capabilities to detect efficiently motion in outdoors and indoors scenarios. The results show that the approach is robust to luminance conditions changes at scene. PMID:22219704

Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo

2010-01-01

230

Conceptual Background to Radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) conceives the radio spectrum as primarily a resource for telecommunications. Indeed most applications of radio are for communications and other radio services, particularly the Radio Astronomy Service, are deemed to be `pretend'communication serviceas for spectrum amnagement purposes. The language of Radio Spectrum Management is permeated by the terminology ofcommunications, some derived from the physics of radio and some from aspects of information theory. This contribution touches on all the essential concepts of radiocommunications which the author thinks should be the common mental equipment of the Spectrum Manager. The fundamental capacity of a communication channel is discussed in terms of the degrees of freedom and bandwidth of a signal, and the signal to noise ratio. It is emphasized that an information bearing signal is inherently unpredictable, and must, at some level, be discontinuous. This has important consequences for the form of its power spectrum. The effect of inserting filters is discussed particularly with regard to constant amplitude signals and, in the context of non-linear power amplifiers, the phenomenon of`sideband recovery'. All the common generic forms of modulation are discussed including the very different case of `no-modulation' which applies in all forms of passive remote sensing. Whilst all are agreed that the radio spectrum should be used `efficiently', there is no quantitative measure of spectral efficiency which embraces all relevant aspects of spectral usage. These various aspects are dicussed. Finally a brief outline of some aspects of antennae are reviewed. It is pointed out that the recent introduction of so-called `active antennnae', which have properties unlike traditional passive antennae, has confused the interpretation of those ITU Radio Regulations which refer to antennae.

Ponsonby, J. E. B.

2004-06-01

231

INTRODUCTION & SURVEY METHODS BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

This report presents the results of the eighth administration of the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (MYRBS), and the seventh consecutive administration that can be considered fully representative of public high school students across the Commonwealth (1a). The MYRBS is a student health survey that has been conducted

unknown authors

232

Sakhalin tender background detailed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that on Jan. 27, 1992, the committee constituted by order of the Russian government of Dec. 23, 1991, and headed by V.I. Danilov-Danilyan, the Russian Federation's Minister for Ecology and Natural Resources, assessed the results of a tender announced in May 1991. The tender was for foreign companies to submit feasibility studies for exploration and development of

Konoplyanik

1992-01-01

233

The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 mum. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps

M. G. Hauser; R. G. Arendt; T. Kelsall; E. Dwek; N. Odegard; J. L. Weiland; H. T. Freudenreich; W. T. Reach; R. F. Silverberg; S. H. Moseley; Y. C. Pei; P. Lubin; J. C. Mather; R. A. Shafer; G. F. Smoot; R. Weiss; D. T. Wilkinson; E. L. Wright

1998-01-01

234

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil  

E-print Network

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil Hundreds of indigenous. According to MAR data, several violent incidents against landowners, miners and others have been observed groups worldwide #12;MAR Background Report About the Minorities at Risk Project The Minorities at Risk

Milchberg, Howard

235

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: The Revolution in Bahrain  

E-print Network

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: The Revolution in Bahrain Unrest in Tunisia, Egypt forces. MAR data also reports that social services in Shi'a neighborhoods are inferior to those in Sunni of ethnic groups worldwide #12;MAR Background Report In Bahrain, the freedom of press and expression

Milchberg, Howard

236

Galileons on Cosmological Backgrounds  

E-print Network

We construct four-dimensional effective field theories of a generalized DBI galileon field, the dynamics of which naturally take place on a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. The theories are invariant under non-linear symmetry transformations, which can be thought of as being inherited from five-dimensional bulk Killing symmetries via the probe brane technique through which they are constructed. The resulting model provides a framework in which to explore the cosmological role that galileons may play as the universe evolves.

Garrett Goon; Kurt Hinterbichler; Mark Trodden

2011-09-15

237

[Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

Silk, Joseph

1998-01-01

238

Understanding Cancer Series: Patient's Genetic Background  

Cancer.gov

While attention must be paid to the changes discovered within the genomic profile of a cancerous growth, equal attention must be paid to the intrinsic genetic background of each patient. Cancer does not develop in a vacuum, but within a patient, and each patient's distinctive genetic background results from both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

239

Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM) VDL-3 and 1090ES Final Test Requirements, Test Plans, and Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Aviation Safety Program was created for the purpose of making a significant reduction in the incidents of weather related aviation accidents by improving situational awareness. The objectives of that program are being met in part through advances in weather sensor technology, and in part through advances in the communications technology that are developed for use in the National Airspace System. It is this latter element, i.e., the improvements in aviation communication technologies, that is the focus of the Weather Information Communications project. This report describes the final flight test results completed under the WINCOMM project at the NASA Glenn Research Center of the 1090 Extended Squitter (1090ES) and VDL Mode 3 (VDL-3) data links as a medium for weather data exchange. It presents the use of 1090ES to meet the program objectives of sending broadcast turbulence information and the use of VDL-3 to send graphical weather images. This report provides the test requirements and test plans, which led to flight tests, as well as final results from flight testing. The reports define the changes made to both avionics and ground-based receivers as well as the ground infrastructure to support implementation of the recommended architecture, with a focus on the issues associated with these changes.

Griner, James H.; Jirberg, Russ; Frantz, Brian; Kachmar, Brian A.

2006-01-01

240

X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

1996-01-01

241

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE Background  

E-print Network

PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE INDIVIDUAL Background: Pregnant women are considered to be a 'higher risk group' for swine flu. This means that for a small minority of cases, complications could workplace adjustments regarding swine flu, it is your responsibility to inform Occupational Health

Davies, Christopher

242

Sakhalin tender background detailed  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that on Jan. 27, 1992, the committee constituted by order of the Russian government of Dec. 23, 1991, and headed by V.I. Danilov-Danilyan, the Russian Federation's Minister for Ecology and Natural Resources, assessed the results of a tender announced in May 1991. The tender was for foreign companies to submit feasibility studies for exploration and development of oil and gas on the continental shelf off Sakhalin Island. The announced winner was the MMM group consisting of McDermott International Inc., Marathon Oil Co., and Mitsui and Co. Ltd. In its decision the governmental tender committee (GTC) begged to differ from V. Fedorov, governor of the Territory of Sakhalin, in whose opinion the U.S.-Japanese combine of Exxon Corp.-Sakhalin Oil Development Co. (Sodeco) should have been pronounced winner at the bidding's end. GTC's decision also ran counter to the verdict by a panel of experts constituted by decision of the Examining Council under the Chairman of the Russian Government on Dec. 3, 1991, and headed by F. Salmanov, first deputy Minister of Geology of the U.S.S.R.

Konoplyanik, A. (Russian Federation Ministry for Fuels and Energy (SU))

1992-03-23

243

Background issues for defensive interceptors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal...

G. H. Canavan

1991-01-01

244

Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds  

E-print Network

Chapter 3 Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds New physics is often discovered by pushing of the low energies involved. There are many radioactive elements that have decays at lower energies which;Chapter 3: Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds 104 the rate of background. High-energy neutrino

245

REPORT NO. 5 background material  

E-print Network

REPORT NO. 5 background material for the development of radiation protection standards July 1964 Staff Report of the FEDERAL RADIATION COUNCIL #12;REPORT NO. 5 background material for the development INTRODUCTION This report contains background material used in the development of guidance for Federal agencies

246

An OSSE Platform for Terrestrial Hydrology using the NASA Land Information System (LIS): Initial Results from SMAP-relevant OSSEs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulation is a key tool for the cost effective planning and execution of NASA missions. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) can help to demonstrate and quantify the impact of remotely sensed observations on terrestrial hydrologic science and societal objectives (e.g., minimizing impacts of droughts and floods). Importantly, they are also critical for understanding and mitigating mission risk. Here, the science and technology underlying a new mission simulation and evaluation platform under development are presented. The platform will be built upon the NASA Land Information System (LIS), an advanced multi-scale land surface modeling system, and the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT), which provides tools for evaluating LIS outputs using a wide range of metrics. The platform integrates components of LIS' advanced data processing subsystems (e.g., data assimilation, optimization, and uncertainty estimation) and coupled model systems (e.g., land surface -atmospheric radiative transfer, land surface-weather forecasting, and land surface-application models). The design advances the state-of-the-art in OSSE development by incorporating "value-of-information" and other concepts from decision and information theory that have long dealt with similar questions, and by anticipating a more robust set of questions than the "classic" OSSE that focuses on data assimilation. In addition, the platform is being designed to conduct OSSEs useful at each stage of mission planning, from the time of mission concept formulation to after launch, and therefore targets current (e.g., TRMM, EOS-Aqua, GRACE, Aquarius) and future (e.g., SMAP, GPM, GRACE Follow-on, GRACE-II) missions. In the talk, results from soil moisture observation system simulation experiments designed for SMAP mission will be presented.

Harrison, K. W.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; Santanello, J. A.; Kirschbaum, D. B.

2012-12-01

247

Background matrix subtraction (BMS): A novel background removal algorithm for GPR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background noise is a common type of coherent noise that severely compromises the integrity of the high-resolution images provided by ground penetrating radar survey. Several existing techniques employ different approaches to attenuate background noise. In this study, we present the background matrix subtraction (BMS) as an alternative technique to remove horizontal background noise and we compare its efficiency to that of the conventional background removal technique. Instead of calculating an average trace that is subtracted from the GPR data in the conventional background removal methods, the BMS technique is based on calculating a complete background matrix of the same size of the GPR section. The background matrix is created through a series of windowing, sample exclusion, weighting, and iteration. This series of processes guarantees that the background matrix is least affected by target response and is composed purely of horizontal background noise. The computed background matrix is then subtracted from the GPR data to remove horizontal events. Results of experiments conducted on both synthetic and real GPR data show that the BMS technique yields better results than the commonly used background removal technique.

Rashed, Mohamed; Harbi, Hussein

2014-07-01

248

Molecules in the mirror: how SERS backgrounds arise from the quantum method of images† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional derivation of eqn (5). See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp00093e Click here for additional data file.  

PubMed Central

The Raman coupling of light to molecular vibrations is strongly modified when they are placed near a plasmonic metal surface, with the appearance of a strong broad continuum background in addition to the normal surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peaks. Using a quantum method of images approach, we produce a simple but quantitative explanation of the inevitable presence of the background, due to the resistive damping of the image molecule. This model thus suggests new strategies for enhancing the SERS peak to background ratio. PMID:24584480

Barnett, Stephen M.; Harris, Nadine

2014-01-01

249

The Diffuse Extreme Ultraviolet Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of the diffuse EUV background towards 138 different directions using the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) have been combined into a spectrum from 150A to 730A and represent an effective exposure of 18 million seconds. There is no significant evidence of any non-local line flux in the resultant spectrum such as that from a hot coronal plasma. These results are inconsistent with the Wisconsin C and B broad-band surveys assuming the source is a logT = 5.8 - 6.1 hot plasma in ionization equilibrium with solar abundances, confirming the previous result of Jelinksy, Vallerga and Edelstein) (hereafter Paper 1) using an observation along the ecliptic with the same instrument. To make these results consistent with the previous broad-band surveys, the plasma responsible for the emission must either be depleted in Fe by a factor of approximately 6, be behind an absorbing slab of neutral H with a column of 2 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, or not be in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE). One such non-CIE model (Breitswerdt and Schmutzier) that explains the soft x-ray results is also inconsistent with this EUV data.

Vallerga, John; Slavin, Jonathan

1996-01-01

250

Results from SAMTEX: The Southern African lithospheric mantle - electrical structures and geometries and comparison with seismological information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) is imaging the electrical structures and geometries of the continental lithosphere below Botswana, Namibia and South Africa to depths of 200+ km. Primary geometrical information can readily be obtained from lithospheric-scale MT experiments about the three-dimensional variation in conductivity, and this information can be related to formation and deformation processes. In particular, one important piece of geometrical information easily and relatively precisely (to within 10%) obtained from MT data is the depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), due to the sensitivity of conductivity to small fractions (<1%) of partial melt and/or increased water content. Over four phases of acquisition SAMTEX measurements have been made at a total of more than 700 MT sites in an area of greater than a million square kilometers, making it by far the largest-ever MT project undertaken. In particular, during Phase IV very challenging MT measurements were made in the highly-remote Central Kalahari Game Reserve, completing the coverage of Botswana. One of the most significant results from SAMTEX is the mapping of the LAB beneath the Archean cratons and bounding mobile belts of Southern Africa, particularly beneath Namibia and Botswana for which no prior lithospheric information exists. As would be expected, the electrically-defined LAB is generally shallow (150 km) beneath the mobile belts, deep (250 km) in the centres of the cratons, and transitional at the edges of cratons. Kimberlites are useful in also inferring lithospheric thickness, and diamondiferous kimberlites are located primarily where the electrical lithosphere is transitional in thickness, or where there is a change in its electrical anisotropy properties, both of which are craton edge effects. The electrical properties of the continental mantle derived from SAMTEX data can be compared with seismic ones derived from data from the South African Seismic Experiment (SASE) of the Kaapvaal Project and from regional/continental-scale investigations. Generally there is very good predictive linear agreement between seismic velocity and log(conductivity), indicative of both being influenced by the same bulk property factors, such as temperature, Mg# and composition.

G.. Jones, A.; Muller, M. P.; Miensopust, M. P.; Khosa, D.; Share, P.-E.

2009-04-01

251

Building a hospital information system: design considerations based on results from a Europe-wide vendor selection process.  

PubMed Central

A number of research and development projects in the U.S. and in Europe have shown that novel technologies can open significant perspectives for hospital information systems (HIS). The selection of software products for a HIS, however, is still nontrivial. Generalist vendors promise a broad scope of functionality and integration, while specialist vendors promise elaborated and highly adapted functionality. In 1997, the university hospital Marburg, a 1,250 bed teaching hospital, decided to introduce a new large-scale HIS. The objectives of the project included support of clinical workflows, cost effectiveness and a maximum standard of medical care. In 1997/98 a formal Europe-wide vendor contest was performed. 15 vendors, including several from the U.S., participated. Systems were checked against the hospital's objectives, functionality, and technological criteria. One of the results of both technology and market assessment was the identification of fundamental technological and design aspects strongly influencing functionality and flexibility. PMID:10566477

Kuhn, K. A.; Lenz, R.; Blaser, R.

1999-01-01

252

Background radiation from fission pulses  

SciTech Connect

Extensive source terms for beta, gamma, and neutrons following fission pulses are presented in various tabular and graphical forms. Neutron results from a wide range of fissioning nuclides (42) are examined and detailed information is provided for four fuels: /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 239/Pu; these bracket the range of the delayed spectra. Results at several cooling (decay) times are presented. For ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. spectra, only /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu results are given; fission-product data are currently inadequate for other fuels. The data base consists of all known measured data for individual fission products extensively supplemented with nuclear model results. The process is evolutionary, and therefore, the current base is summarized in sufficient detail for users to judge its quality. Comparisons with recent delayed neutron experiments and total ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. decay energies are included. 27 refs., 47 figs., 9 tabs.

England, T.R.; Arthur, E.D.; Brady, M.C.; LaBauve, R.J.

1988-05-01

253

Deleterious background selection with recombination  

SciTech Connect

An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Hudson, R.R. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kaplan, N.L. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-12-01

254

Gauged vortices in a background  

E-print Network

We discuss the statistical mechanics of a gas of gauged vortices in the canonical formalism. At critical self-coupling, and for low temperatures, it has been argued that the configuration space for vortex dynamics in each topological class of the abelian Higgs model approximately truncates to a finite-dimensional moduli space with a Kaehler structure. For the case where the vortices live on a 2-sphere, we explain how localisation formulas on the moduli spaces can be used to compute explicitly the partition function of the vortex gas interacting with a background potential. The coefficients of this analytic function provide geometrical data about the Kaehler structures, the simplest of which being their symplectic volume (computed previously by Manton using an alternative argument). We use the partition function to deduce simple results on the thermodynamics of the vortex system; in particular, the average height on the sphere is computed and provides an interesting effective picture of the ground state.

Nuno M. Romão

2005-03-02

255

Low background aspects of GERDA  

SciTech Connect

The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-04-27

256

The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention Citation: Hall, R. and Hanna, P. (2004), The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention, Behaviour & Information Technology, forthcoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text\\/background color combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioral intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four color-combination conditions. Major findings were: a) Colors with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater

Richard H. Hall

257

Background  

E-print Network

This Provisional PDF corresponds to the article as it appeared upon acceptance. Fully formatted PDF and full text (HTML) versions will be made available soon. Embryonic diapause in humans: time to consider?

Grazyna E Ptak; Jacek A Modlinski; Grazyna E Ptak; Jacek A Modlinski; Pasqualino Loi

2013-01-01

258

Background  

E-print Network

Obligate intracellular bacteria commonly have much reduced genome sizes compared to their nearest free-living relatives. One reason for this is reductive evolution: the loss of genes rendered non-essential due to the intracellular habitat. This can occur because of the presence of orthologous genes in the host, combined with the ability of the bacteria to import the protein or metabolite products of the host genes. In this article we take a look at three such bacteria whose genomes have been fully sequenced. Buchnera is an endosymbiont of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, the relationship between these two organisms being so essential that neither can reproduce in the absence of the other. Rickettsia prowazekii is the causative agent of louse-borne typhus in humans and Mycobacterium leprae infection of humans leads to leprosy. Both of these human pathogens have fastidious growth requirements, which has made them very difficult to

Comp Funct Genom; Jo Wixon

259

Background  

Cancer.gov

The discovery that proteins and peptides are "leaked" by tumors into clinically accessible bodily fluids such as blood has led to the possibility of diagnosing cancer at an early stage or monitoring response to treatment by collecting these fluids and testing for the presence of cancer-related biomarkers. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) are examples of blood-borne cancer protein biomarkers that are currently being used in the clinic.

260

Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise  

PubMed Central

It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity.

Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.; Xiao, Zhongju

2014-01-01

261

The Effects of Social Background Factors on Psychological Orientations and Child Rearing Patterns of Interracially Married Mothers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a research study on the effects of social background factors on psychological orientations and child rearing patterns of interracially married mothers, both black and white. Data were gathered in interviews with 64 interracial couples. Background information reviewed on the interracially married mothers includes:…

Long, Margo Alexandre

262

Handwritten character recognition using background analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a low-cost handwritten character recognizer. It is constituted by three modules: the `acquisition' module, the `binarization' module, and the `core' module. The core module can be logically partitioned into six steps: character dilation, character circumscription, region and `profile' analysis, `cut' analysis, decision tree descent, and result validation. Firstly, it reduces the resolution of the binarized regions and detects the minimum rectangle (MR) which encloses the character; the MR partitions the background into regions that surround the character or are enclosed by it, and allows it to define features as `profiles' and `cuts;' a `profile' is the set of vertical or horizontal minimum distances between a side of the MR and the character itself; a `cut' is a vertical or horizontal image segment delimited by the MR. Then, the core module classifies the character by descending along the decision tree on the basis of the analysis of regions around the character, in particular of the `profiles' and `cuts,' and without using context information. Finally, it recognizes the character or reactivates the core module by analyzing validation test results. The recognizer is largely insensible to character discontinuity and is able to detect Arabic numerals and English alphabet capital letters. The recognition rate of a 32 X 32 pixel character is of about 97% after the first iteration, and of over 98% after the second iteration.

Tascini, Guido; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

1993-04-01

263

Including information about comorbidity in estimates of disease burden: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys  

PubMed Central

Background The methodology commonly used to estimate disease burden, featuring ratings of severity of individual conditions, has been criticized for ignoring comorbidity. A methodology that addresses this problem is proposed and illustrated here with data from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Although the analysis is based on self-reports about one’s own conditions in a community survey, the logic applies equally well to analysis of hypothetical vignettes describing comorbid condition profiles. Methods Face-to-face interviews in 13 countries (six developing, nine developed; n = 31,067; response rate = 69.6%) assessed 10 classes of chronic physical and 9 of mental conditions. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess overall perceived health. Multiple regression analysis with interactions for comorbidity was used to estimate associations of conditions with VAS. Simulation was used to estimate condition-specific effects. Results The best-fitting model included condition main effects and interactions of types by numbers of conditions. Neurological conditions, insomnia, and major depression were rated most severe. Adjustment for comorbidity reduced condition-specific estimates with substantial between-condition variation (.24–.70 ratios of condition-specific estimates with and without adjustment for comorbidity). The societal-level burden rankings were quite different from the individual-level rankings, with the highest societal-level rankings associated with conditions having high prevalence rather than high individual-level severity. Conclusions Plausible estimates of disorder-specific effects on VAS can be obtained using methods that adjust for comorbidity. These adjustments substantially influence condition-specific ratings. PMID:20553636

Alonso, Jordi; Vilagut, Gemma; Chatterji, Somnath; Heeringa, Steven; Schoenbaum, Michael; Ustun, T. Bedirhan; Rojas-Farreras, Sonia; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kovess, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Liu, Zhaorui; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, Jose; Uda, Hidenori; Kessler, Ronald C.

2010-01-01

264

BACKGROUND METHODS RESULTS Identify factors that contribute to SSI.  

E-print Network

compliance rate with preoperative bowel preparations and chlorhexidine washcloths. Design and implement with preoperative bowel preparation and chlorhexidine washcloths were identified with the tools. Tablet Based the proper bowel preparation and washcloth procedures, and their importance in preparing patients for safe

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

265

Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background: Results from Python V  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present observations of the microwave sky made with the Python experiment in its fifth year of operation at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica. The Python telescope was fitted with a HEMT amplifier-based radiometer, yielding sensitivity to the microwave sky from 37-45 GHz in two frequency bands for each pixel in a 1 x 2 array, each pixel

K. Coble; J. Kovac; M. Dragovan; N. Halverson; W. Holzapfel; D. Alvarez; J. B. Peterson; G. Griffin; M. Newcomb; K. Miller; S. R. Platt; G. Novak; S. Dodelson; K. Ganga; L. Knox

1998-01-01

266

Interferometry of background acoustic-gravity waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to acoustic-gravity waves generated in the ocean and atmosphere by strong transient events such as earthquakes and tsunamis, there exists a certain background level of acoustic-gravity waves. Because of their large free path length and a wide spatial distribution of the wave sources, background acoustic-gravity waves form a diffuse (but not necessarily isotropic), random wave field. Wave fields generated by uncorrelated sources are known to retain finite correlation at ranges large compared to the wavelength and spatial dimensions of the random wave sources. A technique known as noise (or wave) interferometry has been shown in seismology, helioseismology, acoustics, and other fields to be an effective tool for retrieving information about the deterministic propagation environment and the random wave field from two-point cross-correlation functions of diffuse noise. Here, we apply wave interferometry to acoustic-gravity waves in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The primary dataset analyzed in this study was obtained by 30 differential pressure gauges deployed from January 2009 to February 2010 on the seafloor offshore the South Island of New Zealand in the course of the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) Seismic Experiment [Yang, Z., A. Sheehan, J. A. Collins, and G. Laske (2012), The character of seafloor ambient noise recorded offshore New Zealand: Results from the MOANA ocean bottom seismic experiment, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q10011]. By applying time-reversal ideas to processing of cross-correlations of random wave fields, we have developed a compressed cross-correlation function technique to compensate for wave dispersion in evaluating the cross-correlation function of a random wave field. When applied to the seafloor pressure data, the technique drastically reduces the signal averaging times necessary for emergence of deterministic features and allows for accurate passive measurements of wave travel times and directivity. The reduction in the averaging time makes it possible to study dynamics on the acoustic-gravity wave field and helps to identify specific wave types that contribute to observed pressure variations. We will discuss implications of the seafloor measurements for observations of acoustic-gravity waves in air above the ocean and feasibility of extending the wave interferometry to other modalities of observation of background acoustic-gravity waves, including ionospheric radio sounding performed with Dynasonde systems.

Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Godin, Oleg A.; Sheehan, Anne F.

2013-04-01

267

Background modeling for the GERDA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The neutrinoless double beta (0???) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0??? decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ??} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and ? emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

2013-08-08

268

New Technology for Libraries. A Layman's Guide to Reducing Public Library Costs and Improving Services through Scientific Methods and Tools. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of background papers for the White House Conference, explores the potential of new technologies to improve library services while reducing library costs. Separate subsections describe the application of technology to the following library functions: acquisitions, catalogs and cataloging, serials control, circulation…

Weisbrod, David L.

269

FAMILY BACKGROUND OF RURAL YOUTH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FAMILY BACKGROUNDS OF RURAL YOUTH ARE DISCUSSED. THE BACKGROUND PROVIDED BY THE FAMILY HAS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADJUSTMENT OF RURAL YOUTH IN AN URBANIZED, HIGHLY TECHNICAL SOCIETY. THE BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF RURAL AREAS INFLUENCE THE RATE OF SOCIAL CHANGE, THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FAMILY AS A SOCIAL UNIT, AND THE ORIENTATION TOWARD LEGAL…

COPP, JAMES H.

270

Lattice QCD in Background Fields  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

2009-06-01

271

Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for

Wim Labree; Henk Nijman; Hjalmar van Marle; Eric Rassin

2010-01-01

272

Relationships between Electronic Information Media and Records Management Practices: Results of a Survey of United Nations Organizations. A Rand Note.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Technical Panel on Electronic Records Management (TP/REM), which was established by the Advisory Committee for the Co-ordination of Information Systems (ACCIS), conducted a survey of existing electronic records management practices and standards related to new information and communication technologies and their interrelationships within the…

Bikson, T. K.; Schieber, L.

273

What Does the Public Know about Preventing Cancer? Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides information about the public's familiarity with cancer prevention strategies and examines the association between this familiarity and actual prevention behavior. Data from interviews with 5,589 adults included in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed. Most respondents were able to cite one or…

Hawkins, Nikki A.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Peipins, Lucy A.

2010-01-01

274

3-D subsurface modeling within the framework of an environmental restoration information system: Prototype results using earthvision  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR) placement on the EPA Superfund National Priorities List in December of 1989, all remedial activities, including characterization, remedial alternatives selection, and implementation of remedial measures, must meet the combined requirements of RCRA, CERCLA, and NEPA. The Environmental Restoration Program, therefore, was established with the mission of eliminating or reducing to prescribed safe levels the risks to the environment or to human health and safety posed by inactive and surplus DOE-ORR managed sites and facilities that have been contaminated by radioactive and surplus DOE-ORR managed sites and facilities that have been contaminated by radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes. In accordance with an established Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA), waste sites and facilities across the DOE-ORR have been inventoried, prioritized, and are being systematically investigated and remediated under the direction of Environmental Restoration. EarthVision, a product of Dynamic Graphics, Inc., that provides three-dimensional (3-D) modeling and visualization, was exercised within the framework of an environmental restoration (ER) decision support system. The goal of the prototype was to investigate framework integration issues including compatibility and value to decision making. This paper describes the ER program, study site, and information system framework; selected EarthVision results are shown and discussed. EarthVision proved effective in integrating complex data from disparate sources and in providing 3-D visualizations of the spatial relationships of the data, including contaminant plumes. Work is under way to expand the analysis to the full site, covering about 1600 acres, and to include data from new sources, particularly remote-sensing studies.

Goeltz, R.T.; Zondlo, T.F.

1994-12-31

275

Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3? muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO2 for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

Thomas, K. J.; Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Norman, E. B.; Wang, B. S.; Hurley, D. L.

2013-08-01

276

Lorentz invariant ensembles of vector backgrounds  

E-print Network

We consider gauge field theories in the presence of ensembles of vector backgrounds. While Lorentz invariance is explicitely broken in the presence of any single background, here, the Lorentz invariance of the theory is restored by averaging over a Lorentz invariant ensemble of backgrounds, i.e. a set of background vectors that is mapped onto itself under Lorentz transformations. This framewkork is used to study the effects of a non-trivial but Lorentz invariant vacuum structure or mass dimension two vector condensates by identifying the background with a shift of the gauge field. Up to now, the ensembles used in the literature comprise configurations corresponding to non-zero field tensors together with such with vanishing field strength. We find that even when constraining the ensembles to pure gauge configurations, the usual high-energy degrees of freedom are removed from the spectrum of asymptotic states in the presence of said backgrounds in euclidean and in Minkowski space. We establish this result not only for the propagators to all orders in the background and otherwise at tree level but for the full propagator.

Dennis D. Dietrich; Stefan Hofmann

2005-06-22

277

Background Rejection for the MAJORANA Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MAJORANA project is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment based on the use of high purity, enriched, ^76Ge crystals housed in ultra low background Cu cryostats as both the source ans the detector. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the experiment, the collaboration is currently building a demonstrator consisting of up to 30 kg of enriched High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors and 10 kg of natural HPGe detectors. These detectors, which will take a P-type Point Contact (PPC) geometry, are designed to maximise performance in terms of energy resolution and background rejection efficacy. In order to achieve the background goal of 1 count per tonne-year in a 4 keV wide region of interest around the 2039 keV neutrinoless double beta decay Q-value, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will be constructed using ultra-clean materials and will employ sophisticated background rejection techniques. One such technique, which is key to achieving this background goal, is the ability to distinguish between single-site events from neutrinoless double beta decay and multiple-site events resulting from background gamma rays. This will be achieved through analysis of the digitised signal response of the HPGe detectors. The physics goals of the MAJORANA experiment will be discussed, along with the roles played by digital electronics and digital pulse processing techniques. Details of key background rejection algorithms will also be presented.

Cooper, Reynold

2011-10-01

278

MERTIS: shutterless background signal removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MERTIS (MERcury Thermal infrared Imaging Spectrometer) is an advanced infrared remote sensing instrument that is part of the ESA mission BepiColombo to planet Mercury. The enabling technology that allows sending the first spectrometer for the thermal infrared spectral range to Mercury is an uncooled microbolometer. One of the challenges is the calibration of the instrument. Radiometric and spectroscopic breadboard models of MERTIS were used to develop proper calibration methods. In the context of the calibration we are reporting on the ongoing efforts to separate non-scene and scene signal portions from each other. The non-scene signal portion is contained in the raw image data sets and is usually the dominating signal contribution. The conventional method to measure the non-scene signal contributions using a shutter or spaceview and perform a time-interpolation is compared to an approach using linear pixel-to-pixel relations in which information from the outer regions of the image matrix is used for the estimation of the non-scene signal components of the inner regions where additional scene signal components exist. The results of both methods are discussed in terms of noise or errors of the extracted scene information. The proposed method could be used without further instrument modifications offering a functional redundancy which is important to keep alive the MERTIS operation in the case of a breakdown of the mechanically stressed high-speed shutter device.

Säuberlich, Thomas; Paproth, Carsten; Helbert, Jörn

2010-09-01

279

Sources of the Radio Background Considered  

SciTech Connect

We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

2011-08-22

280

Cost and results of information systems for health and poverty indicators in the United Republic of Tanzania.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the costs of complementary information generation activities in a resource-constrained setting and compare the costs and outputs of information subsystems that generate the statistics on poverty, health and survival required for monitoring, evaluation and reporting on health programmes in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Nine systems used by four government agencies or ministries were assessed. Costs were calculated from budgets and expenditure data made available by information system managers. System coverage, quality assurance and information production were reviewed using questionnaires and interviews. Information production was characterized in terms of 38 key sociodemographic indicators required for national programme monitoring. FINDINGS: In 2002-03 approximately US$ 0.53 was spent per Tanzanian citizen on the nine information subsystems that generated information on 37 of the 38 selected indicators. The census and reporting system for routine health service statistics had the largest participating populations and highest total costs. Nationally representative household surveys and demographic surveillance systems (which are not based on nationally representative samples) produced more than half the indicators and used the most rigorous quality assurance. Five systems produced fewer than 13 indicators and had comparatively high costs per participant. CONCLUSION: Policy-makers and programme planners should be aware of the many trade-offs with respect to system costs, coverage, production, representativeness and quality control when making investment choices for monitoring and evaluation. In future, formal cost-effectiveness studies of complementary information systems would help guide investments in the monitoring, evaluation and planning needed to demonstrate the impact of poverty-reduction and health programmes. PMID:16184275

Rommelmann, Vanessa; Setel, Philip W.; Hemed, Yusuf; Angeles, Gustavo; Mponezya, Hamisi; Whiting, David; Boerma, Ties

2005-01-01

281

Cognitive abilities, sociocultural background and academic achievement.  

PubMed

The influence of students' sociocultural background on academic achievement is a well established fact. Research also points out that sociocultural background is related to students' cognitive abilities and these have an effect on their academic achievement. However, the mediator role of cognitive abilities on the relationship between sociocultural background and academic achievement is less well known. A structural equation model that represents these relationships was tested in a sample (N= 728) of Portuguese junior high school students. Multigroup analysis of the model showed the importance of the cognitive ability mediation effect between sociocultural background and academic achievement in the 7th and 9th grades, but not in the 8th grade. This difference may be the result of the academic transition experienced in the 7th and 9th grades in the Portuguese educational system, which requires parents' higher involvement in school. PMID:22047860

Diniz, António; Dias Pocinho, Margarida; Silva Almeida, Leandro

2011-11-01

282

Hidden Markov Models for background clutter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a target acquisition performance model for an electro-optical imaging system is seriously affected by the description of the target and background characteristics at present. Based on the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), a different clutter metric is proposed to quantify the influence of background on target detection in this article. It first simulates the process of recording a target in the human brain by optimizing the HMM parameters to represent the target as far as possible. And then the background clutter is defined to be the similarity, estimated by the computed model parameters, between the target and background. Finally, the newly proposed clutter metric is applied to the Search2 database, and the experiment results prove its superiority to other metrics.

Li, Qian; Yang, Cui; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Zhang, Dong-Yang

2013-07-01

283

Meghan Miller Background and Significance  

E-print Network

1 Meghan Miller Background and Significance Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent variable pathological symptoms from one individual to the next, representing a continual spectrum rather within the autism spectrum include Asperger, Fragile X, Angelman, Rett, Williams, Prader

Gleeson, Joseph G.

284

Nongeometric fluxes as supergravity backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We consider examples of D=4 string theory vacua which, although globally nongeometric, admit a local description in terms of D=10 supergravity backgrounds. We analyze such backgrounds and find that the supersymmetry spinors vary nontrivially along the internal manifold, reproducing the interpolating supergravity solutions found by Frey and Grana. Finally, we propose a simple, local expression for nongeometric fluxes in terms of the internal spinors of the compactification.

Marchesano, Fernando [ASC, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Munich (Germany); Schulgin, Waldemar [Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

2007-08-15

285

Gravitational wave background from binary systems  

SciTech Connect

Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter {Omega}(f), commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, {Omega}(f) is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the frequencies of all existing and planned detectors. A semi-analytical formula for {Omega}(f) is derived in the case of stellar binaries (containing white dwarfs, neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes). Besides a realistic expectation of the level of background, upper and lower limits are given, to account for the uncertainties in some astrophysical parameters such as binary coalescence rates. One interesting result concerns all current and planned ground-based detectors (including the Einstein Telescope). In their frequency range, the background of binaries is resolvable and only sporadically present. In other words, there is no stochastic background of binaries for ground-based detectors.

Rosado, Pablo A. [Albert Einstein Institute, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2011-10-15

286

Gravitational wave background from rotating neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background of gravitational waves produced by the ensemble of rotating neutron stars (which includes pulsars, magnetars, and gravitars) is investigated. A formula for ?(f) (a function that is commonly used to quantify the background, and is directly related to its energy density) is derived, without making the usual assumption that each radiating system evolves on a short time scale compared to the Hubble time; the time evolution of the systems since their formation until the present day is properly taken into account. Moreover, the formula allows one to distinguish the different parts of the background: the unresolvable (which forms a stochastic background or confusion noise, since the waveforms composing it cannot be either individually observed or subtracted out of the data of a detector) and the resolvable. Several estimations of the background are obtained, for different assumptions on the parameters that characterize neutron stars and their population. In particular, different initial spin period distributions lead to very different results. For one of the models, with slow initial spins, the detection of the background by present or planned detectors can be rejected. However, other models do predict the detection of the background, that would be unresolvable, by the future ground-based gravitational wave detector ET. A robust upper limit for the background of rotating neutron stars is obtained; it does not exceed the detection threshold of two cross-correlated Advanced LIGO interferometers. If gravitars exist and constitute more than a few percent of the neutron star population, then they produce an unresolvable background that could be detected by ET. Under the most reasonable assumptions on the parameters characterizing a neutron star, the background is too faint to be detected. Previous papers have suggested neutron star models in which large magnetic fields (like the ones that characterize magnetars) induce big deformations in the star, which produce a stronger emission of gravitational radiation. Considering the most optimistic (in terms of the detection of gravitational waves) of these models, an upper limit for the background produced by magnetars is obtained; it could be detected by ET, but not by BBO or DECIGO. Simple approximate formulas to characterize both the total and the unresolvable backgrounds are given for the ensemble of rotating neutron stars, and, for completion, also for the ensemble of binary star systems.

Rosado, Pablo A.

2012-11-01

287

INFORMATION SECURITY & SHARED LEADERSHIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has been conducted to look for predictors of positive information security results. To date, no research has yet looked at the potential relationships between shared and vertical leadership behaviors and security results. This paper proposes an empirical study to measure these factors and results and examine the relationships among them. Background Do the leadership style and leadership behaviors

Paul D. Witman

288

Exploratory Workshop on the Social Impacts of Robotics. Summary and Issues. A Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains a summary of the results of an exploratory workshop to discuss the future of industrial robotics and its likely impact on public policy. Background information is presented, and workshop goals are delineated. Under the general area of robot technology, these topics are covered: the roots of robotics technology, a definition of…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

289

Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

Willshire, K. F.

1984-01-01

290

Improved diagnosis and prognosis using Decisions Informed by Combining Entities (DICE): results from the NHLBI-sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To introduce an algorithmic approach to improve the interpretation of myocardial perfusion images in women with suspected myocardial ischemia. Background Gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance (MR) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) approaches have relatively poor diagnostic and prognostic value in women with suspected myocardial ischemia. Here we introduce an approach: Decisions Informed by Combining Entities (DICE) that forms a mathematical model utilizing MPI and cardiac dimensions generated by one modality to predict the perfusion status of another modality. The effect of the model is to systematically incorporate cardiac metrics that influence the interpretation of perfusion images, leading to greater consistency in designation of myocardial perfusion status between studies. Methods Women (n=213), with suspected myocardial ischemia, underwent MPI assessment for regional perfusion defects using two modalities: gated SPECT (n=207) and MR imaging (n=203). To determine perfusion status, MR data were evaluated qualitatively and semi-quantitatively while SPECT data were evaluated using conventional clinical criteria. These perfusion status readings were designated “Original”. Four regression models were generated to model perfusion status obtained with one modality [e.g., semi-quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] against another modality (e.g., SPECT) and a threshold applied (DICE modeling) to designate perfusion status as normal or low. The DICE models included perfusion status, left ventricular (LV) chamber volumes and myocardial wall thickness. Women were followed for 40±16 months for the development of first major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE: CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) or hospitalization for congestive heart failure). Original and DICE perfusion status were compared in their ability to detect high-grade coronary artery disease (CAD) and for prediction of MACE. Results Adverse events occurred in 25 (12%) women and CAD was present in 34 (16%). In receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis for CAD detection, the average area under the curve (AUC) for DICE vs. Original status was 0.77±0.03 vs. 0.70±0.03, P<0.01. Similarly, in Kaplan-Meier survival analysis the average log-rank statistic was higher for DICE vs. the Original readings (10.6±5.2 vs. 3.0±0.6, P<0.05). Conclusions While two data sets are required to generate the DICE models no knowledge of follow-up results is needed. DICE modeling improved diagnostic and prognostic value vs. the Original interpretation of the myocardial perfusion status. PMID:24400205

Pohost, Gerald M.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey; Shaw, Leslee J.; Sopko, George; Rogers, William J.; Sharaf, Barry L.; Pepine, Carl J.; Vido-Thompson, Diane A.; Rayarao, Geetha; Tauxe, Lindsey; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Mc Nair, Douglas; Biederman, Robert W.

2013-01-01

291

Binary versus non-binary information in real time series: empirical results and maximum-entropy matrix models  

E-print Network

The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of time series of activity of their fundamental elements (such as stocks or neurons respectively). While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relationships between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to replicate the observed binary/non-binary relations very well, and to mathematically...

Almog, Assaf

2014-01-01

292

Observational Study in Ten Beauty Salons: Results Informing Development of the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers from the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project conducted an observational study in 10 North Carolina beauty salons to gain insight into naturally occurring conversations between cosmetologists and customers, and to assess features of the salon environment that might be used to inform the development of salon-based health promotion…

Solomon, Felicia M.; Linnan, Laura A.; Wasilewski, Yvonne; Lee, Ann Marie; Katz, Mira L.; Yang, Jingzhen

2004-01-01

293

Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

2012-01-01

294

Knowledge of and adherence to fruit and vegetable recommendations and intakes: results of the 2003 health information national trends survey.  

PubMed

Attention to cancer-relevant communication (e.g., fruit/vegetable intake recommendations) through various media has been shown to be a pivotal step in reduction of the cancer burden, thus underscoring the importance of examining associations between exposure to health media and knowledge of and adherence to fruit/vegetable intake recommendations. The purpose of the present study was to assess factors associated with fruit/vegetable intake knowledge and behavior. The authors analyzed data collected from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey to evaluate the effect of fruit/vegetable intake knowledge on behavior, and the relationship of this effect with biobehavioral, sociodemographic, and communication characteristics. Participants who were knowledgeable of fruit/vegetable intake recommendations and consumed at least 5 fruit/vegetable servings per day were classified as informed compliers. Associations were observed for being an informed complier and paying "a lot" of attention to health media on the radio, in the newspaper, and in magazines and "a little" or "some" attention to health media in magazines or on the Internet. The recent explosion of available cancer-related information through various media underscores the importance of examining associations between exposure to health media and knowledge of and adherence to fruit/vegetable intake recommendations. PMID:21161813

Thompson, Olivia M; Yaroch, Amy L; Moser, Richard P; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Petrelli, Jennifer M; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Mâsse, Louise C; Nebeling, Linda

2011-03-01

295

Using a Geographical Information System to map and determine the extent of major soil disturbance resulting from a logging operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The logging extraction tracks and landings of a recently clearfelled forest compartment were mapped porn aerial photographs, into a (GIS) Geographical Information Sys- tem, using an analytical stereoplotter. The GIS spatial data, combined with$eld measurements of track-width, were used to calculate lineal and spatial sta- tistics of the site disturbance and to generate a digital ter- rain model of the

R. K. Brownlie; C. J. Terleskt

296

In this article, we report results of an investigation into the effect of sponsored links on ecommerce information  

E-print Network

as a long- term business model are discussed. Introduction Web search engines often present at least two Web searching tasks. We extracted these tasks from the transaction log of a Web search engine, so they represent actual ecommerce searching information needs. Using 60 organic and 30 sponsored Web links

Jansen, James

297

Binary versus non-binary information in real time series: empirical results and maximum-entropy matrix models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information.

Almog, Assaf; Garlaschelli, Diego

2014-09-01

298

Background music and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance. PMID:20865993

Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

2010-06-01

299

What Do People Affected by Cancer Think About Electronic Health Information Exchange? Results From the 2010 LIVESTRONG Electronic Health Information Exchange Survey and the 2008 Health Information National Trends Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act has placed an emphasis on electronic health information exchange (EHIE). Research on needs of patient, especially those touched by cancer, has been sparse. Here, we present data on preferences for EHIE among those touched by cancer compared with a nationally representative sample of American adults. Methods: Two surveys were used: an online survey designed by LIVESTRONG (the Lance Armstrong Foundation) and a dual-frame, nationally representative sample of adults collected through the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Results: The LIVESTRONG EHIE survey yielded a sample of 8,411 respondents, including 433 currently receiving cancer treatment, 298 living with cancer as a chronic disease, 2,343 post-treatment survivors, and 5,337 with no history of cancer. The HINTS sample consisted of 7,674 respondents representative of the general adult population. Comparisons revealed a strong positive view of the value of EHIE within the cancer-relevant groups, especially among those living with cancer as a chronic disease. Only about half of the general population showed a similar degree of enthusiasm for EHIE. When asked about specific functions for EHRs, respondents valued privacy and security above all, followed by improving care coordination and data sharing between providers. Conclusion: These data suggest that the EHIE needs among those touched by cancer may be greater than in the general population. This is particularly important because people affected by cancer are among those who access our health care system most frequently and who have the most at stake. PMID:22043188

Beckjord, Ellen B.; Rechis, Ruth; Nutt, Stephanie; Shulman, Lawrence; Hesse, Bradford W.

2011-01-01

300

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE): Emergency support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Mission will measure the diffuse radiation from the universe in the wavelength band 1 micron to 9.6 mm. The band includes the 3 K cosmic background radiation, the known relic of the primeval cosmic explosion. The COBE satellite will be launched from the Western Space and Missile Center (EWSMC) via a Delta launch vehicle into a circular parking orbit of about 300 km. COBE will be placed into a 900-km altitude circular orbit. Coverage will be provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN) for COBE emergencies that would prevent communications via the normal channels of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Emergency support will be provided by the DSN 26-m subnetwork. Information is given in tabular form for DSN network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, and command.

Stanford, R.; Mattson, R.

1991-01-01

301

SPINS: a laboratory information management system for organizing and archiving intermediate and final results from NMR protein structure determinations.  

PubMed

Recent technological advances and experimental techniques have contributed to an increasing number and size of NMR datasets. In order to scale up productivity, laboratory information management systems for handling these extensive data need to be designed and implemented. The SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) addresses these needs by providing an interface for archival of complete protein NMR structure determinations, together with functionality for depositing these data to the public BioMagResBank (BMRB). The software tracks intermediate files during each step of an NMR structure-determination process, including: data collection, data processing, resonance assignments, resonance assignment validation, structure calculation, and structure validation. The underlying SPINS data dictionary allows for the integration of various third party NMR data processing and analysis software, enabling users to launch programs they are accustomed to using for each step of the structure determination process directly out of the SPINS user interface. PMID:16395675

Baran, Michael C; Moseley, Hunter N B; Aramini, James M; Bayro, Marvin J; Monleon, Daniel; Locke, Jessica Y; Montelione, Gaetano T

2006-03-01

302

Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents initial findings of a research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route air-traffic operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. The piloted simulation was conducted in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared under conditions of low and high operational complexity. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Operational constraints included separation assurance, schedule adherence, airspace hazard avoidance, flight efficiency, and passenger comfort. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective pilot ratings and comments comparing the tactical and strategic modes are presented.

Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

2001-01-01

303

Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents initial findings of a research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route air-traffic operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. The piloted simulation was conducted in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared under conditions of low and high operational complexity. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Operational constraints included separation assurance, schedule adherence, airspace hazard avoidance, flight efficiency, and passenger comfort. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective pilot ratings and comments comparing the tactical and strategic modes are presented.

Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

2002-01-01

304

Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

Behrends, Ehrhard

2004-05-01

305

Educational Attainment and Family Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the effect of aspects of family background, such as family income and parental education, on the educational attainment of persons born from 1967 to 1972. Family income is measured at different periods of a child's life to separate long-term versus short-term effects of family income on educational choices. We find that permanent income matters to a certain

Arild Aakvik; Kjell Gunnar Salvanes; Kjell Vaage

2005-01-01

306

Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background  

E-print Network

- 1 - Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background: Over the last 20 years, hurricane research at AOML has focused on improved scientific understanding of hurricanes and of tropical meteorology scientific goals for AOMLs hurricane research derive from the U.S. Weather Research Programs (USWRP

307

Wormhole on the Lobachevsky background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The exact spherical symmetric static solution of Rosen like equations of the bi metric theory is investigated. The background metric is not flat, but curved, with the Lobachevsky spatial sections and 'cosmic time' c(sup 2) d t(sup 2). There are two branch...

M. N. Tentyukov

1994-01-01

308

Shark Fact or Fiction? Background  

E-print Network

Shark Fact or Fiction? Background: This is a fun classroom activity based on the basic biology of sharks. This goes well with the enclosed Project Shark Awareness PowerPoint and should be used in conjunction with the presentation. Materials: Shark Fact of Fiction activity sheet and answer key

Watson, Craig A.

309

A Little Background Music, Please.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background music could be used to provide a pleasant beginning for the school day, to help keep students quiet and relaxed in the school cafeteria at lunchtime, and to provide a midafternoon lift for bored and tired children. The most effective music pleases children without overly exciting them through jarring rhythms and loud dynamics. (nine…

Giles, Martha Mead

1991-01-01

310

Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

Hansen, Janet S.

2008-01-01

311

Teaching about Natural Background Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

2013-01-01

312

Modeling Dense Stellar Systems: Background  

E-print Network

I provide some background about recent efforts made in modeling dense stellar systems, within the context of the MODEST initiative. During the last four years, we have seen more than fifteen MODEST workshops, with an attendance between twenty and a hundred participants, and topics ranging from very specialized discussions to rather general overviews.

Piet Hut

2006-10-07

313

Quantization by cosmic background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that various modes in the cosmic background radiation field may account for the discrete properties exhibited by small systems. In particular, this view is applied to the 1, 2-, and 3-D oscillators and the hydrogen atom, systems which were treated by Schrodinger in his first papers on quantum mechanics. The usual energy formulas for the above systems

James T. Dehn

1989-01-01

314

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, provides an overview of how scientists are working to explain the origin of the universe. Specifically, it discusses the two major theories about the origin of the universe (Big Bang and Steady State), the search for microwave background radiation, and the discovery of the first observational evidence to support the Big Bang theory.

315

1. Introduction 1.1. Background  

E-print Network

1. Introduction 1.1. Background Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) has been one of the most prevalent sources of environmental pollution in regions of high mineral extraction activity `'The low pH that characterises most AMD].Aconventional method of dealing with AMD has involved the use of lime which results in neutralisation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

C-B4-02: Enhancing the Quality and Efficiency of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening Using Health Information Technology: Results of a Geisinger Clinic Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Health information technology (HIT) can improve the screening and delivery of care to patients with chronic illnesses. To date there are no published data describing the use of HIT for screening patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a prevalent under-diagnosed chronic condition representing a substantial and growing socio-economic burden. Geisinger Clinic is a physician-led, multi-specialty group practice in rural Central Pennsylvania with integrated electronic medical records. Aim We sought to determine whether HIT could be used to identify OSA amongst patients at risk for the disease through the use of a simple questionnaire and a physician approved referral protocol. Methods Using an internet-based portal through which patients can review their Electronic Health Record (EHR), schedule appointments, and receive communication, patients with a body mass index (BMI) >40 and without a diagnosis or prior evaluation for sleep apnea were invited to complete the “STOP” questionnaire, a self-administered validated screening tool consisting of 4 “yes/no” questions; “yes” answers to 2 questions identify individuals at high risk of having OSA. Patients who screened positive were then contacted to schedule a sleep medicine evaluation. Results Electronic invitations were sent to 2,283 eligible patients to take the questionnaire; 279 (12%) completed and submitted their responses. Based on their answers, 122/279 (44%) were identified as being at high risk for having OSA and recommended to undergo evaluation in the sleep clinic. To date, 104/122 patients (85%) were offered an appointment with a sleep specialist; the remaining 18 (15%) are waiting scheduling. Of those offered a clinic appointment, 41/104 (40%) have undergone a sleep medicine evaluation, 38/104 (36%) are waiting to be scheduled, and 25/104 (24%) cancelled or did not keep their appointment. Of the evaluated patients, 38/41 (93%) were diagnosed with OSA, 2/41(5%) had negative sleep studies, and 1/41(2%) are awaiting polysomnographic evaluation. The positive predictive value of the STOP questionnaire among patients who underwent polysomnography was 95%. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that utilizing an internet-based patient portal via the EHR can identify patients at high risk of OSA and facilitate their ultimate evaluation and diagnosis through the administration of a simple questionnaire.

Moser, Robert; Boyer, Elizabeth; Lupinski, Diana; Darer, Jonathan; Anderer, Tammy; Villareal, Alexander; Berger, Peter

2011-01-01

317

Elastic lattice in an incommensurate background  

SciTech Connect

We study a harmonic triangular lattice, which relaxes in the presence of an incommensurate short-wavelength potential. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the elastic lattice exhibits only short-ranged translational correlations, despite the absence of defects in either lattice. Extended orientational order, however, persists in the presence of the background. Translational correlation lengths exhibit approximate power-law dependence upon cooling rate and background strength. Our results may be relevant to Wigner crystals, atomic monolayers on crystals surfaces, and flux-line and magnetic bubble lattices.

Dickman, R.; Chudnovsky, E.M. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States))

1995-01-01

318

Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background  

E-print Network

The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects, between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background is investigated, by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density there is focusing and subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed.

Mattias Marklund; Gert Brodin; Lennart Stenflo

2003-05-15

319

Holographic backgrounds from D-brane probes  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the derivation of holographic backgrounds from the field theory side, without using any supergravity equations of motion. Instead, we rely on the addition of probe D-branes to the stack of D-branes generating the background. From the field theory description of the probe branes, one can compute an effective action for the probes (in a suitable low-energy/near-horizon limit) by integrating out the background branes. Comparing this action with the generic probe D-brane action then allows to determine the holographic background dual to the considered field theory vacuum. In the first part, the required pre-requisites of field and string theory are recalled and this strategy to derive holographic backgrounds is explained in more detail on the basic case of D3-branes in flat space probed by a small number of D-instantons. The second part contains our original results, which have already appeared in arXiv:1301.3738, arXiv:1301.7062 and arXiv:1312.0621. We first derive the duals to three conti...

Moskovic, Micha

2014-01-01

320

[Introduction of the information processing system of medical examinations of yusho patients and some results obtained by the 1986 survey].  

PubMed

Information processing system for newly established, unified medical examinations of yusho patients which started in September 1985 was presented. Some comparative analysis was also shown on the "important findings" in yusho patients residing in Fukuoka or Nagasaki prefecture. In the 1986 survey, Fukuoka male patients showed higher percentages of pigmentation in toe nail, gingiva and palpebral conjunctiva than Nagasaki (p less than 0.01), whereas Nagasaki male patients showed higher percentages of pigmentation in buccal and lip mucosa. Average concentration of PCB in blood was higher in Nagasaki male patients (6.79 ppb) than in Fukuoka patients (4.39 ppb), the difference being significant at 1% level. PMID:2501202

Kataoka, K; Okubo, A; Shinohara, S; Hirota, Y; Hirohata, T

1989-05-01

321

Measuring Spatial Infiltration in Stormwater Control Measures: Results and Implications  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will provide background information on research conducted by EPA-ORD on the use of soil moisture sensors in bioretention/bioinfiltration technologies to evaluate infiltration mechanisms and compares monitoring results to simplified modeling assumptions. A serie...

322

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fixtures, or installed too close to the exhaust flues from heat producing devices or apparatus such as furnaces, water heaters, and space heaters. These fires may result in serious injuries or deaths. Presently available information indicates that...

2011-01-01

323

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fixtures, or installed too close to the exhaust flues from heat producing devices or apparatus such as furnaces, water heaters, and space heaters. These fires may result in serious injuries or deaths. Presently available information indicates that...

2012-01-01

324

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fixtures, or installed too close to the exhaust flues from heat producing devices or apparatus such as furnaces, water heaters, and space heaters. These fires may result in serious injuries or deaths. Presently available information indicates that...

2010-01-01

325

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fixtures, or installed too close to the exhaust flues from heat producing devices or apparatus such as furnaces, water heaters, and space heaters. These fires may result in serious injuries or deaths. Presently available information indicates that...

2013-01-01

326

16 CFR 1404.2 - Background.  

...fixtures, or installed too close to the exhaust flues from heat producing devices or apparatus such as furnaces, water heaters, and space heaters. These fires may result in serious injuries or deaths. Presently available information indicates...

2014-01-01

327

Conductivity in an anisotropic background  

SciTech Connect

By using the gauge/gravity duality, we investigate the dual field theories of the anisotropic backgrounds, which are exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with a Liouville potential. When we turn on the bulk gauge field fluctuation A{sub x} with a nontrivial dilaton coupling, the AC conductivity of this dual field theory is proportional to the frequency with an exponent depending on parameters of the anisotropic background. In some parameter regions, we find that this conductivity can have the negative exponent like the strange metal. In addition, we also investigate another U(1) gauge field fluctuation, which is not coupled with a dilaton field. We classify all possible conductivities of this system and find that the exponent of the conductivity is always positive.

Lee, Bum-Hoon [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Siyoung [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Pang, Da-Wei; Park, Chanyong [Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15

328

Quantization by cosmic background radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is suggested that various modes in the cosmic background radiation field may account for the discrete properties exhibited by small systems. In particular, this view is applied to the 1, 2-, and 3-D oscillators and the hydrogen atom, systems which were treated by Schrodinger in his first papers on quantum mechanics. The usual energy formulas for the above systems are derived using this point of view, together with some indication of how transition probabilities might also be calculated. A connection between de Broglie's associated wave and a free mass moving in the cosmic background is also discussed. Analogs of the uncertainty and correspondence principles are briefly mentioned as are some of the implications this view might have for interpreting quantum theory. In this view particles and waves are separate, interacting entities and not complementary aspects of the same thing.

Dehn, James T.

1989-05-01

329

Emergent Supersymmetry in Warped Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that quantum mechanical supersymmetries are emerged in Kaluza-Klein spectrum of linearized gravity in several warped backgrounds as a consequence of higher-dimensional general coordinate invariance. These emergent supersymmetries play an essential role for the spectral structure of braneworld gravity. We show that for the case of braneworld models with two codimension-1 branes the spectral pattern is completely determined only through the supersymmetries.

Nagasawa, Tomoaki; Ohya, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Sakamoto, Makoto

2011-07-01

330

Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital "De Kijvelanden", were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for other severe crimes. Apart from DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, family backgrounds, level of education, treatment history, intelligence (WAIS scores), and PCL-R scores were included in the comparisons. Furthermore, the apparent motives for the arson offences were explored. It was found that arsonists had more often received psychiatric treatment, prior to committing their index offence, and had a history of severe alcohol abuse more often in comparison to the controls. The arsonists turned out to be less likely to suffer from a major psychotic disorder. Both groups did not differ significantly on the other variables, among which the PCL-R total scores and factor scores. Exploratory analyses however, did suggest that arsonists may differentiate from non-arsonists on three items of the PCL-R, namely impulsivity (higher scores), superficial charm (lower scores), and juvenile delinquency (lower scores). Although the number of arsonists with a major psychotic disorder was relatively low (28%), delusional thinking of some form was judged to play a role in causing arson crimes in about half of the cases (52%). PMID:20434774

Labree, Wim; Nijman, Henk; van Marle, Hjalmar; Rassin, Eric

2010-01-01

331

How Do Quality Information and Cost Affect Patient Choice of Provider in a Tiered Network Setting? Results from a Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess how quality information from multiple sources and financial incentives affect consumer choice of physicians in tiered physician networks. Data Source Survey of a stratified random sample of Massachusetts state employees. Study Design Respondents were assigned a hypothetical structure with differential copayments for “Tier 1” (preferred) and “Tier 2” (nonpreferred) physicians. Half of respondents were told they needed to select a cardiologist, and half were told they needed to select a dermatologist. Patients were asked whether they would choose a Tier 1 doctor, a Tier 2 doctor, or had no preference in a case where they had no further quality information, a case where a family member or friend recommended a Tier 2 doctor, and a case where their personal physician recommended a Tier 2 doctor. The effects of copayments, recommendations, physician specialty, and patient characteristics on the reported probability of selecting a Tier 1 doctor are analyzed using multinomial logit and logistic regression. Principal Findings Relative to a case where there is no copayment differential between tiers, copayment differences of U.S.$10–U.S.$35 increase the number of respondents indicating they would select a Tier 1 physician by 3.5–11.7 percent. Simulations suggest copayments must exceed U.S.$300 to counteract the recommendation for a lower tiered physician from friends, family, or a referring physician. Sensitivity to the copayments varied with physician specialty. Conclusions Tiered provider networks with these copayment levels appear to have limited influence on physician choice when contradicted by other trusted sources. Consumers' response likely varies with physician specialty. PMID:21143478

Sinaiko, Anna D

2011-01-01

332

Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples.

Not Available

1993-04-01

333

Wicked Problems and Gnarly Results: Reflecting on Design and Evaluation Methods for Idiosyncratic Personal Information Management Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a case study of an artifact design and evaluation process; it is a reflection on how right thinking about design methods may at times result in sub-optimal results. Our goal has been to assess our decision making process throughout the design and evaluation stages for a software prototype in order to consider where design methodology may need

Michael Bernstein; Max Van Kleek; Deepali Khushraj; Rajeev Nayak; Curtis Liu; David R. Karger

334

Background noise levels in PC home environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was designed and conducted to determine the background noise levels in the home environment. This is an important factor in determining the acoustic performance of the computing devices that go into these environments. A specialized methodology was developed and measurements were carried out in homes in the United States, Sweden, Germany, and China. The sound levels in three rooms in 15-18 homes in each country were collected over 24-h periods. The results indicated that the background noise levels ranged between 30 and 40 dBA across the four countries. Variations in the background noise levels between the different rooms in the homes were minimal. No significant variations were found between home types (detached, semi-detached, and apartment) and community types (urban, suburban). However, European homes were quieter than United States and Chinese homes. The variations between countries were statistically significant. In addition to the background noise levels, the acoustical characteristics of the rooms were measured. The results indicated that the reverberation radius was typically below 1 m and was fairly consistent between geographies.

Doherty, Rina; Salskov, Eric; Corriveau, Philip J.; Sorenson, Paul; Gabel, Doug; Beltman, Willem M.

2005-09-01

335

Strain Background Modifies Phenotypes in the ATP8B1-Deficient Mouse  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in ATP8B1 (FIC1) underlie cases of cholestatic disease, ranging from chronic and progressive (progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis) to intermittent (benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis). The ATP8B1-deficient mouse serves as an animal model of human ATP8B1 deficiency. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the effect of genetic background on phenotypes of ATP8B1-deficient and wild-type mice, using C57Bl/6 (B6), 129, and (B6-129) F1 strain backgrounds. B6 background resulted in greater abnormalities in ATP8B1-deficient mice than did 129 and/or F1 background. ATP8B1-deficient pups of B6 background gained less weight. In adult ATP8B1-deficient mice at baseline, those of B6 background had lower serum cholesterol levels, higher serum alkaline phosphatase levels, and larger livers. After challenge with cholate-supplemented diet, these mice exhibited higher serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels, greater weight loss and larger livers. ATP8B1-deficient phenotypes in mice of F1 and 129 backgrounds are usually similar, suggesting that susceptibility to manifestations of ATP8B1 deficiency may be recessive. We also detected differences in hepatobiliary phenotypes between wild-type mice of differing strains. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the ATP8B1-deficient mouse in a B6 background may be a better model of human ATP8B1 deficiency and highlight the importance of informed background strain selection for mouse models of liver disease. PMID:20126555

Vargas, Julie C.; Xu, Hongmei; Groen, Annamiek; Paulusma, Coen C.; Grenert, James P.; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Sen, Saunak; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Bull, Laura N.

2010-01-01

336

Ocean data assimilation with background error covariance derived from OGCM outputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background error covariance plays an important role in modern data assimilation and analysis systems by determining the spatial spreading of information in the data. A novel method based on model output is proposed to estimate background error covariance for use in Optimum Interpolation. At every model level, anisotropic correlation scales are obtained that give a more detailed description of the spatial correlation structure. Furthermore, the impact of the background field itself is included in the background error covariance. The methodology of the estimation is presented and the structure of the covariance is examined. The results of 20-year assimilation experiments are compared with observations from TOGA-TAO (The Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere-Tropical Atmosphere Ocean) array and other analysis data.

Fu, Weiwei; Zhou, Guangqing; Wang, Huijun

2004-04-01

337

The Role and Design of an Integrated Clinical Result Database within a Client-Server Networked Hospital Information System Architecture  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a central clinical result database that is being developed to support the laboratory, radiology, and surgical pathology services of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. This database will contain all the impatient and outpatient tests, and will be networked to permit viewing of patient results from any terminal, PC, or workstation. The design of the database, how it is networked, and how the system addresses the health care provider-to-computer interface are discussed in detail.

Kuzmak, Peter M.; Kahane, Stephen N.; Arseniev, Marina; Tolchin, Stephen G.; Lenhard, Raymond E.

1987-01-01

338

The Sunyaev-Zeldovich Background  

E-print Network

The cosmic background due to the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect is expected to be the largest signal at mm and cm wavelengths at a resolution of a few arcminutes. We investigate some simple statistics of SZ maps and their scaling with the normalization of the matter power spectrum, sigma_8, as well as the effects of the unknown physics of the intracluster medium on these statistics. We show that the SZ background provides a significant background for SZ cluster searches, with the onset of confusion occurring around 10^{14} h^{-1} solar masses in a cosmology-dependent way, where confusion is defined as typical errors in recovered flux larger than 20%. The confusion limit, corresponds to the mass at which there are roughly ten clusters per square degree, with this number nearly independent of cosmology and cluster gas physics. Typical errors grow quickly as lower mass objects are included in the catalog. We also point out that there is nothing in particular about the rms of the filtered map that makes it especially well-suited for capturing aspects of the SZ effect, and other indicators of the one-point SZ probability distribution function are at least as well suited for the task. For example, the full width at half maximum of the one point probability distribution has a field-to-field scatter that is about 60% that of the rms. The simplest statistics of SZ maps are largely unaffected by cluster physics such aspreheating, although the impact of preheating is clear by eye in the maps.Studies aimed at learning about the physics of the intracluster medium will apparently require more specialized statistical indicators.

Gilbert Holder; Ian G. McCarthy; Arif Babul

2007-02-27

339

High background photon counting lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photon counting with lidar returns is usually limited to low light levels, while wide dynamic range is achieved by counting for long times. The broad emission spectrum of inexpensive high-power semiconductor lasers makes receiver filters pass too much background light for traditional photon counting in daylight. Very high speed photon counting is possible, however, at more than 500 MHz which allows the construction of eyesafe lidar operating in the presence of bright clouds. Detector improvements are possible to count to 20 GHz producing a single shot dynamic range of ten decades.

Lentz, W. J.

1992-01-01

340

SUBJECT: Employee Hazard Communication 1.0 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE  

E-print Network

, all of the topics addressed in the Employee Hazard Communication Program. The Environmental Health1 SUBJECT: Employee Hazard Communication 1.0 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Various chemicals present of a Hazard Communication Program intended to provide the information and training needed to inform

341

WWC Quick Review of the Report "The Role of Simplification and Information in College Decisions: Results from the H&R Block FAFSA Experiment" Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an updated WWC (What Works Clearinghouse) Quick Review of the report "The Role of Simplification and Information in College Decisions: Results from the H&R Block FAFSA Experiment". The study examined whether assistance in filling out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) increases the likelihood of filing the…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

342

Holographic backgrounds from D-brane probes  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the derivation of holographic backgrounds from the field theory side, without using any supergravity equations of motion. Instead, we rely on the addition of probe D-branes to the stack of D-branes generating the background. From the field theory description of the probe branes, one can compute an effective action for the probes (in a suitable low-energy/near-horizon limit) by integrating out the background branes. Comparing this action with the generic probe D-brane action then allows to determine the holographic background dual to the considered field theory vacuum. In the first part, the required pre-requisites of field and string theory are recalled and this strategy to derive holographic backgrounds is explained in more detail on the basic case of D3-branes in flat space probed by a small number of D-instantons. The second part contains our original results, which have already appeared in arXiv:1301.3738, arXiv:1301.7062 and arXiv:1312.0621. We first derive the duals to three continuous deformations (Coulomb branch, $\\beta$ and non-commutative deformations) of N=4 super-Yang-Mills. We then derive the enhan\\c{c}on mechanism in a simple N=2 quiver gauge theory setup by using a fractional D-instanton as a probe and exploiting recent exact results on the Coulomb branch of N=2 quivers. Finally, we obtain the near-horizon D4-brane geometry by probing the D4-branes with a small number of D0-branes.

Micha Moskovic

2014-09-02

343

Ratios among atmospheric trace gases together with winds imply exploitable information for bird navigation: a model elucidating experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of avian goal-oriented navigation is described that is based on two empirical findings: (1) To orient their courses homeward from distant unfamiliar areas, homing pigeons require long-term exposure to undisturbed winds at the home site and olfactory access to the environmental air at home and abroad. (2) Above Germany, ratios among some atmospheric trace gases vary along differently oriented spatial gradients and in dependence on wind direction. The model emulates finding (1) by utilising the analysed air samples on which finding (2) is based. Starting with an available set of 46 omnipresent compounds, virtual pigeons determine the profile of relative weights among them at each of 96 sites regularly distributed around a central home site within a radius of 200 km and compare this profile with corresponding profiles determined at home under varying wind conditions. Referring to particular similarities and dissimilarities depending on home-wind direction, they try to estimate, at each site, the compass direction they should fly in order to approach home. To make the model working, an iterative algorithm imitates evolution by modifying sensitivity to the individual compounds stepwise at random. In the course of thousands of trial-and-error steps it gradually improves homeward orientation by selecting smaller sets of most useful and optimally weighted substances from whose proportional configurations at home and abroad it finally derives navigational performances similar to those accomplished by real pigeons. It is concluded that the dynamic chemical atmosphere most likely contains sufficient spatial information for home-finding over hundreds of kilometres of unfamiliar terrain. The underlying chemo-atmospheric processes remain to be clarified.

Wallraff, H. G.

2013-07-01

344

Building Better Career Futures: Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource booklet, one of the three components that make up the Building Better Career Futures (BBCF) program, provides information on theories and approaches of BBCF; articles on themes of the program; and group activities addressing the specific career development outcomes of BBCF. This booklet is organized into four parts. The first part,…

Bezanson, Lynne; Hopkins, Sareena

345

Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

2001-05-01

346

The Distribution of Cosmic Radio Background Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey of cosmic radio background radiation at 250 mc using the Ohio State University 96-helix radio telescope are described. The antenna has beam widths of about 1.2° in right ascension and 8° in declination between half-power points. Radio maps, covering about 75 per cent of the sky, are presented in celestial and galactic coordinates. The greater

H. C. Ko

1958-01-01

347

Decision-Making in Flight with Different Convective Weather Information Sources: Preliminary Results from the Langley CoWS Experiment (COnvective Weather Sources)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides information on an airborne experiment designed to test the decision making of pilots receiving different sources of meteorological data. The presentation covers the equipment used in the COnvective Weather Sources (CoWS) Experiment), including the information system and display devices available to some of the subjects. It also describes the experiment, which featured teams of general aviation pilots, who were onboard but did not actually fly the aircraft used in the experiment. The presentation includes the results of a survey of the subjects' confidence.

Chamberlain, Jim; Latorella, Kara

2003-01-01

348

Gauging the cosmic microwave background  

E-print Network

We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behaviour of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behaviour. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behaviour. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

J. P. Zibin; Douglas Scott

2008-08-14

349

Backgrounder: Council on Foreign Relations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations provides a number of services for the general public, and in the past they have offered up public discussions, forums, and other outreach activities. In addition, they offer the "Backgrounders" series, which offer succinct explanations of current political and economic issues. First-time users can visit the "Most Recent" area to peruse the latest piece, or they can click on the "Daily Analysis" or "Daily Brief" sections. The profiles cover everything from the role of delegates in the U.S. presidential nominating process to understanding Kenya's politics. Also, visitors can click on complementary materials, such as podcasts, interactive features, and online debates. Finally, visitors can also search for specific materials via the search engine offered here.

350

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

351

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1996-06-11

352

Gauging the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect

We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behavior of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behavior. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behavior. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

Zibin, J. P.; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2008-12-15

353

The interaction of family background and personal education on depressive symptoms in later life.  

PubMed

This study assesses the interaction between personal education and family background during childhood on depressive symptoms in later life by applying Ross & Mirowsky's resource substitution and structural amplification theory of health and education. OLS regression models are estimated using data from the "Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe" (SHARE), which covers information on current social and health status as well as retrospective life histories from 20,716 respondents aged 50 or older from thirteen European countries. Higher education helps to overcome the negative consequences of a poor family background. Since people from poor families are less likely to attain higher educational levels, they lack exactly the resource they need in order to overcome the negative consequences their non-prosperous background has on depressive symptoms. Thus, low family background and low personal education amplify each other. Examining the processes described by theory of resource substitution and structural amplification over different age groups from midlife to old-age suggests that the moderating effect of education remains constant over age among people coming from a poor family background. However, there is some evidence for a decrease with age in the buffering effect of a well-off family background on depressive symptoms among the low educated group. Furthermore, the educational gap in depression diverges with age among individuals originating from a well-off family background. Taken together the results cautiously allude to the conclusion that three processes - cumulative (dis-)advantage, age-as-leveler, and persistent inequalities - might take place. PMID:24565146

Schaan, Barbara

2014-02-01

354

The microwave background anisotropies: Observations  

PubMed Central

Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation—fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 ?K fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1° and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe—the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century. PMID:9419320

Wilkinson, David

1998-01-01

355

Mapping gravitational-wave backgrounds using methods from CMB analysis: Application to pulsar timing arrays  

E-print Network

We describe an alternative approach to the analysis of gravitational-wave backgrounds, based on the formalism used to characterise the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background. In contrast to standard analyses, this approach makes no assumptions about the nature of the background and so has the potential to reveal much more about the physical processes that generated it. An arbitrary background can be decomposed into modes whose angular dependence on the sky is given by gradients and curls of spherical harmonics. We derive the pulsar timing overlap reduction functions for the individual modes, which are given by simple combinations of spherical harmonics evaluated at the pulsar locations. We show how these can be used to recover the components of an arbitrary background, giving explicit results for both isotropic and anisotropic uncorrelated backgrounds. We also find that the response of a pulsar timing array to curl modes is identically zero, so half of the gravitational-wave sky will never be observed using pulsar timing, no matter how many pulsars are included in the array. An isotropic, unpolarised and uncorrelated background can be accurately represented using only three modes, and so a search of this type will be only slightly more complicated than the standard cross-correlation search using the Hellings and Downs overlap reduction function. However, by measuring the components of individual modes of the background and checking for consistency with isotropy, this approach has the potential to reveal much more information. Each individual mode on its own describes a background that is correlated between different points on the sky. A measurement of the components that indicates the presence of correlations in the background on large angular scales would suggest startling new physics.

Jonathan R. Gair; Joseph D. Romano; Stephen Taylor; Chiara M. F. Mingarelli

2014-06-18

356

Mapping gravitational-wave backgrounds using methods from CMB analysis: Application to pulsar timing arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an alternative approach to the analysis of gravitational-wave backgrounds, based on the formalism used to characterize the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In contrast to standard analyses, this approach makes no assumptions about the nature of the background and so has the potential to reveal much more about the physical processes that generated it. An arbitrary background can be decomposed into modes whose angular dependence on the sky is given by gradients and curls of spherical harmonics. We derive the pulsar timing overlap reduction functions for the individual modes, which are given by simple combinations of spherical harmonics evaluated at the pulsar locations. We show how these can be used to recover the components of an arbitrary background, giving explicit results for both isotropic and anisotropic uncorrelated backgrounds. We also find that the response of a pulsar timing array to curl modes is identically zero, so half of the gravitational-wave sky will never be observed using pulsar timing, no matter how many pulsars are included in the array. An isotropic, unpolarized and uncorrelated background can be accurately represented using only three modes, and so a search of this type will be only slightly more complicated than the standard cross-correlation search using the Hellings and Downs overlap reduction function. However, by measuring the components of individual modes of the background and checking for consistency with isotropy, this approach has the potential to reveal much more information. Each individual mode on its own describes a background that is correlated between different points on the sky. A measurement of the components that indicates the presence of correlations in the background on large angular scales would suggest startling new physics.

Gair, Jonathan; Romano, Joseph D.; Taylor, Stephen; Mingarelli, Chiara M. F.

2014-10-01

357

The link between past informal payments and willingness of the Hungarian population to pay formal fees for health care services: results from a contingent valuation study.  

PubMed

We examine the willingness of health care consumers to pay formal fees for health care use and how this willingness to pay is associated with past informal payments. We use data from a survey carried out in Hungary in 2010 among a representative sample of 1,037 respondents. The contingent valuation method is used to elicit the willingness to pay official charges for health care services covered by the social health insurance if certain quality attributes (regarding the health care facility, access to the services and health care personnel) are guaranteed. A bivariate probit model is applied to examine the relationship between willingness to pay and past informal payments. We find that 66 % of the respondents are willing to pay formal fees for specialist examinations and 56 % are willing to pay for planned hospitalizations if these services are provided with certain quality and access attributes. The act of making past informal payments for health care services is positively associated with the willingness to pay formal charges. The probability that a respondent is willing to pay official charges for health care services is 22 % points higher for specialist examinations and 45 % points higher for hospitalization if the respondent paid informally during the last 12 months. The introduction of formal fees should be accompanied by adequate service provision to assure acceptance of the fees. Furthermore, our results suggest that the problem of informal patient payments may remain even after the implementation of user fees. PMID:23989982

Baji, Petra; Pavlova, Milena; Gulácsi, László; Farkas, Miklós; Groot, Wim

2014-11-01

358

Measuring anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrino capture on tritium has emerged as a promising method for detecting the cosmic neutrino background (C ? B ). We show that relic neutrinos are captured most readily when their spin vectors are antialigned with the polarization axis of the tritium nuclei and when they approach along the direction of polarization. As a result, C ? B observatories may measure anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino velocity and spin distributions by polarizing the tritium targets. A small dipole anisotropy in the C ? B is expected due to the peculiar velocity of the lab frame with respect to the cosmic frame and due to late-time gravitational effects. The PTOLEMY experiment, a tritium observatory currently under construction, should observe a nearly isotropic background. This would serve as a strong test of the cosmological origin of a potential signal. The polarized-target measurements may also constrain nonstandard neutrino interactions that would induce larger anisotropies and help discriminate between Majorana versus Dirac neutrinos.

Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Tully, Christopher G.

2014-10-01

359

Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Data analysis for the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be complicated by the huge number of sources in the LISA band. In the frequency band {approx}10{sup -4}-2x10{sup -3} Hz, galactic white dwarf binaries (GWDBs) are sufficiently dense in frequency space that it will be impossible to resolve most of them, and ''confusion noise'' from the unresolved Galactic binaries will dominate over instrumental noise in determining LISA's sensitivity to other sources in that band. Confusion noise from unresolved extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) could also contribute significantly to LISA's total noise curve. To date, estimates of the effect of LISA's confusion noise on matched-filter searches and their detection thresholds have generally approximated the noise as Gaussian, based on the central limit theorem. However in matched-filter searches, the appropriate detection threshold for a given class of signals may be located rather far out on the tail of the signal-to-noise probability distribution, where a priori it is unclear whether the Gaussian approximation is reliable. Using the Edgeworth expansion and the theory of large deviations, we investigate the probability distribution of the usual matched-filter detection statistic, far out on the tail of the distribution. We apply these tools to four somewhat idealized versions of LISA data searches: searches for EMRI signals buried in GWDB confusion noise, and searches for massive black hole binary signals buried in (i) GWDB noise, (ii) EMRI noise, and (iii) a sum of EMRI noise and Gaussian noise. Assuming reasonable short-distance cutoffs in the populations of confusion sources (since the very closest and hence strongest sources will be individually resolvable), modifications to the appropriate detection threshold, due to the non-Gaussianity of the confusion noise, turn out to be quite small for realistic cases. The smallness of the correction is partly due to the fact that these three types of sources evolve on quite different time scales, so no single background source closely resembles any search template. We also briefly discuss other types of LISA searches where the non-Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds could perhaps have a much greater impact on search reliability and efficacy.

Racine, Etienne [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Cutler, Curt [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

2007-12-15

360

Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background: Theory  

E-print Network

Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I ouline some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The specturm of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions.

Scott Dodelson

1997-02-14

361

Cosmic Infrared Background and Early Stellar Populations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmic infrared background (CIB) contains information about galaxy luminosities over the entire history of the Universe and can be a powerful diagnostic of the early populations otherwise inaccessible to telescopic studies. Its measurements are very difficult because of the strong IR foregrounds from the Solar system and the Galaxy. Nevertheless, substantial recent progress in measuring the CIB and its structure has been made. The measurements now allow to set significant constraints on early galaxy evolution and, perhaps, even detect the elusive Population III era. We discuss briefly the theory behind the CIB, review the latest measurements of the CIB and its structure, and discuss their implications for detecting and/or constraining the first stars and their epochs.

Kashlinsky, A.

2005-01-01

362

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

2013-11-07

363

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, Narbe [University of Texas

2013-11-01

364

Automated analysis of background EEG and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia in comatose patients after cardiac arrest.  

PubMed

Visual analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) background and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia provides important outcome information, but is time-consuming and not always consistent between reviewers. Automated EEG analysis may help quantify the brain damage. Forty-six comatose patients in therapeutic hypothermia, after cardiac arrest, were included in the study. EEG background was quantified with burst-suppression ratio (BSR) and approximate entropy, both used to monitor anesthesia. Reactivity was detected through change in the power spectrum of signal before and after stimulation. Automatic results obtained almost perfect agreement (discontinuity) to substantial agreement (background reactivity) with a visual score from EEG-certified neurologists. Burst-suppression ratio was more suited to distinguish continuous EEG background from burst-suppression than approximate entropy in this specific population. Automatic EEG background and reactivity measures were significantly related to good and poor outcome. We conclude that quantitative EEG measurements can provide promising information regarding current state of the patient and clinical outcome, but further work is needed before routine application in a clinical setting. PMID:24452769

Noirhomme, Quentin; Lehembre, Rémy; Lugo, Zulay Del Rosario; Lesenfants, Damien; Luxen, André; Laureys, Steven; Oddo, Mauro; Rossetti, Andrea O

2014-01-01

365

Density measurements using near-field background-oriented Schlieren  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification of the constant correction factor in the known equations of the background-oriented Schlieren is presented in order to be applicable to the near-field. Near-Field background-oriented Schlieren has the advantage over standard background-oriented Schlieren of being able to obtain reliable density distributions for set-ups in which the background pattern is placed directly behind the investigated flow field. It is proven that the modified correction factor depends solely on the distance between the background pattern and the flow field and on the external shape of the investigated flow field itself. The proof of principle and the accuracy of the proposed technique are obtained by the simulation of a 2D density variation with the use of glass wedge prism. The measurement of the whole-field density information of a supersonic underexpanded free jet is presented as an example that confirms the theoretical predictions.

van Hinsberg, N. P.; Rösgen, T.

2014-04-01

366

23. Cosmic microwave background 1 23. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

with other astrophysical data, the CMB anisotropy measurements place quite precise constraints on a number. These were joined in 2003 by the first results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) [4], which were improved upon by analysis of the 3-year, 5-year, and 7-year WMAP data [5,6,7]. Together

367

25. Cosmic microwave background 1 25. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

with other astrophysical data, the CMB anisotropy measurements place quite precise constraints on a number. These were joined in 2003 by the first results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) [4], which were improved upon by analysis of the 3-year, 5-year, and 7-year WMAP data [5,6,7]. Together

368

23. Cosmic microwave background 1 23. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

confirmation of the `Standard Model of Cosmology.' In combination with other astrophysical data, the CMB by the first results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) [4], which were improved upon by analysis of the 3 year and 5 year WMAP data [5,6]. Together these observations have led to a stunning

369

Background complexity affects colour preference in bumblebees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination are typically red. This correlation is usually explained by the assertion that nectar- or pollen-stealing bees are “blind” to red flowers. However, laboratory studies have shown that bees are capable of locating artificial red flowers and often show no innate preference for blue over red. We hypothesised that these findings might be artefacts of the simplified laboratory environment. Using bumblebees ( Bombus impatiens) that had been trained to visit red and blue artificial flowers, we tested whether colour preference was influenced by complexity of the background on which they were foraging. Many bees were indifferent to flower colour when tested using a uniform green background like those commonly used in laboratory studies, but all bees showed strong colour preferences (usually for blue) when flowers were presented against a photograph of real foliage. Overall, preference for blue flowers was significantly greater on the more realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of “hummingbird syndrome” flowers can function to reduce bee visits despite the ability of bees to detect red and highlight the need to consider context when drawing inferences about pollinator preferences from laboratory data.

Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D.

2009-08-01

370

42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED...EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM...Among the types of illnesses for which...

2010-10-01

371

Background Information MSE-ISU Program Self Study Report  

E-print Network

.................................................................................................72 Table 3. Faculty Workload Summary................................................................................................................................42 5. Faculty ..........................................................................................................73 Table 4. Faculty Analysis

Lin, Zhiqun

372

LANL-IPF responses to isotopes workshop background information survey  

SciTech Connect

Responses to the following are provided: (A) Which isotopes do you (company, agency, university, community) currently use in your activities or distribute (repackage) to end-users? (B) Describe generally what these isotopes are used for, i.e. the science or application. (C) Which isotope(s) do you anticipate may have significant future increase in demand. Identify the isotope(s), its priority, possible chemical form and for what purpose it would be used. (D) Are there other isotopes that you might use but are currently unavilable or not available in difficient quantities? If so, please identify this isotope, from whom have you tired to obtain it and for what prupose would it be used. (E) Do you have any specific issues with respect to the purity, availability, reliability of supply, etc. of isotopes at present?

Nortier, Francois Meiring [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

373

42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION...

2011-10-01

374

42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION...

2012-10-01

375

42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION...

2013-10-01

376

Background Check Information College of Nursing Advisement Center  

E-print Network

listed below have the same county. If your current address has a different county than your previous address you must pay $41.00. If you are from any of the counties in the below tables you have additional fees. Please check the counties and add the appropriate fee to your total amount. Additional fees may

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

377

Harrah Excellence in Innovation Award AWARD BACKGROUND & INFORMATION  

E-print Network

innovative approaches have contributed significantly to business excellence. The distinguished innovations may include, but are not limited to: · transforming a business; · changing a business model describing how the business innovation is created and the business outcome(s): · A cover page · Individuals

Ahmad, Sajjad

378

Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child  

MedlinePLUS

... Training Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies ... System reform Training Workforce Systemwide Assessment Courts Cultural competence Domestic violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & policies ...

379

Geographic Population, Weather, and Vegetation Background Information on Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rio de Janeiro and the surrounding region differ from the majority of the great metropolises by virtue of the diversified character of their terrain formation. The most impressive contrast here is the one represented by lowland consisting of formerly swam...

1966-01-01

380

Dual-tracer background subtraction approach for fluorescent molecular tomography  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Diffuse fluorescence tomography requires high contrast-to-background ratios to accurately reconstruct inclusions of interest. This is a problem when imaging the uptake of fluorescently labeled molecularly targeted tracers in tissue, which can result in high levels of heterogeneously distributed background uptake. We present a dual-tracer background subtraction approach, wherein signal from the uptake of an untargeted tracer is subtracted from targeted tracer signal prior to image reconstruction, resulting in maps of targeted tracer binding. The approach is demonstrated in simulations, a phantom study, and in a mouse glioma imaging study, demonstrating substantial improvement over conventional and homogenous background subtraction image reconstruction approaches. PMID:23292612

Holt, Robert W.; El-Ghussein, Fadi; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Leblond, Frederic; Pogue, Brian W.

2013-01-01

381

Text Clustering Based on Background Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text document clustering plays an important role in providing intuitive navigation and browsing mechanisms by organizing large amounts of information into a small number of meaningful clusters. Standard partitional or agglomerative clustering methods efficiently compute results to this end. However, the bag of words representation used for these clustering methods is of- ten unsatisfactory as it ignores relationships between important

Andreas Hotho; Steffen Staab; Gerd Stumme

2003-01-01

382

Stochastic background of atmospheric cascades  

SciTech Connect

Fluctuations in the atmospheric cascades developing during the propagation of very high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere are investigated using stochastic branching model of pure birth process with immigration. In particular, we show that the multiplicity distributions of secondaries emerging from gamma families are much narrower than those resulting from hadronic families. We argue that the strong intermittent like behaviour found recently in atmospheric families results from the fluctuations in the cascades themselves and are insensitive to the details of elementary interactions.

Wilk, G. (Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)); Wlodarczyk, Z. (Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, Kielce (Poland))

1993-06-15

383

The XMM-Newton EPIC Background and the production of Background Blank Sky Event Files  

E-print Network

We describe in detail the nature of XMM-Newton EPIC background and its various complex components, summarising the new findings of the XMM-Newton EPIC background working group, and provide XMM-Newton background blank sky event files for use in the data analysis of diffuse and extended sources. Blank sky event file data sets are produced from the stacking of data, taken from 189 observations resulting from the Second XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue (2XMMp) reprocessing. The data underwent several filtering steps, using a revised and improved method over previous work, which we describe in detail. We investigate several properties of the final blank sky data sets. The user is directed to the location of the final data sets. There is a final data set for each EPIC instrument-filter-mode combination.

J. A. Carter; A. M. Read

2007-01-08

384

Designing a Public Web-Based Information System to Illustrate and Disseminate the Development and Results of the DESIRE Project to Combat Desertification.  

PubMed

Until around 1995 it was challenging to make the scientific results of research projects publicly available except through presentations at meetings or conferences, or as papers in academic journals. Then it began to be clear that the Internet could become the main medium to publish and share new information with a much wider audience. The DESIRE Project (desertification mitigation and remediation of land-a global approach for local solutions) has built on expertise gained in previous projects to develop an innovative online 'Harmonized Information System' (HIS). This documents the context, delivery and evaluation of all tasks in the DESIRE Project using non-scientific terminology, with much of it also available in the local languages of the study sites. The DESIRE-HIS makes use of new possibilities for communication, including video clips, interactive tools, and links to social media networks such as Twitter. Dissemination of research results using this approach has required careful planning and design. This paper sets out the steps that have culminated in a complete online Information System about local solutions to global land management problems in desertification-affected areas, including many practical guidelines for responsible land management. As many of those who are affected by desertification do not have Internet access, printable dissemination materials are also available on the DESIRE-HIS. PMID:23708265

Geeson, Nichola; Brandt, Jane; Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna

2014-11-01

385

Designing a Public Web-Based Information System to Illustrate and Disseminate the Development and Results of the DESIRE Project to Combat Desertification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until around 1995 it was challenging to make the scientific results of research projects publicly available except through presentations at meetings or conferences, or as papers in academic journals. Then it began to be clear that the Internet could become the main medium to publish and share new information with a much wider audience. The DESIRE Project (desertification mitigation and remediation of land—a global approach for local solutions) has built on expertise gained in previous projects to develop an innovative online `Harmonized Information System' (HIS). This documents the context, delivery and evaluation of all tasks in the DESIRE Project using non-scientific terminology, with much of it also available in the local languages of the study sites. The DESIRE-HIS makes use of new possibilities for communication, including video clips, interactive tools, and links to social media networks such as Twitter. Dissemination of research results using this approach has required careful planning and design. This paper sets out the steps that have culminated in a complete online Information System about local solutions to global land management problems in desertification-affected areas, including many practical guidelines for responsible land management. As many of those who are affected by desertification do not have Internet access, printable dissemination materials are also available on the DESIRE-HIS.

Geeson, Nichola; Brandt, Jane; Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna

2014-11-01

386

Spectral observations of the extreme ultraviolet background.  

PubMed

A grazing incidence spectrometer was designed to measure the diffuse extreme ultraviolet background. It was flown on a sounding rocket, and data were obtained on the diffuse background between 80 and 650 angstroms. These are the first spectral measurements of this background below 520 angstroms. Several emission features were detected, including interplanetary He I 584 angstroms emission and geocoronal He II 304 angstroms emission. Other features observed may originate in a hot ionized interstellar gas, but if this interpretation is correct, gas at several different temperatures is present. The strongest of these features is consistent with O V emission at 630 angstroms. This emission, when combined with upper limits for other lines, restricts the temperature of this component to 5.5 < log T < 5.7, in agreement with temperatures derived from O VI absorption studies. A power-law distribution of temperatures is consistent with this feature only if the power-law coefficient is negative, as is predicted for saturated evaporation of clouds in a hot medium. In this case, the O VI absorption data confine the filling factor of the emission of f < or = 4% and the pressure to more than 3.7 x 10(4) cm-3 K, substantially above ambient interstellar pressure. Such a pressure enhancement has been predicted for clouds undergoing saturated evaporation. Alternatively, if the O V emission covers a considerable fraction of the sky, it would be a major source of ionization. A feature centered at about 99 angstroms is well fitted by a cluster of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX lines from gas at log T = 6.6-6.8. These results are consistent with previous soft X-ray observations with low-resolution detectors. A feature found near 178 angstroms is consistent with Fe X and Fe XI emission from gas at log T = 6; this result is consistent with results from experiments employing broad-band soft X-ray detectors. PMID:11538706

Labov, S E; Bowyer, S

1991-04-20

387

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 13: Source selection and information use by US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of a telephone survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A telephone survey of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists belonging to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was conducted between December 4, 1991 and January 5, 1992. The survey was undertaken to (1) validate the telephone survey as an appropriate technique for collecting data from U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists; (2) collect information about how the results of NASA/DoD aerospace research are used in the R&D process; (3) identify those selection criteria which affect the use of federally-funded aerospace R&D; and (4) obtain information that could be used to develop a self-administered mail questionnaire for use with the same population. The average rating of importance of U.S. government technical reports was 2.5 (on a 4-point scale); The mean/median number of times U.S. government technical reports were used per 6 months was 8/2. Factors scoring highest for U.S. government technical reports were technical accuracy (2.9), reliable data and technical information (2.8), and contains comprehensive data and information (2.7) on a 4-point system. The factors scoring highest for influencing the use of U.S. government technical reports were relevance (3.1), technical accuracy (3.06), and reliable data/information (3.02). Ease of use, familiarity, technical accuracy, and relevance correlated with use of U.S. government technical reports. Survey demographics, survey questionnaire, and the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project publications list are included.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.

1992-01-01

388

A new method of reconstructing VHE ?-ray spectra: the Template Background Spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Very-high-energy (VHE, E > 0.1 TeV) ?-ray emission regions with angular extents comparable to the field-of-view of current imaging air-Cherenkov telescopes (IACT) require additional observations of source-free regions to estimate the background contribution to the energy spectrum. This reduces the effective observation time and deteriorates the sensitivity. Aims: A new method of reconstructing spectra from IACT data without the need of additional observations of source-free regions is developed. Its application is not restricted to any specific IACT or data format. Methods: On the basis of the template background method, which defines the background in air-shower parameter space, a new spectral reconstruction method from IACT data is developed and studied, the Template Background Spectrum (TBS); TBS is tested on published H.E.S.S. data and H.E.S.S. results. Results: Good agreement is found between VHE ?-ray spectra reported by the H.E.S.S. collaboration and those re-analysed with TBS. This includes analyses of point-like sources, sources in crowded regions, and of very extended sources down to sources with fluxes of a few percent of the Crab nebula flux and excess-to-background ratios around 0.1. However, the TBS background normalisation introduces new statistical and systematic errors which are accounted for, but may constitute a limiting case for very faint extended sources. Conclusions: The TBS method enables the spectral reconstruction of data when other methods are hampered or even fail. It does not need dedicated observations of VHE ?-ray-free regions (e.g. as the On/Off background does) and circumvents known geometrical limitations to which other methods (e.g. the reflected-region background) for reconstructing spectral information of VHE ?-ray emission regions are prone to; TBS would be, in specific cases, the only feasible way to reconstruct energy spectra.

Fernandes, Milton Virgílio; Horns, Dieter; Kosack, Karl; Raue, Martin; Rowell, Gavin

2014-08-01

389

Reducing background neutron rates in NERO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental study of neutron rich nuclei can provide important data to better model the production and abundances of heavy elements from the r-process. In order to measure low emission rates of neutrons in certain nuclei, efforts have been made to reduce background rates in NERO (1). Simulations were done to calculate effective passive shielding and testing was carried out to evaluate it. Also, an active shielding system was designed to detect cosmic ray muons in an effort to create a veto in the data acquisition. The results of these efforts are presented here. 1. http://www.nscl.msu.edu/tech/devices/nero/

Pellegrini, Eric

2003-10-01

390

Non-parametric Model for Background Subtraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background subtraction is a method typically used to segment moving regions in image sequences taken from a static camera\\u000a by comparing each new frame to a model of the scene background. We present a novel non-parametric background model and a background\\u000a subtraction approach. The model can handle situations where the background of the scene is cluttered and not completely static

Ahmed M. Elgammal; David Harwood; Larry S. Davis

2000-01-01

391

Quantitative Rayleigh thermometry for high background scattering applications with structured laser illumination planar imaging.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates structured laser illumination planar imaging (SLIPI) for Rayleigh thermometry with high background scattering. Two coherent laser beams were crossed to produce an interference pattern, from which the modulated Rayleigh signal was collected. The modulated signal serves as a signature that identifies information about Rayleigh scattering from the probe volume against additional contributions in the image from background scattering. This work shows that the structured nature of the illumination allows for a simplified background correction. The experimental approach is validated in a non-premixed methane/air flame, and the temperature is found to be in excellent agreement with previous experimental and computational results. Rayleigh SLIPI is then applied to a high background scattering application as part of the full-field temperature measurement of sooting non-premixed ethylene/air flames. For these flames, standard Rayleigh background corrections are impossible since scattering from soot just outside the field of view is the main source of the background. Good agreement is found between SLIPI and intensity-ratio thin-filament pyrometry-derived temperature along their adjoining interface in the flame. PMID:25322370

Kempema, Nathan J; Long, Marshall B

2014-10-10

392

Sudan energy background; An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed briefly the potential of renewable energy resources in Sudan.Sudan possessed a relatively high abundance of sunshine, solar radiation, and moderate wind speeds. Sudan is also viewed as one of the potentially richest countries especially in water, land, agriculture and livestock.Sudan is blessed with abundant solar, wind hydro and biomass energy resources. Results, suggest that, renewable energy must

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

1998-01-01

393

Robust background modeling for enhancing object tracking in video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated event recognition in video data has numerous practical applications. The ability to recognize events in practice depends on accurate tracking of objects in the video data. Scene complexity has a large effect on tracker performance. Background models can address this problem by providing a good estimate of the image region surrounding the object of interest. However, the utility of the background model depends on accurately representing current imaging conditions. Changing imaging conditions, such as lighting and weather, render the background model inaccurate, degrading the tracker performance. As a preprocessing step, developing a set of robust background models can substantially improve system performance. We present an approach to robustly modeling the background as a function of the data acquisition conditions. We will describe the formulation of these models and discuss model selection in the context of real-time processing. Using results from a recent experiment, we demonstrate empirically the performance benefits from using the robust background modeling.

Wood, Richard J.; Reed, David; Lepanto, Janet; Irvine, John M.

2014-06-01

394

Toward an automated background oriented schlieren (BOS) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique is a useful method for visualizing refractive disturbances in a wide range of experimental settings. The technique visualizes refractive disturbances via their distortion of a distant background pattern (typically a speckle pattern). A cross-correlation computer algorithm is typically used to identify and measure distortions of the background pattern, thus revealing the refractive disturbance changes between images and producing a schlieren image. The cross-correlation algorithm, however, can be time-consuming and prevents an instantaneous schlieren image from being observed, thus hampering some potential BOS applications. Here a novel background patterning approach is presented which eliminates the need for the cross-correlation algorithm. Results are presented showing the sensitivity of the new background pattern and its potential application for providing instantaneous BOS images. Background pattern characteristics are explored for high- and low-speed fluid-dynamic applications.

Hargather, Michael; Settles, Gary

2011-11-01

395

Improved Background Subtraction for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a procedure for background subtracting Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging that improves the resulting detection and photometry of large galaxies on the sky. Within each SDSS drift scan run, we mask out detected sources and then fit a smooth function to the variation of the sky background. This procedure has been applied to all SDSS-III Data Release

Michael R. Blanton; Eyal Kazin; Demitri Muna; Benjamin A. Weaver; Adrian Price-Whelan

2011-01-01

396

The Mystery of the Cosmic Diffuse Ultraviolet Background Radiation  

E-print Network

and the observed FUV emission. Our modeling of the FUV scattering by small grains also shows that there must range. In the microwave the results of observation have been sufficiently important that they have led of the study of the UV background is brought out by Murthy (2009). Today, a powerful new diffuse UV background

397

Primordial black holes and the background electromagnetic radiation spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible observational consequences of the adiabatic and nonadiabatic evaporation of primordial mini black holes (masses of 10 to the 14th to 10 to the 15th g) are considered. It is shown that pair-produced ultrarelativistic electrons and positrons would transfer their energy to the background radiation field as a result of inverse Compton losses to the background radiation and that such

P. D. Naselskii; Iu. G. Shevelev

1978-01-01

398

Opening Minds in Canada: Background and Rationale  

PubMed Central

Objective: To summarize the background and rationale of the approach taken by the Mental Health Commission of Canada’s Opening Minds (OM) Anti-Stigma Initiative. Method: The approach taken by OM incorporates a grassroots, community development philosophy, has clearly defined target groups, uses contact-based education as the central organizing element across interventions, and has a strong evaluative component, so that best practices can be identified, replicated, and disseminated. Contact-based education occurs when people who have experienced a mental illness share their personal story of recovery and hope. Results: OM has acted as a catalyst to develop partnerships between community groups who are undertaking anti-stigma work and an interdisciplinary team of academic researchers in 5 universities who are evaluating the results of these programs. Conclusions: Building partnerships with existing community programs and promoting systematic evaluation using standardized approaches and instruments have contributed to our understanding of best practices in the field of anti-stigma programming.

Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping; Christie, Romie; Dobson, Keith; Kirsh, Bonnie; Knaak, Stephanie; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Lauria-Horner, Bianca; Luong, Dorothy; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Pietrus, Mike; Szeto, Andrew; Whitley, Rob

2014-01-01

399

Verification and Trust: Background Investigations Preceding Faculty Appointment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many employers in the United States have been initiating or expanding policies requiring background checks of prospective employees. The ability to perform such checks has been abetted by the growth of computerized databases and of commercial enterprises that facilitate access to personal information. Employers now have ready access to public…

Academe, 2004

2004-01-01

400

Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)

Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

1988-01-01

401

Increasing Educational Efficiency Through Technology (Commission Discussion and Background Materials).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program schedule and background information for Indiana Commission for Higher Education-sponsored discussion of the use of educational technology to increase educational effeciency are presented. The four major topics of discussion to illustrate the uses and advantages/disadvantages of audio, video, and computing technologies are as follows:…

Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.

402

Partition function based analysis of cosmic microwave background maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an alternative method to analyse cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. We base our analysis on the study of the partition function. This function is used to examine the CMB maps, making use of the different information embedded at different scales and moments. Using the partition function in a likelihood analysis in two dimensions (Q_rms-PS, n), we find the

J. M. Diego; E. Martínez-González; J. L. Sanz; Silvia Mollerach; Vicent J. Martínez

1999-01-01

403

Gravitational clustering in Static and Expanding Backgrounds  

E-print Network

A brief summary of several topics in the study of gravitational many body problem is given. The discussion covers both static backgrounds (applicable to astrophysical systems) as well as clustering in an expanding background (relevant for cosmology)

T. Padmanabhan

2003-08-28

404

Motivation and Background Upgrades to GS2  

E-print Network

Motivation and Background Upgrades to GS2 Benchmarks Other Studies Conclusions Upgrades of GS2 Jessica A. Baumgaertel Effects of stellarator geometry on gyrokinetic turbulence #12;Motivation and Background Upgrades to GS2 Benchmarks Other Studies Conclusions Outline 1 Motivation and Background 2

Hammett, Greg

405

Neutron background characterization of deep underground laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-energy (,) reactions in stellar helium and carbon burning provide the neutrons for the formation of elements beyond iron by the slow neutron capture process. The very low cross sections at stellar energies necessitate the use of high-efficiency detectors as well as measuring in a very low neutron background environment. By going deep underground the neutron flux can be reduced by orders of magnitude compared to surface levels, enabling the measurement of reactions for nuclear astrophysics at previously inaccessible energies. The remaining neutron flux is mostly due to spontaneous fission of ^238U in the cavity walls and (,) reactions induced by ?-particles from the natural radioactivity of the underground environment. Using a portable setup consisting of 4 ^3He counters and polyethylene moderators the DIANA collaboration is conducting neutron background measurements at various deep underground laboratories in the US. We present first results from the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory and the 4100 feet level of the Sanford Undeground Research Facility (SURF). Measurements at other depths in SURF and at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are in planning.

Best, Andreas; Görres, Joachim; Long, Alex; Smith, Karl; Stech, Ed; Wiescher, Michael

2012-10-01

406

US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with special emphasis on sociological considerations. At the time of this writing, no data have yet been collected, so this paper will present background information, related issues, and plans for data collection. Some recent studies indicate that managers of Forest Service wildernesses and National Park Service areas consider aircraft overflights to be a problem to their users in some areas. Additional relevant background research from outdoor recreation sociology is discussed, followed by presentation of the authors' opinions of the most salient sociological issues faced by this study. The goals and desired end products are identified next, followed by a review of the methods anticipated to be used to obtain these results. Finally, a discussion and conclusion section is provided.

Harrison, Robin T.; Hartmann, Lawrence

1990-01-01

407

First calculation of cosmic-ray muon spallation backgrounds for MeV astrophysical neutrino signals in Super-Kamiokande  

E-print Network

When muons travel through matter, their energy losses lead to nuclear breakup ("spallation") processes. The delayed decays of unstable daughter nuclei produced by cosmic-ray muons are important backgrounds for low-energy astrophysical neutrino experiments, e.g., those seeking to detect solar neutrino or Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background (DSNB) signals. Even though Super-Kamiokande has strong general cuts to reduce these spallation-induced backgrounds, the remaining rate before additional cuts for specific signals is much larger than the signal rates for kinetic energies of about 6 -- 18 MeV. Surprisingly, there is no published calculation of the production and properties of these backgrounds in water, though there are such studies for scintillator. Using the simulation code FLUKA and theoretical insights, we detail how muons lose energy in water, produce secondary particles, how and where these secondaries produce isotopes, and the properties of the backgrounds from their decays. We reproduce Super-Kamiokande measurements of the total background to within a factor of 2, which is good given that the isotope yields vary by orders of magnitude and that some details of the experiment are unknown to us at this level. Our results break aggregate data into component isotopes, reveal their separate production mechanisms, and preserve correlations between them. We outline how to implement more effective background rejection techniques using this information. Reducing backgrounds in solar and DSNB studies by even a factor of a few could help lead to important new discoveries.

Shirley Weishi Li; John F. Beacom

2014-02-19

408

Probing Inflation via Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been a rich source of information about the early Universe. Detailed measurements of its spectrum and spatial distribution have helped solidify the Standard Model of Cosmology. However, many questions still remain. Standard Cosmology does not explain why the early Universe is geometrically flat, expanding, homogenous across the horizon, and riddled with a small anisotropy that provides the seed for structure formation. Inflation has been proposed as a mechanism that naturally solves these problems. In addition to solving these problems, inflation is expected to produce a spectrum of gravitational waves that will create a particular polarization pattern on the CMB. Detection of this polarized signal is a key test of inflation and will give a direct measurement of the energy scale at which inflation takes place. This polarized signature of inflation is expected to be -9 orders of magnitude below the 2.7 K monopole level of the CMB. This measurement will require good control of systematic errors, an array of many detectors having the requisite sensitivity, and a reliable method for removing polarized foregrounds, and nearly complete sky coverage. Ultimately, this measurement is likely to require a space mission. To this effect, technology and mission concept development are currently underway.

Chuss, David T.

2008-01-01

409

Reactor antineutrino background at Gran Sasso  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flux of electron antineutrinos arriving at the Gran Sasso Laboratory underground solar-neutrino detector from the world-total 345 operating nuclear power reactors (total capacity 283 GWe) is estimated theoretically, extending and refining the analysis of Lagage (1985). The total is found to be about 450,000/sq cm s, of which about two thirds originate in reactors in Italy, France, and the FRG. From this result it is inferred that reactor electron antineutrinos become predominant below about 4 MeV when searching for elastic-coherent-scattering of high-energy solar neutrionos and below 8 MeV for diffuse-solar-neutrino background measurements, and that the high-energy tail of the earth antineutrino flux (1-3 MeV) cannot be detected. It is concluded that great efforts to lower the energy threshold of detectors may not be justified.

Lagage, P. O.

1986-04-01

410

The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey  

E-print Network

In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

Price, C Aaron

2012-01-01

411

Geometric background charge: dislocations on capillary bridges  

E-print Network

Recent experiments have shown that colloidal crystals confined to weakly curved capillary bridges introduce groups of dislocations organized into `pleats' as means to relieve the stress caused by the Gaussian curvature of the surface. We consider the onset of this curvature-screening mechanism, by examining the energetics of isolated dislocations and interstitials on capillary bridges with free boundaries. The boundary provides an essential contribution to the problem, akin to a background charge that "neutralizes" the unbalanced integrated curvature of the surface. This makes it favorable for topologically neutral dislocations and groups of dislocations - rather than topologically charged disclinations and scars - to relieve the stress caused by the unbalanced gaussian curvature of the surface. This effect applies to any crystal on a surface with non-vanishing integrated Gaussian curvature and stress-free boundary conditions. We corroborate the analytic results by numerically computing the energetics of a defected lattice of springs confined to surfaces with weak positive and negative curvature

William Irvine; Vincenzo Vitelli

2012-06-19

412

PIRLS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background variables. Background

Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Drucker, Kathleen T., Ed.

2013-01-01

413

TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the TIMSS 2011 background variables. Background questionnaire adaptations…

Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

2013-01-01

414

Statistical considerations for improved signal identification from repeated measurements at low signal-to-background ratios.  

PubMed

Continuously repeated or frequent periodic measurements of the radiation environment in the absence of an identified source of ionizing radiation provide large data sets on the ambient background. Statistical evaluation of these data allows for the identification and quantification of the relevant background distribution parameters paramount to establishing a well characterized background distribution. Given this distribution, the determination of characteristic limits, such as the decision threshold, follows standard procedures. However, the data used to establish these characteristic limits contain additional information on the probabilities for future individual measurement results, which can be employed to improve the detection system capabilities for signal identification at low signal-to-background ratios. In particular, a statistical evaluation of the time history of individual, independent measurements allows for the establishment of new decision thresholds with the same prescribed probability of error of the first kind but with a lower value than the decision threshold obtained from standardized procedures. A rigorous mathematical and statistical treatment of multiple data from a well characterized background distribution is presented, together with an analysis of the relevant operational restrictions and statistical conditions for which an improved lower decision threshold can be obtained. A set of initial projections toward the application of appropriate statistical algorithms is intended to provide a basis for further investigation of these statistical considerations for their implementation in continuous scanning or screening operations or in individual or environmental monitoring programs. PMID:23361420

Brandl, A

2013-03-01

415

CASCADES: An Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State-of-the-art treaty verification techniques, environmental surveillance, and physics experiments require increased sensitivity for detecting and quantifying radionuclides of interest. This can be accomplished with new detector designs that establish high detection efficiency and reduced instrument backgrounds. Current research is producing an intrinsic germanium (HPGe) array designed for high detection efficiency, ultra-low-background performance, and sensitive ?—? coincidence detection. The system design is optimized to accommodate filter paper samples, e.g. samples collected by the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer. The system will provide high sensitivity for weak collections on atmospheric filter samples (e.g.<105 fissions) as well as offering the potential to gather additional information from higher activity filters using gamma cascade coincidence detection. The first of two HPGe crystal arrays in ultra-low-background vacuum cryostats has been assembled, with the second in progress. Traditional methods for constructing ultra-low-background detectors were followed, including use of materials known to be low in radioactive contaminants, use of ultra-pure reagents, and clean room assembly. The cryostat is constructed mainly from copper electroformed into near-final geometry at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Details of the detector assembly and initial background and spectroscopic measurement results are presented; also a description of the custom analysis package used by this project is given.

Keillor, M. E.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Erikson, L. E.; Fast, J. E.; Glasgow, B. D.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hossbach, T. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Miley, H. S.; Myers, A. W.; Seifert, A.; Stavenger, T. J.

2011-12-01

416

Investigation of background radical sources in a teflon-film irradiation chamber  

SciTech Connect

In attempts to model hydrocarbon/NOx irradiations carried out in smog chambers, workers have found it necessary to postulate background free radical sources. Without such radical sources, it has not been possible to obtain agreement between the predictions of chemical mechanisms and the chamber data. The background radical sources appear to be specific to chambers and are not used when applying chemical mechanisms to simulate the atmosphere. Until recently, there were no experimental measurements of the radical sources, and as a result assumptions on the nature and magnitude of the sources varied. Differences in these assumptions are responsible for some of the differences in the predictions of chemical mechanisms in atmospheric simulations. Experimental determinations of the background radical sources in different chambers are, therefore, imperative for the effective use of chamber experiments in developing and evaluating chemical mechanisms for smog formation. In this work, they have conducted a detailed study of the background radical sources in a small Teflon-film chamber. The purpose was to determine the usefulness of such chambers for quantitative studies of smog formation. Values for the background radical sources were derived from the experimental data by simulations with a detailed chemical mechanism, and the uncertainties in these values were estimated as well. The effects of various parameters, such as light intensity and NO and NO{sub 2} concentrations, on the radical sources were studied to provide the necessary information for taking these sources into account in modeling future chamber experiments.

Glasson, W.A.; Dunker, A.M. (General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (USA))

1988-09-01

417

Background Radioactivity in River and Reservoir Sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

As part of its continuing Environmental Surveillance Program, regional river and lake-bottom sediments have been collected annually by Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) since 1974 and 1979, respectively. These background samples are collected from three drainage basins at ten different river stations and five reservoirs located throughout northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Radiochemical analyses for these sediments include tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, total uranium, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,-240, americium-241, gross alpha, gross beta, and gross gamma radioactivity. Detection-limit radioactivity originates as worldwide fallout from aboveground nuclear weapons testing and satellite reentry into Earth's atmosphere. Spatial and temporal variations in individual analyte levels originate from atmospheric point-source introductions and natural rate differences in airborne deposition and soil erosion. Background radioactivity values on sediments reflect this variability, and grouped river and reservoir sediment samples show a range of statistical distributions that appear to be analyte dependent. Traditionally, both river and reservoir analyte data were blended together to establish background levels. In this report, however, we group background sediment data according to two criteria. These include sediment source (either river or reservoir sediments) and station location relative to the Laboratory (either upstream or downstream). These grouped data are statistically evaluated through 1997, and background radioactivity values are established for individual analytes in upstream river and reservoir sediments. This information may be used to establish the existence and areal extent of trace-level environmental contamination resulting from historical Laboratory research activities since the early 1940s.

S.G.McLin; D.W. Lyons

2002-05-05

418

Speech Recognition in Natural Background Noise  

PubMed Central

In the real world, human speech recognition nearly always involves listening in background noise. The impact of such noise on speech signals and on intelligibility performance increases with the separation of the listener from the speaker. The present behavioral experiment provides an overview of the effects of such acoustic disturbances on speech perception in conditions approaching ecologically valid contexts. We analysed the intelligibility loss in spoken word lists with increasing listener-to-speaker distance in a typical low-level natural background noise. The noise was combined with the simple spherical amplitude attenuation due to distance, basically changing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, our study draws attention to some of the most basic environmental constraints that have pervaded spoken communication throughout human history. We evaluated the ability of native French participants to recognize French monosyllabic words (spoken at 65.3 dB(A), reference at 1 meter) at distances between 11 to 33 meters, which corresponded to the SNRs most revealing of the progressive effect of the selected natural noise (?8.8 dB to ?18.4 dB). Our results showed that in such conditions, identity of vowels is mostly preserved, with the striking peculiarity of the absence of confusion in vowels. The results also confirmed the functional role of consonants during lexical identification. The extensive analysis of recognition scores, confusion patterns and associated acoustic cues revealed that sonorant, sibilant and burst properties were the most important parameters influencing phoneme recognition. . Altogether these analyses allowed us to extract a resistance scale from consonant recognition scores. We also identified specific perceptual consonant confusion groups depending of the place in the words (onset vs. coda). Finally our data suggested that listeners may access some acoustic cues of the CV transition, opening interesting perspectives for future studies. PMID:24260183

Meyer, Julien; Dentel, Laure; Meunier, Fanny

2013-01-01

419

Multisensory Integration With a Head-Mounted Display: Background Visual Motion and Sound Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess how background visual motion and the relative movement of sound affect a head-mounted display (HMD) wearer’s performance at a task requiring integration of auditory and visual information. Background: HMD users are often mobile. A commercially available speaker in a fixed location delivers auditory information affordably to the HMD user. However, previous

William J. Harrison; Matthew B. Thompson; Penelope M. Sanderson

2010-01-01

420

The Effect of Background Music on Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The research of Dr. Anne Savan considers the effects of background music on the coordination of pupils with special educational\\u000a needs and emotional and behavioural difficulties. Previous research has shown that background music has an effect on certain\\u000a physiological and biochemical pathways in pupils with special educational needs and emotional and behavioural difficulties.\\u000a When background music is played during practical

Anne Savan

421

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

1989-01-01

422

Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide unique constraints on cosmological models, i.e. on the content, history, and evolution of the Universe. I discuss the latest measurements of the spectral and spatial properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Recent measurements from NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, and from balloon-borne and ground-based platforms, are summarized and their cosmological implications are discussed.

C. L. Bennett

1994-08-12

423

Background Check Consent Statement This Background Check Consent Statement documents your consent for Indiana University to obtain a background  

E-print Network

for Indiana University to obtain a background check from a consumer reporting agency consisting of a criminal. Indiana University requires a background check for the following individuals: 1) new employees in any position; 2) any employee, student, or volunteer affiliated with Indiana University who will be working

Zhou, Yaoqi

424

The Nature and Effects of Background Aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate, world-wide, long-term measurements of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in continental and remote marine boundary layer reveal an absolute minimum in AOT ( ˜ 0.02 at 550 nm and an Angstrom exponent ˜ -1) at most low-altitude locations but one. At this AOT magnitude the aerosols could have significant consequences on climate and remote sensing by the direct effect alone. For example, if all the optical thickness is due to aerosol absorption, as sometimes required for surface irradiance closure, an optical thickness of just 0.02 would increase atmospheric absorptance by about 4%, a significant fraction of the approximately 20% absorptance currently assumed for the shortwave. Likewise, satellite sensor calibration by ground-look methods would be severely affected. To better understand the nature of this background aerosol in the remote marine environment (i.e., sources, sinks, and lifetimes), Naval Research Laboratory's dynamic microphysical aerosol model MARBLES has been used with hourly meteorology input provided by COAMPS, the Navy's mesoscale meteorological model. Full specification of boundary layer profiles, including turbulent mixing, boundary layer height, wind speed, humidity, cloud cover, rain rates has been provided along COAMPS derived ˜10 day back trajectories from specified AERONET (NASA's sunphotometer network) sites. Calculated optical properties are compared with AERONET measurements for selected periods representative of remote background conditions and for several distinct aerosol events. Some comparisons show good agreement, indicating that marine aerosol sources, primarily sea-salt and sulfate, explain the AOT minimum well. Detailed results of calculated vertical aerosol concentration, composition and extinction profiles are provided. Implications will be discussed.

Halthore, R. N.; Caffrey, P. F.

2004-12-01

425

Thermal inflation and the gravitational wave background  

SciTech Connect

We consider the impact of thermal inflation-a short, secondary period of inflation that can arise in supersymmetric scenarios-on the stochastic gravitational wave background. We show that while the primordial inflationary gravitational wave background is essentially unchanged at cosmic microwave background scales, it is massively diluted at solar system scales and would be unobservable by a Big Bang Observer (BBO) style experiment. Conversely, bubble collisions at the end of thermal inflation can generate a new stochastic background. We calculate the likely properties of the bubbles created during this phase transition, and show that the expected amplitude and frequency of this signal would fall within the BBO range.

Easther, Richard; Giblin Jr, John T [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lim, Eugene A [ISCAP and Physics Department, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States)] [ISCAP and Physics Department, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Park, Wan-Il; Stewart, Ewan D, E-mail: richard.easther@yale.edu, E-mail: john.giblin@yale.edu, E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com, E-mail: wipark@muon.kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: stewart@hep.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2008-05-15

426

Simulation of Experimental Background using FLUKA  

SciTech Connect

In November 1997, Experiment T423 began acquiring data with the intentions of understanding the energy spectra of high-energy neutrons generated in the interaction of electrons with lead. The following describes a series of FLUKA simulations studying (1) particle yields in the absence of all background; (2) the background caused from scattering in the room; (3) the effects of the thick lead shielding which surrounded the detector; (4) the sources of neutron background created in this lead shielding; and (5) the ratio of the total background to the ideal yield. In each case, particular attention is paid to the neutron yield.

Rokni, Sayed

1999-05-11

427

A Thermal Graviton Background from Extra Dimensions  

E-print Network

Inflationary cosmology predicts a low-amplitude graviton background across a wide range of frequencies. This Letter shows that if one or more extra dimensions exist, the graviton background may have a thermal spectrum instead, dependent on the fundamental scale of the extra dimensions. The energy density is shown to be significant enough that it can affect nucleosynthesis in a substantial way. The possibility of direct detection of a thermal graviton background using the 21-cm hydrogen line is discussed. Alternative explanations for the creation of a thermal graviton background are also examined.

E. R. Siegel; J. N. Fry

2005-03-07

428

Background subtraction using probabilistic event weights  

E-print Network

Background treatment is crucial to extract physics from precision experiments. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to assign each event a signal probability. This could then be used to weight the event's contribution to the likelihood during fitting. To illustrate the effect of this method, we test it with MC samples. The consistence between the constructed background and the background from MC truth shows that the background subtraction method with probabilistic event weights is feasible in partial wave analysis at BES III.

Yadi Wang; Beijiang Liu; Xiaoyan Shen; Ziping Zhang

2014-01-27

429

A review and evaluation of the Langley Research Center's Scientific and Technical Information Program. Results of phase 5. Design and evaluation of STI systems: A selected, annotated bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A selected, annotated bibliography of literature citations related to the design and evaluation of STI systems is presented. The use of manual and machine-readable literature searches; the review of numerous books, periodicals reports, and papers; and the selection and annotation of literature citations were required. The bibliography was produced because the information was needed to develop the methodology for the review and evaluation project, and a survey of the literature did not reveal the existence of a single published source of information pertinent to the subject. Approximately 200 citations are classified in four subject areas. The areas include information - general; information systems - design and evaluation, including information products and services; information - use and need; and information - economics.

Pinelli, T. E.; Hinnebusch, P. A.; Jaffe, J. M.

1981-01-01

430

Background subtraction based level sets for human segmentation in thermal infrared surveillance systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the technique of background subtraction, two level set based active contour models (LSACs) named as RT-BSLSAC and EA-BSLSAC are proposed for human segmentation in thermal infrared surveillance systems. The energy functional of RT-BSLSAC is initially formulated with the spatial-temporal information extracted from the background-subtracted images that correspond to the current frame and its adjacent frames. Then, minimization of such functional is conducted by a real-time numeric scheme evolving a binary level set function (BLSF). When the BLSF converges, the moving humans in current frame are detected with relatively complete interiors and enclosed, smooth contours. EA-BSLSAC makes two improvements to RT-BSLSAC. First, the formulation of energy functional not only depends on spatial-temporal information but also the boundary information resulting from an edge detector. Second, the functional is minimized by a convex numeric scheme featured by initialization-invariance. As a result, EA-BSLSAC presents higher segmentation accuracy but at more computational cost in comparison with RT-BSLSAC. Experimental results from segmenting the real-world infrared surveillance clips validate the advantages of the proposed methods in accuracy, efficiency, and the coordination with other algorithmic components of an infrared surveillance system due to the cancellation of post-processing meaning to reach complete human interiors and exact silhouettes.

Tan, Yong; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao

2013-11-01

431

IT adoption of clinical information systems in Austrian and German hospitals: results of a comparative survey with a focus on nursing  

PubMed Central

Background IT adoption is a process that is influenced by different external and internal factors. This study aimed 1. to identify similarities and differences in the prevalence of medical and nursing IT systems in Austrian and German hospitals, and 2. to match these findings with characteristics of the two countries, in particular their healthcare system, and with features of the hospitals. Methods In 2007, all acute care hospitals in both countries received questionnaires with identical questions. 12.4% in Germany and 34.6% in Austria responded. Results The surveys revealed a consistent higher usage of nearly all clinical IT systems, especially nursing systems, but also PACS and electronic archiving systems, in Austrian than in German hospitals. These findings correspond with a significantly wider use of standardised nursing terminologies and a higher number of PC workstations on the wards (average 2.1 PCs in Germany, 3.2 PCs in Austria). Despite these differences, Austrian and German hospitals both reported a similar IT budget of 2.6% in Austria and 2.0% in Germany (median). Conclusions Despite the many similarities of the Austrian and German healthcare system there are distinct differences which may have led to a wider use of IT systems in Austrian hospitals. In nursing, the specific legal requirement to document nursing diagnoses in Austria may have stimulated the use of standardised terminologies for nursing diagnoses and the implementation of electronic nursing documentation systems. Other factors which correspond with the wider use of clinical IT systems in Austria are: good infrastructure of medical-technical devices, rigorous organisational changes which had led to leaner processes and to a lower length of stay, and finally a more IT friendly climate. As country size is the most pronounced difference between Germany and Austria it could be that smaller countries, such as Austria, are more ready to translate innovation into practice. PMID:20122275

2010-01-01

432

Measurement of the Background Noise in Piezoresistive and Electret Condenser Microphones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical microphone calibration must include tests of its sensitivity, frequency response, harmonic distortion, and background noise. While measurements of the first three parameters have become almost routine, the measurement of background noise requires special instrumentation and facility, and is more difficult to perform. Nonetheless, background-noise information is critical for all research and field applications of microphones relevant to the NASA mission. Responding to this demand, A.J. Zuckerwar of the Langley Research Center developed an acoustic isolation vessel for measurement of the background noise in microphones. [K.C.T. Ngo and A.J. Zuckerwar, J.Acoust.Soc. Am. 93, 2974-2980 (1993)]. As a summer faculty fellow, M.R. Serbyn has participated in the upgrading of that facility by improving its sound and vibration isolation and extending the frequency range of the measurements (1-100 kHz). The improved system, which is unique to the Langley Research Center, has been fully tested and interfaced with a PC for further processing of collected data. The background noise of several microphone types has already been measured, with more data to be collected on piezoresistive, electret-condenser, and piezoelectric microphones. These results will be helpful in constructing theoretical models for the prediction of background noise in the various microphones and in comparing their l/f noise characteristics. Of particular interest are microphones to be employed in the so-called MEMS systems. When completed, the results of this study will help guide planners and test designers in the selection of microphones for applications requiring a large number of them.

Serbyn, M. Roman

2002-12-01

433

Dynamic 4-dimensional microscope system with automated background leveling  

PubMed Central

This paper describes recent advances in developing an automatic background leveling algorithm for a new, novel interference microscope system and presents images and data of live biological samples. The specially designed optical system enables instantaneous 4-dimensional video measurements of dynamic motions within and among live cells without the need for contrast agents. “Label-free” measurements of biological objects in reflection using harmless light levels are possible without the need for scanning and vibration isolation. This instrument utilizes a pixelated phase mask enabling simultaneous measurement of multiple interference patterns taking advantage of the polarization properties of light enabling phase image movies in real time at video rates to track dynamic motions and volumetric changes. Optical thickness data are derived from phase images. This data is processed with an automatic background leveling routine which separates the objects from the background by thresholding the calculated gradient magnitude of the optical thickness data. Low-order Zernike surfaces are fit to the unmasked background pixels and the resulting background shape is removed. This method effectively eliminates background shape for datasets containing both large and small objects. By applying this method to many sequential frames, it results in all the frames having the same mean background value across all frames which is essential for quantitatively montoring time-dependent processes.

Goldstein, Goldie; Creath, Katherine

2014-01-01

434

Dilatons in curved backgrounds by the Poisson--Lie transformation  

E-print Network

Transformations between group coordinates of three--dimensional conformal sigma models in the flat background and their flat, i.e. Riemannian coordinates enable to find general dilaton fields for three-dimensional flat sigma models. By the Poisson-Lie transformation we can get dilatons for the dual sigma models in a curved background. Unfortunately, in some cases the dilatons depend on inadmissible auxiliary variables so the procedure is not universal. The cases where the procedure gives proper and nontrivial dilatons in curved backgrounds are investigated and results given.

L. Hlavaty

2006-01-23

435

THE COSMIC NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND. II. FLUCTUATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The near-infrared background (NIRB) is one of a few methods that can be used to observe the redshifted light from early stars at a redshift of 6 and above, and thus it is imperative to understand the significance of any detection or nondetection of the NIRB. Fluctuations of the NIRB can provide information on the first structures, such as halos and their surrounding ionized regions in the intergalactic medium (IGM). We combine, for the first time, N-body simulations, radiative transfer code, and analytic calculations of luminosity of early structures to predict the angular power spectrum (C{sub l} ) of fluctuations in the NIRB. We study in detail the effects of various assumptions about the stellar mass, the initial mass spectrum of stars, the metallicity, the star formation efficiency (f{sub *}), the escape fraction of ionizing photons (f{sub esc}), and the star formation timescale (t{sub SF}), on the amplitude as well as the shape of C{sub l} . The power spectrum of NIRB fluctuations is maximized when f{sub *} is the largest (as C{sub l} {proportional_to} f {sup 2}{sub *}) and f{sub esc} is the smallest (as more nebular emission is produced within halos). A significant uncertainty in the predicted amplitude of C{sub l} exists due to our lack of knowledge of t{sub SF} of these early populations of galaxies, which is equivalent to our lack of knowledge of the mass-to-light ratio of these sources. We do not see a turnover in the NIRB angular power spectrum of the halo contribution, which was claimed to exist in the literature, and explain this as the effect of high levels of nonlinear bias that was ignored in the previous calculations. This is partly due to our choice of the minimum mass of halos contributing to NIRB ({approx}2 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}), and a smaller minimum mass, which has a smaller nonlinear bias, may still exhibit a turnover. Therefore, our results suggest that both the amplitude and shape of the NIRB power spectrum provide important information regarding the nature of sources contributing to the cosmic reionization. The angular power spectrum of the IGM, in most cases, is much smaller than the halo angular power spectrum, except when f{sub esc} is close to unity, t{sub SF} is longer, or the minimum redshift at which the star formation is occurring is high. In addition, low levels of the observed mean background intensity tend to rule out high values of f{sub *} {approx}> 0.2.

Fernandez, Elizabeth R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Komatsu, Eiichiro; Shapiro, Paul R. [Texas Cosmology Center and the Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Iliev, Ilian T., E-mail: elizabeth.fernandez@colorado.ed [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pevensey II Building, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2010-02-20

436

Autonomous Soaring Flight Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

Allen, Michael J.

2006-01-01

437

Background feature descriptor for offline handwritten numeral recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper puts forward an offline handwritten numeral recognition method based on background structural descriptor (sixteen-value numerical background expression). Through encoding the background pixels in the image according to a certain rule, 16 different eigenvalues were generated, which reflected the background condition of every digit, then reflected the structural features of the digits. Through pattern language description of images by these features, automatic segmentation of overlapping digits and numeral recognition can be realized. This method is characterized by great deformation resistant ability, high recognition speed and easy realization. Finally, the experimental results and conclusions are presented. The experimental results of recognizing datasets from various practical application fields reflect that with this method, a good recognition effect can be achieved.

Ming, Delie; Wang, Hao; Tian, Tian; Jie, Feiran; Lei, Bo

2011-11-01

438

Supermembrane actions for Gaiotto-Maldacena backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We write down the supermembrane actions for M-theory backgrounds dual to general N=2 four-dimensional superconformal field theories. The actions are given to all orders in fermions and are in a particular ?-gauge. When an extra U(1) isometry is present, our actions reduce to ?-gauge fixed Green-Schwarz actions for the corresponding Type IIA backgrounds.

Stefa?ski, Bogdan

2014-06-01

439

Real-Time Discriminative Background Subtraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the problem of segmenting foreground objects in live video when background scene tex- tures change over time. In particular, we formulate background subtraction as minimizing a penalized instantaneous risk func- tional—yielding a local online discriminative algorithm that can quickly adapt to temporal changes. We analyze the algo- rithm's convergence, discuss its robustness to nonstationarity, and provide an

Li Cheng; Minglun Gong; Dale Schuurmans; Terry Caelli

2011-01-01

440

Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial )  

E-print Network

population. · A relative risk of less than 1 indicates a protective benefit. #12;Risk Comparison · In a study10-4 /rem-1Probability of a fatal cancer (10-4 rem-1) Tissues and organs #12;Risk Factor of LifeModule 9 Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial ) · sources of background

Massey, Thomas N.

441

Revised Aug, 2013 CRIMINAL BACKGROUND CHECK PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

will be retained in the Recruitment file with Human Resources. HR Liaison for the department will be blind copied the background check is cleared by Recruitment and the hiring packet has been approved by Human Resources background checks normally require additional processing time. In addition, delays may occur when Recruitment

Van Stryland, Eric

442

Simulation of Experimental Background using FLUKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 1997, Experiment T423 began acquiring data with the intentions of understanding the energy spectra of high-energy neutrons generated in the interaction of electrons with lead. The following describes a series of FLUKA simulations studying (1) particle yields in the absence of all background; (2) the background caused from scattering in the room; (3) the effects of the thick

Rokni; Sayed

1999-01-01

443

Cosmic Microwave Background: The New Cosmology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This AstroBulletin article takes an in-depth look at the newest technology and instruments used to study the Cosmic Microwave Background. The site includes text and a seven minute video. There are links to three essays: "What Is the Cosmic Microwave Background?", "Antarctica: A Hotbed of Cold-Weather Research" and "DASI Does It."

444

Gifted Students from Low-Education Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gifted children from low-education backgrounds often experience barriers to educational and career success. This article reviews the growing body of literature regarding gifted students from low-education backgrounds and the related literature on the challenges and characteristics of first-generation college students. A mother and daughter…

Gibbons, Melinda M.; Pelchar, Taylor K.; Cochran, Jeff L.

2012-01-01

445

Learning logic programs with structured background knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient learnability of restricted classes of logic programs is studied in the PAC framework of computational learning theory. We develop the product homomorphism method, which gives polynomial PAC learning algorithms for a nonrecursive Horn clause with function-free ground background knowledge, if the background knowledge satisfies some structural properties. The method is based on a characterization of the concept that

Tamás Horváth; György Turán

2001-01-01

446

Obtaining land cover changes information from multitemporal analysis of Landsat-TM images: results from a case study in West African dryland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sahelian belt of West Africa is a semiarid region characterized by wide climate variations, which can in turn affect the livelihood of local populations particularly in rangeland areas, as happens during the dramatic food crisis in the 70-80s caused by rainfall scarcity. The monitoring of natural resources and rainfed agricultural activities, with the aim to provide information to support Sahelian food security action, needs the production of detailed thematic maps as emphasized by several scientific papers. In this framework, a study was conducted to develop a method to exploit time series of remote sensed satellite data to 1) provide reliable land cover (LC) map at local scale in a dry region and 2) obtain a LC change (LCC) map that contribute to identify the plausible causes of local environmental instability. Satellite images used for this work consist in a time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) (path row 195-50) acquired in the 2000 (6 scenes) and 2007 (9 scenes) from February (Dry season) to September (end of wet season). The study investigates the different contribution provided by spectra information of a single Landsat TM image and by time series of derived NDVI. Different tests have been conducted with different combination of data set (spectral and temporal)in order to identify the best approach to obtain a LC map in five classes of interest: Shrubland, Cultivated Land, Water body, Herbaceous vegetation and Bare soil. The best classification approach is exposed and applied on two years in the last decade. The comparison between this two LC results in land cover change map, that displays the changes of vegetation patterns that have been characterized the area. The discussed results show a largely stable dryland region, but locally characterized by hot-spot of decreasing in natural vegetation inside the rangelands and an increasing of cultivations along fossil valleys where human activities are slightly intense. The discussion shows that this hot-spot aren't fully explained by climatic variability as displayed by a comparison with rainfall satellite data, and suggest that there are localized area where vegetation development is driven by other anthropic factors which interfere in the dynamics of plant growing.

Nutini, F.; Boschetti, M.; Brivio, P. A.; Antoninetti, M.

2012-04-01

447

Is There a Foreground to the X-ray Background?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent suggestion of Lahav et al.(Nature, 364, 693) that a significant fraction of the cosmic X-ray background orginates from a non-evolving population of objects traced by local galaxies is based on the cross-correlation of bright galaxy catalogs with the X-ray background intensity derived from non-imaging X-ray detectors in the 2--20 keV band. In order to test this