Sample records for background information results

  1. Mars Background Information General Information

    E-print Network

    Dennis, Robert G.

    close. Not until the Viking Missions was anything successfully landed on Mars. Viking conducted testsMars Background Information General Information Here are some quick facts about Mars in comparison with Earth: Mars Earth Atmosphere 95% CO2, 5% N2, Ar & trace gasses 0.007 atm pressure 78% N2, 21% O2, 1

  2. Italian: Area Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet has been assembled in order to provide students of Italian with a compact source of cultural information on their target area. Chapters include discussion of: (1) introduction to Italian; (2) origins of the Italian population; (3) geography; (4) history including the Roman Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the "Risorgimento," and…

  3. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  4. Providing Relevant Background Information in Smart Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berardina De Carolis; Sebastiano Pizzutilo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a system, called GAIN (Group Adapted Interaction for News), which selects background information\\u000a to be displayed in public shared environments according to preferences of the group of people present in there. In ambient\\u000a intelligence contexts, we cannot assume that the system will be able to know every users physically present in the environment\\u000a and therefore

  5. Associate Director Information Services at SHS since 2012 Educational Background

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Chip Colby Associate Director Information Services at SHS since 2012 Educational Background Information Technology / Health Informatics Healthcare Information Security Professional Membership Information technology in primary education Travel, mostly to places related to Disney #12;

  6. Background information on the SSC project

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning.

  7. Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

  8. Information Routing Driven by Background Chatter in a Signaling Network

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Antonio J.; García-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Living systems are capable of processing multiple sources of information simultaneously. This is true even at the cellular level, where not only coexisting signals stimulate the cell, but also the presence of fluctuating conditions is significant. When information is received by a cell signaling network via one specific input, the existence of other stimuli can provide a background activity –or chatter– that may affect signal transmission through the network and, therefore, the response of the cell. Here we study the modulation of information processing by chatter in the signaling network of a human cell, specifically, in a Boolean model of the signal transduction network of a fibroblast. We observe that the level of external chatter shapes the response of the system to information carrying signals in a nontrivial manner, modulates the activity levels of the network outputs, and effectively determines the paths of information flow. Our results show that the interactions and node dynamics, far from being random, confer versatility to the signaling network and allow transitions between different information-processing scenarios. PMID:22174668

  9. Background information on high voltage fields.

    PubMed Central

    Janes, D E

    1977-01-01

    The increased demand for power has led to higher voltages for overhead transmission lines. Environmentalists, governmental agencies, and some members of the scientific community have questioned if past biological effects research and experience with lower voltage lines provide adequate bases for predicting the possible health and environmental effects of the higher voltage lines. Only a small amount of work has been done to explore the possible effects, especially long term effects, of the exposure of biological systems to electric fields from transmission lines. Research in Western Europe and the United States has not identified any prompt or acute effects other than spark and electric discharge and no permanent effects. Contrasted with this are the studies of workers in Soviet and Spanish high voltage switchyards that report effects, such as excitability, headaches, drowsiness, fatique, and nausea, that are not found in Soviet line maintenance workers. The results of current and planned research, supported by both U.S. Government agencies and the private sector, should resolve a number of the present uncertanties and provide answers for the many questions concerning potential effects. PMID:598346

  10. Harrah Excellence in Innovation Award AWARD BACKGROUND & INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Harrah Excellence in Innovation Award AWARD BACKGROUND & INFORMATION Harrah Excellence innovative approaches have contributed significantly to business excellence. The distinguished innovations Research Center, UNLV. Previous award winners include: 2009 Harrah Excellence in Innovation Award Tapcode

  11. Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in

    E-print Network

    Coxson, Darwyn

    Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in the Interior Cedar is to share information with other forest professionals on biodiversity management in Interior Cedar Hemlock licensees to implement this guidance. If biodiversity management in the ICH is significantly inconsistent

  12. DASI Three-Year Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Results

    E-print Network

    Erik M. Leitch; J. M. Kovac; N. W. Halverson; J. E. Carlstrom; C. Pryke; M. W. E. Smith

    2004-09-15

    We present the analysis of the complete 3-year data set obtained with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) polarization experiment, operating from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole research station. Additional data obtained at the end of the 2002 Austral winter and throughout the 2003 season were added to the data from which the first detection of polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation was reported. The analysis of the combined data supports, with increased statistical power, all of the conclusions drawn from the initial data set. In particular, the detection of E-mode polarization is increased to 6.3 sigma confidence level, TE cross-polarization is detected at 2.9 sigma, and B-mode polarization is consistent with zero, with an upper limit well below the level of the detected E-mode polarization. The results are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the cosmological model that has emerged from CMB temperature measurements. The analysis also demonstrates that contamination of the data by known sources of foreground emission is insignificant.

  13. Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Simultaneous Confidence Intervals with more

    E-print Network

    Stark, Philip B.

    Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Outline Bounds Illustrations Women's Health Initiative #12;Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence

  14. GRIS background reduction results using isotopically enriched Ge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, S. D.; Bartlett, L. M.; Gehrels, N.; Leventhal, M.; Teegarden, B. J.; Tueller, J.; Belyaev, S.; Lebedev, V.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) was flown twice from Alice Springs, Australia, in the spring of 1992 for a total of 32 hr at float altitude. One of the seven Ge detectors was isotopically enriched (greater than 97% Ge-70). This was the first time an enriched-Ge detector was used for astrophysical observations. Because of its thick anticoincidence shield, the GRIS instrument background is dominated by internal beta-decay in the energy range of 200-1000 keV. Half of the contribution in this beta-decay 'hump' is due to neutron-activated Ge-74. In this energy range, GRIS observed a factor of 2 reduction in the background in the enriched detector, as predicted. In future instruments (e.g., INTEGRAL), with thicker anticoincidence shields and smaller apertures, the background reduction will be even larger. Three strong instrumental background lines (54, 67, and 139 keV) are also eliminated. The elimination of the first two is particularly important for cylotron line observations.

  15. Background

    Cancer.gov

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls provide the highest quality, least biased dietary data. Traditional 24-hour recalls, however, are expensive and impractical for large-scale research because they rely on trained interviewers and multiple administrations to estimate usual intakes. As a result, researchers often make use of food frequency questionnaires, which are less expensive but contain substantial error.

  16. Background Information on the Ethnic Chinese Refugees. General Information Series #22. Indochinese Refugee Education Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Resource Center, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide background information on the ethnic Chinese refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos that will be of interest and use to educators working with these refugees. The guide consists of four sections: (1) a brief history of the Chinese communities in Southeast Asia; (2) a more detailed discussion of the…

  17. Main Results Background Classical Results Modern point of view Infinitesimal & Actual Deformations Deformations of Hyperbolic Coxeter Orbifolds

    E-print Network

    Kim, Yong Jung

    Main Results Background Classical Results Modern point of view Infinitesimal & Actual Deformations & The University of Melbourne June 9, 2009 #12;Main Results Background Classical Results Modern point of view projective structures? We will explain the numerical results in the cases of cubes and dodecahedra. #12;Main

  18. Research Results and Information Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Research Results Monsoon behavior balanced by glaciers Research Discovers Frequent Mutations of Chromatin Significant Progress in Water Photochemistry Research Structural signature in amorphous alloy formation and plastic deformation The neural basis of Drosophila larval light/darkness preference Important roles of brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase and ceramide metabolism in leptin hypothalamic control of feeding Integrin activation and internalization on soft ECM as a mechanism of induction of stem cell differentiation by ECM elasticity Determination of electron pairing symmetry of iron-based superconductor FeSe Long-Range Topological Order in Metallic Glass Information Update List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and CNRS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and ESRC in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RSE in 2011 Funding of Major Program Projects in 2010 Funding of Key Program Projects in 2010

  19. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  20. Brunet-Derrida-Simon conjectures Background material Main results Proof overview The genealogy of branching Brownian

    E-print Network

    Berestycki, Julien

    Brunet-Derrida-Simon conjectures Background material Main results Proof overview The genealogy with constant population size Conjecture 1 : the speed Conjecture 2 : timescale Conjecture 3 : Genealogy 2 Background material So what is the Bolthausen-Sznitman coalescent ? CSBP Genealogy of Neveu's CSBP BBM 3 Main

  1. Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very nearly the speed of light. Optical studies of a December 1997 burst (GRB 971214) indicated a distance for it of nearly 12 billion light-years. With distances known, astronomers could calculate the amount of energy released during the explosion. The answers were astounding. GRB 970508, in a mere 15 seconds, released nearly ten times more energy than our Sun will release in its entire, 10-billion-year lifetime. GRB 971214, for one or two seconds, outshone the entire rest of the universe. These energies ruled out many of the numerous theories for the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts that had arisen over the previous three decades. Many answers about the origins of Gamma Ray Bursts and the physics of the fireballs will come from radio telescopes. The VLA, with its combination of sensitivity and resolving power, "has a unique role to play in deciphering GRB fireball physics," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. First, radio astronomers can see the GRB fireball far longer than it is visible at other wavelengths. A Gamma Ray Burst is visible in the gamma rays for typically seconds or minutes, in X-rays for days, and in visible light for weeks, based on the past year's experience. "With radio telescopes, we can see the fireballs for months, gaining new information every day," said Greg Taylor, also of NRAO in Socorro. "Also, at other wavelengths, they see the emission only as it is rapidly getting weaker. At radio wavelengths, we can study the emission as it rises in strength, peaks, then slowly decays." In addition, radio observations can measure the size of the fireball. "Only radio telescopes can measure the size, and we can do it in three different ways," Frail said. These techniques involve studying the scintillation, or "twinkling" of the radio emission; absorption characteristics of the emission; and, for bright, energetic afterglows, direct measurements of sizes can be made through the great resolving power of continent-wide radio telescope arrays such as t

  2. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

  3. Does Chiral Fermion Coupled to a Background Dilaton Field Preserve Information?

    E-print Network

    Anisur Rahaman

    2010-09-27

    A model where chiral boson is coupled to a background dilaton field is considered to study the s-wave scattering of fermion by a back ground dilaton black hole. It is found that the scattering process of chiral fermion does not violate unitarity and information remains preserved. Faddevian anomaly plays a crucial role on the information scenario.

  4. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF TX-TY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH GROUND PENETRATING RADAR

    SciTech Connect

    MYERS DA; CUBBAGE R; BRAUCHLA R; O'BRIEN G

    2008-07-24

    Ground penetrating radar surveys of the TX and TY tank farms were performed to identify existing infrastructure in the near surface environment. These surveys were designed to provide background information supporting Surface-to-Surface and Well-to-Well resistivity surveys of Waste Management Area TX-TY. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with GPR to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity{trademark} surveys. The results of the background characterization confirm the existence of documented infrastructure, as well as highlight locations of possible additional undocumented subsurface metallic objects.

  5. First results of the COBE satellite measurement of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, G. F.; Aymon, J.; De Amici, G.; Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.; Gulkis, S.; Backus, C.; Galuk, K.; Jackson, P. D.; Keegstra, P.

    1991-01-01

    The concept and operation of the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) instrument aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer satellite are reviewed, with emphasis on the software identification and subtraction of potential systematic effects. Preliminary results obtained from the first six months of DMR data are presented, and implications for cosmology are discussed.

  6. Electrical axes of TESLA-type cavities (Theoretical background, development of measurement equipment, measurement results)

    E-print Network

    - 1 - Electrical axes of TESLA-type cavities (Theoretical background, development of measurement equipment, measurement results) Anton Labanc, MHF-SL, DESY, January 2008 Abstract Cells in TESLA cavities. A short overview was already published at the TESLA Report 2007-01. This paper brings more details about

  7. Arctic Transitions in the Land–Atmosphere System (ATLAS): Background, objectives, results, and future directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. McGuire; M. Sturm; F. S. Chapin

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the background, objectives, and results of the Arctic Transitions in the Land–Atmosphere System (ATLAS) Project to date and provides thoughts on future directions. The key goal of the ATLAS Project is to improve understanding of controls over spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial processes in the Arctic that have potential consequences for the climate system, i.e.,

  8. Arctic Transitions in the Land-Atmosphere System (ATLAS): Background, objectives, results, and future directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. McGuire; M. Sturm; F. S. Chapin

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the background, objectives, and results of the Arctic Transitions in the Land-Atmosphere System (ATLAS) Project to date and provides thoughts on future directions. The key goal of the ATLAS Project is to improve understanding of controls over spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial processes in the Arctic that have potential consequences for the climate system, i.e.,

  9. First upper limit analysis and results from LIGO science data: stochastic background

    E-print Network

    John T. Whelan; for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2004-12-04

    I describe analysis of correlations in the outputs of the three LIGO interferometers from LIGO's first science run, held over 17 days in August and September of 2002, and the resulting upper limit set on a stochastic background of gravitational waves. By searching for cross-correlations between the LIGO detectors in Livingston, LA and Hanford, WA, we are able to set a 90% confidence level upper limit of h_{100}^2 Omega_0 < 23 +/- 4.6.

  10. CUORE crystal validation runs: results on radioactive contamination and extrapolation to CUORE background

    E-print Network

    Alessandria, F; Ardito, R; Arnaboldi, C; Avignone, F T; Balata, M; Bandac, I; Banks, T I; Bari, G; Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Bersani, A; Biassoni, M; Bloxham, T; Brofferio, C; Bryant, A; Bucci, C; Cai, X Z; Canonica, L; Capelli, S; Carbone, L; Cardani, L; Carrettoni, M; Chott, N; Clemenza, M; Cosmelli, C; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, R J; Dafinei, I; Dally, A; De Biasi, A; Decowski, M P; Deninno, M M; de Waard, A; Di Domizio, S; Ejzak, L; Faccini, R; Fang, D Q; Farach, H; Ferri, E; Ferroni, F; Fiorini, E; Foggetta, L; Freedman, S; Frossati, G; Giachero, A; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gorla, P; Gotti, C; Guardincerri, E; Gutierrez, T D; Haller, E E; Han, K; Heeger, K M; Huang, H Z; Ichimura, K; Kadel, R; Kazkaz, K; Keppel, G; Kogler, L; Kolomensky, Y G; Kraft, S; Lenz, D; Li, Y L; Liu, X; Longo, E; Ma, Y G; Maiano, C; Maier, G; Martinez, C; Martinez, M; Maruyama, R H; Moggi, N; Morganti, S; Newman, S; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Norman, E B; Nucciotti, A; Orio, F; Orlandi, D; Ouellet, J; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, V; Pattavina, L; Pavan, M; Pedretti, M; Pessina, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Rampazzo, V; Rimondi, F; Rosenfeld, C; Rusconi, C; Salvioni, C; Sangiorgio, S; Schaeffer, D; Scielzo, N D; Sisti, M; Smith, A R; Stivanello, F; Taffarello, L; Terenziani, G; Tian, W D; Tomei, C; Trentalange, S; Ventura, G; Vignati, M; Wang, B; Wang, H W; Whitten, C A; Wise, T; Woodcraft, A; Xu, N; Zanotti, L; Zarra, C; Zhu, B X; Zucchelli, S

    2011-01-01

    The CUORE Crystal Validation Runs (CCVRs) have been carried out since the end of 2008 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories, in order to test the performances and the radiopurity of the TeO$_2$ crystals produced at SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for the CUORE experiment. In this work the results of the first 5 validation runs are presented. Results have been obtained for bulk contaminations and surface contaminations from several nuclides. An extrapolation to the CUORE background has been performed.

  11. CUORE crystal validation runs: Results on radioactive contamination and extrapolation to CUORE background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandria, F.; Andreotti, E.; Ardito, R.; Arnaboldi, C.; Avignone, F. T.; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Bloxham, T.; Brofferio, C.; Bryant, A.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Canonica, L.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; De Biasi, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Deninno, M. M.; de Waard, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Ejzak, L.; Faccini, R.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Foggetta, L.; Freedman, S. J.; Frossati, G.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Guardincerri, E.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Huang, H. Z.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kogler, L.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kraft, S.; Lenz, D.; Li, Y. L.; Liu, X.; Longo, E.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maier, G.; Martinez, C.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Newman, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rimondi, F.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Salvioni, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Schaeffer, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Stivanello, F.; Taffarello, L.; Terenziani, G.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Whitten, C. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Xu, N.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2012-07-01

    The CUORE Crystal Validation Runs (CCVRs) have been carried out since the end of 2008 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories, in order to test the performance and the radiopurity of the TeO2 crystals produced at SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for the CUORE experiment. In this work the results of the first 5 validation runs are presented. Results have been obtained for bulk contaminations and surface contaminations from several nuclides. An extrapolation to the CUORE background has been performed.

  12. Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, J. B.

    1983-08-01

    Background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations is reported. An environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program was developed. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakdown conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. An environmental impact statement on magnetic fusion will be based with this reference as a principle.

  13. Digital Diorama: AR Exhibition System to Convey Background Information for Museums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuji Narumi; Oribe Hayashi; Kazuhiro Kasada; Mitsuhiko Yamazaki; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose

    \\u000a In this paper, we propose a MR museum exhibition system, the “Digital Diorama” system, to convey background information intuitively.\\u000a The The system aims to offer more features than the function of existing dioramas in museum exhibitions by using mixed reality\\u000a technology. The system superimposes computer generated diorama scene reconstructed from related image\\/video materials onto\\u000a real exhibits. First, we implement and

  14. Discriminating direction of motion trajectories from angular speed and background information.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zheng; Braunstein, Myron L; Andersen, George J

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a background scene on the perception of the trajectory of an approaching object and its relation to changes in angular speed and angular size were examined in five experiments. Observers judged the direction (upward or downward) of two sequentially presented motion trajectories simulating a sphere traveling toward the observer at a constant 3-D speed from a fixed distance. In Experiments 1-4, we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and the presence of a scene background, with changes in angular size based either on the trajectories being discriminated or on an intermediate trajectory. In Experiment 5, we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and scene background, with angular size either constant or consistent with an intermediate 3-D trajectory. Overall, we found that (1) observers were able to judge the direction of object motion trajectories from angular speed changes; (2) observers were more accurate with a 3-D scene background, as compared with a uniform background, suggesting that scene information is important for recovering object motion trajectories; and (3) observers were more accurate in judging motion trajectories based on angular speed when the angular size function was consistent with motion in depth than when the angular size was constant. PMID:23824599

  15. Planck 2013 results. XVIII. The gravitational lensing-infrared background correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    The multi-frequency capability of the Planck satellite provides information both on the integrated history of star formation (via the cosmic infrared background, or CIB) and on the distribution of dark matter (via the lensing effect on the cosmic microwave background, or CMB). The conjunction of these two unique probes allows us to measure directly the connection between dark and luminous matter in the high redshift (1 ? z ? 3) Universe. We use a three-point statistic optimized to detect the correlation between these two tracers, using lens reconstructions at 100, 143, and 217 GHz, together with CIB measurements at 100-857 GHz. Following a thorough discussion of possible contaminants and a suite of consistency tests, we report the first detection of the correlation between the CIB and CMB lensing. The well matched redshift distribution of these two signals leads to a detection significance with a peak value of 42/19? (statistical/statistical + systematics) at 545 GHz and a correlation as high as 80% across these two tracers. Our full set of multi-frequency measurements (both CIB auto- and CIB-lensing cross-spectra) are consistent with a simple halo-based model, with a characteristic mass scale for the halos hosting CIB sources of log10(M/M?) = 10.5 ± 0.6. Leveraging the frequency dependence of our signal, we isolate the high redshift contribution to the CIB, and constrain the star formation rate (SFR) density at z ? 1. We measure directly the SFR density with around 2? significance for three redshift bins between z = 1 and 7, thus opening a new window into the study of the formation of stars at early times.

  16. Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2006-05-01

    Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

  17. Cosmic background radiation anisotropy at degree angular scales - Further results from the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Jeffrey; Gaier, Todd; Gundersen, Joshua; Meinhold, Peter; Koch, Timothy; Seiffert, Michael; Wuensche, Carlos A.; Lubin, Philip

    1993-01-01

    We report further results from the University of California at Santa Barbara program to measure anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation at angular scales near 1 deg, an angular range corresponding to the largest scales where structure is observed. A 30 GHz high electron mobility transistor amplifier-based detector was coupled to the Advanced Cosmic Microwave Explorer, a 1 m off-axis Gregorian telescope. We present data that represent 64 of the total of 500 hr acquired with this system during the 1990-1991 season. The data have a statistical error of 13.5/micro-K/pixel. These are the smallest error bars of any data set of this type published to date. The data contain a significant signal with a maximum likelihood Delta T/T roughly 1 x 10 exp -5. The spectrum of the signal seen in slightly less than 2 sigma away from the thermal spectrum expected of primordial fluctuations in the cosmic background radiation. If the source of the fluctuations is primordial, then the data are consistent with cold dark matter scenarios when normalized to the large-scale anisotropy observed by COBE, while if the origin of the signal is foreground emission or another form of contaminant then the data are marginally inconsistent with standard cold dark matter models. In either case, the data are sufficiently sensitive to provide a crucial test of many models.

  18. [Strengthening health literacy of people with migration background : results of a qualitative evaluation].

    PubMed

    Horn, Annett; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Schaeffer, Doris

    2015-06-01

    The concept of "health literacy", which has gained attention in English-speaking countries during the last decade, is becoming increasingly popular in Germany. While studies on an international level indicate that people with migration background are often limited in their health literacy, there is a lack of empirical data on that topic in Germany. However, it is well known that they are exposed to health-related risks and problems comparatively often whereas they use health care services less frequently. This article focuses on the native speaking counseling services of the Independent Patient Counseling Germany (UPD gGmbH) as an example of good practice and introduces the results of the evaluation of this counseling service. Qualitative interviews were conducted with UPD-consultants as well as with users of the services. It became apparent that Turkish and Russian-speaking immigrants often have limited health-related literacy. Therefore, support and counseling services should focus not only on issues concerning language and cultural aspects. Furthermore, strategies strengthening the health literacy of persons with migration background are required. Therefore, instruments and strategies will be developed in cooperation with the UPD which aim to improve such skills of the UPD-consultants. PMID:25861043

  19. The Effects of Background Information and Syntactic Cues in Reading French Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, Carl L.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared two groups of intermediate/advanced L2 French learners on a reading comprehension test when presented with or without background knowledge of the text. This study also compared intermediate and intermediate/advanced L2 French learners' reading comprehension when presented with increasing syntactic complexity. The results of…

  20. Planck 2013 results. XXX. Cosmic infrared background measurements and implications for star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Blagrave, K.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Winkel, B.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    We present new measurements of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using Planck. Combining HFI data with IRAS, the angular auto- and cross-frequency power spectrum is measured from 143 to 3000 GHz, and the auto-bispectrum from 217 to 545 GHz. The total areas used to compute the CIB power spectrum and bispectrum are about 2240 and 4400 deg2, respectively. After careful removal of the contaminants (cosmic microwave background anisotropies, Galactic dust, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission), and a complete study of systematics, the CIB power spectrum is measured with unprecedented signal to noise ratio from angular multipoles ? ~ 150 to 2500. The bispectrum due to the clustering of dusty, star-forming galaxies is measured from ? ~ 130 to 1100, with a total signal to noise ratio of around 6, 19, and 29 at 217, 353, and 545 GHz, respectively. Two approaches are developed for modelling CIB power spectrum anisotropies. The first approach takes advantage of the unique measurements by Planck at large angular scales, and models only the linear part of the power spectrum, with a mean bias of dark matter haloes hosting dusty galaxies at a given redshift weighted by their contribution to the emissivities. The second approach is based on a model that associates star-forming galaxies with dark matter haloes and their subhaloes, using a parametrized relation between the dust-processed infrared luminosity and (sub-)halo mass. The two approaches simultaneously fit all auto- and cross-power spectra very well. We find that the star formation history is well constrained up to redshifts around 2, and agrees with recent estimates of the obscured star-formation density using Spitzer and Herschel. However, at higher redshift, the accuracy of the star formation history measurement is strongly degraded by the uncertainty in the spectral energy distribution of CIB galaxies. We also find that the mean halo mass which is most efficient at hosting star formation is log (Meff/M?) = 12.6 and that CIB galaxies have warmer temperatures as redshift increases. The CIB bispectrum is steeper than that expected from the power spectrum, although well fitted by a power law; this gives some information about the contribution of massive haloes to the CIB bispectrum. Finally, we show that the same halo occupation distribution can fit all power spectra simultaneously. The precise measurements enabled by Planck pose new challenges for the modelling of CIB anisotropies, indicating the power of using CIB anisotropies to understand the process of galaxy formation.

  1. INFORMATION DYNAMICS: PREMISES, CHALLENGES AND RESULTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sobczyk

    2001-01-01

    In various fields of contemporary research information and dynamics are becoming the key terms. Theoretic information reasoning is well known in physics, especially in thermodynamics where the relationship between the statistical (or, informational) entropy of the system and its thermodynamical entropy have been studied since a long time. Information theory is especially relevant to data processing and statistical inference. Generally

  2. Arctic transitions in the Land - Atmosphere System (ATLAS): Background, objectives, results, and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, A.D.; Sturm, M.; Chapin, F. S., III

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the background, objectives, and results of the Arctic Transitions in the Land-Atmosphere System (ATLAS) Project to date and provides thoughts on future directions. The key goal of the ATLAS Project is to improve understanding of controls over spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial processes in the Arctic that have potential consequences for the climate system, i.e., processes that affect the exchange of water and energy with the atmosphere, the exchange of radiatively active gases with the atmosphere, and the delivery of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. Three important conclusions have emerged from research associated with the ATLAS Project. First, associated with the observation that the Alaskan Arctic has warmed significantly in the last 30 years, permafrost is warming, shrubs are expanding, and there has been a temporary release of carbon dioxide from tundra soils. Second, the winter is a more important period of biological activity than previously appreciated. Biotic processes, including shrub expansion and decomposition, affect snow structure and accumulation and affect the annual carbon budget of tundra ecosystems. Third, observed vegetation changes can have a significant positive feedback to regional warming. These vegetation effects are, however, less strong than those exerted by land-ocean heating contrasts and the topographic constraints on air mass movements. The papers of this special section provide additional insights related to these conclusions and to the overall goal of ATLAS.

  3. Planck early results. XVIII. The power spectrum of cosmic infrared background anisotropies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; J. G. Bartlett; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; R. Bhatia; K. Blagrave; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; L. Bonavera; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; P. Cabella; J.-F. Cardoso; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; L.-Y. Chiang; C. Chiang; P. R. Christensen; D. L. Clements; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; F. Cuttaia; L. Danese; R. D. Davies; R. J. Davis; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Zotti; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; H. Dole; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; H. K. Eriksen; F. Finelli; O. Forni; P. Fosalba; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; M. Giard; G. Giardino; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; J. Grain; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; F. K. Hansen; D. Harrison; G. Helou; S. Henrot-Versillé; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; W. A. Holmes; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; A. H. Jaffe; W. C. Jones; M. Juvela; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; J.-M. Lamarre; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; R. Leonardi; C. Leroy; P. B. Lilje; M. Linden-Vørnle; F. J. Lockman; M. López-Caniego; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; C. J. MacTavish; B. Maffei; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; P. Martin; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; A. Melchiorri; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; S. Mitra; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; G. Morgante; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; I. J. O'Dwyer; S. Oliver; S. Osborne; F. Pajot; F. Pasian; G. Patanchon; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; D. Pinheiro Gonçalves; S. Plaszczynski; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; T. Poutanen; G. Prézeau; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; J. P. Rachen; W. T. Reach; M. Reinecke; M. Remazeilles; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; M. Rowan-Robinson; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; M. Sandri; D. Santos; G. Savini; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; P. Shellard; G. F. Smoot; J.-L. Starck; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Stompor; R. Sudiwala; R. Sunyaev; J.-F. Sygnet; J. A. Tauber; L. Terenzi; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; G. Umana; L. Valenziano; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; L. A. Wade; B. D. Wandelt; M. White; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca

    2011-01-01

    Using Planck maps of six regions of low Galactic dust emission with a total area of about 140 deg2, we determine the angular power spectra of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies from multipole l = 200 to l = 2000 at 217, 353, 545 and 857 GHz. We use 21-cm observations of Hi as a tracer of thermal dust emission

  4. Degree Angular Scale Interferometer First Results: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Angular Power Spectrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. W. Halverson; E. M. Leitch; C. Pryke; J. Kovac; J. E. Carlstrom; W. L. Holzapfel; M. Dragovan; J. K. Cartwright; B. S. Mason; S. Padin; T. J. Pearson; A. C. S. Readhead; M. C. Shepherd

    2002-01-01

    We present measurements of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first season of observations with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI). The instrument was deployed at the South Pole in the austral summer 1999-2000, and we made observations throughout the following austral winter. We present a measurement of the CMB angular power spectrum in the range 100

  5. Enhanced community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework. PMID:24247657

  6. 1. Technical background David Keil Information Technology and Society 1/13 David Keil Information Technology and Society 1/13 1

    E-print Network

    Keil, David M.

    Technology and Society 1/13 5 Pre-history · Leibnitz and Newton developed the calculus to reason about1. Technical background David Keil Information Technology and Society 1/13 David Keil Information Technology and Society 1/13 1 David M. Keil, Framingham State University CSCI 135 Information Technology

  7. Digital Pulse-Shape Discrimination Applied to an Ultra-Low-Background Gas-Proportional Counting System: First Results

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; Myers, A. W.; Overman, Cory T.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Richard M.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract A new ultra-low-background proportional counter (ULBPC) design was recently developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This design, along with an ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS) which provides passive and active shielding with radon exclusion, has been developed to complement a new shallow underground laboratory (~30 meters water-equivalent) constructed at PNNL. After these steps to mitigate dominant backgrounds (cosmic rays, external gamma-rays, radioactivity in materials), remaining background events do not exclusively arise from ionization of the proportional counter gas. Digital pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) is thus employed to further improve measurement sensitivity. In this work, a template shape is generated for each individual sample measurement of interest, a "self-calibrating" template. Differences in event topology can also cause differences in pulse shape. In this work, the temporal region analyzed for each event is refined to maximize background discrimination while avoiding unwanted sensitivity to event topology. This digital PSD method is applied to sample and background data, and initial measurement results from a biofuel methane sample are presented in the context of low-background measurements currently being developed.

  8. A NEW RESULT ON THE ORIGIN OF THE EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Ming; Wang Jiancheng, E-mail: mzhou@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we repeatedly use the method of image stacking to study the origin of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) at GeV bands, and find that the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters (FIRST) sources undetected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope can contribute about (56 {+-} 6)% of the EGB. Because FIRST is a flux-limited sample of radio sources with incompleteness at the faint limit, we consider that point sources, including blazars, non-blazar active galactic nuclei, and starburst galaxies, could produce a much larger fraction of the EGB.

  9. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  10. Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background

    E-print Network

    Sasaki, Misao

    2014-01-01

    We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

  11. Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-12-01

    We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

  12. Background Error Covariance Estimation Using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory.SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

  13. Background When an electrical potential is applied to human tissue, the pattern of the resulting current flow is determined by

    E-print Network

    Smallwood, Rod

    . By measurement of the electrical current patterns over a range of frequencies, and use of an inverse modellingSummary Background When an electrical potential is applied to human tissue, the pattern of the resulting current flow is determined by the shapes, arrangements, and internal structure of the tissue cells

  14. CUORE crystal validation runs: results on radioactive contamination and extrapolation to CUORE background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Alessandria; E. Andreotti; R. Ardito; C. Arnaboldi; F. T. Avignone III; M. Balata; I. Bandac; T. I. Banks; G. Bari; J. W. Beeman; F. Bellini; A. Bersani; M. Biassoni; T. Bloxham; C. Brofferio; A. Bryant; C. Bucci; X. Z. Cai; L. Canonica; S. Capelli; L. Carbone; L. Cardani; M. Carrettoni; N. Chott; M. Clemenza; C. Cosmelli; O. Cremonesi; R. J. Creswick; I. Dafinei; A. Dally; A. De Biasi; M. P. Decowski; M. M. Deninno; A. de Waard; S. Di Domizio; L. Ejzak; R. Faccini; D. Q. Fang; H. Farach; E. Ferri; F. Ferroni; E. Fiorini; L. Foggetta; S. Freedman; G. Frossati; A. Giachero; L. Gironi; A. Giuliani; P. Gorla; C. Gotti; E. Guardincerri; T. D. Gutierrez; E. E. Haller; K. Han; K. M. Heeger; H. Z. Huang; K. Ichimura; R. Kadel; K. Kazkaz; G. Keppel; L. Kogler; Y. G. Kolomensky; S. Kraft; D. Lenz; Y. L. Li; X. Liu; E. Longo; Y. G. Ma; C. Maiano; G. Maier; C. Martinez; M. Martinez; R. H. Maruyama; N. Moggi; S. Morganti; S. Newman; S. Nisi; C. Nones; E. B. Norman; A. Nucciotti; F. Orio; D. Orlandi; J. Ouellet; M. Pallavicini; V. Palmieri; L. Pattavina; M. Pavan; M. Pedretti; G. Pessina; S. Pirro; E. Previtali; V. Rampazzo; F. Rimondi; C. Rosenfeld; C. Rusconi; C. Salvioni; S. Sangiorgio; D. Schaeffer; N. D. Scielzo; M. Sisti; A. R. Smith; F. Stivanello; L. Taffarello; G. Terenziani; W. D. Tian; C. Tomei; S. Trentalange; G. Ventura; M. Vignati; B. Wang; H. W. Wang; C. A. Whitten Jr; T. Wise; A. Woodcraft; N. Xu; L. Zanotti; C. Zarra; B. X. Zhu; S. Zucchelli

    2011-01-01

    The CUORE Crystal Validation Runs (CCVRs) have been carried out since the end of 2008 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories, in order to test the performances and the radiopurity of the TeO$_2$ crystals produced at SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for the CUORE experiment. In this work the results of the first 5 validation runs

  15. Planck 2013 results. XXVI. Background geometry and topology of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fabre, O.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    The new cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps from Planck provide the highest-quality full-sky view of the surface of last scattering available to date. This allows us to detect possible departures from the standard model of a globally homogeneous and isotropic cosmology on the largest scales. We search for correlations induced by a possible non-trivial topology with a fundamental domain intersecting, or nearly intersecting, the last scattering surface (at comoving distance ?rec), both via a direct search for matched circular patterns at the intersections and by an optimal likelihood search for specific topologies. For the latter we consider flat spaces with cubic toroidal (T3), equal-sided chimney (T2) and slab (T1) topologies, three multi-connected spaces of constant positive curvature (dodecahedral, truncated cube and octahedral) and two compact negative-curvature spaces. These searches yield no detection of the compact topology with the scale below the diameter of the last scattering surface. For most compact topologies studied the likelihood maximized over the orientation of the space relative to the observed map shows some preference for multi-connected models just larger than the diameter of the last scattering surface. Since this effect is also present in simulated realizations of isotropic maps, we interpret it as the inevitable alignment of mild anisotropic correlations with chance features in a single sky realization; such a feature can also be present, in milder form, when the likelihood is marginalized over orientations. Thus marginalized, the limits on the radius ?i of the largest sphere inscribed in topological domain (at log-likelihood-ratio ?ln ? > -5 relative to a simply-connected flat Planck best-fit model) are: in a flat Universe, ?i> 0.92?rec for the T3 cubic torus; ?i> 0.71?rec for the T2 chimney; ?i> 0.50?rec for the T1 slab; and in a positively curved Universe, ?i> 1.03?rec for the dodecahedral space; ?i> 1.0?rec for the truncated cube; and ?i> 0.89?rec for the octahedral space. The limit for a wider class of topologies, i.e., those predicting matching pairs of back-to-back circles, among them tori and the three spherical cases listed above, coming from the matched-circles search, is ?i> 0.94?rec at 99% confidence level. Similar limits apply to a wide, although not exhaustive, range of topologies. We also perform a Bayesian search for an anisotropic global Bianchi VIIh geometry. In the non-physical setting where the Bianchi cosmology is decoupled from the standard cosmology, Planck data favour the inclusion of a Bianchi component with a Bayes factor of at least 1.5 units of log-evidence. Indeed, the Bianchi pattern is quite efficient at accounting for some of the large-scale anomalies found in Planck data. However, the cosmological parameters that generate this pattern are in strong disagreement with those found from CMB anisotropy data alone. In the physically motivated setting where the Bianchi parameters are coupled and fitted simultaneously with the standard cosmological parameters, we find no evidence for a Bianchi VIIh cosmology and constrain the vorticity of such models to (?/H)0< 8.1 × 10-10 (95% confidence level).

  16. Results of the Standardized Assessment of Information Literacy Skills (SAILS)

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Results of the Standardized Assessment of Information Literacy Skills (SAILS) for University The Standardized Assessment of Information Literacy Skills (SAILS) is a knowledge test with multiple-choice questions targeting a variety of information literacy skills. Questions on the SAILS test are based directly

  17. 76 FR 67182 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ...felony convictions, and parties prohibited from receiving federal contracts. (2) Drug tests are for the presence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP). Contractors shall maintain records of all background...

  18. Using EXO-200 Results to Make Background Projections for the Next Generation EXO Detector (nEXO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Tessa

    2013-04-01

    Observation of neutrino-less double beta decay would provide a window to new physics, specifically answering questions on the true nature and absolute mass of the neutrino and the validity of lepton number conservation in the Standard Model. The EXO (Enriched Xenon Observatory) collaboration has set a limit on the half-life of this extremely rare decay and continues to take data with the current generation of the experiment, EXO-200, which uses 200 kg of xenon that has been enriched to 80% ^136Xe. In order to probe inverted mass hierarchy for neutrinos, it is necessary to build a bigger detector that will have a greater sensitivity to the neutrino-less double beta decay half-life. The next generation of the EXO experiment, dubbed nEXO, is proposed to include a time projection chamber that holds about 5,000 kg of liquid xenon. The main questions to be answered at this stage are what backgrounds will be encountered and how they will affect the physics capabilities with a detector of this magnitude. Data from EXO-200 was used to help determine potential backgrounds from detector materials, shielding materials, and mine rock. This information was used to simulate the backgrounds of nEXO and to estimate its physics reach.

  19. "We don't know her history, her background": adoptive parents' perspectives on whole genome sequencing results.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Julia; Yu, Joon-Ho; Shankar, Aditi G; Tabor, Holly K

    2015-02-01

    Exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing (ES/WGS) can provide parents with a wide range of genetic information about their children, and adoptive parents may have unique issues to consider regarding possible access to this information. The few papers published on adoption and genetics have focused on targeted genetic testing of children in the pre-adoption context. There are no data on adoptive parents' perspectives about pediatric ES/WGS, including their preferences about different kinds of results, and the potential benefits and risks of receiving results. To explore these issues, we conducted four exploratory focus groups with adoptive parents (N?=?26). The majority lacked information about their children's biological family health history and ancestry, and many viewed WGS results as a way to fill in these gaps in knowledge. Some expressed concerns about protecting their children's future privacy and autonomy, but at the same time stated that WGS results could possibly help them be proactive about their children's health. A few parents expressed concerns about the risks of WGS in a pre-adoption context, specifically about decreasing a child's chance of adoption. These results suggest that issues surrounding genetic information in the post-adoption and ES/WGS contexts need to be considered, as well as concerns about risks in the pre-adoption context. A critical challenge for ES/WGS in the context of adoption will be balancing the right to know different kinds of genetic information with the right not to know. Specific guidance for geneticists and genetic counselors may be needed to maximize benefits of WGS while minimizing harms and prohibiting misuse of the information in the adoption process. PMID:25011977

  20. 77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...Docket 2012-0001; Sequence 7] Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection...Investigations for Child Care Workers AGENCY: Office of Facilities Management and Program Services, Public Building...

  1. Information Retrieval: Ranking Results according to Calendar Criteria

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Information Retrieval: Ranking Results according to Calendar Criteria Delphine Battistelli1´e Nollez, 75018 Paris, France charles.teissedre@mondeca.com Abstract. Our work deals with calendar these textual units Calendar Expressions (CE). Our work aims at showing how Information Retrieval systems can

  2. Bias resulting from missing information: some epidemiological findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Cox; M Rutter; B Yule; D Quinton

    1977-01-01

    The biases resulting from missing information were examined in three psychiatric epidemiological studies. In each study, cases with missing information could be compared with the main sample because data were available from several sources or at several points in time through a longitudinal study. In almost all instances, cases with missing data differed systematically in terms of variables crucial to

  3. Industrial waste-water volatile organic compound emissions. Background information for BACT\\/LAER determinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Elliott; S. Watkins

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Control Technology Center (CTC) is to provide technical information to States on estimating and controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from the collection and treatment of industrial wastewaters for Best Available Control Technology (BACT) and Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER) determinations. Technical guidance projects, focus on topics of national or regional interest that are identified through

  4. Background Dirty Paper Coding Codeword Binning Code construction Lossless Watermarking Remaining problems Information Hiding

    E-print Network

    Regalia, Phillip A.

    or transmission, information hiding is trivial: Replace select bits imperceptibly. Cover signal TOP SECRET message Hiding algorithm Modified signal Extraction algorithm TOP SECRET Recovered message Clear channel If cover is trivial: Replace select bits imperceptibly. Cover signal TOP SECRET message Hiding algorithm Modified

  5. Background hydrologic information in potential lignite mining areas in Mississippi, July 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    A water-quality sampling program was initiated in 1980 to determine background hydrologic data in potential lignite mining areas of Mississippi. This report is the third in a planned five-part series to provide data to assess future impacts of mining on small streams. The data indicates that most streams in the study area have a dissolved-solids concentration less than 100 mg/. The major ion concentrations were generally less than 10 mg/. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and selenium in bottom material samples were below detectable limits. Cobalt, lead, zinc, copper, and chromium concentrations exceeded 10 micro-/g at all sites and maganese exceeded 1000 micro-/g at five sites. (USGS)

  6. Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S. L.

    1982-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

  7. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

  8. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

  9. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

  10. 29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...alternative employment practices which accommodate the religious practices of employees and... (5) Little evidence was submitted by...accommodate religious practices with resultant...religious practices. Based on these...

  11. MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT. VOLUME II. MEG CHARTS AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the derivation of Multimedia Environmental Goals (MEG's). MEG's are levels of significant contaminants or degradents (in ambient air, water, or land, or in emissions or effluents conveyed to the ambient media) that are judged to be: appropri...

  12. Information systems outsourcing success factors: a review and some results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reyes-G. Gonzalez; Jose Gasco; Juan Llopis

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to offer the results of a survey about information systems (IS) outsourcing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology is a questionnaire survey of 357 IS managers in Spanish firms. Findings – IS outsourcing is a widespread activity that has been growing on a worldwide basis in recent years. The main outsourcing success factors for large Spanish firms

  13. Finite state automata resulting from temporal information maximization

    E-print Network

    Wennekers, Thomas

    Finite state automata resulting from temporal information maximization Thomas Wennekers1 PL4 8AA, United Kingdom Phone: +44(0)1752-23-3593, Fax: +44(0)1752-23-3349 Email: Thomas.Wennekers et al. (1989); Palm & Aertsen (1986); Wennekers et al. (2003). A well-known measure that quantifies

  14. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L. [and others

    1993-10-01

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

  15. Information and decision-making needs among people with affective disorders – results of an online survey

    PubMed Central

    Liebherz, Sarah; Tlach, Lisa; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient decision aids are one possibility for enabling and encouraging patients to participate in medical decisions. Objective This paper aims to describe patients’ information and decision-making needs as a prerequisite for the development of high-quality, web-based patient decision aids for affective disorders. Design We conducted an online cross-sectional survey by using a self-administered questionnaire including items on Internet use, online health information needs, role in decision making, and important treatment decisions, performing descriptive and comparative statistical analyses. Participants A total of 210 people with bipolar disorder/mania as well as 112 people with unipolar depression participated in the survey. Results Both groups specified general information search as their most relevant information need and decisions on treatment setting (inpatient or outpatient) as well as decisions on pharmacological treatment as the most difficult treatment decisions. For participants with unipolar depression, decisions concerning psychotherapeutic treatment were also especially difficult. Most participants of both groups preferred shared decisions but experienced less shared decisions than desired. Discussion and conclusion Our results show the importance of information for patients with affective disorders, with a focus on pharmacological treatment and on the different treatment settings, and highlight patients’ requirements to be involved in the decision-making process. Since our sample reported a chronic course of disease, we do not know if our results are applicable for newly diagnosed patients. Further studies should consider how the reported needs could be addressed in health care practice. PMID:25999698

  16. Informing parents about positive newborn screen results: parents' recommendations.

    PubMed

    Salm, Natalie; Yetter, Elena; Tluczek, Audrey

    2012-12-01

    This descriptive study examined parents' reactions to newborn screening (NBS) results and their recommendations for improving communication. Dimensional and content analyses were conducted on interviews with 203 parents of 106 infants having positive NBS results. Diagnostic results confirmed infants as having congenital hypothyroidism (n = 37), cystic fibrosis (n = 26), or being cystic fibrosis (CF)-carriers (n = 43). Parents' reactions ranged from 'very scary' to 'not too concerned'. Most reported feeling shock, panic, and worry; some reported guilt. Parents in the CF and CF-carrier groups preferred face-to-face disclosure as the communication channel; whereas congenital hypothyroidism group parents supported telephone contacts. Parents recommended providers be well informed, honest, and calm; personalize disclosure, avoid jargon, listen carefully, encourage questions, recognize parental distress, offer realistic reassurance, pace amount and rate of information, assess parents' understanding, and refer to specialists. We conclude that provider-patient communication approach and channel can exacerbate or alleviate parents' negative reactions to positive NBS results. PMID:22984167

  17. The exponential increase of biomedical information can be overwhelming for researchers and patients alike. However, to Dr. Suresh K. Bhavnani this explosion presents an exciting opportunity to use his interdisciplinary background in computer science, huma

    E-print Network

    Bhavnani, Suresh K.

    to the design of decision-support systems. His journey of attempting to unlock biomedical mysteries has resultedThe exponential increase of biomedical information can be overwhelming for researchers and patients interdisciplinary background in computer science, human-computer interaction, and graphic design to unlock mysteries

  18. Information Technology for Harvesting NASA Earth Science Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanstoos, J. V.; Shaw, D.; O'Hara, C.; Frisbie, T.

    2007-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program has funded the Mississippi Research Consortium (MRC) to develop information technology that will facilitate searches for potential applications of NASA assets to various needs in the earth sciences community. In particular, it will help generate ideas for new ways to use NASA missions, research, and/or models in conjunction with operational decision-making processes (or decision support systems) to achieve a particular benefit to society. In this paper, we describe the development of information technology that will facilitate that ability. The resulting system is called the Earth Science Knowledge Base (ESKB). The ESKB contains and index relevant NASA research result publications in a database that is compatible with the evolving NASA "Mission to Models" (M2M) database and shares relevant table space with it. In particular, fields from this system identifying relevant NASA missions, models, and data products are used to cross-index the data collected on published results of research projects. Fields characterizing the research results based on the six earth science focus areas and the twelve applications of national priority are included. In the course of developing the ESKB, novel uses of existing online databases and search tools have been developed. In addition, data mining tools have been developed for facilitating the proper characterization of research results. In addition to research results, the ESKB includes data that characterizes the current network of NASA earth science partners. This includes information on organizations and agencies funded by or partnered with NASA to conduct earth science research, technology, and applications projects. The relationships between NASA programs and project sponsors are also captured in this knowledge base. The ESKB is implemented as a client-server system that will allow access and updates from a distributed network of users. It has a user-friendly interface designed to facilitate the identification of potential solutions which bring benefits to society though the use of NASA missions, data, models, and research results. The system is currently undergoing beta testing but is expected to be more widely available at the time of this paper's presentation, when we will present a status update and describe how to access it.

  19. Health Information Literacy and Competencies of Information Age Students: Results From the Interactive Online Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA)

    PubMed Central

    O’Boyle, Irene; Casey, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    Background In an era of easy access to information, university students who will soon enter health professions need to develop their information competencies. The Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA) is based on the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, and it measures proficiency in obtaining health information, evaluating the quality of health information, and understanding plagiarism. Objective This study aimed to measure the proficiency of college-age health information consumers in finding and evaluating electronic health information; to assess their ability to discriminate between peer-reviewed scholarly resources and opinion pieces or sales pitches; and to examine the extent to which they are aware of their level of health information competency. Methods An interactive 56-item online assessment, the Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA), was used to measure the health information competencies of university students. We invited 400 students to take part in the study, and 308 participated, giving a response rate of 77%. The RRSA included multiple-choice questions and problem-based exercises. Declarative and procedural knowledge were assessed in three domains: finding health information, evaluating health information, and understanding plagiarism. Actual performance was contrasted with self-reported skill level. Upon answering all questions, students received a results page that summarized their numerical results and displayed individually tailored feedback composed by an experienced librarian. Results Even though most students (89%) understood that a one-keyword search is likely to return too many documents, few students were able to narrow a search by using multiple search categories simultaneously or by employing Boolean operators. In addition, nearly half of the respondents had trouble discriminating between primary and secondary sources of information as well as between references to journal articles and other published documents. When presented with questionable websites on nonexistent nutritional supplements, only 50% of respondents were able to correctly identify the website with the most trustworthy features. Less than a quarter of study participants reached the correct conclusion that none of the websites made a good case for taking the nutritional supplements. Up to 45% of students were unsure if they needed to provide references for ideas expressed in paraphrased sentences or sentences whose structure they modified. Most respondents (84%) believed that their research skills were good, very good, or excellent. Students’ self-perceptions of skill tended to increase with increasing level of education. Self-reported skills were weakly correlated with actual skill level, operationalized as the overall RRSA score (Cronbach alpha = .78 for 56 RRSA items). Conclusions While the majority of students think that their research skills are good or excellent, many of them are unable to conduct advanced information searches, judge the trustworthiness of health-related websites and articles, and differentiate between various information sources. Students’ self-reports may not be an accurate predictor of their actual health information competencies. PMID:16867969

  20. Results from the first stage of a UK Galactic dark matter search using low background sodium iodide detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Quenby; T. J. Sumner; J. P. Li; A. Bewick; S. M. Grant; D. Shaul; N. J. T. Smith; W. G. Jones; G. J. Davies; C. C. Zammit; A. D. Caplin; R. A. Stradling; T. Ali; C. H. Lally; P. F. Smith; G. J. Homer; G. T. J. Arnison; J. D. Lewin; G. J. Alner; A. M. Cruise; M. J. J. van den Putte; N. J. C. Spooner; J. C. Barton; P. R. Blake; M. J. Lea; P. Stefanyi; J. Saunders

    1995-01-01

    Low-energy background spectra from 1.3 kg and 6.2 kg NaI(TI) crystal scintillators operating in the shielded Boulby underground facility were measured. Upper limits to the scattering interaction rates and cross-sections of Galactic dark matter in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are calculated from these data. This work provides an improved limit for spin-dependent interactions for WIMP masses

  1. [Health status of people with a migrant background and impact of socio-economic factors : First results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Rommel, Alexander; Saß, A C; Born, S; Ellert, U

    2015-06-01

    People with a migrant background (PMB) have specific health-related risk factors and resources compared to the non-migrant population (NMP). The analysis focuses on the relationship between migrant background and health and health-related behavior. Moreover, the study analyses whether socio-economic status (SES) contributes to the explanation of differences between PMB and the NMP. The research is based on the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (2008-2012, n?=?8151). The population for cross-sectional analyses contains 1107 PMB (weighted 19.8?%). The research question is addressed on the basis of nine exemplary health outcomes. All analyses are gender specific and make a distinction between first and second generation PMB. Logistic regression is calculated adjusting for age and SES. The results reveal clear gender-specific patterns: For women, differences are statistically significant mainly for first generation PMB. Compared to the NMP their self-assessed health status is lower, they are less physically active, consume less alcohol, feel less informed about cancer screening programs and make less use of preventive health services. However, daily smoking is more prevalent in second generation women. For men, differences are statistically significant for first and second generation PMB. Men with a migrant background show more symptoms of depression, consume less alcohol and feel less informed about cancer screening programs. After adjusting for SES the impact of migrant background on health status and health-related behavior largely remains stable. The study shows that the DEGS1 data offers valuable results and new insights into the health status of people with a migrant background. The use of this data for further research requires a differentiated approach to the concept of migrant background and a careful interpretation of results. PMID:25824135

  2. Tectonic background of a unique hydrogen-rich Kairei Hydrothermal Field, Central Indian Ridge: Results from Taiga Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okino, K.; Nakamura, K.; Morishita, T.; SATO, H.; Sato, T.; Mochizuki, N.; Okamura, K.; Fukuba, T.; Sunamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Indian Ridge (CIR) is slow~intermediate spreading systems and its southern end forms a R-R-R triple junction with SWIR and SEIR. The southern CIR shows slow-spreading morphology, where the axial valley develops along the ridge crest and an oceanic core complex has been reported near the triple junction. Kairei Hydrothermal Field (KHF) is unique hydrothermal system, located at the southern end of CIR. The fluids venting from the KHF are characterized by its high concentration of hydrogen with low methane/hydrogen ratio, and a hydrogen-based hyperthermophilic subsurface lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystem was confirmed (Takai et al., 2004). The KHF lies on basaltic lava area on the shoulder of ridge axial wall, being different from other hydrogen-rich hydrothermal fields hosted by ultramafic rocks. We selected this area as an integrated site for the Taiga Project, and conducted series of research cruises to characterize this unique system and to understand how the tectonic setting controls the fluid and ecosystem. We discover that the KHF itself is located above basaltic lava field but gabbro and ultramafic rocks are widely exhumed around the KHF. Besides a previously known oceanic core complex, small oceanic core complexes exist just east of the KHF (Kumagai et al., 2008) and the NTO massif north of the KHF shows peridotite exposure on its top. The unique fluid geochemistry of the KHF can be attributed to serpentinization of troctolites around or beneath the KHF and subsequent hydrothermal reactions with basaltic wall rocks (Nakamura et al., 2009). We also find several small hills where we collect deep crustal and mantle rocks. These hills suggesting melt-limited environment extend mainly along 2nd order segment boundary from the axial valley to 30km off-axis, i.e. ~1.7 Ma. The regional surface geophysical mapping and deep-tow magnetic profiling show high mantle Bouguer anomaly and prominent asymmetric spreading in the southernmost CIR segment. These observations are consistent with limited melt supply and possible implication of detachment faults. The collected peridotites might preserve relics of older partial melting events, resulting in the formation of heterogeneous mantle material beneath the current CIR axis. The latest stage of decompression melting beneath the CIR might be limited because the presence of depleted peridotite formed by ancient partial melting. The similar evolution process is proposed in the eastern SWIR, so the tectonic background of the KHF may be closely related to the evolution of triple junction. We also discover dead chimneys on the NTO massif north of the KHF. The AUV-attached magnetometer detects a higher positive magnetization around the chimney sites, suggesting hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks. Although densely operated CTD tow-yo surveys and micro-sensors attached to the wire during dredge and net operations do not detect clear evidence of another active hydrothermal vent, an ultramafic-hosted hydrothermalism exists or at least existed on the NTO massif.

  3. Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

  4. Early results from the MIT millimeter and sub-millimeter balloon-borne anisotropy measurement. [of cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Stephan S.; Cheng, Edward S.; Page, Lyman A.

    1991-01-01

    The MIT balloon-borne bolometric search for Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) anisotropies places the most stringent constraints to date on fluctuations in the CMBR. Four maps of half of the Northern Hemisphere at 1.8, 1.1, 0.63 and 0.44 mm wavelength, have a beam size of 3.8 deg with a 1 sigma sensitivity of less than 0.1 mK (thermodynamic) per FOV in each of the first two channels. Analysis of the sky map at 1.8 mm wavelength using a likelihood ratio test for galactic latitudes of 15 deg and greater yields a 95 percent confidence level (CL) upper limit on fluctuations of the CMBR at DeltaT/T less than or equal to 1.6 x 10 exp -5 with a statistical power of 92 percent for Gaussian fluctuations at a correlation angle of 13 deg. Between 3 deg and 22 deg, the upper limit for fluctuations is DeltaT/T less than or equal to 4.0 x 10 exp -5 (95 percent CL).

  5. Future Information Services at the Texas A&M University Library: Background and Recommendations (Report of an Ad Hoc Committee).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Colleen; And Others

    The Ad Hoc Committee on Future Information Services explored possible future directions for information services at Texas A&M University Library and developed a plan to guide the library into the next decade in terms of automated access to information. In exploring future directions for automated information services, the committee members…

  6. Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-06-26

    Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a 'Y' junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re-entry survey, and routine surveys around the crater lip did not identify alpha contamination. Background information includes several radiological surveys conducted after these two tests. The MULLET area has been surveyed frequently. The early surveys indicate the area as both contaminated and containing buried radioactive material. A survey conducted in 1970 found the radiological/chemical piping partially intact, including the 'Y' junction, and shows two runs of intact piping running past the U2am crater lip. The survey focused on the piping system itself and detected alpha contamination from 4 counts per minute (cpm) to 900,000 cpm. The highest value was at a pipe flange between a dirt pile and a dirt berm within the current site fence line. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. A 1972 survey was essentially a repeat of the 1970 survey; however, it does not show the 'Y' junction nor does it show piping extending past the U2am crater lip. It also shows a new fence line separating the radiological/chemical piping from the U2am crater area with all piping within the fence. Alpha contamination was detected on pipe flanges during the survey, but alpha contamination was not detected on the dirt pile or the dirt berm. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. Additional surveys were conducted in 1986, 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996. One of the surveys focused on determining the extent of soil contamination around GZ. An alpha contamination plume extending approximately 200 feet south of GZ was detected in a swath approximately 100 feet wide. The maximum measurement was 15,000 cpm alpha. All surveys show the piping within the fence line. Recent surveys (2007 and 2008) were performed around the current fence line by the demarcation group. No removable contamination was identified during these surveys. In late 2008, a visual inspection of the site was conducted by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Restoration group. All piping is within the fence line. Photos taken during this site visit are attached.

  7. Child Care Providers' Use of HIV/AIDS Information Resources: Links to Professional Background Variables and Feelings about Caring for an HIV-Infected Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mick; Toledo, Carlos; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Examined child caregivers' use of various HIV/AIDS information resources in relation to professional background and attitudes. Found that providers' education level, child care experience, and the age group for which they were responsible correlated with use of newspaper/magazine articles, pamphlets, and educational workshops. Use of…

  8. Accounting for results: how conservation organizations report performance information.

    PubMed

    Rissman, Adena R; Smail, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Environmental program performance information is in high demand, but little research suggests why conservation organizations differ in reporting performance information. We compared performance measurement and reporting by four private-land conservation organizations: Partners for Fish and Wildlife in the US Fish and Wildlife Service (national government), Forest Stewardship Council-US (national nonprofit organization), Land and Water Conservation Departments (local government), and land trusts (local nonprofit organization). We asked: (1) How did the pattern of performance reporting relationships vary across organizations? (2) Was political conflict among organizations' principals associated with greater performance information? and (3) Did performance information provide evidence of program effectiveness? Based on our typology of performance information, we found that most organizations reported output measures such as land area or number of contracts, some reported outcome indicators such as adherence to performance standards, but few modeled or measured environmental effects. Local government Land and Water Conservation Departments reported the most types of performance information, while local land trusts reported the fewest. The case studies suggest that governance networks influence the pattern and type of performance reporting, that goal conflict among principles is associated with greater performance information, and that performance information provides unreliable causal evidence of program effectiveness. Challenging simple prescriptions to generate more data as evidence, this analysis suggests (1) complex institutional and political contexts for environmental program performance and (2) the need to supplement performance measures with in-depth evaluations that can provide causal inferences about program effectiveness. PMID:25549998

  9. Behavioral Information Security: An Overview, Research Agenda, and Preliminary Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M. Stanton; Cavinda Caldera; Indira Guzman; Ashley Isaac; Peyina Lin; Mala Mathur; Joshua Seymour; Christiane Spitzmueller; Kathryn Stam; Isabelle Yamodo; Norhayati Zakaria

    Over recent decades, most work organizations have come to depend on information technology for their operations. As connectivity among computer devices has increased, so has the likelihood of intrusion, theft, defacement, and other forms of information resource loss. Surprisingly, although organizations sometimes focus more on vulnerability to external attack than internal, recent industry research by Ernst and Young (2002) suggests

  10. Informal Payments for Health Care in Iran: Results of a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    PARSA, Mojtaba; ARAMESH, Kiarash; NEDJAT, Saharnaz; KANDI, Mohammad Jafar; LARIJANI, Bagher

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Informal payments to health care providers have been reported in many African, Asian and European countries. This study aimed to investigate different aspects of these payments that are also known as under-the-table payments in Iran. Methods This is an in-depth interview-based qualitative study conducted on 12 purposively chosen clinical specialists. The interviewees answered 9 questions including the ones about, definitions of informal payments, the specialties and hospitals mostly involved with the problem, how they are paid, factors involved, motivation of patients for the payments, impact of the payments on the health care system and physician-patient relationship and the ways to face up with the problem. The findings of the study were analyzed using qualitative content analysis method. Results Six topics were extracted from the interviews including definitions, commonness, varieties, motivations, outcomes and preventive measures. It was revealed that under-the-table payments are the money taken (either in private or public portions) from patients in addition to what formally is determined. This problem is mostly seen in surgical services and the most important reason for it is unrealistic tariffs. Conclusion Regarding the soaring commonness of informal payments rooted in underpayments of health expenditures in some specialties, which deeply affect the poor, the government has to boost the capitation and to invest on health sectors through supporting the health insurance companies and actualizing the health care costs in accord with the real price of the health care delivered.

  11. Some validation results of orbital and ground based CO and CH4 total content measurements in background and industrial regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitin, Vadim; Shtabkin, Yury; Elansky, Nikolai; Skorokhod, Andrey; Safronov, Alexandr; Dzhola, Anatoly

    2015-04-01

    The results of ground-based spectroscopic measurements of CO and CH4 total content (TC) in Moscow, Zvenigorod (53 km toward West from the Moscow center), ZOTTO station (Central Siberia) and Beijing (China) during 2010-2014 years for conditions of typical and anomalous emission rates are presented and compared with satellite TC data (the latest versions of MOPITT, AIRS, IASI products). The empiric coefficients and relationships between data of ground-based and satellite CO and CH4 total contents (TC) are discussed. The comparison demonstrated a good agreement (R2 ~ 0.6-0.9) of satellite and ground-based CO TC data in low pollution conditions and systematic underestimation of satellite CO TC (150-300 %) in condition of intense surface emissions (events of wild fires in Siberia in 2011-2012 and strong atmospheric pollutions in Beijing). The best correlation (R2 ~ 0.4) for polluted conditions of Beijing was obtained in summer time-period for averaged AIRS v.6 CO TC data for 1o*1o grid, but K=Ugrb/Ustl = 2.5, where Ugrb and Ustlare ground based and satellite diurnal TC values relatively. Under excluding of the days with low ABL heights (HABL ?1000m selection) the correlation between satellite and ground based CO TC diurnal data increases (R2 ~ 0.7, K=1.5). Orbital AIRS CH4 total columns good enough correlate with ground-based data (R2 ~0.4-0.7). IASI CH4TC diurnal data have no correlation with AIRS and ground-based TC.

  12. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  13. Using Twitter to Assess Information Needs: Early Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max L. Wilson

    Information needs tell us why search terms are used, helping to disambiguate, for example, what exactly people are looking for with queries such as 'Orange' or 'Java'. It is hard to understand goals and motivations, however, from the keywords entered into search engines alone. This paper discusses the pilot analysis of 180,000 tweets, containing search-related terms, to try and understand

  14. Experimental results on ultimatum games with incomplete information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Mitzkewitz; Rosemarie Nagel

    1993-01-01

    This paper is about experiments on two versions of ultimatum games with incomplete information, called the offer game and the demand game. We apply the strategy method, that is, each subject had to design a complete strategy in advance instead of reacting spontaneously to a situation which occurs in the game. Game theory predicts very similar outcomes for the offer

  15. The Effect of Modality and Narration Style on Recall of Online Health Information: Results From a Web-Based Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Weert, Julia CM; de Haes, Hanneke CJM; Loos, Eugene F; Smets, Ellen MA

    2015-01-01

    Background Older adults are increasingly using the Internet for health information; however, they are often not able to correctly recall Web-based information (eHealth information). Recall of information is crucial for optimal health outcomes, such as adequate disease management and adherence to medical regimes. Combining effective message strategies may help to improve recall of eHealth information among older adults. Presenting information in an audiovisual format using conversational narration style is expected to optimize recall of information compared to other combinations of modality and narration style. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of modality and narration style on recall of health information, and whether there are differences between younger and older adults. Methods We conducted a Web-based experiment using a 2 (modality: written vs audiovisual information) by 2 (narration style: formal vs conversational style) between-subjects design (N=440). Age was assessed in the questionnaire and included as a factor: younger (<65 years) versus older (?65 years) age. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental webpages where information about lung cancer treatment was presented. A Web-based questionnaire assessed recall of eHealth information. Results Audiovisual modality (vs written modality) was found to increase recall of information in both younger and older adults (P=.04). Although conversational narration style (vs formal narration style) did not increase recall of information (P=.17), a synergistic effect between modality and narration style was revealed: combining audiovisual information with conversational style outperformed combining written information with formal style (P=.01), as well as written information with conversational style (P=.045). This finding suggests that conversational style especially increases recall of information when presented audiovisually. This combination of modality and narration style improved recall of information among both younger and older adults. Conclusions We conclude that combining audiovisual information with conversational style is the best way to present eHealth information to younger and older adults. Even though older adults did not proportionally recall more when audiovisual information was combined with conversational style than younger adults, this study reveals interesting implications for improving eHealth information that is effective for both younger and older adults. PMID:25910416

  16. Background Information for Think Tank on Planning, Governance and System Building Early Care and Education--NYC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boressoff, Todd

    2008-01-01

    This document provides some background on early childhood planning and system building around the country. Since mid-December, the author has been studying these efforts for Child Care, Inc. (CCI) interviewing national experts and reading widely. This outline provides insights and lesson learned from those inquiries. The goal at this meeting will…

  17. 49 CFR 382.403 - Reporting of results in a management information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Reporting of results in a management information system. 382.403 Section 382... FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) An...

  18. 49 CFR 382.403 - Reporting of results in a management information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Reporting of results in a management information system. 382.403 Section 382... FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) An...

  19. 49 CFR 382.403 - Reporting of results in a management information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Reporting of results in a management information system. 382.403 Section 382... FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) An...

  20. Results of phase one of land use information Delphi study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS) is being developed for the city portion of the Santa Monica mountains. LUMIS incorporates data developed from maps and aerial photos as well as traditional land based data associated with routine city and county record keeping activities and traditional census data. To achieve the merging of natural resource data with governmental data LUMIS is being designed in accordance with restrictions associated with two other land use information systems currently being constructed by Los Angeles city staff. The two city systems are LUPAMS (Land Use Planning and Management System) which is based on data recorded by the County Assessor's office for each individual parcel of land in the city, and Geo-BEDS, a geographically based environmental data system.

  1. Learning to rank diversified results for biomedical information retrieval from multiple features

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Different from traditional information retrieval (IR), promoting diversity in IR takes consideration of relationship between documents in order to promote novelty and reduce redundancy thus to provide diversified results to satisfy various user intents. Diversity IR in biomedical domain is especially important as biologists sometimes want diversified results pertinent to their query. Methods A combined learning-to-rank (LTR) framework is learned through a general ranking model (gLTR) and a diversity-biased model. The former is learned from general ranking features by a conventional learning-to-rank approach; the latter is constructed with diversity-indicating features added, which are extracted based on the retrieved passages' topics detected using Wikipedia and ranking order produced by the general learning-to-rank model; final ranking results are given by combination of both models. Results Compared with baselines BM25 and DirKL on 2006 and 2007 collections, the gLTR has 0.2292 (+16.23% and +44.1% improvement over BM25 and DirKL respectively) and 0.1873 (+15.78% and +39.0% improvement over BM25 and DirKL respectively) in terms of aspect level of mean average precision (Aspect MAP). The LTR method outperforms gLTR on 2006 and 2007 collections with 4.7% and 2.4% improvement in terms of Aspect MAP. Conclusions The learning-to-rank method is an efficient way for biomedical information retrieval and the diversity-biased features are beneficial for promoting diversity in ranking results. PMID:25560088

  2. Informed citizen and empowered citizen in health: results from an European survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the relationship between health-related activities on the Internet (i.e. informed citizens) and individuals' control over their own experiences of health or illness (i.e. empowered citizens) is valuable but scarce. In this paper, we investigate the correlation between four ways of using the Internet for information on health or illness and citizens attitudes and behaviours toward health professionals and health systems and establish the profile of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe. Methods Data was collected during April and May 2007 (N = 7022), through computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). Respondents from Denmark, Germany, Greece, Latvia, Norway, Poland and Portugal participated in the survey. The profiles were generated using logistic regressions and are based on: a) socio-demographic and health information, b) the level of use of health-related online services, c) the level of use of the Internet to get health information to decide whether to consult a health professional, prepare for a medical appointment and assess its outcome, and d) the impact of online health information on citizens' attitudes and behavior towards health professionals and health systems. Results Citizens using the Internet to decide whether to consult a health professional or to get a second opinion are likely to be frequent visitors of health sites, active participants of online health forums and recurrent buyers of medicines and other health related products online, while only infrequent epatients, visiting doctors they have never met face-to-face. Participation in online health communities seems to be related with more inquisitive and autonomous patients. Conclusions The profiles of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe are situational and country dependent. The number of Europeans using the Internet to get health information to help them deal with a consultation is raising and having access to online health information seems to be associated with growing number of inquisitive and self-reliant patients. Doctors are increasingly likely to experience consultations with knowledgeable and empowered patients, who will challenge them in various ways. PMID:21496309

  3. Informed citizen and empowered citizen in health: results from an European survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvina Santana; Berthold Lausen; Maria Bujnowska-Fedak; Catherine E Chronaki; Hans-Ulrich Prokosch; Rolf Wynn

    2011-01-01

    Background  The knowledge about the relationship between health-related activities on the Internet (i.e. informed citizens) and individuals'\\u000a control over their own experiences of health or illness (i.e. empowered citizens) is valuable but scarce. In this paper, we\\u000a investigate the correlation between four ways of using the Internet for information on health or illness and citizens attitudes\\u000a and behaviours toward health professionals

  4. Comparison of background characteristics and behaviors of African-American, Hispanic, and white substance abusers treated in Federal prison: results from the TRIAD Study.

    PubMed

    Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L; Motivans, Mark A; Pelissier, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    The lack of empirical literature describing minority substance abusers who seek treatment serves as an obstacle for providing empirically-driven, culturally-relevant substance abuse treatment to minorities in both prison-based and community-based programs. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature by describing and comparing the background characteristics and preincarceration behaviors and social environments of adult African-American, Hispanic, and white substance abusers who were treated in Federal Bureau of Prisons' (BOP) residential drug abuse treatment programs. The study sample included 279 African-American, 72 Hispanic, and 512 white male substance abusers who were treated in 16 prison-based residential drug treatment programs from 1991 to 1995. Consistent with the limited literature, this study tested the hypothesis that there would be significant differences among the groups on most of the variables, with the greatest differences to be noted between African-American and white participants. The results indicated that there were numerous significant differences in demographic and background, family background and criminal history characteristics, but there were only a few differences in preincarceration behaviors and social environment among participants. The findings suggested that addressing participants' treatment needs within the context of their cultural characteristics would enhance treatment for participants. PMID:14621131

  5. Bulge-like asymmetric heterodye clustering in DNA duplex results in efficient quenching of background emission based on the maximized excitonic interaction.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Taiga; Hara, Yuichi; Osawa, Takuya; Kashida, Hiromu; Liang, Xingguo; Yoshida, Yasuko; Asanuma, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-27

    Asymmetric dye clusters with a single fluorophore (Cy3) and multiple quenchers (4'-methylthioazobenzene-4-carboxylate, methyl red, and 4'-dimethylamino-2-nitroazobenzene-4-carboxylate) were prepared. The dye and one-to-five quenchers were tethered through D-threoninol to opposite strands of a DNA duplex. NMR analysis revealed that the clusters with a single fluorophore and two quenchers formed a sandwich-like structure (antiparallel H-aggregates). The melting temperatures of all the heteroclusters were almost the same, although structural distortion should become larger, as the number of quenchers increased. An asymmetric heterocluster of a single fluorophore and two quenchers showed larger excitonic interaction (i.e., hypochromicity of Cy3), than did a single Cy3 and a single quencher. Due to the larger exciton coupling between the dyes, the 1:2 heterocluster suppressed the background emission more efficiently than the 1:1 cluster. However, more quenchers did not enhance quenching efficiency due to the saturation of exciton coupling with two quenchers. Finally, this asymmetric 1:2 heterocluster was introduced into the stem region of a molecular beacon (MB; also known as an in-stem MB) targeting the fusion site in the L6 BCR-ABL fusion gene. With this MB design, the signal/background ratio was as high as 68 due to efficient suppression of background emission resulting from the maximized excitonic interaction. PMID:22829252

  6. 2003 --Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT-BACKGROUND COLOR

    E-print Network

    Missouri-Rolla, University of

    on black (WB), light blue on dark blue (B), or teal on black (TB). They then studied two Web pages2003 -- Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT.hanna@matrikon.com Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of different web page text

  7. The temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation at 3.8 GHz - Results of a measurement from the South Pole site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Amici, Giovanni; Limon, Michele; Smoot, George F.; Bersanelli, Marco; Kogut, AL; Levin, Steve

    1991-01-01

    As part of an international collaboration to measure the low-frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, its temperature was measured at a frequency of 3.8 GHz, during the austral spring of 1989, obtaining a brightness temperature, T(CMB), of 2.64 +/-0.07 K (68 percent confidence level). The new result is in agreement with previous measurements at the same frequency obtained in 1986-88 from a very different site and has comparable error bars. Combining measurements from all years, T(CMB) = 2.64 +/-0.06 K is obtained.

  8. Hurricane Backgrounder

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This reference provides basic information on hurricanes. topics include the definition of hurricane , where they are likely to form, and their potential for damage, including high winds, heavy rainfall, flooding, tornadoes, and microbursts. There is also an illustration showing the Saffir-Simpson scale for classifying hurricane intensity, information on naming hurricanes, and a set of links to additional information.

  9. Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-10-01

    Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year.

  10. 76 FR 28625 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program; State Referendum Results

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ...AMS-LS-11-0040] Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program; State Referendum Results AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...the continuation of the Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order). FOR...

  11. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

  12. Does googling for preconception care result in information consistent with international guidelines: a comparison of information found by Italian women of childbearing age and health professionals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception counseling is effective in reducing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The Internet is commonly used by women and health professionals to search for health information. We compared the consistency of preconception information found on the Internet with the recommendations published by American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (AJOG) simulating a web search by women of childbearing age and health professionals. Methods We reviewed websites resulting from a Google search performed using search strings selected by Italian women of childbearing age and health professionals. We investigated if retrieved information was consistent with AJOG recommendations for preconception care. Logistic regression was used to compare presence of consistent recommendations between women and health professionals. Results The highest frequency of correct recommendations was found for folic acid supplementation (39.4% of websites). Consistency of preconception information did not significantly differ between search strategies except for folic acid supplementation. “Communities and blogs” website category provided less frequently correct recommendations compared with “Medical/Public Agency" category (i.e. folic acid supplementation (aOR 0.254; CI 0.098-0.664; p?=?<0.01). Commercial links, found in 60% of websites, were associated with presence of correct recommendations excepting few items (i.e. physical exercise (aOR 1.127; CI 0.331-3.840; p?=?0.848). Conclusions Preconception information found is poor and inaccurate regardless of the search is performed by women or health professionals. It is unlikely that information found on the web have any positive impact among women and health professionals in our setting. Strategies to improve preconception information on the web and education of health professionals for web searching of health information should be considered. PMID:23347453

  13. Neshaps rulemaking on Nuclear Regulatory Commission and agreement state licensees other than nuclear power reactors. Background information document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Contents: introduction and summary; description of regulatory programs; results of designated survey of NRC-licensed facilities (uranium fuel cycle facilities, test and research reactors, radiopharmaceutical and radiolabeled compound manufacturers, hospitals and medical research facilities, manufacturers of sealed sources, testing of depleted uranium munitions, rare earth and thorium processors (source material), commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal and incineration, and summary of results); results of random survey of licensees; and quality control.

  14. Background information presented to the expert panel on inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guzowski, R.V. [ed.; Brinster, K.F. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, M.M. [ed.; Swift, P.N.; Pasztor, S.B. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weart, W.D.; Bertram-Howery, S.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned as a mined geologic repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by defense programs of the United States Department of Energy. One of the criteria for evaluating the suitability of the WIPP for disposal of TRU wastes is compliance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) standards for such facilities. The Containment Requirements of those standards require calculating cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment by all combinations of events and processes (scenarios) that may affect the escape and transport of radionuclides from the repository for 10, 000 years after decommissioning of the facility. Because the release limits established by the EPA are probabilistic, scenario probabilities are also required. A panel of experts was convened to estimate the probabilities of occurrence of the events used in scenario development and to identify additional human-intrusion events for inclusion in a safety assessment of the WIPP. This report documents the background presentations that were made to the panel about the WIPP program, regulatory guidelines, and performance-assessment program, and site-specific and regional geologic and hydrologic characteristics that may affect the WIPP disposal system.

  15. Background information presented to the expert panel on inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guzowski, R.V. (ed.); Brinster, K.F. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Gruebel, M.M. (ed.); Swift, P.N.; Pasztor, S.B. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Weart, W.D.; Bertram-Howery, S.G. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned as a mined geologic repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by defense programs of the United States Department of Energy. One of the criteria for evaluating the suitability of the WIPP for disposal of TRU wastes is compliance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards for such facilities. The Containment Requirements of those standards require calculating cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment by all combinations of events and processes (scenarios) that may affect the escape and transport of radionuclides from the repository for 10, 000 years after decommissioning of the facility. Because the release limits established by the EPA are probabilistic, scenario probabilities are also required. A panel of experts was convened to estimate the probabilities of occurrence of the events used in scenario development and to identify additional human-intrusion events for inclusion in a safety assessment of the WIPP. This report documents the background presentations that were made to the panel about the WIPP program, regulatory guidelines, and performance-assessment program, and site-specific and regional geologic and hydrologic characteristics that may affect the WIPP disposal system.

  16. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, remote sensing, and mineral resource maps of the Wallace 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Jack Edward; Leach, David L.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean; Long, Carl L.; Rowan, Larry C.; Marvin, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    The Wallace 1? x 2 quadrangle in Montana and Idaho was studied by an interdisciplinary research team that included geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists, as well as specialists in isotopic dating and remote sensing. The basic data resulting from these studies, as well as the final metallic mineral resource assessments, are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the studies and lists the published components of the resource appraisal. An extensive bibliography lists both specific and general references that apply to this geoscience study of the quadrangle.

  17. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Ward, Richard C [ORNL; Wright, Michael C [ORNL; Kruse, Kara L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNM detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. The approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information

  18. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  19. Recap Introduction Unranked evaluation Ranked evaluation Benchmarks Result summaries Introduction to Information Retrieval

    E-print Network

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    to Information Retrieval http://informationretrieval.org IIR 8: Evaluation & Result Summaries Hinrich Sch¨utze Center for Information and Language Processing, University of Munich 2013-05-07 Sch¨utze: EvaluationRecap Introduction Unranked evaluation Ranked evaluation Benchmarks Result summaries Introduction

  20. Waiting is the hardest part: anticipating medical test results affects processing and recall of important information.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, David B

    2010-07-01

    Waiting for medical test results that signal physical harm can be a stressful and potentially psychologically harmful experience. Despite this, interventionists and physicians often use this wait time to deliver behavior change messages and other important information about the test, possible results and its implications. This study examined how "bracing" for a medical test result impacts cognitive processing, as well as recall of information delivered during this period. Healthy U.S. university students (N = 150) were tested for a deficiency of a fictitious saliva biomarker that was said to be predictive of long-term health problems using a 2 (Test Result) x 2 (Expected immediacy of result: 10 min, 1 month) factorial design. Participants expecting to get the test result shortly should have been bracing for the result. While waiting for the test results participants completed measures of cognitive processing. After participants received the test result, recall of information about the biomarker was tested in addition to cognitive measures. One week later, participants who were originally told they did not have the deficiency had their recall assessed again. Results showed that anticipating an imminent test result increased cognitive distraction in the processing of information and lowered recall of information about the test and the biomarker. These results suggest that delivering critical information to patients after administering a test and immediately before giving the results may not be optimal. PMID:20556876

  1. Waiting is the hardest part: Anticipating medical test results affects processing and recall of important information.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, David B

    2010-05-01

    Waiting for medical test results that signal physical harm can be a stressful and potentially psychologically harmful experience. Despite this, interventionists and physicians often use this wait time to deliver behavior change messages and other important information about the test, possible results and its implications. This study examined how "bracing" for a medical test result impacts cognitive processing, as well as recall of information delivered during this period. Healthy U.S. university students (N = 150) were tested for a deficiency of a fictitious saliva biomarker that was said to be predictive of long-term health problems using a 2 (Test Result) x 2 (Expected immediacy of result: 10 min, 1 month) factorial design. Participants expecting to get the test result shortly should have been bracing for the result. While waiting for the test results participants completed measures of cognitive processing. After participants received the test result, recall of information about the biomarker was tested in addition to cognitive measures. One week later, participants who were originally told they did not have the deficiency had their recall assessed again. Results showed that anticipating an imminent test result increased cognitive distraction in the processing of information and lowered recall of information about the test and the biomarker. These results suggest that delivering critical information to patients after administering a test and immediately before giving the results may not be optimal. PMID:20570029

  2. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  3. TeV Blazars and Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    F. A. Aharonian

    2001-12-13

    The recent developments in studies of TeV radiation from blazars are highlighted and the implications of these results for derivation of cosmologically important information about the cosmic infrared background radiation are discussed.

  4. Illuminating the Background: Topics in Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Nathan J.

    The cosmic microwave background provides a wealth of information about the origin and history of the universe. The statistics of the anisotropy and the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, among other things, can tell us about the distribution of matter, the redshift of reionization, and the nature of the primordial uctuations. From the lensing of cosmic microwave background due to intervening matter, we can extract information about neutrinos and the equation of state of dark energy. A measurement of the large angular scale B-mode polarization has been called the "smoking gun" of in ation, a theory that describes a possible early rapid expansion of the universe. The focus of current experiments is to measure this B-mode polarization, while several experiments, such as POLARBEAR, are also looking to measure the lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This dissertation will discuss several different topics in cosmic microwave background polarization research. I will make predictions for future experiments and I will also show analysis for two current experiments, POLARBEAR and BICEP. I will show how beam systematics affect the measurement of cosmological parameters and how well we must limit these systematics in order to get unbiased constraints on cosmological parameters for future experiments. I will discuss a novel way of using the temperature-polarization cross correlation to constrain the amount of inflationary gravitational waves. Through Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, I will determine how well future experiments will be able to constrain the neutrino masses and their degeneracy parameters. I will show results from current data analysis and calibration being done on the Cedar Flat deployment for the POLARBEAR experiment which is currently being constructed in the Atacama desert in Chile. Finally, I will analyze the claim of detection of cosmological birefringence in the BICEP data and show that there is reason to believe it is due to systematic effects in the data.

  5. In audio recordings outside of controlled studio setups, the presence of acoustic background noise is a simple fact of life. As a result, there is continued interest in developing methods to

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    sources. This is a poor substitute for real acoustic background noise and does not sound "natural / Tokyo Electron Device TD-BD-16ADUSB USB soundcard, which internally used Asahi Kasei AK4563A 16-bit A background noise is a simple fact of life. As a result, there is continued interest in developing methods

  6. Building Background Knowledge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna Ross

    2010-01-01

    Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on

  7. Personalizing Results of Information Retrieval Systems Using Extended Fuzzy Concept Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parham Moradi; M. Ebrahim; M. M. Ebadzadeh

    2008-01-01

    The increasing of the electronic documents and users has led to the creation of new paradigms of personalizing results of information retrieval systems and its goal is to better service to users based on their profiles. Personalized content retrieval aims at improving the retrieval process by taking into account the particular interests of individual users. The goal of information retrieval

  8. The value of library and information services in patient care: results of a multisite study*

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Joanne Gard; Sollenberger, Julia; Easterby-Gannett, Sharon; Morgan, Lynn Kasner; Klem, Mary Lou; Cavanaugh, Susan K.; Oliver, Kathleen Burr; Thompson, Cheryl A.; Romanosky, Neil; Hunter, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The research conducted a large-scale, multisite study on the value and impact of library and information services on patient care. Methods: The study used: (1) 2 initial focus groups of librarians; (2) a web-based survey of physicians, residents, and nurses at 56 library sites serving 118 hospitals; and (3) 24 follow-up telephone interviews. Survey respondents were asked to base their responses on a recent incident in which they had sought information for patient care. Results: Of the 16,122 survey respondents, 3/4 said that they had definitely or probably handled aspects of the patient care situation differently as a result of the information. Among the reported changes were advice given to the patient (48%), diagnosis (25%), and choice of drugs (33%), other treatment (31%), and tests (23%). Almost all of the respondents (95%) said the information resulted in a better informed clinical decision. Respondents reported that the information allowed them to avoid the following adverse events: patient misunderstanding of the disease (23%), additional tests (19%), misdiagnosis (13%), adverse drug reactions (13%), medication errors (12%), and patient mortality (6%). Conclusions: Library and information resources were perceived as valuable, and the information obtained was seen as having an impact on patient care. PMID:23418404

  9. Background Studies for EXIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Pendleton, G. N.; Fishman, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from a study of the trapped proton and electron background for several orbital inclinations and altitudes. This study includes time dependent effects. In addition we describe a 3 component cosmic background model developed at the University of Southampton, UK. The three components are cosmic diffuse gamma rays, atmospheric albedo gamma rays, and cosmic ray protons. We present examples of how this model was applied to BATSE and discuss its application to EXIST.

  10. Preliminary test Results for a 25K Sorption Cryocooler Designed for the UCSB Long Duration Balloon Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, L. A.; Levy, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    A continuous operation, vibration-free, long-life 25K sorption cryocooler has been built and is now in final integration and performance testing. This cooler wil be flown on the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Experiment.

  11. Historical background.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, M A

    2001-01-01

    The persisting ancient view of cancer as a contagious disease ended with 19th century scientific investigations which seemed to show it was not. The resulting dogma against an infectious cause for cancer produced great prejudice in the scientific community against the first report of an oncogenic virus by Rous early in the 20th century and, even in the 1950s, against Gross's finding of a murine leukaemia virus and a murine virus causing solid tumours. The Lucké frog renal carcinoma virus was the first cancer-associated herpesvirus. Intriguingly, an environmental factor, ambient temperature, determines virus genome expression in the poikilothermic frog cells. Although an alpha-herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus of chickens shares some aspects of biological behaviour with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) of man. Very significantly, its lymphomas are the first naturally occurring malignancy to be controlled by an antiviral vaccine, with implications for human virus-associated cancers. The circumstances and climate of opinion in which successive gamma-herpesviruses were discovered are described. The identification of EBV involved two unconventionalities: its finding in cultured Burkitt's lymphoma cells when no human lymphoid cell had ever been maintained in vitro, and its recognition in the absence of biological activity by the then new technique of electron microscopy. These factors engendered hostility to its acceptance as a new human tumour-associated virus. The EBV-like agents of Old World apes and monkeys and the T-lymphotropic gamma-herpesviruses of New World monkeys were found at about the same time, not long after the discovery of EBV. For many years these were thought to be the only gamma-herpesviruses of non-human primates; however, very recently B-lymphotropic EBV-like agents have been identified in New World species as well. Mouse herpesvirus 68 came to light by chance during a search for arboviruses and has become important as a laboratory model because of its close genetic relatedness to EBV and its comparable biological behaviour. The discovery of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus six years ago was made using unconventional new methods, but, unlike with EBV 30 years before, this did not hinder its acceptance. This contrast is discussed in the context of the great progress in human tumour virology which has been made in recent years. PMID:11313002

  12. Comparison of Background Characteristics and Behaviors of African-American, Hispanic, and White Substance Abusers Treated in Federal Prison: Results from the TRIAD Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Rounds-Bryant; Mark A. Motivans; Bernadette Pelissier

    2003-01-01

    The lack of empirical literature describing minority substance abusers who seek treatment serves as an obstacle for providing empirically-driven, culturally-relevant substance abuse treatment to minorities in both prison-based and community-based programs. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature by describing and comparing the background characteristics and preincarceration behaviors and social environments of adult African-American,

  13. Results of telerobotic hand controller study using force information and rate control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, Kelli F.; Harrison, F. W.; Hogge, Edward F.; Williams, Robert L.; Soloway, Donald

    1992-01-01

    To increase quantified information about the effectiveness and subjective workload of force information relayed through manipulator input control devices, a space related task was performed by eight subjects with kinesthetic force feedback and/or local force accommodation through three different input control devices (i.e., hand controllers) operating in rate control mode. Task completion time, manipulator work, and subjective responses were measured. Results indicated a difference among the hand controllers. For the Honeywell six degree-of-freedom hand controller, the overall task completion times were shortest, the amount of work exerted was the least, and was the most preferred by test subjects. Neither force accommodation with or without reflection resulted in shorter task completion times or reduced work although those conditions were better than no force information for some aspects. Comparisons of results from previous studies are discussed.

  14. Genetic background can result in a marked or minimal effect of gene knockout (GPR55 and CB2 receptor) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sisay, Sofia; Pryce, Gareth; Jackson, Samuel J; Tanner, Carolyn; Ross, Ruth A; Michael, Gregory J; Selwood, David L; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids and some phytocannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid one (TRPV1) receptor and the orphan G protein receptor fifty-five (GPR55). Studies using C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 (Cnr2 (tm1Zim)) CB2 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice have demonstrated an immune-augmenting effect in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis. However, other EAE studies in Biozzi ABH mice often failed to show any treatment effect of either CB2 receptor agonism or antagonism on inhibition of T cell autoimmunity. The influence of genetic background on the induction of EAE in endocannabinoid system-related gene knockout mice was examined. It was found that C57BL/6.GPR55 knockout mice developed less severe disease, notably in female mice, following active induction with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide. In contrast C57BL/6.CB2 (Cnr2 (Dgen)) receptor knockout mice developed augmented severity of disease consistent with the genetically and pharmacologically-distinct, Cnr2 (tm1Zim) mice. However, when the knockout gene was bred into the ABH mouse background and EAE induced with spinal cord autoantigens the immune-enhancing effect of CB2 receptor deletion was lost. Likewise CB1 receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid one knockout mice on the ABH background demonstrated no alteration in immune-susceptibility, in terms of disease incidence and severity of EAE, in contrast to that reported in some C57BL/6 mouse studies. Furthermore the immune-modulating influence of GPR55 was marginal on the ABH mouse background. Whilst sedative doses of tetrahydrocannabinol could induce immunosuppression, this was associated with a CB1 receptor rather than a CB2 receptor-mediated effect. These data support the fact that non-psychoactive doses of medicinal cannabis have a marginal influence on the immune response in MS. Importantly, it adds a note of caution for the translational value of some transgenic/gene knockout and other studies on low-EAE susceptibility backgrounds with inconsistent disease course and susceptibility. PMID:24130809

  15. Genetic Background Can Result in a Marked or Minimal Effect of Gene Knockout (GPR55 and CB2 Receptor) in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Models of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Samuel J.; Tanner, Carolyn; Ross, Ruth A.; Michael, Gregory J.; Selwood, David L.; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids and some phytocannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid one (TRPV1) receptor and the orphan G protein receptor fifty-five (GPR55). Studies using C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 (Cnr2tm1Zim) CB2 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice have demonstrated an immune-augmenting effect in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis. However, other EAE studies in Biozzi ABH mice often failed to show any treatment effect of either CB2 receptor agonism or antagonism on inhibition of T cell autoimmunity. The influence of genetic background on the induction of EAE in endocannabinoid system-related gene knockout mice was examined. It was found that C57BL/6.GPR55 knockout mice developed less severe disease, notably in female mice, following active induction with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide. In contrast C57BL/6.CB2 (Cnr2Dgen) receptor knockout mice developed augmented severity of disease consistent with the genetically and pharmacologically-distinct, Cnr2tm1Zim mice. However, when the knockout gene was bred into the ABH mouse background and EAE induced with spinal cord autoantigens the immune-enhancing effect of CB2 receptor deletion was lost. Likewise CB1 receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid one knockout mice on the ABH background demonstrated no alteration in immune-susceptibility, in terms of disease incidence and severity of EAE, in contrast to that reported in some C57BL/6 mouse studies. Furthermore the immune-modulating influence of GPR55 was marginal on the ABH mouse background. Whilst sedative doses of tetrahydrocannabinol could induce immunosuppression, this was associated with a CB1 receptor rather than a CB2 receptor-mediated effect. These data support the fact that non-psychoactive doses of medicinal cannabis have a marginal influence on the immune response in MS. Importantly, it adds a note of caution for the translational value of some transgenic/gene knockout and other studies on low-EAE susceptibility backgrounds with inconsistent disease course and susceptibility. PMID:24130809

  16. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollaine, S.

    1978-01-01

    The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present in the standard big bang model. In the present calculation, evolutionary effects on grain opacity and abundance are estimated. At wavelengths used in studying the microwave background, the optical depth of the grains is found to be 0.18 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.03, and 0.05 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.5. The results indicate that microwave background can provide information on an early dense phase of the universe.

  17. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information - using cika cattle as a case breed.

    PubMed

    Sim?i?, Mojca; Smetko, Anamarija; Sölkner, Johann; Seichter, Doris; Gorjanc, Gregor; Kompan, Dragomir; Medugorac, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which potentially have had direct or indirect historical contribution to the genetic makeup of the breed of interest. PMID:25923207

  18. Information Navigation on the Web by Clustering and Summarizing Query Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roussinov, Dmitri G.; Chen, Hsinchun

    2001-01-01

    Reports an approach to interactive information seeking that is grounded in the idea of summarizing query results through automated document clustering. The authors' prototype acted as an intermediate layer between the user and a commercial Internet search engine. Data was processed from 36 users and it was concluded that the prototype improved…

  19. Original paper Determinants of the frequency of online health information seeking: results of a Web-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    seeking between men, women, the general population and people who work in the health sector. Health status health management and health-care utilization for health-care professionals and patients. The proportionOriginal paper Determinants of the frequency of online health information seeking: results of a Web

  20. Bibliometric Information Retrieval System (BIRS): A Web Search Interface Utilizing Bibliometric Research Results

    E-print Network

    Menczer, Filippo

    , and visualize the bibliographic research results. There are three specific features in the system design bibliographic research can be applied to a real search environment and enhance the level of utility of the BIRS: the information visualization feature of the BIRS (cocita- tion maps) to guide the end users

  1. Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, John; Hinshaw, Gary; Page, Lyman

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the relic of the early phases of the expanding universe, is bright, full of information, and difficult to measure. Along with the recession of galaxies and the primordial nucleosynthesis, it is one of the strongest signs that the Hot Big Bang Model of the universe is correct. It is brightest around 2 mm wavelength, has a temperature of T_{cmb} = 2.72548 ± 0.00057 K, and has a blackbody spectrum within 50 parts per million. Its spatial fluctuations (around 0.01% on 1{}^{circ } scales) are possibly the relics of quantum mechanical processes in the early universe, modified by processes up to the decoupling at a redshift of about 1,000 (when the primordial plasma became mostly transparent). In the cold dark matter (DM) model with cosmic acceleration (? CDM), the fluctuation statistics are consistent with the model of inflation and can be used to determine other parameters within a few percent, including the Hubble constant, the ? constant, the densities of baryonic and dark matter, and the primordial fluctuation amplitude and power spectrum slope. In addition, the polarization of the fluctuations reveals the epoch of reionization at a redshift approximately twice that determined from the Gunn-Peterson trough due to optically thick Lyman ? absorption in QSO spectra. It is of historic importance, and a testament to the unity of theory and experiment, that we now have a standard model of cosmology that is consistent with all of the observations.Current observational challenges include (1) improvement of the spectrum distortion measurements, especially at long wavelengths, where the measured background is unexpectedly bright; (2) the search for the B-mode polarization (the divergence-free part of the polarization map), arising from propagating gravitational waves; and (3) the extension of fluctuation measurements to smaller angular scales. Much more precise spectrum observations near 2 mm are likely and would test some very interesting theories. Current theoretical challenges include explanation of the dark matter and dark energy; understanding, estimating, and removing the interference of foreground sources that limit the measurements of the CMB; detailed understanding of the influence of nonequilibrium processes on the decoupling and reionization phases; and searches for signs of the second order or exotic processes (e.g., isocurvature fluctuations, cosmic strings, non-Gaussian fluctuations). At this writing, we await the cosmological results of the Planck mission.

  2. JEM-X background models

    E-print Network

    J. Huovelin; S. Maisala; J. Schultz; N. J. Westergaard; C. A. Oxborrow; P. Kretschmar; N. Lund

    2003-09-10

    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula on revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital phase dependence in the background outside radiation belts was observed. The analysis yielded an average of 5 cps for the diffuse background, and 20 cps for the instrument background. The instrument background was found highly dependent on position, both for spectral shape and intensity. Diffuse background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors, with significant difference in spatial signatures between JEM-X units. According to our modelling, instrument background dominates over diffuse background in all positions and for all energies of JEM-X.

  3. Acknowledging awareness: informing families of individual research results for patients in the vegetative state.

    PubMed

    Graham, Mackenzie; Weijer, Charles; Peterson, Andrew; Naci, Lorina; Cruse, Damian; Fernández-Espejo, Davinia; Gonzalez-Lara, Laura; Owen, Adrian M

    2015-07-01

    Recent findings in cognitive neuroscience have revealed that some patients previously diagnosed as being in a vegetative state may retain some degree of covert awareness. However, it is unclear whether such findings should be disclosed to the families of these patients. Concerns about the preservation of scientific validity, reliability of results and potential harms associated with disclosure suggest that individual research results should be disclosed only under certain conditions. In the following paper, we offer four criteria for the disclosure of individual research results. Because the results of functional neuroimaging studies to detect covert awareness in vegetative patients are scientifically valid, informative and reasonably reliable and have considerable potential benefit for the patient, researchers have an obligation to disclose such results to family members. Further work is needed to develop educational materials for families and to systematically study the impact of disclosure on the families themselves. PMID:25079068

  4. Demographic Risk Factors and Gambling Preference May Not Explain the High Prevalence of Gambling Problems Among the Population with Migration Background: Results from a German Nationwide Survey.

    PubMed

    Kastirke, Nadin; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian

    2014-04-11

    There are high proportions of problem gamblers among individuals who themselves or whose parents immigrated to Germany. This study aimed to examine whether demographic risk factors and gambling preference may explain the higher prevalence of gambling problems among those with migration background (MB). Data was obtained from a nationwide telephone survey which was part of the project "Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology" (PAGE). The sample comprised 15,023 study participants aged 14-64 years living in Germany. Participants who had reported gambling within their lifetime (n = 6,406) were defined as gamblers and categorized according to their MB (n = 1,209 with MB), additional demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, household size, education, occupation), preferred types of gambling (21 categories covering the gambling types available in Germany), and the count of lifetime gambling problem symptoms (0-10 criteria of the fourth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). Estimates from a negative binomial regression revealed that there is a 146.2 % increase in the expected count of gambling problem symptoms for gamblers with MB compared to those without MB. The percentage decreased to 102.5 and 97.6 % after adjustment for demographic characteristics and further adjustment for preferred types of gambling, respectively. Demographic risk factors and gambling preference may partially mediate but not completely explain the higher prevalence of gambling problems among the population with MB. Having an MB may be considered as an independent risk factor for gambling problems, which indicates a need for culturally sensitive prevention and treatment measures. PMID:24722950

  5. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2014-06-13

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  6. Information needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered health care professionals: results of an Internet survey

    PubMed Central

    Fikar, Charles R.; Keith, Latrina

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To obtain basic facts and considered opinions from health care professionals and students (nonlibrarian and librarian) about the information needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered (GLBT) health care professionals and their interactions with medical librarians. Methods: The survey instrument was a Web-based questionnaire. A nonrandom sample of health care professionals and students (librarian and nonlibrarian) was obtained by posting messages to several large Internet electronic discussion groups (GLBT and general) and to randomly selected members of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. A total of 152 forms were analyzed with about 50% of the participants being GLBT persons. Results: GLBT people have specific health information needs and concerns. More than 75% of medical librarians and students believed that GLBT persons have special information needs, with similar response rates by nonlibrarian health professionals and students. The delivery of services needs to be done with privacy and respect for the feelings of the patron. Major areas of need include the topics of health care proxy, cancer, adolescent depression and suicide, adoption, sexual health and practices, HIV infection, surrogate parenting, mental health issues, transgender health issues, intimate partner violence, and intimate partner loss. Conclusions: Most GLBT health care professionals desire GLBT-friendly health information services. Making GLBT-oriented health information resources available on a library Web page and making an effort to show acceptance of cultural diversity through signs or displays would be helpful. Education directed toward instilling an awareness of GLBT persons may also be advisable. Most survey participants make some use of medical reference services and many find medical librarians to be very helpful and resourceful. PMID:14762463

  7. Non-extensitivity vs. informative moments for financial models —A unifying framework and empirical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, K.

    2009-11-01

    Information-theoretic approaches still play a minor role in financial market analysis. Nonetheless, there have been two very similar approaches evolving during the last years, one in the so-called econophysics and the other in econometrics. Both generalize the notion of GARCH processes in an information-theoretic sense and are able to capture kurtosis better than traditional models. In this article we present both approaches in a more general framework. The latter allows the derivation of a wide range of new models. We choose a third model using an entropy measure suggested by Kapur. In an application to financial market data, we find that all considered models - with similar flexibility in terms of skewness and kurtosis - lead to very similar results.

  8. Developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. Methods GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Discussion Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems globally. PMID:23302501

  9. Early results of user profiles: physicians' opinions on the use of information technology.

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, A. L.; Wigger, U.

    1996-01-01

    The role of physicians in today's managed care context is viewed as that of economic partner and clinical decision-maker, operating under the rules of professional autonomy and independence. To a considerable degree, physicians need to feel intrinsically motivated in order to change and adapt to new forms of health care delivery and information management. Today, health information managers use the rapid advances in telecommunications and computing technologies to plan and build vast health information networks, while at the same time receiving little support from systematic research to help understand, segment, and address the range of physicians' concerns and perceptions regarding these systems. This study's design employs a novel combination of qualitative and quantitative methods: first, to identify individual physician opinion profiles, and second, to group these profiles into clusters of similar perceptions. Opinions were obtained from primary care physicians in the Chicago area and resulted in four distinctly different profiles: Early Adopter, Traditional Family Doctor, Hesitant-Defensive Acceptor, and Unwilling-Uneasy Participant. PMID:8947629

  10. 76 FR 68518 - Request for Information: Public Access to Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Publications Resulting From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...ACTION: Notice of Request for Information (RFI...111-358), this Request for Information (RFI) offers the opportunity for interested...111-358), this Request for Information (RFI) offers the opportunity for...

  11. 76 FR 68517 - Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...ACTION: Notice of Request for Information (RFI...111-358), this Request for Information (RFI) offers the opportunity for interested...111-358), this Request for Information (RFI) offers the opportunity for...

  12. New results in network information theory: scaling laws for wireless communication and optimal strategies for information transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang-Liang Xie; P. R. Kumar

    2002-01-01

    We present a network information theory for wireless communications. This theory addresses the following issues: (i) How the amount of information that can be carried over a wireless network scales as the number n of nodes in the network increases. (ii) Obtains bounds on the pre-constant in the scaling law, thus obtaining bounds on network capability as a function of

  13. 12 CFR 1238.5 - Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related information...FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS STRESS TESTING OF REGULATED ENTITIES § 1238.5 Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related...

  14. Climate change information supporting adaptation in forestry and agriculture - results and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálos, Borbála; Czimber, Kornél; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Bidló, András; Csáki, Péter; Kalicz, Péter; Haensler, Andreas; Jacob, Daniela; Mátyás, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent droughts of the last decades have led to severe impacts in forestry and agriculture in the sensitive and vulnerable low-elevation regions of Southeast Europe. Observed impacts are very likely to occur with increasing probability under projected climate conditions throughout the 21st century. In order to suggest options for adaptation and mitigation, a GIS-based Decision Support System is under development in the frame of the joint EU-national research project "Agroclimate". Impact assessments and adaptation support services are based on the simulation results of 12 regional climate models (www.ensembles-eu.org) using the A1B emission scenario until 2100. The development of the Decision Support System requires the balancing of available climatic information and required data for research and economically relevant projection needs of the end users. Here, concrete examples of the development process will be shown for the stepwise analysis and comparison of the followings: 1. Provided climate services: • projected tendencies of temperature and precipitation means and extremes until the end of the 21st century, spread of the simulation results. 2. Required information for climate impact research: • types and characteristics of climate input data, • methods and functions for deriving possible climate change impacts in forestry and agriculture (e.g. on species distribution, growth, production, yield, soil water retention, ground water table, runoff, erosion, evapotranspiration and other ecosystem services and soil properties). 3. Required climate information from the end users' side for developing adaption strategies in the affected sectors: • types of climate indicators, • possible range of the expected impacts (in magnitude and probability). 4. Gaps between climate services and the needs of impact researchers and end users (e.g. spatial and temporal scales, interpretation techniques). Experiences of supporting climate change adaptation in forestry and agriculture confirm that the main challenges for bridging the gap between the supply and demand of climate information are the heterogeneity of users and needs, quantification and communication of uncertainties, as well as the appropriate bias correction methods for impact research. Funding: The research is supported by the "Agroclimate-2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) joint EU-national research project. Keywords: regional climate modelling, climate impact assessment, forestry, adaptation, decision supporting

  15. A potential loss of trust as a result of the conflicting messages within information security research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Oost

    2010-01-01

    One implication of emerging (and established) technologies relates to information security researchers' writing on their management and use. The implication developed here is a potential loss of trust in information security research. This implication follows from an incompatible conflict between optimism and pessimism within information security research. The tenability of the optimistic information security research identified is questioned.

  16. How do hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background estimate their language skills and their comprehension of medical information – a prospective cross-sectional study and comparison to native patients in Germany to assess the language barrier and the need for translation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Today more than two million people with Turkish migration background live in Germany making them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Data concerning language skills and the perception of medical information in hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background (T) are scarce. Our study is the first to gather quantitative information on this important subject. Methods T and hospitalised German patients without migration background (G) of our university hospital were prospectively included into a cross-sectional study and completed a questionnaire - each group in the appropriate language (T: Turkish, G: German). Results 121 T and 121 G were included. Groups significantly differed in age (T: 44.9?±?17.8, G: 56.9?±?16.7y) and proportion of males (T: 37.2, G: 54.5%) but not regarding the proportion of college graduates (T: 19.3, G: 15.7%). The majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74% of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73% speak German at work. 74.4% of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as “average” or better while 25.6% reported it as “very bad” or “bad”. 10.7% of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physician’s information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3% of T estimated their reception of the physician’s information to be “average” or worse. 43.3% of T had the impression that it would have helped them “much” or “very much” to be aided by an interpreter at the hospital. The information transmitted while giving informed consent to invasive medical procedure was judged to be “mostly” or “completely” sufficient by the majority of T (76%) and G (89.8%). In this setting 37 of 96 T (38.5%) reported being helped by an interpreter – in most cases (64.9%) a family member. Conclusion Although the majority of patients with Turkish migration background have spent most of their lives in Germany (28.94?±?10.41y) a large part of this population has limited German language skills and difficulties obtaining medical information when hospitalised. PMID:23710582

  17. Advanced Network Technology. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This background paper analyzes technologies for tomorrow's information superhighways. Advanced networks will first be used to support scientists in their work, but will soon be deployed more widely in business, entertainment, health care, and education. Significant progress has been made toward the development of gigabit network technology since…

  18. Atmospheric Neutrinos: Background and Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Mocioiu, Irina [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab 122, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-11-24

    We discuss a brief history of atmospheric neutrinos, from background to proton decay searches to proving neutrino oscillations. We then discuss how high statistics atmospheric neutrino measurements in the IceCube Deep Core Array can provide useful information about neutrino oscillation parameters and other neutrino properties.

  19. The University of Oklahoma Background Check Authorization (updated 02/05/2013) Hiring department completes this section. Incomplete information will delay the hiring process.

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    with the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Driver's Protection Act, and any applicable state statute(s). I with the Fair Credit Reporting Act, this information may only be used to verify statement(s) made of any investigative consumer report requested within five days after the University receives my request

  20. Statistical Challenges of Cosmic Microwave Background Analysis

    E-print Network

    Benjamin D. Wandelt

    2004-01-30

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is an abundant source of cosmological information. However, this information is encoded in non-trivial ways in a signal that is difficult to observe. The resulting challenges in extracting this information from CMB data sets have created a new frontier. In this talk I will discuss the challenges of CMB data analysis. I review what cosmological information is contained in the CMB data and the problem of extracting it. CMB analyses can be divided into two types: ``canonical'' parameter extraction which seeks to obtain the best possible estimates of cosmological parameters within a pre-defined theory space and "hypothesis testing" which seeks to test the assumption on which the canonical tests rest. Both of these activities are fundamentally important. In addition to mining the CMB for cosmological information cosmologists would like to strengthen the analysis with data from other cosmologically interesting observations as well as physical constraints. This gives an opportunity 1) to test the results from these separate probes for concordance and 2) if concordance is established to sharpen the constraints on theory space by combining the information from these separate sources.

  1. The effect of background cuing on prey detection.

    PubMed

    Kono; Reid; Kamil

    1998-10-01

    Studies of prey detection have typically focused on how search image affects the capture of cryptic items. This study also considers how background vegetation influences cryptic prey detection. Blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata, searched digitized images for two Catocala moths: C. ilia, which is cryptic on oak, and C. relicta, which is cryptic on birch. Some images contained moths while others did not. The ability of blue jays to detect prey during repeated presentations of one prey type within a session was compared with their performance during randomly alternating presentations of both prey types within a session to examine search-image formation under two background conditions (informative and ambiguous). In the informative background condition, both trees in the image were of the same species and therefore, the background was a reliable indicator of which prey type might be present. In the ambiguous background condition, there was one tree of each species in the image and either prey type could be present. The results indicate that: (1) a search-image effect was observed only for the more cryptic prey type and only when the background was informative; (2) as accuracy on prey images (those with moths) increased, response latency remained unchanged; (3) performance on nonprey images (those without moths) was primarily determined by the difficulty of searching the background and not by the prey type in the accompanying prey images; and (4) search-image effects disappeared with extended practice. These results suggest that the ability to detect prey is influenced by background and that the presence of either multiple backgrounds or multiple prey types interferes with search-image formation. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790707

  2. Use of the Internet as a Resource for Consumer Health Information: Results of the Second Osteopathic Survey of Health Care in America (OSTEOSURV-II)

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Barbaro, Peggy; Coleridge, Samuel T

    2001-01-01

    Background The Internet offers consumers unparalleled opportunities to acquire health information. The emergence of the Internet, rather than more-traditional sources, for obtaining health information is worthy of ongoing surveillance, including identification of the factors associated with using the Internet for this purpose. Objectives To measure the prevalence of Internet use as a mechanism for obtaining health information in the United States; to compare such Internet use with newspapers or magazines, radio, and television; and to identify sociodemographic factors associated with using the Internet for acquiring health information. Methods Data were acquired from the Second Osteopathic Survey of Health Care in America (OSTEOSURV-II), a national telephone survey using random-digit dialing within the United States during 2000. The target population consisted of adult, noninstitutionalized, household members. As part of the survey, data were collected on: facility with the Internet, sources of health information, and sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with acquiring health information on the Internet. Results A total of 499 (64% response rate) respondents participated in the survey. With the exception of an overrepresentation of women (66%), respondents were generally similar to national referents. Fifty percent of respondents either strongly agreed or agreed that they felt comfortable using the Internet as a health information resource. The prevalence rates of using the health information sources were: newspapers or magazines, 69%; radio, 30%; television, 56%; and the Internet, 32%. After adjusting for potential confounders, older respondents were more likely than younger respondents to use newspapers or magazines and television to acquire health information, but less likely to use the Internet. Higher education was associated with greater use of newspapers or magazines and the Internet as health information sources. Internet use was lower in rural than urban or suburban areas. Conclusions The Internet has already surpassed radio as a source of health information but still lags substantially behind print media and television. Significant barriers to acquiring health information on the Internet remain among persons 60 years of age or older, those with 12 or fewer years of education, and those residing in rural areas. Stronger efforts are needed to ensure access to and facility with the Internet among all segments of the population. This includes user-friendly access for older persons with visual or other functional impairments, providing low-literacy Web sites, and expanding Internet infrastructure to reach all areas of the United States. PMID:11772546

  3. Algorithms for Bayesian background-subtracted Fourier darkfield imaging.

    PubMed

    Fraundorf, P; Pollack, K

    1991-08-01

    Formal consideration of prior information on the Fourier amplitude of background contrast in an image, using the same Bayesian principles of statistical inference which underlie thermodynamics, allows one to subtract background without favoring only selected parts of frequency space. Without the bias in frequency space which causes periodicity bleeding and mars literal interpretation of Fourier-filtered images, the shape transform of aperiodic objects can be left intact. Algorithms for Bayesian background subtraction from one- and two-dimensional images are presented which further consider, in ad hoc fashion, one's uncertainty about background amplitude. The results help explain the reported success of Fourier truncation, and indicate that Bayesian background-subtracted images can minimize root-mean-square image error, as well as periodicity bleeding, in comparison to Fourier-filtered and Fourier-truncated alternatives. PMID:1750150

  4. Diagnostic Evaluation of a personalized filtering information retrieval system. Methodology and experimental results.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Diagnostic Evaluation of a personalized filtering information retrieval system. Methodology and performance evaluation. It allows quick auto evaluation of information retrieval systems during the conception and specific information need). Nevertheless it is also a performance evaluation because for the same systems

  5. Introduction Unranked evaluation Ranked evaluation Benchmarks Result summaries Most slides are from Schtze, Center for Information and Language Processing,

    E-print Network

    Lu, Jianguo

    is an excellent match for query q ... d is not relevant to the information need i. evaluation 9 / 58 #12Introduction Unranked evaluation Ranked evaluation Benchmarks Result summaries evaluation Most slides are from Schütze, Center for Information and Language Processing, University of Munich October 7

  6. An effective and efficient results merging strategy for multilingual information retrieval in federated search environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luo Si; Jamie Callan; Suleyman Cetintas; Hao Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Multilingual information retrieval is generally understood to mean the retrieval of relevant information in multiple target\\u000a languages in response to a user query in a single source language. In a multilingual federated search environment, different\\u000a information sources contain documents in different languages. A general search strategy in multilingual federated search environments\\u000a is to translate the user query to each language

  7. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  8. Background Subtraction Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan M. McIvor

    Background subtraction is a commonly used class of techniques for segmenting out objects of interest in a scene for applications such as surveillance. This paper surveys a repre- sentative sample of the published techiques for background subtraction, and analyses them with respect to three important attributes: foreground detection; background maintenance; and postprocessing.

  9. Informal Caregiving and Self-Reported Mental and Physical Health: Results From the Gazel Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Sophie; Boumendil, Ariane; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Ankri, Joël

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether, and under what conditions, informal caregiving is associated with improved self-reported physical and mental health, most notably in terms of cognitive functioning. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2008 data from the Gazel Cohort Study, which involved 10 687 men and women aged 54 to 70 years. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between self-reported health and caregiving status and burden. Results. Regular caregivers with the highest burden scores reported significantly worse health status than did noncaregivers for almost all of the physical and mental outcomes evaluated after adjustment for potential confounding factors. In particular, they reported more cognitive complaints (odds ratio [OR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 1.73). Conversely, caregivers with the lowest burden scores reported better perceived health status, less physical and mental tiredness, and fewer depressive symptoms (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.37, 0.68) than did noncaregivers; however, they did not report decreases in cognitive difficulties (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.81, 1.18). Conclusions. Our findings support the hypothesis that caregiving can have positive effects on health, provided that caregiving activities themselves are not too heavy a burden. PMID:21493948

  10. Physician attitudes toward health information exchange: results of a statewide survey

    PubMed Central

    Soran, Christine; Jenter, Chelsea A; Volk, Lynn A; Bates, David W; Simon, Steven R

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess physicians' attitudes toward health information exchange (HIE) and physicians' willingness to pay to participate in HIE. Design We conducted a cross-sectional mail survey of 1296 licensed physicians (77% response rate) in Massachusetts in 2007. Measurements Perceptions of the potential effects of HIE on healthcare costs, quality of care, clinicians' time, patients' privacy concerns, and willingness to pay for HIE. Results After excluding 253 physicians who did not see any outpatients, we analyzed 1043 responses. Overall, 70% indicated that HIE would reduce costs, while 86% said it would improve quality and 76% believed that it would save time. On the other hand, 16% reported being very concerned about HIE's effect on privacy, while 55.0% were somewhat concerned and 29% not at all concerned. Slightly more than half of the physicians (54%) said they would be willing to pay an unspecified monthly fee to participate in HIE, but only 37% said they would be willing to pay $150 per month for it. Primary care physicians and those in larger practices tended to have more positive attitudes toward HIE. Conclusions Physicians perceive that HIE will have generally positive effects, though a considerable fraction harbor concerns about privacy. While physicians may be willing to participate in HIE, they are not consistently willing to pay to participate. HIE business models that require substantial physician subscription fees may face significant challenges. PMID:20064804

  11. Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Rhodes

    1991-01-01

    Coleridge's famous line about water everywhere without a drop to drink may serve as a useful metaphor for the contemporary design studio. Engulfed within a sea of information, where does the designer look for references? This paper outlines the results of an ongoing research project entitled 'Interactive Multimedia within the Design Studio' (grant awarded by FAPEMIG - Fundação de Amparo

  12. Gravitational Wave Background from Population III Stars

    E-print Network

    Yudai Suwa; Tomoya Takiwaki; Kei Kotake; Katsuhiko Sato

    2007-06-24

    We estimate the gravitational wave (GW) background from Population III (Pop III) stars using the results from our hydrodynamic simulations (Suwa et al. 2007). We calculate gravitational waveforms from matter motions and anisotropic neutrino emissions for single Pop III stars. We find that the GW amplitudes from matter motions are dominant until just after bounce, but those from neutrinos dominate later on at frequencies below $\\sim 10$ Hz in the GW spectrum. Computing the overall signal produced by the ensemble of such Pop III stars, we find that the resultant density parameter of the GW background peaks at the amplitude of $\\Omega_\\mathrm{GW}\\sim 10^{-10}$ in the frequency interval $\\sim 1-10$ Hz. We show that such signals, depending on the formation rate of Pop III stars, can be within the detection limits of future planned interferometers such as DECIGO and BBO in the frequency interval of $\\sim 0.1-1$ Hz. Our results suggest that the detection of the GW background from Pop III stars can be an important tool to supply the information about the star formation history in the early universe.

  13. Teacher Learning, Informal and Formal: Results of a Canadian Teachers' Federation Survey. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaller, Harry; Clark, Rosemary; Hart, Doug; Livingstone, David; Noormohamed, Zahra

    In 1998, as part of a larger national study examining informal learning practices across the general population, Canadian elementary and secondary teachers were surveyed regarding their practices and attitudes related to their own ongoing learning. The 753 respondents described any informal learning experiences in the past year within their…

  14. A background suppression algorithm for infrared image based on shearlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ruibin; Shi, Caicheng; Qin, Xiao

    2015-04-01

    Because of the relative far distance between infrared imaging system and target or the wide field infrared optical, the imaging area of infrared target is only a few pixels, which is isolated or spots to be showed in the field of view. The only available is the intensity information (gray value) for the target detection. Simultaneously, there are many shortcomings of the infrared image, such as large noise, interference and so on, therefore the small target is always buried in the background and noises. The small target is relatively difficult to detect, so generally, it is impossible to make reliable detection to this target in a single frame image. Summarily, the core of the infrared small target detection algorithm is the background and noise suppression based on a single frame image. Aiming at the infrared small target detection and the above problems, a shearlets-based background suppression algorithm for infrared image is proposed. The algorithm demonstrates the performance of advantage based on shearlets, which is especially designed to address anisotropic and directional information at various scales. This transform provides an optimally efficient representation of images, which is greatly reduced the amount of the information and the available information representation. In the paper, introducing the principle of shearlets first, and then proposing the theory of the algorithm and explaining the implementation step. Finally, giving the simulation results. In Matlab simulations with this method for several sets of infrared images, simulation results conformed to the theory on background suppression based on shearlets. The result showed that this method can effectively suppress background, and improve the SCR and achieve a satisfactory effect in the sky background. The method is very effectively for target detection, identification, track in infrared image system for the future.

  15. Information needs in public health and health policy: Results of recent studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick W. O'Carroll; Marjorie A. Cahn; Ione Auston; Catherine R. Selden

    1998-01-01

    Conclusion  Clearly, much work needs to be done to address the diverse and sometimes unique on-line information needs of public health\\u000a professionals and health policy analysts. In some cases, there are needs for complex new knowledge bases created via linkages\\u000a among multiple databases (e.g., public health-relevant geographic information systems).\\u000a \\u000a However, in many other cases, what is needed is a more systematic

  16. Communicating Uncertainties in Weather and Climate Information: Results of a National Academies Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friday, E.; Barron, E. J.; Elfring, C.; Geller, L.

    2002-12-01

    When a major East Coast snowstorm was forecast during the winter of 2001, people began preparing - both the public and the decision-makers responsible for public services. There was an air of urgency, heightened because just the previous year the region had been hit hard by a storm of unpredicted strength. But this time, the storm never materialized and people were left wondering what went "wrong" with the forecast. Did something go wrong or did forecasters just fail to communicate their information in an effective way? Did they convey a sense of the likelihood of the event and keep people up to date as information changed? In the summer of 2001, the National Academies' Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate hosted a workshop designed to explore the communication of uncertainty in weather and climate information. Workshop participants examined five case studies that were chosen to illustrate a range of forecast timescales and certainty levels. The cases were: Red River Flood, Grand Forks, April 1997; East Coast Winter Storm, March 2001; Oklahoma-Kansas Tornado Outbreak, May 3, 1999; El Nino 1997-1998, and Climate Change Science, a report issued in 2001. In each of these cases, participants examined who said what, when, to whom, how, and with what effect. The last two cases specifically address climate-related topics. This paper summarizes the final workshop report (Communicating Uncertainties in Weather and Climate Information: Summary of a Workshop, NRC 2002), including an overview of the five cases and lessons learned about communicating uncertainties in weather and climate forecasts. Among other findings, the report stresses that communication and appropriate dissemination of information, including information about uncertainty in the forecasts and the forecaster's confidence in the product, should be an integral, ongoing part of the forecasting process, not an afterthought. Explaining uncertainty should be an integral part of what weather and climate forecasters do and is essential to delivering accurate and useful information.

  17. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  18. Historical Background and Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Jean-Claude

    Forty and twenty years after the two books published by Einar Tandberg-Hanssen (Solar prominences (Geophysics and astrophysics monographs), Vol. 12. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1974; The nature of solar prominences, astrophysics and space science library, Vol. 199. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995) on solar prominences, it is time to update our knowledge and understanding of these fascinating solar structures. After a brief history which overviews first eclipse observations (drawings and then photography), spectrographic, coronagraphic and later on polarimetric measurements, the chapter presents samples of the most spectacular results of the last two decades, obtained whether from space or on the ground. It discusses the contents of the book in order to encourage the reader to dip into the following 17 chapters which provide comprehensive and detailed observations, information about the methods used, and interpretation of the results on the basis of the latest theoretical and modelling works.

  19. The IBEX background monitor

    E-print Network

    Crew, Geoffrey B.

    The IBEX Background Monitor (IBaM) provides a small and lightweight method for independently measuring IBEX’s high-energy proton background by integrating the flux of >~14 keV protons over a ~7° conical FOV. The IBaM is ...

  20. The microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan M. Uson; David T. Wilkinson

    1988-01-01

    Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. The spectrum of the microwave background: Heterodyne radiometer methods (lambda >= 3 mm). Bolometric measurements (lambda <= 3 mm). Measurements using interstellar molecules. Summary and future prospects. 3. Polarization of the microwave background. 4. Anisotropy searches. 5. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect: Concept and cosmological consequences. Measurements. Cosmological applications.

  1. Evaluation of the 3D visualization of quantitative stereoelectroencephalographic information. New results.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evaluation of the 3D visualization of quantitative stereoelectroencephalographic information. New of the values. Our study is devoted to the evaluation of the quantitative visualization of these signals of the signals. This work describes an experiment conducted with human observers in order to evaluate three

  2. Information Transfer Problems of the Partially Sighted: Recent Results and Project Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genensky, S. M.; And Others

    The fourth in a series of Rand reports on information transfer problems of the partially sighted reviews earlier reports and describes an experimental secretarial closed circuit TV (CCTV) system which enables the partially sighted to type from a printed or handwritten manuscript. Discussed are experiments using a pseudocolor system to determine…

  3. Similarity-Based Restoration of Metrical Information: Different Listening Experiences Result in Different Perceptual Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2012-01-01

    How do perceivers apply knowledge to instances they have never experienced before? On one hand, listeners might use idealized representations that do not contain specific details. On the other, they might recognize and process information based on more detailed memory representations. The current study examined the latter possibility with respect…

  4. Interrater Reliability of the Outcomes and Assessment Information Set: Results from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Elizabeth A.; Fortinsky, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    The Outcomes and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) is now used extensively for regulatory, reimbursement, research, and clinical purposes in home health care. However, little is known about the interrater reliability of OASIS items based on assessments from home-health-agency clinicians. Therefore, we evaluated OASIS item interrater reliability…

  5. Mothers and Children as Informants of Bullying Victimization: Results from an Epidemiological Cohort of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Andreou, Penelope; Bowes, Lucy; Ambler, Antony P.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Stressful events early in life can affect children's mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about children's bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers and children provide valid reports of bullying victimization, (2) examine the inter-rater…

  6. Direct results. An HIE tests simple information exchange using the direct project.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Chris; Torzewski, Susan

    2011-05-01

    Some HIEs were surprised when the federal government announced a project to enable direct provider-to-provider information exchange. But CareSpark, an HIE piloting the lightweight exchange method, is seeing the benefits for users and a logical integration into the services it offers. PMID:21667863

  7. The Adoption and Use of Health Information Technology in Rural Areas: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ranjit; Lichter, Michael I.; Danzo, Andrew; Taylor, John; Rosenthal, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Context: Health information technology (HIT) is a national policy priority. Knowledge about the special needs, if any, of rural health care providers should be taken into account as policy is put into action. Little is known, however, about rural-urban differences in HIT adoption at the national level. Purpose: To conduct the first national…

  8. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  9. Do Participants in Genome Sequencing Studies of Psychiatric Disorders Wish to Be Informed of Their Results? A Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Elise T.; Anderson, Natalie K.; Kassem, Layla; McMahon, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective As large-scale genome sequencing technology advances, concerns surrounding the reporting of individual findings to study volunteers have grown and fueled controversy. This is especially true in mental health research, where the clinical importance of sequencing results is particularly unclear. The ethical, legal, and social issues are being widely debated, but less is known about the attitudes of actual study volunteers toward sequencing studies or what they wish to learn about their DNA sequence and its health implications. This study provides information on psychiatric research volunteers’ attitudes, beliefs, and concerns with respect to participation in DNA sequencing studies and reporting of individual results. Method We conducted a pilot study using a questionnaire that we developed to assess what information volunteers in an ongoing family study of bipolar disorder would like to receive if they underwent genome sequencing, what they would do with that information, and what concerns they may have. Results Almost all of the respondents were willing to participate in genome sequencing. Most respondents wished to be informed about all their health-related genetic risks, including risks for diseases without known prevention or treatment. However, few respondents felt well informed about the nature of genome sequencing or its implications for their health, insurability, or offspring. Conclusions Despite generally positive attitudes toward genome sequencing among study volunteers, most are not fully aware of the special issues raised by genome sequencing. The attitudes of study volunteers should be considered in the debate about the reporting of individual findings from genome sequencing. PMID:24983240

  10. Change of Primary Cosmic Radiation Nuclear Conposition in the Energy Range $10^{15} - 10^{17}$ eV as a Result of the Interaction with the Interstellar Cold Background of Light Particles

    E-print Network

    T. T. Barnaveli; T. T. Barnaveli Jr; N. A. Eristavi; I. V. Khaldeeva

    2003-10-19

    In this paper the updated arguments in favor of a simple model, explaining from the united positions all peculiarities of the Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadron E_h(E_0) (and muon E_mu(E_0)) component energy fluxes dependence on the primary particle energy E_0 in the primary energy region 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV are represented. These peculiarities have shapes of consequent distinct deeps of a widths dE_h/E_h of the order of 0.2 and of relative amplitudes dL/L of the order of {0.1 - 1.0}, and are difficult to be explained via known astrophysical mechanisms of particle generation and acceleration. In the basis of the model lies the destruction of the Primary Cosmic Radiation (PCR) nuclei on some monochromatic background of interstellar space, consisting of the light particles of the mass in the area of 36 eV (maybe the component of a dark matter). The destruction thresholds of PCR different nuclear components correspond to the peculiarities of E_h(E_0). In this work the results of the recent treatment of large statistical material are analyzed. The experimental results are in good agreement with the Monte-Carlo calculations carried out in the frames of the proposed model.

  11. Modeling extreme values resulting from compromising electromagnetic emanations generated by an information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmi, Chaouki; Hélier, Marc; Darces, Muriel; Prouff, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic intelligence and attacks pose unacceptable risks for the security and safety of critical networks and more specifically the power network. In this paper, it is pointed out how the use of the excess model allows one to extrapolate the very high level of spurious compromising emanations induced by an information system in realistic power network models. It is shown that the design of appropriate protections and risk management methodologies can be enhanced thanks to the extreme value statistics.

  12. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  13. Water Watch Program Overview. Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

    Lakes, streams, and wetlands serve many purposes for the people of the state of Kentucky and are necessary and valued elements of its natural resources. The Water Watch program promotes individual responsibility for a common resource, educates people about the use and protection of local water resources, provides recreational opportunities through…

  14. January 7, 2002 Background Information on

    E-print Network

    Experiments In 1967, Andrei Sakharov showed that a matter-dominated universe (rather than one with equal parts violation have been observed lending support to the consistency of Sakharov's hypothesis. However

  15. Meropenem activity against European isolates: report on the MYSTIC (Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection) 2006 results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Turner

    2008-01-01

    The MYSTIC (Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection) Program is a longitudinal antimicrobial surveillance study that has been in place since 1997 in centers that are actively prescribing meropenem. This report examines the activity of meropenem and other broad-spectrum antibacterial comparators against the 7124 isolates submitted by 40 European centers during 2006 and compares the results with those obtained in

  16. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Silk

    2003-01-01

    .  I review the discovery of the temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The underlying theory\\u000a and the implications for cosmology are described, and I summarize the prospects for future progress.

  17. Background and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    Background & Statistics FAQ About Homeless Veterans Homeless Veterans Facts Demographics of Homeless Veterans Incarcerated Veterans Research Briefs Sources FAQ ... VETERANS In May 2007, the Bureau of Justice Statistics released a special report on incarcerated veterans. The ...

  18. Multi-talker background and semantic priming effect

    PubMed Central

    Dekerle, Marie; Boulenger, Véronique; Hoen, Michel; Meunier, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    The reported studies have aimed to investigate whether informational masking in a multi-talker background relies on semantic interference between the background and target using an adapted semantic priming paradigm. In 3 experiments, participants were required to perform a lexical decision task on a target item embedded in backgrounds composed of 1–4 voices. These voices were Semantically Consistent (SC) voices (i.e., pronouncing words sharing semantic features with the target) or Semantically Inconsistent (SI) voices (i.e., pronouncing words semantically unrelated to each other and to the target). In the first experiment, backgrounds consisted of 1 or 2 SC voices. One and 2 SI voices were added in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The results showed a semantic priming effect only in the conditions where the number of SC voices was greater than the number of SI voices, suggesting that semantic priming depended on prime intelligibility and strategic processes. However, even if backgrounds were composed of 3 or 4 voices, reducing intelligibility, participants were able to recognize words from these backgrounds, although no semantic priming effect on the targets was observed. Overall this finding suggests that informational masking can occur at a semantic level if intelligibility is sufficient. Based on the Effortfulness Hypothesis, we also suggest that when there is an increased difficulty in extracting target signals (caused by a relatively high number of voices in the background), more cognitive resources were allocated to formal processes (i.e., acoustic and phonological), leading to a decrease in available resources for deeper semantic processing of background words, therefore preventing semantic priming from occurring. PMID:25400572

  19. Health information seeking among Mbararan adolescents: results from the Uganda Media and You survey.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Emenyonu, Nneka; Nansera, Denis; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R

    2008-04-01

    To maximize scarce intervention dollars, pediatricians and other adolescent health professionals must position health promotion efforts in mediums that most effectively reach youth. This may be especially true in resource-limited settings where access to primary health care and medications is limited. To improve the efficiency and impact of disease prevention and health promotion efforts in resource-limited settings, we examine sources of health information cited by adolescents in Mbarara Uganda. Participants in the Uganda Media and You survey were students aged 12-18 (n = 500) randomly identified in five secondary schools in Mbarara municipality, Uganda. Ninety-three percent of eligible and invited youth completed the cross-sectional, pencil-and-paper survey. Four in five adolescents (81%) indicated they turned to parents, teachers, and other adults while around half read a book/went to the library (56%) or turned to siblings and friends (50%) for information about health and disease. More than one in three (38%) indicated that they used the computer and Internet to search for health information. Older versus younger respondents tended to rely upon siblings and friends for all types of health questions. On the other hand, younger versus older youth were significantly more likely to turn to parents, teachers, and other adults for their questions about sexual health. Adults may be an important component of effective disease prevention and health promotion campaigns. Multiple delivery methods may be especially effective for reaching older adolescents. Technology also may be an important health promotion tool in resource-limited settings. PMID:17639121

  20. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  1. Improved mean shift target tracking approach under the interference of background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoran; Cui, Shaohui; Fang, Dan

    2014-11-01

    Aiming at the earlier stage tracking of strapdown image terminal guidance system, this paper propose a tracking approach which can not only enhance the distinction between targets and background effectively, but also can constrain the interference of target positioning suffered from background information. Among various target tracking approaches, the Mean Shift tracking algorithm is an excellent one due to its efficiency and simplicity, while it can not effective restrain the disturbance from background information. Thus, in this paper, an only target model background-weighted histogram target tracking algorithm, which can restrain the interference from background information, is presented under the Mean Shift framework. If the histogram of target model and target candidate model are both transformed, the probability of remarkable background features in the target model and target candidate model will simultaneously decrease. Thus it is equivalent to a proportional transformation of the weights obtained by the conventional target representation method. Meanwhile, the Mean Shift iteration formula is invariant to the proportional transformation of weights. Therefore, simultaneously transform the histogram of target model and target candidate model is exactly the same as the Mean Shift tracking with traditional target representation. So the proposed algorithm only transforms the histogram of target model and decreases the probability of target model features that are prominent in the background, but do nothing to target candidate model. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only restrain the disturbance from background information and improve the tracking accuracy, but also not increases the execution time.

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 22: US academic librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: Results of the phase 3 survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. academic librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries.

  3. Efficient moving object segmentation algorithm using background registration technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-yi Chien; Shyh-yih Ma; Liang-gee Chen

    2002-01-01

    An efficient moving object segmentation algorithm suitable for real-time content-based multimedia communication systems is proposed in this paper. First, a background registration technique is used to construct a reliable background image from the accumulated frame difference information. The moving object region is then separated from the background region by com- paring the current frame with the constructed background image. Finally,

  4. Patient Information in Radiooncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christof Schäfer; Barbara Dietl; Kurt Putnik; Daniel Altmann; Jörg Marienhagen; Manfred Herbst

    2002-01-01

    Background: As a result of increased interest and public demand, providing patients with adequate information about radiooncology has become more and more difficult for the doctor. Insufficient patient information can not only cause anxiety for the patient, but can also lead to legal action against the physician. In order to gain a deepter insight into our clinical practice of providing

  5. Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation Signals from the early universe, or pigeon droppings? #12;Microwave Background Radiation The spectrum is a near- perfect match background. Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background MWMW 370 km/s #12;Microwave Background Features

  6. Background, an important factor in visual search.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Jelmer P; Hooge, Ignace T C; Wertheim, Alexander H; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2013-06-28

    The ability to detect an object depends on the contrast between the object and its background. Despite this, many models of visual search rely solely on the properties of target and distractors, and do not take the background into account. Yet, both target and distractors have their individual contrasts with the background. These contrasts generally differ, because the target and distractors are different in at least one feature. Therefore, background is likely to play an important role in visual search. In three experiments we manipulated the properties of the background (luminance, orientation and spatial frequency, respectively) while keeping the target and distractors constant. In the first experiment, in which target and distractors had a different luminance, changing the background luminance had an extensive effect on search times. When background luminance was in between that of the target and distractors, search times were always short. Interestingly, when the background was darker than both the target and the distractors, search times were much longer than when the background was lighter. Manipulating orientation and spatial frequency of the background, on the other hand, resulted in search times that were longest for small target-background differences. Thus, background plays an important role in search. This role depends on the individual contrast of both target and distractors with the background and the type of feature contrast (luminance, orientation or spatial frequency). PMID:23623804

  7. Unified treatment algorithm for the management of crotaline snakebite in the United States: results of an evidence-informed consensus workshop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric J Lavonas; Anne-Michelle Ruha; William Banner; Vikhyat Bebarta; Jeffrey N Bernstein; Sean P Bush; William P Kerns; William H Richardson; Steven A Seifert; David A Tanen; Steve C Curry; Richard C Dart

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Envenomation by crotaline snakes (rattlesnake, cottonmouth, copperhead) is a complex, potentially lethal condition affecting thousands of people in the United States each year. Treatment of crotaline envenomation is not standardized, and significant variation in practice exists. METHODS: A geographically diverse panel of experts was convened for the purpose of deriving an evidence-informed unified treatment algorithm. Research staff analyzed the

  8. Information Resource Needs and Preference of Queensland General Practitioners on Complementary Medicines: Result of a Needs Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Janamian, Tina; O'Rourke, Peter; Myers, Stephen P.; Eastwood, Heàther

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To explore in a cohort of Queensland (Qld) GPs' their attitudes to; knowledge about; and practice behaviour regarding complementary medicines (CMs), and to identify their perceptions of need for information resources on CMs. Design. A faxed self-administered survey to a random sample of 800 GPs in Qld. Participants. 463 completed surveys were returned, representing a 58% response rate. Results. The majority of GPs had a positive attitude about incorporating CMs in their clinical practice; however, only 12% perceived they had adequate knowledge to be able to advise patients about CMs. GPs most preferred evidence-based resources for receiving information on CMs (fact sheets, booklets, and journals) that contain clinical, pharmacological, and toxicological information. Most GPs perceived a need for an information resource on herbal medicines, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements, and nutritional supplements. Conclusion. GPs are open to integrating CMs into their clinical practice. They identify a current lack of knowledge coupled with a substantive level of interest to learn more. GPs perceive a high level of need for information resources on CMs. These resources should be developed and readily available to GPs to increase their knowledge about CMs and better equip them in communicating with patients about CMs use. PMID:21584192

  9. Sediment transport processes and their resulting stratigraphy: informing science and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment transport physically shapes planetary surfaces by producing patterns of erosion and deposition, with the relative magnitudes of geomorphic actions varying according to environmental conditions. Where sediment fills accommodation space and generates accumulation, a stratigraphic archive develops that potentially harbors a trove of information documenting dynamic conditions during the periods of sediment production, transport and deposition. By investigating the stratigraphic record, it is possible to describe changes in surface environments, as well as hypothesize about the development of regional tectonic and climate regimes. Ultimately, information contained within the stratigraphic record is critical for evaluating the geological history of terrestrial planets. The enigma of stratigraphy, however, is that sediment deposition is finicky, there is no uninterrupted record, and while deposits may reflect only a brief temporal window, they may still be used to infer about conditions that encompass much longer periods of time. Consider a case where meter-scale dune foresets, deposited in a matter of minutes to hours, are in contact with sediments above and below that reflect entirely different depositional circumstances and are separated in time by a hiatus of thousands or perhaps millions of years. To effectively unlock the scientific trove bound in stratigraphy, it is first necessary to identify where such unconformities exist and the conditions that lead to their development. This challenge is made much simpler through scientific advances in understanding sediment transport processes -- the examination of how fluid and solids interact under modern conditions -- because this is precisely where sediment patterns first emerge to produce accumulation that builds a stratigraphic record. By advancing an understanding of process-based sedimentology, it is possible to enhance diagnostic evaluations of the stratigraphic record. Fortunately, over the past several decades, there have been numerous scientific advances pertaining to the coupling of sediment transport and hydrodynamics. This research has produced new theory about how sediments accumulating in many unique environments shape the stratigraphic record. Recent studies have taken advantage of novel methods for acquiring observational data, which in turn have been used to advance numerical modeling schemes as well as experimental designs. As an example, consider fluvial deltas: here, hydrodynamics are constantly evolving over space and time. Patterns of sediment deposition and erosion (from dune to delta-lobe scales), resolved using high-resolution 3-D acoustic data, are used as input data to construct models that further show how channel dynamics (e.g., avulsions) and kinematics (e.g., lateral migration) evolve due to sediment and hydrodynamic coupling. This information is used to propose new theories of delta stratigraphy, which are then tested by examining ancient fluvial-delta systems. Finally, research efforts evaluating modern sediment-transport and depositional processes offer significant benefits to society. For example, fluvial deltas are heavily relied upon for societal welfare and yet are among the most dynamic landscapes on Earth's surface. Therefore, research examining the evolution of these landscapes not only advances basic science, but also doubles as an exercise in applied geomorphology.

  10. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  11. Cosmic Microwave Background

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this lesson, students explore the cosmic microwave background to understand why it permeates the universe and why it peaks as microwave radiation. Students should be able to explain that the origin of the background radiation is the uniform thermal radiation of the big bang and that the radiation produced was evenly distributed around the small early universe, causing it to permeate today's universe. This activity is part of the Cosmic Times teachers guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1965 Cosmic Times Poster.

  12. Matching Background Color

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ipsen

    2008-04-01

    This chapter introduces an especially important subject in the concealment of animals--countershading. One observes many animals with colors that match the general color of their usual backgrounds. Many leaf-eating insects appear green, for example, making them relatively inconspicuous against their normal background of leaves. The manner of coloration that will provide such a color match is not as obvious as one might imagine. It depends significantly on the nature of the lighting. The inquiry-based activities included in this section effectively illustrate this concept.

  13. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

  14. Youngsters’ use of public libraries for information: Results of a qualitative research project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew K. Shenton; Pat Dixon

    2002-01-01

    As public libraries straggle to compete with domestic electronic materials for use by young people, more research is needed to explore youngsters’ exploitation of and attitudes to these organisations. This paper investigates such issues by drawing on the results of a qualitative research project sampling 188 English youngsters between four and eighteen years of age. Attention is specifically focused on

  15. David Smith Academic background

    E-print Network

    David Smith Academic background Ph.D. in Mathematics (Algebra), Université de Sherbrooke, Canada project program (I. Assem, F. Bergeron, C. Reutenauer, D. Smith) $132,000 ($44,000 per year for 3 years. Schiffler and D. Smith, Friezes, strings and cluster variables, to appear in Glasgow Mathematcal Journal. 2

  16. PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

  17. Country background Forest history

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    season prone to forest fires. Atlantic climate is wet with temperatures moderated by the ocean33 Country background Forest history During the Gallo-Roman period (1st­4th century AD), forests this proportion decreased dramatically to only 15­17 % of the land area. This residual forest was then severely

  18. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyman Page; David Wilkinson

    1999-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is widely interpreted as the thermal afterglow of a hot big bang. Measurements of the CMBR intensity as a function of frequency constrain the history of cosmic energetics. Measurements of the anisotropy in the CMBR temperature provide a snapshot of the distribution of fluctuations in the gravitational potential at the earliest stages of cosmic

  19. Shark Species Profiles Background

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    skeletons that are made of bone. Although all sharks have some similarities such as having gills and fins there are small spots long the sides of the shark and a black blotch near the pectoral fin Diet: Marine mammalsShark Species Profiles Background: Sharks have existed for about 400 million years, before

  20. Atmospheric muon background in the ANTARES detector

    E-print Network

    S. Cecchini; E. Korolkova; A. Margiotta; L. Thompson

    2005-10-28

    An evaluation of the background due to atmospheric muons in the ANTARES high energy neutrino telescope is presented. Two different codes for atmospheric shower simulation have been used. Results from comparisons between these codes at sea level and detector level are presented. The first results on the capability of ANTARES to reject this class of background are given.

  1. Comparison of DAMA/LIBRA and DM ICE Results using Information Theory to Rule out Dark Matter Claims

    E-print Network

    Cline, David

    2015-01-01

    We study the details of the DAMA/LIBRA results and compare those with the recent published DM Ice results of ICE Cube. In various recent papers, it was shown that the 40K peak on DAMA/LIBRA data leaves no room for a Dark Matter signal in the bulk of the data. Using Information Theory for the different types of detection environments, we show that annual variation calculations and the DM Ice data reinforce the claims that the DAMA/LIBRA detector is not observing Dark Matter WIMPs.

  2. A preliminary exploration of the feasibility of offering men information about potential prostate cancer treatment options before they know their biopsy results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A small pre-test study was conducted to ascertain potential harm and anxiety associated with distributing information about possible cancer treatment options at the time of biopsy, prior to knowledge about a definitive cancer diagnosis. Priming men about the availability of multiple options before they have a confirmed diagnosis may be an opportunity to engage patients in more informed decision-making. Methods Men with an elevated PSA test or suspicious Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) who were referred to a urology clinic for a biopsy were randomized to receive either the clinic’s usual care (UC) biopsy instruction sheet (n?=?11) or a pre-biopsy educational (ED) packet containing the biopsy instruction sheet along with a booklet about the biopsy procedure and a prostate cancer treatment decision aid originally written for newly diagnosed men that described in detail possible treatment options (n?=?18). Results A total of 62% of men who were approached agreed to be randomized, and 83% of the ED group confirmed they used the materials. Anxiety scores were similar for both groups while awaiting the biopsy procedure, with anxiety scores trending lower in the ED group: 41.2 on a prostate-specific anxiety instrument compared to 51.7 in the UC group (p?=?0.13). ED participants reported better overall quality of life while awaiting biopsy compared to the UC group (76.4 vs. 48.5, p?=?0.01). The small number of men in the ED group who went on to be diagnosed with cancer reported being better informed about the risks and side effects of each option compared to men diagnosed with cancer in the UC group (p?=?0.07). In qualitative discussions, men generally reported they found the pre-biopsy materials to be helpful and indicated having information about possible treatment options reduced their anxiety. However, 2 of 18 men reported they did not want to think about treatment options until after they knew their biopsy results. Conclusions In this small sample offering pre-biopsy education about potential treatment options was generally well received by patients, appeared to be beneficial to men who went on to be diagnosed, and did not appear to increase anxiety unnecessarily among those who had a negative biopsy. PMID:23388205

  3. Superspace geometry for supermembrane backgrounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard de Wit; Kasper Peeters; Jan Plefka

    1998-01-01

    We construct part of the superspace vielbein and tensor gauge field in terms of the component fields of 11-dimensional on-shell supergravity. The result can be utilized to describe supermembranes and corresponding matrix models for Dirichlet particles in non-trivial supergravity backgrounds to second order in anticommuting coordinates. We exhibit the ?-invariance of the corresponding supermembrane action, which at this order holds

  4. Spatial variations of groundwater background concentrations in coastal aquifers, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Soojae

    2014-05-01

    In coastal aquifers the mixing between fresh terrestrial water and seawater occurs, which influences groundwater quality. Due to mixing elevated chloride concentrations are often observed in coastal aquifers. In coastal areas terrestrial water-seawater mixing can be caused by anthropogenic activities or natural factors such as tides and sea level changes. Therefore, it is difficult or even impossible to characterize groundwater background concentrations in coastal aquifers. Although it is usual to exclude coastal aquifer when characterizing background concentrations, it is essential to accurately characterize naturally-affected groundwater quality in coastal areas because groundwater is a major water resource for potable, irrigation, domestic uses. So in this work we define groundwater background concentrations as naturally occurring ambient concentrations with excluding groundwater abstraction. Based on this definition, we evaluate groundwater background concentrations in various geologic formations and analyze characteristics of groundwater quality in coastal aquifers by utilizing Groundwater Quality Monitoring System (GQMS) data. The results show that high concentrations of chloride are observed in some coastal areas but not always. Tidal effects and topographical characteristics are thought to be as factors affecting such spatial variations. In some coastal areas high concentrations of chloride are observed with high nitrate concentrations. This means that agricultural practices can attribute to anthropogenic background, leading to elevated concentrations of nitrate. These results provide some essential information for groundwater resources management in coastal areas. Further data collection and analysis is required for evaluating the effect of tide and sea level changes on groundwater quality.

  5. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

  6. Quantum backgrounds and QFT

    E-print Network

    Jae-Suk Park; John Terilla; Thomas Tradler

    2009-09-21

    We introduce the concept of a quantum background and a functor QFT. In the case that the QFT moduli space is smooth formal, we construct a flat quantum superconnection on a bundle over QFT which defines algebraic structures relevant to correlation functions in quantum field theory. We go further and identify chain level generalizations of correlation functions which should be present in all quantum field theories.

  7. Cosmic Microwave Background Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Richard Bond

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in ell -space are consistent with a Delta T flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the

  8. A Review and Evaluation of the Langley Research Center's Scientific and Technical Information Program. Results of Phase VI-The Technical Report: A Survey and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Robert A.; And Others

    This report presents the results of a review and evaluation of the Langley Research Center's scientific and technical information program, which examined technical reports from various institutions and organizations to determine the organization of reports, the language used to convey information, and the methods used to present information.…

  9. Designing a multifaceted survivorship care plan to meet the information and communication needs of breast cancer patients and their family physicians: results of a qualitative pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Following the completion of treatment and as they enter the follow-up phase, breast cancer patients (BCPs) often recount feeling ‘lost in transition’, and are left with many questions concerning how their ongoing care and monitoring for recurrence will be managed. Family physicians (FPs) also frequently report feeling ill-equipped to provide follow-up care to BCPs. In this three-phase qualitative pilot study we designed, implemented and evaluated a multi-faceted survivorship care plan (SCP) to address the information needs of BCPs at our facility and of their FPs. Methods In Phase 1 focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 35 participants from three stakeholder groups (BCPs, FPs and oncology specialist health care providers (OHCPs)), to identify specific information needs. An SCP was then designed based on these findings, consisting of both web-based and paper-based tools (Phase 2). For Phase 3, both sets of tools were subsequently evaluated via focus groups and interviews with 26 participants. Interviews and focus groups were audio taped, transcribed and content analysed for emergent themes and patterns. Results In Phase 1 patients commented that web-based, paper-based and human resources components were desirable in any SCP. Patients did not focus exclusively on the post-treatment period, but instead spoke of evolving needs throughout their cancer journey. FPs indicated that any tools to support them must distill important information in a user-friendly format. In Phase 2, a pilot SCP was subsequently designed, consisting of both web-based and paper-based materials tailored specifically to the needs of BCPs as well as FPs. During Phase 3 (evaluation) BCPs indicated that the SCP was effective at addressing many of their needs, and offered suggestions for future improvements. Both patients and FPs found the pilot SCP to be an improvement from the previous standard of care. Patients perceived the quality of the BCP-FP relationship as integral to their comfort with FPs assuming follow-up responsibilities. Conclusions This pilot multi-component SCP shows promise in addressing the information needs of BCPs and the FPs who care for them. Next steps include refinement of the different SCP components, further evaluation (including usability testing), and planning for more extensive implementation. PMID:23883430

  10. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported that the highest power fluctuations occur at scales of about one degree. A number of ground-based interferometers provided measurements of the fluctuations with higher accuracy over the next three years, including the Very Small Array [16], Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) [61], and the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) [78]. DASI was the first to detect the polarization of the CMB and the CBI provided the first E-mode polarization spectrum with compelling evidence that it is out of phase with the T-mode spectrum. In June 2001, NASA launched its second CMB mission (after COBE), Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Explorer (WMAP) [44], to make much more precise measurements of the CMB sky. WMAP measured the differences in the CMB temperature across the sky creating a full-sky map of the CMB in five different frequency bands. The mission also measured the CMB's E-mode and the foreground polarization. As of October 2010, the WMAP spacecraft has ended its mission after nine years of operation. Although WMAP provided very accurate measurements of the large angular-scale fluctuations in the CMB, it did not have the angular resolution to cover the smaller-scale fluctuations that had been observed by previous ground-based interferometers. A third space mission, the Planck Surveyor [1], was launched by ESA* in May 2009 to measure the CMB on smaller scales than WMAP, as well as making precise measurements of the polarization of CMB. Planck represents an advance over WMAP in several respects: it observes in higher resolution, hence allowing one to probe the CMB power spectrum to smaller scales; it has a higher sensitivity and observes in nine frequency bands rather than five, hence improving the astrophysical foreground models. The mission has a wide variety of scientific aims, including: (1) detecting the total intensity/polarization of the primordial CMB anisotropies; (2) creating a galaxy-cluster catalogue through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect [93]; (3) observing the gravitational lensing of the CMB and the integrated Sachs Wolfe (ISW) effect [82]; (4) observing br

  11. Cerenkov background radiation in imaging detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward I. Rosenblatt; Edward A. Beaver; Ross D. Cohen; J. B. Linsky; Ron W. Lyons

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss results of an analysis of background dark data obtained with the Digicon detector in the faint object spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Time sequenced data are presented which show the background recorded by the detector as it orbits the Earth at an altitude of 600 km. The authors propose that Cerenkov radiation produced by cosmic

  12. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  13. Experiment! Experiment! Background

    E-print Network

    Carette, Jacques

    of characters -- sequence of lines -- sequence of records . Meaning of stored information is defined by creator control lists'' with three user classifications: . Owner (u --- user): usually creator, identified by user ID . Group (g): identified by a group ID . Universe (o --- other): all other users in the system

  14. Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM) VDL-3 and 1090ES Final Test Requirements, Test Plans, and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.; Jirberg, Russ; Frantz, Brian; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA s Aviation Safety Program was created for the purpose of making a significant reduction in the incidents of weather related aviation accidents by improving situational awareness. The objectives of that program are being met in part through advances in weather sensor technology, and in part through advances in the communications technology that are developed for use in the National Airspace System. It is this latter element, i.e., the improvements in aviation communication technologies, that is the focus of the Weather Information Communications project. This report describes the final flight test results completed under the WINCOMM project at the NASA Glenn Research Center of the 1090 Extended Squitter (1090ES) and VDL Mode 3 (VDL-3) data links as a medium for weather data exchange. It presents the use of 1090ES to meet the program objectives of sending broadcast turbulence information and the use of VDL-3 to send graphical weather images. This report provides the test requirements and test plans, which led to flight tests, as well as final results from flight testing. The reports define the changes made to both avionics and ground-based receivers as well as the ground infrastructure to support implementation of the recommended architecture, with a focus on the issues associated with these changes.

  15. Ice absorption toward background stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knez, Claudia; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Kessler-Silacci, Jacqueline; Evans, Neal J., II; Augereau, Jean-Charles; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Brown, Joanna; Geers, Vincent; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Lahuis, Fred

    We present results of ice absorption between 5-20 ?m toward background stars as part of the Cores to Disks (c2d) Legacy program (Evans et al. 2003). Molecules such as H2O, CO2, HCOOH, NH3, CH3OH, and NH4+ have bands in this wavelength region. Absorption from H2O bands at 6 and 13 ?m is observed toward all sources. We detect strong CO2 absorption toward CK 2, a background star with high extinction in the Serpens dark cloud. The abundance of CO2 with respect to H2O is 30-40%, similar to what is observed toward protostars. Also, at 6.8 ?m, CK 2 shows a feature which may be due to NH4+ . Other sources with lower extinction, such as Elias 13 and Elias 16 in the Taurus dark cloud, do not show this feature. By probing different lines of sight, we can learn how ice composition varies with extinction. The abundances found toward background stars are then compared to abundances observed toward protosatars.

  16. Face tracking using particle filer in the complex background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Min Yoon; Sang Hwan Lee

    We present a novel method of tracking a face using color transformation, particle filter and the Motion Adaptive Weighted Unmatched Pixel Count algorithm that makes more effective combination of color and motion information in complex background and face occluded environment. The proposed algorithm of tracking the face has advantages in rejecting static background objects of similar color without background training

  17. The Status of Federal Libraries and Information Centers in the United States: Results from the 1994 Federal Libraries and Information Centers Survey. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Evelyn F.; Rossi, Robert J.

    The data collected through the 1994 Federal Libraries and Information Centers Survey present a picture of federal libraries and information centers that provide a wide variety of services to their respective agencies as well as to the general public. Federal libraries and information centers reported holding over 51 million volumes or volume…

  18. Background sources in optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    The characterization and measurement of background radiation relevant to optical communications system performance is addressed. The necessary optical receiver parameters are described, and radiometric concepts required for the calculation of collected background power are developed. The most important components of optical background power are discussed, and their contribution to the total collected background power in various communications scenarios is examined.

  19. X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

  20. Solving the background mystery in acoustical resonance scattering theory (RST)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changzheng Huang

    2002-01-01

    The acoustical resonance scattering theory (RST) aims to solving inverse scattering problems by decomposing the backscattering echoes into a background part and a resonance part. The former contains scatterers shape information, and the latter contains the material composition information. RST assumes the existence of an intermediate background for general scatterer and surrounding combinations. However, despite the efforts taken in the

  1. Criminal Background Checks for future Medical

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    , possible drug screening, credit check, etc. #12;AMCAS system Some schools will use a national system being piloted by AMCAS. Students will enter information when they apply, but it will remain hidden until background check from Certiphi Screening, the same company AMCAS uses for their system checks. Remedy any

  2. CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND FOR INFORMED DECISION-MAKING Stephen E. Schwartz in climate change. Global mean surface temperature is higher today than it's been for at least a millennium Climate Research Unit, East Anglia UK #12;INDICATIONS OF SYSTEMATIC WARMING IN RECENT YEARS The 1990s were

  3. An OSSE Platform for Terrestrial Hydrology using the NASA Land Information System (LIS): Initial Results from SMAP-relevant OSSEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, K. W.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; Santanello, J. A.; Kirschbaum, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Simulation is a key tool for the cost effective planning and execution of NASA missions. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) can help to demonstrate and quantify the impact of remotely sensed observations on terrestrial hydrologic science and societal objectives (e.g., minimizing impacts of droughts and floods). Importantly, they are also critical for understanding and mitigating mission risk. Here, the science and technology underlying a new mission simulation and evaluation platform under development are presented. The platform will be built upon the NASA Land Information System (LIS), an advanced multi-scale land surface modeling system, and the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT), which provides tools for evaluating LIS outputs using a wide range of metrics. The platform integrates components of LIS' advanced data processing subsystems (e.g., data assimilation, optimization, and uncertainty estimation) and coupled model systems (e.g., land surface -atmospheric radiative transfer, land surface-weather forecasting, and land surface-application models). The design advances the state-of-the-art in OSSE development by incorporating "value-of-information" and other concepts from decision and information theory that have long dealt with similar questions, and by anticipating a more robust set of questions than the "classic" OSSE that focuses on data assimilation. In addition, the platform is being designed to conduct OSSEs useful at each stage of mission planning, from the time of mission concept formulation to after launch, and therefore targets current (e.g., TRMM, EOS-Aqua, GRACE, Aquarius) and future (e.g., SMAP, GPM, GRACE Follow-on, GRACE-II) missions. In the talk, results from soil moisture observation system simulation experiments designed for SMAP mission will be presented.

  4. Usability evaluation: results from "Evaluation of mobile information technology to improve nurses' access to and use of research evidence".

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Tammie Leigh; Nguyen, Ha; Doran, Diane M

    2012-08-01

    Usability evaluations are necessary to determine the feasibility of nurses' interactions with computerized clinical decision-support systems. Limitations and challenges of operations that inhibit or facilitate utilization in clinical practice can be identified. This study provided nurses with mobile information terminals, PDAs and tablet PCs, to improve point-of-care access to information. The purpose of this study was to determine usability issues associated with point-of-care technology. Eleven nurses were self-selected. Nurses were videotaped and audiotaped completing four tasks, including setting up the device and three resource search exercises. A research team member completed a usability checklist. Completion times for each task, success rate, and challenges experienced were documented. Four participants completed all tasks, with an average time of 3 minutes 22 seconds. Three participants were unable to complete any of the three tasks. Navigating within resources caused the greatest occurrence of deviations with 39 issues among all participants. Results of the usability evaluation suggest that nurses require a device that (1) is manageable to navigate and (2) utilizes a user-friendly interface, such as a one-time log-in system. Usability testing can be helpful to organizations as they document issues to be cognizant of during the implementation process, increasing the potential for successful implementation and sustained usability. PMID:22425993

  5. Molecules in the mirror: how SERS backgrounds arise from the quantum method of images† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional derivation of eqn (5). See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp00093e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Harris, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The Raman coupling of light to molecular vibrations is strongly modified when they are placed near a plasmonic metal surface, with the appearance of a strong broad continuum background in addition to the normal surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peaks. Using a quantum method of images approach, we produce a simple but quantitative explanation of the inevitable presence of the background, due to the resistive damping of the image molecule. This model thus suggests new strategies for enhancing the SERS peak to background ratio. PMID:24584480

  6. How do incorrect results change the processing of arithmetic information? Evidence from a divided visual field experiment.

    PubMed

    Castro, Antonio; Sumich, Alex; Premkumar, Preethi; Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Despite several recent important developments in understanding numerical processing of both isolated numbers and numbers in the context of arithmetic equations, the relative impact of congruency on high-level compared to low-level processing remains unclear. The current study investigated hemispheric differences in the processing of arithmetic material, as a function of semantic and perceptual congruency, using a delayed answer verification task and divided visual field paradigm. A total of 37 participants (22 females and 15 males, mean age 30.06, SD 9.78) were presented unilaterally or bilaterally with equation results that were either correct or incorrect and had a consistent or inconsistent numerical notation. Statistical analyses showed no visual field differences in a notation consistency task, whereas when judgements had to be made on mathematical accuracy there was a right visual field advantage for incorrect equations that were notation consistent. These results reveal a clear differential processing of arithmetic information by the two cerebral hemispheres with a special emphasis on erroneous calculations. Faced with incorrect results and with a consistent numerical notation, the left hemisphere outperforms its right counterpart in making mathematical accuracy decisions. PMID:23988195

  7. Perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics and preferred information sources among Dutch adults: results of a quantitative consumer study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M E van Dillen; G. J. Hiddink; M. A. Koelen; C de Graaf; C M J van Woerkum; SME van Dillen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.Design: Based on qualitative studies, a quantitative questionnaire was developed and administered in face-to-face interviews.Subjects: The study population consisted of Dutch

  8. Does your gene need a background check? How genetic background

    E-print Network

    Dworkin, Ian

    best to exploit genetic background effects to broaden genetic research programs. What are geneticDoes your gene need a background check? How genetic background impacts the analysis of mutations, USA 2 Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY, USA The premise of genetic analysis

  9. Developing a Health Care Intermediary-Delivered Intervention to Promote an Online Health Information Resource: Results from Formative Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang Li; Jeff Quinn; Cassandra L. Rico; Amaris C. Noguera; Christie Silbajoris; Jane D. Brown; Diana McDuffee

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development of a health care intermediary-delivered intervention to promote an existing state-based health information Web site (NC Health Info) originally designed by health science librarians. Two focus groups and six key informant interviews were conducted with 17 health care intermediaries (HCIs) to: (1) identify key trends in HCIs' use of and attitudes toward online health information;

  10. Combining Self-Assessments and Achievement Tests in Information Literacy Assessment: Empirical Results and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the significance of information literacy self-assessments in higher education with a special focus on situational conditions increasing their explanatory power. First, it was hypothesised that self-assessments of information literacy correlate higher with factual information literacy if measured after the administration of…

  11. Relevance of Electronic Health Information to Doctors in the Developing World: Results of the Ptolemy Project’s Internet-based Health Information Study (IBHIS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsteen R. Burton; Andrew Howard; Massey Beveridge

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons’ clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at

  12. Induced microseismicity resulting from hydraulic fracturing is routinely monitored to provide essential information about a threedimensional (3D) geometrical shape of fracture

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    225 Abstract Induced microseismicity resulting from hydraulic fracturing is routinely monitored to provide essential information about a three­dimensional (3­D) geometrical shape of fracture on the scale to the fracture growth may provide crucial information about the fracture itself and reservoir properties, which

  13. Stellar contributions to the diffuse soft X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookbinder, J.; Avni, Y.; Golub, L.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G.

    1981-01-01

    One of the results of the EINSTEIN/C.f.A. X-ray stellar survey was a determination of the contribution of the disk stellar population to the galactic component of the diffuse soft (0.28 - 1.0 keV) X-ray background. This analysis employed both binned and unbinned nonparametric statistical methods that have been developed by Avni, et al. (1980). These methods permitted the use of the information contained in both the 22 detections and 4 upper bounds on the luminosities of 26 dM stars in order to derive their luminosity function. Luminosity functions for earlier stellar types are not yet developed. For these earlier stellar types, the median luminosities as determined by Vaiana, et al., are used (1981), which underestimates their contribution to the background. We find that it is the M dwarfs that dominate the disk population stellar contribution to this background. To calculate the contribution of the stellar sources to the background, simple models both for the spatial distribution of the stars and for the properties of the intervening interstellar medium are used. A model is chosen in which all stellar classes have the same functional form for their spatial distribution: an exponentially decreasing distribution above the galactic equatorial plane, and a uniform distribution within the galactic plane for a region of several kiloparsecs centered on the Sun.

  14. The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention Citation: Hall, R. and Hanna, P. (2004), The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention, Behaviour & Information Technology, forthcoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Hall

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text\\/background color combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioral intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four color-combination conditions. Major findings were: a) Colors with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater

  15. Interferometry of background acoustic-gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Godin, Oleg A.; Sheehan, Anne F.

    2013-04-01

    In addition to acoustic-gravity waves generated in the ocean and atmosphere by strong transient events such as earthquakes and tsunamis, there exists a certain background level of acoustic-gravity waves. Because of their large free path length and a wide spatial distribution of the wave sources, background acoustic-gravity waves form a diffuse (but not necessarily isotropic), random wave field. Wave fields generated by uncorrelated sources are known to retain finite correlation at ranges large compared to the wavelength and spatial dimensions of the random wave sources. A technique known as noise (or wave) interferometry has been shown in seismology, helioseismology, acoustics, and other fields to be an effective tool for retrieving information about the deterministic propagation environment and the random wave field from two-point cross-correlation functions of diffuse noise. Here, we apply wave interferometry to acoustic-gravity waves in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The primary dataset analyzed in this study was obtained by 30 differential pressure gauges deployed from January 2009 to February 2010 on the seafloor offshore the South Island of New Zealand in the course of the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) Seismic Experiment [Yang, Z., A. Sheehan, J. A. Collins, and G. Laske (2012), The character of seafloor ambient noise recorded offshore New Zealand: Results from the MOANA ocean bottom seismic experiment, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q10011]. By applying time-reversal ideas to processing of cross-correlations of random wave fields, we have developed a compressed cross-correlation function technique to compensate for wave dispersion in evaluating the cross-correlation function of a random wave field. When applied to the seafloor pressure data, the technique drastically reduces the signal averaging times necessary for emergence of deterministic features and allows for accurate passive measurements of wave travel times and directivity. The reduction in the averaging time makes it possible to study dynamics on the acoustic-gravity wave field and helps to identify specific wave types that contribute to observed pressure variations. We will discuss implications of the seafloor measurements for observations of acoustic-gravity waves in air above the ocean and feasibility of extending the wave interferometry to other modalities of observation of background acoustic-gravity waves, including ionospheric radio sounding performed with Dynasonde systems.

  16. Gamma-ray background: a review

    E-print Network

    Tanja M. Kneiske

    2007-11-29

    The gamma-ray background is still a subject under great debate. All phenomena in the universe emitting gamma-rays can contribute directly as diffuse emission or as an isotropic component from unresolved point sources. The question of the origin of the extragalactic component cannot be answered without determining the galactic emission. To discuss in detail all models resulting in gamma-ray background contributions is far beyond the scope of this paper. Therefore the focus will be on recent publications on the extragalactic high energy (>100 MeV) part of the gamma-ray background.

  17. Background radiation from fission pulses

    SciTech Connect

    England, T.R.; Arthur, E.D.; Brady, M.C.; LaBauve, R.J.

    1988-05-01

    Extensive source terms for beta, gamma, and neutrons following fission pulses are presented in various tabular and graphical forms. Neutron results from a wide range of fissioning nuclides (42) are examined and detailed information is provided for four fuels: /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 239/Pu; these bracket the range of the delayed spectra. Results at several cooling (decay) times are presented. For ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. spectra, only /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu results are given; fission-product data are currently inadequate for other fuels. The data base consists of all known measured data for individual fission products extensively supplemented with nuclear model results. The process is evolutionary, and therefore, the current base is summarized in sufficient detail for users to judge its quality. Comparisons with recent delayed neutron experiments and total ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. decay energies are included. 27 refs., 47 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  19. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  20. BKGE: Fermi-LAT Background Estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiou, Vlasios

    2014-11-01

    The Fermi-LAT Background Estimator (BKGE) is a publicly available open-source tool that can estimate the expected background of the Fermi-LAT for any observational conguration and duration. It produces results in the form of text files, ROOT files, gtlike source-model files (for LAT maximum likelihood analyses), and PHA I/II FITS files (for RMFit/XSpec spectral fitting analyses). Its core is written in C++ and its user interface in Python.

  1. Galileons on cosmological backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goon, Garrett; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Trodden, Mark, E-mail: ggoon@physics.upenn.edu, E-mail: kurthi@physics.upenn.edu, E-mail: trodden@physics.upenn.edu [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We construct four-dimensional effective field theories of a generalized DBI galileon field, the dynamics of which naturally take place on a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. The theories are invariant under non-linear symmetry transformations, which can be thought of as being inherited from five-dimensional bulk Killing symmetries via the probe brane technique through which they are constructed. The resulting model provides a framework in which to explore the cosmological role that galileons may play as the universe evolves.

  2. Systematic errors in cosmic microwave background interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, Emory F. [Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, Virginia 23173 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization observations will require superb control of systematic errors in order to achieve their full scientific potential, particularly in the case of attempts to detect the B modes that may provide a window on inflation. Interferometry may be a promising way to achieve these goals. This paper presents a formalism for characterizing the effects of a variety of systematic errors on interferometric CMB polarization observations, with particular emphasis on estimates of the B-mode power spectrum. The most severe errors are those that couple the temperature anisotropy signal to polarization; such errors include cross talk within detectors, misalignment of polarizers, and cross polarization. In a B mode experiment, the next most serious category of errors are those that mix E and B modes, such as gain fluctuations, pointing errors, and beam shape errors. The paper also indicates which sources of error may cause circular polarization (e.g., from foregrounds) to contaminate the cosmologically interesting linear polarization channels, and conversely whether monitoring of the circular-polarization channels may yield useful information about the errors themselves. For all the sources of error considered, estimates of the level of control that will be required for both E and B mode experiments are provided. Simulations of a mock experiment are presented to illustrate the results. Both experiments that interfere linear polarizations and those that interfere circular polarizations are considered. The fact that circular experiments simultaneously measure both linear polarization Stokes parameters in each baseline mitigates some sources of error.

  3. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0???) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0??? decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ??} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and ? emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  4. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy and comorbidity in diabetes: results from the Vermont diabetes information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria E Ramos-Nino; Charles D MacLean; Benjamin Littenberg

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) reduce peripheral vascular resistance via blockage of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors are commonly used to treat congestive heart failure and high blood pressure, but other effects have been reported. In this study, we explored the association between ACE inhibitor therapy and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in adults with diabetes METHODS:

  5. Light on curved backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batic, D.; Nelson, S.; Nowakowski, M.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the motion of light on different spacetime manifolds by calculating the deflection angle, lensing properties and by probing into the possibility of bound states. The metrics in which we examine the light motion include, among other items, a general relativistic dark matter metric, a dirty black hole, and a worm hole metric, the last two inspired by noncommutative geometry. The lensing in a holographic screen metric is discussed in detail. We study also the bending of light around naked singularities like, e.g., the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric and include other cases. A generic property of light behavior in these exotic metrics is pointed out. For the standard metric like the Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter cases, we improve the accuracy of the lensing results for the weak and strong regimes.

  6. Light on curved backgrounds

    E-print Network

    D. Batic; S. Nelson; M. Nowakowski

    2014-12-11

    We consider the motion of light on different spacetime manifolds by calculating the deflection angle, lensing properties and by probing into the possibility of bound states. The metrics in which we examine the light motion include, among other, a general relativistic Dark Matter metric, a dirty Black Hole and a Worm Hole metric, the last two inspired by non-commutative geometry. The lensing in a Holographic Screen metric is discussed in detail. We study also the bending of light around naked singularities like, e.g., the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric and include other cases. A generic property of light behaviour in these exotic metrics is pointed out. For the standard metric like the Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter cases we improve the accuracy of the lensing results for the weak and strong regime.

  7. On the Improvement of Numerical Weather Prediction by Assimilation of Hub Height Wind Information in Convection-Resulted Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declair, Stefan; Stephan, Klaus; Potthast, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Determining the amount of weather dependent renewable energy is a demanding task for transmission system operators (TSOs). In the project EWeLiNE funded by the German government, the German Weather Service and the Fraunhofer Institute on Wind Energy and Energy System Technology strongly support the TSOs by developing innovative weather- and power forecasting models and tools for grid integration of weather dependent renewable energy. The key in the energy prediction process chain is the numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. With focus on wind energy, we face the model errors in the planetary boundary layer, which is characterized by strong spatial and temporal fluctuations in wind speed, to improve the basis of the weather dependent renewable energy prediction. Model data can be corrected by postprocessing techniques such as model output statistics and calibration using historical observational data. On the other hand, latest observations can be used in a preprocessing technique called data assimilation (DA). In DA, the model output from a previous time step is combined such with observational data, that the new model data for model integration initialization (analysis) fits best to the latest model data and the observational data as well. Therefore, model errors can be already reduced before the model integration. In this contribution, the results of an impact study are presented. A so-called OSSE (Observation Simulation System Experiment) is performed using the convective-resoluted COSMO-DE model of the German Weather Service and a 4D-DA technique, a Newtonian relaxation method also called nudging. Starting from a nature run (treated as the truth), conventional observations and artificial wind observations at hub height are generated. In a control run, the basic model setup of the nature run is slightly perturbed to drag the model away from the beforehand generated truth and a free forecast is computed based on the analysis using only conventional observations. In a second run forecasts start from an analysis including the artificial wind information. A comparison between those two free forecasts shows the potential of hub height wind information for NWP. The spatiotemporal impact of the artificial wind observations is discussed on the basis of 68 representative wind farm sites located in Germany.

  8. New Technology for Libraries. A Layman's Guide to Reducing Public Library Costs and Improving Services through Scientific Methods and Tools. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbrod, David L.

    This booklet, one of a series of background papers for the White House Conference, explores the potential of new technologies to improve library services while reducing library costs. Separate subsections describe the application of technology to the following library functions: acquisitions, catalogs and cataloging, serials control, circulation…

  9. Relevance of electronic health information to doctors in the developing world: results of the Ptolemy Project's Internet-based Health Information Study (IBHIS).

    PubMed

    Burton, Kirsteen R; Howard, Andrew; Beveridge, Massey

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons' clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at least 6 months. Survey questions concerned time spent reading medical literature, preferred information sources, preferred type of publication, relevance, preference for western versus local medical literature, and academic productivity. Among the 75 eligible participants, 37 (48%) responded. From these responses it was found that African surgeons with access to EHI read more than articles than they did before they had such access, and they find that the information obtained is highly relevant to their clinical, teaching, and research activities. They prefer electronic journals to textbooks and are more inclined to change their practice based on information found in western journals than local journals. Ptolemy resources helped the respondents who reported academic work write a total of 33 papers for presentation or publication. Overall, access to EHI enables doctors in Africa to read more, is relevant, and contributes directly to academic productivity; thus Western medical literature is useful in the developing world, and EHI delivery should continue to expand. PMID:16096863

  10. Sakhalin tender background detailed

    SciTech Connect

    Konoplyanik, A. (Russian Federation Ministry for Fuels and Energy (SU))

    1992-03-23

    This paper reports that on Jan. 27, 1992, the committee constituted by order of the Russian government of Dec. 23, 1991, and headed by V.I. Danilov-Danilyan, the Russian Federation's Minister for Ecology and Natural Resources, assessed the results of a tender announced in May 1991. The tender was for foreign companies to submit feasibility studies for exploration and development of oil and gas on the continental shelf off Sakhalin Island. The announced winner was the MMM group consisting of McDermott International Inc., Marathon Oil Co., and Mitsui and Co. Ltd. In its decision the governmental tender committee (GTC) begged to differ from V. Fedorov, governor of the Territory of Sakhalin, in whose opinion the U.S.-Japanese combine of Exxon Corp.-Sakhalin Oil Development Co. (Sodeco) should have been pronounced winner at the bidding's end. GTC's decision also ran counter to the verdict by a panel of experts constituted by decision of the Examining Council under the Chairman of the Russian Government on Dec. 3, 1991, and headed by F. Salmanov, first deputy Minister of Geology of the U.S.S.R.

  11. Computing challenges of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Richard Bond; Robert G. Crittenden; Andrew H. Jaffe; Lloyd Knox

    1999-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) encodes information on the origin and\\u000aevolution of the universe, buried in a fractional anisotropy of one part in\\u000a100,000 on angular scales from arcminutes to tens of degrees. We await the\\u000acoming onslaught of data from experiments measuring the microwave sky from the\\u000aground, from balloons and from space. However, we are faced with

  12. THEMIS GEONS Background Science and User's Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    This user’s guide contains background science and technology information for the magnetometer program across the country known as the Geomagnetic Event Observatory Network by Students (GEONS). It describes the role that terrestrial magnetism plays in shaping a number of important Earth systems. It also explains the basic operating principles behind magnetometers — particularly the system used in the GEONS program. The data from these magnetometers are used in the fourth of four THEMIS teacher guides.

  13. Stochastic gravitational wave background from exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ain, Anirban; Kastha, Shilpa; Mitra, Sanjit

    2015-06-01

    Recent exoplanet surveys have predicted a very large population of planetary systems in our galaxy, more than one planet per star on the average, perhaps totaling about two hundred billion. These surveys, based on electromagnetic observations, are limited to a very small neighborhood of the solar system and the estimations rely on the observations of only a few thousand planets. On the other hand, orbital motions of planets around stars are expected to emit gravitational waves (GW), which could provide information about the planets not accessible to electromagnetic astronomy. The cumulative effect of the planets, with periods ranging from a few hours to several years, is expected to create a stochastic GW background (SGWB). We compute the characteristic GW strain of this background based on the observed distribution of planet parameters. We also show that the integrated extragalactic background is comparable to or less than the galactic background at different frequencies. Our estimate shows that the net background is significantly below the sensitivities of the proposed GW experiments in different frequency bands. However, we notice that the peak of the spectrum, at around 10-5 Hz , is not too far below the proposed space-based GW missions. A future space-based mission may be able to observe or tightly constrain this signal, which will possibly be the only way to probe the galactic population of exoplanets as a whole.

  14. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  15. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  16. Gamma-ray Background Spectrum and Annihilation Rate in the Baryon-symmetric Big-bang Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puget, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt was made to acquire experimental information on the problem of baryon symmetry on a large cosmological scale by observing the annihilation products. Data cover absorption cross sections and background radiation due to other sources for the two main products of annihilation, gamma rays and neutrinos. Test results show that the best direct experimental test for the presence of large scale antimatter lies in the gamma ray background spectrum between 1 and 70 MeV.

  17. Definitions Main Result

    E-print Network

    Heubach, Silvia

    Background Definitions Main Result Special Types of Patterns Summary Avoidance of partially ordered Avoidance of partially ordered patterns in compositions #12;Background Definitions Main Result Special Types of Patterns Summary Outline 1 Background 2 Definitions 3 Main Result Preliminaries Main Result 4 Special Types

  18. [Clinical trials registers. Introduction to the topic and backgrounds].

    PubMed

    Antes, G; Dreier, G; Hasselblatt, H; Blümle, A; Schumacher, M

    2009-04-01

    It is a moral responsibility of those performing clinical studies towards patients, funding organizations, the scientific community and towards the general public to publish the results of clinical trials. Under-reporting of clinical trials with null or even negative results as well as over-reporting of trials with positive results can lead to a biased assessment of (new) treatments, which leads to overestimation of potential benefits and underestimation of potential risks. Comprehensive, publicly accessible clinical trial registries are now widely accepted as an essential tool to fill the information gap. Here, the background for implementing a clinical trials register in Germany is described, whereby publication bias, in particular, is addressed. PMID:19343283

  19. Granularity of the Diffuse Background Observed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, D. E.; MacDonald, D.; Rothschild, R. E.; Boldt, E.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Fabian, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    First results are reported from a program for measuring the field-to-field fluctuation level of the cosmic diffuse background by using differences between the two background positions of each deep exposure with the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE) instrument on the Remote X Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). With 8 million live seconds accumulated to date a fluctuation level on the 15-25 keV band is observed which is consistent with extrapolations from the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory-1 (HEAO-1) measurements. Positive results are expected eventually at higher energies. Models of (active galactic nuclei) AGN origin will eventually be constrained by this program.

  20. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  1. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Wilson

    1979-01-01

    The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation is discussed beginning with radio astronomical measuring techniques, followed by the history of the detection of background radiation, and a summary of some of its properties. Attention is given to the design and operation of a radiotelescope, its antenna and radiometer, exhibiting its advantages, including the ability to measure a collecting area

  2. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Gawiser; Joseph Silk

    2000-01-01

    We summarize the theoretical and observational status of the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Its thermodynamic spectrum is a robust prediction of the Hot Big Bang cosmology and has been confirmed observationally. There are now 75 observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy, which we present in a table with references. We discuss the theoretical origins of these anisotropies

  3. Radar background signal reduction study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Knott; C. J. Ray; M. S. West; R. J. Wohlers

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes a study whose objective was to identify materials and\\/or techniques to reduce radar background signals for ground plane radar cross section (RCS) ranges. Background signal reduction is essential for improving the accuracy of RCS measurements and the primary application is for operations at the RATSCAT range on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. A survey

  4. Background

    Cancer.gov

    The discovery that proteins and peptides are "leaked" by tumors into clinically accessible bodily fluids such as blood has led to the possibility of diagnosing cancer at an early stage or monitoring response to treatment by collecting these fluids and testing for the presence of cancer-related biomarkers. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) are examples of blood-borne cancer protein biomarkers that are currently being used in the clinic.

  5. Background events in microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Wargelin, B.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements have been made to assess the characteristics and origins of background events in microchannel plates (MCPs). An overall background rate of about 0.4 events/sq cm persec has been achieved consistently for MCPs that have been baked and scrubbed. The temperature and gain of the MCPs are found to have no significant effect on the background rate. Detection of 1.46-MeV gamma rays from the MCP glass confirms the presence of K-40, with a concentration of 0.0007 percent, in MCP glass. It is shown that beta decay from K-40 is sufficient to cause the background rate and spectrum observed. Anticoincidence measurements indicate the the background rate caused by cosmic ray interactions is small (less than 0.016 events/sq cm per sec).

  6. Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

  7. Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstein, M. P.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of visual detection of a signal superimposed on one of two identical backgrounds show performance degradation when the background has high contrast and is similar in spatial frequency and/or orientation to the signal. To account for this finding, models include a contrast gain control mechanism that pools activity across spatial frequency, orientation and space to inhibit (divisively) the response of the receptor sensitive to the signal. In tasks in which the observer has to detect a known signal added to one of M different backgrounds grounds due to added visual noise, the main sources of degradation are the stochastic noise in the image and the suboptimal visual processing. We investigate how these two sources of degradation (contrast gain control and variations in the background) interact in a task in which the signal is embedded in one of M locations in a complex spatially varying background (structured background). We use backgrounds extracted from patient digital medical images. To isolate effects of the fixed deterministic background (the contrast gain control) from the effects of the background variations, we conduct detection experiments with three different background conditions: (1) uniform background, (2) a repeated sample of structured background, and (3) different samples of structured background. Results show that human visual detection degrades from the uniform background condition to the repeated background condition and degrades even further in the different backgrounds condition. These results suggest that both the contrast gain control mechanism and the background random variations degrade human performance in detection of a signal in a complex, spatially varying background. A filter model and added white noise are used to generate estimates of sampling efficiencies, an equivalent internal noise, an equivalent contrast-gain-control-induced noise, and an equivalent noise due to the variations in the structured background.

  8. Tidal forces in naked singularity backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Akash; Maity, Reevu; Roy, Pratim; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2015-05-01

    The end stage of a gravitational collapse process can generically result in a black hole or a naked singularity. Here we undertake a comparative analysis of the nature of tidal forces in these backgrounds. The effect of such forces is generically exemplified by the Roche limit, which predicts the distance within which a celestial object disintegrates due to the tidal effects of a second more massive object. In this paper, using Fermi normal coordinates, we numerically compute the Roche limit for a class of nonrotating naked singularity backgrounds and compare them with known results for Schwarzschild black holes. Our analysis indicates that there might be substantially large deviations in the magnitudes of tidal forces in naked singularity backgrounds, compared to the black hole cases. If observationally established, these can prove to be an effective indicator of the nature of the singularity at a galactic center.

  9. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    E-print Network

    B. Majorovits; I. Abt; M. Laubenstein; O. Volynets

    2011-05-18

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10^-5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  10. Search for the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, A.; Hodak, R.; Kovalenko, S.; Simkovic, F.

    2015-02-01

    One expects three Cosmic Backgrounds: (1) The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) originated 380000 years after the Big Bang (BB). (2) The Neutrino Background decoupled about one second after the BB, while (3) the Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background created by the inflationary expansion decoupled directly after the BB. Only the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been detected and is well studied. Its spectrum follows Planck's black body radiation formula and shows a remarkable constant temperature of T0? ? 2.7 K independent of the direction. The present photon density is about 370 photons per cm3. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 380 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T0? = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe and form the CMB. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 380 000 years after the Big Bang. The Cosmic Neutrino Background (C?B) decoupled from matter already one second after the BB at a temperature of about 1010 K. Today their temperature is ~ 1.95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos and the total density of all neutrinos about 336 per cm3. Measurement of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key elements of the Big Bang Cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe. The search for the C?B with the induced beta decay ?e+3H ? 3He + e? using KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) is the topic of this contribution.

  11. Direct searches for a cosmological stochastic gravitational wave background

    E-print Network

    Jensen, Grant J.

    gravitational- wave (GW) emission events. Such a background is anal- ogous to the cosmic microwave background for evidence of a stochastic gravitational wave background. There has been no detection to date. However radiation (CMBR), though its spectrum is unlikely to be thermal. The emission process could be the result

  12. Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

  13. Using a Geographical Information System to map and determine the extent of major soil disturbance resulting from a logging operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Brownlie; C. J. Terleskt

    The logging extraction tracks and landings of a recently clearfelled forest compartment were mapped porn aerial photographs, into a (GIS) Geographical Information Sys- tem, using an analytical stereoplotter. The GIS spatial data, combined with$eld measurements of track-width, were used to calculate lineal and spatial sta- tistics of the site disturbance and to generate a digital ter- rain model of the

  14. Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2005 and 2006 School Years. National Goals for Schooling. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. First Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to implement changes required by Education Ministers to enrolment forms (and associated data collection and storage processes). This is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the "National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." The…

  15. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a...management of impacts to wetlands and natural habitats which result from projects funded pursuant...under the authority of the Act and their habitats as required by Section 7,...

  16. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a...management of impacts to wetlands and natural habitats which result from projects funded pursuant...under the authority of the Act and their habitats as required by Section 7,...

  17. 23 CFR 777.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background. (a...management of impacts to wetlands and natural habitats which result from projects funded pursuant...under the authority of the Act and their habitats as required by Section 7,...

  18. Problem solving Using background knowledge

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    . Connect all 9 dots with four lines without lifting your pen from the page. Using background knowledge Pizza Children Cups · Retrieval affected by domain similarity ­ Both similar and cross-mapped examples

  19. BACKGROUND METHODS RESULTS Identify factors that contribute to SSI.

    E-print Network

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    compliance rate with preoperative bowel preparations and chlorhexidine washcloths. Design and implement with preoperative bowel preparation and chlorhexidine washcloths were identified with the tools. Tablet Based and processes failed. Poor compliance with preoperative bowel preparation and chlorhexidine washcloth were

  20. Low background techniques in XMASS

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Atsushi [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, University of Tokyo, 456 Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida, Gifu, 506-1205 (Japan)

    2011-04-27

    The XMASS project aims to detect pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, neutrino-less double beta decay, and dark matter searches using ultra-pure liquid xenon. The first stage of XMASS project is concentrated on dark matter searches using 800 kg liquid xenon detector which requires low background and low threshold. Several techniques applied to XMASS detector for low background will be presented.

  1. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    Eric Gawiser; Joseph Silk

    2000-02-02

    We summarize the theoretical and observational status of the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Its thermodynamic spectrum is a robust prediction of the Hot Big Bang cosmology and has been confirmed observationally. There are now 76 observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy, which we present in a table with references. We discuss the theoretical origins of these anisotropies and explain the standard jargon associated with their observation.

  2. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  3. The Role of Simplification and Information in College Decisions: Results from the H&R Block FAFSA Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric P. Bettinger; Bridget Terry Long; Philip Oreopoulos; Lisa Sanbonmatsu

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns about low awareness and take-up rates for government support programs like college financial aid have spurred calls to simplify the application process and enhance visibility. This project examines the effects of two experimental treatments designed to test of the importance of simplification and information using a random assignment research design. H&R Block tax professionals helped low- to moderate-income

  4. Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

  5. Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents initial findings of a research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route air-traffic operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. The piloted simulation was conducted in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared under conditions of low and high operational complexity. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Operational constraints included separation assurance, schedule adherence, airspace hazard avoidance, flight efficiency, and passenger comfort. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective pilot ratings and comments comparing the tactical and strategic modes are presented.

  6. Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents initial findings of a research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route air-traffic operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. The piloted simulation was conducted in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared under conditions of low and high operational complexity. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Operational constraints included separation assurance, schedule adherence, airspace hazard avoidance, flight efficiency, and passenger comfort. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective pilot ratings and comments comparing the tactical and strategic modes are presented.

  7. Minkowski Functional Description of Microwave Background Gaussianity

    E-print Network

    Serge Winitzki; Arthur Kosowsky

    1997-10-15

    A Gaussian distribution of cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations is a generic prediction of inflation. Upcoming high-resolution maps of the microwave background will allow detailed tests of Gaussianity down to small angular scales, providing a crucial test of inflation. We propose Minkowski functionals as a calculational tool for testing Gaussianity and characterizing deviations from it. We review the mathematical formalism of Minkowski functionals of random fields; for Gaussian fields the functionals can be calculated exactly. We then apply the results to pixelized maps, giving explicit expressions for calculating the functionals from maps as well as the Gaussian predictions, including corrections for map boundaries, pixel noise, and pixel size and shape. Variances of the functionals for Gaussian distributions are derived in terms of the map correlation function. Applications to microwave background maps are discussed.

  8. Modeling Ambient Background in Complex Detection Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kiff, Scott D.; Smith, Leon E.; Jarman, Kenneth D.

    2008-08-01

    Radiation detection instrumentation is being widely deployed as a countermeasure against the movement and use of radiological dispersal devices and nuclear weapons. Accurate ambient background modeling is critical for accurate simulation of detection scenarios of interest; these background source terms influence minimum detectable limits and are thus a significant factor in overall system performance. Described below are the methods used to characterize ambient background source terms in the at-sea maritime cargo container environment, how statistical distributions on those source terms are defined, and how the resulting radiation fields are calibrated using available measurement data from aboard large ocean-going ships. Although the maritime environment is the demonstration case study, these methods are broadly applicable to modeling of all complex detection scenarios.

  9. WWC Quick Review of the Report "The Role of Simplification and Information in College Decisions: Results from the H&R Block FAFSA Experiment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a WWC (What Works Clearinghouse) Quick Review of the report "The Role of Simplification and Information in College Decisions: Results from the H&R Block FAFSA Experiment". The study examined whether assistance in filling out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) increases the likelihood of filing the FAFSA,…

  10. WWC Quick Review of the Report "The Role of Simplification and Information in College Decisions: Results from the H&R Block FAFSA Experiment" Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an updated WWC (What Works Clearinghouse) Quick Review of the report "The Role of Simplification and Information in College Decisions: Results from the H&R Block FAFSA Experiment". The study examined whether assistance in filling out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) increases the likelihood of filing the…

  11. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the attributes of the 2.7-K microwave background radiation (CBR) are reviewed, with emphasis on the analytic phase of CBR studies. Methods for the direct measurement of the CBR spectrum are discussed; attention is given to receivers, antennas, absolute receiver calibration, atmospheric emission and absorption, the galactic background contribution, the analysis of LF measurements, and recent HF observations of the CBR spectrum. Measurements of the large-angular-scale intensity distribution of the CBR (the most convincing evidence that the radiation is of cosmological origin) are examined, along with limits on the linear polarization of the CBR. A description is given of the NASA-sponsored Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite mission. The results of the COBE mission will be a set of sky maps showing, in the wave number range from 1 to 10,000 kaysers, the galactic background radiation due to synchrotron emission from galactic cosmic rays, to diffuse thermal emission from H II regions, and to diffuse thermal emission from interstellar and interplanetary dust, as well as a residue consisting of the CBR and whatever other cosmological background might exist.

  12. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples.

  13. Confidentiality Agreement for Access to HRS and Banner Background

    E-print Network

    Confidentiality Agreement for Access to HRS and Banner Background: HRS and Banner are the data. Many of these records contain personal information about employees and are confidential and private, use, and become aware of information regarding employees and applicants that is confidential. I

  14. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-print Network

    J. G. Garza; S. Aune; D. Calvet; J. F. Castel; F. E. Christensen; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; T. Decker; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. Galán; J. A. García; I. Giomataris; R. M. Hill; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; A. C. Jakobsen; D. Jourde; H. Mirallas; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; J. Ruz; A. Tomás; T. Vafeiadis; J. K. Vogel

    2015-03-17

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  15. Backgrounds in the NPDGamma Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucuker Dogan, Serpil

    2012-10-01

    The NPDGamma experiment, which measures the parity-violating directional gamma asymmetry in neutron-proton capture, completed its first run cycle in June at the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source. In the experiment intense polarized low-energy neutron beam interacts with liquid para-hydrogen target. Gamma rays from the capture reaction are detected by 48 CsI(Tl) detectors with the 3? acceptance angle. The goal of the experiment is to measure the asymmetry with precision of 1 x10-8. The polarized neutrons also interact with other materials in the beam windows and the walls of the target vessel producing a background to the signal that dilutes the PV gamma asymmetry and these materials (primarily Aluminum) could, in principle, have their own PV asymmetries. Therefore, it is important to study the backgrounds and their contributions to measured signals. I will discuss the detected backgrounds and their effect on NPDGamma.

  16. Computing challenges of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-print Network

    J. Richard Bond; Robert G. Crittenden; Andrew H. Jaffe; Lloyd Knox

    1999-03-11

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) encodes information on the origin and evolution of the universe, buried in a fractional anisotropy of one part in 100,000 on angular scales from arcminutes to tens of degrees. We await the coming onslaught of data from experiments measuring the microwave sky from the ground, from balloons and from space. However, we are faced with the harsh reality that current algorithms for extracting cosmological information cannot handle data sets of the size and complexity expected even in the next few years. Here we review the challenges involved in understanding this data: making maps from time-ordered data, removing the foreground contaminants, and finally estimating the power spectrum and cosmological parameters from the CMB map. If handled naively, the global nature of the analysis problem renders these tasks effectively impossible given the volume of the data. We discuss possible techniques for overcoming these issues and outline the many other challenges that wait to be addressed.

  17. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

  18. How Do Quality Information and Cost Affect Patient Choice of Provider in a Tiered Network Setting? Results from a Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sinaiko, Anna D

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess how quality information from multiple sources and financial incentives affect consumer choice of physicians in tiered physician networks. Data Source Survey of a stratified random sample of Massachusetts state employees. Study Design Respondents were assigned a hypothetical structure with differential copayments for “Tier 1” (preferred) and “Tier 2” (nonpreferred) physicians. Half of respondents were told they needed to select a cardiologist, and half were told they needed to select a dermatologist. Patients were asked whether they would choose a Tier 1 doctor, a Tier 2 doctor, or had no preference in a case where they had no further quality information, a case where a family member or friend recommended a Tier 2 doctor, and a case where their personal physician recommended a Tier 2 doctor. The effects of copayments, recommendations, physician specialty, and patient characteristics on the reported probability of selecting a Tier 1 doctor are analyzed using multinomial logit and logistic regression. Principal Findings Relative to a case where there is no copayment differential between tiers, copayment differences of U.S.$10–U.S.$35 increase the number of respondents indicating they would select a Tier 1 physician by 3.5–11.7 percent. Simulations suggest copayments must exceed U.S.$300 to counteract the recommendation for a lower tiered physician from friends, family, or a referring physician. Sensitivity to the copayments varied with physician specialty. Conclusions Tiered provider networks with these copayment levels appear to have limited influence on physician choice when contradicted by other trusted sources. Consumers' response likely varies with physician specialty. PMID:21143478

  19. How do design features influence consumer attention when looking for nutritional information on food labels? Results from an eye-tracking study on pan bread labels.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Lucía; Vidal, Leticia; Sapolinski, Alejandra; Giménez, Ana; Maiche, Alejandro; Ares, Gastón

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate consumer visual processing of food labels when evaluating the salt content of pan bread labels and to study the influence of label design and nutritional labelling format on consumer attention. A total of 16 pan bread labels, designed according to a full factorial design, were presented to 52 participants, who were asked to decide whether the sodium content of each label was medium or low, while their eye movements were recorded using an eye tracker. Results showed that most participants looked at nutrition labels and the traffic light system to conclude on the salt content of the labels. However, the average percentage of participants who looked at the actual sodium content was much lower. Nutrition information format affected participants' processing of nutrition information. Among other effects, the inclusion of the traffic light system increased participants' attention towards some kind of nutrition information and facilitated its processing, but not its understanding. PMID:23301795

  20. Improved Background Corrections for Uranium Holdup Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R.B.; Gunn, C.A.; Chiang, L.G.

    2004-06-21

    In the original Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) model, all holdup deposits were modeled as points, lines, and areas[1, 5]. Two improvements[4] were recently made to the GGH model and are currently in use at the Y-12 National Security Complex. These two improvements are the finite-source correction CF{sub g} and the self-attenuation correction. The finite-source correction corrects the average detector response for the width of point and line geometries which in effect, converts points and lines into areas. The result of a holdup measurement of an area deposit is a density-thickness which is converted to mass by multiplying it by the area of the deposit. From the measured density-thickness, the true density-thickness can be calculated by correcting for the material self-attenuation. Therefore the self-attenuation correction is applied to finite point and line deposits as well as areas. This report demonstrates that the finite-source and self-attenuation corrections also provide a means to better separate the gamma rays emitted by the material from the gamma rays emitted by background sources for an improved background correction. Currently, the measured background radiation is attenuated for equipment walls in the case of area deposits but not for line and point sources. The measured background radiation is not corrected for attenuation by the uranium material. For all of these cases, the background is overestimated which causes a negative bias in the measurement. The finite-source correction and the self-attenuation correction will allow the correction of the measured background radiation for both the equipment attenuation and material attenuation for area sources as well as point and line sources.

  1. The link between past informal payments and willingness of the Hungarian population to pay formal fees for health care services: results from a contingent valuation study.

    PubMed

    Baji, Petra; Pavlova, Milena; Gulácsi, László; Farkas, Miklós; Groot, Wim

    2014-11-01

    We examine the willingness of health care consumers to pay formal fees for health care use and how this willingness to pay is associated with past informal payments. We use data from a survey carried out in Hungary in 2010 among a representative sample of 1,037 respondents. The contingent valuation method is used to elicit the willingness to pay official charges for health care services covered by the social health insurance if certain quality attributes (regarding the health care facility, access to the services and health care personnel) are guaranteed. A bivariate probit model is applied to examine the relationship between willingness to pay and past informal payments. We find that 66% of the respondents are willing to pay formal fees for specialist examinations and 56% are willing to pay for planned hospitalizations if these services are provided with certain quality and access attributes. The act of making past informal payments for health care services is positively associated with the willingness to pay formal charges. The probability that a respondent is willing to pay official charges for health care services is 22% points higher for specialist examinations and 45% points higher for hospitalization if the respondent paid informally during the last 12 months. The introduction of formal fees should be accompanied by adequate service provision to assure acceptance of the fees. Furthermore, our results suggest that the problem of informal patient payments may remain even after the implementation of user fees. PMID:23989982

  2. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, provides an overview of how scientists are working to explain the origin of the universe. Specifically, it discusses the two major theories about the origin of the universe (Big Bang and Steady State), the search for microwave background radiation, and the discovery of the first observational evidence to support the Big Bang theory.

  3. The Kondo Problem Historical background

    E-print Network

    The Kondo Problem Historical background Kondo solution (Fermi liquid and perturbation) RG flow (Luttinger liquid) for single channel Multichannel Kondo effect by Andrzej Nowojewski #12;#12;#12;Resistance-d Hamiltonian: Jun Kondo Prog. Th. Phys 32, 37 (1964) #12;Use perturbation theory to calculate transition

  4. REPORT NO. 1 background material

    E-print Network

    to large amounts of ionizing radiation can produce deleterious effects on the human body so exposed. More the current knowledge on effects of radiation exposure and on human exposure levREPORT NO. 1 background material for the development of radiation protection standards May 13

  5. Employment with a Criminal Background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Hennessy

    Seeking employment is highly competitive, and it becomes more difficult when in poverty and with a criminal past. Many factors influence this complex situation. Hiring an ex- convict does pose a risk to the employer, and negative stereotypes reinforce anxiety over this risk. A common belief is that a criminal background means a person can't be trusted and that they

  6. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-print Network

    Garza, J G; Calvet, D; Castel, J F; Christensen, F E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Decker, T; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Giomataris, I; Hill, R M; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jakobsen, A C; Jourde, D; Mirallas, H; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Ruz, J; Tomás, A; Vafeiadis, T; Vogel, J K

    2015-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  7. Climate Change The Physical Background

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    Climate Change ­ The Physical Background Andreas Sterl KNMI · Basics of the climate system/18) #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11.10.2007 Observed climate change #12;Andreas Sterl · Anthropogenic influence · Projected changes & impact #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11

  8. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Silk

    1981-01-01

    Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found

  9. Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrends, Ehrhard

    2004-05-01

    Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

  10. Shark Fact or Fiction? Background

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    in saltwater. Most sharks are hot-blooded. The chance of being attacked by a shark is very high. Shark finning are hot-blooded. FICTION The chance of being attacked by a shark is very high. FICTION Shark finningShark Fact or Fiction? Background: This is a fun classroom activity based on the basic biology

  11. Simulation of HEAO 3 background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, B. L.; Phlips, B. F.; Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91 [2], nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database [3], and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) [4] using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, ?-, ?+, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both ?- and ?+. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

  12. Simulation of HEAO 3 background

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, B. L. [George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Phlips, B. F. [USRA, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia (United States)

    1997-05-10

    A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91, nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database, and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, {beta}{sup -}, {beta}{sup +}, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both {beta}{sup -} and {beta}{sup +}. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

  13. Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background

    E-print Network

    - 1 - Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background: Over the last 20 years, hurricane research at AOML has focused on improved scientific understanding of hurricanes and of tropical meteorology scientific goals for AOMLs hurricane research derive from the U.S. Weather Research Programs (USWRP

  14. Support of low-level instrument background for HPGe detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Sokolov; A. S. Starostin; V. I. Kuzmenko; A. R. Rozite

    2011-01-01

    The development results for the cryostats with the low-level of instrument background supported by special design, the reduction of mass of the materials surrounding detector and application of the materials with very low content of radiation impurities are presented. The development results for HPGe detector with ultra low-level of instrument background for gamma spectrometer under the GEMMA project for investigation

  15. In-mine testing of a natural background sensor, part B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martzloff, F. D.

    1981-01-01

    The capability of a natural background sensor for measuring the thickness of top coal on a longwall face was examined. The limitations on the time during which tests could be performed, and the roof conditions, did not produce readings of top coal measurements during the shearer operation. It was demonstrated that the system is capable to survive operating conditions in the mine environment, while the static tests confirmed that the natural background sensor approach is a valid method of measuring top coal thickness in mines where the roof rock provides a constant radiation level. It is concluded that the practical results will improve sequent development of an integrated vertical control system which is information from the natural background system.

  16. Possibility of ??pairing and its dependence on background density in relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model

    E-print Network

    Tomonori Tanigawa; Masayuki Matsuzaki; Satoshi Chiba

    2003-03-24

    We calculate a \\Lambda\\Lambda pairing gap in binary mixed matter of nucleons and \\Lambda hyperons within the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Lambda hyperons to be paired up are immersed in background nucleons in a normal state. The gap is calculated with a one-boson-exchange interaction obtained from a relativistic Lagrangian. It is found that at background density \\rho_{N}=2.5\\rho_{0} the \\Lambda\\Lambda pairing gap is very small, and that denser background makes it rapidly suppressed. This result suggests a mechanism, specific to mixed matter dealt with relativistic models, of its dependence on the nucleon density. An effect of weaker \\Lambda\\Lambda attraction on the gap is also examined in connection with revised information of the \\Lambda\\Lambda interaction.

  17. The Fermionic Propagator in an Intense Background

    E-print Network

    Martin Lavelle; David McMullan

    2015-04-27

    New results for the fermion propagator in a laser background are presented. We show that the all orders electron propagator can be written in a compact and appealing form as a sum of sideband poles with a matrix wave function renormalisation and a matrix valued mass shift. This last result is essential in the fermionic theory if we are to maintain that both the mass and its square pick up a correction only at order e^2. A perturbative verification of our results is carried out.

  18. The Fermionic Propagator in an Intense Background

    E-print Network

    Lavelle, Martin

    2015-01-01

    New results for the fermion propagator in a laser background are presented. We show that the all orders electron propagator can be written in a compact and appealing form as a sum of sideband poles with a matrix wave function renormalisation and a matrix valued mass shift. This last result is essential in the fermionic theory if we are to maintain that both the mass and its square pick up a correction only at order e^2. A perturbative verification of our results is carried out.

  19. Background Simulation Experiment Conclusion Hysteresis in the Nonlinear Tunnelling of Light

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Background Simulation Experiment Conclusion Hysteresis in the Nonlinear Tunnelling of Light Through of Light Through a Barrier #12;Background Simulation Experiment Conclusion Outline 1 Background Nonlinear Optics Hysteresis 2 Simulation Method Results 3 Experiment Images Analysis 4 Conclusion Stefan M

  20. The Role of Application Assistance and Information in College Decisions: Results from the H&R Block Fafsa Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric P. Bettinger; Bridget Terry Long; Philip Oreopoulos; Lisa Sanbonmatsu

    2012-01-01

    Growing concerns about low awareness and take-up rates for government support programs like college financial aid have spurred calls to simplify the application process and enhance visibility. We present results from a randomized field experiment in which low-income individuals receiving tax preparation help were also offered immediate assistance and a streamlined process to complete the Free Application for Federal Student

  1. Inclusion of Information Covering Electronic Resources in National Bibliographies: Results of a Survey Conducted May-June 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper reports on the results of a survey conducted in spring 1998 to ascertain the extent to which National Bibliographic Agencies (NBAs) were providing coverage of publications in electronic formats. A total of 61 institutions, representing agencies in 59 countries, replied to the questionnaire. NBAs representing 34 countries indicated…

  2. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2001-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  3. Cultural background shapes spatial reference frame proclivity

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Köster, Moritz; Fernández-Revelles, Andrés B.; Gramann, Klaus; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation is an essential human skill that is influenced by several factors. The present study investigates how gender, age, and cultural background account for differences in reference frame proclivity and performance in a virtual navigation task. Using an online navigation study, we recorded reaction times, error rates (confusion of turning axis), and reference frame proclivity (egocentric vs. allocentric reference frame) of 1823 participants. Reaction times significantly varied with gender and age, but were only marginally influenced by the cultural background of participants. Error rates were in line with these results and exhibited a significant influence of gender and culture, but not age. Participants’ cultural background significantly influenced reference frame selection; the majority of North-Americans preferred an allocentric strategy, while Latin-Americans preferred an egocentric navigation strategy. European and Asian groups were in between these two extremes. Neither the factor of age nor the factor of gender had a direct impact on participants’ navigation strategies. The strong effects of cultural background on navigation strategies without the influence of gender or age underlines the importance of socialized spatial cognitive processes and argues for socio-economic analysis in studies investigating human navigation. PMID:26073656

  4. Cultural background shapes spatial reference frame proclivity.

    PubMed

    Goeke, Caspar; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Köster, Moritz; Fernández-Revelles, Andrés B; Gramann, Klaus; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation is an essential human skill that is influenced by several factors. The present study investigates how gender, age, and cultural background account for differences in reference frame proclivity and performance in a virtual navigation task. Using an online navigation study, we recorded reaction times, error rates (confusion of turning axis), and reference frame proclivity (egocentric vs. allocentric reference frame) of 1823 participants. Reaction times significantly varied with gender and age, but were only marginally influenced by the cultural background of participants. Error rates were in line with these results and exhibited a significant influence of gender and culture, but not age. Participants' cultural background significantly influenced reference frame selection; the majority of North-Americans preferred an allocentric strategy, while Latin-Americans preferred an egocentric navigation strategy. European and Asian groups were in between these two extremes. Neither the factor of age nor the factor of gender had a direct impact on participants' navigation strategies. The strong effects of cultural background on navigation strategies without the influence of gender or age underlines the importance of socialized spatial cognitive processes and argues for socio-economic analysis in studies investigating human navigation. PMID:26073656

  5. A Complete and Comprehensive Sky Background Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. M.; Noll, S.; Kausch, W.; Kimeswenger, S.; Szyszka, C.

    2014-05-01

    In the current era of precision astronomy, a complete sky background model is crucial, especially as the telescopes become even larger in the next decade. Such a model is needed for planning observations as well as understanding and correcting the data for the sky background. We have developed a sky model for this purpose, and it is the most complete and universal sky model that we know of to date. It covers a wide range of wavelengths from 0.3 to 30 micron up to a resolution of 1,000,000 and is instrument independent. Currently it is optimized for the telescopes at Cerro Paranal and the future site Cerro Armazones in Chile. Our sky model includes several components necessary to describe the sky background flux, such as scattered moonlight and starlight, zodiacal light, airglow emission and continuum, thermal emission from the telescope and lower atmosphere, and scattering and absorption within the Earth's atmosphere. Each component was designed with the latest knowledge and results in the field and was thoroughly checked with archival ESO data. Our sky background model will be a valuable asset for astronomical observatories and the community.

  6. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, P.; Villela, T.

    1986-01-01

    Data on the cosmic microwave background radiation obtained with a maser at 12 mm and a Schottky diode mixer at 3 mm are presented. The dipole anisotropy, apparently due to our motion, has been measured sufficiently well to determine our direction of motion within two degrees. The results show that the Galaxy is moving in a direction that is about 44 deg from the center of the Virgo cluster.

  7. Investigation of the backgrounds in the EXO-200 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didberidze, Tamar; EXO-200 Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory EXO-200 experiment currently located at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico, which uses a 175 kg of isotopically enriched 136 Xe, is designed to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ???) in 136 Xe. The search for this type of decay requires a good understanding of background sources. I will present results of the background study done for the EXO-200 experiment. The study has been performed using a current EXO-200 low-background data and model to estimate the location and magnitude of background sources and compared to the radio assay results that were obtained before detector construction.

  8. Dual-tracer background subtraction approach for fluorescent molecular tomography

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Robert W.; El-Ghussein, Fadi; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Leblond, Frederic; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Diffuse fluorescence tomography requires high contrast-to-background ratios to accurately reconstruct inclusions of interest. This is a problem when imaging the uptake of fluorescently labeled molecularly targeted tracers in tissue, which can result in high levels of heterogeneously distributed background uptake. We present a dual-tracer background subtraction approach, wherein signal from the uptake of an untargeted tracer is subtracted from targeted tracer signal prior to image reconstruction, resulting in maps of targeted tracer binding. The approach is demonstrated in simulations, a phantom study, and in a mouse glioma imaging study, demonstrating substantial improvement over conventional and homogenous background subtraction image reconstruction approaches. PMID:23292612

  9. First calculation of cosmic-ray muon spallation backgrounds for MeV astrophysical neutrino signals in Super-Kamiokande

    E-print Network

    Shirley Weishi Li; John F. Beacom

    2014-04-13

    When muons travel through matter, their energy losses lead to nuclear breakup ("spallation") processes. The delayed decays of unstable daughter nuclei produced by cosmic-ray muons are important backgrounds for low-energy astrophysical neutrino experiments, e.g., those seeking to detect solar neutrino or Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background (DSNB) signals. Even though Super-Kamiokande has strong general cuts to reduce these spallation-induced backgrounds, the remaining rate before additional cuts for specific signals is much larger than the signal rates for kinetic energies of about 6 -- 18 MeV. Surprisingly, there is no published calculation of the production and properties of these backgrounds in water, though there are such studies for scintillator. Using the simulation code FLUKA and theoretical insights, we detail how muons lose energy in water, produce secondary particles, how and where these secondaries produce isotopes, and the properties of the backgrounds from their decays. We reproduce Super-Kamiokande measurements of the total background to within a factor of 2, which is good given that the isotope yields vary by orders of magnitude and that some details of the experiment are unknown to us at this level. Our results break aggregate data into component isotopes, reveal their separate production mechanisms, and preserve correlations between them. We outline how to implement more effective background rejection techniques using this information. Reducing backgrounds in solar and DSNB studies by even a factor of a few could help lead to important new discoveries.

  10. The Cosmic Background Explorer /COBE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, under study by NASA since 1976, will map the spectrum and the angular distribution of diffuse radiation from the universe over the entire wavelength range from 1 micron to 1.3 cm. It carries three instruments: a set of differential microwave radiometers (DMR) at 23.5, 31.4, 53, and 90GHz, a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 1 to 100 per cm, and a diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) covering 1 to 300 microns. They will use the ideal space environment, a one year lifetime, and standard instrument techniques to achieve orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity and accuracy, providing a fundamental data base for cosmology. The instruments are united by common purpose as well as similar environmental and orbital requirements. The data from all three experiments will be analyzed together, to distinguish nearby sources of radiation from the cosmologically interesting diffuse background radiations. Construction is planned to begin in 1982 for a launch in 1988.

  11. Stealths on Anisotropic Holographic Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Eloy Ayón-Beato; Mokhtar Hassaïne; María Montserrat Juárez-Aubry

    2015-06-11

    In this paper, we are interested in exploring the existence of stealth configurations on anisotropic backgrounds playing a prominent role in the non-relativistic version of the gauge/gravity correspondence. By stealth configuration, we mean a nontrivial scalar field nonminimally coupled to gravity whose energy-momentum tensor evaluated on the anisotropic background vanishes identically. In the case of a Lifshitz spacetime with a nontrivial dynamical exponent z, we spotlight the role played by the anisotropy to establish the holographic character of the stealth configurations, i.e. the scalar field is shown to only depend on the radial holographic direction. This configuration which turns out to be massless and without integration constants is possible for a unique value of the nonminimal coupling parameter. Then, using a simple conformal argument, we map this configuration into a stealth solution defined on the so-called hyperscaling violation metric which is conformally related to the Lifshitz spacetime. This holographic configuration obtained through a conformal mapping constitutes only a particular class within the stealth solutions defined on the hyperscaling violation as it is shown by deriving the most general stealth configurations. The case of the Schrodinger background is also exhaustively analyzed and we establish that the presence of the null direction makes their stealth configurations not necessarily holographic in general and characterized by a self-interacting behavior. Finally, for completeness we also study the stealth configurations on the Schrodinger inspired hyperscaling violation spacetimes.

  12. Beta Decay and the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand; Hodak, Rastislav; Kovalenko, Sergey; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2014-04-01

    In 1964 Penzias and Wilson detected the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Its spectrum follows Planck's black body radiation formula and shows a remarkable constant temperature of T0? ? 2:7 K independent of the direction. The present photon density is about 370 photons per cm3. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 380 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T0? = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and the 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 380 000 years after the Big Bang. Information about earlier times can, in principle, be derived from the Cosmic Neutrino Background (C?B). The neutrinos decouple already 1 second after the Big Bang at a temperature of about 1010 K. Today their temperature is ˜ 1:95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos per cm3. Registration of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key element of the Big Bang cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe evolution. The search for the C?B with the induced beta decay ?e + 3H ? 3He + e- is the topic of this contribution. The signal would show up by a peak in the electron spectrum with an energy of the neutrino mass above the Q value. We discuss the prospects of this approach and argue that it is able to set limits on the C?B density in our vicinity. We also discuss critically ways to increase with modifications of the present KATRIN spectrometer the source intensity by a factor 100, which would yield about 170 counts of relic neutrino captures per year. This would make the detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Background possible. Presently such an increase seems not to be possible. But one should be able to find an upper limit for the local density of the relic neutrinos (Cosmic Neutrino Background) in our galaxy.

  13. Background sounds contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Moucha, Raluca; Pandya, Pritesh K.; Engineer, Navzer D.; Rathbun, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian auditory system evolved to extract meaningful information from complex acoustic environments. Spectrotemporal selectivity of auditory neurons provides a potential mechanism to represent natural sounds. Experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms can remodel the spectrotemporal selectivity of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1). Electrical stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis (NB) enables plasticity in A1 that parallels natural learning and is specific to acoustic features associated with NB activity. In this study, we used NB stimulation to explore how cortical networks reorganize after experience with frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps, and how background stimuli contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in rat auditory cortex. Pairing an 8–4 kHz FM sweep with NB stimulation 300 times per day for 20 days decreased tone thresholds, frequency selectivity, and response latency of A1 neurons in the region of the tonotopic map activated by the sound. In an attempt to modify neuronal response properties across all of A1 the same NB activation was paired in a second group of rats with five downward FM sweeps, each spanning a different octave. No changes in FM selectivity or receptive field (RF) structure were observed when the neural activation was distributed across the cortical surface. However, the addition of unpaired background sweeps of different rates or direction was sufficient to alter RF characteristics across the tonotopic map in a third group of rats. These results extend earlier observations that cortical neurons can develop stimulus specific plasticity and indicate that background conditions can strongly influence cortical plasticity PMID:15616812

  14. Designing a public web-based information system to illustrate and disseminate the development and results of the DESIRE Project to combat desertification.

    PubMed

    Geeson, Nichola; Brandt, Jane; Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna

    2014-11-01

    Until around 1995 it was challenging to make the scientific results of research projects publicly available except through presentations at meetings or conferences, or as papers in academic journals. Then it began to be clear that the Internet could become the main medium to publish and share new information with a much wider audience. The DESIRE Project (desertification mitigation and remediation of land-a global approach for local solutions) has built on expertise gained in previous projects to develop an innovative online 'Harmonized Information System' (HIS). This documents the context, delivery and evaluation of all tasks in the DESIRE Project using non-scientific terminology, with much of it also available in the local languages of the study sites. The DESIRE-HIS makes use of new possibilities for communication, including video clips, interactive tools, and links to social media networks such as Twitter. Dissemination of research results using this approach has required careful planning and design. This paper sets out the steps that have culminated in a complete online Information System about local solutions to global land management problems in desertification-affected areas, including many practical guidelines for responsible land management. As many of those who are affected by desertification do not have Internet access, printable dissemination materials are also available on the DESIRE-HIS. PMID:23708265

  15. Measuring anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Tully, Christopher G.

    2014-10-01

    Neutrino capture on tritium has emerged as a promising method for detecting the cosmic neutrino background (C ? B ). We show that relic neutrinos are captured most readily when their spin vectors are antialigned with the polarization axis of the tritium nuclei and when they approach along the direction of polarization. As a result, C ? B observatories may measure anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino velocity and spin distributions by polarizing the tritium targets. A small dipole anisotropy in the C ? B is expected due to the peculiar velocity of the lab frame with respect to the cosmic frame and due to late-time gravitational effects. The PTOLEMY experiment, a tritium observatory currently under construction, should observe a nearly isotropic background. This would serve as a strong test of the cosmological origin of a potential signal. The polarized-target measurements may also constrain nonstandard neutrino interactions that would induce larger anisotropies and help discriminate between Majorana versus Dirac neutrinos.

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 13: Source selection and information use by US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of a telephone survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.

    1992-01-01

    A telephone survey of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists belonging to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was conducted between December 4, 1991 and January 5, 1992. The survey was undertaken to (1) validate the telephone survey as an appropriate technique for collecting data from U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists; (2) collect information about how the results of NASA/DoD aerospace research are used in the R&D process; (3) identify those selection criteria which affect the use of federally-funded aerospace R&D; and (4) obtain information that could be used to develop a self-administered mail questionnaire for use with the same population. The average rating of importance of U.S. government technical reports was 2.5 (on a 4-point scale); The mean/median number of times U.S. government technical reports were used per 6 months was 8/2. Factors scoring highest for U.S. government technical reports were technical accuracy (2.9), reliable data and technical information (2.8), and contains comprehensive data and information (2.7) on a 4-point system. The factors scoring highest for influencing the use of U.S. government technical reports were relevance (3.1), technical accuracy (3.06), and reliable data/information (3.02). Ease of use, familiarity, technical accuracy, and relevance correlated with use of U.S. government technical reports. Survey demographics, survey questionnaire, and the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project publications list are included.

  17. Effective leadership in animal groups when no individual has pertinent information about resource locations: How interactions between leaders and followers can result in Lévy walk movement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2013-04-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding how a few informed individuals are able to influence the foraging behaviour of a group and enhance its ability to navigate towards a resource. This research has provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of effective leadership. Here using a simple exactly solvable model we show how effective leadership could operate when no individual in the group has pertinent information about the locations of resources. Simple interactions between an ignorant leader and its followers are found to result in Lévy walk movement patterns that can optimize random searches. The findings may account for the Lévy walk movement patterns seen in some marine predators and for the frequent formation of groups of 2 or 3 ungulates when resources become scarce.

  18. Introduction and biological background Definitions and examples

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    Outline Introduction and biological background Definitions and examples Computing the reversal and biological background 2 Definitions and examples Signed permutations and reversal distance Elementary without hurdles and fortresses #12;Outline Introduction and biological background Definitions and examples

  19. The Extragalactic Gamma Ray Background

    E-print Network

    Charles D. Dermer

    2007-05-10

    One way to understand the nonthermal history of the universe is by establishing the origins of the unresolved and truly diffuse extragalactic gamma rays. Dim blazars and radio/gamma galaxies certainly make an important contribution to the galactic gamma-ray background given the EGRET discoveries, and previous treatments are reviewed and compared with a new analysis. Studies of the gamma-ray intensity from cosmic rays in star-forming galaxies and from structure formation shocks, as well as from dim GRBs, are briefly reviewed. A new hard gamma-ray source class seems required from the predicted aggregate intensity compared with the measured intensity.

  20. Symmetric M-Theory Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2011-01-01

    We classify symmetric backgrounds of eleven-dimensional supergravity up to local isometry. In other words, we classify triples (M,g,F), where (M,g) is an eleven-dimensional lorentzian locally symmetric space and F is an invariant 4-form, satisfying the equations of motion of eleven-dimensional supergravity. The possible (M,g) are given either by (not necessarily nondegenerate) Cahen-Wallach spaces or by products AdS_d x M for 1 < d < 8 and M a not necessarily irreducible riemannian symmetric space of dimension 11-d. In most cases we determine the corresponding F-moduli spaces.

  1. Acoustic Signatures in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-print Network

    Wayne Hu; Martin White

    1996-08-15

    We study the uniqueness and robustness of acoustic signatures in the cosmic microwave background by allowing for the possibility that they are generated by some as yet unknown source of gravitational perturbations. The acoustic {\\it pattern} of peak locations and relative heights predicted by the standard inflationary cold dark matter model is essentially unique and its confirmation would have deep implications for the causal structure of the early universe. A generic pattern for isocurvature initial conditions arises due to backreaction effects but is not robust to exotic source behavior inside the horizon. If present, the acoustic pattern contains unambiguous information on the curvature of the universe even in the general case. By classifying the behavior of the unknown source, we determine the minimal observations necessary for robust constraints on the curvature. The diffusion damping scale provides an entirely model independent cornerstone upon which to build such a measurement. The peak spacing, if regular, supplies a precision test.

  2. Genetic background of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Simona; Scarlata, Simone; Zito, Anna; Chiurco, Domenica; Pedone, Claudio; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2013-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive lung disease characterized by progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. The histological pattern, which displays dense fibrosis with active areas of fibroblastic proliferation, suggests a pathogenetic role of aberrant response to healing of multiple microscopic, repeated alveolar epithelial injuries. Although the exact etiology of the disease is still under investigation, several studies suggest that a combination of genetic and environmental factors may play a causal role. The aim of this review is to describe the genetic background of IPF, reporting the latest advancements made possible by genomic techniques that allow a high-throughput analysis and the identification of target genes implicated in IPF. This information may help to clarify pivotal aspects on prognosis and diagnosis, and may help to identify potential targets for future therapies. PMID:23638821

  3. Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, S.

    1998-02-01

    Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I online some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The spectrum of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions.

  4. Cosmic Infrared Background and Early Stellar Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmic infrared background (CIB) contains information about galaxy luminosities over the entire history of the Universe and can be a powerful diagnostic of the early populations otherwise inaccessible to telescopic studies. Its measurements are very difficult because of the strong IR foregrounds from the Solar system and the Galaxy. Nevertheless, substantial recent progress in measuring the CIB and its structure has been made. The measurements now allow to set significant constraints on early galaxy evolution and, perhaps, even detect the elusive Population III era. We discuss briefly the theory behind the CIB, review the latest measurements of the CIB and its structure, and discuss their implications for detecting and/or constraining the first stars and their epochs.

  5. The Cosmic Background Imager 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Angela C.; Jones, Michael E.; Allison, James R.; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Bond, J. Richard; Bronfman, Leonardo; Bustos, Ricardo; Davis, Richard J.; Dickinson, Clive; Leech, Jamie; Mason, Brian S.; Myers, Steven T.; Pearson, Timothy J.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Reeves, Rodrigo; Shepherd, Martin C.; Sievers, Jonathan L.

    2011-12-01

    We describe an upgrade to the Cosmic Background Imager instrument to increase its surface brightness sensitivity at small angular scales. The upgrade consisted of replacing the 13 0.9-m antennas with 1.4-m antennas incorporating a novel combination of design features, which provided excellent sidelobe and spillover performance for low manufacturing cost. Off-the-shelf spun primaries were used, and the secondary mirrors were oversized and shaped relative to a standard Cassegrain in order to provide an optimum compromise between aperture efficiency and low spillover lobes. Low-order distortions in the primary mirrors were compensated for by custom machining of the secondary mirrors. The secondaries were supported on a transparent dielectric foam cone to minimize scattering. The antennas were tested in the complete instrument, and the beam shape and spillover noise contributions were as expected. We demonstrate the performance of the telescope and the intercalibration with the previous system using observations of the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect in the cluster Abell 1689. The enhanced instrument has been used to study the cosmic microwave background, the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect and diffuse Galactic emission.

  6. The XMM-Newton EPIC Background and the production of Background Blank Sky Event Files

    E-print Network

    J. A. Carter; A. M. Read

    2007-01-08

    We describe in detail the nature of XMM-Newton EPIC background and its various complex components, summarising the new findings of the XMM-Newton EPIC background working group, and provide XMM-Newton background blank sky event files for use in the data analysis of diffuse and extended sources. Blank sky event file data sets are produced from the stacking of data, taken from 189 observations resulting from the Second XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue (2XMMp) reprocessing. The data underwent several filtering steps, using a revised and improved method over previous work, which we describe in detail. We investigate several properties of the final blank sky data sets. The user is directed to the location of the final data sets. There is a final data set for each EPIC instrument-filter-mode combination.

  7. Background-free piezoresponse force microscopy for quantitative measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenbo; Geng, Yanan; Wu, Weida

    2014-02-01

    We report an effective method to remove the system-inherent background [Jungk et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253511 (2007)] that is present in nominal piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) setup. Control experiments performed in both ambient and ultrahigh vacuum environments indicate that the system-inherent background probably originates from the interactions between the modulation voltage and surface absorptions. By minimizing such interactions, background-free PFM results were obtained on glass, ?-quartz, hexagonal ErMnO3, and periodically poled LiNbO3. The removal of background signal allows quantitative measurements of local intrinsic piezoelectric response with high sensitivity (?0.1 pm/V).

  8. Muon-Induced Backgrounds in Double Chooz Emily Conover

    E-print Network

    Muon-Induced Backgrounds in Double Chooz Emily Conover University of Chicago Second Thesis;1. Introduction Neutrino Oscillations Reactor Neutrino Experiments Double Chooz 2. Backgrounds Fast Neutrons and Stopped Muons 9Li and 8He 3. Double Chooz Results 4. Conclusions Timeline/Future work Emily Conover (Univ

  9. CASCADES: An Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keillor, Martin E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Erikson, Luke E.; Fast, James E.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Seifert, Allen; Stavenger, Timothy J.

    2011-07-14

    State-of-the-art treaty verification techniques, environmental surveillance, and physics experiments require increased sensitivity for detecting and quantifying radionuclides of interest. This can be accomplished with new detector designs that establish high detection efficiency and reduced instrument backgrounds. Current research is producing an intrinsic germanium (HPGe) array designed for high detection efficiency, ultra-low-background performance, and sensitive {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence detection. The system design is optimized to accommodate filter paper samples, e.g., samples collected by the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer. The system will provide high sensitivity for weak collections on atmospheric filter samples (e.g., < 10{sup 5} fissions), as well as offering the potential to gather additional information from higher activity filters using gamma cascade coincidence detection. The first of two HPGe crystal arrays in ultra-low-background vacuum cryostats has been assembled, with the second in progress. Traditional methods for constructing ultra-low-background detectors were followed, including use of materials known to be low in radioactive contaminants, use of ultra-pure reagents, and clean room assembly. The cryostat is constructed mainly from copper electroformed into near-final geometry at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Details of the detector assembly and initial background and spectroscopic measurement results are presented; also a description of the custom analysis package used by this project is given.

  10. Background Radioactivity in River and Reservoir Sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    S.G.McLin; D.W. Lyons

    2002-05-05

    As part of its continuing Environmental Surveillance Program, regional river and lake-bottom sediments have been collected annually by Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) since 1974 and 1979, respectively. These background samples are collected from three drainage basins at ten different river stations and five reservoirs located throughout northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Radiochemical analyses for these sediments include tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, total uranium, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,-240, americium-241, gross alpha, gross beta, and gross gamma radioactivity. Detection-limit radioactivity originates as worldwide fallout from aboveground nuclear weapons testing and satellite reentry into Earth's atmosphere. Spatial and temporal variations in individual analyte levels originate from atmospheric point-source introductions and natural rate differences in airborne deposition and soil erosion. Background radioactivity values on sediments reflect this variability, and grouped river and reservoir sediment samples show a range of statistical distributions that appear to be analyte dependent. Traditionally, both river and reservoir analyte data were blended together to establish background levels. In this report, however, we group background sediment data according to two criteria. These include sediment source (either river or reservoir sediments) and station location relative to the Laboratory (either upstream or downstream). These grouped data are statistically evaluated through 1997, and background radioactivity values are established for individual analytes in upstream river and reservoir sediments. This information may be used to establish the existence and areal extent of trace-level environmental contamination resulting from historical Laboratory research activities since the early 1940s.

  11. Toxaphene in standard solutions and cleaned biota extracts--results of the first QUASIMEME interlaboratory studies. Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J; Oehme, M; Smith, K; Wells, D E

    2000-08-01

    Two interlaboratory studies on individual toxaphene congeners have been organised by the project Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe (QUASIMEME). Fifteen laboratories analysed two standard solutions in the first study and 13 laboratories analysed a standard solution and two cleaned biota extracts in the second study. The coefficients of variation obtained for the standard solutions were 6-21% and for the cleaned extracts 16-39%. Although the results were comparable to those of other studies, further improvement in the level of agreement between the participating laboratories was considered possible. PMID:10819219

  12. Neurocognitive Indicators Predict Results of an Informed-Consent Quiz Among Substance-Dependent Treatment Seekers Entering a Randomized Clinical Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to determine the extent to which key aspects of a clinical trial's protocol were recalled by participants entering a clinical trial for alcohol and illicit substance-use treatment after standard informed-consent procedures, as well as to explore the possible relationships between recall, neuropsychological functioning, and substance-use outcomes. Method: Before entering a randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of a computer-based training version of cognitive-behavioral therapy, 76 participants (55% male) meeting criteria for current substance dependence (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) completed a 14-item true/false quiz that assessed their comprehension of basic information provided in the consent form. Results: Only 15% of participants correctly answered all 14 consent quiz items. The percentage of correct recall was associated with measures of intelligence (r= .29, p = .01) and attention (r = ?.26, p = .04). Quiz scores were also moderately associated with the amount of substance use during the treatment period (r = ?.26, p = .03). Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of formally evaluating research participants’ understanding of the informed-consent process, and they call to attention the potential utility of a brief neuropsychological screening to identify individuals in need of enhanced consent procedures, particularly within vulnerable populations, such as substance users. PMID:20731975

  13. PIRLS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Drucker, Kathleen T., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background variables. Background

  14. TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the TIMSS 2011 background variables. Background questionnaire adaptations…

  15. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found that spectral distortions at the 3-sigma level near the peak of the blackbody spectrum, although inconsistent with the predicted distortions due to Compton scattering in the early universe, are elegantly interpreted in terms of radiation from an early, pregalactic generation of massive stars which had been thermalized by a modest amount of dust at high redshift. The quadrupole anisotropy at the 4-sigma level is most simply interpreted in terms of the large-scale structure of the universe.

  16. Recognizing foreground-background interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    Can the background affect a foreground target in distant, low-quality imagery? If it does, it might occur in our mind, or perhaps it may represent a snapshot of our early vision. An affirmative answer, one way or another, may affect our current understanding of this phenomena and potentially for related applications. How can we be sure about this in the psycho-physical sense? We begin with the physiology of our brain's homeostasis, of which an isothermal equilibrium is characterized by the minimum of Helmholtz isothermal Free Energy: A = U - T0S >= 0, where T0 = 37°C, the Boltzmann Entropy S = KB1n(W), and U is the unknown internal energy to be computed.

  17. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  18. The Anisotropy of the Microwave Background to l = 3500: Deep Field Observations with the Cosmic Background Imager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Mason; T. J. Pearson; A. C. S. Readhead; M. C. Shepherd; J. L. Sievers; P. S. Udomprasert; J. K. Cartwright; A. J. Farmer; S. Padin; S. T. Myers; J. R. Bond; C. R. Contaldi; U.-L. Pen; S. Prunet; D. Pogosyan; J. E. Carlstrom; J. Kovac; E. M. Leitch; C. Pryke; N. W. Halverson; W. L. Holzapfel; P. Altamirano; L. Bronfman; S. Casassus; J. May; M. Joy

    2003-01-01

    We report measurements of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation over the multipole range l~200-3500 with the Cosmic Background Imager based on deep observations of three fields. These results confirm the drop in power with increasing l first reported in earlier measurements with this instrument and extend the observations of this decline in power out to l~2000. The decline

  19. Spectral observations of the extreme ultraviolet background.

    PubMed

    Labov, S E; Bowyer, S

    1991-04-20

    A grazing incidence spectrometer was designed to measure the diffuse extreme ultraviolet background. It was flown on a sounding rocket, and data were obtained on the diffuse background between 80 and 650 angstroms. These are the first spectral measurements of this background below 520 angstroms. Several emission features were detected, including interplanetary He I 584 angstroms emission and geocoronal He II 304 angstroms emission. Other features observed may originate in a hot ionized interstellar gas, but if this interpretation is correct, gas at several different temperatures is present. The strongest of these features is consistent with O V emission at 630 angstroms. This emission, when combined with upper limits for other lines, restricts the temperature of this component to 5.5 < log T < 5.7, in agreement with temperatures derived from O VI absorption studies. A power-law distribution of temperatures is consistent with this feature only if the power-law coefficient is negative, as is predicted for saturated evaporation of clouds in a hot medium. In this case, the O VI absorption data confine the filling factor of the emission of f < or = 4% and the pressure to more than 3.7 x 10(4) cm-3 K, substantially above ambient interstellar pressure. Such a pressure enhancement has been predicted for clouds undergoing saturated evaporation. Alternatively, if the O V emission covers a considerable fraction of the sky, it would be a major source of ionization. A feature centered at about 99 angstroms is well fitted by a cluster of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX lines from gas at log T = 6.6-6.8. These results are consistent with previous soft X-ray observations with low-resolution detectors. A feature found near 178 angstroms is consistent with Fe X and Fe XI emission from gas at log T = 6; this result is consistent with results from experiments employing broad-band soft X-ray detectors. PMID:11538706

  20. The microwave background anisotropies: observations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation-fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 microK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 degrees and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe--the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century. PMID:9419320

  1. Cosmic microwave?background?theory

    PubMed Central

    Bond, J. Richard

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in ?-space are consistent with a ?T flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are ?(10?5)2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at ? ? 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted ? cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 ± 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 ± 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 ± 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 ± 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on ? and moderate constraints on ?tot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant. PMID:9419321

  2. Background information and SOPs | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Search site CENTERS Arizona State University Cornell University Dana-Farber Cancer Institute H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute Johns Hopkins University Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Methodist Hospital Research Institute Northwestern

  3. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS...section. (a) One category is employees with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR...

  4. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS...section. (a) One category is employees with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR...

  5. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS...section. (a) One category is employees with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR...

  6. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS...section. (a) One category is employees with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR...

  7. 42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS...section. (a) One category is employees with cancer for whom a dose reconstruction must be conducted, as required under 20 CFR...

  8. Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... State Child Welfare Workload Compendium More Tools & Resources Logic Model Builders Related Organizations Learning Center Resources From ... State Child Welfare Workload Compendium More Tools & Resources Logic Model Builders Related Organizations Learning Center Children's Bureau ...

  9. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Bruno; J. A. Dirks; P. O. Jackson; J. K. Young

    1984-01-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 UO production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31%

  10. Spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Freese, Katherine; Levin, Janna

    1989-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background deviates from a pure blackbody; here, spectral distortions produced by cosmic dust are considered. The main result is that cosmic dust in conjunction with an injected radiation field (perhaps produced by an early generation of very massive stars) can explain the observed spectral distortions without violating existing cosmological constraints. In addition, it is shown that Compton y-distortions can also explain the observed spectral shape, but the energetic requirements are more severe.

  11. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)

  12. FOC\\/48 Format Dependent Background Emission and Geometric Distortion Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Nota

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this test is to determine how the the behavior of the background emission {flare} changes with the format, since a significant format dependence was indicated in Proposal 6302. We will need this information in order to advise future long-slit observers as to which format should be used for obtaining their spectra. In addition to the format dependence,

  13. Political Correctness: Background, Perspective, and Implications for Student Affairs Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forney, Deanna S.

    1996-01-01

    Provides background information about the Political Correctness debate, encourages student affairs administrators to reflect on their own perceptions and actions, offers ideas and suggestions about the debate, and explores the debate's implications for student affairs staff. Is intended to promote both individual reflection and group discussions…

  14. Background Materials for Chairman's Workshop. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimble, Gregory A.

    Information for newly appointed heads of graduate departments of psychology is presented as background material for the 1974 Chairman's Workshop. Topics include the following: the budgetary situation, pressures for increased teaching loads, effects upon recruiting faculty, faculty morale, graduate and undergraduate student morale, the intellectual…

  15. Collection and evaluation of false alarm signatures in background data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjeev Agarwal; Shivakar Vulli; Neil J. Malloy; Elizabeth M. Lord; Josh R. Fairley; Bruce M. Sabol; Wesley Johnson; Richard Ess; Anh H. Trang

    2009-01-01

    A significant amount of background airborne data was collected as part of May 2005 tests for airborne minefield detection at an arid site. The locations of false alarms which occurred consistently during different runs, were identified and geo-referenced by MultiSensor Science LLC. Ground truth information, which included pictures, type qualifiers and some hyperspectral data for these identified false alarm locations,

  16. Background Checks on School Personnel. ERIC Digest Series EA 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baas, Alan

    Although it is relatively simple to check on applicants' basic professional competency, ensuring the moral competency of potential school employees is much more difficult. This digest examines major legal issues, district liabilities and responsibilities, suggested guidelines, and information sources involving employee background checks. Of more…

  17. Statistical challenges in the analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Cabella; Domenico Marinuccu

    2009-01-01

    An enormous amount of observations on Cosmic Microwave Background radiation has been collected in the last decade, and much more data are expected in the near future from planned or operating satellite missions. These datasets are a goldmine of information for Cosmology and Theoretical Physics; their efficient exploitation posits several intriguing challenges from the statistical point of view. In this

  18. Increasing Educational Efficiency Through Technology (Commission Discussion and Background Materials).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.

    A program schedule and background information for Indiana Commission for Higher Education-sponsored discussion of the use of educational technology to increase educational effeciency are presented. The four major topics of discussion to illustrate the uses and advantages/disadvantages of audio, video, and computing technologies are as follows:…

  19. Verification and Trust: Background Investigations Preceding Faculty Appointment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Many employers in the United States have been initiating or expanding policies requiring background checks of prospective employees. The ability to perform such checks has been abetted by the growth of computerized databases and of commercial enterprises that facilitate access to personal information. Employers now have ready access to public…

  20. Medical waste management: Regulatory and technical background report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urbanowicz

    1992-01-01

    Electric utility companies need to be familiar with the regulatory and technical issues of medical waste disposal in order to help their healthcare facility customers remain competitive and meet increasingly stringent environmental regulations. This report addresses this need for background information by describing the characterization, generation, handling, regulation, and treatment of medical waste. The report also provides a qualitative assessment

  1. Fuzzy Information Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Frederick E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…

  2. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

    2013-11-07

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  3. Improved visual background extractor using an adaptive distance threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guang; Wang, Jinkuan; Cai, Xi

    2014-11-01

    Camouflage is a challenging issue in moving object detection. Even the recent and advanced background subtraction technique, visual background extractor (ViBe), cannot effectively deal with it. To better handle camouflage according to the perception characteristics of the human visual system (HVS) in terms of minimum change of intensity under a certain background illumination, we propose an improved ViBe method using an adaptive distance threshold, named IViBe for short. Different from the original ViBe using a fixed distance threshold for background matching, our approach adaptively sets a distance threshold for each background sample based on its intensity. Through analyzing the performance of the HVS in discriminating intensity changes, we determine a reasonable ratio between the intensity of a background sample and its corresponding distance threshold. We also analyze the impacts of our adaptive threshold together with an update mechanism on detection results. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms ViBe even when the foreground and background share similar intensities. Furthermore, in a scenario where foreground objects are motionless for several frames, our IViBe not only reduces the initial false negatives, but also suppresses the diffusion of misclassification caused by those false negatives serving as erroneous background seeds, and hence shows an improved performance compared to ViBe.

  4. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico–Rhino–Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed. PMID:25713500

  5. Background-oriented schlieren with natural background for quantitative visualization of open-air explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukaki, T.; Wakabayashi, K.; Matsumura, T.; Nakayama, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes an attempt of quantitative visualization of open-air explosions via the background-oriented schlieren method (BOS). The shock wave propagation curve and overpressure distribution were extracted from the obtained images and compared with the results of the numerical analysis. The potential of extracting the density distribution behind the shock front is also demonstrated. Two open-air explosions were conducted; one with a -kg emulsion explosive and the other with a -kg composition C4 explosive. A high-speed digital video camera was used with a frame rate of and a pixel size of . A natural background, including trees and grass, was used for BOS measurements instead of the random dots used in a laboratory. The overpressure distribution given by the passing shock was estimated from the visualized images. The estimated overpressures agreed with the values recorded by pressure transducers in the test field. The background displacement caused by light diffraction inside the spherical shock waves was in good agreement, except at the shock front. The results shown here suggest that the BOS method for open-air experiments could provide increasingly better quantitative and conventional visualization results with increasing spatial resolution of high-speed cameras.

  6. Stochastic background of atmospheric cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, G. (Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)); Wlodarczyk, Z. (Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, Kielce (Poland))

    1993-06-15

    Fluctuations in the atmospheric cascades developing during the propagation of very high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere are investigated using stochastic branching model of pure birth process with immigration. In particular, we show that the multiplicity distributions of secondaries emerging from gamma families are much narrower than those resulting from hadronic families. We argue that the strong intermittent like behaviour found recently in atmospheric families results from the fluctuations in the cascades themselves and are insensitive to the details of elementary interactions.

  7. Occlusion processing using particle filter and background subtraction algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tongqing; Rong, Jian; Lu, Kui; Zhong, Xiaochun

    We present an algorithm based on the Particle Filter algorithmand Background Subtraction algorithm. Particle Filter can track target robustly under kinds of noise conditions, and it's robust to partial occlusion.However, it cannot recover from large proportion of occlusion and total occlusion.Background Subtraction algorithmcan detectnew target which emergeon a relatively stable background.The hybrid algorithm can recover fromlarge proportion of occlusion and total occlusion. A new occlusion measurement factor is imported to switchthe Particle Filter algorithm to Background subtraction algorithm when the target is occluded largely or totally, and switch Background subtraction algorithm to the Particle Filter algorithm when the target went out of the occlusion. The experimental results show that the hybrid algorithm was robust to partial and total occlusions.

  8. Attachment B Employment/Background Checks/Background Check Form

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    delito grave o un delito menor que resultó en la prisión, la libertad condicional o la multa? En caso, California; delito menor convicción; 488PC - robo mezquino; libertad condicional de 6 meses y 2 días cárcel) condenas por delitos relacionados con la marihuana para personal utilizan más de dos años de edad; 2

  9. PS2-11: Impact of a Health Information Technology (HIT) Based Intervention to Improve Adherence to Cardiovascular Disease Medications: Early Results from the PATIENT Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, William; Rand, Cynthia; Tom, Jeffrey; Owen-Smith, Ashli; Smith, David; Vupputuri, Suma; Williams, Andrew; Ditmer, Diane; Laws, Reesa; Schneider, Jennifer; Waterbury, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Adherence to certain effective and widely prescribed cardiovascular (CVD) medications is poor. The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate the effective implementation of a cost-effective and easily disseminable population-level HIT adherence intervention. Methods PATIENT is a pragmatic trial designed to improve adherence to antihypertensives and statins in high-risk patients in three Kaiser Permanente (KP) regions. The 1-year intervention (Dec. 2011–2012) enrolled 21,752 adults, aged 40–80, with diabetes or CVD and at least 1 dispensing of a target medication in the past year (based on pharmacy dispensing data). Participants were randomized to one of 3 arms: usual care (UC), automated telephone reminders (IVR), or an enhanced IVR arm (IVR+) that added mailed educational materials, reminder mailings and live outreach calls to IVR calls. Results Through the first 10 months of intervention we attempted 42,010 automated reminder calls (? 2.9 per intervention participant). Of these, 56% (23,596) of calls successfully reached the target participant and an additional 29% (12,271) resulted in messages left. These figures were higher for calls made to those nearly due for a refill (65% and 26% of 20,182) than for calls made to those overdue (48% and 32% of 21,828). Of calls where we reached the participant, 30% resulted in a transfer to the regional pharmacy automated refill line and an additional 2.5% resulted in transfers to a live pharmacist. Among the 7,258 IVR+ patients, 3,748 medication reminder letters were mailed, 2,146 live reminder calls were made, and we have sent 36,823 educational mailings (?4.9 per participant). Key implementation challenges that emerged related to 1) complexities in coding the intervention call flag algorithm from the EMR and 2) customization of the intervention to fit regional work-flow and support program sustainability. Close partnering with pharmacy staff was crucial in overcoming early hurdles. Outcome data (not yet available) will be presented at the meeting. Conclusions We successfully implemented a large, multi-modal, HIT, medication adherence intervention at 3 KP regions. A high proportion of members were reached and actively participated in the intervention. Key challenges/solutions are detailed in a manual of operations to facilitate the implementation of similar interventions in other settings.

  10. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  11. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  12. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  13. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  14. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  15. Locally covariant charged fields and background independence

    E-print Network

    Jochen Zahn

    2014-10-28

    We discuss gauge background independence at the example of the charged Dirac field. We show that a perturbative version of background independence, termed perturbative agreement by Hollands and Wald, can be fulfilled, and discuss some of its consequences.

  16. Microwave Background Anisotropies from Scaling Seed Perturbations

    E-print Network

    Durrer, Ruth

    Microwave Background Anisotropies from Scaling Seed Perturbations Ruth Durrer and Mairi, Switzerland Abstract We study microwave background anisotropies induced by scaling seed pertur- bations. Thus, compensation, which is mainly the consequence of physically sensible initial conditions, is very

  17. Improved Upper Limits on the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from 2009–2010 LIGO and Virgo Data

    E-print Network

    Aasi, J.

    Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the Universe that is ...

  18. Robust suppression of background reflections in PIV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Alvarez, R.; Christensen, K. T.

    2013-02-01

    Strong background reflections in PIV images are known to bias velocity estimates and their concomitant statistical ensembles. Many methods have been developed to eliminate background reflections, with the common premise of generating a reference background intensity map that is then subtracted from each individual PIV image prior to interrogation. This reference background intensity map can be generated in several ways, including acquiring a background image without particles, calculating the average or minimum intensity map based on an ensemble of PIV images, generating a reference intensity map for each individual PIV realization by means of various local sliding filters or considering the second frame of any PIV realization as its reference intensity map. Motivated by the need to suppress background reflections in a PIV study of flow over highly irregular surface roughness that generated significant diffuse background reflections from the complex topography, the efficacy of these methods was studied. It was found that all failed to adequately suppress such reflections, rendering the resulting velocity fields biased. A local-median normalization algorithm was developed to further suppress background reflections and this note reports the performance of this modified algorithm compared to those previously reported in the literature.

  19. Current status of federal involvement in US aquaculture. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The United States lacks a strong national aquaculture policy and supporting federal presence. Over the years, levels and focii of agency involvement in aquaculture development have shifted in response to legislation and its differing interpretations. The National Aquaculture Act (NAA), the primary piece of aquaculture-related legislation, is slated for reauthorization of the NAA and related legislation is the federal role in research and regulation of this emerging industry. Congress requested this Background Paper to provide information on technology issues of immediate importance to the U.S. aquaculture industry. This is a companion piece to the Background Paper on Selected Technology Issues in U.S. Aquaculture.

  20. Analyzing direct dark matter detection data with unrejected background events by the AMIDAS website

    E-print Network

    Chung-Lin Shan

    2011-11-28

    In this talk I have presented the data analysis results of extracting properties of halo WIMPs: the mass and the (ratios between the) spin-independent and spin-dependent couplings/cross sections on nucleons by the AMIDAS website by taking into account possible unrejected background events in the analyzed data sets. Although non-standard astronomical setup has been used to generate pseudodata sets for our analyses, it has been found that, without prior information/assumption about the local density and velocity distribution of halo Dark Matter, these WIMP properties have been reconstructed with ~ 2% to <~ 30% deviations from the input values.

  1. Bloom's Taxonomy for Information Security Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Van Niekerk; Rossouw Von Solms

    2008-01-01

    The importance of educating organizational end users about their roles and responsibilities towards information security is widely acknowledged. How- ever, many current user education programs have been created by security professionals who do not necessarily have an educational background. The nature of such programs is thus not always properly understood. This lack of understanding could result in the ineffectiveness of

  2. Full length background papers can be found at globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/news-events/malaria-elimination-background-paper-series Ideal surveillance for malaria elimination

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Dyche

    APRIL 2014 Full length background papers can be found at globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/news-events/malaria-elimination-background-paper-series Ideal surveillance for malaria elimination key messages what does surveillance for malaria elimination entail? Surveillance for malaria control aims to estimate the burden of malaria and inform population

  3. Introductory Remarks to Cosmic Background Parallel Sessions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burigana, Carlo; de Bernardis, Paolo; Masi, Silvia; Norgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    These are promising times for the study of cosmic microwave background and foregrounds. While, at the date of this meeting, WMAP is close to release its final maps and products, Planck early and intermediate results have been presented with the first release of the compact source catalog, and the presentation of the first cosmological products is approaching. This parallel session is focussed on the astrophysical sky as seen by Planck and other observatories, and on their scientific exploitation, regarding diffuse emissions, sources, galaxy clusters, cosmic infrared background, as well as on critical issues coming from systematic effects and data analysis, in the view of fundamental physics and cosmology perspectives. At the same time, a new generation of CMB anisotropy and polarization experiments is currently operated using large arrays of detectors, boosting the sensitivity and resolution of the surveys to unprecedented levels. Mainstream projects are observations of the polarization of the CMB, looking for the inflationary B-modes at large and intermediate angular scales, fine-scale measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in clusters of galaxies, and the precise measure of CMB spectrum.

  4. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  5. Coping with mixtures of backgrounds in a sliding dual window anomaly detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boker, Lior; Rotman, Stanley R.; Blumberg, Dan G.

    2008-10-01

    Without prior information about the spectral signature of the desired targets in hyper- or multi-spectral images, detection algorithms look for those pixels that deviate most strongly from the statistics of their surrounding backgrounds. If we presume that the distribution of the background signatures is multivariate Gaussian, then the most common anomaly test is the RX algorithm which is based on the Mahalanobis distance. We have implemented an anomaly detection algorithm based on Triple Concentric Sliding Windows (TCSW) to perform a local RX algorithm between the inner window and each segment that appears in the outer window. The dimension of the inner window is designed to fit the size of the desired targets; in this way, we integrate both spectral and spatial properties. When the inner window contains a random mixture of backgrounds, the score of the anomaly test is rather high because the mean of the mixture is far from each of the background components. In order to deal with these mixture situations, we develop two modified versions of the RX algorithm (ISMPRX, SMPRXMix) that take into consideration the possibility of segment mixture in the inner window. The results show significant improvement in the anomaly detection performance.

  6. Introduction 1.1 Background

    E-print Network

    Rycroft, Chris H.

    been explained using a version of Boltzmann's kinetic theory of gases, modified to account at different cross sections is well-approximated by a Gaussian; similar results have been seen in many other a boundary layer on the rotating wall, with exponential decay into the bul

  7. Improving structural similarity based virtual screening using background knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Virtual screening in the form of similarity rankings is often applied in the early drug discovery process to rank and prioritize compounds from a database. This similarity ranking can be achieved with structural similarity measures. However, their general nature can lead to insufficient performance in some application cases. In this paper, we provide a link between ranking-based virtual screening and fragment-based data mining methods. The inclusion of binding-relevant background knowledge into a structural similarity measure improves the quality of the similarity rankings. This background knowledge in the form of binding relevant substructures can either be derived by hand selection or by automated fragment-based data mining methods. Results In virtual screening experiments we show that our approach clearly improves enrichment factors with both applied variants of our approach: the extension of the structural similarity measure with background knowledge in the form of a hand-selected relevant substructure or the extension of the similarity measure with background knowledge derived with data mining methods. Conclusion Our study shows that adding binding relevant background knowledge can lead to significantly improved similarity rankings in virtual screening and that even basic data mining approaches can lead to competitive results making hand-selection of the background knowledge less crucial. This is especially important in drug discovery and development projects where no receptor structure is available or more frequently no verified binding mode is known and mostly ligand based approaches can be applied to generate hit compounds. PMID:24341870

  8. Dynamic 4-dimensional microscope system with automated background leveling.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Goldie; Creath, Katherine

    2012-09-13

    This paper describes recent advances in developing an automatic background leveling algorithm for a new, novel interference microscope system and presents images and data of live biological samples. The specially designed optical system enables instantaneous 4-dimensional video measurements of dynamic motions within and among live cells without the need for contrast agents. "Label-free" measurements of biological objects in reflection using harmless light levels are possible without the need for scanning and vibration isolation. This instrument utilizes a pixelated phase mask enabling simultaneous measurement of multiple interference patterns taking advantage of the polarization properties of light enabling phase image movies in real time at video rates to track dynamic motions and volumetric changes. Optical thickness data are derived from phase images. This data is processed with an automatic background leveling routine which separates the objects from the background by thresholding the calculated gradient magnitude of the optical thickness data. Low-order Zernike surfaces are fit to the unmasked background pixels and the resulting background shape is removed. This method effectively eliminates background shape for datasets containing both large and small objects. By applying this method to many sequential frames, it results in all the frames having the same mean background value across all frames which is essential for quantitatively montoring time-dependent processes. PMID:25309097

  9. Dynamic four-dimensional microscope system with automated background leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Goldie; Creath, Katherine

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes recent advances in developing an automatic background leveling algorithm for a new, novel interference microscope system and presents images and data of live biological samples. The specially designed optical system enables instantaneous 4-dimensional video measurements of dynamic motions within and among live cells without the need for contrast agents. "Label-free" measurements of biological objects in reflection using harmless light levels are possible without the need for scanning and vibration isolation. This instrument utilizes a pixelated phase mask enabling simultaneous measurement of multiple interference patterns taking advantage of the polarization properties of light enabling phase image movies in real time at video rates to track dynamic motions and volumetric changes. Optical thickness data are derived from phase images. This data is processed with an automatic background leveling routine which separates the objects from the background by thresholding the calculated gradient magnitude of the optical thickness data. Low-order Zernike surfaces are fit to the unmasked background pixels and the resulting background shape is removed. This method effectively eliminates background shape for datasets containing both large and small objects. By applying this method to many sequential frames, it results in all the frames having the same mean background value across all frames which is essential for quantitatively montoring time-dependent processes.

  10. Communicating the Results of NLM Grant-Supported Library Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Richard T.; Malone, Maureen J.

    1980-01-01

    Reports the findings of a 1978 NLM (National Library of Medicine) study that examined grant-related communication activity as an initial task in exploring information exchange in health sciences librarianship. Background, methodology, and results are described, and data tables are provided. (Author/JD)

  11. First Results From the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Charles; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The first findings from a year of WMAP satellite operations provide a detailed full sky map of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The observed temperature anisotropy, combined with the associated polarization information, encodes a wealth of cosmological information. The results have have implications for the history, content, and evolution of the universe, and its large scale properties. These and other aspects of the mission will be discussed.

  12. Scalar Wave Falloff in Asymptotically Anti-de Sitter Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    S. F. J. Chan; R. B. Mann

    1996-12-11

    Conformally invariant scalar waves in black hole spacetimes which are asymptotically anti-de Sitter are investigated. We consider both the $(2+1)$-dimensional black hole and $(3+1)$-dimensional Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter spacetime as backgrounds. Analytical and numerical methods show that the waves decay exponentially in the $(2+1)$ dimensional black hole background. However the falloff pattern of the conformal scalar waves in the Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter background is generally neither exponential nor an inverse power rate, although the approximate falloff of the maximal peak is weakly exponential. We discuss the implications of these results for mass inflation.

  13. Probing Inflation via Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been a rich source of information about the early Universe. Detailed measurements of its spectrum and spatial distribution have helped solidify the Standard Model of Cosmology. However, many questions still remain. Standard Cosmology does not explain why the early Universe is geometrically flat, expanding, homogenous across the horizon, and riddled with a small anisotropy that provides the seed for structure formation. Inflation has been proposed as a mechanism that naturally solves these problems. In addition to solving these problems, inflation is expected to produce a spectrum of gravitational waves that will create a particular polarization pattern on the CMB. Detection of this polarized signal is a key test of inflation and will give a direct measurement of the energy scale at which inflation takes place. This polarized signature of inflation is expected to be -9 orders of magnitude below the 2.7 K monopole level of the CMB. This measurement will require good control of systematic errors, an array of many detectors having the requisite sensitivity, and a reliable method for removing polarized foregrounds, and nearly complete sky coverage. Ultimately, this measurement is likely to require a space mission. To this effect, technology and mission concept development are currently underway.

  14. Systematic Errors in Cosmic Microwave Background Interferometry

    E-print Network

    Emory F. Bunn

    2006-07-13

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization observations will require superb control of systematic errors in order to achieve their full scientific potential, particularly in the case of attempts to detect the B modes that may provide a window on inflation. Interferometry may be a promising way to achieve these goals. This paper presents a formalism for characterizing the effects of a variety of systematic errors on interferometric CMB polarization observations, with particular emphasis on estimates of the B-mode power spectrum. The most severe errors are those that couple the temperature anisotropy signal to polarization; such errors include cross-talk within detectors, misalignment of polarizers, and cross-polarization. In a B mode experiment, the next most serious category of errors are those that mix E and B modes, such as gain fluctuations, pointing errors, and beam shape errors. The paper also indicates which sources of error may cause circular polarization (e.g., from foregrounds) to contaminate the cosmologically interesting linear polarization channels, and conversely whether monitoring of the circular polarization channels may yield useful information about the errors themselves. For all the sources of error considered, estimates of the level of control that will be required for both E and B mode experiments are provided. Both experiments that interfere linear polarizations and those that interfere circular polarizations are considered. The fact that circular experiments simultaneously measure both linear polarization Stokes parameters in each baseline mitigates some sources of error.

  15. Characterization of infrared cloud background clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.

    1992-09-01

    Detection of airborne point targets in infrared surveillance is hampered by the presence of cloud clutter. In order to develop tactical decision aids providing the performance of surveillance system in clutter conditions a scheme has been developed to obtain information on cloud clutter in real scenes. The amount of clutter depends on the amount of RMS variations of the intensity in the image within a certain cell size. An image consisting of RMS values in these cells give a first clutter map. To determine clutter for a large number of filter sizes it is necessary to apply the process for different cell sizes. These RMS values are weighed to obtain a single clutter value for a larger scene. In the process sensor noise needs to be separated from real background structure. The scheme has been applied to a number of 10 micrometers IR-18 image sequences for extensive analysis. After fine-tuning it is possible to compare the degree of clutter in different (types of) images. From the IR-18 image sequences several parameters have been determined. The temporal behavior of the images has been analyzed in two-dimensional scatter diagrams.

  16. The extragalactic optical-infrared background radiations, their time evolution and the cosmic photon-photon opacity

    E-print Network

    Alberto Franceschini; Giulia Rodighiero; Mattia Vaccari

    2008-06-16

    The background radiations in the optical and the infrared constitute a relevant cause of energy loss in the propagation of high energy particles through space. In particular, TeV observations with Cherenkov telescopes of extragalactic sources are influenced by the opacity effects due to the interaction of the very high-energy source photons with the background light. With the aim of assessing with the best possible detail these opacity terms, we have modelled the extragalactic optical and IR backgrounds using available information on cosmic sources in the universe from far-UV to sub-mm wavelengths over a wide range of cosmic epochs. We have exploited the relevant cosmological survey data - including number counts, redshift distributions, luminosity functions - from ground-based observatories in the optical, near-IR, and sub-mm, as well as multi-wavelength information coming from space telescopes, HST, ISO and Spitzer. Additional constraints have been used from direct measurements or upper limits on the extragalactic backgrounds by dedicated missions (COBE). All data were fitted and interpolated with a multi-wavelength backward evolutionary model, allowing us to estimate the background photon density and its redshift evolution. From the redshift-dependent background spectrum, the photon-photon opacities for sources of high-energy emission at any redshifts were then computed. The same results can also be used to compute the optical depths for any kind of processes in the intergalactic space involving interactions with background photons (like scattering of cosmic-ray particles). We have applied our photon-photon opacity estimates to the analysis of spectral data at TeV energies on a few BLAZARs of particular interest. [abridged

  17. Surface alpha backgrounds from plate-out of radon progeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Guiseppe, Vincente

    2012-03-01

    Low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly Rn-222) and its subsequent daughters present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, more troublesome is the deposition of radon daughters on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by daughters supported by the long half life (22 y) of Pb-210 on sensitive locations of a detector. We have developed a model of the radon progeny implantation using Geant4 simulations based on the low energy nuclear recoil process. We explore the alpha decays from implanted progeny on a Ge crystal as potential backgrounds for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. Results of the simulations validated with alpha spectrum measurement of plate-out samples will be presented.

  18. A review and evaluation of the Langley Research Center's Scientific and Technical Information Program. Results of phase 5. Design and evaluation of STI systems: A selected, annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Hinnebusch, P. A.; Jaffe, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A selected, annotated bibliography of literature citations related to the design and evaluation of STI systems is presented. The use of manual and machine-readable literature searches; the review of numerous books, periodicals reports, and papers; and the selection and annotation of literature citations were required. The bibliography was produced because the information was needed to develop the methodology for the review and evaluation project, and a survey of the literature did not reveal the existence of a single published source of information pertinent to the subject. Approximately 200 citations are classified in four subject areas. The areas include information - general; information systems - design and evaluation, including information products and services; information - use and need; and information - economics.

  19. Extragalactic neutrino background from PBHs evaporation

    E-print Network

    E. V. Bugaev; K. V. Konishchev

    2001-10-05

    We calculated the energy spectra and the fluxes of electron neutrinos in extragalactic space emitted in the process of the evaporation of primordial black holes (PBHs) in the early universe. It was assumed that PBHs are formed by a blue power-law spectrum of primordial density fluctuations. In the calculations of neutrino spectra the spectral index of density fluctuations and the reheating temperature were used as free parameters. The absorption of neutrinos during propagation in the space was taken into account. We obtained the bounds on the spectral index assuming validity of the standard picture of gravitational collapse and using the available data of several experiments with atmospheric and solar neutrinos. The comparison of our results with the previous constraints (which had been obtained using diffuse photon background data) shows that such bounds are quite sensitive to an assumed form of the initial PBH mass function.

  20. Texture-induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, J.; Copeland, E.J.; Liddle, A.R.; Stebbins, A.; Veeraraghavan, S. (School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom) Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College of Science and Technology, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom) NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laoratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 685, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States) Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States))

    1994-08-15

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and nonlinear [sigma] model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60--75 % and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  1. Polarization of the cosmic background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, Philip M.; Smoot, George F.

    1980-08-01

    We discuss the technique and results of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation. Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. 38{sup o}N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. 12{sup o}s) over 11 declinations from -37{sup o} to +63{sup o} show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. A fit of all data to the anisotropic axisymmetric model of Rees (1968) yields a 95% confidence level limit of 0.15 mK for the magnitude of the polarized component. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits.

  2. Polarization of the cosmic background radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, P.M.

    1980-03-01

    The results and technique of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation are discussed. The ground-based experiment utilizes a single horn (7/sup 0/ beam width) Dicke-type microwave polarimeter operating at 33 GHz (9.1 mm). Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. = 38/sup 0/N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. = 12/sup 0/S) show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. For the 38/sup 0/ declination data the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component is 0.3 mK for the average and 12 and 24 hour periods. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits.

  3. Cleanliness, backgrounds and surface contamination in CUORE

    SciTech Connect

    Pirro, S.; Capelli, S.; Cremonesi, O.; Pavan, M.; Previtali, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell Universita di Milano Bicocca, Milan I-20126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Milano, Milan I-20126 (Italy); Nisi, S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010, Assergi, L'Aquila (Italy); Palmieri, E. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via Romea 4 I-35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2005-09-08

    CUORE is a proposed array of 988, 750 g, TeO2 crystal bolometers. The experiment has been approved by the Scientific Committee of Gran Sasso Laboratories and the special dilution refrigerator, that is intended to house the detector has been funded. The Experiment will search for the 0v-Double Beta Decay of 130Te. As in all the proposed next generation Double Beta Decay Experiments, the main task is the reduction of the radioactive background. A peculiar property of thermal detectors is that they are active over the entire volume and therefore strongly subject to radioactive surface contaminations. Unlike radioactive bulk contaminations, that can be measured through High-Purity Ge Detectors, radioactive surface contaminations are not easily measurable at very low levels. Different techniques were developed in order to reach the required sensitivity. Present results already achieved and studies that are underway are here presented and discussed.

  4. The Cosmic Microwave Background Bispectrum and Inflation

    E-print Network

    Limin Wang; Marc Kamionkowski

    1999-07-29

    We derive an expression for the non-Gaussian cosmic-microwave-background (CMB) statistic $I_l^3$ defined recently by Ferreira, Magueijo, and G\\'orski in terms of the slow-roll-inflation parameters $\\epsilon$ and $\\eta$. This result shows that a nonzero value of $I_l^3$ in COBE would rule out single-field slow-roll inflation. A sharp change in the slope of the inflaton potential could increase the predicted value of $I_l^3$, but not significantly. This further suggests that it will be difficult to account for such a detection in multiple-field models in which density perturbations are produced by quantum fluctuations in the scalar field driving inflation. An Appendix shows how to evaluate an integral that is needed in our calculation as well as in more general calculations of CMB bispectra.

  5. Component separation for cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Cobos, R.; Vielva, P.; Barreiro, R. B.; Martínez-González, E.

    2011-11-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation data obtained by different experiments contains, besides the desired signal, a superposition of microwave sky contributions mainly due to, on the one hand, synchrotron radiation, free-free emission and re-emission of dust clouds in our galaxy; and, on the other hand, extragalactic sources. We present an analytical method, using a wavelet decomposition on the sphere, to recover the CMB signal from microwave maps. Being applied to both temperature and polarization data, it is shown as a significant powerful tool when it is used in particularly polluted regions of the sky. The applied wavelet has the advantages of requiring little computering time in its calculations being adapted to the HEALPix pixelization scheme (which is the format that the community uses to report the CMB data) and offering the possibility of multi-resolution analysis. The decomposition is implemented as part of a template fitting method, minimizing the variance of the resulting map. The method was tested with simulations of WMAP data and results have been positive, with improvements up to 12% in the variance of the resulting full sky map and about 3% in low contaminate regions. Finally, we also present some preliminary results with WMAP data in the form of an angular cross power spectrum C_?^{TE}, consistent with the spectrum offered by WMAP team.

  6. Detecting leaf nitrogen content in wheat with canopy hyperspectrum under different soil backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, X.; Ren, H.; Cao, Z.; Tian, Y.; Cao, W.; Zhu, Y.; Cheng, T.

    2014-10-01

    Hyperspectral sensing techniques can be effective for rapid, non-destructive detecting of the nitrogen (N) status in crop plants; however, their accuracy is often affected by the soil background. Under different fractions of soil background, the canopy spectra and leaf nitrogen content (LNC) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were obtained from field experiments with different N rates and planting densities over 3 growing seasons. Five types of vegetation index (VIs: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), ratio vegetation index (RVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), optimize soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI), and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) were constructed based on three types of spectral information: (1) the original and the first derivative (FD) spectrum, (2) the spectrum adjusted with the vegetation coverage (FVcover), and (3) the pure spectrum extracted by a linear mixed model. Comprehensive relationships of above five types of VI with LNC were quantified for LNC detecting under different soil backgrounds. The results indicated that all five types of VI were significantly affected by the soil background, with R2 values of around 0.55 for LNC detecting, with the OSAVI (R514, R469)L=0.04 producing the best performance of all five indices. However, based on the FVcover, the coverage adjusted spectral index (CASI = NDVI(R513, R481)/(1 + FVcover) produced the higher R2 value of 0.62 and the lower RRMSE of 13%, and was less sensitive to the leaf area index (LAI), leaf dry weight (LDW), FVcover, and leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA). The results demonstrate that the newly developed CASI could improve the performance of LNC estimation under different soil backgrounds.

  7. Speech recognition in natural background noise.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Julien; Dentel, Laure; Meunier, Fanny

    2013-01-01

    In the real world, human speech recognition nearly always involves listening in background noise. The impact of such noise on speech signals and on intelligibility performance increases with the separation of the listener from the speaker. The present behavioral experiment provides an overview of the effects of such acoustic disturbances on speech perception in conditions approaching ecologically valid contexts. We analysed the intelligibility loss in spoken word lists with increasing listener-to-speaker distance in a typical low-level natural background noise. The noise was combined with the simple spherical amplitude attenuation due to distance, basically changing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, our study draws attention to some of the most basic environmental constraints that have pervaded spoken communication throughout human history. We evaluated the ability of native French participants to recognize French monosyllabic words (spoken at 65.3 dB(A), reference at 1 meter) at distances between 11 to 33 meters, which corresponded to the SNRs most revealing of the progressive effect of the selected natural noise (-8.8 dB to -18.4 dB). Our results showed that in such conditions, identity of vowels is mostly preserved, with the striking peculiarity of the absence of confusion in vowels. The results also confirmed the functional role of consonants during lexical identification. The extensive analysis of recognition scores, confusion patterns and associated acoustic cues revealed that sonorant, sibilant and burst properties were the most important parameters influencing phoneme recognition. . Altogether these analyses allowed us to extract a resistance scale from consonant recognition scores. We also identified specific perceptual consonant confusion groups depending of the place in the words (onset vs. coda). Finally our data suggested that listeners may access some acoustic cues of the CV transition, opening interesting perspectives for future studies. PMID:24260183

  8. Speech Recognition in Natural Background Noise

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Julien; Dentel, Laure; Meunier, Fanny

    2013-01-01

    In the real world, human speech recognition nearly always involves listening in background noise. The impact of such noise on speech signals and on intelligibility performance increases with the separation of the listener from the speaker. The present behavioral experiment provides an overview of the effects of such acoustic disturbances on speech perception in conditions approaching ecologically valid contexts. We analysed the intelligibility loss in spoken word lists with increasing listener-to-speaker distance in a typical low-level natural background noise. The noise was combined with the simple spherical amplitude attenuation due to distance, basically changing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, our study draws attention to some of the most basic environmental constraints that have pervaded spoken communication throughout human history. We evaluated the ability of native French participants to recognize French monosyllabic words (spoken at 65.3 dB(A), reference at 1 meter) at distances between 11 to 33 meters, which corresponded to the SNRs most revealing of the progressive effect of the selected natural noise (?8.8 dB to ?18.4 dB). Our results showed that in such conditions, identity of vowels is mostly preserved, with the striking peculiarity of the absence of confusion in vowels. The results also confirmed the functional role of consonants during lexical identification. The extensive analysis of recognition scores, confusion patterns and associated acoustic cues revealed that sonorant, sibilant and burst properties were the most important parameters influencing phoneme recognition. . Altogether these analyses allowed us to extract a resistance scale from consonant recognition scores. We also identified specific perceptual consonant confusion groups depending of the place in the words (onset vs. coda). Finally our data suggested that listeners may access some acoustic cues of the CV transition, opening interesting perspectives for future studies. PMID:24260183

  9. Gamma-Ray Background Variability in Mobile Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucott, Timothy John

    Gamma-ray background radiation significantly reduces detection sensitivity when searching for radioactive sources in the field, such as in wide-area searches for homeland security applications. Mobile detector systems in particular must contend with a variable background that is not necessarily known or even measurable a priori. This work will present measurements of the spatial and temporal variability of the background, with the goal of merging gamma-ray detection, spectroscopy, and imaging with contextual information--a "nuclear street view" of the ubiquitous background radiation. The gamma-ray background originates from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. The dominant sources in the field are the primordial isotopes potassium-40, uranium-238, and thorium-232, as well as their decay daughters. In addition to the natural background, many artificially-created isotopes are used for industrial or medical purposes, and contamination from fission products can be found in many environments. Regardless of origin, these backgrounds will reduce detection sensitivity by adding both statistical as well as systematic uncertainty. In particular, large detector arrays will be limited by the systematic uncertainty in the background and will suffer from a high rate of false alarms. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the gamma-ray background and its variability in order to improve detection sensitivity and evaluate the performance of mobile detectors in the field. Large quantities of data are measured in order to study their performance at very low false alarm rates. Two different approaches, spectroscopy and imaging, are compared in a controlled study in the presence of this measured background. Furthermore, there is additional information that can be gained by correlating the gamma-ray data with contextual data streams (such as cameras and global positioning systems) in order to reduce the variability in the background. This is accomplished by making many hours of background measurements with a truck-mounted system, which utilizes high-purity germanium detectors for spectroscopy and sodium iodide detectors for coded aperture imaging. This system also utilizes various peripheral sensors, such as panoramic cameras, laser ranging systems, global positioning systems, and a weather station to provide context for the gamma-ray data. About three hundred hours of data were taken in the San Francisco Bay Area, covering a wide variety of environments that might be encountered in operational scenarios. These measurements were used in a source injection study to evaluate the sensitivity of different algorithms (imaging and spectroscopy) and hardware (sodium iodide and high-purity germanium detectors). These measurements confirm that background distributions in large, mobile detector systems are dominated by systematic, not statistical variations, and both spectroscopy and imaging were found to substantially reduce this variability. Spectroscopy performed better than the coded aperture for the given scintillator array (one square meter of sodium iodide) for a variety of sources and geometries. By modeling the statistical and systematic uncertainties of the background, the data can be sampled to simulate the performance of a detector array of arbitrary size and resolution. With a larger array or lower resolution detectors, however imaging was better able to compensate for background variability.

  10. Interdependent processing and encoding of speech and concurrent background noise.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Angela; Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R

    2015-05-01

    Speech processing can often take place in adverse listening conditions that involve the mixing of speech and background noise. In this study, we investigated processing dependencies between background noise and indexical speech features, using a speeded classification paradigm (Garner, 1974; Exp. 1), and whether background noise is encoded and represented in memory for spoken words in a continuous recognition memory paradigm (Exp. 2). Whether or not the noise spectrally overlapped with the speech signal was also manipulated. The results of Experiment 1 indicated that background noise and indexical features of speech (gender, talker identity) cannot be completely segregated during processing, even when the two auditory streams are spectrally nonoverlapping. Perceptual interference was asymmetric, whereby irrelevant indexical feature variation in the speech signal slowed noise classification to a greater extent than irrelevant noise variation slowed speech classification. This asymmetry may stem from the fact that speech features have greater functional relevance to listeners, and are thus more difficult to selectively ignore than background noise. Experiment 2 revealed that a recognition cost for words embedded in different types of background noise on the first and second occurrences only emerged when the noise and the speech signal were spectrally overlapping. Together, these data suggest integral processing of speech and background noise, modulated by the level of processing and the spectral separation of the speech and noise. PMID:25772102

  11. Automated video screening for unattended background monitoring in dynamic environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2004-03-01

    This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A threat of specific interest to this project is the covert placement and subsequent remote detonation of bombs (e.g., briefcase bombs) inside crowded public facilities. Different from existing video motion detection systems, the video-screening technology described in this report is capable of detecting changes in the static background of an otherwise, dynamic environment - environments where motion and human activities are persistent. Our goal was to quickly detect changes in the background - even under conditions when the background is visible to the camera less than 5% of the time. Instead of subtracting the background to detect movement or changes in a scene, we subtracted the dynamic scene variations to produce an estimate of the static background. Subsequent comparisons of static background estimates are used to detect changes in the background. Detected changes can be used to alert security forces of the presence and location of potential threats. The results of this research are summarized in two MS Power-point presentations included with this report.

  12. First calculation of cosmic-ray muon spallation backgrounds for MeV astrophysical neutrino signals in Super-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shirley Weishi; Beacom, John F.

    2014-04-01

    When muons travel through matter, their energy losses lead to nuclear breakup ("spallation") processes. The delayed decays of unstable daughter nuclei produced by cosmic-ray muons are important backgrounds for low-energy astrophysical neutrino experiments, e.g., those seeking to detect solar neutrino or diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) signals. Even though Super-Kamiokande has strong general cuts to reduce these spallation-induced backgrounds, the remaining rate before additional cuts for specific signals is much larger than the signal rates for kinetic energies of about 6-18 MeV. Surprisingly, there is no published calculation of the production and properties of these backgrounds in water, though there are such studies for scintillator. Using the simulation code fluka and theoretical insights, we detail how muons lose energy in water, produce secondary particles, how and where these secondaries produce isotopes, and the properties of the backgrounds from their decays. We reproduce Super-Kamiokande measurements of the total background to within a factor of 2, which is good given that the isotope yields vary by orders of magnitude and that some details of the experiment are unknown to us at this level. Our results break aggregate data into component isotopes, reveal their separate production mechanisms, and preserve correlations between them. We outline how to implement more effective background rejection techniques using this information. Reducing backgrounds in solar and DSNB studies by even a factor of a few could help lead to important new discoveries.

  13. FOC/48 Format Dependent Background Emission and Geometric Distortion Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nota, Antonella

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this test is to determine how the the behavior of the background emission {flare} changes with the format, since a significant format dependence was indicated in Proposal 6302. We will need this information in order to advise future long-slit observers as to which format should be used for obtaining their spectra. In addition to the format dependence, the geometric distortion correction will be obtained using the reseaux marks for the formats to be used by Cycle 6 observers.

  14. Allergic and non-allergic periorbital dermatitis: patch test results of the Information Network of the Departments of Dermatology during a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Herbst, R A; Uter, W; Pirker, C; Geier, J; Frosch, P J

    2004-07-01

    Periorbital dermatitis is common and can be due to the external use of ophthalmic drugs. We evaluated patch test results of the Information Network of the Departments of Dermatology. During a 5-year period (1995-99), of a total 49,256 patch-tested patients, 1053 (2.1%) were eventually diagnosed as allergic periorbital contact dermatitis (APD) and 588 (1.2%) as non-allergic periorbital dermatitis (NAPD). Patient characteristics between APD, NAPD and other cases (OCs) differed with respect to sex (19.7% male in both periorbital groups versus 36.3% in OCs), atopic dermatitis (10.4% in APD versus 60.2% in NAPD versus 16.9% in OCs) and age, APD being substantially more often (68.2%) aged 40 and above than NAPD (52.6%). Several of the top allergens in OCs [such as fragrance mix, Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru), lanolin alcohol and potassium dichromate] caused significantly fewer positive test reactions in both periorbital groups. In contrast, thimerosal, phenylmercuric acetate, sodium disulfite, gentamicin sulfate, phenylephrine hydrochloride and benzalkonium chloride tested positively significantly more often in APD but not in NAPD, verifying them as true ophthalmic allergens. Finally, in 42 cases (4%) of APD patients, additional allergens were identified by testing of the patients' own substances (mostly beta-blockers, oxybuprocaine and dexpanthenol), supporting the necessity of testing with ophthalmic drugs as is where individual substances are not readily available. PMID:15291826

  15. IT adoption of clinical information systems in Austrian and German hospitals: results of a comparative survey with a focus on nursing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Hübner; Elske Ammenwerth; Daniel Flemming; Christine Schaubmayr; Björn Sellemann

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IT adoption is a process that is influenced by different external and internal factors. This study aimed 1. to identify similarities and differences in the prevalence of medical and nursing IT systems in Austrian and German hospitals, and 2. to match these findings with characteristics of the two countries, in particular their healthcare system, and with features of the

  16. An association between anti-platelet drug use and reduced cancer prevalence in diabetic patients: results from the Vermont Diabetes Information System Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris E Holmes; Maria E Ramos-Nino; Benjamin Littenberg

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of several malignancies. Both diabetic patients and patients with cancer have an increase in platelet reactivity and platelet activation has recently emerged as a potential mediator of cancer progression. Drug therapies, such as aspirin, that reduce platelet reactivity reduce both cardiovascular and cancer risk. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis to assess

  17. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

  18. Optimal coherent control of CARS: signal enhancement and background elimination

    E-print Network

    Gao, Fang; Shi, JunHui; Rabitz, Herschel; Wang, HaiFeng; Cheng, JiXin

    2011-01-01

    The resonant signal enhancement and nonresonant background elimination of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering(CARS) process using femtosecond pulse-shaping techniques is analyzed. From the comparison of probe-pulse and three-pulse shaping schemes, it is certified that shaping probe pulse alone is sufficient for the optimal signal and background control separately, while keeping pump and Stokes pulses in transform limited forms. The optimal control of two-pulse CARS is also discussed. The variation method is used to gain an analytic solution for proble-pulse shaping scheme to maximize the difference of signal and background. Furthermore, the optimal broadband background suppression is studied with an appropriate objective funtional, and it shows that the well-known probe delay method is a quite good approximation to the optimal phase shaping scheme. Our results could help improve the performance of CARS spectroscopy and microscopy.

  19. Discriminability measures for predicting readability of text on textured backgrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharff, L. F.; Hill, A. L.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Several discriminability measures were examined for their ability to predict reading search times for three levels of text contrast and a range of backgrounds (plain, a periodic texture, and four spatial-frequency-filtered textures created from the periodic texture). Search times indicate that these background variations only affect readability when the text contrast is low, and that spatial frequency content of the background affects readability. These results were not well predicted by the single variables of text contrast (Spearman rank correlation = -0.64) and background RMS contrast (0.08), but a global masking index and a spatial-frequency-selective masking index led to better predictions (-0.84 and -0.81, respectively). c2000 Optical Society of America.

  20. Modeling surface backgrounds from radon progeny plate-out

    SciTech Connect

    Perumpilly, G.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Snyder, N. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)] [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    The next generation low-background detectors operating deep underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. The surface deposition and subsequent implantation of radon progeny in detector materials will be a source of energetic background events. We investigate Monte Carlo and model-based simulations to understand the surface implantation profile of radon progeny. Depending on the material and region of interest of a rare event search, these partial energy depositions can be problematic. Motivated by the use of Ge crystals for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay, we wish to understand the detector response of surface backgrounds from radon progeny. We look at the simulation of surface decays using a validated implantation distribution based on nuclear recoils and a realistic surface texture. Results of the simulations and measured ? spectra are presented.

  1. Background subtraction and transient timing with Bayesian Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worpel, H.; Schwope, A. D.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We aim to incorporate background subtraction into the Bayesian Blocks algorithm so that transient events can be timed accurately and precisely even in the presence of a substantial, rapidly variable background. Methods: We developed several modifications to the algorithm and tested them on a simulated XMM-Newton observation of a bursting and eclipsing object. Results: We found that bursts can be found to good precision for almost all background-subtraction methods, but eclipse ingresses and egresses present problems for most methods. We found one method that recovered these events with precision comparable to the interval between individual photons, in which both source- and background-region photons are combined into a single list and weighted according to the exposure area. We also found that adjusting the Bayesian Blocks change points nearer to blocks with higher count rate removes a systematic bias towards blocks of low count rate.

  2. Modeling surface backgrounds from radon progeny plate-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perumpilly, G.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Snyder, N.

    2013-08-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating deep underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. The surface deposition and subsequent implantation of radon progeny in detector materials will be a source of energetic background events. We investigate Monte Carlo and model-based simulations to understand the surface implantation profile of radon progeny. Depending on the material and region of interest of a rare event search, these partial energy depositions can be problematic. Motivated by the use of Ge crystals for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay, we wish to understand the detector response of surface backgrounds from radon progeny. We look at the simulation of surface decays using a validated implantation distribution based on nuclear recoils and a realistic surface texture. Results of the simulations and measured ? spectra are presented.

  3. Background Check Consent Statement This Background Check Consent Statement documents your consent for Indiana University to obtain a background

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    for Indiana University to obtain a background check from a consumer reporting agency consisting of a criminal. Indiana University requires a background check for the following individuals: 1) new employees in any position; 2) any employee, student, or volunteer affiliated with Indiana University who will be working

  4. INVESTIGATION Genomic Background and Generation Time

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Michael

    varied between populations, especially for clutch size, suggesting that genomic background influ- ences affecting the ability of natural populations to respond to selective pressures. Most spontaneous mutations

  5. Thermal inflation and the gravitational wave background

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Giblin Jr, John T [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lim, Eugene A [ISCAP and Physics Department, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States)] [ISCAP and Physics Department, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Park, Wan-Il; Stewart, Ewan D, E-mail: richard.easther@yale.edu, E-mail: john.giblin@yale.edu, E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com, E-mail: wipark@muon.kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: stewart@hep.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    We consider the impact of thermal inflation-a short, secondary period of inflation that can arise in supersymmetric scenarios-on the stochastic gravitational wave background. We show that while the primordial inflationary gravitational wave background is essentially unchanged at cosmic microwave background scales, it is massively diluted at solar system scales and would be unobservable by a Big Bang Observer (BBO) style experiment. Conversely, bubble collisions at the end of thermal inflation can generate a new stochastic background. We calculate the likely properties of the bubbles created during this phase transition, and show that the expected amplitude and frequency of this signal would fall within the BBO range.

  6. Background Simulation and Verification for DM-Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Bethany

    DM-Ice is an experiment designed for a direct detection search for dark matter. Using a NaI(Tl) target, DM-Ice searches for WIMP (weakly interacting massive particles) dark matter via scintillation associated with nuclear recoil in the crystal, which is then observed by PMTs. DM-Ice can test the DAMA/LIBRA result, using the same target material while running in the Southern Hemisphere. The DM-Ice prototype runs at the South Pole station, deployed underneath the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. This thesis describes the simulation work performed in order to understand the prototype detector, DM-Ice17. Dark matter background, evidence, and current understanding are discussed by way of introduction to the field. Description and discussion of detection methods and current experimental dark matter detection results follows. The DM-Ice detector itself is then considered in detail, in terms of motivation, design, and function. The assembly, deployment and operation of DM-Ice17 is also discussed. The purpose of simulating the radioactive backgrounds present in the DM-Ice17 detector is to understand the detector and the contamination levels present in each of its components, and to provide information needed for design and material selection for the full-scale DM-Ice detector. The Geant4 simulation toolkit was used to simulate the detector. The simulation is described in terms of geometry, particle decay and propagation, and producing an energy spectrum. This simulated energy spectrum was then used to characterize the detector, and this process is described as well. This thesis demonstrates that the simulation I have created aligns well with the data from DM-Ice17. This simulation allows insight into and verification of the radioactive contamination of each of the component of the detector, as well as that of its surroundings. The simulation also allows for detailed consideration of the contamination levels in different materials, which is needed in order to select materials and designs for the full-scale DM-Ice detector. Details regarding contributions of different isotopes in each region of the detector to the region of interest (low-energy; approximately 0-10 keV) are extracted from the simulation, which allows optimization of understanding what degree of cleanliness is needed for purposes of our dark matter search.

  7. Aquaculture information package

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  8. Tracking and graph-cut based approach for panoramic background construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaeieslam, Mohammad Javad; Soryani, Mohsen; Fathy, Mahmood

    2013-10-01

    An efficient method is presented for extracting motion behaviors and contours of moving objects in a wide view and for creating panoramic background. In the field of making panorama, the main goal of existing methods is to create a pleasing wide view. For this purpose, such methods do not track moving objects. They attempt to find optimal seams so that the result does not contain cut objects or blurring. Hence, moving objects are removed, repeated, or placed in an arbitrary location in the final panoramic image. We expand panorama applications from artistic views to surveillance usages. To investigate moving object behavior, the proposed method attempts to find correspondences between positions of a moving object in different selected frames by using SIFT features. It also presents a new approach to combine various types of information in order to extract the exact boundary of moving objects in moving cameras. The required information is obtained from the moving object's corresponding areas in other frames. Experiments were arranged to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of this method. The results show that this method, which uses fewer frames, is able to create better panoramic background compared with the existing methods.

  9. 50-Hertz magnetic field and calcium transients in Jurkat cells: results of a research and public information dissemination (RAPID) program study.

    PubMed Central

    Wey, H E; Conover, D P; Mathias, P; Toraason, M; Lotz, W G

    2000-01-01

    An effect on intracellular calcium continues to be proposed as a biochemical pathway for the mediation of biologic effects of electrical-power-frequency magnetic fields (MF). However, reproducible results among laboratories are difficult to attain and the characteristics of magnetic field effects on intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) are not well understood. We attempted to repeat the studies of Lindström et al. [Intracellular Calcium Oscillations in a T-Cell Line by a Weak 50 Hz Magnetic Field. J Cell Physiol 156:395-398 (1993)] by investigating the effect of a 1.5-G 50-Hz MF on [Ca(2+)](i) in the Jurkat lymphocyte T-cell line. Changes in [Ca(2+)](i) were determined using microscopic imaging of fura-2 loaded Jurkat cells on poly-l-lysine-coated glass coverslips. The MF was generated by a single coil constructed with bifilar wire and located in the same plane as the cells. Cells were randomly exposed for 8 min to MF, sham field (SF), or no field (NF) conditions. The exposure condition remained coded until data analysis was complete. Each exposure period was preceded by an 8-min data collection to establish a baseline for [Ca(2+)](i). After each exposure condition, cells were exposed to anti-CD3 antibody that induced a rapid increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in responsive cells; this provided a positive control. [Ca(2+)](i) was analyzed for individual cells as spatially-averaged background-corrected 340/380 nm ratios, and a [Ca(2+)](i) transient was considered significant for positive deviations from baseline of 3 [multiple] an estimate of noise in the baseline. Typically, 25-50 cells/field were viewed and approximately 50% had no [Ca(2+)](i) transients in the baseline period and also responded to positive control. Only cells responding to positive control and lacking changes in [Ca(2+)](i) during the baseline period were considered qualified for assessment during the exposure period. The incidences of [Ca(2+)](i) transients during the exposure period for two experiments (40 [multiple] objective) were 16.5, 14.6, and 14.2% for MF, SF, and NF, respectively, and were not statistically significantly different. Previous studies by Lindström et al. [Intracellular Calcium Oscillations in a T-Cell Line after Exposure to Extremely-Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields with Variable Frequencies and Flux Densities. Bioelectromagnetics 16:41-47 (1995)] showed a high response rate (92%) for exposure to 1. 5-G 50-Hz MF when individual cells were preselected for investigation. We found no such effect when examining many cells simultaneously in a random and blind fashion. These results do not preclude an effect of MF on [Ca(2+)](i), but suggest that responsive cells, if they exist, were not identified using the approaches that we used in this study. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10656853

  10. Telecourse Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspinwall-Lamberts, Julie

    A survey of 278 students who completed at least one of six telecourses offered by Lane Community College (LCC) from Fall 1978 through Winter 1981 was conducted to determine: (1) background information on how students learned about the course, their reasons for enrolling and for selecting a telecourse rather than an on-campus course, and their LCC…

  11. Application of Monte Carlo algorithms to the Bayesian analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, J.; Levin, S.; Anderson, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    Power spectrum estimation and evaluation of associated errors in the presence of incomplete sky coverage; nonhomogeneous, correlated instrumental noise; and foreground emission are problems of central importance for the extraction of cosmological information from the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

  12. Background of SIFs and Stress Indices for Moment Loadings of Piping Components

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. Wais; E. C. Rodabaugh

    2005-06-15

    This report provides background information, references, and equations for twenty-four piping components (thirteen component SIFs and eleven component stress indices) that justify the values or expressions for the SIFs and indices.

  13. Balloon measurements of the far-infrared background radiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlner, D.; Weiss, R.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a balloon-borne radiometer designed to make direct measurements of the background radiation in the spectral range from 1 to 20 cm, and evaluation of the results of two balloon flights performed with the aid of this radiometer. Measurements in five different passbands in the spectral region below 20 per cm were made with a liquid-helium-cooled radiometer in two flights at approximately 40-km altitude. The results obtained are found to be consistent with a 2.7 K thermal radiation background. In addition, an atmospheric radiation of certain magnitude is found to dominate the region above 11 per cm.

  14. Magnetic properties of the nucleon in a uniform background field

    E-print Network

    Thomas Primer; Waseem Kamleh; Derek Leinweber; Matthias Burkardt

    2013-07-05

    We present results for the magnetic moment and magnetic polarisability of the neutron and the magnetic moment of the proton. These results are calculated using the uniform background field method on 32^3 x 64 dynamical QCD lattices provided by the PACS-CS collaboration as part of the ILDG. We use a uniform background magnetic field quantised by the periodic spatial volume. We investigate ways to improve the effective energy plots used to calculate magnetic polarisabilities, including the use of correlation matrix techniques with various source smearings.

  15. MEGA: a low-background radiation detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kareem Kazkaz; Craig E. Aalseth; Todd W. Hossbach; Victor M. Gehman; Jeremy D. Kephart; Harry S. Miley

    2004-01-01

    The multiple-element gamma assay (MEGA) is a low-background detector designed to support environmental monitoring and national security applications. MEGA also demonstrates technology needed for Majorana, a next generation neutrino mass experiment. It will employ active and passive shielding to reduce backgrounds. It will also exploit multicoincidence signatures to identify specific radioactive isotopes. MEGA is expected to begin testing in late

  16. Cosmic Microwave Background: The New Cosmology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This AstroBulletin article takes an in-depth look at the newest technology and instruments used to study the Cosmic Microwave Background. The site includes text and a seven minute video. There are links to three essays: "What Is the Cosmic Microwave Background?", "Antarctica: A Hotbed of Cold-Weather Research" and "DASI Does It."

  17. The Extrgalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker; M. H. Salamon

    2001-04-23

    The COMPTEL and EGRET detectors aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory measured an extragalactic gamma-ray background extending from MeV energies up to about 100 GeV. Calculations performed making reasonable assumptions indicate that blazars can account for the background between about 10 MeV and at least 10 GeV. Below 30 MeV, the background flux and spectrum are not very well determined and a dedicated satellite detector will be required to remedy this situation. Below 10 MeV, supernovae and possibly AGN may contribute to the extragalactic background flux. Above 10 GeV, the role of blazars in contributing to the background is unclear because we do not have data on their spectra at these energies and because theoretical models predict that many of them will have spectra which should cut off in this energy range. At these higher energies, a new component, perhaps from topological defects, may contribute to the background, as well as X-ray selected BL Lac objects. The future GLAST detector should provide important data on the emission of extragalactic sources above 10 GeV and help resolve this issue. GLAST may also be able to detect the signature of intergalactic absorption by pair production interactions of background gamma-rays of energy above 20 GeV with starlight photons, this signature being a steepening of the background spectrum.

  18. The Physics of Microwave Background Anisotropies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hu, Wayne

    Probing whether space is curved or flat, cosmologists have been searching for clues in ripples in the universe's microwave background left from the big bang. These tutorials, created by Professor Wayne Hu of the University of Chicago, explain the cosmic microwave background for neophytes, as well as more advanced readers.

  19. Real-Time Discriminative Background Subtraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Cheng; Minglun Gong; Dale Schuurmans; Terry Caelli

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine the problem of segmenting foreground objects in live video when background scene tex- tures change over time. In particular, we formulate background subtraction as minimizing a penalized instantaneous risk func- tional—yielding a local online discriminative algorithm that can quickly adapt to temporal changes. We analyze the algo- rithm's convergence, discuss its robustness to nonstationarity, and provide an

  20. Low-Background Counting at Homestake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iseley Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from

  1. Statistical Background Subtraction for a Mobile Observer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Hayman; Jan-olof Eklundh

    2003-01-01

    Statistical background modelling and subtraction has proved to be a popular and effective class of algorithms for segmenting independently moving foreground objects out from a static background, without requiring any a priori in- formation of the properties of foreground objects. This pa- per presents two contributions on this topic, aimed towards robotics where an active head is mounted on a

  2. THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND B. Winstein

    E-print Network

    Collar, Juan I.

    THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND RADIATION B. Winstein Center for Cosmological Physics by the NSF #12;1 Introduction By studying the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation field, cosmologists and promise in studies of the microwave radiation left over from the early universe. They are aimed

  3. Anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Silk

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical predictions of the angular anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on both small and large angular scales are presented, and the effect of massive neutrinos on both the background radiation anisotropy and on the galaxy correlation function over very large scales is reviewed. Current observations show that the quadrupole anisotropy provides the greatest constraint on theory, and the

  4. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHEN POLLAINE

    1978-01-01

    The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present

  5. Gifted Students from Low-Education Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Pelchar, Taylor K.; Cochran, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Gifted children from low-education backgrounds often experience barriers to educational and career success. This article reviews the growing body of literature regarding gifted students from low-education backgrounds and the related literature on the challenges and characteristics of first-generation college students. A mother and daughter…

  6. Modeling ambient background in complex detection scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott D. Kiff; Leon E. Smith; Kenneth D. Jarman

    2007-01-01

    Radiation detection instrumentation is being widely deployed as a countermeasure against the movement and use of radiological dispersal devices and nuclear weapons. Accurate ambient background modeling is critical for accurate simulation of detection scenarios of interest; these background source terms influence minimum detectable limits and are thus a significant factor in overall system performance. Described below are the methods used

  7. Background-independent measurement of $?_{13}$ in Double Chooz

    E-print Network

    Y. Abe; J. C. dos Anjos; J. C. Barriere; E. Baussan; I. Bekman; M. Bergevin; T. J. C. Bezerra; L. Bezrukov; E. Blucher; C. Buck; J. Busenitz; A. Cabrera; E. Caden; L. Camilleri; R. Carr; M. Cerrada; P. -J. Chang; E. Chauveau; P. Chimenti; A. P. Collin; E. Conover; J. M. Conrad; J. I. Crespo-Anadón; K. Crum; A. Cucoanes; E. Damon; J. V. Dawson; D. Dietrich; Z. Djurcic; M. Dracos; M. Elnimr; A. Etenko; M. Fallot; F. von Feilitzsch; J. Felde; S. M. Fernandes; V. Fischer; D. Franco; M. Franke; H. Furuta; I. Gil-Botella; L. Giot; M. Göger-Neff; L. F. G. Gonzalez; L. Goodenough; M. C. Goodman; C. Grant; N. Haag; T. Hara; J. Haser; M. Hofmann; G. A. Horton-Smith; A. Hourlier; M. Ishitsuka; J. Jochum; C. Jollet; F. Kaether; L. N. Kalousis; Y. Kamyshkov; D. M. Kaplan; T. Kawasaki; E. Kemp; H. de Kerret; T. Konno; D. Kryn; M. Kuze; T. Lachenmaier; C. E. Lane; T. Lasserre; A. Letourneau; D. Lhuillier; H. P. Lima Jr; M. Lindner; J. M. López-Castaño; J. M. LoSecco; B. K. Lubsandorzhiev; S. Lucht; J. Maeda; C. Mariani; J. Maricic; J. Martino; T. Matsubara; G. Mention; A. Meregaglia; T. Miletic; R. Milincic; A. Minotti; Y. Nagasaka; K. Nakajima; Y. Nikitenko; P. Novella; M. Obolensky; L. Oberauer; A. Onillon; A. Osborn; C. Palomares; I. M. Pepe; S. Perasso; P. Pfahler; A. Porta; G. Pronost; J. Reichenbacher; B. Reinhold; M. Röhling; R. Roncin; S. Roth; B. Rybolt; Y. Sakamoto; R. Santorelli; F. Sato; A. C. Schilithz; S. Schönert; S. Schoppmann; M. H. Shaevitz; R. Sharankova; S. Shimojima; V. Sibille; V. Sinev; M. Skorokhvatov; E. Smith; J. Spitz; A. Stahl; I. Stancu; L. F. F. Stokes; M. Strait; A. Stüken; F. Suekane; S. Sukhotin; T. Sumiyoshi; Y. Sun; R. Svoboda; K. Terao; A. Tonazzo; H. H. Trinh Thi; G. Valdiviesso; N. Vassilopoulos; C. Veyssiere; M. Vivier; S. Wagner; H. Watanabe; C. Wiebusch; L. Winslow; M. Wurm; G. Yang; F. Yermia; V. Zimmer

    2014-04-25

    The oscillation results published by the Double Chooz collaboration in 2011 and 2012 rely on background models substantiated by reactor-on data. In this analysis, we present a background-model-independent measurement of the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by including 7.53 days of reactor-off data. A global fit of the observed neutrino rates for different reactor power conditions is performed, yielding a measurement of both $\\theta_{13}$ and the total background rate. The results on the mixing angle are improved significantly by including the reactor-off data in the fit, as it provides a direct measurement of the total background rate. This reactor rate modulation analysis considers antineutrino candidates with neutron captures on both Gd and H, whose combination yields $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{13})=$ 0.102 $\\pm$ 0.028(stat.) $\\pm$ 0.033(syst.). The results presented in this study are fully consistent with the ones already published by Double Chooz, achieving a competitive precision. They provide, for the first time, a determination of $\\theta_{13}$ that does not depend on a background model.

  8. Reliable Computation in Noisy Backgrounds Using Real-Time Neuromorphic Hardware

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsi-Ping Wang; Elisabetta Chicca; Giacomo Indiveri; Terrence J. Sejnowski

    2007-01-01

    Spike-time based coding of neural information, in contrast to rate coding, requires that neurons reliably and precisely fire spikes in response to repeated identical inputs, despite a high degree of noise from stochastic synaptic firing and extraneous background inputs. We investigated the degree of reliability and precision achievable in various noisy background conditions using real-time neuromorphic VLSI hardware which models

  9. A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; A. Boscaleri; K. Coble; B. P. Crill; G. De Gasperis; P. C. Farese; P. G. Ferreira; K. Ganga; M. Giacometti; E. Hivon; V. V. Hristov; A. Iacoangeli; A. H. Jaffe; A. E. Lange; L. Martinis; S. Masi; P. V. Mason; P. D. Mauskopf; A. Melchiorri; L. Miglio; T. Montroy; C. B. Netterfield; E. Pascale; F. Piacentini; D. Pogosyan; S. Prunet; S. Rao; G. Romeo; J. E. Ruhl; F. Scaramuzzi; D. Sforna; N. Vittorio; P. de Bernardis

    2000-01-01

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total

  10. The research of moving object detection based on background difference compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yan-bin; Ying, Jie; Lu, Lin-li

    2013-08-01

    Moving object detection was implemented in dynamic background based on background difference compensation. Background differential can effectively segment the moving object in static background. But in moving video, the camera motion causes corresponding movement of the target and background, which makes the prospect moving object hard to separate from the background. In order to detect moving object, we can compensate the movement of the background and transfer the dynamic background to static. Moving object detection in static background image was implemented using a new weights updating method that the weights were updated during a certain period. This method based on classical Gaussian mixture model improved the efficiency of image segmentation greatly. Moving object detection in dynamic background was realized using background differential compensation. The global motion of the background was established according to the affined parameters model. The model parameters were estimated by feature points matching based on the search strategy. Invalid matching points were eliminated using the method of distance consistency. Backward mapping was used to get the motion parameters of the background. After compensation of the background with the global motion parameters, frame difference between the current frame and the background can detect moving objects effectively. Experiments were done on computer with the programming tools of VS2010 and MATLAB. Experimental results showed that the algorithm based on differential compensation was effective.

  11. Integrated far-infrared background from galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi

    1991-01-01

    The integrated radiation from galaxies is calculated at far-IR and submillimeter wavelengths. The peak of the far-IR background radiation is 100-130 microns, and its total energy content is 0.5-6 percent of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). At wavelengths longward of 400 microns, the CMB dominates over the far-IR radiation from galaxies in intensity. The autocorrelation of fluctuations from the average angle of the far-IR background of galaxies is calculated. The contribution of galaxies to the anisotropy of the background radiation at wavelengths longer than about 400 microns where the CMB is predominant is obtained. It is found that, in general, earlier galaxy formation predicts stronger far-IR background radiation. The prompt initial enrichment model for the chemical evolution of disk galaxies, in particular those with an exponential star formation rate, produces much larger intensity of the integrated radiation than the accretion model.

  12. Neutron spallation measurements and impacts on low-background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguayo, E.; Kouzes, R. T.; Siciliano, E. R.

    2014-09-01

    Ultralow-background experiments, such as neutrinoless double-? decay, solar neutrino, and dark-matter searches, are carried out deep underground to escape background events created by cosmic-ray muons passing through the detector volumes. However, such experiments may nevertheless be limited in sensitivity by cosmogenically induced backgrounds. This limit can be attributable to cosmogenically created radioactive isotopes produced either in situ during operation or prior to construction when the detector construction materials are above ground. An accurate knowledge of the production of the latter source of background is of paramount importance to be able to interpret the results of low-background experiments. One way to deal with the characterization of cosmogenic background production is to use Monte Carlo simulations to model the spallation reactions arising from cosmic-ray neutrons, protons, and muons. The objective of this work was to evaluate the degree of accuracy that such simulations could provide by comparing measurements for various materials to results from two standard Monte Carlo codes using the same physics model for generating intranuclear cascades. The simulated results from both codes provide the correct trends of neutron production with increasing material density. However, there was substantial disagreement between the models and experimental results for lower-density materials of Al, Fe, and Cu. The model values, when normalized to the Pb experimental results, show disagreement with experiment by a factor of about two for Fe and Cu and significantly greater for Al. It is concluded that additional neutron-induced spallation measurements are required to refine models routinely employed in underground physics research. Further data collection against the above materials is an initial list for benchmarking.

  13. 2. Social, ethical, and economic background

    E-print Network

    Keil, David M.

    . Informationalism 3. Globalization What is ... ? · a theory · good behavior · bad behavior · a policy · a right or rights 2.2 Explain economic and political origins of informationalism 2.3 Discuss how information technology has contributed to a globalized economy David Keil Information Technology and Society 5/13 4 #12

  14. Spectral measurements of the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Kogut, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Three experiments have measured the intensity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at wavelengths 4.0, 3.0, and 0.21 cm (frequencies 7.5, 10, and 141 GHz). The measurement at 4.0 cm used a direct-gain total-power radiometer to measure the difference in power between the zenith sky and a large cryogenic reference target. Foreground signals are measured with the same instrument and subtracted from the zenith signal, leaving the CMB as the residual. The reference target consists of a large open-mouth cryostat with a microwave absorber submerged in liquid helium (LHe); thin windows block the radiative heat load and prevent condensation of atmospheric gases within the cryostat. The measurement at 3.0 cm used a superheterodyne Dicke-switched radiometer with a similar reference target to measure the zenith sky temperature. A rotating mirror allowed one of the antenna beams to be redirected to a series of zenith angles. The measurement at 0.21 cm used Very Large Array (VLA) observations of interstellar ortho-formaldehyde to determine the CMB intensity in molecular clouds toward the giant H II region W51A (G49.5 to 0.4). Solutions of the radiative transfer problem in the context of a large velocity gradient (LVG) model provided estimates of the CMB temperature within the foreground clouds. Collisional excitation from neutral hydrogen molecules (H2) within the clouds limited the precision of the result. These results and other recent measurements have provided a more precise determination of the CMB spectrum. Statistical analysis of long-wavelength ground-based results reveals a significant difference of 0.140 + or - 0.034 K between the ground-based measurements and measurements at higher frequencies using different techniques. The difference can be attributed either to undetected systematic error in either set of measurements or a CMB distortion at wavelengths greater than 1 cm.

  15. The Ethical Role of Information in Sustainable Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockway, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of sustainable communities, or sustainable development, focuses on the ethical role of information in fostering sustainable environmental development. Topics include background information, developments in information technology, permaculture in the area of horticulture and information ethics, information ethics models, hardware…

  16. Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W.; Girard, Emily J.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-07-01

    Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and near-infrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo.

  17. Boomerang results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bernardis, P.

    The BOOMERanG experiment has mapped the mm/sub-mm sky during two long duration balloon flights (in 1998 and 2003). The first flight has produced maps of about 4% of the sky at 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz with resolution of 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps, and the wide frequency coverage allows for a careful estimate of the Galactic foreground. In the second flight a polarization-sensitive version of the instrument has been flown, to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz. Preliminary results and plans for future developments are reported.

  18. Measuring the cosmic microwave background with BOOMERANG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montroy, Thomas Erhardt

    2003-12-01

    In recent years measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, have helped to open a new era of precision cosmology. BOOMERANG is a 1.3 m of axis balloon-borne telescope designed for long duration (LDB) flights around Antarctica. It utilizes an AC-biased bolometer receiver operating in the frequency range 90 450 GHz. BOOMERANG has had two successful LDB flights (1398 and BOOM03). We discuss the results of the B98 flight which measured the angular power spectrum of the CMB temperature anisotropies from ? = 25 to ? = 1000 and plays a strong role in providing strong constraints on cosmological parameters, namely ?tot and ? b. We also discuss the design and in-flight performance of the BOOM03 flight. BOOM03 was designed to measure CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies. It uses four pairs of polarization sensitive bolometers at 145 GHz. Polarizing grids provide polarization sensitivity for four 2-color photometers operating at 245 and 345 GHz.

  19. Neutron background in the Boulby Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, V. A.; UKDMC; Zeplin-II; ILIAS

    2008-07-01

    The neutron background in the Boulby Underground Laboratory is reviewed. Measurements of the neutron flux from the rock have been carried out with a small liquid scintillator cell. The neutron flux from rock has been measured as (1.72 ± 0.61 (stat.)±0.38 (syst.))×10-6 cm-2 s-1 above 0.5 MeV. The simulations based on the measurements of the uranium and thorium concentrations in rock predict the flux of 1.21 × 10-6 cm-2 s-1 above 0.5 MeV, in agreement with the measurements. Muon-induced neutron flux is measured with the large liquid scintillator, also served as an active veto system in the ZEPLIN-II experiment. The rate of gammas depositing more than approx 0.7 MeV, from neutron capture was found to be 0.096±0.003 (stat.) events/muon in 20-190 ?s time window after the muon signal, about half of the rate predicted by GEANT4 models. This result is preliminary and more detailed simulations are in progress.

  20. Facial and bodily correlates of family background.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd, Lynda G; Perrett, David I

    2006-09-22

    It has been suggested that absence of the father during early childhood has long-reaching effects on reproductive strategy and development of offspring. This paper reports two studies designed to investigate the physical characteristics of daughters associated with father absence. Study 1 used a facial averaging method to produce composite images of faces of women whose parents separated during their childhood (who were 'father absent'), women whose parents remained together, but had poor quality relationships and women whose parents were together and had good quality relationships. Images were then rated by male and female judges. Father absence and poor parental relationships were associated with apparent facial masculinity and reduced attractiveness in daughters. Poor parental relationships were also associated with reduced apparent health. Study 2 compared family background with body measurements and found that father absence or a poor quality relationship between parents were associated with body masculinity (high waist-to-hip ratio) and increased weight-for-height and adiposity. These results highlight the possibility of physical masculinization being associated with purported father absence 'effects'. PMID:16928641