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1

Background Information  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Background Information ... These have been labeled to remove fluid from patients suffering from volume overload. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

2

BACKGROUND INFORMATION  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... in CKD patients with PRCA from antibodies to protein-based ESAs ... A nascent clinical program for chemotherapy-induced anemia was suspended ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

3

PURPOSE RESULTS BACKGROUND METHODS RESULTS ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... KETOCONAZOLE IN SUBJECTS WITH RENAL IMPAIRMENT (RI) TAKING RIVAROXABAN Ping Zhao, Joseph A. Grillo, Young-Moon Choi, Brian P ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

4

Background Information on Ammonia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the synthesis, production, and use of ammonia (7664417) is reviewed. The importance of a catalyst in the process of uniting hydrogen and nitrogen to form ammonia, producers of ammonia between 1961 and 1974, their annual production capacity,...

R. Hartle

1975-01-01

5

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR THE PEDIATRIC ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Meeting Background Materials Blinatumomab (AMG 103) Page 1 AVAILABLE FOR PUBLIC DISCLOSURE WITHOUT REDACTION ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

6

Background Information Regarding the ISBT Label  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Background Information Regarding the ISBT Label Useful References 1.Guidance for Industry: Recognition and ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess

7

Background Information: Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... noted that it is unaware of the basis upon which manufacturers may have ... There is no food additive regulation that permits the addition of caffeine, at ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

8

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR THE ONCOLOGIC ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Panitumumab in Subjects with Colorectal Cancer" which will provide a ... pharmacokinetic data, in both the Japanese and non-Asian population that ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

9

FDA Errata to Background information  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 1 Page 3. Original: In subjects with mild (creatinine clearance 50 to < 80 mL/min), moderate (creatinine clearance 30 to < 50 mL/min) or severe renal ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

10

Results on perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of Perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Austria are presented, which were taken at the beginning of 1994 in preparation for the European Tracer Experiment ETEX. Two very different weather regimes, a mild westerly current and a continental spell with easterly air flow, were chosen to comprise a variety of weather situations. The concentrations obtained are generally higher than those from

Katrin Nodop

1997-01-01

11

Developing Pupil Background Information for Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students are often provided with background information before reading an assigned selection. This background information functions differently in the following reading variations: individualized reading; basal reading; big book approaches; programmed reading, the language experience approach; and predictable books. Students often pick subjects…

Ediger, Marlow

12

Initial Result of the Army Background Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army Background Experiment was commissioned in April 1987 to measure the space neutron background near the Earth. It was launched aboard the LACE spacecraft in February 1990 and has operated flawlessly since turn on. All overview of the experiment and...

W. C. Feldman G. F. Auchampaugh E. R. Shunk

1985-01-01

13

Providing Relevant Background Information in Smart Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a system, called GAIN (Group Adapted Interaction for News), which selects background information to be displayed in public shared environments according to preferences of the group of people present in there. In ambient intelligence contexts, we cannot assume that the system will be able to know every users physically present in the environment and therefore to access to their profiles in order to compute the preferences of the entire group. For this reason, we assume that group members may be i) totally unknown, ii) completely or iii) partially known by the system. As we describe in the paper, in the first case, the system uses a group profile that is built statistically according to the results of a preliminary study. In the second case, the model of the group is created from the profiles of known users. In the third situation the group interests are modeled by integrating preferences of known members with a statistical prediction of the interests of unknown ones. Evaluation results proved that adapting news display to the group was more effective in matching the members’ interests in all the three cases than the in the non-adaptive modality.

de Carolis, Berardina; Pizzutilo, Sebastiano

14

Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

1994-10-01

15

Division of Undergraduate Education Reviewer Background Information Form  

NSF Publications Database

... information is retained for future reference in selecting reviewers. The information requested on ... of all information is entirely voluntary. The purpose of this background information is to assist in ...

16

Background information on the SSC project  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning.

Warren, J.

1991-10-01

17

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Colon CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the descriptive manuscript cited below.

18

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Breast CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the materials cited below.

19

25 CFR 537.2 - Submission of background information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTEREST IN, OR HAVING MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY FOR, A MANAGEMENT CONTRACT § 537.2 Submission of background information. A management contractor shall submit the background information required in § 537.1 of this part: (a)...

2013-04-01

20

Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

Schulte, Roger R.

1987-11-01

21

October 7, 2010 TPSAC Background Information Addendum ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Marketing of Menthol Cigarettes and Consumer Perceptions (UCSF). The correct citations are: ... American Tobacco. ... Market Science Associates, Inc. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/tobaccoproductsscientificadvisorycommittee

22

The attached package contains background information ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... DXM) is an over-the-counter (OTC) cough suppressant ... DXM is fueled by its OTC availability and ... to DXM in 2008.The Drug Abuse Warning Network ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

23

FDA Working Group Background Information on Banked ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... If the human milk donor pool has a high ... the potential for missing infectious diseases because of ... addresses many of the infectious disease risks, but ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

24

Information Routing Driven by Background Chatter in a Signaling Network  

PubMed Central

Living systems are capable of processing multiple sources of information simultaneously. This is true even at the cellular level, where not only coexisting signals stimulate the cell, but also the presence of fluctuating conditions is significant. When information is received by a cell signaling network via one specific input, the existence of other stimuli can provide a background activity –or chatter– that may affect signal transmission through the network and, therefore, the response of the cell. Here we study the modulation of information processing by chatter in the signaling network of a human cell, specifically, in a Boolean model of the signal transduction network of a fibroblast. We observe that the level of external chatter shapes the response of the system to information carrying signals in a nontrivial manner, modulates the activity levels of the network outputs, and effectively determines the paths of information flow. Our results show that the interactions and node dynamics, far from being random, confer versatility to the signaling network and allow transitions between different information-processing scenarios.

Pons, Antonio J.; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi

2011-01-01

25

Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child  

MedlinePLUS

... Practice Family-Centered Practice Home Philosophy and Key Elements of Family-Centered Practice Family-Centered Practice Across the ... Connections Act Laws & Policies Library Search Mandated Reporters Publications ... Stay Connected Home » Obtaining Background Information on ...

26

Alcohol Use and Abuse: Background Information for Security Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of alcohol abuse and alcoholism as it relates to personnel security is prepared as background information for policy makers, adjudicators, investigators, and researchers. It discusses the relationships between alcohol use and personnel security...

R. J. Heuer

1991-01-01

27

Using Time Series Analysis to Visualize and Evaluate Background Subtraction Results for Computer Vision Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information visualization has proved its signiflcance and im- portance for exploring and analysis of complex data. This paper introduces a novel framework for applying time series analysis and visualization methods to evaluate and compare the results of background subtraction algorithms for com- puter vision applications. Instead of judging the results of background subtraction algorithms by just viewing the re- sulted

Samah Ramadan

28

Community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constrained clustering has been well-studied in the unsupervised learning society. However, how to encode constraints into community structure detection, within complex networks, remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised learning framework for community structure detection. This framework implicitly encodes the must-link and cannot-link constraints by modifying the adjacency matrix of network, which can also be regarded as de-noising the consensus matrix of community structures. Our proposed method gives consideration to both the topology and the functions (background information) of complex network, which enhances the interpretability of the results. The comparisons performed on both the synthetic benchmarks and the real-world networks show that the proposed framework can significantly improve the community detection performance with few constraints, which makes it an attractive methodology in the analysis of complex networks.

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

2013-02-01

29

Results of a Preliminary Study of the Fluorescent Background Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fluorescent background problem arises from a loss in effectiveness of the fluorescent dye tracer technique due to an increase of variability in time and space of the interfering background readings of fluorometers used to measure fluorescent dye conce...

D. W. Pritchard

1979-01-01

30

The Sesto Fiorentino Study: Background, Methods and Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This paper presents lifetime prevalences and estimated risks of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders from a community survey conducted in Sesto Fiorentino, Italy, using psychiatric interviewers with clinical experience and clinical instruments. Methods: Two thousand five hundred subjects aged 14 or more were randomly selected from the lists of 15 general practitioners (GPs) regardless of wheter or not they had consulted

Carlo Faravelli; Luca Abrardi; Daniela Bartolozzi; Cristiana Cecchi; Fiammetta Cosci; Donato D’Adamo; Beatrice Lo Iacono; Claudia Ravaldi; Maria Alessandra Scarpato; Elisabetta Truglia; Simone Rosi

2004-01-01

31

Background  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular ... patients are at greater risk for serious ... PI contains numerous other risks associated with ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

32

Background  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Problem: You placed a pivotal study under 5.3.1.1, and now you realize it needs to be under 5.3.5.1 y • Solution: – Delete out all the leaf IDs that ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

33

Background  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 11217 CAR.GD2z Activated T cells vs Neuroblastoma. EBV-CTLs. ... 13296 CAR.CD19.CD28z vs Activated T cells CD19+ Lymphoma. CAR.CD19z. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

34

Background Information on Hydrocarbon Emissions from Marine Terminal Operations. Volume I. Discussion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents results of a study to develop background information necessary for the accurate assessment of hydrocarbon emissions from ship and barge loading and unloading of gasoline and crude oil. The report assesses marine terminal facilities, m...

C. E. Burklin J. D. Colley M. L. Owen

1976-01-01

35

Background on Study Results of US Academic Researchers  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... cough), hepatitis B and polio for infants and children 6 weeks of ... As science and technology evolve and more advanced screening tools become ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

36

Background Information on the He(3) Nuclear Gyroscope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the contract period the background necessary to proceed with the assembly and testing of the precision He(3) nuclear gyroscope was completed. This background work included experiments on He(3)-He(4) liquid and gas mixtures in a prototype apparatus ...

W. M. Fairbank

1983-01-01

37

Research Results and Information Update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research Results Monsoon behavior balanced by glaciers Research Discovers Frequent Mutations of Chromatin Significant Progress in Water Photochemistry Research Structural signature in amorphous alloy formation and plastic deformation The neural basis of Drosophila larval light/darkness preference Important roles of brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase and ceramide metabolism in leptin hypothalamic control of feeding Integrin activation and internalization on soft ECM as a mechanism of induction of stem cell differentiation by ECM elasticity Determination of electron pairing symmetry of iron-based superconductor FeSe Long-Range Topological Order in Metallic Glass Information Update List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and CNRS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and ESRC in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RS in 2011 List of Projects Jointly Funded by NSFC and RSE in 2011 Funding of Major Program Projects in 2010 Funding of Key Program Projects in 2010

2011-01-01

38

Integrating Overlapping Structures and Background Information of Words Significantly Improves Biological Sequence Comparison  

PubMed Central

Word-based models have achieved promising results in sequence comparison. However, as the important statistical properties of words in biological sequence, how to use the overlapping structures and background information of the words to improve sequence comparison is still a problem. This paper proposed a new statistical method that integrates the overlapping structures and the background information of the words in biological sequences. To assess the effectiveness of this integration for sequence comparison, two sets of evaluation experiments were taken to test the proposed model. The first one, performed via receiver operating curve analysis, is the application of proposed method in discrimination between functionally related regulatory sequences and unrelated sequences, intron and exon. The second experiment is to evaluate the performance of the proposed method with f-measure for clustering Hepatitis E virus genotypes. It was demonstrated that the proposed method integrating the overlapping structures and the background information of words significantly improves biological sequence comparison and outperforms the existing models.

Dai, Qi; Li, Lihua; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yao, Yuhua; Zhao, Fukun; Zhang, Michael

2011-01-01

39

Nursing research: historical background and teaching information strategies.  

PubMed Central

The expansion of research-based literature is one of the foremost goals of the nursing profession. Linked to this goal are the utilization and further development of nursing libraries. This paper discusses some historical factors that have influenced nursing literature. It presents a model for teaching graduate nursing students the relationship between research and library information skills.

Sarkis, J M; Conners, V L

1986-01-01

40

Cross Cultural Strategies: Background Information For Teachers of Indian Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet was designed as a source of information for teachers seeking a deeper understanding of Native American children and who want to take advantage of opportunities offered by a cross-cultural classroom. The first section is a collection of 13 articles from a wide variety of sources on various aspects of cross-cultural education. Each…

Council for Yukon Indians, Whitehorse (Yukon). Curriculum Development Program.

41

Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nat

42

US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions  

SciTech Connect

A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

1984-03-01

43

Representing Background Information for Product Description to Support Product Development Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an attempt to capture and to represent product information, which is used for generating product definition, but is not explicitly represented in product description. In this paper, such information is called background information. It includes requirements, specifications, assumptions, constraints, decision history, trial-and-error processes, and “rationale” in general. It plays an important role by providing information about underlying

Fumihiko Kimura; Hiromasa Suzuki

1995-01-01

44

Study to Develop Background Information for the Direct Meat-Firing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains background information on the direct meat-firing industry (charbroilers and barbecues). The geographical distribution, emission levels, state and local air pollution regulations as well as control techniques for particulate and gaseou...

M. I. Bornstein

1978-01-01

45

Explore the development of information industry in Chongqing—In the background of industrialization and information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the integration of the two opportunities for industrialization and information, to develop Chongqing's Information Industry, to promote the diversity of economic structure to achieve important practical significance and long-term strategic significance. This paper analyzes the status of development and problems of information industry in Chongqing. We did empirical analysis, Chongqing's Information Industry on the impact of regional economic growth,

Zeng Degao; Li Zizhong

2011-01-01

46

Preliminary Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Results from the MAXIMA Balloon Borne Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present preliminary cosmic microwave background anisotropy results from the first flight of the MAXIMA balloon borne experiment. The flight (MAXIMA-1) took place in August of 1998 from the National Scientific Ballooning Facility in Palestine, Texas. During the four hour flight we mapped a 124 deg2 section of the sky which has extremely low galactic dust contamination. The combination of

B. R. Johnson; S. Hanany; P. Ade; A. Balbi; J. Bock; J. Borrill; A. Boscaleri; P. DeBernardis; P. Ferreira; V. Hristov; A. E. Lange; E. Pascale; A. H. Jaffe; A. T. Lee; S. Oh; B. Rabii; P. L. Richards; C. D. Winant; P. Mauskopf; C. B. Netterfield; G. F. Smoot; R. Stompor

2000-01-01

47

Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of

Hendrickson

1986-01-01

48

Students Seeking Access to Four-Year Institutions: Community College Transfers [Background Information].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication provides background information for a hearing by the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education and Outreach on December 3, 1997. The Introduction presents the Committee announcement, press release, agenda, information about transfer efforts in California, facts and figures about the community colleges, and the text…

Moore, Jamillah

49

State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979  

SciTech Connect

Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

1981-11-01

50

Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of Northwest rental housing owners and, to a lesser extent, tenants toward energy conservation and energy-efficiency improvements. Available market research data on these subjects were found to be quite limited. The most useful data were two surveys of Seattle rental housing owners conducted in late 1984 for Seattle City Light. Several other surveys provided supplemental market research information in selected areas. In addition to market research information, the report also includes background information on rental housing characteristics in the Northwest.

Hendrickson, P.L.

1986-02-01

51

RESULTS OF BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION TECHNIQUES ON THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE BEAM LOSS MONITORS  

SciTech Connect

Recent improvements to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) beam loss monitor (BLM) designs have been made with the goal of significantly reducing background noise. This paper outlines this effort and analyzes the results. The significance of this noise reduction is the ability to use the BLM sensors [1], [2], [3] distributed throughout the SNS accelerator as a method to monitor activation of components as well as monitor beam losses.

Pogge, James R [ORNL; Zhukov, Alexander P [ORNL

2010-01-01

52

First results from the Very Small Array - III. The cosmic microwave background power spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the power spectrum of the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background detected by the Very Small Array (VSA) in its first season of observations in its compact configuration. We find clear detections of first and second acoustic peaks at l~ 200 and ~550, plus detection of power on scales up to l= 800. The VSA power spectrum is in very good agreement with the results of the BOOMERanG, DASI and MAXIMA telescopes despite the differing potential systematic errors.

Scott, Paul F.; Carreira, Pedro; Cleary, Kieran; Davies, Rod D.; Davis, Richard J.; Dickinson, Clive; Grainge, Keith; Gutiérrez, Carlos M.; Hobson, Michael P.; Jones, Michael E.; Kneissl, Rüdiger; Lasenby, Anthony; Maisinger, Klaus; Pooley, Guy G.; Rebolo, Rafael; Rubiño-Martin, José Alberto; Sosa Molina, Pedro J.; Rusholme, Ben; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Savage, Richard; Slosar, Anže; Taylor, Angela C.; Titterington, David; Waldram, Elizabeth; Watson, Robert A.; Wilkinson, Althea

2003-06-01

53

AIRWATCH from SPACE: preliminary results from lab. measurements and from balloon background observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the AIRWATCH from SPACE mission, measurements of efficiency of UV yield, in air and in Nitrogen, have been performed using X-ray photons of 22 keV at the LAX X-Ray Beam Facility in Palermo. Results are reported and discussed. The nightglow has been observed with the instrument dubbed BABY (BAckground BYpass) from an altitude of 26 Km during a balloon flight from the Trapani-Milo Base in Sicily. Data profile are presented, showing the difference between over-land and over-sea detector exposition in the range of 300-400 nanometers.

Giarrusso, S.; Catalano, O.; La Rosa, G.; Linsley, J.; Maccarone, M. C.; Sacco, B.; Scarsi, L.; AIRWATCH Collaboration

1998-12-01

54

Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations is reported. An environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program was developed. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakdown conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. An environmental

J. B. Cannon

1983-01-01

55

Genetic Background Has a Major Impact on Differences in Sleep Resulting from Environmental Influences in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To determine the effect of different genetic backgrounds on demographic and environmental interventions that affect sleep and evaluate variance of these measures; and to evaluate sleep and variance of sleep behaviors in 6 divergent laboratory strains of common origin. Design: Assessment of the effects of age, sex, mating status, food sources, and social experience using video analysis of sleep behavior in 2 different strains of Drosophila, white1118ex (w1118ex) and white Canton-S (wCS10). Sleep was also determined for 6 laboratory strains of Canton-S and 3 inbred lines. The variance of total sleep was determined for all groups and conditions. Measurements and Results: The circadian periods and the effects of age upon sleep were the same between w1118ex and wCS10 strains. However, the w1118ex and wCS10 strains demonstrated genotype-dependent differences in the effects upon sleep of sex, mating status, social experience, and being on different foods. Variance of total sleep was found to differ in a genotype dependent manner for interventions between the w1118ex and wCS10 strains. Six different laboratory Canton-S strains were found to have significantly different circadian periods (P < 0.001) and sleep phenotypes (P < 0.001). Three inbred lines showed reduced variance for sleep measurements. Conclusions: One must control environmental conditions in a rigorously consistent manner to ensure that sleep data may be compared between experiments. Genetic background has a significant impact upon changes in sleep behavior and variance of behavior due to demographic factors and environmental interventions. This represents an opportunity to discover new genes that modify sleep/wake behavior. Citation: Zimmerman JE; Chan MT; Jackson N; Maislin G; Pack AI. Genetic background has a major impact on differences in sleep resulting from environmental influences in Drosophila. SLEEP 2012;35(4):545-557.

Zimmerman, John E.; Chan, May T.; Jackson, Nicholas; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Allan I.

2012-01-01

56

Common genetic background in anorexia nervosa and obsessive compulsive disorder: preliminary results from an association study.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence, including psychopathological, neurobiological, pharmacological and epidemiological data, supported the association between Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis of partial common genetic background of both disease, AN and OCD. A total of 116 patients with AN, 74 patients with OCD and 91 controls participated in this study. 213 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 28 candidate genes were analyzed. Five SNPs achieved 0.004 (the nominal p-value expected by chance), 3 with empirical significant p-values (rs10070190 (CDH9) p = 1 × 10(-3), rs4825476 (GRIA3) p = 4 × 10(-4), and rs1074815 (TPH2) p = 8 × 10(-4)) and 2 additional polymorphisms showing nominal significance (rs2834070 (OLIG2) p = 2 × 10(-3) and rs11783752 (SCL18A1) p = 3 × 10(-3)), were found to be related to both AN and OCD. In addition, rs3825885 (NTRK3, p = 9 × 10(-4)) was identified as an AN risk variant, and rs11179027 (TPH2, p = 2 × 10(-3)) as an OCD marker. The ROC analysis confirmed these results and showed interaction among the significant SNPs. The preliminary results we report here reveal a partial common genetic background in AN and OCD, in agreement with previous clinical findings of common symptomathology between these two diseases and open the field of possible treatments for AN. The interaction observed between the associated polymorphisms, could indicate that there is a biological interaction between the serotonin (TPH2 and SLC18A1) and glutamate (GRIA3) pathways and the factors related to neurogenesis (CDH9, OLIG2 and NTRK3) for the explanation of etiopathophysiology in both diseases. However, the results must be replicated in studies with larger cohorts in order to confirm these associations. PMID:23337130

Mas, Sergi; Plana, Maria Teresa; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Gassó, Patricia; Lafuente, Amalia; Moreno, Elena; Martinez, Esteban; Milà, Montserrat; Lazaro, Luisa

2013-01-19

57

Solar cycle study of interplanetary Lyman-alpha variations - Pioneer Venus Orbiter sky background results  

SciTech Connect

PVO observations of the interplanetary Ly-alpha (IPL) background, obtained over an entire solar cycle (SC) from 1979 to 1985, are compiled and analyzed statistically, along with data from other instruments and earlier solar cycles. The results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Findings reported include SC variation of 1.8 for the longitudinally averaged IPL intensity (in agreement with the variation of the 27-d disk-averaged integrated solar Ly-alpha flux), yearly averaged ecliptic H-atom lifetime at 1 AU equal to 1.0 Ms at solar minimum and 1.5 Ms at solar maximum, interplanetary H density equal to 0.07 + or - 0.01/cu cm, and interplanetary H/He within the heliopause but far from the sun of 7 + or - 3. 74 references.

Ajello, J.M.; Stewart, A.I.; Thomas, G.E.; Graps, A.

1987-06-01

58

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and background rejection with event position information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low- ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

Wang, Gensheng

59

Gasoline distribution industry (stage i). Background information for promulgated standards. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This background information document provides technical information and analyses used in the development of the final NESHAP and Agency responses to public comments on the proposed rule. The alternatives analyzed are to limit emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from existing and new Stage I gasoline distribution facilities. Stage I sources include bulk gasoline terminals and plants, pipeline facilities, and underground storage tanks at service stations. Emissions of HAP`s from these facilities occur during gasoline tank truck and railcar loading, gasoline storage, and from vapor leaks from tank trucks, pumps, valves, flanges and other equipment in gasoline service.

Jordan, B.C.

1994-11-01

60

Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations is reported. An environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program was developed. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakdown conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. An environmental impact statement on magnetic fusion will be based with this reference as a principle.

Cannon, J. B.

1983-08-01

61

Digital Diorama: AR Exhibition System to Convey Background Information for Museums  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we propose a MR museum exhibition system, the “Digital Diorama” system, to convey background information intuitively.\\u000a The The system aims to offer more features than the function of existing dioramas in museum exhibitions by using mixed reality\\u000a technology. The system superimposes computer generated diorama scene reconstructed from related image\\/video materials onto\\u000a real exhibits. First, we implement and

Takuji Narumi; Oribe Hayashi; Kazuhiro Kasada; Mitsuhiko Yamazaki; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose

62

Arctic transitions in the Land - Atmosphere System (ATLAS): Background, objectives, results, and future directions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper briefly reviews the background, objectives, and results of the Arctic Transitions in the Land-Atmosphere System (ATLAS) Project to date and provides thoughts on future directions. The key goal of the ATLAS Project is to improve understanding of controls over spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial processes in the Arctic that have potential consequences for the climate system, i.e., processes that affect the exchange of water and energy with the atmosphere, the exchange of radiatively active gases with the atmosphere, and the delivery of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. Three important conclusions have emerged from research associated with the ATLAS Project. First, associated with the observation that the Alaskan Arctic has warmed significantly in the last 30 years, permafrost is warming, shrubs are expanding, and there has been a temporary release of carbon dioxide from tundra soils. Second, the winter is a more important period of biological activity than previously appreciated. Biotic processes, including shrub expansion and decomposition, affect snow structure and accumulation and affect the annual carbon budget of tundra ecosystems. Third, observed vegetation changes can have a significant positive feedback to regional warming. These vegetation effects are, however, less strong than those exerted by land-ocean heating contrasts and the topographic constraints on air mass movements. The papers of this special section provide additional insights related to these conclusions and to the overall goal of ATLAS.

McGuire, A. D.; Sturm, M.; Chapin, III, F. S.

2003-01-01

63

Using Hand-Held Computers When Conducting National Security Background Interviews: Utility Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Defense Personnel Security Research Center (PERSEREC) and the Department of State (DOS) collaborated to test whether background investigators are able and willing to conduct interviews with a tablet computer. Discussions were held with seven DOS inves...

E. L. Lang J. E. Leather J. S. Leggitt

2010-01-01

64

June 29, 2012: Background Materials  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Drug Administration. -. June 29, 2012: Background Materials. -. June 29, 2012: Background Information Memo. -. -. -. Page Last ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/riskcommunicationadvisorycommittee

65

Background frequency, information content, and the scoring matrix in sequence alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequence alignment tools for protein/DNA sequences have been widely used to find homologous biosequences over the past few decades. In these automated procedures, the target similarity between the two sequences compared is largely determined by the scoring matrix used. Theoretically, each matrix element of the scoring matrix is a log-odd ratio, i.e., the logarithm of the target frequency over the background frequency. In real alignment applications, however, the theoretical criterion is often overlooked. In this talk, we will present a sensible solution to forcibly maintain the theoretical criterion. We will also discuss the information content of the scoring matrix.

Yu, Yi-Kuo; Altschul, Stephen

2003-03-01

66

Solar cycle study of interplanetary Lyman-alpha variations - Pioneer Venus Orbiter sky background results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have completed an analysis of the Pioneer Venus (PV) interplanetary Lyalpha (IP Lyalpha) sky background observations obtained from 1979 to 1985. This data set completes the first solar cycle maximum to minimum study of IP Lyalpha. A reanalysis of earlier IP Lyalpha observations by OGO 5 and Mariner 10 is also presented. It is found that the 27

J. M. Ajello; A. I. Stewart; G. E. Thomas; A. Graps

1987-01-01

67

Planck early results. XVIII. The power spectrum of cosmic infrared background anisotropies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Planck maps of six regions of low Galactic dust emission with a total area of about 140 deg2, we determine the angular power spectra of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies from multipole l = 200 to l = 2000 at 217, 353, 545 and 857 GHz. We use 21-cm observations of Hi as a tracer of thermal dust emission

P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; J. G. Bartlett; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; R. Bhatia; K. Blagrave; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; L. Bonavera; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; P. Cabella; J.-F. Cardoso; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; L.-Y. Chiang; C. Chiang; P. R. Christensen; D. L. Clements; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; F. Cuttaia; L. Danese; R. D. Davies; R. J. Davis; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Zotti; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; H. Dole; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; H. K. Eriksen; F. Finelli; O. Forni; P. Fosalba; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; M. Giard; G. Giardino; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; J. Grain; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; F. K. Hansen; D. Harrison; G. Helou; S. Henrot-Versillé; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; W. A. Holmes; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; A. H. Jaffe; W. C. Jones; M. Juvela; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; J.-M. Lamarre; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; R. Leonardi; C. Leroy; P. B. Lilje; M. Linden-Vørnle; F. J. Lockman; M. López-Caniego; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; C. J. MacTavish; B. Maffei; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; P. Martin; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; A. Melchiorri; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; S. Mitra; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; G. Morgante; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; I. J. O'Dwyer; S. Oliver; S. Osborne; F. Pajot; F. Pasian; G. Patanchon; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; D. Pinheiro Gonçalves; S. Plaszczynski; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; T. Poutanen; G. Prézeau; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; J. P. Rachen; W. T. Reach; M. Reinecke; M. Remazeilles; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; M. Rowan-Robinson; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; M. Sandri; D. Santos; G. Savini; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; P. Shellard; G. F. Smoot; J.-L. Starck; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Stompor; R. Sudiwala; R. Sunyaev; J.-F. Sygnet; J. A. Tauber; L. Terenzi; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; G. Umana; L. Valenziano; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; L. A. Wade; B. D. Wandelt; M. White; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca

2011-01-01

68

The Effects of Background Information and Syntactic Cues in Reading French Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared two groups of intermediate/advanced L2 French learners on a reading comprehension test when presented with or without background knowledge of the text. This study also compared intermediate and intermediate/advanced L2 French learners' reading comprehension when presented with increasing syntactic complexity. The results of…

Garrott, Carl L.

2009-01-01

69

When is ERIC Useful? A Background and Current Overview of the Education Resources Information Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) underwent substantial change during the 2004 contract cycle. Since it began in 1966, it has always been a highly respected and heavily used bibliographic resource, but some users are unaware of its current status due to the recent changes in its format and availability. This update highlights major developments and assesses the resulting ERIC

Kate Corby

2009-01-01

70

SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF SX TANK FARM AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH MAGNETICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the background characterization of the cribs and trenches surrounding the SX tank farm prepared by HydroGEOPHYSICS Inc, Columbia Energy & Environmental Services Inc and Washington River Protection Solutions.

MYERS DA; RUCKER D; LEVIT M; CUBBAGE B; HENDERSON C

2009-09-24

71

The Thesaurus in Action. Background Information for a Thesaurus Workshop at the Annual Convention of the American Society for Information Science (32nd), October 1969, San Francisco, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five facets of background information are intended to be helpful to persons interested in the construction and use of a thesaurus, in the sense of a standardized language for communication with and between information storage and retrieval systems. TEST i...

P. C. Daniels T. L. Gillum W. Hammond J. G. Peirce F. Y. Speight

1969-01-01

72

Integration and health-related quality of life of undergraduate medical students with migration backgrounds - Results of a survey  

PubMed Central

Objective: Most medical faculties in Germany are still lacking differentiated counseling programmes for specific target groups. The purpose of the present study was to determine the quality of life and integration of students with migration backgrounds and their interests in counseling programmes. Methods: Data was collected at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. Participants were students of the undergraduate medical course; n=890 (89.3%) students without migration backgrounds were compared to n=107 (10.7%) students with an existing migration background. Results: The results showed that medical students with migration backgrounds reported lower scores for health-related quality of life compared to students without a migration background. They felt less accepted and supported by their fellow students and had fewer contacts with other students. Medical students with migration backgrounds were characterised by a higher interest in the implementation of a counseling programme (Z=–3.420; p=.001). Conclusions: In summary, medical students with migration backgrounds were identified as a group with an increased need for a specific counseling service. Lower scores of mental health and feelings of inferior integration set the necessity for early counseling and intervention needs.

Kurre, Jennifer; Scholl, Johanna; Bullinger, Monika; Petersen-Ewert, Corinna

2011-01-01

73

Effects of Public Regulation on the U.S. Copper Industry. Volume IV, Background Information and Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume is intended to provide basic background information and analysis upon which methodologies for the assessment of regulatory impacts on the copper industry can be built and subsequent actual measurements of those impacts made. Although much of th...

1978-01-01

74

CLAST Results, October 2001. Information Capsule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document addresses the CLAST results for Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) in 2001. The results can be useful in developing strategies to enhance the CLAST pass rates of M-DCC students. Specifically, the document addresses the following three areas: first time and retake pass rates, performance of first time examinees by skill area,…

Rodriguez, Silvio

75

CLAST Results, February 2002. Information Capsule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document addresses the CLAST results for Miami Dade Community College (M-DCC) in 2002. The results can be useful in developing strategies to enhance the CLAST pass rates of M-DCC students. Specifically, the document addresses the following three areas: first time and retake pass rates, performance of first time examinees by skill area,…

Rodriguez, Silvio

76

CLAST Results, June 2002. Information Capsule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document addresses the CLAST results for Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) in June 2002. The results can be useful in developing strategies to enhance the CLAST pass rates of M-DCC students. Specifically, the document addresses the following three areas: first time pass rate increases in essay, reading, and mathematics, education majors…

Rodriguez, Silvio

77

Cosmological and Astrophysical Information Content in the Low Radio Frequency 21-cm Background from High Redshifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will discuss the prospects for extracting cosmological and astrophysical parameters from the low radio frequency 21-cm background due to the spin-flip transition of neutral Hydrogen during and prior to the reionization of the Universe with radio interferometric arrays such as LOFAR and SKA We will discuss the measurement of the angular power spectrum of 21-cm anistropies, which exists due to inhomogeneities in the neutral Hydrogen density field, the gas temperature field, the intensity of the Lyman-alpha radiation from first luminous sources that emit UV photons, and the gas velocity. We consider the general case where fluctuations are induced by a variety of sources during the era of reionization. We attempt to extract parameters that describe both the underlying mass power spectrum and the global cosmology, as well as a set of simplified astrophysical parameters that connect fluctuations in the dark matter to those that govern 21-cm fluctuations by marginalizing over a model for the foregrounds at low radio frequencies. In this general description, we find large degeneracies between cosmological parameters and astrophysical parameters, though such degeneracies are not present when strong assumptions are made with respect to the spin temperature relative to the CMB temperature. Some of the parameter degeneracies are broken when 21-cm measurements are combined with information from the CMB, such as anisotropy and polarization measurements with Planck. For upcoming low frequency radio interferometers, the overall improvement on the cosmological parameter estimates when combined with Planck is not significant; we suggest that low radio frequency 21-cm measurements are, at best, suitable to understand certain astrophysical details during the era of recombination, but neither the shape of the power spectrum nor the global cosmological parameters.

Cooray, A.

2006-08-01

78

Tautatietoa turvesoiden jaelkikaeytoestae. (Background information of utilization of peat bogs after production).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This information booklet deals with possible ways of utilization of peat bogs after they have been removed from production. The booklet contain information on the present usage of peatlands. It also describes the possibilities to use old production fields...

1989-01-01

79

Measuring of low activity materials resulted from decommissioning of NPP`s in low-background chamber  

SciTech Connect

The decommissioning of power plants results in dismantled equipment of which some is not radioactive and could be used without restrictions. The IAEA has released recommendations for such materials useage. The definition of unrestricted useage is fulfiled by the organization of the radiation control procedure providing the principle of not exceeding the radioactive contamination level of this material set by criteria for unrestricted use. Gamma spectroscopic analysis must be performed on a great number of samples for which activity is less than or equal to background radiation. For this purpose, the low-background activity chambers can be utilized.

Kornitski, A.S.; Kazakov, V.A.; Lysenko, V.V. [and others

1993-12-31

80

Using EXO-200 Results to Make Background Projections for the Next Generation EXO Detector (nEXO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation of neutrino-less double beta decay would provide a window to new physics, specifically answering questions on the true nature and absolute mass of the neutrino and the validity of lepton number conservation in the Standard Model. The EXO (Enriched Xenon Observatory) collaboration has set a limit on the half-life of this extremely rare decay and continues to take data with the current generation of the experiment, EXO-200, which uses 200 kg of xenon that has been enriched to 80% ^136Xe. In order to probe inverted mass hierarchy for neutrinos, it is necessary to build a bigger detector that will have a greater sensitivity to the neutrino-less double beta decay half-life. The next generation of the EXO experiment, dubbed nEXO, is proposed to include a time projection chamber that holds about 5,000 kg of liquid xenon. The main questions to be answered at this stage are what backgrounds will be encountered and how they will affect the physics capabilities with a detector of this magnitude. Data from EXO-200 was used to help determine potential backgrounds from detector materials, shielding materials, and mine rock. This information was used to simulate the backgrounds of nEXO and to estimate its physics reach.

Johnson, Tessa

2013-04-01

81

Health Information Technology— Results From a Roundtable Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health information technology (HIT), notably e-prescribing and electronic health records (EHR), have the potential to improve the quality of care, reduce medication errors and adverse events, and decrease overall health care utilization and costs. However, the United States continues to lag behind other countries in the adoption and use of HIT. OBJECTIVE: To review the various issues surrounding the

Steven Evans; Jeff Januska; Steve R. Nolan; Mark Noga

82

Fugitive Dust Background Document and Technical Information Document for Best Available Control Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document provides technical information for developing fugitive dust (FD) best available control measures (BACM) strategies in areas designated serious nonattainment for PM-10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 ...

R. Dunkins C. Cowherd

1992-01-01

83

Managing the waste stream: Background information for planning source separation programs. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document includes a variety of data that can be used to help plan recycling and yard waste collection and composting programs. The report was written primarily as a reference for people using the Recycling Planning and Evaluation Program (REPEP), a simple, spreadsheet computer program for planning recycling programs. Much of the information and some of the default data in

G. Lindsey; L. Lechner

1989-01-01

84

Volatile organic compound emissions from automobile refinishing. Background information for proposed standards. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

A draft rule for the regulation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from automible refinishing is being proposed under the authority of Section 183(e) of the Clean Air Act. This document contains information on the automobile refinish industry, and presents control options and their associated environmental and cost impacts.

NONE

1995-08-01

85

[A Packet of Information on the Background of the AFT-NEA Merger Break.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains informational materials about the breakdown in merger talks between the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and the National Education Association (NEA). Included in the packet are (a) the AFT statement on the breakup of unity talks; (b) transcripts of two news conferences by David Selden, president of the AFT, on the…

American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

86

Product information with enhanced background description for improved revision of decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of products has been organized around product lifecycle management (PLM) systems during the past decade in leading industries. In mechatronics, where product structures are very complex and inhomogeneous, it is urgent to apply high level information technology for engineering purposes. The new style of engineering, where engineers work in remote workplaces and communicate through sophisticated model of product is

László Horváth; Imre J. Rudas; Nicola Belfiore

2008-01-01

87

Product Definition in Virtual Space Using Background information at Description of Engineering Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current technology of engineering has reached a level where lifecycle product information, comprehensive sets of model creation procedures, product data management, and Internet based communication environment serve integrated group work of engineers. It is inevitable, that the next main phase of development of the digital product definition is enriching content of product model in order to more intelligent decision support

LÁSZLÓ HORVÁTH; IMRE J. RUDAS

88

The Temperature of the Cosmic Background Radiation: Results fromthe 1987 and 1988 Measurements at 3.8 GHz  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the temperature of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at a frequency of 3.8 GHz (7.9 cm wavelength), during two consecutive summers, obtaining a brightness temperature, T{sub CBR}, of 2.56 {+-} 0.08 K in 1987 and 2.71 {+-} 0.07 K in 1988 (68% confidence level). The new results are in agreement with our previous measurement at 3.7 GHz obtained in 1986, and have smaller error bars. Combining measurements from all three years we obtain T{sub CBR} = 2.64 {+-} 0.07 K.

De Amici, Giovanni; Bensadoun, M.; Bersanelli, M.; Kogut, A.; Levine, S.; Smoot, George F.; Witebsky, C.

1989-11-10

89

Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

Sutter, S. L.

1982-05-01

90

Planning serials cancellations and cooperative collection development in the health sciences: methodology and background information.  

PubMed

In an era of steady-state budgets many research and academic libraries must cancel a significant number of current serials to maintain acquisitions of monographs. Thus paper reviews several techniques that have been used or that are of potential use in a rational selection of titles for cancellation. The context of the proposed methodology involves a network of libraries rather than an individual library. The methodology was tested with specific health sciences serial titles held by University of California libraries and resource libraries in NLM Region XI. As a test for the proposed methodology, background data were collected on 600 current foreign language serial titles included in SERLINE and held by at least one of the libraries in the networks of interest. Price, major secondary service coverage with productivity/impact factors, extent of holdings, and average number of recorded circulations per year in several of the libraries were recorded for each title. With the use of several different rules, estimates were made of the subscription savings that might be realized. It seems feasible to extend the same methodology to other groups of serial titles. PMID:1191822

Bourne, C P

1975-10-01

91

A comparison of approximate reasoning results using information uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

An Approximate Reasoning (AR) model is a useful alternative to a probabilistic model when there is a need to draw conclusions from information that is qualitative. For certain systems, much of the information available is elicited from subject matter experts (SME). One such example is the risk of attack on a particular facility by a pernicious adversary. In this example there are several avenues of attack, i.e. scenarios, and AR can be used to model the risk of attack associated with each scenario. The qualitative information available and provided by the SME is comprised of linguistic values which are well suited for an AR model but meager for other modeling approaches. AR models can produce many competing results. Associated with each competing AR result is a vector of linguistic values and a respective degree of membership in each value. A suitable means to compare and segregate AR results would be an invaluable tool to analysts and decisions makers. A viable method would be to quantify the information uncertainty present in each AR result then use the measured quantity comparatively. One issue of concern for measuring the infornlation uncertainty involved with fuzzy uncertainty is that previously proposed approaches focus on the information uncertainty involved within the entire fuzzy set. This paper proposes extending measures of information uncertainty to AR results, which involve only one degree of membership for each fuzzy set included in the AR result. An approach to quantify the information uncertainty in the AR result is presented.

Chavez, Gregory [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Key, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zerkle, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shevitz, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

92

Sox17 haploinsufficiency results in perinatal biliary atresia and hepatitis in C57BL/6 background mice.  

PubMed

Congenital biliary atresia is an incurable disease of newborn infants, of unknown genetic causes, that results in congenital deformation of the gallbladder and biliary duct system. Here, we show that during mouse organogenesis, insufficient SOX17 expression in the gallbladder and bile duct epithelia results in congenital biliary atresia and subsequent acute 'embryonic hepatitis', leading to perinatal death in ~95% of the Sox17 heterozygote neonates in C57BL/6 (B6) background mice. During gallbladder and bile duct development, Sox17 was expressed at the distal edge of the gallbladder primordium. In the Sox17(+/-) B6 embryos, gallbladder epithelia were hypoplastic, and some were detached from the luminal wall, leading to bile duct stenosis or atresia. The shredding of the gallbladder epithelia is probably caused by cell-autonomous defects in proliferation and maintenance of the Sox17(+/-) gallbladder/bile duct epithelia. Our results suggest that Sox17 plays a dosage-dependent function in the morphogenesis and maturation of gallbladder and bile duct epithelia during the late-organogenic stages, highlighting a novel entry point to the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of human congenital biliary atresia. PMID:23293295

Uemura, Mami; Ozawa, Aisa; Nagata, Takumi; Kurasawa, Kaoruko; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Nobuhisa, Ikuo; Taga, Tetsuya; Hara, Kenshiro; Kudo, Akihiko; Kawakami, Hayato; Saijoh, Yukio; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kanai, Yoshiakira

2013-02-01

93

A Joint Model of the X-Ray and Infrared Extragalactic Backgrounds. I. Model Construction and First Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an extragalactic population model of the cosmic background light to interpret the rich high-quality survey data in the X-ray and IR bands. The model incorporates star formation and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion in a co-evolution scenario to fit simultaneously 617 data points of number counts, redshift distributions, and local luminosity functions (LFs) with 19 free parameters. The model has four main components, the total IR LF, the SMBH accretion energy fraction in the IR band, the star formation spectral energy distribution (SED), and the unobscured SMBH SED extinguished with a H I column density distribution. As a result of the observational uncertainties about the star formation and SMBH SEDs, we present several variants of the model. The best-fit reduced ?2 reaches as small as 2.7-2.9 of which a significant amount (>0.8) is contributed by cosmic variances or caveats associated with data. Compared to previous models, the unique result of this model is to constrain the SMBH energy fraction in the IR band that is found to increase with the IR luminosity but decrease with redshift up to z ~ 1.5; this result is separately verified using aromatic feature equivalent-width data. The joint modeling of X-ray and mid-IR data allows for improved constraints on the obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN), especially the Compton-thick AGN population. All variants of the model require that Compton-thick AGN fractions decrease with the SMBH luminosity but increase with redshift while the type 1 AGN fraction has the reverse trend. .

Shi, Yong; Helou, George; Armus, Lee; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Dale, Daniel

2013-02-01

94

Background Information about PLCO  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large population-based randomized trial evaluating screening programs for these cancers. The primary goal of this long-term trial of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and on secondary endpoints.

95

Background Information for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

2001-01-01

96

Test Score Results by Sex and Perceptual Type When Background Music Accompanies Film, Filmstrip, and Lecture Presentations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of background music with lecture tapes, filmstrips, and films in teaching freshman psychology concepts was investigated. Comparisons were made of media effect on visual or non-visual (haptic) and male or female learners, using experiments of 60 students each, with 20 subjects used for all treatment conditions. Three classes viewed…

Raburn, Josephine; Tyson, LaWanda

97

Test Score Results by Sex and Perceptual Type When Background Music Accompanies Film, Filmstrip, and Lecture Presentations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effect of background music with lecture tapes, filmstrips, and films in teaching freshman psychology concepts was investigated. Comparisons were made of media effect on visual or non-visual (haptic) and male or female learners, using experiments of 60 students each, with 20 subjects used for all treatment conditions. Three classes viewed…

Raburn, Josephine; Tyson, LaWanda

98

Information Services Faculty/Staff Survey Results. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the fall term of 2001, Piedmont Virginia Community College (PVCC) (Virginia) distributed a survey to faculty and staff regarding the information technology facilities and services at the college. A total of 62 surveys were returned, for a response rate of 18.6%. This report details the survey results. Highlights include: (1) overall,…

Shields, Jennifer A.; Self, Charlotte C.

99

You don't have to believe everything you read: background knowledge permits fast and efficient validation of information.  

PubMed

In social cognition, knowledge-based validation of information is usually regarded as relying on strategic and resource-demanding processes. Research on language comprehension, in contrast, suggests that validation processes are involved in the construction of a referential representation of the communicated information. This view implies that individuals can use their knowledge to validate incoming information in a routine and efficient manner. Consistent with this idea, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that individuals are able to reject false assertions efficiently when they have validity-relevant beliefs. Validation processes were carried out routinely even when individuals were put under additional cognitive load during comprehension. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the rejection of false information occurs automatically and interferes with affirmative responses in a nonsemantic task (epistemic Stroop effect). Experiment 4 also revealed complementary interference effects of true information with negative responses in a nonsemantic task. These results suggest the existence of fast and efficient validation processes that protect mental representations from being contaminated by false and inaccurate information. PMID:19254102

Richter, Tobias; Schroeder, Sascha; Wöhrmann, Britta

2009-03-01

100

Correlated Adiabatic and Isocurvature Cosmic Microwave Background Fluctuations in the Wake of the Results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general correlated models, in addition to the usual adiabatic component with a spectral index nad1 there is another adiabatic component with a spectral index nad2 generated by entropy perturbation during inflation. We extend the analysis of a correlated mixture of adiabatic and isocurvature cosmic microwave background fluctuations of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) group, who set the two adiabatic spectral indices equal. Allowing nad1 and nad2 to vary independently we find that the WMAP data favor models where the two adiabatic components have opposite spectral tilts. Using the WMAP data only, the 2? upper bound for the isocurvature fraction fiso of the initial power spectrum at k0=0.05 Mpc-1 increases somewhat, e.g., from 0.76 of nad2=nad1 models to 0.84 with a prior niso<1.84 for the isocurvature spectral index.

Väliviita, Jussi; Muhonen, Vesa

2003-09-01

101

Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L. [and others

1993-10-01

102

Informing parents about positive newborn screen results: parents' recommendations.  

PubMed

This descriptive study examined parents' reactions to newborn screening (NBS) results and their recommendations for improving communication. Dimensional and content analyses were conducted on interviews with 203 parents of 106 infants having positive NBS results. Diagnostic results confirmed infants as having congenital hypothyroidism (n = 37), cystic fibrosis (n = 26), or being cystic fibrosis (CF)-carriers (n = 43). Parents' reactions ranged from 'very scary' to 'not too concerned'. Most reported feeling shock, panic, and worry; some reported guilt. Parents in the CF and CF-carrier groups preferred face-to-face disclosure as the communication channel; whereas congenital hypothyroidism group parents supported telephone contacts. Parents recommended providers be well informed, honest, and calm; personalize disclosure, avoid jargon, listen carefully, encourage questions, recognize parental distress, offer realistic reassurance, pace amount and rate of information, assess parents' understanding, and refer to specialists. We conclude that provider-patient communication approach and channel can exacerbate or alleviate parents' negative reactions to positive NBS results. PMID:22984167

Salm, Natalie; Yetter, Elena; Tluczek, Audrey

2012-09-14

103

Information Technology for Harvesting NASA Earth Science Research Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Applied Sciences Program has funded the Mississippi Research Consortium (MRC) to develop information technology that will facilitate searches for potential applications of NASA assets to various needs in the earth sciences community. In particular, it will help generate ideas for new ways to use NASA missions, research, and/or models in conjunction with operational decision-making processes (or decision support systems) to achieve a particular benefit to society. In this paper, we describe the development of information technology that will facilitate that ability. The resulting system is called the Earth Science Knowledge Base (ESKB). The ESKB contains and index relevant NASA research result publications in a database that is compatible with the evolving NASA "Mission to Models" (M2M) database and shares relevant table space with it. In particular, fields from this system identifying relevant NASA missions, models, and data products are used to cross-index the data collected on published results of research projects. Fields characterizing the research results based on the six earth science focus areas and the twelve applications of national priority are included. In the course of developing the ESKB, novel uses of existing online databases and search tools have been developed. In addition, data mining tools have been developed for facilitating the proper characterization of research results. In addition to research results, the ESKB includes data that characterizes the current network of NASA earth science partners. This includes information on organizations and agencies funded by or partnered with NASA to conduct earth science research, technology, and applications projects. The relationships between NASA programs and project sponsors are also captured in this knowledge base. The ESKB is implemented as a client-server system that will allow access and updates from a distributed network of users. It has a user-friendly interface designed to facilitate the identification of potential solutions which bring benefits to society though the use of NASA missions, data, models, and research results. The system is currently undergoing beta testing but is expected to be more widely available at the time of this paper's presentation, when we will present a status update and describe how to access it.

Aanstoos, J. V.; Shaw, D.; O'Hara, C.; Frisbie, T.

2007-12-01

104

Continuing Education Services. How Public Libraries Can Expand Educational Horizons for All Americans. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet, prepared as background information for the White House Conference, describes recent developments in providing learners' advisory services to adults beyond traditional school and college age. In particular, it focuses on the Woodbridge, New J...

E. N. Layne

1979-01-01

105

Personnel Reactions to Incentives, Naval Conditions and Experiences (PRINCE): Demographic and Background Information, Expectations, Attitudes, Values and Motivations of New Recruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a longitudinal study of the reactions of enlisted personnel incentives, Naval conditions and experiences, information on backgrounds, expectations, attitudes, values and motivations were obtained at entry into the Navy from 6,795 recruits in Ca...

A. Katz

1971-01-01

106

Sex on television and its impact on american youth: background and results from the RAND Television and Adolescent Sexuality study.  

PubMed

Many policy makers and parents have called for stricter regulation of television, fearing that the sexual content in this medium spurs adolescent sexual activity. Media theory and research over the last few decades are consistent with this notion but fall short of answering the question of whether television content is causally related to adolescent sexual behavior. This article briefly reviews this earlier work and discusses the results of several new studies based on the RAND Television and Adolescent Sexuality data set. Practitioners should discuss television use and television portrayals of sex with adolescents, and help youth to identity and avoid any adverse effects the media might have on their sexual development and sexual behavior. PMID:15936664

Collins, Rebecca L

2005-07-01

107

15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Prepublication review by a sponsor of university research solely...proprietary information that the sponsor has furnished to the researchers...release of information from a corporate sponsor to university researchers...

2010-01-01

108

15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2) Prepublication review by a sponsor of university research solely...proprietary information that the sponsor has furnished to the researchers...release of information from a corporate sponsor to university researchers...

2013-01-01

109

15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Prepublication review by a sponsor of university research solely...proprietary information that the sponsor has furnished to the researchers...release of information from a corporate sponsor to university researchers...

2009-01-01

110

Experiences with nutrition-related information during antenatal care of pregnant women of different ethnic backgrounds residing in the area of Oslo, Norway.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: to explore experiences with nutrition-related information during routine antenatal care among women of different ethnical backgrounds. DESIGN: individual interviews with seventeen participants were conducted twice during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis were inspired by an interpretative phenomenological approach. SETTING: participants were purposively recruited at eight Mother and Child Health Centres in the area of Oslo, Norway, where they received antenatal care. PARTICIPANTS: participants had either immigrant backgrounds from African and Asian countries (n=12) or were ethnic Norwegian (n=5). Participants were pregnant with their first child and had a pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index above 25kg/m(2). FINDINGS: participants experienced that they were provided with little nutrition-related information in antenatal care. The information was perceived as presented in very general terms and focused on food safety. Weight management and the long-term prevention of diet-related chronic diseases had hardly been discussed. Participants with immigrant backgrounds appeared to be confused about information given by the midwife which was incongruent with their original food culture. The participants were actively seeking for nutrition-related information and had to navigate between various sources of information. CONCLUSIONS: the midwife is considered a trustworthy source of nutrition-related information. Therefore, antenatal care may have considerable potential to promote a healthy diet to pregnant women. Findings suggest that nutrition communication in antenatal care should be more tailored towards women's dietary habits and cultural background, nutritional knowledge as well as level of nutrition literacy. PMID:23481338

M Garnweidner, Lisa; Sverre Pettersen, Kjell; Mosdøl, Annhild

2013-03-01

111

Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a “Y” junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re-entry survey, and routine surveys around the crater lip did not identify alpha contamination. Background information includes several radiological surveys conducted after these two tests. The MULLET area has been surveyed frequently. The early surveys indicate the area as both contaminated and containing buried radioactive material. A survey conducted in 1970 found the radiological/chemical piping partially intact, including the “Y” junction, and shows two runs of intact piping running past the U2am crater lip. The survey focused on the piping system itself and detected alpha contamination from 4 counts per minute (cpm) to 900,000 cpm. The highest value was at a pipe flange between a dirt pile and a dirt berm within the current site fence line. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. A 1972 survey was essentially a repeat of the 1970 survey; however, it does not show the “Y” junction nor does it show piping extending past the U2am crater lip. It also shows a new fence line separating the radiological/chemical piping from the U2am crater area with all piping within the fence. Alpha contamination was detected on pipe flanges during the survey, but alpha contamination was not detected on the dirt pile or the dirt berm. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. Additional surveys were conducted in 1986, 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996. One of the surveys focused on determining the extent of soil contamination around GZ. An alpha contamination plume extending approximately 200 feet south of GZ was detected in a swath approximately 100 feet wide. The maximum measurement was 15,000 cpm alpha. All surveys show the piping within the fence line. Recent surveys (2007 and 2008) were performed around the current fence line by the demarcation group. No removable contamination was identified during these surveys. In late 2008, a visual inspection of the site was conducted by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Restoration group. All piping is within the fence line. Photos taken during this site visit are attached.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2012-06-26

112

Health Information Literacy and Competencies of Information Age Students: Results From the Interactive Online Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA)  

PubMed Central

Background In an era of easy access to information, university students who will soon enter health professions need to develop their information competencies. The Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA) is based on the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, and it measures proficiency in obtaining health information, evaluating the quality of health information, and understanding plagiarism. Objective This study aimed to measure the proficiency of college-age health information consumers in finding and evaluating electronic health information; to assess their ability to discriminate between peer-reviewed scholarly resources and opinion pieces or sales pitches; and to examine the extent to which they are aware of their level of health information competency. Methods An interactive 56-item online assessment, the Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA), was used to measure the health information competencies of university students. We invited 400 students to take part in the study, and 308 participated, giving a response rate of 77%. The RRSA included multiple-choice questions and problem-based exercises. Declarative and procedural knowledge were assessed in three domains: finding health information, evaluating health information, and understanding plagiarism. Actual performance was contrasted with self-reported skill level. Upon answering all questions, students received a results page that summarized their numerical results and displayed individually tailored feedback composed by an experienced librarian. Results Even though most students (89%) understood that a one-keyword search is likely to return too many documents, few students were able to narrow a search by using multiple search categories simultaneously or by employing Boolean operators. In addition, nearly half of the respondents had trouble discriminating between primary and secondary sources of information as well as between references to journal articles and other published documents. When presented with questionable websites on nonexistent nutritional supplements, only 50% of respondents were able to correctly identify the website with the most trustworthy features. Less than a quarter of study participants reached the correct conclusion that none of the websites made a good case for taking the nutritional supplements. Up to 45% of students were unsure if they needed to provide references for ideas expressed in paraphrased sentences or sentences whose structure they modified. Most respondents (84%) believed that their research skills were good, very good, or excellent. Students’ self-perceptions of skill tended to increase with increasing level of education. Self-reported skills were weakly correlated with actual skill level, operationalized as the overall RRSA score (Cronbach alpha = .78 for 56 RRSA items). Conclusions While the majority of students think that their research skills are good or excellent, many of them are unable to conduct advanced information searches, judge the trustworthiness of health-related websites and articles, and differentiate between various information sources. Students’ self-reports may not be an accurate predictor of their actual health information competencies.

O'Boyle, Irene; Casey, Anne Marie

2006-01-01

113

Non-librarian health professionals becoming librarians and information specialists: results of an Internet survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To obtain basic information about non-librarian health professionals who become librarians and information specialists. Methods: The survey was a Web-based questionnaire. A non-random sample of persons was obtained by posting messages to several large Internet electronic discussion groups. Individuals who met the selection criteria and were willing to participate filled out a Web-based form designed using common gateway interface (CGI) programming. Results: 118 forms were analyzed. Three subgroups of participants were identified and statistical comparisons among these groups were carried out for many of the quantitative questions. Information concerning reasons they left their original field; factors influencing their choice of the field of library and information science; reactions of family, friends, and colleagues; and interactions with patrons and other information about this group was obtained and summarized. A health sciences background was seen as helpful in the new career as information specialist. Most people were happy with their new profession despite negative reactions from colleagues, relatives, and, occasionally, patrons. Feelings of regret and abandonment of their patients were noted by some. Many persons did not know that peers had made similar career changes. Conclusions: A health sciences background imparts an expertise in both the vocabulary and subject matter of medicine that non-biomedical individuals would not ordinarily have. Although becoming a librarian may be perceived as a very positive career change for an individual, societal opinion and pressure can make such a career change difficult. Nevertheless, participants in this survey demonstrate a high level of satisfaction with their new careers and are quite happy with their work.

Fikar, Charles R.; Corral, Oscar L.

2001-01-01

114

Content of medical information and unpredictable results in Spanish law.  

PubMed

In this study we consider the problem of content of medical information the patient must receive before a medical treatment. Specifically, Spanish law doesn't clarify if doctors must inform patients about every known risk or consequence inherent to an operation, or only about the most probable ones. There have been several contradictory judicial decisions of the Supreme Court about this, and in some cases it's been affirmed that the duty of information is not absolute, while in other decisions it's been affirmed just the opposite. PMID:23447903

Urtasun, Leyre Elizari

2012-12-01

115

School Achievement and Personality. Description of School Achievement in Terms of Ability, Trait, Situational and Background Variables. I: Design and Hypotheses; IV: Results and Discussion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph, done in Helsinki, Finland, contains the first and fourth sections dealing with design, hypotheses, results, and discussion, describing school achievement in terms of ability, trait, situational, and background variables. The report (1) investigates the structure of school achievement, (2) describes school achievement in terms of…

Niskanen, Erkki A.

116

The impact of available information on negotiation results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negotiation is the most famous tool for reaching an agreement between parties. Usually, the different parties can be modeled\\u000a as a buyer and a seller, who negotiate about the price of a given item. In most cases, the parties have incomplete information\\u000a about one another, but they can invest money and efforts in order to acquire information about each other.

Rina Azoulay-Schwartz; Daphna Dor-Shiffer

2010-01-01

117

Hurricane Backgrounder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides basic information on hurricanes. topics include the definition of "hurricane", where they are likely to form, and their potential for damage, including high winds, heavy rainfall, flooding, tornadoes, and microbursts. There is also an illustration showing the Saffir-Simpson scale for classifying hurricane intensity, information on naming hurricanes, and a set of links to additional information.

118

Background Study and Proposals for Development of Information Provision in Science and Technology in Ethiopia. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provision of information for research and development in science and technology in Ethiopia was studied by 50 participants in a seminar on evaluation and analysis of a national information policy and plan. Policy makers and planners, users, producers and suppliers of information, information specialists, and representatives of Unesco (United…

Schwarz, Stephan; Winkel, Annette

119

Background Use of Sensitive Information to Aid in Analysis of Non-sensitive Data on Threats and Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the 9-11 commission’s recommendations on a different way of organizing intelligence activities of the United States\\u000a was to unify the effort in information sharing across the Intelligence Community. Challenges include the need to deal with\\u000a information that is geographically distributed and held in compartmented repositories having restricted access. A demonstrated\\u000a ‘need to know’ is required before the data

Richard A. Smith

2005-01-01

120

Net results: knowledge, information and learning on the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the rapid uptake of information technologies in the higher education sector, in particular the increasing use of the Internet as a resource for academic research. It argues that very little fundamental research is currently being undertaken into the consequences of Internet research, and poses some serious questions that may arise unless serious efforts are put into assessing

Robert Hassan

2001-01-01

121

Air/Ground Wind Shear Information Integration: Flight Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of ...

D. A. Hinton

1992-01-01

122

Using Twitter to Assess Information Needs: Early Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information needs tell us why search terms are used, helping to disambiguate, for example, what exactly people are looking for with queries such as 'Orange' or 'Java'. It is hard to understand goals and motivations, however, from the keywords entered into search engines alone. This paper discusses the pilot analysis of 180,000 tweets, containing search-related terms, to try and understand

Max L. Wilson

123

49 CFR 382.403 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 382.403 Section 382...of results in a management information system. (a) An employer...employer must use the Management Information System (MIS) form and...

2010-10-01

124

49 CFR 382.403 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 382.403 Section 382...of results in a management information system. (a) An employer...employer must use the Management Information System (MIS) form and...

2009-10-01

125

49 CFR 382.403 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 382.403 Section...Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) An...The employer must use the Management Information System (MIS) form...

2012-10-01

126

49 CFR 655.72 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 655.72 Section...Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) Each...employer, you must use the Management Information System (MIS) form...

2012-10-01

127

49 CFR 382.403 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 382.403 Section...Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) An...The employer must use the Management Information System (MIS) form...

2011-10-01

128

49 CFR 655.72 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reporting of results in a management information system. 655.72 Section...Reporting of results in a management information system. (a) Each...employer, you must use the Management Information System (MIS) form...

2011-10-01

129

Crocodiles Farms and the Management of Saltwater Crocodiles in the Northern Territory: Results of a Survey of NT Crocodile Farmers plus Analysis of Secondary Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

After outlining some relevant background information about the NT crocodile farming industry and explaining the purpose of our survey of NT crocodile farmers conducted in the first half of 2005, this paper reports the results of the survey. The information received from the survey is supplemented by secondary data and by information from secondary sources. This report covers the location

Clement A. Tisdell; Clevo Wilson; Swarna Swarna Nantha

2005-01-01

130

Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year.

Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

1980-10-01

131

Information-theoretic solutions to early visual information processing: Analytic results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-dependent evolution equation for the connection strength of a three-layer feed-forward neural network derived from optimizing the information rate is solved accurately at the long-time limit. It is shown that (1) the receptive field is given by the eigenvector of the maximum eigenvalue of the evolution equation, (2) the morphology of the receptive field is divided by a parameter k2 into distinct regions, (3) the receptive field obeys parity invariance for high values of k2 but breaks the parity invariance for values of k2 less than -0.891CQ, and (4) the analytic expressions for the receptive fields are derived. Differences of our results from the theory of Marr and Hildreth [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 207, 187 (1980)] of edge-detection based on the center-surround ?2G filters are presented.

Tang, D. S.

1989-12-01

132

Standardizing Newborn Screening Results for Health Information Exchange  

PubMed Central

Newborn screening (NBS) is a complex process that has high-stakes health implications and requires rapid and effective communication between many people and organizations. Currently, each NBS laboratory has its own method of reporting results to state programs, hospitals and individual providers, with wide variation in content and format. Pediatric care providers receive reports by mail, email, fax or telephone, depending on whether the results are normal or abnormal. This process is slow and prone to errors, which can lead to delays in treatment. Multiple agencies worked together to create national guidance for reporting newborn screening results with HL7 messages that contain a prescribed set of LOINC and SNOMED CT codes, report quantitative test results, and use standardized units of measure. Several states are already implementing this guidance. If the guidance is used nationally, office EHRs could capture NBS results more efficiently, and regional and national registries could better analyze aggregate results to facilitate improvements in NBS and further research for these rare conditions.

Abhyankar, Swapna; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Goodwin, Rebecca; Copeland, Sara; Eichwald, John; Therrell, Bradford L.; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Greg; McDonald, Clement J.

2010-01-01

133

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry-background information for proposed air emission standards. Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, and semi-chemical mills. Interim final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being proposed for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. The document provides technical background information and analyses used in the development of the proposed pulp and paper NESHAP. It covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills. Effluent guideline limitations for pulp and paper mills are being developed concurrently under the Clean Water Act. Technical information used for the development of effluent guideline limitations is in separate documents.

Not Available

1993-10-01

134

Neshaps rulemaking on Nuclear Regulatory Commission and agreement state licensees other than nuclear power reactors. Background information document  

SciTech Connect

Contents: introduction and summary; description of regulatory programs; results of designated survey of NRC-licensed facilities (uranium fuel cycle facilities, test and research reactors, radiopharmaceutical and radiolabeled compound manufacturers, hospitals and medical research facilities, manufacturers of sealed sources, testing of depleted uranium munitions, rare earth and thorium processors (source material), commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal and incineration, and summary of results); results of random survey of licensees; and quality control.

Not Available

1992-11-01

135

Results for outdoor-SLAM using sparse extended information filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In [13], a new algorithm was proposed for efficiently solving the simultaneous localization and mapping,(SLAM) problem. In this paper, we extend this algorithm to handle data associ - ation problems and report real-world results, obtained wit h an outdoor vehicle. We find that our approach performs favor- ably when,compared,to the extended Kalman filter solution from which it is derived.

Yufeng Liu; Sebastian Thrun

2003-01-01

136

Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

1985-06-01

137

Annual report on the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Results of Phase 1 investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many constituents of potential concern for human health occur naturally at low concentrations in undisturbed soils. The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) was undertaken to provide background concentration data on potential contaminants in na...

D. R. Watkins P. L. Goddard T. L. Hatmaker L. A. Hook B. L. Jackson

1993-01-01

138

Acetaminophen: Background and Overview  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version1 Acetaminophen: Background and Overview Gerald J. Dal Pan, MD, MHS ... Page 86. 86 Background 1953 NDA 08-717 (acetaminophen tablet) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

139

IR Background Suppression Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief description of the background suppression scheme is described, and results obtained using the defocussing technique are presented. It has been demonstrated that a background suppression ratio of two orders of magnitudes can be obtained.

O. Shepherd W. P. Reidy T. F. Zehnpfennig G. A. Vanasse A. T. Stair

1977-01-01

140

Informed citizen and empowered citizen in health: results from an European survey  

PubMed Central

Background The knowledge about the relationship between health-related activities on the Internet (i.e. informed citizens) and individuals' control over their own experiences of health or illness (i.e. empowered citizens) is valuable but scarce. In this paper, we investigate the correlation between four ways of using the Internet for information on health or illness and citizens attitudes and behaviours toward health professionals and health systems and establish the profile of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe. Methods Data was collected during April and May 2007 (N = 7022), through computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). Respondents from Denmark, Germany, Greece, Latvia, Norway, Poland and Portugal participated in the survey. The profiles were generated using logistic regressions and are based on: a) socio-demographic and health information, b) the level of use of health-related online services, c) the level of use of the Internet to get health information to decide whether to consult a health professional, prepare for a medical appointment and assess its outcome, and d) the impact of online health information on citizens' attitudes and behavior towards health professionals and health systems. Results Citizens using the Internet to decide whether to consult a health professional or to get a second opinion are likely to be frequent visitors of health sites, active participants of online health forums and recurrent buyers of medicines and other health related products online, while only infrequent epatients, visiting doctors they have never met face-to-face. Participation in online health communities seems to be related with more inquisitive and autonomous patients. Conclusions The profiles of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe are situational and country dependent. The number of Europeans using the Internet to get health information to help them deal with a consultation is raising and having access to online health information seems to be associated with growing number of inquisitive and self-reliant patients. Doctors are increasingly likely to experience consultations with knowledgeable and empowered patients, who will challenge them in various ways.

2011-01-01

141

Taiwan: Background Notes Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concise background information on Taiwan is provided. The publication begins with a profile of Taiwan, discussing the people, geography, political establishment, and economy. A map of the country is provided. The bulk of the publication then provides more detailed information on Taiwan's people, geography, history, administration, political…

Reams, Joanne Reppert

142

Online Pediatric Information Seeking Among Mothers of Young Children: Results From a Qualitative Study Using Focus Groups  

PubMed Central

Background Pre-natal and post-natal periods are times when many women actively seek health information from multiple sources, including the Internet. However, little is known about how pregnant women and mothers of young children seek and process online pediatric health information. Objective To explore why and where mothers of young children look for online health information and how they determine if the information they receive is trustworthy. Methods Focus groups were conducted in a Southeastern US city to provide an in-depth exploration of web-related behaviors and beliefs among mothers who work inside and outside of the home. Data from the focus groups were coded using deductive and inductive coding schemes and content was analyzed for the existence of themes. Results Twenty mothers of young children participated in four focus groups. Most participants sought information on the Internet during pregnancy and nearly all sought online information after their child was born, primarily to diagnose or treat pediatric conditions and to seek advice on parenting and development. Participants mainly used commercial information websites for health information and many expressed disdain for commercial product websites. Many also expressed concerns about the reliability of health information on the web and described strategies for determining how much they trust each website. Conclusions Women appear to be high information seekers during pregnancy and the first few years following delivery, and this period represents an important window of time for providing online health information. Participants suggested that online information sources and motives for providing online information should be clear in order to increase perceptions of trust. Participants expressed preference for online clinical health information that is presented by clinical professionals, and online parenting advice that is presented from other parents.

Felter, Elizabeth M

2004-01-01

143

The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Project; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Reno 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada and California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in west-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The assessment is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, reports, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Reno 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

John, David A.; Stewart, J. H.; Hendricks, J. D.; Rowan, L. C.; Plouff, Donald.

1992-01-01

144

NDAC Backgrounder  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... with TAA-AQ, including cataracts, glaucoma, nasal septum perforation ... Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glucocorticoid suspension after ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

145

Scientific background  

Microsoft Academic Search

An individual whose body contains different cell populations derived from different zygotes is defined as chimera. These different\\u000a cell populations can be derived from one species resulting in intra-species chimerism (aa) or from two different species resulting\\u000a in inter-species chimerism (c). Hybrids contain equal cells but with mixed genomes of two different taxa. Thus, inter-species\\u000a hybrids (c) are the classical

Michael Bader; Regine Schreiner; Eckhard Wolf

146

Results of the Investigation of the Naval Construction Force (NCF) information Technology Working Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results from the work of the Naval Construction Force (NCF) Information Technology Working Group. The NCF Logistics Quality Management Board (LOG QMB) has characterized current NCF logistics information technology (IT) systems a...

K. P. Lunsford A. L. Lyons

2001-01-01

147

Annual report on the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Results of Phase 1 investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many constituents of potential concern for human health occur naturally at low concentrations in undisturbed soils. The Background soil Characterization Project (BSCP) was undertaken to provide background concentration data on potential contaminants in natural soils on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objectives of the BSCP are to provide baseline data for contaminated site assessment and estimates of potential human

D. R. Watkins; P. L. Goddard; T. L. Hatmaker; L. A. Hook; B. L. Jackson; C. W. Kimbrough; S. Y. Lee; D. A. Lietzke; C. W. McGin; B. D. Nourse; R. L. Schmoyer; R. A. Shaw; S. E. Stinnette; J. Switek; J. C. Wright; J. T. Ammons; J. L. Branson; B. B. Burgoa

1993-01-01

148

Issues of Informed Entry into Counseling: Perceptions and Preferences Resulting from Different Types and Amounts of Pretherapy Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feminist and nonfeminist men and women (N=232) read a brief advertisement or explicit description of traditional or feminist counselor and reported their impressions of the counselor and their willingness to see the counselor for variety of problems. Results suggest need for more explicit pretherapy information to enable clients to make informed

Epperson, Douglas L.; Lewis, Kathleen N.

1987-01-01

149

Issues of Informed Entry into Counseling: Perceptions and Preferences Resulting from Different Types and Amounts of Pretherapy Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Feminist and nonfeminist men and women (N=232) read a brief advertisement or explicit description of traditional or feminist counselor and reported their impressions of the counselor and their willingness to see the counselor for variety of problems. Results suggest need for more explicit pretherapy information to enable clients to make informed

Epperson, Douglas L.; Lewis, Kathleen N.

1987-01-01

150

Patient-provider discussion of online health information: results from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of people have turned to the Internet for health information. Little has been done beyond speculation to empirically investigate patients' discussion of online health information with health care professionals (HCPs) and patients' perception of HCPs' reactions to such discussion. The author analyzed data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to identify the characteristics of patients (a) who search for health information on the Internet, (b) who discuss the information found on the Internet with HCPs, and (c) who positively assess HCPs' reaction to the online information. Findings show that men were more likely than were women to have a conversation on online information with HCPs. It is unfortunate that patients who had trouble understanding or trusting online health information were no more likely to ask questions to or seek guidance from HCPs. Reactions of HCPs to online information were perceived as particularly negative by certain groups of patients, such as those who experienced poor health and those who had more concerns about the quality of their searched information. Results are discussed for their implications for patient empowerment and patient-HCP relationships. PMID:23590202

Chung, Jae Eun

2013-04-16

151

How do primary and secondary information affect the results of parameter identification for groundwater modeling?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostatistical inverse problems always utilize both primary information and secondary information to identify subsurface parameters. Many articles investigated inverse algorithms that were used to estimate unknown parameters in a subsurface system, but few of them explore what role the primary and secondary information play and how they affect the results of parameter identification. The main theme of this article is to investigate how the results of identification are affected by head observations quantitatively and qualitatively. The cokriging technique is used as an interpolation tool for estimating unknown parameters in the system. Through several numerical examples the paper demonstrates and answers this question. Keywords: inverse problem, primary information, secondary information, cokriging technique

Wu, C.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

2007-12-01

152

Does googling for preconception care result in information consistent with international guidelines: a comparison of information found by Italian women of childbearing age and health professionals  

PubMed Central

Background Preconception counseling is effective in reducing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The Internet is commonly used by women and health professionals to search for health information. We compared the consistency of preconception information found on the Internet with the recommendations published by American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (AJOG) simulating a web search by women of childbearing age and health professionals. Methods We reviewed websites resulting from a Google search performed using search strings selected by Italian women of childbearing age and health professionals. We investigated if retrieved information was consistent with AJOG recommendations for preconception care. Logistic regression was used to compare presence of consistent recommendations between women and health professionals. Results The highest frequency of correct recommendations was found for folic acid supplementation (39.4% of websites). Consistency of preconception information did not significantly differ between search strategies except for folic acid supplementation. “Communities and blogs” website category provided less frequently correct recommendations compared with “Medical/Public Agency" category (i.e. folic acid supplementation (aOR 0.254; CI 0.098-0.664; p?=?<0.01). Commercial links, found in 60% of websites, were associated with presence of correct recommendations excepting few items (i.e. physical exercise (aOR 1.127; CI 0.331-3.840; p?=?0.848). Conclusions Preconception information found is poor and inaccurate regardless of the search is performed by women or health professionals. It is unlikely that information found on the web have any positive impact among women and health professionals in our setting. Strategies to improve preconception information on the web and education of health professionals for web searching of health information should be considered.

2013-01-01

153

China: Background Notes Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

Reams, Joanne Reppert

154

Foregrounding the Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

Robbins, Bruce

1998-01-01

155

Waiting is the hardest part: Anticipating medical test results affects processing and recall of important information.  

PubMed

Waiting for medical test results that signal physical harm can be a stressful and potentially psychologically harmful experience. Despite this, interventionists and physicians often use this wait time to deliver behavior change messages and other important information about the test, possible results and its implications. This study examined how "bracing" for a medical test result impacts cognitive processing, as well as recall of information delivered during this period. Healthy U.S. university students (N = 150) were tested for a deficiency of a fictitious saliva biomarker that was said to be predictive of long-term health problems using a 2 (Test Result) x 2 (Expected immediacy of result: 10 min, 1 month) factorial design. Participants expecting to get the test result shortly should have been bracing for the result. While waiting for the test results participants completed measures of cognitive processing. After participants received the test result, recall of information about the biomarker was tested in addition to cognitive measures. One week later, participants who were originally told they did not have the deficiency had their recall assessed again. Results showed that anticipating an imminent test result increased cognitive distraction in the processing of information and lowered recall of information about the test and the biomarker. These results suggest that delivering critical information to patients after administering a test and immediately before giving the results may not be optimal. PMID:20570029

Portnoy, David B

2010-05-01

156

Waiting is the hardest part: anticipating medical test results affects processing and recall of important information.  

PubMed

Waiting for medical test results that signal physical harm can be a stressful and potentially psychologically harmful experience. Despite this, interventionists and physicians often use this wait time to deliver behavior change messages and other important information about the test, possible results and its implications. This study examined how "bracing" for a medical test result impacts cognitive processing, as well as recall of information delivered during this period. Healthy U.S. university students (N = 150) were tested for a deficiency of a fictitious saliva biomarker that was said to be predictive of long-term health problems using a 2 (Test Result) x 2 (Expected immediacy of result: 10 min, 1 month) factorial design. Participants expecting to get the test result shortly should have been bracing for the result. While waiting for the test results participants completed measures of cognitive processing. After participants received the test result, recall of information about the biomarker was tested in addition to cognitive measures. One week later, participants who were originally told they did not have the deficiency had their recall assessed again. Results showed that anticipating an imminent test result increased cognitive distraction in the processing of information and lowered recall of information about the test and the biomarker. These results suggest that delivering critical information to patients after administering a test and immediately before giving the results may not be optimal. PMID:20556876

Portnoy, David B

2010-07-01

157

Genetic Background Can Result in a Marked or Minimal Effect of Gene Knockout (GPR55 and CB2 Receptor) in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Models of Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Endocannabinoids and some phytocannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid one (TRPV1) receptor and the orphan G protein receptor fifty-five (GPR55). Studies using C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 (Cnr2tm1Zim) CB2 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice have demonstrated an immune-augmenting effect in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis. However, other EAE studies in Biozzi ABH mice often failed to show any treatment effect of either CB2 receptor agonism or antagonism on inhibition of T cell autoimmunity. The influence of genetic background on the induction of EAE in endocannabinoid system-related gene knockout mice was examined. It was found that C57BL/6.GPR55 knockout mice developed less severe disease, notably in female mice, following active induction with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide. In contrast C57BL/6.CB2 (Cnr2Dgen) receptor knockout mice developed augmented severity of disease consistent with the genetically and pharmacologically-distinct, Cnr2tm1Zim mice. However, when the knockout gene was bred into the ABH mouse background and EAE induced with spinal cord autoantigens the immune-enhancing effect of CB2 receptor deletion was lost. Likewise CB1 receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid one knockout mice on the ABH background demonstrated no alteration in immune-susceptibility, in terms of disease incidence and severity of EAE, in contrast to that reported in some C57BL/6 mouse studies. Furthermore the immune-modulating influence of GPR55 was marginal on the ABH mouse background. Whilst sedative doses of tetrahydrocannabinol could induce immunosuppression, this was associated with a CB1 receptor rather than a CB2 receptor-mediated effect. These data support the fact that non-psychoactive doses of medicinal cannabis have a marginal influence on the immune response in MS. Importantly, it adds a note of caution for the translational value of some transgenic/gene knockout and other studies on low-EAE susceptibility backgrounds with inconsistent disease course and susceptibility.

Jackson, Samuel J.; Tanner, Carolyn; Ross, Ruth A.; Michael, Gregory J.; Selwood, David L.; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

2013-01-01

158

Genetic Background Can Result in a Marked or Minimal Effect of Gene Knockout (GPR55 and CB2 Receptor) in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Models of Multiple Sclerosis.  

PubMed

Endocannabinoids and some phytocannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid one (TRPV1) receptor and the orphan G protein receptor fifty-five (GPR55). Studies using C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 (Cnr2 (tm1Zim)) CB2 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice have demonstrated an immune-augmenting effect in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis. However, other EAE studies in Biozzi ABH mice often failed to show any treatment effect of either CB2 receptor agonism or antagonism on inhibition of T cell autoimmunity. The influence of genetic background on the induction of EAE in endocannabinoid system-related gene knockout mice was examined. It was found that C57BL/6.GPR55 knockout mice developed less severe disease, notably in female mice, following active induction with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide. In contrast C57BL/6.CB2 (Cnr2 (Dgen)) receptor knockout mice developed augmented severity of disease consistent with the genetically and pharmacologically-distinct, Cnr2 (tm1Zim) mice. However, when the knockout gene was bred into the ABH mouse background and EAE induced with spinal cord autoantigens the immune-enhancing effect of CB2 receptor deletion was lost. Likewise CB1 receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid one knockout mice on the ABH background demonstrated no alteration in immune-susceptibility, in terms of disease incidence and severity of EAE, in contrast to that reported in some C57BL/6 mouse studies. Furthermore the immune-modulating influence of GPR55 was marginal on the ABH mouse background. Whilst sedative doses of tetrahydrocannabinol could induce immunosuppression, this was associated with a CB1 receptor rather than a CB2 receptor-mediated effect. These data support the fact that non-psychoactive doses of medicinal cannabis have a marginal influence on the immune response in MS. Importantly, it adds a note of caution for the translational value of some transgenic/gene knockout and other studies on low-EAE susceptibility backgrounds with inconsistent disease course and susceptibility. PMID:24130809

Sisay, Sofia; Pryce, Gareth; Jackson, Samuel J; Tanner, Carolyn; Ross, Ruth A; Michael, Gregory J; Selwood, David L; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

2013-10-09

159

Psychotism and its dimensions in primary care. Associations with patient's background and manic and depressive symptoms. Results of the RADEP study.  

PubMed

Dimensions of psychotism have mainly been studied in clinical samples. We studied psychotism, its dimensions and their associations, in a primary care sample. In all, 1199 primary care patients over 18 years of age filled in a questionnaire including lists of psychotic (the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI), depressive (the Depression Scale, DEPS) and manic (the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, MDQ) symptoms. Psychotic symptoms were factored, and variance in factor scores was explained by patients' background and by depressive and manic symptoms. In the principal component solution, the first factor explained 22% of the total variance in psychotic (CIDI) symptoms and was named global psychotism. Varimax rotation produced seven interpretable dimensions: Schneiderian (9.7% of variance), passivity (8.9%), hallucinatory (8.5%), paranoid (7.7%), infidelity (7.6%), somatic (7.6%) and reference experiences (5.9%). Together they explained 52% of the total variance of CIDI symptoms. Global psychotism (P=0.000), as well as hallucinatory (P=0.003), paranoid (P=0.000) and infidelity (P=0.000) experiences associated inversely with age. Otherwise, patients' background associated differently with global psychotism and with factor dimensions in CIDI symptoms. Manic symptoms associated with global psychotism and with all CIDI dimensions, whereas depressive symptoms associated with global psychotism, passivity, paranoid and infidelity experiences. Psychotism is composed of a global factor and of independent dimensions, and is more prevalent in young people. Independently of patients' background, manic widely and depressive symptoms less widely associate with occurrence of psychotism. PMID:17162458

Salokangas, Raimo K R; Luutonen, Sinikka; Nieminen, Mervi; Karlsson, Hasse

2006-01-01

160

The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and resources maps of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles (1:250,000) are a part of the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. This circular and a companion folio of maps represent results of integrated field and laboratory studies by an interdisciplinary team on geology, geophysics, geochemistry, mineral resources, geochronology, and energy resources to provide a modern assessment of the mineral and energy resources of the quadrangles. The maps contain descriptive text, explanatory material, tables and diagrams, and pertinent references. This circular provides the background data for the mineral and energy resource assessment and integrates the component maps. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references relevant to the geology and resources of the quadrangles.

Detterman, Robert L.; Case, J. E.; Cox, D. P.; Detra, D. E.; Miller, T. P.; Wilson, F. H.

1981-01-01

161

Impact of using information technology in central university libraries in India : Results of a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research study conducted to assess the perceptions and opinions of 100 staff working in libraries on the impact of using IT on library housekeeping operations and information services, in eight central university libraries in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data gathering tools used include questionnaire, observation and informal

Venkataramana Peyala

2011-01-01

162

INTERNAL DOSIMETRY OF 210Pb IN THE HUMAN CRANIUM: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM INSTRUMENTATION NEEDS FOR IN VIVO COUNTING IN A LOW-BACKGROUND UNDERGROUND COUNTING FACILITY.  

PubMed

Internal dosimetry of (210)Pb in the cranium deals with the determination of the amount of energy deposited in tissue by (210)Pb radiations within the cranium. (210)Pb in the human cranium was monitored by in vivo counting in a low background facility 640 m (2100 ft) underground with a germanium (Ge) gamma-ray detector having a beryllium window. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) was established with this system to be 0.2 Bq (5 pCi) in 25-h counting time with a 15-mm diameter and 7-mm thick Ge detector, having a beryllium window of thickness of 0.08 mm, in contact with the cranium just above the ear adjacent to the temple region. To establish an MDA of 0.004 Bq (0.1 pCi) with this system, the limitation arising from the ambient radon level at 10 Bq m(-3) was investigated. PMID:23620563

Pillalamarri, Ila; Jagam, P; Lykken, Glenn I

2013-04-25

163

Waiting is the hardest part: Anticipating medical test results affects processing and recall of important information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waiting for medical test results that signal physical harm can be a stressful and potentially psychologically harmful experience. Despite this, interventionists and physicians often use this wait time to deliver behavior change messages and other important information about the test, possible results and its implications. This study examined how “bracing” for a medical test result impacts cognitive processing, as well

David B. Portnoy

2010-01-01

164

Information preferences and practices among people living with HIV/AIDS: results from a nationwide survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was designed to reach many segments of the diverse HIV/AIDS community and broaden understanding of how information can better assist people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Data were collected through a self-administered mail survey distributed nationwide at clinics, drug treatment centers, and other AIDS service organizations. Results: The 662 respondents preferred getting information from people—including health professionals, family, and friends—and considered people the most trustworthy, useful, understandable, and available information sources. Forty-three percent selected doctors as their most preferred source. The Internet was not rated highly overall but was preferred by those with more education or living in metropolitan areas. Seventy-two percent said they actively search for HIV/AIDS-related information, and 80% said they give advice or tell others where to get such information. However, 71% agreed that it is easy to feel overwhelmed by information, and 31% agreed that not seeking information can be beneficial. Conclusions: Overall, information seeking is an important activity for this sample of people living with HIV/AIDS. Many sources are widely available to them but, together, can be overwhelming. They rely on health professionals far more than print or media sources and receive encouragement and support from family and friends.

Hogan, Timothy P.; Palmer, Carole L.

2005-01-01

165

A high-density wireless underground sensor network (WUSN) to quantify hydro-ecological interactions for a UK floodplain; project background and initial results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplain meadows support some of the most diverse vegetation in the UK, and also perform key ecosystem services, such as flood storage and sediment retention. However, the UK now has less than 1500 ha of this unique habitat remaining. In order to conserve and better exploit the services provided by this grassland, an improved understanding of its functioning is essential. Vegetation functioning and species composition are known to be tightly correlated to the hydrological regime, and related temperature and nutrient regime, but the mechanisms controlling these relationships are not well established. The FUSE* project aims to investigate the spatiotemporal variability in vegetation functioning (e.g. photosynthesis and transpiration) and plant community composition in a floodplain meadow near Oxford, UK (Yarnton Mead), and their relationship to key soil physical variables (soil temperature and moisture content), soil nutrient levels and the water- and energy-balance. A distributed high density Wireless Underground Sensor Network (WUSN) is in the process of being established on Yarnton Mead. The majority, or ideally all, of the sensing and transmitting components will be installed below-ground because Yarnton Mead is a SSSI (Site of Special Scientific Interest, due to its unique plant community) and because occasionally sheep or cattle are grazing on it, and that could damage the nodes. This prerequisite has implications for the maximum spacing between UG nodes and their communications technologies; in terms of signal strength, path losses and requirements for battery life. The success of underground wireless communication is highly dependent on the soil type and water content. This floodplain environment is particularly challenging in this context because the soil contains a large amount of clay near the surface and is therefore less favourable to EM wave propagation than sandy soils. Furthermore, due to high relative saturation levels (as a result of high groundwater levels and occasional overland flooding) considerable path losses are expected. Finally, the long-term below-ground installation of the nodes means that batteries cannot be replaced easily, therefore energy conservation schemes are required to be deployed on the nodes. We present a brief overview of the project and initial findings of the approach we have adopted to address these wireless communication issues. This involves tests covering a range of transmission frequencies, antennae types, and node placements. *FUSE, Floodplain Underground SEnsors, funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, NE/I007288/1, start date 1-3-2011)

Verhoef, A.; Choudhary, B.; Morris, P. J.; McCann, J.

2012-04-01

166

Influences, usage, and outcomes of Internet health information searching: Multivariate results from the Pew surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper provides results from seven major nationally representative datasets (two in detail) from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to answer two primary questions: (1) what influences people to seek online health informa- tion and (2) what influences their perceived outcomes from having access to this information? Cross-tabulations, logistic regressions, and multidimensional scaling are applied to these

Ronald E. Rice

2006-01-01

167

Shared use of information technology in emergency response work: Results from a field experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from a field experiment of IT-use in emergency response work of a fire crew. A prototype has been developed to probe for instances of sensemaking supported by IT-use in such work. The findings have been analyzed in relation to research on design of emergency management information systems and sensemaking theory. Key findings from the field experiment

Jonas Landgren

168

The MARS Adaptive Social Network for Information Access: Architecture and Experimental Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional techniques for finding information on the web are time-consuming and often yield unreliable results. This has led to renewed interest in referral systems, which support the interactions of people with others by directing users toward others who might have the answers they seek. We consider a social network of agents who assist each other in helping their users find

Bin Yu; Mahadevan Venkatraman; Munindar P. Singh

169

Cosmic microwave background polarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is our richest source of cosmological information; the standard cosmological model was largely established thanks to study of the temperature anisotropies. By the end of the decade, the Planck satellite will close this important chapter and move us deeper into the new frontier of polarization measurements. Numerous ground-based and balloon-borne experiments are already forging into this new territory. Besides providing new and independent information on the primordial density perturbations and cosmological parameters, polarization measurements offer the potential to detect primordial gravity waves, constrain dark energy and measure the neutrino mass scale. A vigorous experimental program is underway worldwide and heading towards a new satellite mission dedicated to CMB polarization.

Bartlett, James G.

2006-05-01

170

Building Background Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on their ability to ask questions and wonder--both key components of inquiry. In this article,…

Fisher, Douglas; Ross, Donna; Grant, Maria

2010-01-01

171

Number of information and its relation to the cosmological constant resulting from Landauer's principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a recent published formula for the number of information N that results from Landauer's principle we obtain an expression for the cosmological constant ?. Next, assuming the universe as a system of mass M satisfying Landauer's principle and eliminating its mass M from the given expression for the number of information, we obtain a new expression that agrees with the expression derived by Lloyd. Furthermore, we modify the generalized entropy relation and three equivalent entropy expressions are obtained. Finally, in two different universes the time rate of change of the entropy is calculated. In a flat universe the time rate of the entropy is time independent and depends on fundamental constants of physics.

Gkigkitzis, Ioannis; Haranas, Ioannis; Kirk, Samantha

2013-08-01

172

Return of results in translational iPS cell research: considerations for donor informed consent.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: Efforts have emerged internationally to recruit donors with specific disease indications and to derive induced pluripotent cell lines. These disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cell lines have the potential to accelerate translational goals such as drug discovery and testing. One consideration for donor recruitment and informed consent is the possibility that research will result in findings that are clinically relevant to the cell donor. Management protocols for such findings should be developed a priori and disclosed during the informed consent process. The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has developed recommendations for informing donors in sponsored research. These recommendations include obtaining consent to recontact tissue donors for a range of scientific, medical and ethical considerations. This article reviews the basis for these recommendations and suggests conditions that may be appropriate when reporting findings to donors. PMID:23336317

Lomax, Geoffrey P; Shepard, Kelly A

2013-01-21

173

Partial information or facilitation? Different interpretations of results from speed-accuracy decomposition.  

PubMed

The speed-accuracy decomposition technique was developed by Meyer, Irwin, Osman, and Kounios (1988) to examine the time course of information processing. The technique allows for the estimation of the accuracy of guesses that are induced by the presentation of a response signal on a proportion of trials. Estimated guessing accuracy has been found to be above chance and to increase as time of guessing increases, suggesting that guesses are based on partial information that has accumulated prior to a response decision (sophisticated guesses). In this paper, a different interpretation of these data is presented. Results suggest that response signals may enhance the speed of regular processes, thereby violating the temporal-independence assumption that underlies the decomposition technique. As shown by Monte Carlo simulations, such facilitating effects of response signals can explain the results from the decomposition technique at least in part and possibly in full, even when guesses are actually at chance accuracy (pure guesses). The pure-guess model was supported by the results from an experiment designed to test between the alternative interpretations. These results point to the need for great caution in the attempt to infer the time course of information processing from guessing accuracies as estimated by the speed-accuracy decomposition technique. PMID:1758765

De Jong, R

1991-10-01

174

Informal screencasting: results of a customer-satisfaction survey with a convenience sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to define and describe informal screencasting (i.e. capturing your actions on a computer screen with the goal of showing others how to accomplish tasks on a website or in a given software environment). Customer-satisfaction survey results from 103 faculty, staff, and students are presented. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An online survey revealing customer satisfaction

Jody Bailey

2012-01-01

175

Awareness of the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service: Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Established in 1975, the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service (CIS) is a national information and education network that serves the nation by providing the latest scientific cancer information to the American public. The purpose of this study was to determine the public's awareness of the CIS and other national cancer and health organizations by analyzing data from the

Linda Squiers; Mary Anne Bright; Lila J. Finney Rutten; Audie A. Atienza; Katherine Treiman; Richard P. Moser; Bradford Hesse

2006-01-01

176

Operation database petroleum GIS results: Evaluation and application of geographic information systems to exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

FACT: Maps are the principle graphic tool used in exploration and production. FACT: The geographic information systems (GTS) industry exceeds $250 million annually providing powerful mapping tools to a variety of disciplines. FACT: Geographic information systems are infrequently used in exploration and production which represents less than 2% of the total GIS sphere. Therefore, Operation Database Petroleum GIS, sponsored by AAPG's Geobyte and the National Computer Graphics Association, was conceived as an information exchange between the petroleum industry and GIS vendors to address this disparity. The objective of the database was to communicate petroleum industry requirements to GIS vendors and to demonstrate the potential of GIS to the petroleum industry. Requirements, in the form of data and problems, were developed by an industry group representing major and independent oil companies. The problems included base map, well, seismic, lease, transportation, topographic, three-dimensional, and remote sensing exercises. Data included scout well data, directional surveys, production histories, seismic shot-point locations and interpretive times, geologic interpretations (tops and structure and isopach maps), leases, topography, well logs, remote sensing images, gravity contours, and geographic reference information. Over 120 GIS vendors were offered a chance to participate, and nearly 20 engaged in the exercises. This talk will focus on the process, results, and conclusions of Operation Database Petroleum GIS.

Fried, C.C. (Amoco Production Co., Denver, CO (USA)); Leonard, J.E. (Platte River Associates, Denver, CO (USA))

1990-05-01

177

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks: Background Information for Proposed Standards. Marvin Branscome and Sandra Burns, RTI and Lula Melton.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes the background information used in the development of MACT standards for the coke ovens: pushing, quenching, and battery stacks source category. All references cited in this document are available in EPA Docket A-2000-34. In addit...

L. Melton M. Branscome S. Burns

2001-01-01

178

Information needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered health care professionals: results of an Internet survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To obtain basic facts and considered opinions from health care professionals and students (nonlibrarian and librarian) about the information needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered (GLBT) health care professionals and their interactions with medical librarians. Methods: The survey instrument was a Web-based questionnaire. A nonrandom sample of health care professionals and students (librarian and nonlibrarian) was obtained by posting messages to several large Internet electronic discussion groups (GLBT and general) and to randomly selected members of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. A total of 152 forms were analyzed with about 50% of the participants being GLBT persons. Results: GLBT people have specific health information needs and concerns. More than 75% of medical librarians and students believed that GLBT persons have special information needs, with similar response rates by nonlibrarian health professionals and students. The delivery of services needs to be done with privacy and respect for the feelings of the patron. Major areas of need include the topics of health care proxy, cancer, adolescent depression and suicide, adoption, sexual health and practices, HIV infection, surrogate parenting, mental health issues, transgender health issues, intimate partner violence, and intimate partner loss. Conclusions: Most GLBT health care professionals desire GLBT-friendly health information services. Making GLBT-oriented health information resources available on a library Web page and making an effort to show acceptance of cultural diversity through signs or displays would be helpful. Education directed toward instilling an awareness of GLBT persons may also be advisable. Most survey participants make some use of medical reference services and many find medical librarians to be very helpful and resourceful.

Fikar, Charles R.; Keith, Latrina

2004-01-01

179

Non-extensitivity vs. informative moments for financial models —A unifying framework and empirical results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information-theoretic approaches still play a minor role in financial market analysis. Nonetheless, there have been two very similar approaches evolving during the last years, one in the so-called econophysics and the other in econometrics. Both generalize the notion of GARCH processes in an information-theoretic sense and are able to capture kurtosis better than traditional models. In this article we present both approaches in a more general framework. The latter allows the derivation of a wide range of new models. We choose a third model using an entropy measure suggested by Kapur. In an application to financial market data, we find that all considered models - with similar flexibility in terms of skewness and kurtosis - lead to very similar results.

Herrmann, K.

2009-11-01

180

Factors associated with health information system success: results of a survey of hospitals in South Africa.  

PubMed

A survey of computerised hospital information system (CHIS) use was conducted in two South African provinces, in order to test a conceptual model of CHIS use developed in previous phases of this study. Relationships between factors of the conceptual model and user assessment of CHIS success; and between pairs of conceptual model factors, were derived from the survey data. The results confirmed that factors of the conceptual model were associated with CHIS success. Analysis of the relationships between factors yielded results which supported some of the conceptual model relationships, and were inconclusive for others. None of the conceptual model relationships was contradicted by the survey results. Further investigation is required to demonstrate statistical relationships between factors of the conceptual model more conclusively. The results to date support arguments for the applicability of the conceptual model of CHIS use beyond the study hospitals to other level 1 and level 2 hospitals in South Africa. PMID:20841706

Hanmer, Lyn A; Isaacs, Sedick; Roode, J Dewald

2010-01-01

181

The Geographic Climate Information System Project (GEOCLIMA): Overview and preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project GEOCLIMA aims at developing an integrated Geographic Information System (GIS) allowing the user to manage, analyze and visualize the information which is directly or indirectly related to climate and its future projections in Greece. The main components of the project are: a) collection and homogenization of climate and environmental related information, b) estimation of future climate change based on existing regional climate model (RCM) simulations as well as a supplementary high resolution (10 km x 10 km) simulation over the period 1961-2100 using RegCM3, c) compilation of an integrated uniform geographic database, and d) mapping of climate data, creation of digital thematic maps, and development of the integrated web GIS application. This paper provides an overview of the ongoing research efforts and preliminary results of the project. First, the trends in the annual and seasonal time series of precipitation and air temperature observations for all available stations in Greece are assessed. Then the set-up of the high resolution RCM simulation (10 km x 10 km) is discussed with respect to the selected convective scheme. Finally, the relationship of climatic variables with geophysical features over Greece such as altitude, location, distance from the sea, slope, aspect, distance from climatic barriers, land cover etc) is investigated, to support climate mapping. The research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program COOPERATION 2009.

Feidas, H.; Zanis, P.; Melas, D.; Vaitis, M.; Anadranistakis, E.; Symeonidis, P.; Pantelopoulos, S.

2012-04-01

182

Radiological assessment of radioactive waste-disposal areas at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 3: Technical background information for the ORNL environmental and safety report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to determine dose equivalent rates in the ORNL solid waste disposal areas. The dosimeters were exchanged and read approximately quarterly during 1979 and 1980. The data were reviewed to detect trends in dose equivalent rates, but no trends were detected other than increased radiation levels in some areas due to the lowering of White Oak Lake. The rates at the disposal site were compared with TLD readings taken in areas on the DOE reservation perimeter, as well as in remote areas that represent natural background for East Tennessee.

Oakes, T. W.; Ohnesorge, W. F.; Wagner, E. B.; Chaudhry, M. Y.

1981-12-01

183

Informed Entry into Counseling: Client's Perceptions and Preferences Resulting from Different Types and Amounts of Pretherapy Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extended analog research on information about counselors' values and orientation needed for informed consent in counseling. Women (N=172) seeking treatment at a psychiatric hospital and clinic read either advertisement or explicit description of traditional or feminist counselor. Found simple label not adequate in triggering set of accurate…

Lewis, Kathleen N.; And Others

1989-01-01

184

Impact of information technology developments on the information handling techniques of research scientists: Implications of selected results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a longitudinal Ph.D. study concerning the impact of information technology developments on the information handling techniques of research scientists from the perspective of perceived value or benefit based on subjective evaluation by users. The project's main method of data collection is the semi?structured interview utilising samples from various categories of Imperial Cancer Research Fund (ICRF)

Mary Davies

1998-01-01

185

Informed Entry into Counseling: Client's Perceptions and Preferences Resulting from Different Types and Amounts of Pretherapy Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extended analog research on information about counselors' values and orientation needed for informed consent in counseling. Women (N=172) seeking treatment at a psychiatric hospital and clinic read either advertisement or explicit description of traditional or feminist counselor. Found simple label not adequate in triggering set of accurate…

Lewis, Kathleen N.; And Others

1989-01-01

186

Extragalactic Background Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents; Preface; List of participants; 1. Introduction P. J. E. Peebles; 2. Extragalactic gamma-ray background N. Gehrels and C. Cheung; 3. The X-ray background (observations) G. Zamorani; 4. Extragalactic ultraviolet background radiation R. C. Henry and J. Murthy; 5. Ultraviolet background (theory) P. Jakobsen; 6. The optical extragalactic background radiation J. A. Tyson; 7. Infrared background (observations) M. G. Hauser; 8. The infrared background (theory) C. J. Lonsdale; 9. Microwave background radiation (observations) J. C. Mather; 10. Detection of degree scale anisotropy P. M. Lubin; 11. Cosmic microwave background anisotropies and structure formation in the universe N. Vittorio; The radio background emission - the long and short of it M. S. Longair; 13. The radio background: radio-loud galaxies at high and low redshifts J. A. Peacock; 14. Conference summary M. J. Rees.

Calzetti, Daniela; Livio, Mario; Madau, Piero

1995-01-01

187

Automation strategy and results for an airbase command and control information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automation of the information supply for command and control for the preparation and deployment of weapons systems at airbases is discussed. The experiments in the operational environment prove that the use of automation tools with respect to information supply improves the integrity of the information and facilitates mission preparation. Bottlenecks with respect to the vulnerability characteristics of computers must be eliminated to improve the resistance of electronic information system. Automation offers more possibilities to improve the information handling rate, especially the extension of the decision and information handling support; condensation and upgrading of information; and knowledge engineering.

Demoel, R. P.; Vandranen, W. N.

1986-01-01

188

Using the Viking biology experimental results to obtain chemical information about Martian regolith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although initially formulated as biology experiments, most of the results produced by the Viking Labeled Release (LR), Gas Exchange (GEX), and Pyrolytic Release (PR) experiments have been reproduced by chemical means. The experiments do not need more study as 'biological' phenomena, but they do deserve much more careful consideration from a chemical viewpoint. They are the only 'wet-chemical' experiments that scientists have performed on another planet, but they have not found very general use as sources of scientific information. There is a large set of potentially useful chemical observations, e.g., the three resolvable and precisely measured kinetic components of the release of C-14-labeled gases, the thermal sensitivity and magnitudes of the oxidation reaction(s) of the LR experiments, the kinetics and magnitude of the O2 and CO2 release of the GEX experiments, the thermal sensitivity of the GEX results, the differences between the thermal sensitivity of the GEX and the thermal sensitivity of the LR responses, and the kinetics and magnitudes of the LR successive injection reabsorption effect. It should be possible to test many chemical aspects of hypothetical martian phenomena in experiments using the biology experimental configurations and derive much valuable information by comparisons with the Viking observations.

Plumb, Robert C.

1993-09-01

189

Information Security in the Extended Enterprise: Some Initial Results From a Field Study of an Industrial Firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the main drivers of private-section investment in information security? How exposed are firms to cyber risks arising from their reliance on the information infrastructure? Initial results are presented from a field study of a manufacturing company and four of its suppliers of different sizes. We find that many managers believe: that information security is less a competitive advantage

Scott Dynes; Hans Brechbühl; M. Eric Johnson

2005-01-01

190

First results from the PRISMAS programme : Herschel brings new information on the formation of molecules in the interstellar medium.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first results obtained by the PRISMAS (PRobing InterStellar Molecules with Absorption line Studies) key programme. We are carring out a comprehensive spectroscopic study of key molecular species, interstellar hydrides and carbon clusters. The target hydrides contain the elements H, D, C, N, O, F and Cl. We have taken advantage of the strong dust emission from massive star forming regions to detect multiple absorption components from foreground clouds of diverse properties that are known to intersect the selected sight-lines, along with emission and absorption intrinsic to the background sources. The first results from this programme will be presented, including heterodyne spectra of ground state lines of H2 O, CH, CH+ and HF, obtained with HIFI, as well as a far infrared spectral scan of the SgrA* region obtained with PACS. A first comparison with theoretical models will be presented, highlighting how these new Herschel detections provide key information on the formation paths of interstellar molecules. Authors M. Gerin and the PRISMAS consortium

Gerin, Maryvonne; PRISMAS Consortium

191

Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for final standards. Volume 2E. Comments on recordkeeping, reporting, compliance and test methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This background information document (BID) provides summaries and responses for public comments received regarding the Hazardous Organic National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), commonly referred to as the HON. The HON will primarily affect the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry (SOCMI). Volume 2E discusses the provisions for compliance, recordkeeping and reporting. Volume 2E also discusses issues related to the use of EPA test methods.

Not Available

1994-03-01

192

Preliminary Results with a Computerized Information System for Emergency Medical Services  

PubMed Central

The design and implementation of a comprehensive Emergency Medical Care system for Central Virginia is described. From its inception, the design of the proposed EMS System was based on the concept that continuous monitoring and evaluation of systems performance is necessary if the impact of the system on the medical care provided within the region was to be assessed. To provide the necessary data for this task, a computerized information system was designed and implemented, that provides three functions: 1. A data base, accessible in real time, containing demographic characteristics, process and outcome data and treatment protocols. 2. Online consultation for physician and Advanced Life Support personnel. 3. Systems structure: (Resource inventory) Preliminary results obtained with this system are discussed.

Attinger, E. O.; Anne, A.; Edlich, R.

1977-01-01

193

Results of the user survey of functional requirements for the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) user survey of functional requirements was conducted in the spring and summer of 1994 to allow representatives of the OREIS user community to review and confirm the functionality of the OREIS system and to provide a method to document user acceptance of the system. The results of the survey confirm that the OREIS system meets data and functional requirements of the users. It further emphasizes that the user community is quite diverse, with many different needs for and perspectives about OREIS, and with varying needs for access and use of software tools. To meet the needs of a diverse and potentially changing user community, OREIS staff will survey the user community periodically to obtain input on changes to user requirements for future versions of the system.

NONE

1995-03-01

194

Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange

Stephen M Downs; Peter C van Dyck; Piero Rinaldo; Clement McDonald

195

Relationship of Communication and Information Measures to Colorectal Cancer Screening Utilization: Results From HINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of colorectal cancer screening tests is suboptimal. Knowledge of colorectal cancer screening has been associated with completion of screening. Thus, increasing awareness of colorectal cancer screening may lead to significant improvements in screening rates. We assessed for the association among provider–patient interaction, information-seeking patterns, sources of information, trust in cancer information, and Internet usage on colorectal cancer screening behavior

Bruce S. Ling; William M. Klein; Qianyu Dang

2006-01-01

196

Backgrounds and the High Redshift Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many ways to observe the high redshift universe. One of these is to study backgrounds, from the near infrared to the radio. These backgrounds can give information about the properties of star formation from intermediate redshifts (z 2-4) to high redshifts (z>6). One of the benefits of observing backgrounds is that they trace the star formation that is occurring in the majority of galaxies, not just those bright enough to be seen in high redshift galaxy surveys. I will discuss our recent theoretical work, as well as our analysis and interpretation of observations from the Herschel Space Telescope. Our results includes analysis of the mean intensity, fluctuations, and fractional anisotropy of the backgrounds. This gives information to constrain the epoch of reionization, including the mass of halos responsible for reionization, the escape fraction, and the star formation rate. Furthermore, I will talk about our attempts to resolve the background in the far infrared, and the strength of these observations, including our tests to assess the stability of stacking analysis. Lastly, I will discuss the prospects of future observations.

Fernandez, Elizabeth R.; Iliev, I.; Komatsu, E.; Dole, H.; Shapiro, P.

2012-01-01

197

Biological aerosol background characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

2011-05-01

198

Textured backgrounds alter perceived speed.  

PubMed

Both the luminance contrast of an object, and the nature of the background texture over which it moves, are known to influence its perceived speed. In this study the effect of object contrast upon perceived speed was investigated for targets moving across textured patterns of various contrasts. Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of contrast for objects moving over homogenous backgrounds, that was reduced or abolished if the object moved over a textured background. A further experiment suggested that this reduction may be the result of an increase in target visibility, perhaps as a result of additional 'second order' motion signals produced by motion over texture backgrounds. A final experiment suggested that two processes were occurring: (1) higher contrast backgrounds appeared to increase the perceived speeds of all objects; and (2) that higher contrast backgrounds eliminated the contrast induced changes in perceived speed. PMID:10824266

Blakemore, M R; Snowden, R J

2000-01-01

199

Developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. Methods GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Discussion Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems globally.

2013-01-01

200

Patch test results in patients with scalp dermatitis: analysis of data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology.  

PubMed

Background: Contact dermatitis of the scalp may develop primarily due to exposure to cosmetic products or secondarily due to application of topical medicaments on affected skin. Objectives: To illustrate the current spectrum of allergens in scalp dermatitis. Patients/methods: Data of 1320 patients recorded by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) between 1993 and 2003, who were patch tested to confirm or rule out (secondary) allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp, were analysed. Results: Sensitization to p-phenylenediamine, tolune-2,5-diamine, p-aminophenol, 3-aminophenol, p-aminoazobenzene, cocamidopropyl betaine and pyrogallol was significantly more common than in the remaining IVDK patients. In 690 patients, altogether 4070 patients' own products were patch tested. Medical products, hair tints and bleaches (HTB) and hair-cleansing products together caused nearly 2/3 of positive patch test reactions. Among these categories, HTB showed the highest percentage of positive patch test reactions; 24 of 29 HTB-positive patients had no positive reaction to any of the commercially available allergens. Conclusions: In our subgroup of patients with scalp dermatitis, constituents of hair-colouring products were the most important allergens. As some ingredients of hair dyes are not contained in patch test series, testing of patients' own products is an important part of diagnostic workup, as otherwise sensitizations may be missed. PMID:17244076

Hillen, Uwe; Grabbe, Stephan; Uter, Wolfgang

2007-02-01

201

Background Television and Reading Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tests G. Armstrong's and B. Greenberg's model of the effect of background television on cognitive performance, applied to reading comprehension and memory. Finds significant deleterious effects of background television, stronger and more consistent effects when testing immediately after reading, and more consistently negative effects resulting

Armstrong, G. Blake; And Others

1991-01-01

202

Scaling up output capacity and performance results from information systems prototypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantage of information system prototyping arises from its predict problems and end-user satisfaction with a system early in the development process, before significant commitments of time and effort have been made. Predictions of problems and end-user satisfaction have risen in importance with the increasing complexity of business information systems and the exponential growth of database size. This research investigates

J. Christopher Westland

1990-01-01

203

The impact of sponsored results on the quality of information gatekeepers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information gatekeepers, such as Internet search engines, travel experts, comparison shopping systems, credit raters, radio deejays, and movie critics, are an essential entry point for many information search and decision making tasks. They make recommendations on these tasks based on their expertise, but also frequently due to sponsorship by interested merchants. We develop and analyze a tractable model in which

Hemant K. Bhargava; Juan Feng

2007-01-01

204

The Integration of the Information and Communication Functions, and the Marketing of the Resulting Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the theoretical basis for integration of information functions and communication functions, the relevance of this integration in the scientific information cycle, and its positive effect on commodity research networks. The application of this theory is described using three commodity programs of the Centro Internacional de Agricultura…

Harris, Susan C.

1985-01-01

205

Physician attitudes toward health information exchange: results of a statewide survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess physicians' attitudes toward health information exchange (HIE) and physicians' willingness to pay to participate in HIE. Design We conducted a cross-sectional mail survey of 1296 licensed physicians (77% response rate) in Massachusetts in 2007. Measurements Perceptions of the potential effects of HIE on healthcare costs, quality of care, clinicians' time, patients' privacy concerns, and willingness to pay for HIE. Results After excluding 253 physicians who did not see any outpatients, we analyzed 1043 responses. Overall, 70% indicated that HIE would reduce costs, while 86% said it would improve quality and 76% believed that it would save time. On the other hand, 16% reported being very concerned about HIE's effect on privacy, while 55.0% were somewhat concerned and 29% not at all concerned. Slightly more than half of the physicians (54%) said they would be willing to pay an unspecified monthly fee to participate in HIE, but only 37% said they would be willing to pay $150 per month for it. Primary care physicians and those in larger practices tended to have more positive attitudes toward HIE. Conclusions Physicians perceive that HIE will have generally positive effects, though a considerable fraction harbor concerns about privacy. While physicians may be willing to participate in HIE, they are not consistently willing to pay to participate. HIE business models that require substantial physician subscription fees may face significant challenges.

Soran, Christine; Jenter, Chelsea A; Volk, Lynn A; Bates, David W; Simon, Steven R

2010-01-01

206

Implementation of an electronic hospital information system: first results of a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Introduction June 2011, a new comprehensive Electronic Hospital Information System (CS-EHIS) has been implemented at the University Medical Hospital of Utrecht. The use of this new system may lead to optimal integrated telehealth and telecare; to a new way of working for many employees and to many new challenges in care. Many users have been trained by colleagues (key users). Just before the implementation of CS-EHIS, a baseline measurement has been performed consisting of the completion of a large questionnaire by 100 key users and a small one by a group of about 1000 users. Six months after the baseline measurement a first follow-up questionnaire has been completed by these employees. Users and key users will be asked to complete a questionnaire each six months. Aims and objectives The aim of the evaluation of CS-EZIS is to localize and solve possible bottlenecks quickly and to learn from problems examined for future implementations. Main questions of the study are: 1) did the implementation strategy come up to the expectations of professionals, 2) will behavior of professionals and patients change as a consequence of the introduction of CS-EHIS, and 3) will the use of care of patients change as a consequence of the introduction of CS-EHIS. Results At the baseline measurement experiences with the old EHIS were examined. The most important complaint of employees was that the system was too slow but overall it was not considered very negatively. The methods of the study, the theoretical model used to study the implementation and preliminary results of the first follow-up measurement will be presented. Conclusions A comprehensive evaluation of the implementation of CS-EHIS may lead to a quick localization of bottlenecks.

de Leeuw, Rob

2012-01-01

207

The Cosmic Background Explorer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)|

Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

1990-01-01

208

The Cosmic Background Explorer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

1990-01-01

209

76 FR 70176 - Request For Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting from Federally Funded Scientific...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...scientific data? For example, MIAME (minimum information about a microarray experiment; see Brazma et al., 2001, Nature Genetics 29, 371) is an example of a community-driven data standards effort. (11) What are other examples of...

2011-11-10

210

76 FR 80417 - Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...scientific data? For example, MIAME (minimum information about a microarray experiment; see Brazma et al., 2001, Nature Genetics 29, 371) is an example of a community-driven data standards effort. (11) What are other examples of...

2011-12-23

211

76 FR 68517 - Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...scientific data? For example, MIAME (minimum information about a microarray experiment; see Brazma et al., 2001, Nature Genetics 29, 371) is an example of a community-driven data standards effort. (11) What are other examples of...

2011-11-04

212

Improving informed consent with minority participants: results from researcher and community surveys.  

PubMed

Strengthening the informed consent process is one avenue for improving recruitment of minorities into research. This study examines that process from two different perspectives, that of researchers and that of African American and Latino community members. Through the use of two separate surveys, we compared strategies used by researchers with the preferences and attitudes of community members during the informed consent process. Our data suggest that researchers can improve the informed consent process by incorporating methods preferred by the community members along with methods shown in the literature for increasing comprehension. With this approach, the informed consent process may increase both participants' comprehension of the material and overall satisfaction, fostering greater trust in research and openness to future research opportunities. PMID:23324203

Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Garza, Mary A; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S; Casper, Erica T; Thomas, Stephen B; Barnard, David; Kim, Kevin H

2012-12-01

213

Mothers and Children as Informants of Bullying Victimization: Results from an Epidemiological Cohort of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stressful events early in life can affect children’s mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about\\u000a children’s bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers\\u000a and children provide valid reports of bullying victimization, (2) examine the inter-rater reliability between the two informants,\\u000a (3) test the predictive validity of their reports

Sania Shakoor; Sara R. Jaffee; Penelope Andreou; Lucy Bowes; Antony P. Ambler; Avshalom Caspi; Terrie E. Moffitt; Louise Arseneault

2011-01-01

214

Information needs in public health and health policy: Results of recent studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  Clearly, much work needs to be done to address the diverse and sometimes unique on-line information needs of public health\\u000a professionals and health policy analysts. In some cases, there are needs for complex new knowledge bases created via linkages\\u000a among multiple databases (e.g., public health-relevant geographic information systems).\\u000a \\u000a However, in many other cases, what is needed is a more systematic

Patrick W. O'Carroll; Marjorie A. Cahn; Ione Auston; Catherine R. Selden

1998-01-01

215

Limitations of diabetes pharmacotherapy: results from the Vermont Diabetes Information System study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are a wide variety of medications available for the treatment of hyperglycemia in diabetes, including some categories developed in recent years. The goals of this study were to describe the glycemic medication profiles in a cohort of adult patients enrolled in primary care, to compare the regimens with measures of glycemic control, and to describe potential contraindicated regimens.

Charles D MacLean; Benjamin Littenberg; Amanda G Kennedy

2006-01-01

216

Phase 1, Background study results under the Council of Great Lake Governors program to perform stack sampling and analysis of emissions from densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF)  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the results of the first part of the study. Chapter 2 contains a summary of the d-RDF literature which was surveyed. Chapter 3 contains a compilation of existing and proposed regulation information from the seven participating Great Lakes States. Chapter 4 includes identification of pellet producers in the region. Chapter 5 contains a description of the pellet producers and test burn facilities selected for the experimental work to be undertaken in the second part of the program study. Chapter 6 contains a list of references. 27 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1989-04-07

217

Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of

D. J. Hofmann; J. M. Rosen

1981-01-01

218

GLAST Background Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles tha...

E. Grove F. Longo J. F. Ormes T. Burnett W. Atwood

2007-01-01

219

Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

Mello Koch, Robert de [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

2009-01-15

220

Opacity provisions: background information for promulgated amendments  

SciTech Connect

On July 31, 1984, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a requirement for owners and operators of affected facilities subject to opacity standards in 40 CFR Part 60 to conduct opacity observations, and record and report the opacity of emissions during each performance test as required by Section 114 of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and was based on the Administrator's determination that the recordkeeping and reporting was necessary to demonstrate compliance with the respective opacity standards. The data would also be used during 4-year reviews of standards of performance for new stationary sources so that EPA could decide whether revisions to the respective opacity standards were necessary. The proposed opacity provisions were published in the Federal Register (49 FR 30676). A hearing was not requested. Comments were received from industry, state and local air pollution control agencies, and a law firm representing members of the Utility Air Regulatory Group (UARG). The summary of comments and responses serves as the basis for the revisions made to the opacity provisions between proposal and promulgation.

Not Available

1985-12-01

221

Background Information on the Chinese Fruit Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The People's Republic of China was established in 1949, ushering in an era of socialism and government centralization. Beginning in 1978, China's economy gradually transitioned from centralization to the transitional and somewhat more privatized society of today. Prior to 1978, government policies aimed at controlling food supplies and prices were common. Food rationing in 1953 was aimed at guaranteeing food

Suzanne Thornsbury; Mollie Woods

2007-01-01

222

Communicating Uncertainties in Weather and Climate Information: Results of a National Academies Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a major East Coast snowstorm was forecast during the winter of 2001, people began preparing - both the public and the decision-makers responsible for public services. There was an air of urgency, heightened because just the previous year the region had been hit hard by a storm of unpredicted strength. But this time, the storm never materialized and people were left wondering what went "wrong" with the forecast. Did something go wrong or did forecasters just fail to communicate their information in an effective way? Did they convey a sense of the likelihood of the event and keep people up to date as information changed? In the summer of 2001, the National Academies' Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate hosted a workshop designed to explore the communication of uncertainty in weather and climate information. Workshop participants examined five case studies that were chosen to illustrate a range of forecast timescales and certainty levels. The cases were: Red River Flood, Grand Forks, April 1997; East Coast Winter Storm, March 2001; Oklahoma-Kansas Tornado Outbreak, May 3, 1999; El Nino 1997-1998, and Climate Change Science, a report issued in 2001. In each of these cases, participants examined who said what, when, to whom, how, and with what effect. The last two cases specifically address climate-related topics. This paper summarizes the final workshop report (Communicating Uncertainties in Weather and Climate Information: Summary of a Workshop, NRC 2002), including an overview of the five cases and lessons learned about communicating uncertainties in weather and climate forecasts. Among other findings, the report stresses that communication and appropriate dissemination of information, including information about uncertainty in the forecasts and the forecaster's confidence in the product, should be an integral, ongoing part of the forecasting process, not an afterthought. Explaining uncertainty should be an integral part of what weather and climate forecasters do and is essential to delivering accurate and useful information.

Friday, E.; Barron, E. J.; Elfring, C.; Geller, L.

2002-12-01

223

Geochemical background - an environmental perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the concept of geochemical background from an environmental perspective. The idea of establishing the typical concentrations of elements in various environmental compartments, proposed by exploratory geochemists almost 50 years ago was important for the detection of anomalous element concentrations, thus providing a basic tool in the search for new mineral deposits. At present, the knowledge of the geochemical background of hazardous elements is essential for: defining pollution, identifying the source of contamination, and for establishing reliable environmental quality criteria for soils, sediments and surface waters. The article presents geochemical methods of evaluation of anthropogenic influence on the environment and discusses the problem of defining and understanding the term "geochemical background" and related terms in environmental sciences. It also briefly presents methods of geochemical background evaluation based on the results of environmental sample analyses. It stresses the role of geochemical background in our understanding of environmental pollution and pollution prevention.

Ga?uszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzis?aw M.

2011-01-01

224

Anisotropies of cosmic microwave background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies have been recognized as one of the most important observational quantities to understand the early stage of our universe. Here it is shown that temperature fluctuations of CMB contain rich information, i.e., cosmological parameters, geometry of the universe, initial condition of the density perturbations and more. The impact by recent observations of BOOMERanG and MAXIMA is also mentioned.

Sugiyama, Naoshi

2001-07-01

225

The brain monitoring with Information Technology (BrainIT) collaborative network: data validation results  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Background The BrainIT group works collaboratively on developing standards for collection and analyses of data from brain injured patients\\u000a towards providing a more efficient infrastructure for assessing new health technology. Materials and methods Over a 2 year period, core dataset data (grouped by nine categories) were collected from 200 head-injured patients by local\\u000a nursing staff. Data were uploaded by the

Martin Shaw; Ian Piper; Iain Chambers; Giuseppe Citerio; Per Enblad; Barbara Gregson; Tim Howells; Karl Kiening; Julia Mattern; Pelle Nilsson; Arminas Ragauskas; Juan Sahuquillo; YH Yau

226

How do hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background estimate their language skills and their comprehension of medical information - a prospective cross-sectional study and comparison to native patients in Germany to assess the language barrier and the need for translation  

PubMed Central

Background Today more than two million people with Turkish migration background live in Germany making them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Data concerning language skills and the perception of medical information in hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background (T) are scarce. Our study is the first to gather quantitative information on this important subject. Methods T and hospitalised German patients without migration background (G) of our university hospital were prospectively included into a cross-sectional study and completed a questionnaire - each group in the appropriate language (T: Turkish, G: German). Results 121 T and 121 G were included. Groups significantly differed in age (T: 44.9?±?17.8, G: 56.9?±?16.7y) and proportion of males (T: 37.2, G: 54.5%) but not regarding the proportion of college graduates (T: 19.3, G: 15.7%). The majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74% of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73% speak German at work. 74.4% of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as “average” or better while 25.6% reported it as “very bad” or “bad”. 10.7% of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physician’s information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3% of T estimated their reception of the physician’s information to be “average” or worse. 43.3% of T had the impression that it would have helped them “much” or “very much” to be aided by an interpreter at the hospital. The information transmitted while giving informed consent to invasive medical procedure was judged to be “mostly” or “completely” sufficient by the majority of T (76%) and G (89.8%). In this setting 37 of 96 T (38.5%) reported being helped by an interpreter – in most cases (64.9%) a family member. Conclusion Although the majority of patients with Turkish migration background have spent most of their lives in Germany (28.94?±?10.41y) a large part of this population has limited German language skills and difficulties obtaining medical information when hospitalised.

2013-01-01

227

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J.F.; /Denver U.; Atwood, W.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Burnett, T.; /Washington U., Seattle; Grove, E.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Longo, F.; /INFN, Pisa; McEnery, J.; /NASA, Goddard; Mizuno, T.; /Hiroshima U.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

2007-10-17

228

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J. F. [University of Denver (United States); Atwood, W. [University of California at Santa Cruz (United States); Burnett, T. [University of Washington (United States); Grove, E. [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Longo, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)-Pisa (Italy); McEnery, J.; Ritz, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Mizuno, T. [Hiroshima University (Japan)

2007-07-12

229

An Evaluation of Selected NASA Scientific and Technical Information Products: Results of a Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A pilot study was conducted to evaluate selected NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) scientific and technical information (STI) products. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire, had a two-fold purpose--to gather baseline data on the use and perceived usefulness of selected…

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron

230

Evaluating an Automated Career Information Development System: Research Results and Techniques for System Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to summarize an evaluation of the PLATO career information development system (CIDS) at two sites in Illinois: Truman College, Chicago, and the Champaign Comprehensive Employment and Training Act Consortium. Data were obtained between March 31 and June 28, 1982 from 229 users in regard to six questions/issues that…

Flynn, Marilyn L.; DiBello, Louis V.

231

Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices. Research Results Digest 17.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating s...

2013-01-01

232

Physicians' communicative strategies in interacting with Internet-informed patients: results from a qualitative study.  

PubMed

This article describes the strategies used by physicians to interact with Internet-informed patients, alongside illustrating the motives underlying such strategies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 17 physicians from primary care and medical specialist practices in the Italian part of Switzerland. The sample was diversified in terms of specialty, age, and gender. Data collection and analysis were driven by grounded theory and supported by a computer-assisted qualitative analysis program. A typology of four communicative strategies has been outlined. The adoption of these strategies is shaped by physicians' general attitude toward Internet-informed patients, based on their conception of medical information for lay people through the Internet. However, this general attitude is mediated by doctors' interpretation of the specific communicative context, that is, their appraisal of three aspects: the patient's health literacy, the relevance of the online information to be discussed, and their own communicative efficacy. At the end, the process of interpretation underlying the strategies is discussed to expand on it and to identify implications for practice and research. PMID:22260422

Caiata-Zufferey, Maria; Schulz, Peter J

2012-01-19

233

A Method for Evaluating Information Systems from Workflow Models: Results from a Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dynamic age of corporate acquisitions, mergers, and downsizing, decisions concerning optimization of workflow require workflow modeling and, potentially, evaluation of legacy technology that supports the workflow as represented in the model. This paper describes a case study of workflow modeling and the method of evaluation used by a Department of Defense (DoD) to determine the optimal information system

Richard E. Orwig; Douglas L. Dean; Lynne Mikulich

1998-01-01

234

Medical Affairs and Drug Information Practices within the Pharmaceutical Industry: Results of a Benchmarking Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharma or biotech companies that are looking to develop and implement a medical affairs department, or current directors who are looking for ways to assess the performance of their department, find a dearth of published information to assist them with their task. Although in the past a few individual drug and biotech companies have conducted benchmarking surveys in this area

Fran Hopkins; Cassandra Galligher; Abigail Levine

1999-01-01

235

The Adoption and Use of Health Information Technology in Rural Areas: Results of a National Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: Health information technology (HIT) is a national policy priority. Knowledge about the special needs, if any, of rural health care providers should be taken into account as policy is put into action. Little is known, however, about rural-urban differences in HIT adoption at the national level. Purpose: To conduct the first national…

Singh, Ranjit; Lichter, Michael I.; Danzo, Andrew; Taylor, John; Rosenthal, Thomas

2012-01-01

236

Mothers and Children as Informants of Bullying Victimization: Results from an Epidemiological Cohort of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stressful events early in life can affect children's mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about children's bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers and children provide valid reports of bullying victimization, (2) examine the inter-rater…

Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Andreou, Penelope; Bowes, Lucy; Ambler, Antony P.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2011-01-01

237

Mothers and Children as Informants of Bullying Victimization: Results from an Epidemiological Cohort of Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stressful events early in life can affect children's mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about children's bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers and children provide valid reports of bullying victimization, (2) examine the inter-rater…

Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Andreou, Penelope; Bowes, Lucy; Ambler, Antony P.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

2011-01-01

238

An Adaptive Social Network for Information Access: Theoretical and Experimental Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a social network of software agents who assist each other in help- ing their users find information. Unlike in most previous approaches, our architec- ture is fully distributed and includes agents who preserve the privacy and autonomy of their users. These agents learn models of each other in terms of expertise (abil- ity to produce correct domain answers)

Bin Yu; Mahadevan Venkatraman; Munindar P. Singh

2003-01-01

239

Results of European projects improving security of distributed health information systems.  

PubMed

The challenge for improvement of quality and efficiency of health care systems causes the development and promotion of "Shared Care" in all developed countries. Distribution, decentralisation, and specialisation of health care must be joint with an extended communication and co-operation between the different care providers. Fulfilling the shared care paradigm, care supporting health information systems has to be distributed, interoperable, and scaleable too. Communication and co-operation across organisational, regional, and even national boundaries is bearing high threats and risks regarding security and privacy of medical and personal information of both patients and health professionals. Involved in several security projects funded by the European Union, the Medical Informatics Department and the regional Clinical Cancer Registry at the University of Magdeburg are piloting a secure regional distributed medical record system for cancer diseases. Requirements, solutions, and experiences are presented and discussed. PMID:10384633

Blobel, B; Pharow, P

1998-01-01

240

Information and the decision to recycle: results from a survey of US households  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper relies on a unique dataset collected during a national survey of US households to explore how different sources of information (print, television, radio, family\\/friends, work\\/school and others) influence the decision to start recycling. Although print media are influential, it is found that face-to-face communication (through family\\/friends or work\\/school) is the most effective medium to get people to start

Hilary Nixon; Jean-Daniel M. Saphores

2009-01-01

241

The Effect of Chemical Information on the Spatial Distribution of Fruit Flies: I Model Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal aggregation is a general phenomenon in ecological systems. Aggregations are generally considered as an evolutionary\\u000a advantageous state in which members derive the benefits of protection and mate choice, balanced by the costs of limiting resources\\u000a and competition. In insects, chemical information conveyance plays an important role in finding conspecifics and forming aggregations.\\u000a In this study, we describe a spatio-temporal

Marjolein E. Lof; Rampal S. Etienne; James Powell; Maarten de Gee; Lia Hemerik

2008-01-01

242

Medical information and surrogate designation: results of a prospective study in elderly hospitalised patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to determine the preferences of French elderly inpatients concerning medical information and surrogate designation in life-threatening situations. Methods: intention-to-act questionnaire was completed by two geriatricians during a patient interview in the week following admission in three geriatric units in France. The participants were elderly patients (?70 years) with adequate cognitive performance for decision making as assessed by the Mini

ELENA PAILLAUD; E DOUARD FERRAND; J EAN-LOUIS LEJONC; O LIVIER HENRY; O LIVIER BOUILLANNE; O. Montagne

2007-01-01

243

E-MuniS - Electronic Municipal Information Services - Best Practice Transfer and Improvement Project: Project Approach and Intermediary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The E-MuniS (Electronic Municipal Information Services — Best Practice Transfer and Improvement) Project aims to improve the\\u000a best practices of the European Union municipalities regarding the use of information technology in municipal administration\\u000a working processes and services to citizens and to transfer those results to South-Eastern European municipalities in particular\\u000a from the Balkan region thus integrating it to the EU

Bojil Dobrev; Mechthild Stoewer; Lambros Makris; Eleonora Getsova

2002-01-01

244

Matching Background Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter introduces an especially important subject in the concealment of animals--countershading. One observes many animals with colors that match the general color of their usual backgrounds. Many leaf-eating insects appear green, for example, making them relatively inconspicuous against their normal background of leaves. The manner of coloration that will provide such a color match is not as obvious as one might imagine. It depends significantly on the nature of the lighting. The inquiry-based activities included in this section effectively illustrate this concept.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2008-04-01

245

Using the Internet to Help With Diet, Weight, and Physical Activity: Results From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet offers a viable platform for cost-effective and wide-reaching health interventions. However, little is known about use of the Internet to help with diet, weight, and physical activity (DWPA) using a nationally representative sample from the United States. Objective To (1) assess the demographic characteristics of people who use the Internet to help with DWPA, (2) assess whether usage trends changed over time, and (3) investigate the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and health behaviors. Methods Data on Internet users from the 2007 and 2011 iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), N=4827 were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the demographic correlates of using the Internet for help with DWPA. Multiple linear regression was used to test the associations between Internet use for DWPA and three health behaviors: fruit intake, vegetable intake, and physical activity. Results A larger percentage of Internet users used the Internet for DWPA in 2011 (42.83%) than in 2007 (40.43%). In general, Internet users who were younger (OR 0.98, P<.001), more educated (OR 1.40, P<.001), married (OR 1.06, P=.03), of a minority race (non-Hispanic blacks: OR 1.14, P=.02; Hispanics: OR 1.42, P=.01), and who had a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) (OR 1.04, P<.001) were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA. Across survey years, gender was not associated with using the Internet for DWPA (OR 1.03, P=.12), but there was a significant interaction between survey year and gender (OR 1.95, P=.002); in 2007, men were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA, but women were more likely to do so in 2011. Using the Internet for DWPA was associated with more vegetable intake (B=.22, P=.002), more fruit intake (B=.19, P=.001), and more moderate exercise (B=.25, P=.001), although the strength of the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and fruit intake and exercise was weaker in 2011 than in 2007. Conclusions Contrary to prior research, our population-level study did not show a pronounced gender difference in the use of the Internet for DWPA. Our results support the increasing viability of the Internet as a platform for behavior change intervention, as a growing percentage of Internet users are turning to the Internet for help with DWPA. Additionally, using the Internet for DWPA is associated with better DWPA-related health behaviors.

McCully, Scout N; Don, Brian P

2013-01-01

246

Bayesian rule-based complex background modeling and foreground detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting foreground objects from image sequences has played an important role in many machine vision applications. Background modeling, which is a preliminary processing step for foreground detection, is a challenging task due to the complexity and variety of background regions, unexpected situations, and image artifacts such as noise factors, impairments, etc. In this work, we propose a pixel-based background modeling method that uses nonparametric kernel density estimation and foreground/background classification based on the Bayesian decision rule. To reduce the complexity of the kernel density estimation technique, we estimate the probability density function for the background regions using histograms. Hue, saturation, and value (HSV) color and gradient information is also used to represent the background features. After the background statistics are estimated, we detect the foreground regions by using a background subtracting method based on the Bayesian decision rule, which eliminates the need to select and tune the threshold value for foreground/background region classification. The proposed algorithm is validated using datasets acquired in indoor and outdoor environments with a fixed camera. The proposed algorithm is quantitatively compared with two existing background modeling methods. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm produces more accurate and stable results.

Park, Jong Geun; Lee, Chulhee

2010-02-01

247

Health information seeking among Mbararan adolescents: results from the Uganda Media and You survey.  

PubMed

To maximize scarce intervention dollars, pediatricians and other adolescent health professionals must position health promotion efforts in mediums that most effectively reach youth. This may be especially true in resource-limited settings where access to primary health care and medications is limited. To improve the efficiency and impact of disease prevention and health promotion efforts in resource-limited settings, we examine sources of health information cited by adolescents in Mbarara Uganda. Participants in the Uganda Media and You survey were students aged 12-18 (n = 500) randomly identified in five secondary schools in Mbarara municipality, Uganda. Ninety-three percent of eligible and invited youth completed the cross-sectional, pencil-and-paper survey. Four in five adolescents (81%) indicated they turned to parents, teachers, and other adults while around half read a book/went to the library (56%) or turned to siblings and friends (50%) for information about health and disease. More than one in three (38%) indicated that they used the computer and Internet to search for health information. Older versus younger respondents tended to rely upon siblings and friends for all types of health questions. On the other hand, younger versus older youth were significantly more likely to turn to parents, teachers, and other adults for their questions about sexual health. Adults may be an important component of effective disease prevention and health promotion campaigns. Multiple delivery methods may be especially effective for reaching older adolescents. Technology also may be an important health promotion tool in resource-limited settings. PMID:17639121

Ybarra, Michele L; Emenyonu, Nneka; Nansera, Denis; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R

2007-07-16

248

Background Level Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The framework enabled by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System to allow appropriate, patient-centred caries management includes a frequently encountered scenario in which a comprehensive assessment of the teeth and the patient reveals no lesions in need of active preventive or operative care. The issue addressed here is: what background care is appropriate for patients attending a dental practice

N. B. Pitts

2009-01-01

249

Cosmic background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and\\u000aanisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the\\u000aupdate of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle\\u000aProperties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

2000-01-01

250

Diffuse UV Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a LEGACY project, with the aim of characterizing the diffuse ultraviolet background radiation. In order to achieve maximum impact, we propose to observe exclusively targets for which we already have in hand Voyager diffuse - background spectra (shortward of Lyman alpha). Our Voyager spectroscopy will allow powerful insight into the interpretation and meaning of the deep GALEX images longward of Lyman alpha that we propose (here) to obtain. There is good evidence that a substantial portion of the diffuse UV background at moderate and high Galactic latitudes is exotic in its origin - that is, that the radiation is not simply diffuse galactic light plus the integrated light of distant galaxies. We propose to find clues to the nature and physical origin of the diffuse ultraviolet background radiation in as comprehensive a manner as can be accomplished using GALEX. But in the course of carrying out the proposed work, we will also be creating a permanent GALEX archive of well-chosen deep images that are supported by spectroscopy - images valuable for a wide range of purposes beyond those that we propose. To speed this broader use, we waive all data rights.

Henry, Richard

251

47 CFR 215.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment...concerning the telecommunications effects of EMP and available protective measures,...

2010-10-01

252

47 CFR 215.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment...concerning the telecommunications effects of EMP and available protective measures,...

2009-10-01

253

Food Grains: Background for 1990 Farm Legislation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wheat and rice are the primary food grains produced in the United States and throughout the world. The report provides domestic and international background information on the wheat and rice industries. The 1985 Food Security Act established target prices...

C. E. Young J. L. Harwood N. W. Childs W. Lin

1990-01-01

254

Chiristmas Carol Background Knowlege  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find out more information about the book A Christmas Carol. Use the websites below to answer the questions about A Christmas Carol . Write your answers to these questions on a piece of paper or a word document you can print and turn in. The answers must be in your own words! 1. This story takes place in Victorian London. This time ...

Riesberg, Ms.

2012-11-28

255

Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

256

The effect of background cuing on prey detection.  

PubMed

Studies of prey detection have typically focused on how search image affects the capture of cryptic items. This study also considers how background vegetation influences cryptic prey detection. Blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata, searched digitized images for two Catocala moths: C. ilia, which is cryptic on oak, and C. relicta, which is cryptic on birch. Some images contained moths while others did not. The ability of blue jays to detect prey during repeated presentations of one prey type within a session was compared with their performance during randomly alternating presentations of both prey types within a session to examine search-image formation under two background conditions (informative and ambiguous). In the informative background condition, both trees in the image were of the same species and therefore, the background was a reliable indicator of which prey type might be present. In the ambiguous background condition, there was one tree of each species in the image and either prey type could be present. The results indicate that: (1) a search-image effect was observed only for the more cryptic prey type and only when the background was informative; (2) as accuracy on prey images (those with moths) increased, response latency remained unchanged; (3) performance on nonprey images (those without moths) was primarily determined by the difficulty of searching the background and not by the prey type in the accompanying prey images; and (4) search-image effects disappeared with extended practice. These results suggest that the ability to detect prey is influenced by background and that the presence of either multiple backgrounds or multiple prey types interferes with search-image formation. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790707

Kono; Reid; Kamil

1998-10-01

257

NEWS AND INFORMATION: The `controllable dose' debate: results of the IRPA consultation exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the proposals from Professor Roger Clarke for major revisions to the ICRP system for radiological protection under the generic concept of 'controllable dose', IRPA initiated a consultation exercise among its Member Societies. This culminated in a debate at the IRPA-10 Congress in Hiroshima in May 2000. The results of this debate and the position papers developed by a number

Geoffrey A. M. Webb

2000-01-01

258

INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, REPORTS ON EVALUATION PROCEDURES AND RESULTS 1965-1967.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE RETRIEVAL EVALUATION RESULTS OBTAINED WITH THE AUTOMATIC SMART DOCUMENT RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOR DOCUMENT COLLECTIONS IN THE FIELDS OF AERODYNAMICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE, AND DOCUMENTATION IS GIVEN IN THIS REPORT. THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF FULLY AUTOMATIC DOCUMENT RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL, INCLUDING THE FORMS…

SALTON, GERALD

259

Adaptation Processes during the Implementation of an Information System: Preliminary Results from a Longitudinal Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes preliminary results of a longitudinal study that examined implementation of an automated library system in a three-college consortium, focusing on technical services departments. Mutual adaptation research and factors affecting implementation are discussed. Findings on organizational issues, changes in work and workflow, role changes,…

Lopata, Cynthia

1991-01-01

260

Detector Background at Muon Colliders  

SciTech Connect

Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

261

Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal…

Fagnoni, Cynthia

262

Methodological variables in Web-based research that may affect results: Sample type, monetary incentives, and personal information  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many methodological differences between Web-based studies, differences that could substantially affect the results.\\u000a The present study investigated whether sample type, offering payment through a lottery, and requiring participants to enter\\u000a personal information would affect dropout rates and\\/or the substantive results in a study of jury decision making in capital\\u000a cases. Asking participants to enter their e-mail addresses increased

Kevin M. O’Neil; Steven D. Penrod

2001-01-01

263

Possibilities and acceptance of mobile information technologies for the elderly - first results of an empirical study.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the results of a questionnaire-study conducted for the project "Safe and mobile through accompanying assistance systems" (SIMBA) founded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The study analyzes the mobility requirements and obstacles of the 55 yearold and older seniors in three age-groups (N=210) to develop suitable health-enabling technologies. It focuses on the mobility of the elderly on foot, by public transport, by bicycle and by taxi. The usage and the acceptance of existing mobile devices are determined, to select a suitable terminal for assistance systems. The results show, that although public transport is a very important way of travelling for seniors, its role decreases with higher age. Above the age of 65 years only a small fraction of seniors uses new communication technologies. This implies that smartphones as mobility aids are only suitable for the youngest group of seniors and for future, perhaps more technology-friendly generations. PMID:23920722

Szarvas, Ildikó; Nitsch, Manuela; Lambacher, Oliver; Howe, Jürgen; Reichwaldt, Nina; von Bargen, Tobias; Haux, Reinhold

2013-01-01

264

Information Feedback for Skill Acquisition: Instantaneous Knowledge of Results Degrades Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of acquired error-detection capabilities in skill learning was investigated by manipulating the delay of knowledge of results (KR). Compared with delayed feedback, instantaneous KR should be detrimental to the learning of error-detection capabilities because it should tend to block spontaneous subjective evaluation of response-produced feedback. Weaker error-detection capabilities should then be evident on delayed no-KR retention tests. During

Stephan P. Swinnen; Richard A. Schmidt; Diane E. Nicholson; Diane C. Shapiro

1990-01-01

265

Trial SNAPSHOT: measurements for terrain background characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and spectral characteristics of targets and backgrounds must be known and understood for a wide variety of reasons such as: synthetic scene simulation and validation; target description for modelling; in- service target material characterisation and background variability assessment. Without this information it will be impossible to design effective camouflage systems and to maximise the capabilities of new sensors. Laboratory measurements of background materials are insufficient to provide the data required. A series of trials are being undertaken in the UK to quantify both diurnal and seasonal changes of a terrain background, as well as the statistical variability within a scene. These trials are part of a collaborative effort between the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK), Defence Clothing and Textile Agency (UK) and the T.A.C.O.M. (USA). Data are being gathered at a single site consisting primarily of south facing mixed coniferous and deciduous woodland, but also containing uncultivated grassland and tracks. Ideally each point in the scene needs to be characterized at all relevant wavelengths but his is unrealistic. In addition there are a number of important environmental variables that are required. The goal of the measurement programme is to acquire data across the spectrum from 0.4 - 14 microns. Sensors used to include visible band imaging spectroradiometers, telespectroradiometers (visual, NIR, SWIR and LWIR), calibrate colour cameras, broad band SWIR and LWIR imagers and contact reflectance measurement equipment. Targets consist of painted panels with known material properties and a wheeled vehicle, which is in some cases covered with camouflage netting. Measurements have bene made of the background with and without the man- made objects present. This paper will review the results to date and present an analysis of the spectral characteristics fo different surfaces. In addition some consideration will be given to the implications of the data obtained for camouflage design.

Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Mitchell, Alistair A.; Bell, Christopher R.; Thomas, David J.; Evans, Roger

2000-07-01

266

Stochastic fusion of information to characterize DNAPL source zones: conceptual framework and preliminary results from theoretical, computational, and experimental studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) are prevalent at a large number of sites throughout the world. The variable release history and geologic heterogeneity make the spatial distribution of DNAPLs in the source zone complex. This causes difficulties in cleanup and can contribute to long-term groundwater contamination for decades to centuries. Therefore, the spatial distribution, mass, and composition of DNAPLs present in the source zone need to be characterized in great detail so that efficient remediation schemes can be designed. Development of a cost-effective technology that provides detailed images of DNAPL distributions in the source zones thus is essential. We present here the conceptual framework and preliminary results of a technology that delineates DNAPL source zones in three-dimensions without extensive invasive sampling. This new technology based on the stochastic fusion of information methodology, assimilates results of hydraulic, conservative, and partitioning tracer tomography surveys to derive the best estimate of the DNAPL residual distribution and its uncertainty. Specifically, it first analyzes the information derived from hydraulic tomography to identify the three-dimensional hydraulic heterogeneity of the aquifer. It then improves the estimate of the heterogeneity by incorporating new information acquired from the conservative tracer tomography. Afterward, the improved estimate of heterogeneity is used to simulate the hydraulic tomography such that more detailed information about the response of the subsurface becomes available. This new information again is fed back to the technique to update the estimate of the heterogeneity. The iterative process continues until the available information and measurements are fully utilized to identify the heterogeneity that controls the spatial distribution of DNAPLs. The newly derived knowledge of heterogeneity is then used to design partitioning tracer tomography tests to accurately depict the spatial distribution of DNAPL residual saturation in the source zone. The proposed techniques are being tested and validated through numerical experiments and two sandboxes.

Illman, W. A.; Yeh, T. J.; Zhu, J.; Craig, A.

2004-12-01

267

Earth's Background Free Oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's background free oscillations, known as Earth's hum, were discovered in 1998. Excited modes of the oscillations are almost exclusively fundamental spheroidal and toroidal modes from 2 to 20 mHz. Seasonal variations in the source distribution suggest that the dominant sources are ocean infragravity waves in the shallow and deep oceans. A probable excitation mechanism is random shear traction acting on the sea bottom owing to linear topographic coupling of the infragravity waves. Excitation by pressure sources on Earth's surface is also significant for a frequency below 5 mHz. A possible pressure source is atmospheric turbulence, which can cause observed resonant oscillations between the solid modes and atmospheric acoustic modes.

Nishida, Kiwamu

2013-05-01

268

Cosmic microwave background theory.  

PubMed

A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant. PMID:9419321

Bond, J R

1998-01-01

269

Acoustic Background of BN-600 Steam Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper the results of acoustic background for BN-600 steam generator in nominal operating conditions are presented. The 1-200 kHz acoustic background of evaporator and reheater modules are given. (ERA citation 13:053691)

V. S. Yugai L. N. Naboichenkov V. N. Zhukovets V. I. Ivannikov V. V. Vylomov

1986-01-01

270

A Results-Based Logic Model for Primary Healthcare: A Conceptual Foundation for Population-Based Information Systems  

PubMed Central

A conceptual framework for population-based information systems is needed if these data are to be created and used to generate information to support healthcare policy, management and practice communities that seek to improve quality and account for progress in primary healthcare (PHC) renewal. This paper describes work conducted in British Columbia since 2003 to (1) create a Results-Based Logic Model for PHC using the approach of the Treasury Board of Canada in designing management and accountability frameworks, together with a literature review, policy analysis and broad consultation with approximately 650 people, (2) identify priorities for information within that logic model, (3) use the logic model and priorities within it to implement performance measurement and research and (4) identify how information systems need to be structured to assess the impact of variation or change in PHC inputs, activities and outputs on patient, population and healthcare system outcomes. The resulting logic model distinguishes among outcomes for which the PHC sector should be held more or less accountable.

Watson, Diane E.; Broemeling, Anne-Marie; Wong, Sabrina T.

2009-01-01

271

Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large plasma redshifts of photons in hot, sparse plasma are given by ln ( 1+z )=3.326ot 10-25ot int_0^R N_eot dx., provided the wavelength ? ? ?_0.5 =3.185ot 10-6ot ( 1+1.296ot 10^5ot B^2/Ne )ot ? N_e/T cm, where Ne is the electron density in cm-3, T the temperature in K, R the distance in cm to the emitter, and B the magnetic field in Gauss. The cut-off at ? _0.5 means that the redshift is 50% of its full value. The theory is based on an overlooked interaction of photons with hot sparse electron plasma. It has been overlooked, because the necessary conditions (high temperature and low densities over extended dimensions) cannot be created in the laboratory. The plasma redshifts help explain: the heating of the transition to the corona, the coronal heating, solar redshifts (which invalidate the equivalence principle), galactic redshifts, the heating of galactic corona, the redshifts of white dwarfs and quasars, the cosmological redshifts, and the recently discovered dimming of distant super nova. This presentation will show how plasma redshift also helps explain the cosmic microwave background.

Brynjolfsson, Ari

2003-04-01

272

Non-informative results and monosomies in PGD: the importance of a third round of re-hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of non-informative results after fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was analysed in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). FISH was performed on seven chromosomes (13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, and Y) in two rounds of hybridization (one biopsied blastomere per day 3 embryo). A third round with telomeric probes was performed in order to analyse the chromosome(s) in question. A

Petr Uher; Petra Baborova; Milena Kralickova; Mathias H. Zech; Yury Verlinsky; Nicolas H. Zech

2009-01-01

273

Background on Rotavirus Vaccines  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... In addition to FDA, the European Medicines Agency and numerous other foreign regulatory authorities have licensed Rotarix. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

274

WFC3/UVIS Sky Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the on-orbit background levels present in WFC3/UVIS full-frame images. The results are based on nearly all standard readout images taken since the installation of WFC3 on HST in May 2009, with a relatively small number of exclusions e.g. images with obvious anomalous backgrounds (such as extended targets filling the field of view) or those taken with the quad filters (different bandpass in each amp). Comparisons are provided to estimates from the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). We anticipate these results to be helpful in fine-tuning the level of post-flash required to achieve the optimum balance of charge transfter efficiency (CTE) loss mitigation versus noise penalty. Observers considering the use of post-flash should refer to the White Paper (MacKenty & Smith 2012) on the CTE WWW page (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/ins_performance/CTE/).

Baggett, Sylvia; Anderson, Jay

2012-06-01

275

US ITER background summary papers  

SciTech Connect

The following brief summaries were prepared by members of the US ITER Home Team to provide background information on the ITER CDA design and in several instances to provide personal observations and suggestions regarding continuation of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA) into the Engineering Design Activities (EDA). The subjects covered represent areas and issues recognized to be important during the CDA and judged important to the initiation and implementation of the ITER EDA. These summaries were prepared to provide a very condensed statement on each issue to permit the reader to grasp quickly the essential material from the CDA based on the judgment of the author. In several instances, the authors also include suggestions regarding the EDA efforts. References to the appropriate ITER documents are included where the reader can find more detail on each subject.

Doggett, J.N. [comp.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Flanagan, C.A. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Post, D.E. [comp.] [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Wesley, J.C. [comp.] [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

1991-05-01

276

Regulatory Background on Reclassification  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 17, 2011) and announced the availability of a draft Special Controls Guidance Document that, if finalized, would serve as a special control, if FDA ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

277

CRDAC FDA Backgrounder  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... DRAFT POINTS TO CONSIDER ... Uric acid at baseline and minimum and maximum values in ... MAP) at scheduled clinic visits up to point of exposure ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

278

Background on Rotavirus  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... It is estimated to be responsible for the deaths of more than 500,000 infants around the world each year, primarily in low- and middle-income ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

279

CRDAC Otsuka Backgrounder  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Tolvaptan (OPC-41061) NDA 204441 Delaying Progression of Renal Complications of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

280

Background on PCV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Both viruses are common in pigs. Neither PCV1 nor PCV2 are known to infect or cause illness in humans, however PCV2 may cause illness in pigs. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

281

Background on Opioid REMS  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... On February 6, 2009, FDA sent letters to manufacturers of certain opioid drug products, indicating that these drugs will be required to have a Risk ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/informationbydrugclass

282

ACPS-CP Backgrounder  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... MORPHOLOGY Size (primary particle) TEM, SEM, AFM, XRD Size (primary/aggregate/agglomerate)d TEM, SEM, AFM, DLS, FFF, AUC, CHDF ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

283

Meeting Background Materials  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... tumors (including metastases from primary bone tumors); 2) treatment of giant cell tumor ... giant cell tumor of bone (ie, #2 above). ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

284

CORE Network Background Paper  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Response and Evaluation Network, in August 2011, it brought together a full-time team with expertise in medicine, public health and science that is ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/outbreaks

285

The object and background hypothesis for vection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulus attributes effective in inducing vection can be generalized by the object and background hypothesis, that is, properties that belong to ‘objects’ weaken vection while those of the ‘background’ enhance vection. We presented a motion-defined Rubin’s vase to induce vection. Results clearly indicated that the background dominantly induced vection. We further demonstrated that motion stimuli that had a property of

Takeharu Seno; Hiroyuki Ito; Shoji Sunaga

2009-01-01

286

Shifting Backgrounds, Shifting Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick activity/demonstration (5th on the page), learners explore depth perception. Learners look at an object in the distance, close one eye, hold up their finger in line with the object, and then close the opened eye and open the closed eye. The surprising result will demonstration how different images are projected onto each eye.

Chudler, Eric H.

2009-01-01

287

CORE Network Background Paper  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Response and Evaluation Network, in August 2011, it brought together a full-time team with expertise in medicine, public health and science that is ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recalls,%20outbreaks%20&%20emergencies/outbreaks

288

Acid rain: a background report  

SciTech Connect

This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to describe the deposition of acidic components through both wet deposition (e.g., rain or snow) and dry deposition (e.g., direct contact between atmospheric constituents and the land, water or vegetation of the earth). Part II presents background information on state agency activities relating to acid rain in Wisconsin, describes what is known about the occurrence of, susceptibility to and effects of acid rain in Wisconsin, and provides information related to man-made sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in Wisconsin. Part III describes major policies and regulations relating to acid rain which have been or are being developed jointly by the United States and Canadian governments, by the United States government and by the State of Wisconsin. Part IV briefly discusses possible areas for Committee action.

Glustrom, L.; Stolzenberg, J.

1982-07-08

289

Health information seeking on the Internet: a double divide? Results from a representative survey in the Paris metropolitan area, France, 2005–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Internet is a major source of information for professionals and the general public, especially in the field of health. However, despite ever-increasing connection rates, a digital divide persists in the industrialised countries. The objective of this study was to assess the determinants involved in: 1) having or not having Internet access; and 2) using or not using the

Emilie Renahy; Isabelle Parizot; Pierre Chauvin

2008-01-01

290

Inputs and Processes in Education: A Background Paper. Final Report Deliverable #1-2.2b.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This background paper is a result of a literature review conducted under Project FORUM that identifies research-based inputs and processes related to student outcomes. It was intended to provide background information for the participants attending the Wingspread Conference on Inputs and Processes in October, 1998. In addition, the report is…

Schrag, Judy A.

291

Sakhalin tender background detailed  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that on Jan. 27, 1992, the committee constituted by order of the Russian government of Dec. 23, 1991, and headed by V.I. Danilov-Danilyan, the Russian Federation's Minister for Ecology and Natural Resources, assessed the results of a tender announced in May 1991. The tender was for foreign companies to submit feasibility studies for exploration and development of oil and gas on the continental shelf off Sakhalin Island. The announced winner was the MMM group consisting of McDermott International Inc., Marathon Oil Co., and Mitsui and Co. Ltd. In its decision the governmental tender committee (GTC) begged to differ from V. Fedorov, governor of the Territory of Sakhalin, in whose opinion the U.S.-Japanese combine of Exxon Corp.-Sakhalin Oil Development Co. (Sodeco) should have been pronounced winner at the bidding's end. GTC's decision also ran counter to the verdict by a panel of experts constituted by decision of the Examining Council under the Chairman of the Russian Government on Dec. 3, 1991, and headed by F. Salmanov, first deputy Minister of Geology of the U.S.S.R.

Konoplyanik, A. (Russian Federation Ministry for Fuels and Energy (SU))

1992-03-23

292

Background of the workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term effects of the Challenger accident on solar-terrestrial science resulted in the need to examine the near-term missions under development for the next five years. The workshop was organized to seek ideas and opinions about the future of solar-terrestrial flight programs. Included are considerations of all types of space platforms, i.e., balloons, rockets, free flying satellites, and the variety of platforms supported by NASA astronauts. Specific issues include: the establishment of the level of understanding to be accomplished with the completion of the current worldwide program of research in solar-terrestrial sciences; the identification of major questions to be answered by the future solar-terrestrial sciences research program as it might be if initiated within the next ten years; the identification of space capabilities to be available to the future program and provision of input about the Space Physics Division's priorities for using these to accomplish its future scientific program; and mapping a program strategy to accomplish a future program of research in the solar-terrestrial sciences within the research community's perception of capabilities and constraints.

1989-09-01

293

The Status of Federal Libraries and Information Centers in the United States: Results from the 1994 Federal Libraries and Information Centers Survey. Statistical Analysis Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data collected through the 1994 Federal Libraries and Information Centers Survey present a picture of federal libraries and information centers that provide a wide variety of services to their respective agencies as well as to the general public. Federal libraries and information centers reported holding over 51 million volumes or volume…

Hawkins, Evelyn F.; Rossi, Robert J.

294

A preliminary exploration of the feasibility of offering men information about potential prostate cancer treatment options before they know their biopsy results  

PubMed Central

Background A small pre-test study was conducted to ascertain potential harm and anxiety associated with distributing information about possible cancer treatment options at the time of biopsy, prior to knowledge about a definitive cancer diagnosis. Priming men about the availability of multiple options before they have a confirmed diagnosis may be an opportunity to engage patients in more informed decision-making. Methods Men with an elevated PSA test or suspicious Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) who were referred to a urology clinic for a biopsy were randomized to receive either the clinic’s usual care (UC) biopsy instruction sheet (n?=?11) or a pre-biopsy educational (ED) packet containing the biopsy instruction sheet along with a booklet about the biopsy procedure and a prostate cancer treatment decision aid originally written for newly diagnosed men that described in detail possible treatment options (n?=?18). Results A total of 62% of men who were approached agreed to be randomized, and 83% of the ED group confirmed they used the materials. Anxiety scores were similar for both groups while awaiting the biopsy procedure, with anxiety scores trending lower in the ED group: 41.2 on a prostate-specific anxiety instrument compared to 51.7 in the UC group (p?=?0.13). ED participants reported better overall quality of life while awaiting biopsy compared to the UC group (76.4 vs. 48.5, p?=?0.01). The small number of men in the ED group who went on to be diagnosed with cancer reported being better informed about the risks and side effects of each option compared to men diagnosed with cancer in the UC group (p?=?0.07). In qualitative discussions, men generally reported they found the pre-biopsy materials to be helpful and indicated having information about possible treatment options reduced their anxiety. However, 2 of 18 men reported they did not want to think about treatment options until after they knew their biopsy results. Conclusions In this small sample offering pre-biopsy education about potential treatment options was generally well received by patients, appeared to be beneficial to men who went on to be diagnosed, and did not appear to increase anxiety unnecessarily among those who had a negative biopsy.

2013-01-01

295

A Behavioral Model of Information Seeking on the Web: Preliminary Results of a Study of How Managers and IT Specialists Use the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Develops and tests a new behavioral model of information seeking on the Web by combining theoretical elements from information science and organization science. Results suggest that a behavioral framework which relates search motivations and moves may be helpful in analyzing Web-based information seeking. (Author/AEF)|

Choo, Chun Wei; Detlor, Brian; Turnbull, Don

1998-01-01

296

Background Subtraction Approach based on Independent Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

In this work, a new approach to background subtraction based on independent component analysis is presented. This approach assumes that background and foreground information are mixed in a given sequence of images. Then, foreground and background components are identified, if their probability density functions are separable from a mixed space. Afterwards, the components estimation process consists in calculating an unmixed matrix. The estimation of an unmixed matrix is based on a fast ICA algorithm, which is estimated as a Newton-Raphson maximization approach. Next, the motion components are represented by the mid-significant eigenvalues from the unmixed matrix. Finally, the results show the approach capabilities to detect efficiently motion in outdoors and indoors scenarios. The results show that the approach is robust to luminance conditions changes at scene.

Jimenez-Hernandez, Hugo

2010-01-01

297

Results from SAMTEX: The Southern African lithospheric mantle - electrical structures and geometries and comparison with seismological information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) is imaging the electrical structures and geometries of the continental lithosphere below Botswana, Namibia and South Africa to depths of 200+ km. Primary geometrical information can readily be obtained from lithospheric-scale MT experiments about the three-dimensional variation in conductivity, and this information can be related to formation and deformation processes. In particular, one important piece of geometrical information easily and relatively precisely (to within 10%) obtained from MT data is the depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), due to the sensitivity of conductivity to small fractions (<1%) of partial melt and/or increased water content. Over four phases of acquisition SAMTEX measurements have been made at a total of more than 700 MT sites in an area of greater than a million square kilometers, making it by far the largest-ever MT project undertaken. In particular, during Phase IV very challenging MT measurements were made in the highly-remote Central Kalahari Game Reserve, completing the coverage of Botswana. One of the most significant results from SAMTEX is the mapping of the LAB beneath the Archean cratons and bounding mobile belts of Southern Africa, particularly beneath Namibia and Botswana for which no prior lithospheric information exists. As would be expected, the electrically-defined LAB is generally shallow (150 km) beneath the mobile belts, deep (250 km) in the centres of the cratons, and transitional at the edges of cratons. Kimberlites are useful in also inferring lithospheric thickness, and diamondiferous kimberlites are located primarily where the electrical lithosphere is transitional in thickness, or where there is a change in its electrical anisotropy properties, both of which are craton edge effects. The electrical properties of the continental mantle derived from SAMTEX data can be compared with seismic ones derived from data from the South African Seismic Experiment (SASE) of the Kaapvaal Project and from regional/continental-scale investigations. Generally there is very good predictive linear agreement between seismic velocity and log(conductivity), indicative of both being influenced by the same bulk property factors, such as temperature, Mg# and composition.

G.. Jones, A.; Muller, M. P.; Miensopust, M. P.; Khosa, D.; Share, P.-E.

2009-04-01

298

The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention Citation: Hall, R. and Hanna, P. (2004), The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention, Behaviour & Information Technology, forthcoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text\\/background color combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioral intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four color-combination conditions. Major findings were: a) Colors with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater

Richard H. Hall

299

A Brief Background on the Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is intended to provide some background on the basic functions of the human immune system. Please note that this information is by no means comprehensive, and that many of these terms are de ned only in their broadest and least technical sense. Terms in italics are important to understanding the structure of the immune system, and those interested

E. Buchla; L. G. de Pillis; A. E. Radunskaya

300

Beam induced backgrounds: CDF experience  

SciTech Connect

We summarize the experiences of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in the presence of backgrounds originating from the counter circulating beams in the Fermilab Tevatron. These backgrounds are measured and their sources identified. Finally, we outline the strategies employed to reduce the effects of these backgrounds on the experiment.

Tesarek, R.J.; /Fermilab

2008-05-01

301

Relevance of Electronic Health Information to Doctors in the Developing World: Results of the Ptolemy Project’s Internet-based Health Information Study (IBHIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons’ clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at

Kirsteen R. Burton; Andrew Howard; Massey Beveridge

2005-01-01

302

Low background aspects of GERDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in 76Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from 222Rn. The main source of 222Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq 228Th.

Simgen, Hardy

2011-04-01

303

Low background aspects of GERDA  

SciTech Connect

The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-04-27

304

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

305

Deleterious background selection with recombination  

SciTech Connect

An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Hudson, R.R. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kaplan, N.L. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-12-01

306

The object and background hypothesis for vection.  

PubMed

Stimulus attributes effective in inducing vection can be generalized by the object and background hypothesis, that is, properties that belong to 'objects' weaken vection while those of the 'background' enhance vection. We presented a motion-defined Rubin's vase to induce vection. Results clearly indicated that the background dominantly induced vection. We further demonstrated that motion stimuli that had a property of an object could not induce vection efficiently. Investigating vection in the framework of the object and background hypothesis provides a unified point of view for understanding vection stimuli. PMID:19782099

Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji

2009-09-24

307

Synthesized performance model of thermal imaging systems based on natural background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of nature environment on the synthesized performance of thermal imaging systems was researched comparing with the targeting task performance (TTP) model. A nature background noise factor was presented and introduced into the minimum resolvable temperature difference channel width (MRTD-CW) model. The method for determining the nature background noise factor was given. A information quantity model based on MRTD-CW model was proposed to evaluate the impact of nature environment on the synthesized performance of thermal imaging systems. A normalized parameter was introduced into the information quantity model. Different background experiments were performed, and the results were analyzed and compared with those of TTP model.

Chen, Song-lin; Wang, Ji-hui; Wang, Xiao-wei; Jin, Wei-qi

2013-09-01

308

Initial Results: An Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Treaty verification techniques, environmental surveillance, and physics experiments continue to require increased sensitivity for detecting and quantifying radionuclides of interest. This can be accomplished with new detector designs that establish high d...

A. R. Day C. E. Aalseth J. E. Fast L. E. Erikson M. E. Keillor

2010-01-01

309

The Education Choice and Competition Index: Background and Results 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exploring the critical role of school choice in the future of education reform, Grover (Russ) Whitehurst introduces the Education Choice and Competition Index (ECCI), an interactive web application that scores large school districts based on thirteen categories of policy and practice. The intent of the ECCI is to create public awareness of the…

Whitehurst, Grover J.

2011-01-01

310

The Education Choice and Competition Index: Background and Results 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring the critical role of school choice in the future of education reform, Grover (Russ) Whitehurst introduces the Education Choice and Competition Index (ECCI), an interactive web application that scores large school districts based on thirteen categories of policy and practice. The intent of the ECCI is to create public awareness of the…

Whitehurst, Grover J.

2011-01-01

311

Feasibility Study About a National Integrated Informative System in the Energy Field. Results of a Research on the National Real Demand of Energetic Information.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the second Energetic Development Project (PFE2) a feasibility study about a National Integrated Informative System in the energy field has been begun. This initiative should consent to confront the present numerous problems in the national statisti...

M. Mazza A. Sano' R. Vaccaro

1986-01-01

312

Clinical efficacy of the use of information technology in cardiology: initial results of angiographic teleconsultation in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background With the increasing use of cineless diagnostic angiography laboratories, modern telecommunication networks provide an excellent opportunity to transfer dynamic cardiac catheterisation images from a referring centre to a cardiac intervention centre. This electronic data transfer may lead to improved patient care and reduced waiting times. Methods Two departments of cardiology started a pilot project using a digital ISDN-30 point-to-point data-line connection between Alkmaar and Amsterdam over which MPEG compressed angiograms are sent. The network consists of a PC based client/server structure and two ISDN modular routers. Results From June 1998 to January 2001, 127 patients were referred for urgent PTCA or CABG using this network. All patients were admitted to the CCU for unstable angina and had a suitable anatomy for coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery. In all cases the MPEG compressed images were successfully stored on the server and could be accessed in Amsterdam. During the pilot phase all X-ray runs (11 + 3) were sent. Following transmission, all patients were accepted for intervention. Review of the DICOM images from the CD-Medical immediately before the PTCA or CABG did not change the planned strategy. The patients were successfully treated 1 to 2 days after data transmission. During this phase, the average variable costs of this network was € 5.90 per patient as opposed to € 69.00 when using a courier service. Conclusion This study shows that personal computer-based telecommunication network systems are feasible for clinical use in daily practise. Access to a remotely located cardiac intervention centre can be achieved promptly at low costs and improves patient care by reducing waiting times.

Otterspoor, L.C.; Bronzwaer, J.; Huybregts, M.; Spruijt, H.J.; Umans, V.A.

2001-01-01

313

Waiting for Chiropody: Contextual Results from an Ethnographic Study of the Information Behavior Among Attendees at Community Clinics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents findings from a recent field study in which ethnographic methods and social network theory were used to investigate the flow of human services information (HSI) among nurses, the elderly and other attendees at foot clinics. Discusses four categories of contextual factors in terms of their impact on participants' information behavior and…

Pettigrew, Karen E.

1999-01-01

314

Data analysis of cosmic microwave background experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a powerful tool for determining and constraining the fundamental properties of our universe. In this thesis we present various computational and statistical techniques used to analyze datasets from CMB experiments, and apply them to both simulated and actual datasets. The algorithms presented in this thesis perform a variety of tasks in relation to the goal of extracting scientific information from CMB data sets. The CMB anisotropy power spectrum is sensitive to numerous parameters that determine the evolutionary and large scale properties of our universe. Now that numerous experiments have mapped the CMB intensity fluctuations on overlapping regions of the sky it is important to ensure that the various experiments are indeed observing the same signal. We cross-correlate the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy maps from the WMAP, MAXIMA-I, and MAXIMA-II experiments. The results conclusively show that the three experiments not only display the same statistical properties of the CMB anisotropy, but also detect the same features wherever the observed sky areas overlap. We conclude that the contribution of systematic errors to these maps is negligible and that MAXIMA and WMAP have accurately mapped the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. Due to a quadrapole anisotropy at last scattering it is predicted that the CMB photons should be linearly polarized, and that the polarization intensity will be roughly an order of magnitude lower than the intensity fluctuations. Two computationally intensive methods for simulating the CMB polarization signal on the sky are presented. Now that CMB polarization experiments are currently producing data sets new algorithms for analyzing polarization time stream data must be developed and tested. We demonstrate how to generate simulations of a polarization experiment in the temporal domain and apply these simulations to the MAXIPOL case. We develop a maximum likelihood map making algorithm and apply it to the temporal simulations to generate simulated MAXIPOL temperature and polarization maximum likelihood maps, and the pixel noise correlation matrix. We show that the output from the map making code is in agreement with the expected results. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Abroe, Matthew Edmund

2004-12-01

315

Relevance of electronic health information to doctors in the developing world: results of the Ptolemy Project's Internet-based Health Information Study (IBHIS).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons' clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at least 6 months. Survey questions concerned time spent reading medical literature, preferred information sources, preferred type of publication, relevance, preference for western versus local medical literature, and academic productivity. Among the 75 eligible participants, 37 (48%) responded. From these responses it was found that African surgeons with access to EHI read more than articles than they did before they had such access, and they find that the information obtained is highly relevant to their clinical, teaching, and research activities. They prefer electronic journals to textbooks and are more inclined to change their practice based on information found in western journals than local journals. Ptolemy resources helped the respondents who reported academic work write a total of 33 papers for presentation or publication. Overall, access to EHI enables doctors in Africa to read more, is relevant, and contributes directly to academic productivity; thus Western medical literature is useful in the developing world, and EHI delivery should continue to expand. PMID:16096863

Burton, Kirsteen R; Howard, Andrew; Beveridge, Massey

2005-09-01

316

3-D subsurface modeling within the framework of an environmental restoration information system: Prototype results using earthvision  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR) placement on the EPA Superfund National Priorities List in December of 1989, all remedial activities, including characterization, remedial alternatives selection, and implementation of remedial measures, must meet the combined requirements of RCRA, CERCLA, and NEPA. The Environmental Restoration Program, therefore, was established with the mission of eliminating or reducing to prescribed safe levels the risks to the environment or to human health and safety posed by inactive and surplus DOE-ORR managed sites and facilities that have been contaminated by radioactive and surplus DOE-ORR managed sites and facilities that have been contaminated by radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes. In accordance with an established Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA), waste sites and facilities across the DOE-ORR have been inventoried, prioritized, and are being systematically investigated and remediated under the direction of Environmental Restoration. EarthVision, a product of Dynamic Graphics, Inc., that provides three-dimensional (3-D) modeling and visualization, was exercised within the framework of an environmental restoration (ER) decision support system. The goal of the prototype was to investigate framework integration issues including compatibility and value to decision making. This paper describes the ER program, study site, and information system framework; selected EarthVision results are shown and discussed. EarthVision proved effective in integrating complex data from disparate sources and in providing 3-D visualizations of the spatial relationships of the data, including contaminant plumes. Work is under way to expand the analysis to the full site, covering about 1600 acres, and to include data from new sources, particularly remote-sensing studies.

Goeltz, R.T.; Zondlo, T.F.

1994-12-31

317

Background Document for Joint Meeting of Advisory ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Background Document for Joint Meeting of Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs and the Drug Safety ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

318

March 2, 2011: TPSAC Background Materials  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... March 2, 2011: TPSAC Background Materials. ... Summary of Briefing Package Contents: -Revised versions of Chapters 1 and 2 of the Menthol Report. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/tobaccoproductsscientificadvisorycommittee

319

New Dietary Ingredients in Dietary Supplements - Background ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... New Dietary Ingredients in Dietary Supplements - Background for Industry. ... When to Notify FDA and What is a New Dietary Ingredient. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/dietarysupplements/newdietaryingredientsnotificationprocess

320

Background and Update on June 9, 2009 ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 3 Background • Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder can ... Pharmacologic intervention is an integral part of treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

321

FDA Background for Colon Cancer Endpoints Workshop  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. FDA Background for Colon Cancer Endpoints Workshop ... I. FDA examination of endpoints for cancer drug approval ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

322

Lattice QCD in Background Fields  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

2009-06-01

323

Background adaptive multispectral band selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN initial automated band selection algorithm suitable for real-time application with tunable multispectral cameras is presented for multispectral target detection. The method and algorithm were developed from analyses of several background and target signatures collected from a field test using the prototype Tunable Filter Multispectral Camera (TFMC). Target and background data from TFMC imagery were analyzed to determine the detection

Frank J. Crosby; John H. Holloway; V. Todd Holmes; Arthur C. Kenton

2001-01-01

324

Background estimation in experimental spectra  

SciTech Connect

A general probabilistic technique for estimating background contributions to measured spectra is presented. A Bayesian model is used to capture the defining characteristics of the problem, namely, that the background is smoother than the signal. The signal is allowed to have positive and/or negative components. The background is represented in terms of a cubic spline basis. A variable degree of smoothness of the background is attained by allowing the number of knots and the knot positions to be adaptively chosen on the basis of the data. The fully Bayesian approach taken provides a natural way to handle knot adaptivity and allows uncertainties in the background to be estimated. Our technique is demonstrated on a particle induced x-ray emission spectrum from a geological sample and an Auger spectrum from iron, which contains signals with both positive and negative components. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Fischer, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association D-85740 Garching bei Muenchen, (Germany); Hanson, K. M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association D-85740 Garching bei Muenchen, (Germany); Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS P940, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dose, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association D-85740 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Linden, W. von der [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz, (Austria)

2000-02-01

325

Privacy and Security Solutions for Interoperable Health Information Exchange. Releasing Clinical Laboratory Test Results: Report on Survey of State Laws.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one of a series produced under RTI International's contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). The contract, entitled Privacy and Security Solutions for Interoperable Health Information Exchange, is managed by AHRQ ...

2009-01-01

326

Coupling Viking Information with Themis and Mola Data Results in Significant Improvement in Paleoerosional Detail of Warrego Valles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report preliminary findings on the re-evaluation of the Viking-based, published geologic map information of the Thaumasia region through detailed investigation of the Warrego rise region, which includes Warrego Valles.

Dohm, J. M.; Hare, T. M.

2009-03-01

327

Operations at Regional Traveler Information Centers: The Case of the TravInfo Field Operational Test - Final Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

TravInfo is a regional traveler information system in the San Francisco Bay Area. It was a Field Operational Test (FOT) over a two-year period from September 1996 to September 1998 with funding from the Federal Highway Administration and the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). TravInfo's goal was to broadly disseminate accurate, comprehensive, timely, and reliable information on traffic conditions and

Mark A. Miller; Dimitri Loukakos

2000-01-01

328

Obtaining land-use information from a remotely sensed land cover map: results from a case study in Lebanon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of land-use information allows decision-makers to develop short to long-term plans for the conservation, sustainable use and development of natural resources. Spatial land-use information often does not exist, whereas land cover information is mostly present in the form of maps derived from remotely sensed data. The latter could provide a basis for obtaining land-use information but there is currently no comprehensive methodology for how to obtain such information in a standardised manner. In Lebanon, with its wide variety of land cover types due to the diversity in landforms and variability in rainfall, a case study was carried out to try to develop a set of decision rules to obtain the dominant land uses from the existing 1:50,000-scale land cover maps. The development of the decision rules to allow such a transformation brought several problems to light concerning spatial and temporal variation of land cover, the accuracy of the input materials, the limitations of the developed decision rules and the complexity of the relation between land cover and land use. The decision rules were also analysed as to their general applicability for acquisition of land-use information and the implications for field survey data collection. Furthermore, quantification of the land cover and land-use classes allowed the examination of the nature of the land cover/use relationships in Lebanon. In addition, these data were compared to the FAO Production Yearbook statistics in order to link annual production estimates with the extent of land involved in the production of commodities. This comparison underlines the complexity of deducing land-use information from land cover data, especially where the land cover/land-use relation is weak and additional data is limited. Assumptions used to identify the spatial extent of certain land uses need to be thoroughly tested in the field for their validity as this is vital in obtaining reliable land-use information.

Jansen, Louisa J. M.; Di Gregorio, Antonio

2004-05-01

329

Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2005 and 2006 School Years. National Goals for Schooling. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. First Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to implement changes required by Education Ministers to enrolment forms (and associated data collection and storage processes). This is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the "National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." The…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2004

2004-01-01

330

True cosmic microwave background power spectrum estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum is a powerful cosmological probe as it entails almost the entire statistical information of CMB perturbations. Having access to only one sky, the CMB power spectrum measured by our experiments is only a realization of the true underlying angular power spectrum. We aim to recover the true underlying CMB power spectrum from the one realization that we have without knowing the cosmological parameters. Methods: The sparsity of the CMB power spectrum is first investigated in two dictionaries; discrete cosine transform (DCT) and wavelet transform (WT). The CMB power spectrum can be recovered with very few coefficients in these two dictionaries and hence is very compressible. Results: We studied the performance of these dictionaries in smoothing a set of simulated power spectra. Based on this, we developed a technique that estimates the true underlying CMB power spectrum from data, i.e., without a need to know the cosmological parameters. Conclusions: This smooth estimated spectrum can be used to simulate CMB maps with similar properties as the true CMB simulations with the correct cosmological parameters. This allows us to perform Monte Carlo simulations in a given project without having to know the cosmological parameters. The developed IDL code, TOUSI, for theoretical power spectrum using sparse estimation, will be released with the next version of ISAP.

Paykari, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Fadili, M. J.

2012-05-01

331

Fluctuations in the Extragalactic Background Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to apply statistical analyses to archival WFPC2 images in order to obtain important new constraints on the physical nature and clustering of the extragalactic background light {EBL}. Fluctuations in the EBL contain a wealth of information about the evolution and clustering of the population of faint galaxies and cosmology. Deep CCD images obtained by Tyson and others reveal a population of faint blue objects which may compromise a significant fraction of the EBL, but their nature is poorly understood. The integrated flux from galaxies to B=27 accounts for only 1/10 to 1/4 of the upper limits on the optical EBL. Multi-band deep WFPC2 images obtained as part of several programs are of the requisite quality to examine the properties of the light not assigned with high significance to discrete sources. At a redshift z 0.5, each WFPC2 field yields a 0.5h^-1 Mpc scale glimpse of the universe. If the EBL is clustered as strongly as the detected faint galaxies, the fluctuations will be strong enough to be detected; a null result would likewise be a significant discovery.

Szalay, Alexander

1995-07-01

332

THEMIS GEONS Background Science and User's Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This userâs guide contains background science and technology information for the magnetometer program across the country known as the Geomagnetic Event Observatory Network by Students (GEONS). It describes the role that terrestrial magnetism plays in shaping a number of important Earth systems. It also explains the basic operating principles behind magnetometers â particularly the system used in the GEONS program. The data from these magnetometers are used in the fourth of four THEMIS teacher guides.

2005-01-01

333

The brain monitoring with Information Technology (BrainIT) collaborative network: EC feasibility study results and future direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The BrainIT group works collaboratively on developing standards for collection and analyses of data from brain-injured patients\\u000a and to facilitate a more efficient infrastructure for assessing new health care technology with the primary objective of improving\\u000a patient care. European Community (EC) funding supported meetings over a year to discuss and define a core dataset to be collected\\u000a from patients with

Ian Piper; Iain Chambers; Giuseppe Citerio; Per Enblad; Barbara Gregson; Tim Howells; Karl Kiening; Julia Mattern; Pelle Nilsson; Arminas Ragauskas; Juan Sahuquillo; Rob Donald; Richard Sinnott; Anthony Stell

2010-01-01

334

The state of emergency obstetric care services in Nairobi informal settlements and environs: Results from a maternity health facility survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge with estimates exceeding 1,000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in some countries. Successful prevention of maternal deaths hinges on adequate and quality emergency obstetric care. In addition to skilled personnel, there is need for a supportive environment in terms of essential drugs and supplies, equipment, and a referral system. Many

Abdhalah K Ziraba; Samuel Mills; Nyovani Madise; Teresa Saliku; Jean-Christophe Fotso

2009-01-01

335

Earth and Atmosphere Shine Backgrounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews current knowledge of earth and atmosphere shine background radiation. Field measurements accomplished up to 1968 are summarized with references, quoted measurement data and effective spectral radiance values. The relation of the several...

A. J. Grobecker

1968-01-01

336

Impacts of Neuroscience: Background Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The background paper surveys the scientific basis of research on the nervous system, identifies several medical applications, examines some of the social effects, and discusses some of the difficult ethical and political issues that may arise from discove...

1984-01-01

337

Low background techniques in XMASS  

SciTech Connect

The XMASS project aims to detect pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, neutrino-less double beta decay, and dark matter searches using ultra-pure liquid xenon. The first stage of XMASS project is concentrated on dark matter searches using 800 kg liquid xenon detector which requires low background and low threshold. Several techniques applied to XMASS detector for low background will be presented.

Takeda, Atsushi [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, University of Tokyo, 456 Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida, Gifu, 506-1205 (Japan)

2011-04-27

338

Nongeometric fluxes as supergravity backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We consider examples of D=4 string theory vacua which, although globally nongeometric, admit a local description in terms of D=10 supergravity backgrounds. We analyze such backgrounds and find that the supersymmetry spinors vary nontrivially along the internal manifold, reproducing the interpolating supergravity solutions found by Frey and Grana. Finally, we propose a simple, local expression for nongeometric fluxes in terms of the internal spinors of the compactification.

Marchesano, Fernando [ASC, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Munich (Germany); Schulgin, Waldemar [Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

2007-08-15

339

Perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five studies of the background level of several perfluorocarbon compounds in Europe are here presented together with measurements from the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX). The tracers used during the two ETEX tracer releases were the perfluorocarbons (PFCs); perfluoromethylcyclohexane (C7F14, PMCH) and perfluoromethylcyclopentane (C6F12, PMCP). Their background concentrations were detected by using both passive and active sampling techniques, to define the

Anne Grete Straume; Russel N. Dietz; Katrin Nodop

1998-01-01

340

Sampling and coverage issues of telephone surveys used for collecting health information in Australia: results from a face-to-face survey from 1999 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the trend of "mobile only" households, and households that have a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the telephone directory, and to describe these groups by various socio-demographic and health indicators. Method Representative face-to-face population health surveys of South Australians, aged 15 years and over, were conducted in 1999, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008 (n = 14285, response rates = 51.9% to 70.6%). Self-reported information on mobile phone ownership and usage (1999 to 2008) and listings in White Pages telephone directory (2006 to 2008), and landline telephone connection and listings in the White Pages (1999 to 2008), was provided by participants. Additional information was collected on self-reported health conditions and health-related risk behaviours. Results Mobile only households have been steadily increasing from 1.4% in 1999 to 8.7% in 2008. In terms of sampling frame for telephone surveys, 68.7% of South Australian households in 2008 had at least a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the White Pages (73.8% in 2006; 71.5% in 2007). The proportion of mobile only households was highest among young people, unemployed, people who were separated, divorced or never married, low income households, low SES areas, rural areas, current smokers, current asthma or people in the normal weight range. The proportion with landlines or mobiles telephone numbers listed in the White Pages telephone directory was highest among older people, married or in a defacto relationship or widowed, low SES areas, rural areas, people classified as overweight, or those diagnosed with arthritis or osteoporosis. Conclusion The rate of mobile only households has been increasing in Australia and is following worldwide trends, but has not reached the high levels seen internationally (12% to 52%). In general, the impact of mobile telephones on current sampling frames (exclusion or non-listing of mobile only households or not listed in the White Pages directory) may have a low impact on health estimates obtained using telephone surveys. However, researchers need to be aware that mobile only households are distinctly different to households with a landline connection, and the increase in the number of mobile-only households is not uniform across all groups in the community. Listing in the White Pages directory continues to decrease and only a small proportion of mobile only households are listed. Researchers need to be aware of these telephone sampling issues when considering telephone surveys.

2010-01-01

341

Resonance Marketing in the Age of the Truly Informed Consumer: Changes in Corporate Strategy Resulting from Changes in Customer Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information availability has increased consumers' informedness, the degree to which they know what is available in the marketplace, with precisely which attributes and at precisely what price. This informedness has altered the demand side of market behavior: customers discount heavily when comparable products are available from competitors and when products do not meet their wants, needs, cravings and longings, but

Eric K. Clemons

2008-01-01

342

Passenger wait time perceptions at bus stops: empirical results and impact on evaluating real-time bus arrival information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study quantifies the relationship between perceived and actual waiting times experienced by passengers awaiting the arrival of a bus at a bus stop. Understanding such a relationship would be useful in quantifying the value of providing real-time information to passengers on the time until the next bus is expected to arrive at a bus stop. Data on perceived and

Rabi G. Mishalani; Mark M. McCord; John Wirtz

2006-01-01

343

Observational Study in Ten Beauty Salons: Results Informing Development of the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers from the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project conducted an observational study in 10 North Carolina beauty salons to gain insight into naturally occurring conversations between cosmetologists and customers, and to assess features of the salon environment that might be used to inform the development of salon-based health promotion…

Solomon, Felicia M.; Linnan, Laura A.; Wasilewski, Yvonne; Lee, Ann Marie; Katz, Mira L.; Yang, Jingzhen

2004-01-01

344

Maintenance of a Health Promotion Program in Elementary Schools: Results from the Catch-on Study Key Informant Interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the institutionalization process in Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) intervention and control schools, 199 key informant interviews were conducted with school food service staff, physical education teachers, classroom teachers, and administrators at the four CATCH-ON field centers. School personnel were asked to talk about the degree of CATCH program implementation, who at the school

Leslie A. Lytle; Jerri Ward; Phillip R. Nader; Sheryl Pedersen; BJ Williston

2003-01-01

345

Background Rejection for the MAJORANA Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MAJORANA project is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment based on the use of high purity, enriched, ^76Ge crystals housed in ultra low background Cu cryostats as both the source ans the detector. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the experiment, the collaboration is currently building a demonstrator consisting of up to 30 kg of enriched High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors and 10 kg of natural HPGe detectors. These detectors, which will take a P-type Point Contact (PPC) geometry, are designed to maximise performance in terms of energy resolution and background rejection efficacy. In order to achieve the background goal of 1 count per tonne-year in a 4 keV wide region of interest around the 2039 keV neutrinoless double beta decay Q-value, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will be constructed using ultra-clean materials and will employ sophisticated background rejection techniques. One such technique, which is key to achieving this background goal, is the ability to distinguish between single-site events from neutrinoless double beta decay and multiple-site events resulting from background gamma rays. This will be achieved through analysis of the digitised signal response of the HPGe detectors. The physics goals of the MAJORANA experiment will be discussed, along with the roles played by digital electronics and digital pulse processing techniques. Details of key background rejection algorithms will also be presented.

Cooper, Reynold

2011-10-01

346

A study of the integration of passage-, document-, and cluster-based information for re-ranking search results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cluster-based and passage-based document retrieval paradigms were shown to be effective. While the former are based on utilizing\\u000a query-related corpus context manifested in clusters of similar documents, the latter address the fact that a document can\\u000a be relevant even if only a very small part of it contains query-pertaining information. Hence, cluster-based approaches could\\u000a be viewed as based on “expanding”

Eyal KrikonOren Kurland; Oren Kurland

347

The Role of Simplification and Information in College Decisions: Results from the H&R Block FAFSA Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing concerns about low awareness and take-up rates for government support programs like college financial aid have spurred calls to simplify the application process and enhance visibility. This project examines the effects of two experimental treatments designed to test of the importance of simplification and information using a random assignment research design. H&R Block tax professionals helped low- to moderate-income

Eric P. Bettinger; Bridget Terry Long; Philip Oreopoulos; Lisa Sanbonmatsu

2009-01-01

348

The efficiency of reading around learned backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most metrics of medical image quality typically treat all variability components of the background as a Gaussian noise process. This includes task based model observers (non-prewhitening matched filter without and with an eye filter, NPW and NPWE; Hotelling and Channelized Hotelling) as well as Fourier metrics of medical image quality based on the noise power spectra. However, many investigators have observed that unlike many of the models/metrics, physicians often can discount signal-looking structures that are part of the normal anatomic background. This process has been referred to as reading around the background or noise. The purpose of this paper is to develop an experimental framework to systematically study the ability of human observers to read around learned backgrounds and compare their ability to that of an optimal ideal observer which has knowledge of the background. We measured human localization performance of one of twelve targets in the presence of a fixed background consisting of randomly placed Gaussians with random contrasts and sizes, and white noise. Performance was compared to a condition in which the test images contained only white noise but with higher contrast. Human performance was compared to standard model observers that treat the background as a Gaussian noise process (NPW, NPWE and Hotelling), a Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter, and an ideal observer. The Hotelling, NPW, NPWE models as well as the Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter predicted higher performance for the white noise test images than the background plus white noise. In contrast, ideal and human performance was higher for the background plus white noise condition. Furthermore, human performance exceeded that of the NPW, NPWE and Hotelling models and reached an efficiency of 19% relative to the ideal observer. Our results demonstrate that for some types of images human signal localization performance is consistent with use of knowledge about the high order moments of the backgrounds to discount signal-looking structures that belong to the background. In such scenarios model observers and metrics that either ignore the background or treat the background as a Gaussian process (Hotelling, Channelized Hotelling, Task-based SNR) under predict human performance.

Eckstein, Miguel P.; Pham, Binh T.; Abbey, Craig K.; Zhang, Yani

2006-03-01

349

Backgrounds in the NPDGamma Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NPDGamma experiment, which measures the parity-violating directional gamma asymmetry in neutron-proton capture, completed its first run cycle in June at the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source. In the experiment intense polarized low-energy neutron beam interacts with liquid para-hydrogen target. Gamma rays from the capture reaction are detected by 48 CsI(Tl) detectors with the 3? acceptance angle. The goal of the experiment is to measure the asymmetry with precision of 1 x10-8. The polarized neutrons also interact with other materials in the beam windows and the walls of the target vessel producing a background to the signal that dilutes the PV gamma asymmetry and these materials (primarily Aluminum) could, in principle, have their own PV asymmetries. Therefore, it is important to study the backgrounds and their contributions to measured signals. I will discuss the detected backgrounds and their effect on NPDGamma.

Kucuker Dogan, Serpil

2012-10-01

350

Background simulations and shielding calculations  

SciTech Connect

Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

2011-04-27

351

Exotic Branes and Nongeometric Backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries.

Boer, Jan de; Shigemori, Masaki [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2010-06-25

352

Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.  

PubMed

When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

2010-06-25

353

Sources of the Radio Background Considered  

SciTech Connect

We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

2011-08-22

354

Target detection against narrow band noise backgrounds.  

PubMed

We studied the detectability of narrow band random noise targets embedded in narrow band random noise backgrounds as a function of differences in center frequency, spatial frequency bandwidth and orientation bandwidth between target and the immediately adjacent background. Unlike most target detection experiments the targets were not added to the background; they replaced the underlying background texture. Simulations showed that target detection probabilities could be accounted for by a simple transformation on the summed outputs of a two layer filter model similar to the complex channels model proposed by Graham, Beck and Sutter (Graham, N., Beck, J., & Sutter, A. (1992). Vision Research, 32, 719-743). Subsequently, the model was tested on the detection of camouflaged vehicle targets with encouraging results. PMID:10343801

Cannon, M W; Reese, G J; Fullenkamp, S C

1999-06-01

355

Image segmentation algorithm based on contourlet transform and background complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In infrared image, the grey distribution of background and target are instability, so it has much difficulty in the target segmentation. In this paper, a novel image segmentation algorithm is presented which is based on Contourlet transform and background complexity. Firstly, using Contourlet transform, the structure information of target and background is obtained. Next, structure similarity of target and background is computed. Finally, through the structure similarity of target and background, segmentation threshold is adjusted adaptively. If the structure similarity of target and background is low, it indicates that background is simple, segmentation threshold is set with the grey information. If the structure similarity of target and background is high, segmentation threshold is set with the structure information. The simulation experiments show that the target can be segmented truly in the complex background environment. The algorithm not only reserves the advantage of the grey segmentation in simple background environment, but overcomes the limitation of the grey segmentation in complex background environment, shows better adaptability than the traditional image segmentation methods.

Li, Xue; Meng, Wei-hua; Xiang, Jingbo

2013-09-01

356

Background television and reading performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted testing Armstrong and Greenberg's (1990) model of the effect of background television on cognitive performance, as it applies to reading comprehension and memory. Subjects completed a cued?recall test of the content of an expository prose passage read under quiet conditions or concurrently with the presence of one of two types of television content (prime?time drama versus

G. Blake Armstrong; Greg A. Boiarsky

1991-01-01

357

Simulation of HEAO 3 background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91 [2], nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database [3], and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) [4] using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, ?-, ?+, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both ?- and ?+. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

Graham, B. L.; Phlips, B. F.; Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.

1997-05-01

358

Simulation of HEAO 3 background  

SciTech Connect

A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91, nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database, and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, {beta}{sup -}, {beta}{sup +}, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both {beta}{sup -} and {beta}{sup +}. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

Graham, B. L. [George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Phlips, B. F. [USRA, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia (United States)

1997-05-10

359

Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

Behrends, Ehrhard

2004-05-01

360

A Little Background Music, Please.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background music could be used to provide a pleasant beginning for the school day, to help keep students quiet and relaxed in the school cafeteria at lunchtime, and to provide a midafternoon lift for bored and tired children. The most effective music pleases children without overly exciting them through jarring rhythms and loud dynamics. (nine…

Giles, Martha Mead

1991-01-01

361

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, provides an overview of how scientists are working to explain the origin of the universe. Specifically, it discusses the two major theories about the origin of the universe (Big Bang and Steady State), the search for microwave background radiation, and the discovery of the first observational evidence to support the Big Bang theory.

362

A Note on a Fatal Error of Optimized LFC Private Information Retrieval Scheme and Its Corrected Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of lightweight PIR (Private Information Retrieval) schemes have been proposed in recent years. In JWIS2006, Kwon et al. proposed a new scheme (optimized LFCPIR, or OLFCPIR), which aimed at reducing the communication cost of Lipmaa's O(log2 n) PIR(LFCPIR) to O(logn). However in this paper, we point out a fatal error of overflow contained in OLFCPIR and show how the error can be corrected. Finally, we compare with LFCPIR to show that the communication cost of our corrected OLFCPIR is asymptotically the same as the previous LFCPIR.

Tamura, Jin; Kobara, Kazukuni; Fathi, Hanane; Imai, Hideki

363

Gravitational wave background from rotating neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background of gravitational waves produced by the ensemble of rotating neutron stars (which includes pulsars, magnetars, and gravitars) is investigated. A formula for ?(f) (a function that is commonly used to quantify the background, and is directly related to its energy density) is derived, without making the usual assumption that each radiating system evolves on a short time scale compared to the Hubble time; the time evolution of the systems since their formation until the present day is properly taken into account. Moreover, the formula allows one to distinguish the different parts of the background: the unresolvable (which forms a stochastic background or confusion noise, since the waveforms composing it cannot be either individually observed or subtracted out of the data of a detector) and the resolvable. Several estimations of the background are obtained, for different assumptions on the parameters that characterize neutron stars and their population. In particular, different initial spin period distributions lead to very different results. For one of the models, with slow initial spins, the detection of the background by present or planned detectors can be rejected. However, other models do predict the detection of the background, that would be unresolvable, by the future ground-based gravitational wave detector ET. A robust upper limit for the background of rotating neutron stars is obtained; it does not exceed the detection threshold of two cross-correlated Advanced LIGO interferometers. If gravitars exist and constitute more than a few percent of the neutron star population, then they produce an unresolvable background that could be detected by ET. Under the most reasonable assumptions on the parameters characterizing a neutron star, the background is too faint to be detected. Previous papers have suggested neutron star models in which large magnetic fields (like the ones that characterize magnetars) induce big deformations in the star, which produce a stronger emission of gravitational radiation. Considering the most optimistic (in terms of the detection of gravitational waves) of these models, an upper limit for the background produced by magnetars is obtained; it could be detected by ET, but not by BBO or DECIGO. Simple approximate formulas to characterize both the total and the unresolvable backgrounds are given for the ensemble of rotating neutron stars, and, for completion, also for the ensemble of binary star systems.

Rosado, Pablo A.

2012-11-01

364

February 10, 2011: TPSAC Background Materials  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Page Last Updated: 02/08/2011 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/tobaccoproductsscientificadvisorycommittee

365

Enhanced Information Scent, Selective Discounting, or Consummate Breakdown: The Psychological Effects of Web-Based Search Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report results from three experiments that broadly examined Web users' psychological responses to search results featured on a mock search engine. Study 1 examined the interplay between search result relevance and ad relevance and showed that the former is the critical variable in affecting user attitudes toward both the search engine and the ad. Study 2 offered further evidence

Sriram Kalyanaraman; James D. Ivory

2009-01-01

366

Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

Willshire, K. F.

1984-01-01

367

Background stratospheric aerosol reference model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

McCormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

1989-12-01

368

Maintenance of a health promotion program in elementary schools: results from the CATCH-ON study key informant interviews.  

PubMed

To better understand the institutionalization process in Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) intervention and control schools, 199 key informant interviews were conducted with school food service staff, physical education teachers, classroom teachers, and administrators at the four CATCH-ON field centers. School personnel were asked to talk about the degree of CATCH program implementation, who at the school or school district was instrumental in promoting CATCH, and the conditions that facilitated or impeded the institutionalization of CATCH activities and philosophies. The CATCH Physical Education (PE) component appeared to have the highest level of institutionalization, and the CATCH classroom curriculum and family components appeared to have the lowest levels of institutionalization. The primary barriers expressed included the low priority for health promotion activities and time constraints of schools: lack of mechanisms for training of school staff; and lack of sufficient funds for materials, equipment, and lower fat vendor products. PMID:12929900

Lytle, Leslie A; Ward, Jerri; Nader, Phillip R; Pedersen, Sheryl; Williston, B J

2003-08-01

369

MiniCLEAN surface backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

MiniCLEAN is a dark matter experiment using 150kg fiducial mass of liquid cryogen (argon or neon) to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). MiniCLEAN seeks to detect scintillation photons from WIMP-induced argon recoils. A potentially dominant background is from alpha decays on the inner surfaces of the containment vessel. Such events can mimic the prompt signal characteristic of nuclear

Boqian Wang; Richard Schnee

2011-01-01

370

The cosmic infrared background experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extragalactic background, based on absolute measurements reported by DIRBE and IRTS at 1.2 and 2.2?m, exceeds the brightness derived from galaxy counts by up to a factor 5. Furthermore, both DIRBE and the IRTS report fluctuations in the near-infrared sky brightness that appear to have an extra-galactic origin, but are larger than expected from local (z=1–3) galaxies. These observations

James Bock; John Battle; Asantha Cooray; Mitsunobu Kawada; Brian Keating; Andrew Lange; Dae-Hea Lee; Toshio Matsumoto; Shuji Matsuura; Soojong Pak; Tom Renbarger; Ian Sullivan; Kohji Tsumura; Takehiko Wada; Toyoki Watabe

2006-01-01

371

Embryological background for fetal surgery.  

PubMed

Congenital malformations are one of the main topics, which must be addressed in the 21st century. Fetal surgery is expected to become a routine procedure for malformed fetal patients in the near future. This paper presents some important aspects of the embryological background required for fetal surgery and shows normal human embryos between the 4th and the 8th week of development. PMID:11754144

Park, H W

2001-12-01

372

Electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a fully vectorial formalism for the investigation of electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds, i.e., where the scatterers are not in vacuum but situated in a medium with a dielectric permittivity different from unity. Our approach is based on the Green's tensor technique and the corresponding Green's tensors for two-dimensional ~2D! and three-dimensional ~3D! systems are developed. The analysis

Olivier J. F. Martin; Nicolas B. Piller

1998-01-01

373

Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital "De Kijvelanden", were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for other severe crimes. Apart from DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, family backgrounds, level of education, treatment history, intelligence (WAIS scores), and PCL-R scores were included in the comparisons. Furthermore, the apparent motives for the arson offences were explored. It was found that arsonists had more often received psychiatric treatment, prior to committing their index offence, and had a history of severe alcohol abuse more often in comparison to the controls. The arsonists turned out to be less likely to suffer from a major psychotic disorder. Both groups did not differ significantly on the other variables, among which the PCL-R total scores and factor scores. Exploratory analyses however, did suggest that arsonists may differentiate from non-arsonists on three items of the PCL-R, namely impulsivity (higher scores), superficial charm (lower scores), and juvenile delinquency (lower scores). Although the number of arsonists with a major psychotic disorder was relatively low (28%), delusional thinking of some form was judged to play a role in causing arson crimes in about half of the cases (52%). PMID:20434774

Labree, Wim; Nijman, Henk; van Marle, Hjalmar; Rassin, Eric

374

Wicked Problems and Gnarly Results: Reflecting on Design and Evaluation Methods for Idiosyncratic Personal Information Management Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a case study of an artifact design and evaluation process; it is a reflection on how right thinking about design methods may at times result in sub-optimal results. Our goal has been to assess our decision making process throughout the design and evaluation stages for a software prototype in order to consider where design methodology may need

Michael Bernstein; Max Van Kleek; Deepali Khushraj; Rajeev Nayak; Curtis Liu; David R. Karger

375

Optical and infrared backgrounds from the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sum total of the energy released by the earliest era of star formation should show up today within the diffuse extragalactic background light (EBL), its signature peaking in the near-infrared. There is considerable controversy over estimates of the average EBL per steradian at optical and infrared wavelengths, over measurements of background fluctuations, and over the interpretation of the measurements. Resolving this controversy is important because the EBL constrains the history of galaxy evolution. The fluctuations and their colors may also contain important information about Population III stars and the earliest era of star formation. We compare number counts from recent galaxy surveys, correcting for their differing passbands. With some assumptions about galaxy sizes and surface-brightness profiles, we account for the light missed in standard photometric estimates, integrating the resulting corrected counts to estimate the total EBL due to resolved galaxies as well as undetected galaxies. We then present an analysis of background fluctuations in observations of the HUDF, the GOODS field, and the CANDELS fields obtained with WFC3. The fluctuation signal provides a constraint on the slope of galaxy counts fainter than the levels of individual detection, as well as their typical angular sizes. The color dependence of the fluctuations provides a constraint on the redshift distribution of these very faint sources. The spatial and spectral information from these anisotropies, even in their non-detection, provide valuable information about the era of reionization, when the first stars and galaxies formed. Via various analysis tools such as power spectra and P(D) fitting, best-fit models to faint sources can be obtained.

Dolch, Timothy

376

Optical and Infrared Backgrounds from HST and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sum total of the energy released by the earliest era of star formation should show up today within the diffuse extragalactic background light (EBL), its signature peaking in the near-infrared. There is considerable controversy over estimates of the average EBL per steradian at wavelengths longward of 1µm, over measurements of background fluctuations, and over the interpretation of the measurements. Resolving this controversy is important because the EBL constrains the history of galaxy evolution, and because the near-infrared fluctuations may contain important information about Population III stars and the earliest era of star formation. We compare number counts from recent galaxy surveys, correcting for their differing passbands. With some assumptions about galaxy sizes and surface-brightness profiles, we account for the light missed in standard photometric estimates, integrating the resulting corrected counts to estimate the total EBL due to resolved galaxies. We then present an analysis of background fluctuations in observations of the HUDF, the GOODS field, and the CANDELS fields obtained with WFC3. The fluctuation signal provides a constraint on the slope of galaxy counts fainter than the levels of individual detection. The color dependence of the fluctuations provides a constraint on the redshift distribution of these very faint sources. Fluctuations of the near-infrared EBL due to undetected sources help also constrain the nature of galaxies below current detection levels in other deep fields. The spatial and spectral information of these anisotropies provide valuable information about the EoR, as well as new populations of faint objects at lower redshifts. Via various analysis tools such as power spectra, P(D) fitting, and cross-correlations, best-fit models to faint sources can be obtained.

Dolch, Timothy; Ferguson, H. C.; Chary, R.; Cooray, A. R.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Ravindranath, S.; Sukhbold, T.

2011-05-01

377

49 CFR 172.527 - Background requirements for certain placards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.527...the requirements of § 172.519 for minimum durability and strength, the square background must consist of a white square...

2012-10-01

378

49 CFR 172.527 - Background requirements for certain placards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.527...the requirements of § 172.519 for minimum durability and strength, the square background must consist of a white square...

2011-10-01

379

14 CFR 1203.200 - Background and discussion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false...Background and discussion. 1203.200 Section 1203.200 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY...

2013-01-01

380

Cuba: Background to a Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)|

De La Fuente, Alejandro

2000-01-01

381

Korean Basic Course: Area Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

382

Exploratory Workshop on the Social Impacts of Robotics. Summary and Issues. A Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report contains a summary of the results of an exploratory workshop to discuss the future of industrial robotics and its likely impact on public policy. Background information is presented, and workshop goals are delineated. Under the general area of robot technology, these topics are covered: the roots of robotics technology, a definition…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

383

The Galactic background radiation from 0.2 to 13.8 MHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radio frequency receivers of the WAVES instrument on the WIND spacecraft are used to determine the direction of maximum intensity of the Galactic noise background in the frequency range 0.2 to 13.8 MHz. The observations are made with dipole antennas spinning in the ecliptic plane, hence provide information on the large scale distribution of intensity. The main results are:

R. Manning; G. A. Dulk

2001-01-01

384

State Profits on Tax-Exempt Student Loan Bonds: Analysis and Options. Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The source of profits earned by states as a result of tax-exempt bonds issued to raise funds for college student loans is analyzed, as are various proposals to reduce these profits. Background information about both student loan bond programs and student loans is presented, along with an explanation of how issuers of student loan bonds are able…

Gensheimer, Cynthia Francis

385

Heritage Learners in the Chinese Language Classroom: Home Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies from information-processing and language comprehension research have reported that background knowledge facilitates reading and writing. By comparing Chinese language development of heritage students who had home background in Chinese language and culture with those who did not, this study found that heritage learners did significantly better than their non-heritage counterparts in speaking, listening, grammar, and sentence constructions, but not

Yun Xiao

386

Heritage Learners in the Chinese Language Classroom: Home Background  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies from information-processing and language comprehension research have reported that background knowledge facilitates reading and writing. By comparing Chinese language development of heritage students who had home background in Chinese language and culture with those who did not, this study found that heritage learners did significantly…

Xiao, Yun

2006-01-01

387

[Ragweed pollen counts (P. Cour collection apparatus) from Lyon-Bron from 1982 to 1989: results, informing the public].  

PubMed

Lyon: Ragweed (R) Pollens (P) account for 6.26% of all P and caused 25% of all the pollinosis. The Lyon-Bron P counts (C) have been analysed and computerized by the CNRS in Montpellier since 1982. They are financed by the French association for ragweed study (AFEDA), with the support of the Conseil général du Rhône. Each year, doctors in the Rhône-Alpes Region receive the P calendar via a firm or pharmaceutical company which prints and distributes them. As from 1986, this information is also published by the Regional Meteorological Office at Lyon-Bron and is available on Minitel: 36-15 MTOLY ALLE. The availability of this data, in real terms, is of immediate use to patients and doctors alike. Observation has shown that peaks occurs on 5th or 6th W after onset according to the fact that the onset value of 0.1 Gr/m3 W doubles or not during the following W; that once a threshold of 5 grains (Gr) per m3 is attained, the number of Gr is greater than 100.3 weeks (W) later. This tends to be the W of peak intensity, except in 1987. This peak occurs form the 35th to the 38th W. The linear regression, calculated on a basis of average P values during the 13 W of the P season, W 31 to W 43, is y = 0.1142x + 42.7911. One may provisionally conclude, in view of the straight gradient, that in spite of the spread of R over a wider geographical area, the average quantity of R Gr per m3 of air has not increased in Lyon since 1982.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1575897

Déchamp, C; Déchamp, J

1992-01-01

388

Ratios among atmospheric trace gases together with winds imply exploitable information for bird navigation: a model elucidating experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of avian goal-oriented navigation is described that is based on two empirical findings: (1) To orient their courses homeward from distant unfamiliar areas, homing pigeons require long-term exposure to undisturbed winds at the home site and olfactory access to the environmental air at home and abroad. (2) Above Germany, ratios among some atmospheric trace gases vary along differently oriented spatial gradients and in dependence on wind direction. The model emulates finding (1) by utilising the analysed air samples on which finding (2) is based. Starting with an available set of 46 omnipresent compounds, virtual pigeons determine the profile of relative weights among them at each of 96 sites regularly distributed around a central home site within a radius of 200 km and compare this profile with corresponding profiles determined at home under varying wind conditions. Referring to particular similarities and dissimilarities depending on home-wind direction, they try to estimate, at each site, the compass direction they should fly in order to approach home. To make the model working, an iterative algorithm imitates evolution by modifying sensitivity to the individual compounds stepwise at random. In the course of thousands of trial-and-error steps it gradually improves homeward orientation by selecting smaller sets of most useful and optimally weighted substances from whose proportional configurations at home and abroad it finally derives navigational performances similar to those accomplished by real pigeons. It is concluded that the dynamic chemical atmosphere most likely contains sufficient spatial information for home-finding over hundreds of kilometres of unfamiliar terrain. The underlying chemo-atmospheric processes remain to be clarified.

Wallraff, H. G.

2013-07-01

389

Initial Submission: Letter to USEPA re: Results of Eye Irritation Screening Study in Rabbits with (Confidential Information), Substituted Small Ring Heterocyucle, dated 10/22/99 (Sanitized).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this letter is to inform you, under TSCA Section 8(e), of results of an eye irritation screening study in rabbits. The research material is identified as: substituted small ring heterocycle. Eye Irritation Screening Study in Rabbits (Study ...

1999-01-01

390

Modeling Ambient Background in Complex Detection Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Radiation detection instrumentation is being widely deployed as a countermeasure against the movement and use of radiological dispersal devices and nuclear weapons. Accurate ambient background modeling is critical for accurate simulation of detection scenarios of interest; these background source terms influence minimum detectable limits and are thus a significant factor in overall system performance. Described below are the methods used to characterize ambient background source terms in the at-sea maritime cargo container environment, how statistical distributions on those source terms are defined, and how the resulting radiation fields are calibrated using available measurement data from aboard large ocean-going ships. Although the maritime environment is the demonstration case study, these methods are broadly applicable to modeling of all complex detection scenarios.

Kiff, Scott D.; Smith, Leon E.; Jarman, Kenneth D.

2008-08-01

391

Background error covariance estimation for atmospheric CO2 data assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

any data assimilation framework, the background error covariance statistics play the critical role of filtering the observed information and determining the quality of the analysis. For atmospheric CO2 data assimilation, however, the background errors cannot be prescribed via traditional forecast or ensemble-based techniques as these fail to account for the uncertainties in the carbon emissions and uptake, or for the errors associated with the CO2 transport model. We propose an approach where the differences between two modeled CO2 concentration fields, based on different but plausible CO2 flux distributions and atmospheric transport models, are used as a proxy for the statistics of the background errors. The resulting error statistics: (1) vary regionally and seasonally to better capture the uncertainty in the background CO2 field, and (2) have a positive impact on the analysis estimates by allowing observations to adjust predictions over large areas. A state-of-the-art four-dimensional variational (4D-VAR) system developed at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is used to illustrate the impact of the proposed approach for characterizing background error statistics on atmospheric CO2 concentration estimates. Observations from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite "IBUKI" (GOSAT) are assimilated into the ECMWF 4D-VAR system along with meteorological variables, using both the new error statistics and those based on a traditional forecast-based technique. Evaluation of the four-dimensional CO2 fields against independent CO2 observations confirms that the performance of the data assimilation system improves substantially in the summer, when significant variability and uncertainty in the fluxes are present.

Chatterjee, Abhishek; Engelen, Richard J.; Kawa, Stephan R.; Sweeney, Colm; Michalak, Anna M.

2013-09-01

392

Gravitational wave background from Population III binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Current star formation models imply that the binary fraction of Population III stars is non-zero. The evolution of these binaries must have led to the formation of compact object binaries. Aims: We estimate the gravitational wave background originating in these binaries and discuss its observability. Methods: The properties of the Population III binaries are investigated using a binary population synthesis code. We numerically model the background and take into account the evolution of eccentric binaries. Results: The gravitational wave background from Population III binaries dominates the spectrum below 100 Hz. If the binary fraction is larger than 10-2, the background will be detectable by Einstein Telescope (ET), Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), and DECi-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO). Conclusions: The gravitational wave background from Population III binaries will dominate the spectrum below 100 Hz. The instruments LISA, ET, and DECIGO should either see it easily or, in the case of non-detection, provide very strong constraints on the properties of the Population III stars.

Kowalska, I.; Bulik, T.; Belczynski, K.

2012-05-01

393

NOL Large Scale Gap Test. III. Compilation of Unclassified Data and Supplementary Information for Interpretation of Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this report are to bring up to date the compilations of all unclassified NOL large-scale gap test (LSGT) results, to describe exactly the present standardized test, and to review or report all NOL studies made on the test or modification...

A. R. Clairmont D. Price J. O. Erkman

1974-01-01

394

Technical background information for the ORNL environmental and safety report. Volume 2. A description of the aquatic ecology of the White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River below Melton Hill Dam  

SciTech Connect

In order to characterize the aquatic communities in the vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a biological sampling program was initiated in March 1979 and continued until June 1980. The periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities were sampled at four sites in White Oak Creek watershed above White Oak Lake. In addition to these communities, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and ichthyoplankton were routinely collected at sites in White Oak Lake, White Oak Creek embayment below the dam, and in the Clinch River above and below the confluence with White Oak Creek. Also, muscle tissue of several fish species, including sauger and striped bass from the Clinch River, was analyzed for seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, and Zn). Data on the taxonomic composition, abundance, and temporal distribution of each community are presented for each of three study areas: upper White Oak Creek watershed, White Oak Lake, and the Clinch River (including White Oak Creek embayment). The spatial distribution of major taxonomic groups in each area was examined using analysis of variance techniques and dissimilarity indices. Results obtained from this study are compared with those of previous surveys of White Oak Creek when equivalent sampling methodologies were used. Attempts were also made to document changes that have occurred since the 1950-1953 survey.

Loar, J.M.; Solomon, J.A.; Cada, G.F.

1981-10-01

395

Interferometry of the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the Very Small Array (VSA) and review the recent results on the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) obtained in the Ka-band (? ? 33 GHz) with this instrument. This array has covered an ?-range of 150 to 1500 with a relatively high resolution in ? compared to previous measurements at ?? 1000; this is achieved by using mosaiced observations in 7 regions covering a total of approximately 82 sq. degrees. Our resolution of ? ? ? 60 between ?=300 and ? = 1500 allows the first 3 acoustic peaks to be identified. Contamination by extragalactic radiosources brighter than 20 mJy has been taken into account by simultaneously monitoring identified sources with a high resolution interferometer. In addition, it has been performed a statistical correction for the small residual contribution from weaker sources that are below this flux limit. There is good agreement between the VSA power spectrum and that obtained by WMAP and other higher resolution experiments like ACBAR and CBI. We have set constraints on cosmological parameters using VSA data and combinations with other CMB data and external priors. Within the flat ?CDM model, the combined VSA+WMAP data without external priors gives ?_{b}h^2=0.0234^{+0.0012}_{-0.0014}, ?_{dm}h^2=0.111^{+0.014}_{-0.016}, h=0.73^{+0.09}_{-0.05}, n_{S}=0.97^{+0.06}_{-0.03}, 10^{10}A_{S}=23^{+7}_{-3} and ?=0.14^{+0.14}_{-0.07}. We also find evidence for a running spectral index of density fluctuations, n_{run}=-0.069± 0.032 at a level of more than 95% confidence. However, inclusion of prior information from the 2dF galaxy redshift survey reduces the significance of the result. When a general cosmological model with 12 parameters is considered we find consistency with other analyses available in the literature. The evidence for n_{run}<0 is only marginal within this model. The fraction of dark matter in neutrinos is constrained to f_{?}< 0.087 (95% confidence limit) which implies that m_?<0.32 eV if all the three neutrino species have the same mass.

Rebolo, R.; Vsa Consortium.

2004-09-01

396

Do content and format affect older consumers' use of comparative information in a Medicare health plan choice? Results from a controlled experiment.  

PubMed

We assessed the efficacy of materials that integrated comparative information on cost, benefits, and quality for employer-based retiree health plans and Medicare Advantage plans in a randomized experiment to test the impact of content and format. Results indicate that older consumers who received the intervention materials found the materials easier to use, gained greater knowledge about Medicare from them, were more likely to value comparative quality information, were more likely to select higher quality plans, and were more likely to choose a plan that reflected the dimensions they found most important compared to older consumers receiving the control materials. PMID:17099122

Uhrig, Jennifer D; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren; Bann, Carla; Kuo, Tzy-Mey

2006-12-01

397

Is the Internet a useful and relevant source for health and health care information retrieval for German cardiothoracic patients? First results from a prospective survey among 255 Patients at a German cardiothoracic surgical clinic  

PubMed Central

Background It is not clear how prevalent Internet use among cardiopathic patients in Germany is and what impact it has on the health care utilisation. We measured the extent of Internet use among cardiopathic patients and examined the effects that Internet use has on users' knowledge about their cardiac disease, health care matters and their use of the health care system. Methods We conducted a prospective survey among 255 cardiopathic patients at a German university hospital. Results Forty seven respondents (18 %) used the internet and 8,8 % (n = 23) went online more than 20 hours per month. The most frequent reason for not using the internet was disinterest (52,3 %). Fourteen patients (5,4 %) searched for specific disease-related information and valued the retrieved information on an analogous scale (1 = not relevant, 5 = very relevant) on median with 4,0. Internet use is age and education dependent. Only 36 (14,1 %) respondents found the internet useful, whereas the vast majority would not use it. Electronic scheduling for ambulatory visits or postoperative telemedical monitoring were rather disapproved. Conclusion We conclude that Internet use is infrequent among our study population and the search for relevant health and disease related information is not well established.

Stoevesandt, Dietrich; Diez, Claudius

2006-01-01

398

Recognizing foreground-background interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can the background affect a foreground target in distant, low-quality imagery? If it does, it might occur in our mind, or perhaps it may represent a snapshot of our early vision. An affirmative answer, one way or another, may affect our current understanding of this phenomena and potentially for related applications. How can we be sure about this in the psycho-physical sense? We begin with the physiology of our brain's homeostasis, of which an isothermal equilibrium is characterized by the minimum of Helmholtz isothermal Free Energy: A = U - T0S >= 0, where T0 = 37°C, the Boltzmann Entropy S = KB1n(W), and U is the unknown internal energy to be computed.

Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

2010-04-01

399

Gauging the cosmic microwave background  

SciTech Connect

We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behavior of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behavior. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behavior. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

Zibin, J. P.; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2008-12-15

400

Backgrounder: Council on Foreign Relations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations provides a number of services for the general public, and in the past they have offered up public discussions, forums, and other outreach activities. In addition, they offer the "Backgrounders" series, which offer succinct explanations of current political and economic issues. First-time users can visit the "Most Recent" area to peruse the latest piece, or they can click on the "Daily Analysis" or "Daily Brief" sections. The profiles cover everything from the role of delegates in the U.S. presidential nominating process to understanding Kenya's politics. Also, visitors can click on complementary materials, such as podcasts, interactive features, and online debates. Finally, visitors can also search for specific materials via the search engine offered here.

401

Study of robot landmark recognition with complex background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It's of great importance for assisting robot in path planning, position navigating and task performing by perceiving and recognising environment characteristic. To solve the problem of monocular-vision-oriented landmark recognition for mobile intelligent robot marching with complex background, a kind of nested region growing algorithm which fused with transcendental color information and based on current maximum convergence center is proposed, allowing invariance localization to changes in position, scale, rotation, jitters and weather conditions. Firstly, a novel experiment threshold based on RGB vision model is used for the first image segmentation, which allowing some objects and partial scenes with similar color to landmarks also are detected with landmarks together. Secondly, with current maximum convergence center on segmented image as each growing seed point, the above region growing algorithm accordingly starts to establish several Regions of Interest (ROI) orderly. According to shape characteristics, a quick and effectual contour analysis based on primitive element is applied in deciding whether current ROI could be reserved or deleted after each region growing, then each ROI is judged initially and positioned. When the position information as feedback is conveyed to the gray image, the whole landmarks are extracted accurately with the second segmentation on the local image that exclusive to landmark area. Finally, landmarks are recognised by Hopfield neural network. Results issued from experiments on a great number of images with both campus and urban district as background show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Huang, Yuqing; Yang, Jia

2007-12-01

402

FDA Backgrounder on Conjugated Estrogens  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Furthermore, based on the results of early studies, including studies of Premarin, the effects of estrogen on bone mineral density appeared to have ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/informationbydrugclass

403

Nonmetallic Mineral Processing Plants: Background Information for Promulgated Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standards of performance for the control of particulate matter emissions from nonmetallic mineral processing plants are being promulgated under the authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. These standards apply to new, modified, or reconstructed fac...

J. R. Farmer

1985-01-01

404

Fiscal Year 2006 Budget Summary and Background Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2006 U.S. President's budget request of $56.0 billion in discretionary appropriations for the Department of Education (ED), represents a decrease of $529.6 million, or 0.9 percent, from the 2005 level. Even after this small decrease, the Federal investment in education will have grown substantially over the past five years, with discretionary…

US Department of Education, 2005

2005-01-01

405

US Uranium Mining Industry: Background Information on Economics and Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U sub 3 O sub 8 production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion represe...

G. A. Bruno J. A. Dirks P. O. Jackson J. K. Young

1984-01-01

406

Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities: Background Information for Promulgated Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standards of performance to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from new and reconstructed synthetic fiber production facilities are being promulgated under the authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. This document contains a deta...

1984-01-01

407

Background Information concerning Miami-Dade Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven essays are presented that deal with the students, instruction, and administration of Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC). First, John Losak considers the M-DCC student population since 1969, providing data on ethnicity, age of students, male/female enrollments, foreign student enrollments, program diversity, skill level of enrolling…

Losak, John; And Others

408

Polymer Manufacturing Industry - Background Information for Proposed Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standards of performance for the control of volatile organic compound emissions from the polymer manufacturing industry are being proposed under the authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. These standards would apply to new, modified, and reconstru...

1985-01-01

409

Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Data analysis for the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be complicated by the huge number of sources in the LISA band. In the frequency band {approx}10{sup -4}-2x10{sup -3} Hz, galactic white dwarf binaries (GWDBs) are sufficiently dense in frequency space that it will be impossible to resolve most of them, and ''confusion noise'' from the unresolved Galactic binaries will dominate over instrumental noise in determining LISA's sensitivity to other sources in that band. Confusion noise from unresolved extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) could also contribute significantly to LISA's total noise curve. To date, estimates of the effect of LISA's confusion noise on matched-filter searches and their detection thresholds have generally approximated the noise as Gaussian, based on the central limit theorem. However in matched-filter searches, the appropriate detection threshold for a given class of signals may be located rather far out on the tail of the signal-to-noise probability distribution, where a priori it is unclear whether the Gaussian approximation is reliable. Using the Edgeworth expansion and the theory of large deviations, we investigate the probability distribution of the usual matched-filter detection statistic, far out on the tail of the distribution. We apply these tools to four somewhat idealized versions of LISA data searches: searches for EMRI signals buried in GWDB confusion noise, and searches for massive black hole binary signals buried in (i) GWDB noise, (ii) EMRI noise, and (iii) a sum of EMRI noise and Gaussian noise. Assuming reasonable short-distance cutoffs in the populations of confusion sources (since the very closest and hence strongest sources will be individually resolvable), modifications to the appropriate detection threshold, due to the non-Gaussianity of the confusion noise, turn out to be quite small for realistic cases. The smallness of the correction is partly due to the fact that these three types of sources evolve on quite different time scales, so no single background source closely resembles any search template. We also briefly discuss other types of LISA searches where the non-Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds could perhaps have a much greater impact on search reliability and efficacy.

Racine, Etienne [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Cutler, Curt [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

2007-12-15

410

Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples.

Not Available

1993-04-01

411

BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of experiments and has gradually yielded up answers to the deepest questions about the origin of our Universe. Most recently, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has made a full-sky analysis of the pattern of temperature and polarization variations that helped establish a new standard cosmological model, confirmed the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and provided strong evidence that there was an epoch of primordial inflation. Ruth Durrer's book reflects the importance of the CMB for future developments in this field. Aimed at graduate students and established researchers, it consists of a basic introduction to cosmology and the theory of primordial perturbations followed by a detailed explanation of how these manifest themselves as measurable variations in the present-day radiation field. It then focuses on the statistical methods needed to obtain accurate estimates of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and finishes with a discussion of the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB and on the evolution of its spectrum. The book apparently grew out of various lecture notes on CMB anisotropies for graduate courses given by the author. Its level and scope are well matched to the needs of such an audience and the presentation is clear and well-organized. I am sure that this book will be a useful reference for more senior scientists too. If I have a criticism, it is not about what is in the book but what is omitted. In my view, one of the most exciting possibilities for future CMB missions, including Planck, is the possibility that they might discover physics beyond that which the current standard model can describe. 'Thinking outside the box' has become a cliché, but it is what graduate students should be encouraged to do. For example, the standard cosmological model entails the assumption, motivated by the simplest theories of inflation, that the primordial density fluctuations are described by Gaussian statistics. The detection of any deviations from Gaussian behaviour in the radiation field would therefore offer us an exciting window into the detailed physics of inflation or other departures from the standard model. Although primordial non-Gaussianity is an extremely active subject of contemporary cosmological research, it is barely mentioned in this book. This is a regrettable omission in an otherwise commendable volume.

Coles, Peter

2009-08-01

412

Cosmic Microwave Background Bispectrum from Recombination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum generated by nonlinearities at recombination on all scales. We use CosmoLib2nd, a numerical Boltzmann code at second order to compute cosmic microwave background bispectra on the full sky. We consistently include all effects except gravitational lensing, which can be added to our result using standard methods. The bispectrum is peaked on squeezed triangles and agrees with the analytic approximation in the squeezed limit at the few percent level for all the scales where this is applicable. On smaller scales, we recover previous results on perturbed recombination. For cosmic-variance limited data to lmax?=2000, its signal-to-noise ratio is S/N=0.47, corresponding to fNLeff=-2.79, and will bias a local signal by fNLloc?0.82.

Huang, Zhiqi; Vernizzi, Filippo

2013-03-01

413

The Distribution of Cosmic Radio Background Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a survey of cosmic radio background radiation at 250 mc using the Ohio State University 96-helix radio telescope are described. The antenna has beam widths of about 1.2° in right ascension and 8° in declination between half-power points. Radio maps, covering about 75 per cent of the sky, are presented in celestial and galactic coordinates. The greater

H. C. Ko

1958-01-01

414

Extragalactic background light and extragalactic magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VHE ?-rays from distant blazars several hundred Mpc away are attenuated through pair production interactions on extragalactic background light (EBL). Subsequent to their generation, electron/positron pairs proceed to produce ?-rays through IC interactions leading to the development of an electromagnetic (EM) cascade. Due to the deflection of VHE cascade electrons by extragalactic magnetic fields (EGMF), the spectral shape of this arriving ?-ray emission is dependent on the strength of the EGMF. The GeV-TeV spectral shape of blazars has, thus, the potential to probe the EGMF strength along the line of sight to the object. Focusing on the specific example cases of the blazar 1ES 0229+200 and PKS 2155-304, bounds on the EGMF are obtained using both the spectral and angular observational information from the these two blazars.

Taylor, Andrew M.

2012-12-01

415

Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background: Theory  

SciTech Connect

Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I online some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The spectrum of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions.

Dodelson, S.

1998-02-01

416

Errata to the Background Package  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... The original text: Because it is known that aspirin and non-steroidal agents are able to greatly decrease the flushing reaction associated with niacin. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

417

SLCBB Background and Summary - ALLOCORD  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... In November 2009, after evaluating (b)(4) processing techniques against the benchmark ----(b)(4)---- method, PrepaCyte®-CB was selected as the ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/cellulargenetherapyproducts/approvedproducts

418

Background on Viral Vaccine Development  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... by purifying whole virus from infected cells. ... of cell lines appropriate for manufacturing vaccines for human use; ... to be administered to humans can ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

419

Addendum to the FDA Backgrounder  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Age Ingested Substances Route & Reason ... Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance ... with dextromethorphan as an ingested substance More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

420

DIA 2005 Template Dark Background  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to investigate whether chronic lipid lowering with diet and lovastatin will decrease ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/scienceresearch

421

Stochastic background of atmospheric cascades  

SciTech Connect

Fluctuations in the atmospheric cascades developing during the propagation of very high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere are investigated using stochastic branching model of pure birth process with immigration. In particular, we show that the multiplicity distributions of secondaries emerging from gamma families are much narrower than those resulting from hadronic families. We argue that the strong intermittent like behaviour found recently in atmospheric families results from the fluctuations in the cascades themselves and are insensitive to the details of elementary interactions.

Wilk, G. (Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)); Wlodarczyk, Z. (Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, Kielce (Poland))

1993-06-15

422

HPV-related information sharing and factors associated with US men's disclosure of an HPV test result to their female sexual partners  

PubMed Central

Objectives Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) is high in both men and women, yet men have seldom been involved in HPV education/prevention programmes, and their disclosure of known HPV infection has rarely been studied. This analysis sought to determine factors associated with men's HPV test result disclosure and HPV-related information sharing with partners. Methods From 2007 to 2010, men enrolled in a psychosocial study of responses to HP testing who reported having a female main sexual partner (N=251) completed surveys including questions about HPV test results, disclosure of HPV test results to partner(s), relationship characteristics and stigma (for those who reported HPV-positive results) approximately 3 weeks after receiving an HPV test result. Logistic regression was conducted to determine factors associated with disclosure of HPV test results in cross-sectional analysis. Results Most men disclosed their test results to a main partner (82%). Self-reported HPV-negative test result, a high school education and a higher commitment to a sexual partner were significantly associated with increased disclosure in multivariable analysis. Men who disclosed (vs those who did not) were significantly more likely to provide their partners with HPV-related information. Among men who disclosed to their main partner, nearly half reported that partner asked them questions about HPV. Conclusions Results from this study highlight the critical role that men who are symptomatic for, who are tested for or who are vaccinated against HPV can play in educating their sexual partners, independent of whether they actually disclose their test results.

Marhefka, Stephanie L; Daley, Ellen M; Anstey, Erica Hesch; Vamos, Cheryl A; Buhi, Eric R; Kolar, Stephanie; Giuliano, Anna R

2012-01-01

423

The effect of background color on asymmetries in color search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many previous studies have shown that background color affects the discriminability and appearance of color stimuli. However, research on visual search has not typically considered the role that the background may play. Rosenholtz (2001a) has suggested that color search asymmetries result from the relationship between the stimuli and the back- ground. Here we test the hypothesis that background color should

Ruth Rosenholtz; Allen L. Nagy; Nicole R. Bell

2004-01-01

424

Persistence of background acoustic stimulation in controlling startle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measured the startle reaction of 7 naive male Wistar rats to a loud impulse of acoustic energy in the presence of either periodically interrupted or steady background noise. Continuous 6-hr exposure to periodically interrupted vs. steady background noise, prior to startle tests, yielded the same differences in startle amplitude as shorter 5-min exposures. Results indicate that the influence of background

Howard S. Hoffman; Roger R. Marsh; Norman Stein

1969-01-01

425

ACPS-CP Backgrounder Addendum  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... vol. 29, number 4 (2011): 310-312. http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v29/ n4/pdf/nbt.1839.pdf [permission obtained] 2. McCamish ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

426

Clinical Pharmacology Review Background: Ciclesonide ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... The corresponding differences (95% CI) from placebo in the mean change of AM plasma cortisol values were -1.04 (-2.7, 0.7), -0.36 (-2.1, 1.4), and ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

427

Designing a Public Web-Based Information System to Illustrate and Disseminate the Development and Results of the DESIRE Project to Combat Desertification.  

PubMed

Until around 1995 it was challenging to make the scientific results of research projects publicly available except through presentations at meetings or conferences, or as papers in academic journals. Then it began to be clear that the Internet could become the main medium to publish and share new information with a much wider audience. The DESIRE Project (desertification mitigation and remediation of land-a global approach for local solutions) has built on expertise gained in previous projects to develop an innovative online 'Harmonized Information System' (HIS). This documents the context, delivery and evaluation of all tasks in the DESIRE Project using non-scientific terminology, with much of it also available in the local languages of the study sites. The DESIRE-HIS makes use of new possibilities for communication, including video clips, interactive tools, and links to social media networks such as Twitter. Dissemination of research results using this approach has required careful planning and design. This paper sets out the steps that have culminated in a complete online Information System about local solutions to global land management problems in desertification-affected areas, including many practical guidelines for responsible land management. As many of those who are affected by desertification do not have Internet access, printable dissemination materials are also available on the DESIRE-HIS. PMID:23708265

Geeson, Nichola; Brandt, Jane; Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna

2013-05-25

428

Global Monopole in Kalb Ramond Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent, S. SenGupta and S. Sur [Phys. Lett. B 502 (2001) 350] have obtained static vacuum solutions of the gravitational field equations in back ground space time with torsion. The torsion is identified with the field strength of a second-rank anti-symmetric tensor field, namely Kalb-Ramond field. In this work, we present the solutions for the metric outside a monopole resulting from the breaking of a global 0(3) symmetry in Kalb-Ramond background. A comparison is made with the corresponding results predicted by general relativity.

Rahaman, F.; Mukherjee, R.; Roy, T.; Maity, K.; Shekhar, S.

2003-12-01

429

Gamma Reaction History Backgrounds at the NIF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at NIF detects gamma-rays, emitted directly from DT fusion reactions (DT?), through the use of four Gas Cherenkov detectors with adjustable gamma-ray energy thresholds. It is primarily used to determine bang time, burn width and total DT yield of the implosion. Background interference to the signal is insignificant when capsules are driven directly by the lasers, but can be significant during indirect-drive using a hohlraum, forming an approximately 20 ns plateau under the narrow ˜200 ps FWHM fusion signal. This background is independent of fusion yield and most likely the result of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) induced hot electron bremsstrahlung radiation. These hard x-rays stream out target chamber ports and take multiple scatter paths to reach the GRH photomultiplier tubes (PMT), where they then bypass the Cherenkov conversion process and generate signal by direct interaction with the PMT microchannel plates. An examination of this background contribution to the GRH signal and possible mitigation strategies will be presented.

Church, J. A.; Stoeffl, W. S.; Watts, P. W.; Carpenter, A. C.; Liebman, J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Grafil, E.

2011-11-01

430

Background complexity affects colour preference in bumblebees.  

PubMed

Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination are typically red. This correlation is usually explained by the assertion that nectar- or pollen-stealing bees are "blind" to red flowers. However, laboratory studies have shown that bees are capable of locating artificial red flowers and often show no innate preference for blue over red. We hypothesised that these findings might be artefacts of the simplified laboratory environment. Using bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) that had been trained to visit red and blue artificial flowers, we tested whether colour preference was influenced by complexity of the background on which they were foraging. Many bees were indifferent to flower colour when tested using a uniform green background like those commonly used in laboratory studies, but all bees showed strong colour preferences (usually for blue) when flowers were presented against a photograph of real foliage. Overall, preference for blue flowers was significantly greater on the more realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of "hummingbird syndrome" flowers can function to reduce bee visits despite the ability of bees to detect red and highlight the need to consider context when drawing inferences about pollinator preferences from laboratory data. PMID:19444425

Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D

2009-05-15

431

A Region-Level Motion-Based Background Modeling and Subtraction Using MRFs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to automatic segmentation of the foreground objects from the sequence of images by integrating techniques of background subtraction and motion-based segmentation. At first, a background model is built to represent information of both color and motion of the background scene. Based on temporal and spatial information, an initial partition of each image is obtained.

Shih-shinh Huang; Li-chen Fu; Pei-yung Hsiao

2005-01-01

432

A probabilistic cell model in background corrected image sequences for single cell analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Methods of manual cell localization and outlining are so onerous that automated tracking methods would seem mandatory for handling huge image sequences, nevertheless manual tracking is, astonishingly, still widely practiced in areas such as cell biology which are outside the influence of most image processing research. The goal of our research is to address this gap by developing automated methods of cell tracking, localization, and segmentation. Since even an optimal frame-to-frame association method cannot compensate and recover from poor detection, it is clear that the quality of cell tracking depends on the quality of cell detection within each frame. Methods Cell detection performs poorly where the background is not uniform and includes temporal illumination variations, spatial non-uniformities, and stationary objects such as well boundaries (which confine the cells under study). To improve cell detection, the signal to noise ratio of the input image can be increased via accurate background estimation. In this paper we investigate background estimation, for the purpose of cell detection. We propose a cell model and a method for background estimation, driven by the proposed cell model, such that well structure can be identified, and explicitly rejected, when estimating the background. Results The resulting background-removed images have fewer artifacts and allow cells to be localized and detected more reliably. The experimental results generated by applying the proposed method to different Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC) image sequences are quite promising. Conclusion The understanding of cell behavior relies on precise information about the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of cells. Such information may play a key role in disease research and regenerative medicine, so automated methods for observation and measurement of cells from microscopic images are in high demand. The proposed method in this paper is capable of localizing single cells in microwells and can be adapted for the other cell types that may not have circular shape. This method can be potentially used for single cell analysis to study the temporal dynamics of cells.

2010-01-01

433

Non-parametric Model for Background Subtraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background subtraction is a method typically used to segment moving regions in image sequences taken from a static camera\\u000a by comparing each new frame to a model of the scene background. We present a novel non-parametric background model and a background\\u000a subtraction approach. The model can handle situations where the background of the scene is cluttered and not completely static

Ahmed M. Elgammal; David Harwood; Larry S. Davis

2000-01-01

434

A Behavioral Model of Information Seeking on the Web--Preliminary Results of a Study of How Managers and IT Specialists Use the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper develops a new behavioral model of information seeking on the Web by combining theoretical elements from information science and organization science. The model was tested during the first phase of a study of how managers and information technology (IT) specialists use the Web to seek external information as part of their daily work.…

Choo, Chun Wei; Detlor, Brian; Turnbull, Don

435

11C Background in Liquid Scintillator Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Cosmogenic 11C produced in muon showers is one of the main backgrounds for the detection of pep and CNO solar neutrinos in underground organic liquid scintillator detectors. Experimental data available for the effective cross section for 11C by muons indicate that 11C is in fact the dominant background for the observation of such neutrinos. 11C decays are expected to total a rate 2.5 (20) times higher than the combined rate of pep and CNO neutrinos in Borexino (KamLAND) in the energy window preferred for the pep measurement, between 0.8 and 1.3 MeV.Background from 11C in organic liquid scintillator detectors can be reduced if a neutron is emitted when the 11C nuclide is created. 11C decays can be tagged on a one-by-one basis using a three-fold coincidence with the parent muon track and the subsequent neutron capture on protons. The efficiency of such background reduction critically relies on the emission of a free neutron associated with 11C production.In order to verify the hypothesis, first suggested by Deutsch, that a neutron is in fact always emitted when 11C is produced, we perform a detailed ab initio calculation of the production of cosmogenic 11C, taking into consideration all relevant production channels. Results of the calculation are compared with the effective cross sections measured by target experiments in muon beams. 'Bilnd' channels without a neutron in the final state account for only about 5% of 11C production modes.An estimation of the effectiveness of the one-by-one tagging of 11C events, in light of such 'blind' channels is performed for KamLAND, Borexino, and a possible scintillator experiment at SNOLab. Both KamLAND and Borexino can significantly improve their pep and CNO solar neutrino signal and could perform a 3% measurement of the pep solar neutrino flux in five years. At SNOLab depths the muon flux is low enough that 11C background would be much smaller than the pep and CNO neutrino signal and hence negligible.

Pocar, Andrea [Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2005-09-08

436

Fluctuations In The Cosmic Infrared Background Using the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clustering properties of faint unresolved sources may be probed by examining the anisotropies they create in the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB). Using information from fluctuations in the CIB at different wavelengths allows us to disentangle how clustering relates to redshift. In this talk, preliminary measurements of clustering using data from the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER), a rocket-borne experiment designed to detect the signatures of unresolved infrared galaxies during reionization, will be discussed. The CIBER payload contains four instruments including two wide field imagers designed to measure fluctuations in the near IR cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.0 and 1.6 microns on scales between 0.2 and 100 arcmin in both bands, where the clustering of high-redshift sources is expected to peak. CIBER observations may be combined with Akari/NEP and Spitzer/NDWFS near-infrared surveys to check systematic errors and to fully characterize the electromagnetic spectrum of CIB fluctuations.

Smidt, Joseph; Arai, T.; Battle, J.; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Frazer, C.; Hristov, V.; Keating, B.; Kim, M.; Lee, D.; Mason, P.; Matsumoto, T.; Mitchell-Wynne, K.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Smith, A.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

2012-01-01

437

22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...appropriate measures to ensure that a child background study is performed that includes information about the child's identity, adoptability, background, social...history (including that of the child's family), and any special...

2013-04-01

438

22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appropriate measures to ensure that a child background study is performed that includes information about the child's identity, adoptability, background, social...history (including that of the child's family), and any special...

2010-04-01

439

22 CFR 96.53 - Background studies on the child and consents in outgoing cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appropriate measures to ensure that a child background study is performed that includes information about the child's identity, adoptability, background, social...history (including that of the child's family), and any special...

2009-04-01

440

How are parent-child conflict and childhood externalizing symptoms related over time? Results from a genetically informative cross-lagged study  

PubMed Central

The present study attempted to determine the direction and etiology of the robust relationship between childhood externalizing (EXT) symptoms and parent–child conflict using a genetically informative longitudinal model and data from the ongoing Minnesota Twin Family Study. Participants consisted of 1,506 same-sex twins assessed at ages 11 and 14, and their parents. The relationship between EXT and parent–child conflict from ages 11 to 14 was examined within a biometrical cross-lagged design. The results revealed three primary findings: first, the stability of conflict and externalizing over time is largely, although not solely, a result of genetic factors. Second, there appears to be a bidirectional relationship between conflict and EXT over time, such that both conflict and EXT at 11 independently predict the other 3 years later. Finally, the results are consistent with the notion that parent–child conflict partially results from parental responses to their child’s heritable externalizing behavior, while simultaneously contributing to child externalizing via environmental mechanisms. These results suggest a “downward spiral” of interplay between parent–child conflict and EXT, and offer confirmation of a (partially) environmentally mediated effect of parenting on child behavior.

BURT, S. ALEXANDRA; McGUE, MATT; KRUEGER, ROBERT F.; IACONO, WILLIAM G.

2008-01-01

441

Dual-tracer background subtraction approach for fluorescent molecular tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse fluorescence tomography requires high contrast-to-background ratios to accurately reconstruct inclusions of interest. This is a problem when imaging the uptake of fluorescently labeled molecularly targeted tracers in tissue, which can result in high levels of heterogeneously distributed background uptake. We present a dual-tracer background subtraction approach, wherein signal from the uptake of an untargeted tracer is subtracted from targeted tracer signal prior to image reconstruction, resulting in maps of targeted tracer binding. The approach is demonstrated in simulations, a phantom study, and in a mouse glioma imaging study, demonstrating substantial improvement over conventional and homogenous background subtraction image reconstruction approaches.

Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Holt, Robert W.; El-Ghussein, Fadi; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Leblond, Frederic; Pogue, Brian W.

2013-01-01

442

Sleep-Wake Functioning Along the Cancer Continuum: Focus Group Results From the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(TM))  

PubMed Central

Objective Cancer and its treatments disturb sleep-wake functioning; however, there is little information available on the characteristics and consequences of sleep problems associated with cancer. As part of an effort to improve measurement of sleep-wake functioning, we explored the scope of difficulties with sleep in a diverse group of patients diagnosed with cancer. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with patients recruited from the Duke University tumor registry and oncology/hematology clinics. Separate groups were held with patients scheduled to begin or currently undergoing treatment for breast, prostate, lung, colorectal, hematological, and other cancer types and with patients who were in posttreatment follow-up. The content of the focus group discussions was transcribed and analyzed for major themes by independent coders. Results Participants reported causes of sleep disturbance common in other populations, such as pain and restless legs, but they also reported causes that may be unique to cancer populations, including abnormal dreams, anxiety about cancer diagnosis and recurrence, night sweats, and problems with sleep positioning. Many participants felt that sleep problems reduced their productivity, concentration, social interactions, and overall quality of life. Many also shared beliefs about the increased importance of sleep when fighting cancer. Conclusions The findings underscore the need for interventions that minimize the negative impact of cancer and its treatments on sleep. This study will inform efforts now underway to develop a patient-reported measure of sleep-wake functioning that reflects the breadth of concepts considered important by patients with cancer.

Flynn, Kathryn E.; Shelby, Rebecca A.; Mitchell, Sandra A.; Fawzy, Maria R.; Hardy, N. Chantelle; Husain, Aatif M.; Keefe, Francis J.; Krystal, Andrew D.; Porter, Laura S.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

2009-01-01

443

32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

2013-07-01

444

Sky Radiance Distributions for Thermal Imaging Backgrounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Background Measurements and Analysis program (BMAP) is a program of measurement and analysis of background scenes appropriate to generic infrared imaging systems. A computer code has been made available to NACIT (Naval Academic Center for Infrared Tec...

A. Kotsis

1987-01-01

445

A background-free direction-sensitive neutron detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show data from a new type of detector that can be used to determine neutron flux, energy distribution, and direction of neutron motion for both fast and thermal neutrons. Many neutron detectors are plagued by large backgrounds from x-rays and gamma rays, and most current neutron detectors lack single-event energy sensitivity or any information on neutron directionality. Even the

Alvaro Roccaro; H. Tomita; S. Ahlen; D. Avery; A. Inglis; J. Battat; D. Dujmic; P. Fisher; S. Henderson; A. Kaboth; G. Kohse; R. Lanza; J. Monroe; G. Sciolla; N. Skvorodnev; H. Wellenstein; R. Yamamoto

2009-01-01

446

Issue Backgrounder : Downstream Fish Migration : Improving the Odds of Survival.  

SciTech Connect

Background information is given on the problems caused to anadromous fish migrations, especially salmon and steelhead trout, by the development of hydroelectric power dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Programs arising out of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and conservation Act of 1980 to remedy these problems and restore fish and wildlife populations are described. (ACR)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1985-05-01

447

The Case of Sydney's Tainted Food Scandal: Background and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds are of major economic and social importance in the Sydney basin, producing 90% of Sydney's perishable vegetables. Although most are unable to read English, all technical information, including that for pesticide use, is only available in English. Despite many attempts to influence policy, such as through the formation of the NSW Premier's Taskforce

Frances Parker

448

Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy's FY2011 budget proposes canceling the CG(X) program as unaffordable and instead building an improved version of the Arleigh Burke (DDG- 51) class Aegis destroyer called the Flight III version. This report provides background information on the C...

R. O'Rourke

2010-01-01

449

Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach. Part I: Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, part I of a series, the forensic methods used in "typing" human blood, which as physical evidence is often found in the dried state, are outlined. Background information about individualization, antibody typing, fresh blood, dried blood, and additional systems is provided. (CW)|

Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

1988-01-01

450

Community Colleges and Low Income Populations: A Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a background paper prepared for the conference "Community Colleges and Low Income Populations: Lessons from Research... Priorities for Policy." The paper sets out the framework that informs the conference. The author seeks to answer the question: What strategies, practices, and policies are needed if community colleges are to help people…

Kazis, Richard

451

Ghana: Background and U.S. Relations (February 14, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This short report, which will be updated as events warrant, provides background information on current developments in Ghana and U.S. bilateral relations with Ghana. In mid-February 2008, President and Mrs. Bush are slated to travel to five African countr...

N. Cook

2008-01-01

452

Research Libraries and Collection Development: Background, Methods, and Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This examination of the past and present states of collection development in the research library covers background information, theories, and associated problems. A historical review of methods that have been and are currently being used for collection development includes discussions of the changes imposed by World War II on the practice of…

Buschman, John

453

Alpha radioactive background in BGO crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe some cases of unusual internal radioactive background in BGO crystals. Routinely produced at the Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry during nearly a quarter of a century, BGO crystals have low radioactive background caused by 207Bi contamination. However, some BGO crystals incidentally have higher internal radioactive background with activity up to 10 Bq/kg. This background is pure alpha radioactivity. It is caused by 210Po contamination and has technogenic origin.

Grigoriev, D. N.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kuznetcov, G. N.; Novoselov, I. I.; Schotanus, P.; Shavinski, B. M.; Shepelev, S. N.; Shlegel, V. N.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.

2010-11-01

454

Natural-background-oriented schlieren imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background-oriented schlieren (BOS) flow visualization method has the potential for large-scale flow imaging outside the laboratory by using natural backgrounds instead of the artificial patterns normally used indoors. The natural surroundings of an outdoor test site can sometimes be used as such a background, subject to criteria of fine scale, randomness and contrast that are developed here. Some natural

Michael John Hargather; Gary S. Settles

2010-01-01

455

Background radiation: natural and man-made  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief overview and comparison is given of dose rates arising from natural background radiation and the fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Although there are considerable spatial variations in exposure to natural background radiation, it is useful to give estimates of worldwide average overall exposures from the various components of that background. Cosmic-ray secondaries of low linear energy

M C Thorne

2003-01-01

456

Gravitational wave background in inflationary models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of a gravitational wave (GW) background is a generic feature of inflationary models. This background, of quantum origin, covers a huge range of frequencies and is undistinguishable today on large cosmological scales from a classical stochastic background. We review some of its properties in different models including more sophisticated Broken Scale Invariance (BSI) models. .

Polarski, David

2001-02-01

457

Cultural Background and Second Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knubb?Manninen, G. 1988. Cultural Background and Second Language Acquisition. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 32, 93?100. The article examines – on the basis of a research study carried out in Swedish?speaking schools in Finland – the significance that cultural conditions, such as gender and social background, have for second language learning. A model with gender and social background serving as

1988-01-01

458

Evaluation of Local Models of Dynamic Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background subtraction is the first step of many video surveillance applications. What is considered background varies by application, and may include regular, systematic, or complex motions. This paper explores the use of several different local spatio-temporal models of a background, de- fined at each pixel in the image. We present experiments with real image data and conclude that appropriate local

Robert Pless; John Larson; Scott Siebers; Ben Westover

2003-01-01

459

Implementation of information technology in Africa: Understanding and explaining the results of ten years of implementation effort in a Tanzanian organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study traces attempts to introduce information technology into a management college in Africa, over a 10-year period from 1991 to 2001. The study uses an interpretative approach and is informed by information technology (IT) implementation literature. The case shows little progress over the 10-year period studied and the authors identify several explanations for this. The findings related to implementation,

Bjørn Furuholt; Tore U. Ørvik

2006-01-01

460

Sharing results of federal R and D: A look at the Department of Energy's system for managing scientific and technical information. [US DOE; OSTI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy's (DOE) scientific and technical information system, operational since the mid-1940s, is described as an example of the manner by which a large Federal R and D agency organizes, manages, and disseminates the information produced by its laboratories and contractor organizations. The role of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) with the DOE R and

Joseph G. Coyne; Thomas E. Hughes; Bonnie C. Winsbro

1986-01-01

461

Assessing ACS/WFC Sky Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report compares the on-orbit sky background levels present in Cycle 18 ACS/WFC fullframe images against estimates provided by the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). Backgrounds of over ~20 e- can alleviate charge-transfer efficiency (CTE) losses, which especially affect low S/N sources. HST observers can use these estimates to anticipate the natural background that should be present in their exposures, and can then determine whether they want to supplement that background with a post-flash to improve the CTE - at the cost of more background noise.

Sokol, Josh; Anderson, Jay; Smith, Linda

2012-07-01

462

Novel pixel architecture with inherent background suppression for 3D time-of-flight imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-of-flight (TOF) principle is a well known technology to acquire a scene in all three dimensions. The advantages of the knowledge of the third dimension are obvious for many kinds of applications. The distance information within the scene renders automatic information-processing systems more robust and much less complex or even enables completely new solutions. A solid-state image sensor containing 124x160 pixels and the corresponding 3D-camera, the so-called SwissRanger camera has already been presented in detail. It has been shown that the SwissRanger camera achieves depth resolutions in the sub-centimeter range, corresponding to a measured time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds with respect to the speed of light. However, one main drawback of these so-called lock-in TOF pixels is their limited capacity to handle background illumination. Keeping in mind that in outdoor applications the optical power on the sensor originating from background illumination such as sunlight may be up to a few 100 times higher than the power of the modulated illumination, the sensor requires new pixel structures eliminating or at least reducing the currently experienced restrictions in terms of background illumination. Based on a custom 0.6um CMOS/CCD technology, a new pixel architecture suppressing background illumination and/or improving the ratio of modulated signal to background signal at the pixel-output level was developed and will be presented in this paper. The theoretical principle of operation and the expected performance measures are described. Furthermore, test results obtained in a laboratory setup are published. The sensor structure is characterized in a high background-light environment. This in-depth evaluation leads to a comparison of the background suppression approach with the traditional pixel structure in order to highlight the benefits of the new approach.

Oggier, Thierry; Kaufmann, Rolf; Lehmann, Michael; Büttgen, Bernhard; Neukom, Simon; Richter, Michael; Schweizer, Matthias; Metzler, Peter; Lustenberger, Felix; Blanc, Nicolas

2004-12-01

463

Theory of mind, emotion understanding, language, and family background: individual differences and interrelations.  

PubMed

Individual differences in young children's social cognition were examined in 128 urban preschoolers from a wide range of backgrounds. comprehensive assessments were made of children's false-belief understanding, emotion understanding, language abilities, and family background information was collected via parent interview. Individual differences in children's understanding of false-belief and emotion were associated with differences in language ability and with certain aspects of family background, in particular, parental occupational class and mothers' education. The number of siblings that children had did not relate to their social cognition. Individual differences in false-belief and emotion understanding were correlated, but these domains did not contribute to each other independently of age, language ability, and family background. In fact, variance in family background only contributed uniquely to false-belief understanding. The results suggest that family background has a significant impact on the development of theory of mind. The findings also suggest that understanding of false-belief and understanding of emotion may be distinct aspects of social cognition in young children. PMID:10446724

Cutting, A L; Dunn, J

464

Polarization of the cosmic background radiation  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the technique and results of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation. Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. 38{sup o}N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. 12{sup o}s) over 11 declinations from -37{sup o} to +63{sup o} show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. A fit of all data to the anisotropic axisymmetric model of Rees (1968) yields a 95% confidence level limit of 0.15 mK for the magnitude of the polarized component. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits.

Lubin, Philip M.; Smoot, George F.

1980-08-01

465

Background-oriented schlieren with natural background for quantitative visualization of open-air explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes an attempt of quantitative visualization of open-air explosions via the background-oriented schlieren method (BOS). The shock wave propagation curve and overpressure distribution were extracted from the obtained images and compared with the results of the numerical analysis. The potential of extracting the density distribution behind the shock front is also demonstrated. Two open-air explosions were conducted; one with a 36 -kg emulsion explosive and the other with a 7.89 -kg composition C4 explosive. A high-speed digital video camera was used with a frame rate of 10{,}000 Hz and a pixel size of 800 × 600. A natural background, including trees and grass, was used for BOS measurements instead of the random dots used in a laboratory. The overpressure distribution given by the passing shock was estimated from the visualized images. The estimated overpressures agreed with the values recorded by pressure transducers in the test field. The background displacement caused by light diffraction inside the spherical shock waves was in good agreement, except at the shock front. The results shown here suggest that the BOS method for open-air experiments could provide increasingly better quantitative and conventional visualization results with increasing spatial resolution of high-speed cameras.

Mizukaki, T.; Wakabayashi, K.; Matsumura, T.; Nakayama, K.

2013-07-01

466

Detector backgrounds for a high energy muon collider.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potentially large background produced from the decay products of muons could affect the quality of the physics in a high energy muon collider. This paper examines the kinds of background present and their expected rate. The results are based on a simu...

O. Benary

1999-01-01

467

Primordial black holes and the background electromagnetic radiation spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible observational consequences of the adiabatic and nonadiabatic evaporation of primordial mini black holes (masses of 10 to the 14th to 10 to the 15th g) are considered. It is shown that pair-produced ultrarelativistic electrons and positrons would transfer their energy to the background radiation field as a result of inverse Compton losses to the background radiation and that such

P. D. Naselskii; Iu. G. Shevelev

1978-01-01

468

Real-Time Hand Detection and Tracking against Complex Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most hand detection and tracking algorithms can be only applied in the fairly simple and similar background. We propose to combine a modified object detection method proposed by Viola and Jones with the skin-color detection method to perform hand detection and tracking against complex background. Out experimental results show that the proposed method is effective in near real-time speed (15

Gang-Zeng Mao; Yi-Leh Wu; Maw-Kae Hor; Cheng-Yuan Tang

2009-01-01

469

How does background music tempo work for online shopping?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the impact of background music tempo, an emotional stimulus, on consumer attitude in online shopping. The authors conducted two empirical studies based on the same experimental design. The results of both studies supported the study’s main hypothesis: background music tempo positively affects consumer arousal. It also suggests that product category moderates the influence of arousal on pleasure

Cherng G. Ding; Chien-Hung Lin

470

PS2-11: Impact of a Health Information Technology (HIT) Based Intervention to Improve Adherence to Cardiovascular Disease Medications: Early Results from the PATIENT Trial.  

PubMed

Background/Aims Adherence to certain effective and widely prescribed cardiovascular (CVD) medications is poor. The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate the effective implementation of a cost-effective and easily disseminable population-level HIT adherence intervention. Methods PATIENT is a pragmatic trial designed to improve adherence to antihypertensives and statins in high-risk patients in three Kaiser Permanente (KP) regions. The 1-year intervention (Dec. 2011-2012) enrolled 21,752 adults, aged 40-80, with diabetes or CVD and at least 1 dispensing of a target medication in the past year (based on pharmacy dispensing data). Participants were randomized to one of 3 arms: usual care (UC), automated telephone reminders (IVR), or an enhanced IVR arm (IVR+) that added mailed educational materials, reminder mailings and live outreach calls to IVR calls. Results Through the first 10 months of intervention we attempted 42,010 automated reminder calls (? 2.9 per intervention participant). Of these, 56% (23,596) of calls successfully reached the target participant and an additional 29% (12,271) resulted in messages left. These figures were higher for calls made to those nearly due for a refill (65% and 26% of 20,182) than for calls made to those overdue (48% and 32% of 21,828). Of calls where we reached the participant, 30% resulted in a transfer to the regional pharmacy automated refill line and an additional 2.5% resulted in transfers to a live pharmacist. Among the 7,258 IVR+ patients, 3,748 medication reminder letters were mailed, 2,146 live reminder calls were made, and we have sent 36,823 educational mailings (?4.9 per participant). Key implementation challenges that emerged related to 1) complexities in coding the intervention call flag algorithm from the EMR and 2) customization of the intervention to fit regional work-flow and support program sustainability. Close partnering with pharmacy staff was crucial in overcoming early hurdles. Outcome data (not yet available) will be presented at the meeting. Conclusions We successfully implemented a large, multi-modal, HIT, medication adherence intervention at 3 KP regions. A high proportion of members were reached and actively participated in the intervention. Key challenges/solutions are detailed in a manual of operations to facilitate the implementation of similar interventions in other settings. PMID:24085952

Vollmer, William; Rand, Cynthia; Tom, Jeffrey; Owen-Smith, Ashli; Smith, David; Vupputuri, Suma; Williams, Andrew; Ditmer, Diane; Laws, Reesa; Schneider, Jennifer; Waterbury, Amy

2013-09-01

471

PS2-11: Impact of a Health Information Technology (HIT) Based Intervention to Improve Adherence to Cardiovascular Disease Medications: Early Results from the PATIENT Trial  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Adherence to certain effective and widely prescribed cardiovascular (CVD) medications is poor. The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate the effective implementation of a cost-effective and easily disseminable population-level HIT adherence intervention. Methods PATIENT is a pragmatic trial designed to improve adherence to antihypertensives and statins in high-risk patients in three Kaiser Permanente (KP) regions. The 1-year intervention (Dec. 2011–2012) enrolled 21,752 adults, aged 40–80, with diabetes or CVD and at least 1 dispensing of a target medication in the past year (based on pharmacy dispensing data). Participants were randomized to one of 3 arms: usual care (UC), automated telephone reminders (IVR), or an enhanced IVR arm (IVR+) that added mailed educational materials, reminder mailings and live outreach calls to IVR calls. Results Through the first 10 months of intervention we attempted 42,010 automated reminder calls (? 2.9 per intervention participant). Of these, 56% (23,596) of calls successfully reached the target participant and an additional 29% (12,271) resulted in messages left. These figures were higher for calls made to those nearly due for a refill (65% and 26% of 20,182) than for calls made to those overdue (48% and 32% of 21,828). Of calls where we reached the participant, 30% resulted in a transfer to the regional pharmacy automated refill line and an additional 2.5% resulted in transfers to a live pharmacist. Among the 7,258 IVR+ patients, 3,748 medication reminder letters were mailed, 2,146 live reminder calls were made, and we have sent 36,823 educational mailings (?4.9 per participant). Key implementation challenges that emerged related to 1) complexities in coding the intervention call flag algorithm from the EMR and 2) customization of the intervention to fit regional work-flow and support program sustainability. Close partnering with pharmacy staff was crucial in overcoming early hurdles. Outcome data (not yet available) will be presented at the meeting. Conclusions We successfully implemented a large, multi-modal, HIT, medication adherence intervention at 3 KP regions. A high proportion of members were reached and actively participated in the intervention. Key challenges/solutions are detailed in a manual of operations to facilitate the implementation of similar interventions in other settings.

Vollmer, William; Rand, Cynthia; Tom, Jeffrey; Owen-Smith, Ashli; Smith, David; Vupputuri, Suma; Williams, Andrew; Ditmer, Diane; Laws, Reesa; Schneider, Jennifer; Waterbury, Amy

2013-01