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1

Scientific results from the cosmic background explorer (COBE). [Information on cosmic radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 [+-] 0.06 K, with no deviation from

C. L. Bennett; N. W. Boggess; E. S. Cheng; M. G. Hauser; T. Kelsall; J. C. Mather; S. H. Jr. Moseley; R. A. Shafer; R. F. Silverberg; T. L. Murdock; G. F. Smoot; R. Weiss; E. L. Wright

1993-01-01

2

Background Information on Ammonia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the synthesis, production, and use of ammonia (7664417) is reviewed. The importance of a catalyst in the process of uniting hydrogen and nitrogen to form ammonia, producers of ammonia between 1961 and 1974, their annual production capacity,...

R. Hartle

1975-01-01

3

Developing Pupil Background Information for Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are often provided with background information before reading an assigned selection. This background information functions differently in the following reading variations: individualized reading; basal reading; big book approaches; programmed reading, the language experience approach; and predictable books. Students often pick subjects…

Ediger, Marlow

4

Nonfossil fuel fired industrial boilers: background information  

SciTech Connect

This document provides background information about air emissions and controlling these emissions for the nonfossil fuel fired boiler (NFFB) source category. This source category includes boilers firing wood, bagasse (sugar cane residue), municipal type solid waste, and refuse derived fuels. This document identifies the industries which use NFFBs and the numbers of new NFFBs expected to be built in 1982 through 1990. The uncontrolled emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides are quantified and factors affecting these emissions are discussed. State and Federal regulations which apply to the NFFB source category are summarized. Control technologies to reduce these emissions are identified and emission test data are presented. Factors which affect the performance of emission control technologies are also discussed. Finally, environmental, energy and cost impacts of applying these control technologies to nonfossil fuel fired boilers are presented and discussed. This information was developed in support of a potential new source performance standard for nonfossil fuel fired boilers.

Not Available

1982-03-01

5

76 FR 81523 - Proposed Information Collection; Federal Advisory Committee Background Information Nomination Form  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Federal Advisory Committee Background Information Nomination Form AGENCY...Title: Federal Advisory Committee Background Information Nomination Form. Forms: Resource Advisory Council Background Information Nomination Form....

2011-12-28

6

Compulsive Gambling: Background Information for Security Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of compulsive gambling pulls together in one place information useful to personnel security Policy-makers, practitioners, and researchers when reviewing standards and procedures, establishing priorities or developing training programs. It focus...

R. J. Heuer

1992-01-01

7

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Breast CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the materials cited below.

8

Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child  

MedlinePLUS

... Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child Email Order (Free) ... rated. Series: Factsheets for Families Author(s): Child Welfare Information Gateway Year Published: 2012 ( PDF - 470 KB) This ...

9

American Memory: Background Papers and Content Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this site, newly updated and reorganized, the Library of Congress continues to share its experience in the digitization of images, text, maps, sound files, and movies. In addition to American Memory White papers (some previously described in the August 7, 1998 Scout Report), which are technical papers based on the experience gained during the American Memory Pilot Project, the site also includes a variety of resources to help any library or institution embarking on a digitizing project, such as sample Requests for Proposals (RFPs) for scanning and text conversion services, the National Digital Library Project Planning checklist, final reports, workshop proceedings, and recommendations. Also included are some background readings produced outside the Library of Congress on the concept of creating digital library collections.

10

Background Information Framework for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This framework will define the purpose and scope of NAEP's system of collecting background information, including background questionnaires and other sources of non-cognitive data. It will establish criteria for reporting background information as part of the National Assessment. The approach it suggests provides for asking various groups of…

National Assessment Governing Board, Washington, DC.

11

Preliminary Results from the PYTHON Microwave Background Anisotropy Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will present preliminary results of our experiment to measure the anisotropy of the microwave background on medium (2.75 degree) angular scales. Observations of 14 separate regions (two rows of seven regions) on the sky were made during the 15 day period of 1 Jan to 15 Jan 1993. The observing site, the geographic South Pole, is an ideal location

M. Dragovan; J. Ruhl; G. Novak; S. R. Platt; B. Crone; R. Pernic

1993-01-01

12

42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION...Background information on this part. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation...employees, of the United States Department of Energy (âDOEâ), its predecessor...

2012-10-01

13

Community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constrained clustering has been well-studied in the unsupervised learning society. However, how to encode constraints into community structure detection, within complex networks, remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised learning framework for community structure detection. This framework implicitly encodes the must-link and cannot-link constraints by modifying the adjacency matrix of network, which can also be regarded as de-noising the consensus matrix of community structures. Our proposed method gives consideration to both the topology and the functions (background information) of complex network, which enhances the interpretability of the results. The comparisons performed on both the synthetic benchmarks and the real-world networks show that the proposed framework can significantly improve the community detection performance with few constraints, which makes it an attractive methodology in the analysis of complex networks.

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

2013-02-01

14

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

15

Results of a Preliminary Study of the Fluorescent Background Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fluorescent background problem arises from a loss in effectiveness of the fluorescent dye tracer technique due to an increase of variability in time and space of the interfering background readings of fluorometers used to measure fluorescent dye conce...

D. W. Pritchard

1979-01-01

16

DARPA background clutter data collection experiment: excavation results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most technologies in use or proposed for use to detect landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) suffer from unacceptably high false-alarm rates, even at modest probabilities of detection. High false-alarm rates are a consequence of the inability to discriminate real UXO and landmines from man-made and naturally occurring clutter. The goal of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA)- sponsored Background Clutter Data Collection Experiment is to provide data which will support the development of techniques that are more adept at discriminating UXO from benign, man- made objects. During the fall of 1996, high areal density site surveys were completed using the following sensor types: magnetometer, infrared, electromagnetic induction, and ground- penetrating radar. Preliminary analysis of the data confirmed that a large number of anomalies in the sensor data are visually indistinguishable from anomalies that are a result of emplaced inert UXO or landmines. The Firing Point 20 site at Fort A. P. Hill exhibits the largest number of these ordnance- like anomalies. To determine the source of a subset of these sensor response anomalies, a 1-week excavation effort was conducted. This paper presents an analysis of the data to determine the candidate locations for, the procedures used during, and the results of the excavation.

George, Vivian; Altshuler, Thomas W.; Rosen, Erik M.

1998-09-01

17

Background Information on Hydrocarbon Emissions from Marine Terminal Operations. Volume I. Discussion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents results of a study to develop background information necessary for the accurate assessment of hydrocarbon emissions from ship and barge loading and unloading of gasoline and crude oil. The report assesses marine terminal facilities, m...

C. E. Burklin J. D. Colley M. L. Owen

1976-01-01

18

Background  

Cancer.gov

Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls provide the highest quality, least biased dietary data. Traditional 24-hour recalls, however, are expensive and impractical for large-scale research because they rely on trained interviewers and multiple administrations to estimate usual intakes. As a result, researchers often make use of food frequency questionnaires, which are less expensive but contain substantial error.

19

Data analysis of and results from observations of the cosmic microwave background with the Cosmic Background Imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI), a sensitive 13-element interferometer located high in the Chilean Andes. We also discuss methods of analyzing the data from the CBI, including an improved way of measuring the true power spectrum using maximum likelihood estimation. This improved method leads to a saving of a factor of two in memory usage, and an increase in speed of order the number of points in the spectrum. The initial results are discussed, in which the fall-off in power at ell > 1000 (the "damping tail") was first observed. We also present the results from the first year of observations with the CBI, and discuss cosmological interpretations both alone and in concert with the results from other experiments. These provide tight constraints on cosmological parameters, including a Hubble constant of 69 +/- 4 km/s/Mpc, an age of the universe of 13.7 +/- 0.2 billion years, and a density of dark energy of 0.70 +/- 0.05 of the critical density of the universe. Finally, we discuss an alternate method of data compression, with great flexibility in what information is kept, while being computationally tractable. We then apply this method to the CBI data to constrain the potential emission from foreground contaminants contributing to the observed CMB radiation. We find that the data is consistent with zero foreground, with a maximum allowed foreground contribution between about 8% and 12% of the total signal (at an ell of 600 and frequency of 30 GHz), depending on the spectral index of foreground emission.

Sievers, Jonathan Leroy

2004-12-01

20

Analytic study of the Tadoma method: background and preliminary results.  

PubMed

Certain deaf-blind persons have been taught, through the Tadoma method of speechreading, to use vibrotactile cues from the face and neck to understand speech. This paper reports the results of preliminary tests of the speechreading ability of one adult Tadoma user. The tests were of four major types: (1) discrimination of speech stimuli; (2) recognition of words in isolation and in sentences; (3) interpretation of prosodic and syntactic features in sentences; and (4) comprehension of written (Braille) and oral speech. Words in highly contextual environments were much better perceived than were words in low-context environments. Many of the word errors involved phonemic substitutions which shared articulatory features with the target phonemes, with a higher error rate for vowels than consonants. Relative to performance on word-recognition tests, performance on some of the discrimination tests was worse than expected. Perception of sentences appeared to be mildly sensitive to rate of talking and to speaker differences. Results of the tests on perception of prosodic and syntactic features, while inconclusive, indicate that many of the features tested were not used in interpreting sentences. On an English comprehension test, a higher score was obtained for items administered in Braille than through oral presentation. PMID:904318

Norton, S J; Schultz, M C; Reed, C M; Braida, L D; Durlach, N I; Rabinowitz, W M; Chomsky, C

1977-09-01

21

A moving ship detection based on edge information of single image and background subtraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship detection based on video is important in the application of surveillance and marine safety, the detection results of tradition methods, such as background subtraction, have much noise because of background noise such as ocean wave. In this paper we present a simple but efficient method for ship detection, It is based on the edge information of single image and movement information of multi images. Firstly, detect those movement pixels used the background subtraction to the video image, and the distance transformation is operation on the difference images; Secondly, we detect the edge of video image used Canny detector , and morphological operation on the edge image, lastly, eliminate the movement pixels if their distance transformation value is bigger than the threshold. The experimental results demonstrate that is efficient to eliminate the background noise and detect the real target.

Shi, Tingyan; Yang, Lichun; Liu, Zhicheng

2013-10-01

22

Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

2014-05-01

23

Background Information: National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Apollo Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The origins and development of NASA are detailed, with related information about the Space Act of 1958. Additionally, a historical summary of the Apollo program is presented. This document additionally covers NASA installations, milestones and budget hist...

1969-01-01

24

Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.  

PubMed

Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses. PMID:24807935

Kerren, A

2013-01-01

25

Building Digital Collections: Technical Information and Background Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced on May 9, this newly updated site from the Library of Congress National Digital Library Program (NDLP) documents "technical activities relating to the procedures and practices employed by the NDLP, and its precursor American Memory Program, over the past decade." Of use to anyone involved in digital library projects, the highlight of the site is probably the Building Digital Collections section, which links to the technical documents (included with most American Memory Collections) describing how the collection was digitized and what technology was used. The site also contains descriptions of technical practices, workflow production, and a selection of background papers.

26

76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Investigation National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency...Department of Justice (DOJ) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division's National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS)...

2011-11-08

27

Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nat

28

Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very nearly the speed of light. Optical studies of a December 1997 burst (GRB 971214) indicated a distance for it of nearly 12 billion light-years. With distances known, astronomers could calculate the amount of energy released during the explosion. The answers were astounding. GRB 970508, in a mere 15 seconds, released nearly ten times more energy than our Sun will release in its entire, 10-billion-year lifetime. GRB 971214, for one or two seconds, outshone the entire rest of the universe. These energies ruled out many of the numerous theories for the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts that had arisen over the previous three decades. Many answers about the origins of Gamma Ray Bursts and the physics of the fireballs will come from radio telescopes. The VLA, with its combination of sensitivity and resolving power, "has a unique role to play in deciphering GRB fireball physics," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. First, radio astronomers can see the GRB fireball far longer than it is visible at other wavelengths. A Gamma Ray Burst is visible in the gamma rays for typically seconds or minutes, in X-rays for days, and in visible light for weeks, based on the past year's experience. "With radio telescopes, we can see the fireballs for months, gaining new information every day," said Greg Taylor, also of NRAO in Socorro. "Also, at other wavelengths, they see the emission only as it is rapidly getting weaker. At radio wavelengths, we can study the emission as it rises in strength, peaks, then slowly decays." In addition, radio observations can measure the size of the fireball. "Only radio telescopes can measure the size, and we can do it in three different ways," Frail said. These techniques involve studying the scintillation, or "twinkling" of the radio emission; absorption characteristics of the emission; and, for bright, energetic afterglows, direct measurements of sizes can be made through the great resolving power of continent-wide radio telescope arrays such as t

29

Polymer manufacturing industry - background information for proposed standards  

SciTech Connect

Promulgation of standards to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from process and fugitive sources in the polymer and resins industry is proposed. Standards would affect new and modified or reconstructed facilities that produce the following basic polymers: polyproplyene, polyethylene, polystyrene, and poly(ethylene terephthalate). The standards would not apply to poly(ethylene terephthalate) processing facilities. Twelve model plants and regulatory alternatives, including continuation of current control levels within each industry segment, have been developed. All alternatives, except the alternative involving continuation of existing controls, would reduce VOC emissions significantly. VOC emission reductions would range from 20 to 62.2%. Some additional solid wastes and noise emissions could be generated by control apparatus. Operation of controls would result in net increases in energy uses. The regulations would increase operating costs, capital costs, and reporting requirements. Small cost increases would be passed on to consumers in the form of price increases.

Not Available

1985-09-01

30

US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions  

SciTech Connect

A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

1984-03-01

31

42 CFR 83.0 - Background information on the procedures in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EMPLOYEES AS MEMBERS OF THE SPECIAL EXPOSURE COHORT UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000...Background information on the procedures in this part. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act, as...

2012-10-01

32

System of automatic estimation of tsunamigenic earthquakes parameters: algorithms, backgrounds, preliminary results and real practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last several years in Far East of Russia new Tsunami Warning System (TWS) is developed and introduced. This work represents fundamental remaking of System, which had existed before. It concerns both means of observations, and methods of processing and operator instructions. One of the main requirements to the Seismic subsystem of Tsunami Warning System (SS TWS), developed in Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Survey since 2006 is a presence of the automatic system of estimation of tsunamigenic earthquake parameters in real time. This system should have an opportunity to form the conclusion about probability of occurrence of a tsunami caused by the registered event. At the present time, it is supposed, that a key part of a seismological subsystem there is an operator of station of the tsunami, also making processing of earthquake in the interactive mode almost in real time. Nevertheless, the situation when the operator for whatever reasons is unable generate in time the message on earthquake is possible. In this case presence of the automatic earthquake parameters estimation is extremely necessary. With this purpose the program complex has been developed, received the name "Fast Tsunami Source Localization", in abbreviated form - the FTSL. According to distribution of strong seismicity and a tsunamies, the zone of especial attention for Seismic subsystem of Tsunami Warning System in Far East Russia can be defined as follows: Kuril-Kamchatka, Japanese and Aleutian deep-water tranches and Sea of Japanese, Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea. In this paper results of development Automatic SS TWS are presented. Technical and natural backgrounds in a basis of System, structure of program complex and algorithms are discussed. Also results of approbation of System on archive earthquake records (events from specified zone of the responsibility) and information on a real practice of use of System in a experimental mode at the seismic station "Petropavlovsk" are presented.

Chebrov, Danila; Gusev, Alexander

2010-05-01

33

Students Seeking Access to Four-Year Institutions: Community College Transfers [Background Information].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides background information for a hearing by the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education and Outreach on December 3, 1997. The Introduction presents the Committee announcement, press release, agenda, information about transfer efforts in California, facts and figures about the community colleges, and the text of…

Moore, Jamillah

34

First results of the COBE satellite measurement of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept and operation of the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) instrument aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer satellite are reviewed, with emphasis on the software identification and subtraction of potential systematic effects. Preliminary results obtained from the first six months of DMR data are presented, and implications for cosmology are discussed.

Smoot, G. F.; Aymon, J.; De Amici, G.; Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.; Gulkis, S.; Backus, C.; Galuk, K.; Jackson, P. D.; Keegstra, P.

1991-01-01

35

Multi-frequency survey of background radiations of the Universe. The "Cosmological Gene" project. First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the first stage of the "Cosmological Gene" project of the Russian Academy of Sciences are reported. These results consist in the accumulation of multi-frequency data in 31 frequency channels in the wavelength interval 1-55 cm with maximum achievable statistical sensitivity limited by the noise of background radio sources at all wavelengths exceeding 1.38 cm. The survey region is determined by constraints 00 h < RA < 24 h and 40°30' < DEC < 42°30'. The scientific goals of the project are refined in view of recent proposals to use cosmological background radiation data for the development of a unified physical theory. Experimental data obtained with the RATAN-600 radio telescope are used to refine the contribution of the main "screens" located between the observer and the formation epoch of cosmic background radiation ( z = 1100). Experimental data for synchrotron radiation and free-free noise on scales that are of interest for the anisotropy of cosmic microwave background are reported as well as the contribution of these noise components in millimeter-wave experiments to be performed in the nearest years. The role of dipole radio emission of fullerene-type dust nanostructures is shown to be small. The most precise estimates of the role of background radio sources with inverted spectra are given and these sources are shown to create no serious interference in experiments. The average spectral indices of the weakest sources of the NVSS and FIRST catalogs are estimated. The "saturation" data for all wavelengths allowed a constraint to be imposed on the Sunyaev-Zeldovich noise (the SZ noise) at all wavelengths, and made it possible to obtain independent estimates of the average sky temperature from sources, substantially weaker than those listed in the NVSS catalog. These estimates are inconsistent with the existence of powerful extragalactic synchrotron background associated with radio sources. Appreciable "quadrupole" anisotropy in is detected in the distribution of the spectral index of the synchrotron radiation of the Galaxy, and this anisotropy should be taken into account when estimating the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on small l. All the results are compared to the results obtained by foreign researchers in recent years.

Parijskij, Yu. N.; Mingaliev, M. G.; Nizhel'Skii, N. A.; Bursov, N. N.; Berlin, A. B.; Grechkin, A. A.; Zharov, V. I.; Zhekanis, G. V.; Majorova, E. K.; Semenova, T. A.; Stolyarov, V. A.; Tsybulev, P. G.; Kratov, D. V.; Udovitskii, R. Yu.; Khaikin, V. B.

2011-10-01

36

Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information  

PubMed Central

Background Although described in several reports, imported malaria in Europe has not been surveyed nationwide with overall coverage of patients and individually rechecked background information. Plasmodium falciparum infections have been reported despite regularly taken appropriate chemoprophylaxis, yet the reliability of such questionnaire-based retrospective data has been questioned. This was the starting-point for conducting a prospective nationwide survey of imported malaria where compliance data was double-checked. Methods Data was collected on all cases of imported malaria confirmed and recorded by the reference laboratory of Finland (population 5.4 million) from 2003 to 2011, and these were compared with those reported to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR). Background information was gathered by detailed questionnaires sent to the clinicians upon diagnosis; missing data were enquired by telephone of clinician or patient. Special attention was paid to compliance with chemoprophylaxis: self-reported use of anti-malarials was rechecked for all cases of P. falciparum. Results A total of 265 malaria cases (average annual incidence rate 0.5/100,000 population) had been recorded by the reference laboratory, all of them also reported to NIDR: 54% were born in malaria-endemic countries; 86% were currently living in non-endemic regions. Malaria was mainly (81%) contracted in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasmodium falciparum proved to be the most common species (72%). Immigrants constituted the largest group of travellers (44%). Pre-travel advice was received by 20% of those born in endemic regions and 81% of those from non-endemic regions. Of those with P. falciparum, 4% reported regular use of appropriate chemoprophylaxis (mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with chloroquine-resistant and atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with mefloquine-resistant P. falciparum); after individual rechecking, however, it was found that none of them had been fully compliant. Conclusions Information on compliance with chemoprophylactic regimen cannot be relied on, and it should be rechecked if malaria is suspected. The results of the present study suggest that mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil and doxycycline are effective as chemoprophylaxis against P. falciparum malaria, when taken conscientiously.

2013-01-01

37

Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of Northwest rental housing owners and, to a lesser extent, tenants toward energy conservation and energy-efficiency improvements. Available market research data on these subjects were found to be quite limited. The most useful data were two surveys of Seattle rental housing owners conducted in late 1984 for Seattle City Light. Several other surveys provided supplemental market research information in selected areas. In addition to market research information, the report also includes background information on rental housing characteristics in the Northwest.

Hendrickson, P.L.

1986-02-01

38

Effect of material selection and background impurity on interface property and resulted CIP-GMR performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigated the effect of background base pressure, wafer-transferring time between process modules, and stack layer material selection on the current-in-plane giant magneto-resistive (CIP-GMR) interface properties and the resulted CIP-GMR performance. Experimental results showed that seed layer/AFM interface, AFM/pinned layer (PL) interface, pinned layer/Ru interface, and reference layer (RL)/Cu spacer interface are among the most critical ones for a CIP-GMR device. By reducing the background impurity level (water moisture and oxygen), optimizing the wafer process flow sequence, and careful stack-layer material selection, such critical interfaces in a CIP-GMR device can be preserved. Consequently, a much robust GMR performance control can be achieved.

Peng, Xilin; Morrone, Augusto; Nikolaev, Konstantin; Kief, Mark; Ostrowski, Mark

2009-09-01

39

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

40

The Intego database: background, methods and basic results of a Flemish general practice-based continuous morbidity registration project  

PubMed Central

Background Intego is the only operational computerized morbidity registration network in Belgium based on general practice data. Intego collects data from over 90 general practitioners. All the information is routinely collected in the electronic health record during daily practice. Methods In this article we describe the design and methods used within the Intego network together with some of its basic results. The collected data, the quality control procedures, the ethical-legal aspects and the statistical procedures are discussed. Results Intego contains longitudinal information on 285 357 different patients, corresponding to over 2.3% of the Flemish population representative in terms of age and sex. More than 3 million diagnoses, 12 million drug prescriptions and 29 million laboratory tests have been recorded. Conclusions Intego enables us to present and compare data on health parameters, incidence and prevalence rates, laboratory results, and prescribed drugs for all relevant subgroups on a routine basis and is unique in Belgium.

2014-01-01

41

Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

1982-03-01

42

SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF TX-TY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH GROUND PENETRATING RADAR  

SciTech Connect

Ground penetrating radar surveys of the TX and TY tank farms were performed to identify existing infrastructure in the near surface environment. These surveys were designed to provide background information supporting Surface-to-Surface and Well-to-Well resistivity surveys of Waste Management Area TX-TY. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with GPR to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity{trademark} surveys. The results of the background characterization confirm the existence of documented infrastructure, as well as highlight locations of possible additional undocumented subsurface metallic objects.

MYERS DA; CUBBAGE R; BRAUCHLA R; O'BRIEN G

2008-07-24

43

Simulation results of Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) for background reduction in INTEGRAL Spectrometer (SPI) germanium detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) for background reduction will be used in the INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) imaging spectrometer (SPI) to improve the sensitivity from 200 keV to 2 MeV. The observation of significant astrophysical gamma ray lines in this energy range is expected, where the dominant component of the background is the beta(sup -) decay in the Ge detectors due to the activation of Ge nuclei by cosmic rays. The sensitivity of the SPI will be improved by rejecting beta(sup -) decay events while retaining photon events. The PSD technique will distinguish between single and multiple site events. Simulation results of PSD for INTEGRAL-type Ge detectors using a numerical model for pulse shape generation are presented. The model was shown to agree with the experimental results for a narrow inner bore closed end cylindrical detector. Using PSD, a sensitivity improvement factor of the order of 2.4 at 0.8 MeV is expected.

Slassi-Sennou, S. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Feffer, P. T.; Lin, R. P.

1997-01-01

44

Personalized genomic results: analysis of informational needs.  

PubMed

Use of genomic information in healthcare is increasing; however data on the needs of consumers of genomic information is limited. The Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC) is a longitudinal study investigating the utility of personalized medicine. Participants receive results reflecting risk of common complex conditions and drug-gene pairs deemed actionable by an external review board. To explore the needs of individuals receiving genomic information we reviewed all genetic counseling sessions with CPMC participants. A retrospective qualitative review of notes from 157 genetic counseling inquiries was conducted. Notes were coded for salient themes. Five primary themes; "understanding risk", "basic genetics", "complex disease genetics", "what do I do now?" and "other" were identified. Further review revealed that participants had difficulty with basic genetic concepts, confused relative and absolute risks, and attributed too high a risk burden to individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Despite these hurdles, counseled participants recognized that behavior changes could potentially mitigate risk and there were few comments alluding to an overly deterministic or fatalistic interpretation of results. Participants appeared to recognize the multifactorial nature of the diseases for which results were provided; however education to understand the complexities of genomic risk information was often needed. PMID:24488620

Schmidlen, Tara J; Wawak, Lisa; Kasper, Rachel; García-España, J Felipe; Christman, Michael F; Gordon, Erynn S

2014-08-01

45

REVIEW OF IN-PLACE TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS. VOLUME 2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR IN SITU TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This two-volume report presents information on in-place treatment technologies applicable to contaminated soils at shallow depths. This volume provides background information and relevant chemical data. The information presented on monitoring to determine treatment effectiveness,...

46

Solar cycle study of interplanetary Lyman-alpha variations - Pioneer Venus Orbiter sky background results  

SciTech Connect

PVO observations of the interplanetary Ly-alpha (IPL) background, obtained over an entire solar cycle (SC) from 1979 to 1985, are compiled and analyzed statistically, along with data from other instruments and earlier solar cycles. The results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Findings reported include SC variation of 1.8 for the longitudinally averaged IPL intensity (in agreement with the variation of the 27-d disk-averaged integrated solar Ly-alpha flux), yearly averaged ecliptic H-atom lifetime at 1 AU equal to 1.0 Ms at solar minimum and 1.5 Ms at solar maximum, interplanetary H density equal to 0.07 + or - 0.01/cu cm, and interplanetary H/He within the heliopause but far from the sun of 7 + or - 3. 74 references.

Ajello, J.M.; Stewart, A.I.; Thomas, G.E.; Graps, A.

1987-06-01

47

Analysis of the magnetoencephalogram background activity in Alzheimer's disease patients with auto-mutual information.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyse the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) background activity in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the most frequent disorders among elderly population. For this pilot study, we recorded the MEGs with a 148-channel whole-head magnetometer in 20 patients with probable AD and 21 age-matched control subjects. Artefact-free epochs of 3392 samples were analysed with auto-mutual information (AMI). Average AMI decline rates were lower for the AD patients' recordings than for control subjects' ones. Statistically significant differences were found using a Student's t-test (p<0.01) in 144 channels. Mean AMI values were analysed with a receiver operating characteristic curve. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of 75%, 90.5% and 82.9% were obtained. Our results show that AMI estimations of the magnetic brain activity are different in both groups, hence indicating an abnormal type of dynamics associated with AD. This study suggests that AMI might help medical doctors in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:17686545

Gómez, Carlos; Hornero, Roberto; Abásolo, Daniel; Fernández, Alberto; Escudero, Javier

2007-09-01

48

Electroencephalogram Background Activity Characterization with Approximate Entropy and Auto Mutual Information in Alzheimer's Disease Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze the electroencephalogram (EEG) background activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with two non-linear methods: Approximate Entropy (ApEri) and Auto Mutual Information (AMI). ApEn quantifies the regularity in data, while AMI detects linear and non-linear dependencies in time series. EEGs were recorded from the 19 scalp loci of the international 10-20 system in 11

Daniel Abásolo; Roberto Hornero; Pedro Espino; Javier Escudero; Carlos Gómez

2007-01-01

49

Systematic diffuse optical image errors resulting from uncertainty in the background optical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the diffuse optical image errors resulting from systematic errors in the background scattering and absorption coefficients, Gaussian noise in the measurements, and the depth at which the image is reconstructed when using a 2D linear reconstruction algorithm for a 3D object. The fourth Born perturbation approach was used to generate reflectance measurements and k-space tomography was used for the reconstruction. Our simulations using both single and dual wavelengths show large systematic errors in the absolute reconstructed absorption coefficients and corresponding hemoglobin concentrations, while the errors in the relative oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin concentrations are acceptable. The greatest difference arises from a systematic error in the depth at which an image is reconstructed. While an absolute reconstruction of the hemoglobin concentrations can deviate by 100% for a depth error of ñ1 mm, the error in the relative concentrations is less than 5%. These results demonstrate that while quantitative diffuse optical tomography is difficult, images of the relative concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin are accurate and robust. Other results, not presented, confirm that these findings hold for other linear reconstruction techniques (i.e. SVD and SIRT) as well as for transmission through slab geometries.

Cheng, Xuefeng; Boas, David A.

1999-04-01

50

Discriminating direction of motion trajectories from angular speed and background information  

PubMed Central

The effects of a background scene on the perception of the trajectory of an approaching object and its relation to changes in angular speed and angular size were examined in 5 experiments. Observers judged the direction (upward or downward) of two sequentially presented motion trajectories simulating a sphere traveling towards the observer at a constant 3D speed from a fixed distance. In Experiments 1 – 4 we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and the presence of a scene background, with changes in angular size based either on the trajectories being discriminated or on an intermediate trajectory. In Experiment 5 we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and scene background with angular size either constant or consistent with an intermediate 3D trajectory. Overall, we found that: (1) observers were able to judge the direction of object motion trajectories from angular speed changes; (2) observers were more accurate with a 3D scene background as compared to a uniform background, suggesting that scene information is important for recovering object motion trajectories; and (3) observers were more accurate in judging motion trajectories based on angular speed when the angular size function was consistent with motion in depth than when the angular size was constant.

Bian, Zheng; Braunstein, Myron L.; Andersen, George J.

2013-01-01

51

Degree-scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background: SP94 results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from two observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) performed from the South Pole during the 1993-1994 austral summer. Each observation employed a 3 deg peak-to-peak sinusoidal, single-difference chop and consisted of a 20 deg x 1 deg strip on the sky. The first observation used a receiver which operates in three channels between 38 and 45 GHz (Q-band) with a full width half maximum (FWHM) beam which varies from 1 deg to 1.15 deg. The second observation overlapped the first observation and used a receiver which operates in four channels between 26 and 36 GHz (Ka-band) with a FWHM beam which varies from 1.5 deg to 1.7 deg. Significant correlated structure is observed in all channels for each observation. The spectrum of the structure is consistent with a CMB spectrum and is formally inconsistent with diffuse synchrotron and free-free emission at the 5 sigma level. The amplitude of the structure is inconsistent with 20 K interstellar dust; however, the data do not discriminate against flat or inverted spectrum point sources. The root mean square amplitude (+/- 1 sigma) of the combined (Ka + Q) data is Delta Trms = 41.2+15.5-6.7 micro-K for an average window function which has a peak value of 0.97 at l = 68 and drops to e-0.5 of the peak value at l = 36 and l = 106. A band power estimate of the CMB power spectrum, Cl, gives average value of (Cll(l + 1)/(2 pi))B = 1.77+1.58-0.54 x 10-10.

Gundersen, J. O.; Lim, M.; Staren, J.; Wuensche, C. A.; Figueiredo, N.; Gaier, T. C.; Koch, T.; Meinhold, P. R.; Seiffert, M. D.; Cook, G.; Segale, A.; Lubin, P. M.

1995-04-01

52

Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

Kuvich, Gary

2006-06-01

53

Deletion of the background potassium channel TREK1 results in a depression-resistant phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is a devastating illness with a lifetime prevalence of up to 20%. The neurotransmitter serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and in the effects of antidepressant treatments. However, molecular alterations that underlie the pathology or treatment of depression are still poorly understood. The TREK-1 protein is a background K+ channel regulated by various neurotransmitters

Catherine Heurteaux; Guillaume Lucas; Nicolas Guy; Malika El Yacoubi; Susanne Thümmler; Xiao-Dong Peng; Florence Noble; Nicolas Blondeau; Catherine Widmann; Marc Borsotto; Gabriella Gobbi; Jean-Marie Vaugeois; Guy Debonnel; Michel Lazdunski

2006-01-01

54

Planck early results. XVIII. The power spectrum of cosmic infrared background anisotropies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Planck maps of six regions of low Galactic dust emission with a total area of about 140 deg2, we determine the angular power spectra of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies from multipole l = 200 to l = 2000 at 217, 353, 545 and 857 GHz. We use 21-cm observations of Hi as a tracer of thermal dust emission

P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; J. G. Bartlett; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; R. Bhatia; K. Blagrave; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; L. Bonavera; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; P. Cabella; J.-F. Cardoso; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; L.-Y. Chiang; C. Chiang; P. R. Christensen; D. L. Clements; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; F. Cuttaia; L. Danese; R. D. Davies; R. J. Davis; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Zotti; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; H. Dole; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; H. K. Eriksen; F. Finelli; O. Forni; P. Fosalba; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; M. Giard; G. Giardino; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; J. Grain; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; F. K. Hansen; D. Harrison; G. Helou; S. Henrot-Versillé; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; W. A. Holmes; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; A. H. Jaffe; W. C. Jones; M. Juvela; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; J.-M. Lamarre; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; R. Leonardi; C. Leroy; P. B. Lilje; M. Linden-Vørnle; F. J. Lockman; M. López-Caniego; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; C. J. MacTavish; B. Maffei; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; P. Martin; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; A. Melchiorri; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; S. Mitra; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; G. Morgante; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; I. J. O'Dwyer; S. Oliver; S. Osborne; F. Pajot; F. Pasian; G. Patanchon; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; D. Pinheiro Gonçalves; S. Plaszczynski; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; T. Poutanen; G. Prézeau; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; J. P. Rachen; W. T. Reach; M. Reinecke; M. Remazeilles; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; M. Rowan-Robinson; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; M. Sandri; D. Santos; G. Savini; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; P. Shellard; G. F. Smoot; J.-L. Starck; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Stompor; R. Sudiwala; R. Sunyaev; J.-F. Sygnet; J. A. Tauber; L. Terenzi; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; G. Umana; L. Valenziano; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; L. A. Wade; B. D. Wandelt; M. White; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca

2011-01-01

55

The First Detections of the Extragalactic Background Light at 3000, 5500, and 8000 Å. I. Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first detection of the mean flux of the optical extragalactic background light (EBL) at 3000, 5500, and 8000 Å. Diffuse foreground flux at these wavelengths comes from terrestrial airglow, dust-scattered sunlight (zodiacal light), and dust-scattered Galactic starlight (diffuse Galactic light). We have avoided the brightest of these, terrestrial airglow, by measuring the absolute surface brightness of the

Rebecca A. Bernstein; Wendy L. Freedman; Barry F. Madore

2002-01-01

56

77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...them a wide variety of backgrounds, cultures, and experiences...relating to the diverse background of those customers...including employees of all backgrounds, all DOI employees...measure of knowledge, background, experience, and...

2012-04-12

57

77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...background investigation. The minimum background investigation is the National...required to complete the criminal history background checks mandated in the Crime...in leased space must undergo a background check. According to GSA...

2012-05-24

58

77 FR 41999 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: OMB Control Number 1091-0001, Applicant Background...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...them a wide variety of backgrounds, cultures, and experiences...relating to the diverse background of those customers...including employees of all backgrounds, all DOI employees...measure of knowledge, background, experience, and...

2012-07-17

59

Fermi LAT Results on the Intensity and Origin of the Diffuse Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data collected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) for almost four years enable a huge step forward in measuring and understanding the origins of the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background (EGB). The EGB originates from the superposition of different populations of unresolved sources with possible contributions from genuinely diffuse and exotic processes. In most parts of the sky it is sub-dominant to the Galactic diffuse emission, which represents a foreground to be subtracted to allow a measurement of the EGB intensity. Due to the long exposure, an improved event selection, better understanding of the Galactic diffuse foregrounds and the charged particle backgrounds, we can now extend the measurement of the spectrum of the EGB to the energy range between 100 MeV and several hundred GeV. Furthermore, population studies based on resolved LAT sources allow to constrain the contribution of individual classes of unresolved sources to the EGB.

Ackermann, Markus

2012-05-01

60

The First Detections of the Extragalactic Background Light at 3000, 5500, and 8000A (I): Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Abridged) We present the first detections of the mean flux of the optical\\u000aextragalactic background light (EBL) at 3000, 5500, and 8000A. Diffuse\\u000aforeground flux at these wavelengths comes from terrestrial airglow,\\u000adust-scattered sunlight (zodiacal light), and dust-scattered Galactic starlight\\u000a(diffuse Galactic light). We have avoided the brightest of these, terrestrial\\u000aairglow, by measuring the absolute surface brightness of the

Rebecca A. Bernstein; Wendy L. Freedman; Barry F. Madore

2001-01-01

61

Information Structure and Hypertext Search Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a framework for integrating a principled theory of information structure with traditional web-based search presentation techniques, and sketches the benefits of such an approach. It begins by reviewing research that has been done in t he technical writing industry on on-line information structure, highlighting some of the difficulties and challenges faced by deve lopers and users of

Matt Carmack; Deryle Lonsdale

62

The First Detections of the Extragalactic Background Light at 3000, 5500, and 8000 Å. I. Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first detection of the mean flux of the optical extragalactic background light (EBL) at 3000, 5500, and 8000 Å. Diffuse foreground flux at these wavelengths comes from terrestrial airglow, dust-scattered sunlight (zodiacal light), and dust-scattered Galactic starlight (diffuse Galactic light). We have avoided the brightest of these, terrestrial airglow, by measuring the absolute surface brightness of the night sky from above the Earth's atmosphere using the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and Faint Object Spectrograph, both on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). On the ground we have used the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) to obtain contemporaneous spectrophotometry of ``blank'' sky in the HST field of view to measure and then subtract foreground zodiacal light from the HST observations. We have minimized the diffuse Galactic light in advance by selecting the HST target field along a line of sight with low Galactic dust column density and then estimated the low-level Galactic foreground using a simple scattering model and the observed correlation between thermal, 100 ?m emission, and optical scattered flux from the same dust. In this paper, we describe the coordinated LCO/HST program and the HST observations and data reduction and present the resulting measurements of the EBL. Galaxies brighter than V=23 AB mag are not well sampled in an image the size of the WFPC2 field of view. We have therefore measured the EBL from unresolved and resolved galaxies fainter than V=23 AB mag by masking out brighter galaxies. We write this as EBL23 to emphasize this bright magnitude cutoff. From absolute surface photometry using WFPC2 and ground-based spectroscopy, we find mean values for the EBL23 of 4.0 (+/-2.5), 2.7 (+/-1.4), and 2.2 (+/-1.0) in units of 10-9 ergs s-1 cm-2 sr-1 Å-1 in the F300W, F555W, and F814W bandpasses, respectively. The errors quoted are 1 ? combined statistical and systematic uncertainties. The total flux measured in resolved galaxies with V>23 AB mag by standard photometric methods is roughly 15% of the EBL23 flux in each band. We have also developed a new method of source photometry, uniquely suited to these data, with which we can measure the ensemble flux from detectable sources much more accurately than is possible with standard methods for faint galaxy photometry. Using this method, we have quantified systematic biases affecting standard galaxy photometry, which prevent light from being recovered in isophotes within a few percent of the sky level. These biases have a significant effect on faint galaxy counts. The flux from resolved sources as measured by our ensemble photometry method is 3.2 (+/-0.22), 0.89 (+/-0.01), and 0.76 (+/-0.01) in units of 10-9 ergs s-1 cm-2 sr-1 Å-1 in the F300W, F555W, and F814W bandpasses, respectively, with 1 ? combined errors. These values, the total flux from resolved sources, represent absolute minima for the EBL23 in each band and are roughly 30% of the mean flux we measure for the total EBL23.

Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.

2002-05-01

63

A NEW RESULT ON THE ORIGIN OF THE EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we repeatedly use the method of image stacking to study the origin of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) at GeV bands, and find that the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters (FIRST) sources undetected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope can contribute about (56 {+-} 6)% of the EGB. Because FIRST is a flux-limited sample of radio sources with incompleteness at the faint limit, we consider that point sources, including blazars, non-blazar active galactic nuclei, and starburst galaxies, could produce a much larger fraction of the EGB.

Zhou Ming; Wang Jiancheng, E-mail: mzhou@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

2013-06-01

64

77 FR 10508 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks for Contractor Employees (Renewal...to www.regulations.gov. Title: Background Checks for Contractor Employees. ICR...these types of incidents to conduct background checks and apply...

2012-02-22

65

The GENIUS-test-facility—first results on background from 222Rn daughters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GENIUS-TF (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 511 (2003) 341; Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 481 (2002) 149.) is a test-facility for the GENIUS project (GENIUS-Proposal, 20 November 1997; Z. Phys. A 359 (1997) 351; CERN Courier, November 1997, 16; J. Phys. G 24 (1998) 483; Z. Phys. A 359 (1997) 361; in: H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. Pas. (Eds.), First International Conference on Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model, Castle Ringberg, Germany, 8-14 June 1997, IOP Bristol (1998) 485 and in Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 13 (1998) 3953; in: H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, I.V. Krivosheina (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model BEYOND' 99, Castle Ringberg, Germany 6-12 June 1999, IOP Bristol (2000) 915), a proposed large scale underground observatory for rare events which is based on operation of naked germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen for an extreme background reduction. Operation of naked Ge crystals in liquid nitrogen has been applied routinely already for more than 20 years by the CANBERRA Company for technical functions tests (CANBERRA Company, private communication, 5 March 2004.), but it never had found entrance into basic research. Only in 1997 first tests of application of this method for nuclear spectroscopy have been performed, successfully, in Heidelberg (Klapdor-Kleingrothaus et al., 1997, 1998; J. Hellmig and H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, 1997). On May 5, 2003 the first four naked high-purity germanium detectors (total mass 10.52 kg) were installed in liquid nitrogen in the GENIUS Test Facility at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. Since then the experiment has been running continuously, testing for the first time the novel technique in an underground laboratory and for a long-lasting period. In this work, we present the first analysis of the GENIUS-TF background after the completion of the external shielding, which took place in December 2003. We focus especially on the background coming from 222Rn daughters. This is found to be at present by a factor of 200 higher than expected from simulation. It is still compatible with the scientific goal of GENIUS-TF, namely to search for cold dark matter by the modulation signal, but on the present level would cause serious problems for a full GENIUS—like experiment using liquid nitrogen.

Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Tomei, C.; Krivosheina, I. V.; Chkvorets, O.

2004-09-01

66

SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF SX TANK FARM AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH MAGNETICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the background characterization of the cribs and trenches surrounding the SX tank farm prepared by HydroGEOPHYSICS Inc, Columbia Energy & Environmental Services Inc and Washington River Protection Solutions.

MYERS DA; RUCKER D; LEVIT M; CUBBAGE B; HENDERSON C

2009-09-24

67

Enhanced community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information.  

PubMed

Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework. PMID:24247657

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi

2013-01-01

68

Enhanced Community Structure Detection in Complex Networks with Partial Background Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework.

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi

2013-11-01

69

Modeling and experimental results of low-background extrinsic double-injection IR detector response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bias-dependent response of an extrinsic double-injection IR detector under irradiation from extrinsic and intrinsic responsivity spectral ranges was obtained analytically and through numerical modeling. The model includes the transient response and generation-recombination noise as well. It is shown that a great increase in current responsivity (by orders of magnitude) without essential change in detectivity can take place in the range of extrinsic responsivity for detectors on semiconductor materials with long-lifetime minority charge carriers if double-injection photodiodes are made on them instead photoconductive detectors. Field dependence of the lifetimes and mobilities of charge carriers essentially influences detector characteristics especially in the voltage range where the drift length of majority carriers is greater than the distance between the contacts. The model developed is in good agreement with experimental data obtained for n-Si:Cd, p-Ge:Au, and Ge:Hg diodes, as well as for diamond detectors of radiations. A BLIP-detection responsivity of about 2000 A/W (for a wavelength of 10 micrometers) for Ge:Hg diodes has been reached in a frequency range of 500 Hz under a background of 6 x 1011 cm-2s-1 at a temperature of 20 K. Possibilities of optimization of detector performance are discussed. Extrinsic double-injection photodiodes and other detectors of radiations with internal gain based on double injection are reasonable to use in the systems liable to strong disturbance action, in particular to vibrations, because high responsivity can ensure higher resistance to interference.

Zaletaev, N. B.; Filachev, A. M.; Ponomarenko, V. P.; Stafeev, V. I.

2006-06-01

70

Chromium Emissions from Chromium Electroplating and Chromic Acid Anodizing Operations. Background Information for Proposed Standards. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being proposed for the chromium electroplating and chromic acid anodizing industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. This background information...

1993-01-01

71

Results from the Rothney Astrophysical Observatory Variable Star Search Program: Background, Procedure, and Results from RAO Field 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a variable star search program and present the fully reduced results of a search in a 19 square degree (4.4 × 4.4) field centered on J2000 RA = 22:03:24, DEC= +18:54:32. The search was carried out with the Baker-Nunn Patrol Camera located at the Rothney Astrophysical Observatory in the foothills of the Canadian Rockies. A total of 26,271 stars were detected in the field, over a range of about 11-15 (instrumental) magnitudes. Our image processing made use of the IRAF version of the DAOPHOT aperture photometry routine and we used the ANOVA method to search for periodic variations in the light curves. We formally detected periodic variability in 35 stars, that we tentatively classify according to light curve characteristics: 6 EA (Algol), 5 EB (?? Lyrae), 19 EW (W UMa), and 5 RR (RR Lyrae) stars. Eleven of the detected variable stars have been reported previously in the literature. The eclipsing binary light curves have been analyzed with a package of light curve modeling programs and 25 have yielded converged solutions. Ten of these are of systems that are detached, 3 semi-detached, 10 overcontact, and 2 are of systems that appear to be in marginal contact. We discuss these results as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the instrument and of the program.

Williams, Michael D.; Milone, E. F.

2013-12-01

72

CUORE crystal validation runs: results on radioactive contamination and extrapolation to CUORE background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CUORE Crystal Validation Runs (CCVRs) have been carried out since the end of 2008 at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories, in order to test the performances and the radiopurity of the TeO$_2$ crystals produced at SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for the CUORE experiment. In this work the results of the first 5 validation runs

F. Alessandria; E. Andreotti; R. Ardito; C. Arnaboldi; F. T. Avignone III; M. Balata; I. Bandac; T. I. Banks; G. Bari; J. W. Beeman; F. Bellini; A. Bersani; M. Biassoni; T. Bloxham; C. Brofferio; A. Bryant; C. Bucci; X. Z. Cai; L. Canonica; S. Capelli; L. Carbone; L. Cardani; M. Carrettoni; N. Chott; M. Clemenza; C. Cosmelli; O. Cremonesi; R. J. Creswick; I. Dafinei; A. Dally; A. De Biasi; M. P. Decowski; M. M. Deninno; A. de Waard; S. Di Domizio; L. Ejzak; R. Faccini; D. Q. Fang; H. Farach; E. Ferri; F. Ferroni; E. Fiorini; L. Foggetta; S. Freedman; G. Frossati; A. Giachero; L. Gironi; A. Giuliani; P. Gorla; C. Gotti; E. Guardincerri; T. D. Gutierrez; E. E. Haller; K. Han; K. M. Heeger; H. Z. Huang; K. Ichimura; R. Kadel; K. Kazkaz; G. Keppel; L. Kogler; Y. G. Kolomensky; S. Kraft; D. Lenz; Y. L. Li; X. Liu; E. Longo; Y. G. Ma; C. Maiano; G. Maier; C. Martinez; M. Martinez; R. H. Maruyama; N. Moggi; S. Morganti; S. Newman; S. Nisi; C. Nones; E. B. Norman; A. Nucciotti; F. Orio; D. Orlandi; J. Ouellet; M. Pallavicini; V. Palmieri; L. Pattavina; M. Pavan; M. Pedretti; G. Pessina; S. Pirro; E. Previtali; V. Rampazzo; F. Rimondi; C. Rosenfeld; C. Rusconi; C. Salvioni; S. Sangiorgio; D. Schaeffer; N. D. Scielzo; M. Sisti; A. R. Smith; F. Stivanello; L. Taffarello; G. Terenziani; W. D. Tian; C. Tomei; S. Trentalange; G. Ventura; M. Vignati; B. Wang; H. W. Wang; C. A. Whitten Jr; T. Wise; A. Woodcraft; N. Xu; L. Zanotti; C. Zarra; B. X. Zhu; S. Zucchelli

2011-01-01

73

Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information  

SciTech Connect

This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

None

1980-11-01

74

Maine's Balance of Representation: Information and Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, a companion to the "LAS Guide Principles and Criteria for the Adoption of Local Assessment Systems," [ED484135] presents results that are intended to provide Maine's school administrative units with an option for selecting sample performance indicators to be assessed through the Local Assessment System to meet the requirements for…

Maine Department of Education, 2003

2003-01-01

75

15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.  

...false Information resulting from fundamental research. 734.8 Section 734.8 Commerce and...8 Information resulting from fundamental research. (a) Fundamental research. Paragraphs (b) through (d) of...

2014-01-01

76

76 FR 67182 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...felony convictions, and parties prohibited from receiving federal contracts. (2) Drug tests are for the presence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP). Contractors shall maintain records of all background...

2011-10-31

77

Are Racial Differences in Patient–Physician Cancer Communication and Information Explained by Background, Predisposing, and Enabling Factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research shows that African Americans tend to have poorer and less informative patient–physician communication than Whites. We analyzed survey data from 248 African American and 244 White cancer patients to examine whether this disadvantage could be explained by race variability on several other variables commonly reported to affect communication. These variables were organized into background, enabling, and predisposing factors, based

Clara Manfredi; Karen Kaiser; Alicia K. Matthews; Timothy P. Johnson

2010-01-01

78

29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION Selection practices. §§ 1605.2 &1605.3, App. A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3âBackground...

2013-07-01

79

Background Essential to the Proper Use of Results of Step 1 and Step 2 of the USMLE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General information about Steps 1 and 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) are offered to support proper use of the results for three general, nonlicensure applications: (1) evaluation of academic achievement; (2) program evaluation; and (3) selection for residencies. (Author/MSE)

O'Donnell, M. J.; And Others

1993-01-01

80

Product information with enhanced background description for improved revision of decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of products has been organized around product lifecycle management (PLM) systems during the past decade in leading industries. In mechatronics, where product structures are very complex and inhomogeneous, it is urgent to apply high level information technology for engineering purposes. The new style of engineering, where engineers work in remote workplaces and communicate through sophisticated model of product is

László Horváth; Imre J. Rudas; Nicola Belfiore

2008-01-01

81

Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

Sutter, S. L.

1982-05-01

82

Planning serials cancellations and cooperative collection development in the health sciences: methodology and background information.  

PubMed

In an era of steady-state budgets many research and academic libraries must cancel a significant number of current serials to maintain acquisitions of monographs. Thus paper reviews several techniques that have been used or that are of potential use in a rational selection of titles for cancellation. The context of the proposed methodology involves a network of libraries rather than an individual library. The methodology was tested with specific health sciences serial titles held by University of California libraries and resource libraries in NLM Region XI. As a test for the proposed methodology, background data were collected on 600 current foreign language serial titles included in SERLINE and held by at least one of the libraries in the networks of interest. Price, major secondary service coverage with productivity/impact factors, extent of holdings, and average number of recorded circulations per year in several of the libraries were recorded for each title. With the use of several different rules, estimates were made of the subscription savings that might be realized. It seems feasible to extend the same methodology to other groups of serial titles. PMID:1191822

Bourne, C P

1975-10-01

83

Planning serials cancellations and cooperative collection development in the health sciences: methodology and background information.  

PubMed Central

In an era of steady-state budgets many research and academic libraries must cancel a significant number of current serials to maintain acquisitions of monographs. Thus paper reviews several techniques that have been used or that are of potential use in a rational selection of titles for cancellation. The context of the proposed methodology involves a network of libraries rather than an individual library. The methodology was tested with specific health sciences serial titles held by University of California libraries and resource libraries in NLM Region XI. As a test for the proposed methodology, background data were collected on 600 current foreign language serial titles included in SERLINE and held by at least one of the libraries in the networks of interest. Price, major secondary service coverage with productivity/impact factors, extent of holdings, and average number of recorded circulations per year in several of the libraries were recorded for each title. With the use of several different rules, estimates were made of the subscription savings that might be realized. It seems feasible to extend the same methodology to other groups of serial titles.

Bourne, C P

1975-01-01

84

Municipal-waste combustion: Background information for materials separation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Several issues related to materials separation from municipal solid waste (MSW) are discussed. Current nationwide rates of materials separation and recycling, as well as the methodology for determining municipal solid waste separation rates, are presented. Case studies of four community curbside separation programs include performance data and program costs. Two centralized materials separation facilities which separate materials from unsorted MSW are described with respect to the separation mechanisms employed, performance, and available cost data. Available data on the impacts of materials separation on municipal waste combustor (MWC) air emissions, combustor operation, and MWC ash are presented. The potential occupational risks of the handpicking process used to separate materials from MSW at some centralized separation facilities are discussed. The use of mercury in household batteries, and current information on community battery separation and collection programs and recycling efforts, are also discussed.

Not Available

1991-01-01

85

Effectiveness of Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) systems in retaining fission products: background information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has compiled and reviewed base line data on the effectiveness of Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) systems in the retention of fission products and particulate material resulting from a nuclear reactor accident. This work is part of an NRC project to provide the best estimates of the consequences of severe reactor accidents. The resulting report describes the

J. Mishima; D. E. Blahnik; M. A. Halverson; A. K. Postma; F. R. Zaloudek

1984-01-01

86

Background Information on National and Regional Hydrocarbon Emissions from Marine Terminal Transfer Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The loading and unloading of volatile hydrocarbon liquids at marine terminals is known to be a source of hydrocarbon emissions. This report presents the results of an indepth study for EPA to assess the effectiveness of marine terminal emission control by...

C. E. Burklin W. C. Micheletti J. S. Sherman

1977-01-01

87

A JOINT MODEL OF THE X-RAY AND INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUNDS. I. MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present an extragalactic population model of the cosmic background light to interpret the rich high-quality survey data in the X-ray and IR bands. The model incorporates star formation and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion in a co-evolution scenario to fit simultaneously 617 data points of number counts, redshift distributions, and local luminosity functions (LFs) with 19 free parameters. The model has four main components, the total IR LF, the SMBH accretion energy fraction in the IR band, the star formation spectral energy distribution (SED), and the unobscured SMBH SED extinguished with a H I column density distribution. As a result of the observational uncertainties about the star formation and SMBH SEDs, we present several variants of the model. The best-fit reduced {chi}{sup 2} reaches as small as 2.7-2.9 of which a significant amount (>0.8) is contributed by cosmic variances or caveats associated with data. Compared to previous models, the unique result of this model is to constrain the SMBH energy fraction in the IR band that is found to increase with the IR luminosity but decrease with redshift up to z {approx} 1.5; this result is separately verified using aromatic feature equivalent-width data. The joint modeling of X-ray and mid-IR data allows for improved constraints on the obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN), especially the Compton-thick AGN population. All variants of the model require that Compton-thick AGN fractions decrease with the SMBH luminosity but increase with redshift while the type 1 AGN fraction has the reverse trend.

Shi, Yong; Helou, George; Armus, Lee; Stierwalt, Sabrina [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dale, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

2013-02-10

88

Technical support for amending standards for management of uranium byproduct materials: 40 cfr part 192-subpart d. Background information document  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is amending 40 CFR 192, Subpart D, dealing with disposal of uranium mill tailings at non-operational sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or an agreement state pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. The Background Information Document (BID) was prepared in support of the rulemaking proceedings for EPA's action. The BID only considers long-term disposal of tailings at facilities licensed by the NRC or an agreement state, and designated Title II facilities in the UMTRCA.

Not Available

1993-10-01

89

Ground-water protection standards for inactive uranium tailings sites (40 CFR 192): Background information for final rule. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Final Background Information Document summarizes the information and data considered by the Agency in developing the ground-water protection standards. The report presents a brief description of the Title II ground water standard and how it can be used to develop the Title I rulemaking. A description of the 24 designated uranium-tailings sites and their current status in the DOE remedial-action program is included as well as a detailed analysis of the available data on the ground water in the vicinity of 14 of the 24 sites. It also describes different methods that can be used for the restoration of ground water and the costs of using these restoration methods.

Not Available

1989-03-01

90

Background Information for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

2001-01-01

91

Background Information about PLCO  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large population-based randomized trial evaluating screening programs for these cancers. The primary goal of this long-term trial of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and on secondary endpoints.

92

Information Services Faculty/Staff Survey Results. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the fall term of 2001, Piedmont Virginia Community College (PVCC) (Virginia) distributed a survey to faculty and staff regarding the information technology facilities and services at the college. A total of 62 surveys were returned, for a response rate of 18.6%. This report details the survey results. Highlights include: (1) overall,…

Shields, Jennifer A.; Self, Charlotte C.

93

Background essential to the proper use of results of step 1 and step 2 of the USMLE.  

PubMed

This first of the four-part set of articles published in this issue provides general information and concepts about the Step 1 and Step 2 examinations of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) needed for the proper use of these tests' results in three general, related, non-licensure applications: for the evaluation of the examinees' levels of academic achievement, for the evaluation of educational programs the examinees have experienced, and for the selection of examinees into residency programs. Several aspects of the tests are discussed: (1) their original and continuing purpose (which is to assess certain qualifications required for licensure of physicians); (2) their content; (3) their format and the emphases (relative to knowledge or skills testing) that different formats can give, and the concept that the ways the same content areas are formatted in a test will produce different results; (4) test administration, with a discussion of "speeded" versus "power" tests and the organization of test items by difficulty and by (or not by) topic; (5) reliability, with a discussion of standard error and the importance of understanding measurement error in order to discern real differences in scores; (6) scoring, with definition of anchor scores; and (7) interpretation, with discussions of pass/fail criteria in the past, present, and future of the USMLE tests. The authors close by saying that to interpret test performance properly, it is important not only to bear in mind the ideas in the present article but also to carefully review an actual test or at least a representative sample of test questions. PMID:8397597

O'Donnell, M J; Obenshain, S S; Erdmann, J B

1993-10-01

94

Spectral and Polarization Characteristics of Selected Targets and Backgrounds: Instrumentation and Measured Results (3.3-14.0 micrometers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spectral, polarization, and view-angle dependent characteristics of 3.3-14.0 micrometers radiance have been measured for a number of target and background materials. Emittances have been measured in the laboratory and radiances measured in the field. Sign...

D. Faulkner R. Horvath J. P. Ulrich E. Work

1971-01-01

95

Tectonic background of a unique hydrogen-rich Kairei Hydrothermal Field, Central Indian Ridge: Results from Taiga Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Indian Ridge (CIR) is slow~intermediate spreading systems and its southern end forms a R-R-R triple junction with SWIR and SEIR. The southern CIR shows slow-spreading morphology, where the axial valley develops along the ridge crest and an oceanic core complex has been reported near the triple junction. Kairei Hydrothermal Field (KHF) is unique hydrothermal system, located at the southern end of CIR. The fluids venting from the KHF are characterized by its high concentration of hydrogen with low methane/hydrogen ratio, and a hydrogen-based hyperthermophilic subsurface lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystem was confirmed (Takai et al., 2004). The KHF lies on basaltic lava area on the shoulder of ridge axial wall, being different from other hydrogen-rich hydrothermal fields hosted by ultramafic rocks. We selected this area as an integrated site for the Taiga Project, and conducted series of research cruises to characterize this unique system and to understand how the tectonic setting controls the fluid and ecosystem. We discover that the KHF itself is located above basaltic lava field but gabbro and ultramafic rocks are widely exhumed around the KHF. Besides a previously known oceanic core complex, small oceanic core complexes exist just east of the KHF (Kumagai et al., 2008) and the NTO massif north of the KHF shows peridotite exposure on its top. The unique fluid geochemistry of the KHF can be attributed to serpentinization of troctolites around or beneath the KHF and subsequent hydrothermal reactions with basaltic wall rocks (Nakamura et al., 2009). We also find several small hills where we collect deep crustal and mantle rocks. These hills suggesting melt-limited environment extend mainly along 2nd order segment boundary from the axial valley to 30km off-axis, i.e. ~1.7 Ma. The regional surface geophysical mapping and deep-tow magnetic profiling show high mantle Bouguer anomaly and prominent asymmetric spreading in the southernmost CIR segment. These observations are consistent with limited melt supply and possible implication of detachment faults. The collected peridotites might preserve relics of older partial melting events, resulting in the formation of heterogeneous mantle material beneath the current CIR axis. The latest stage of decompression melting beneath the CIR might be limited because the presence of depleted peridotite formed by ancient partial melting. The similar evolution process is proposed in the eastern SWIR, so the tectonic background of the KHF may be closely related to the evolution of triple junction. We also discover dead chimneys on the NTO massif north of the KHF. The AUV-attached magnetometer detects a higher positive magnetization around the chimney sites, suggesting hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks. Although densely operated CTD tow-yo surveys and micro-sensors attached to the wire during dredge and net operations do not detect clear evidence of another active hydrothermal vent, an ultramafic-hosted hydrothermalism exists or at least existed on the NTO massif.

Okino, K.; Nakamura, K.; Morishita, T.; SATO, H.; Sato, T.; Mochizuki, N.; Okamura, K.; Fukuba, T.; Sunamura, M.

2012-12-01

96

Personnel Reactions to Incentives, Naval Conditions and Experiences (PRINCE): Demographic and Background Information, Expectations, Attitudes, Values and Motivations of New Recruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a longitudinal study of the reactions of enlisted personnel incentives, Naval conditions and experiences, information on backgrounds, expectations, attitudes, values and motivations were obtained at entry into the Navy from 6,795 recruits in Ca...

A. Katz

1971-01-01

97

Information Technology for Harvesting NASA Earth Science Research Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Applied Sciences Program has funded the Mississippi Research Consortium (MRC) to develop information technology that will facilitate searches for potential applications of NASA assets to various needs in the earth sciences community. In particular, it will help generate ideas for new ways to use NASA missions, research, and/or models in conjunction with operational decision-making processes (or decision support systems) to achieve a particular benefit to society. In this paper, we describe the development of information technology that will facilitate that ability. The resulting system is called the Earth Science Knowledge Base (ESKB). The ESKB contains and index relevant NASA research result publications in a database that is compatible with the evolving NASA "Mission to Models" (M2M) database and shares relevant table space with it. In particular, fields from this system identifying relevant NASA missions, models, and data products are used to cross-index the data collected on published results of research projects. Fields characterizing the research results based on the six earth science focus areas and the twelve applications of national priority are included. In the course of developing the ESKB, novel uses of existing online databases and search tools have been developed. In addition, data mining tools have been developed for facilitating the proper characterization of research results. In addition to research results, the ESKB includes data that characterizes the current network of NASA earth science partners. This includes information on organizations and agencies funded by or partnered with NASA to conduct earth science research, technology, and applications projects. The relationships between NASA programs and project sponsors are also captured in this knowledge base. The ESKB is implemented as a client-server system that will allow access and updates from a distributed network of users. It has a user-friendly interface designed to facilitate the identification of potential solutions which bring benefits to society though the use of NASA missions, data, models, and research results. The system is currently undergoing beta testing but is expected to be more widely available at the time of this paper's presentation, when we will present a status update and describe how to access it.

Aanstoos, J. V.; Shaw, D.; O'Hara, C.; Frisbie, T.

2007-12-01

98

Early results from the MIT millimeter and sub-millimeter balloon-borne anisotropy measurement. [of cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MIT balloon-borne bolometric search for Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) anisotropies places the most stringent constraints to date on fluctuations in the CMBR. Four maps of half of the Northern Hemisphere at 1.8, 1.1, 0.63 and 0.44 mm wavelength, have a beam size of 3.8 deg with a 1 sigma sensitivity of less than 0.1 mK (thermodynamic) per FOV in each of the first two channels. Analysis of the sky map at 1.8 mm wavelength using a likelihood ratio test for galactic latitudes of 15 deg and greater yields a 95 percent confidence level (CL) upper limit on fluctuations of the CMBR at DeltaT/T less than or equal to 1.6 x 10 exp -5 with a statistical power of 92 percent for Gaussian fluctuations at a correlation angle of 13 deg. Between 3 deg and 22 deg, the upper limit for fluctuations is DeltaT/T less than or equal to 4.0 x 10 exp -5 (95 percent CL).

Meyer, Stephan S.; Cheng, Edward S.; Page, Lyman A.

1991-01-01

99

Search for 2? decays of 96Ru and 104Ru by ultralow-background HPGe ? spectrometry at LNGS: Final results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment to search for double-? decay processes in 96Ru and 104Ru, which are accompanied by ? rays, has been realized in the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the I.N.F.N. (Italy). Ruthenium samples with masses of ?0.5-0.7 kg were measured with the help of ultralow-background high-purity Ge ?-ray spectrometry. After 2162 h of data taking the samples were deeply purified to reduce the internal contamination of 40K. The last part of the data has been accumulated over 5479 h. New improved half-life limits on 2?+/??+/2? processes in 96Ru have been established on the level of 1020 yr, in particular for decays to the ground state of 96Mo: T1/22?2?+?1.4×1020 yr, T1/22???+?8.0×1019 yr, and T1/20?2K?1.0×1021 yr (all limits are at 90% C.L.). The resonant neutrinoless double-electron captures to the 2700.2 and 2712.7 keV excited states of 96Mo are restricted as T1/20?KL?2.0×1020 yr and T1/20?2L?3.6×1020 yr, respectively. Various two-neutrino and neutrinoless 2? half-lives of 96Ru have been estimated in the framework of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation approach. In addition, the T1/2 limit for 0?2?- transitions of 104Ru to the first excited state of 104Pd has been set as ?6.5×1020 yr.

Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; d'Angelo, S.; Incicchitti, A.; Kovtun, G. P.; Kovtun, N. G.; Laubenstein, M.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Shcherban, A. P.; Solopikhin, D. A.; Suhonen, J.; Tretyak, V. I.

2013-03-01

100

Heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 on background stratospheric aerosols - Comparisons of model results with data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of heterogeneous processing by a parameterized lower stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer on model calculations were examined using a 2D photochemical model. Model results were compared with zonally averaged LIMS data on HNO3 and NO2 and in situ measurements of NO, NO(y), and ClO, taken by the ER-2 aircraft. The results obtained are contradictory: some comparisons favor heterogeneous chemistry, and some do not. It is suggested that the assumptions made to parameterize the sulfate aerosol chemistry result in a rate of heterogeneous processing that is too vigorous.

Considine, David B.; Douglass, Anne R.; Stolarski, Richard S.

1992-01-01

101

15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Prepublication review by a sponsor of university research solely...proprietary information that the sponsor has furnished to the researchers...release of information from a corporate sponsor to university researchers...

2009-01-01

102

15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Prepublication review by a sponsor of university research solely...proprietary information that the sponsor has furnished to the researchers...release of information from a corporate sponsor to university researchers...

2010-01-01

103

Strategic Analysis of New-type Industrialization Which is Under the Background of Information-Based Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of information and economic globalization, Chinese economy is stepping from industrialization age into information age. The advent of information age gives an impetus to the emergence of a completely new type of Business known as “Information-based Business”. It has become not only a new way for social and economic development characterized by high added-value, high growth, high

Delin Sun; Gaoxiang Xu; Xinhua Xie; Nana Ai; Yongyong Qu; Zhipeng Guo; Changqing Liang

2010-01-01

104

Neighborhood Information Service Centers. Public Library "Information and Referral" Provides Significant New Personal Service to the Individual Library User. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of background papers for the White House Conference, presents information and referral services as one of the ways libraries are developing programs to discharge their responsibilities to the public they serve. It details the determination of a woman librarian in Detroit to develop the first comprehensive I&R service…

Layne, Elizabeth N.

105

Behavioral Information Security: An Overview, Research Agenda, and Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over recent decades, most work organizations have come to depend on information technology for their operations. As connectivity among computer devices has increased, so has the likelihood of intrusion, theft, defacement, and other forms of information resource loss. Surprisingly, although organizations sometimes focus more on vulnerability to external attack than internal, recent industry research by Ernst and Young (2002) suggests

Jeffrey M. Stanton; Cavinda Caldera; Indira Guzman; Ashley Isaac; Peyina Lin; Mala Mathur; Joshua Seymour; Christiane Spitzmueller; Kathryn Stam; Isabelle Yamodo; Norhayati Zakaria

106

Air/ground wind shear information integration: Flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. High level microburst products were extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the wind shear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in the core of each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which in situ 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne in situ measurements. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurement would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the feasibility of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

Hinton, David A.

1992-01-01

107

Annual report on the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Results of Phase 1 investigation  

SciTech Connect

Many constituents of potential concern for human health occur naturally at low concentrations in undisturbed soils. The Background soil Characterization Project (BSCP) was undertaken to provide background concentration data on potential contaminants in natural soils on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objectives of the BSCP are to provide baseline data for contaminated site assessment and estimates of potential human health risk associated with background concentrations of hazardous and other constituents in native soils. This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in Phase I of the project. It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program.

Watkins, D.R.; Goddard, P.L.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Kimbrough, C.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Lietzke, D.A.; McGin, C.W.; Nourse, B.D.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Shaw, R.A.; Stinnette, S.E.; Switek, J.; Wright, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.; Burgoa, B.B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science; Lietzke, D.A. [Lietzke (David A.), Rutledge, TN (United States)

1993-05-01

108

Lifelong Learning on the Knowledge Highway. Access to Lifelong Learning Opportunities on Canada's Information Highway. A Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines access to lifelong learning opportunities on Canada's information highway. The report begins with a glossary and a learner-centered model in which the information highway links learners with learning opportunities provided through educational institutions, community organizations, government, and business and industry.…

Faris, Ron

109

Information processing needs and practices of clinical investigators: survey results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although medical researchers were among the first to pursue the promise of computerization, clinical investigators, namely physicians who conduct research into the biology of human subjects and who evaluate the efficacy of new therapeutic measures, have not shared even modestly in the benefits so far available. With the expectation that improved information processing techniques and facilities can improve the quality

Norman A. Palley; Gabriel F. Groner

1975-01-01

110

Draft Environmental Impact Statement Sulfur Oxides Emissions from Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit Regenerators: Background Information for Proposed Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standards of performance to control emissions of sulfur oxides (SOX) from new, modified, and reconstructed fluid catalytic cracking unit regenerators are being proposed under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. This document contains information on the back...

1984-01-01

111

Results of phase one of land use information Delphi study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS) is being developed for the city portion of the Santa Monica mountains. LUMIS incorporates data developed from maps and aerial photos as well as traditional land based data associated with routine city and county record keeping activities and traditional census data. To achieve the merging of natural resource data with governmental data LUMIS is being designed in accordance with restrictions associated with two other land use information systems currently being constructed by Los Angeles city staff. The two city systems are LUPAMS (Land Use Planning and Management System) which is based on data recorded by the County Assessor's office for each individual parcel of land in the city, and Geo-BEDS, a geographically based environmental data system.

Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.

1975-01-01

112

The effects of problem content and scientific background on information search and the assessment and valuation of correlations.  

PubMed

The effects of problem contents and one's scientific background on the detection of correlations and the assessment of their strength were studied using a task that required active data search, assessment of the strength of a correlation, and monetary valuation of the correlation's predictive utility. Participants (N = 72) who were trained either in the natural sciences or in the social sciences and humanities explored data sets differing in contents and actual strength of correlation. Data search was consistent across all variables: Participants drew relatively small samples whose relative sizes would favor the detection of a correlation, if one existed. In contrast, the assessment of the correlation strength and the valuation of its predictive utility were strongly related not only to its objective strength, but also to the correspondence between problem contents and one's scientific background: When the two matched, correlations were judged to be stronger and more valuable than when they did not. PMID:21264572

Soffer, Shira; Kareev, Yaakov

2011-01-01

113

Readiness for Meaningful Use of Health Information Technology and Patient Centered Medical Home Recognition Survey Results  

PubMed Central

Objective Determine the factors that impact HIT use and MU readiness for community health centers (CHCs). Background The HITECH Act allocates funds to Medicaid and Medicare providers to encourage the adoption of electronic health records (EHR), in an effort to improve health care quality and patient outcomes, and to reduce health care costs. Methods We surveyed CHCs on their Readiness for Meaningful Use (MU) of Health Information Technology (HIT) and Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) Recognition, then we combined responses with 2009 Uniform Data System data to determine which factors impact use of HIT and MU readiness. Results Nearly 70% of CHCs had full or partial EHR adoption at the time of survey. Results are presented for centers with EHR adoption, by the length of time that their EHR systems have been in operation.

Shin, Peter; Sharac, Jessica

2013-01-01

114

[Serum creatine phosphokinase activity: analysis of information provided by different ways of expressing the results].  

PubMed

An experimental model with undernourished rats fed experimental diets containing either imbalanced proteins or low amount of well balanced proteins was used to evaluate the utility of serum CPK activity determination in human malnutrition. Special attention was given on the information provided by four ways of expression of the enzymatic activity. CPK activity was expressed as: 1) Specific activity, 2) Activity per ml serum, 3) Total activity per rat and 4) Total activity per 100 g body weight. Statystical analysis showed: a) Activity expressed per mg serum protein or per ml serum did not agree with the known physiological phenomena induced on muscle by the experimental diets: CPK activity values expressed in these ways are not useful in malnutrition studies. b) Serum total activity of CPK per rat provides a similar information to the creatinin/height index, which is easier to perform. c) Total CPK activity per 100 g body weight demonstrated to be adequate to provide information about muscle mass in rats under controlled experimental conditions. However, it is not possible to use this form of expressing CPK activity in human malnutrition, because it would be also necessary to know: plasma volumen, age, actual body weight, clinical and the nutritional background, etc., of the patient for an accurate interpretation of results. PMID:821413

Marcilla de Parada, N E; Río, M E; Sanahuja, J C

1976-06-01

115

The temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation at 3.8 GHz - Results of a measurement from the South Pole site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an international collaboration to measure the low-frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, its temperature was measured at a frequency of 3.8 GHz, during the austral spring of 1989, obtaining a brightness temperature, T(CMB), of 2.64 +/-0.07 K (68 percent confidence level). The new result is in agreement with previous measurements at the same frequency obtained in 1986-88 from a very different site and has comparable error bars. Combining measurements from all years, T(CMB) = 2.64 +/-0.06 K is obtained.

De Amici, Giovanni; Limon, Michele; Smoot, George F.; Bersanelli, Marco; Kogut, AL; Levin, Steve

1991-01-01

116

Result-size estimation for information-retrieval subqueries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimating the approximate result size of a query before its execution based on small summary statistics is important for query optimization in database systems and for other facets of query processing. This also holds for queries over text databases. Research on selectivity estimation for such queries has focused on Boolean retrieval, i.e., a document may be relevant for the query

Guido Sautter; Klemens Böhm; Andranik Khachatryan

2010-01-01

117

Advanced information processing system: Fault injection study and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the AIPS program is to achieve a validated fault tolerant distributed computer system. The goals of the AIPS fault injection study were: (1) to present the fault injection study components addressing the AIPS validation objective; (2) to obtain feedback for fault removal from the design implementation; (3) to obtain statistical data regarding fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration responses; and (4) to obtain data regarding the effects of faults on system performance. The parameters are described that must be varied to create a comprehensive set of fault injection tests, the subset of test cases selected, the test case measurements, and the test case execution. Both pin level hardware faults using a hardware fault injector and software injected memory mutations were used to test the system. An overview is provided of the hardware fault injector and the associated software used to carry out the experiments. Detailed specifications are given of fault and test results for the I/O Network and the AIPS Fault Tolerant Processor, respectively. The results are summarized and conclusions are given.

Burkhardt, Laura F.; Masotto, Thomas K.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

1992-01-01

118

Informed citizen and empowered citizen in health: results from an European survey  

PubMed Central

Background The knowledge about the relationship between health-related activities on the Internet (i.e. informed citizens) and individuals' control over their own experiences of health or illness (i.e. empowered citizens) is valuable but scarce. In this paper, we investigate the correlation between four ways of using the Internet for information on health or illness and citizens attitudes and behaviours toward health professionals and health systems and establish the profile of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe. Methods Data was collected during April and May 2007 (N = 7022), through computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). Respondents from Denmark, Germany, Greece, Latvia, Norway, Poland and Portugal participated in the survey. The profiles were generated using logistic regressions and are based on: a) socio-demographic and health information, b) the level of use of health-related online services, c) the level of use of the Internet to get health information to decide whether to consult a health professional, prepare for a medical appointment and assess its outcome, and d) the impact of online health information on citizens' attitudes and behavior towards health professionals and health systems. Results Citizens using the Internet to decide whether to consult a health professional or to get a second opinion are likely to be frequent visitors of health sites, active participants of online health forums and recurrent buyers of medicines and other health related products online, while only infrequent epatients, visiting doctors they have never met face-to-face. Participation in online health communities seems to be related with more inquisitive and autonomous patients. Conclusions The profiles of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe are situational and country dependent. The number of Europeans using the Internet to get health information to help them deal with a consultation is raising and having access to online health information seems to be associated with growing number of inquisitive and self-reliant patients. Doctors are increasingly likely to experience consultations with knowledgeable and empowered patients, who will challenge them in various ways.

2011-01-01

119

Conejo Valley Unified School District Master Plan for an Educational Results Information System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Conejo Valley (CA) Unified School District Educational Results Information System (ERIS), a generalized District master program assessment plan to obtain results information for decision-makers at all levels, has been developed. This plan establishes guidelines, evaluates the current status of the use of educational results information and…

Maloney, Dorothy

120

Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

1985-06-01

121

The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R. J.; Case, J. E.

1992-01-01

122

[Are German information materials on colorectal cancer screening understandable or do they fail? Rating of health information by users with different educational backgrounds].  

PubMed

Evidence-based patient information is an essential part of decision making in health issues. A qualitative study was conducted to examine whether consumers consider the health information on colorectal cancer screening in Germany helpful in supporting their decision making. In this study, eight texts from different German authors about colorectal cancer screening were evaluated with a criteria-based selection. The texts were tested for understandability, structure, design, and effect on readers. Thirteen semi-structured focus groups were formed including 59 higher-educated and 15 lower-educated testers, 46?% of them being male with a mean age of 62.9 years. The transcripts were analyzed by content-analytic assessment. The testers provided detailed comments on the content and design of the texts. They revealed inaccuracies and suggested improvements of the texts. The testers differed from each other in terms of the intensity of their participation in the discussions and comprehension of the material. The reception of the flyers and brochures varied according to the educational level of the testers. Lower-educated testers often skipped passages of texts about risks as well as passages containing numbers and graphics. The texts had different effects on the testers, regardless of the level of education. If adverse effects were presented, some testers became scared while others were reassured because they felt informed. Most of the testers appreciated a call for participation as a central message of the text. Sometimes, if there was no clear appeal to attend the screening, the testers even asked for it. The recently introduced political strategy of promoting an informed choice is applied to an unprepared population who was used to getting a clear yes-or-no recommendation. Thus, at first, the population has to learn how to make an informed choice. This topic must be addressed and taken into account in the process of developing health information. Since this is not always the case, we conclude that current materials are limited in their contribution toward the decision of attending CRC screening. PMID:24562713

Seidel, G; Münch, I; Dreier, M; Borutta, B; Walter, U; Dierks, M-L

2014-03-01

123

The physics of background discrimination in liquid xenon, and first results from Xenon10 in the hunt for WIMP dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WIMP limit set by the Xenon10 experiment in 2007 signals a new era in direct detection of dark matter, with several large-scale liquid target detectors now under construction. A major challenge in these detectors will be to understand backgrounds at the level necessary to claim a positive WIMP signal. In liquid xenon, these backgrounds are dominated by electron recoils, which may be distinguished from the WIMP signal (nuclear recoils) by their higher charge-to-light ratio. During the construction and operation of Xenon10, the prototype detector Xed probed the physics of this discrimination. Particle interactions in liquid xenon both ionize and excite xenon atoms, giving charge and scintillation signals, respectively. Some fraction of ions recombine, reducing the charge signal and creating additional scintillation. The charge-to-light ratio, determined by the initial exciton-ion ratio and the ion recombination fraction, provides the basis for discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils. Intrinsic fluctuations in the recombination fraction limit discrimination. Changes in recombination induce an exact anti-correlation between charge and light, and when calibrated this anti-correlation distinguishes recombination fluctuations from uncorrelated fluctuations in the measured signals. We determine the mean recombination and recombination fluctuations as a function of energy and applied field for electron and nuclear recoils, finding that recombination fluctuations are already the limiting factor for discrimination above ~12 keVr (nuclear recoil energy). Below 12 keVr statistical fluctuations in the number of scintillation photons counted dominate, and we project a x6 improvement in background rejection with a x2 increase in light collection efficiency. We also build a simple recombination model that successfully reproduces the mean recombination in electron and nuclear recoils, including the surprising reversal of the expected trend for recombination with ionization density in low energy electron recoils. The model also reproduces the measured recombination fluctuations to within a factor of two at high energies. Surprisingly, the model suggests that recombination at low energies is independent of ionization density, and our observed discrimination is due not to the different stopping powers of electrons and nuclei as was thought, but rather to a different initial exciton-ion ratio. We suggest two possible physical models for this new result.

Dahl, Carl Eric

2009-06-01

124

Backgrounds of women applying for hymen reconstruction, the effects of counselling on myths and misunderstandings about virginity, and the results of hymen reconstruction.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective To study the backgrounds of women requesting hymen 'repair', to assess the effects of extensive counselling, and the effects of hymen reconstruction. Methods A two-centre qualitative study, consisting of a semi-structured interview, education, discussion of alternatives, and instructions for self-examination (first visit), educational examination (second visit), decision on operation or alternative (third visit), and follow-up (fourth visit). Results Eighty-two women were interviewed at first visit. Sixty-eight women were followed until their decision to be operated upon or not. Forty-eight percent of all subjects reported a history of sexual violence, and 37% had had one or more abortions. Only 29% eventually decided to be operated. Seventeen of the 19 women who submitted to an operation and attended the follow-up visit reported no blood loss at first marital intercourse. Conclusions Most women requesting hymen reconstruction had a history complicated by critical life events related to their request. All women were afraid they would not bleed and/or would not be 'tight' enough during the wedding night. For 75% of the women empowerment by means of extensive counselling resulted in a decision against operation. Hymenoplasty alone does not help women because most operated women will not bleed and because they often also have to prove to be 'tight' enough. PMID:22292534

van Moorst, Bianca R; van Lunsen, Rik H W; van Dijken, Dorenda K E; Salvatore, Concetta M

2012-04-01

125

Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information  

MedlinePLUS

... a botanical? A botanical is a plant or plant part valued for its medicinal or therapeutic properties, flavor, and/or scent. Herbs are a subset of botanicals. Products made from botanicals that are used to maintain or ... species of the plant. Under this system the botanical black cohosh is ...

126

Scientific background  

Microsoft Academic Search

An individual whose body contains different cell populations derived from different zygotes is defined as chimera. These different\\u000a cell populations can be derived from one species resulting in intra-species chimerism (aa) or from two different species resulting\\u000a in inter-species chimerism (c). Hybrids contain equal cells but with mixed genomes of two different taxa. Thus, inter-species\\u000a hybrids (c) are the classical

Michael Bader; Regine Schreiner; Eckhard Wolf

127

The Backgrounds Data Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

1993-01-01

128

Own and parental war experience as a risk factor for mental health problems among adolescents with an immigrant background: results from a cross sectional study in Oslo, Norway  

PubMed Central

Background An increasing proportion of immigrants to Western countries in the past decade are from war affected countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of war experience among adolescents and their parents and to investigate possible differences in internalizing and externalizing mental health problems between adolescents exposed and unexposed to own and parental war experience. Method The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 1,758 aadolescents were included, all with both parents born outside of Norway. Internalizing and externalizing mental health problems were measured by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 and subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. Own and parental war experience is based on adolescent self-report. Results The proportion of adolescents with own war experience was 14% with the highest prevalence in immigrants from Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. The proportion of parental war experience was 33% with Sub-Saharan Africa being highest. Adolescents reporting own war experience had higher scores for both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems compared to immigrants without war experience, but only externalizing problems reached statistically significant differences. For parental war experience there was a statistically significant relationship between parental war experience and internalizing mental health problems. The association remained significant after adjustment for parental educational level and adolescents' own war experience. Conclusion War exposure is highly prevalent among immigrants living in Oslo, Norway, both among adolescents themselves and their parents. Among immigrants to Norway, parental war experience appears to be stronger associated with mental health problems than adolescents own exposure to war experience.

2006-01-01

129

Preliminary test Results for a 25K Sorption Cryocooler Designed for the UCSB Long Duration Balloon Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuous operation, vibration-free, long-life 25K sorption cryocooler has been built and is now in final integration and performance testing. This cooler wil be flown on the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Experiment.

Wade, L. A.; Levy, A. R.

1996-01-01

130

Improving Access to HIV and AIDS Information Resources for Patients, Caregivers, and Clinicians: Results from the SHINE Project  

PubMed Central

Background Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) remains a significant international public health challenge. The Statewide HIV/AIDS Information Network (SHINE) Project was created to improve HIV/AIDS health information use and access for health care professionals, patients, and affected communities in Indiana. Objective: Our objective was to assess the information-seeking behaviors of health care professionals and consumers who seek information on the testing, treatment, and management of HIV/AIDS and the usability of the SHINE Project’s resources in meeting end user needs. The feedback was designed to help SHINE Project members improve and expand the SHINE Project’s online resources. Methods: A convenience sample of health care professionals and consumers participated in a usability study. Participants were asked to complete typical HIV/AIDS information-seeking tasks using the SHINE Project website. Feedback was provided in the form of standardized questionnaire and usability “think-aloud” responses. Results: Thirteen participants took part in the usability study. Clinicians generally reported the site to be “very good,” while consumers generally found it to be “good.” Health care professionals commented that they lack access to comprehensive resources for treating patients with HIV/AIDS. They requested new electronic resources that could be integrated in clinical practice and existing information technology infrastructures. Consumers found the SHINE website and its collected information resources overwhelming and difficult to navigate. They requested simpler, multimedia-content rich resources to deliver information on HIV/AIDS testing, treatment, and disease management. Conclusions: Accessibility, usability, and user education remain important challenges that public health and information specialists must address when developing and deploying interventions intended to empower consumers and support coordinated, patient-centric care.

Dixon, Brian E.; Kaneshiro, Kellie

2012-01-01

131

Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2007 School Year. National Goals for Schooling. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to collect student background information as required by Education Ministers. The purpose is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century. It involves the collection of information on…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

132

Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2008 School Year. National Goals for Schooling in the 21st Century. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to collect student background information as required by Education Ministers. The purpose is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the "National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." It involves the collection of information on…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2007

2007-01-01

133

NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel: Background Noise and Flow Survey Results Prior to FY05 Construction of Facilities Modifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Langley Research Center Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel is a premier facility for model-scale testing of jet noise reduction concepts at realistic flow conditions. However, flow inside the open jet test section is less than optimum. A Construction of Facilities project, scheduled for FY 05, will replace the flow collector with a new design intended to reduce recirculation in the open jet test section. The reduction of recirculation will reduce background noise levels measured by a microphone array impinged by the recirculation flow and will improve flow characteristics in the open jet tunnel flow. In order to assess the degree to which this modification is successful, background noise levels and tunnel flow are documented, in order to establish a baseline, in this report.

Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Henderson, Brenda S.

2005-01-01

134

Bibliometric Information Retrieval System (BIRS): A Web Search Interface Utilizing Bibliometric Research Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether the results obtained from a specific bibliographic search can be applied to a real search environment and enhance the level of utility of an information retrieval session for all levels of users. Focuses on a Web-based Bibliometric Information Retrieval System (BIRS), designed with facilities to assist users in getting a better…

Ding, Ying; Chowdhury, Gobinda G.; Foo, Schubert; Qian, Weizhong

2000-01-01

135

Building Background Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on

Ross, Donna; Fisher, Douglas; Grant, Maria

2010-01-01

136

Impact of information systems on acute care hospitals: results from a survey in the United States.  

PubMed

These results are from a survey of acute care hospitals in the United States. A random sample of 813 hospitals was selected with 115 responding and 33 incorrect addresses resulting in a 15% response rate. The purpose of the study was to measure the impact and future potential of information systems integration in the financial, medical, and administrative systems of the hospitals. Impact of Information Systems is measured in many ways. Questions about employee moral, reductions in employees, goals being met and overall satisfaction with the systems are asked and results analyzed. This information will provide a benchmark for hospitals to determine their information systems position and technology transfer planning. These analyses will lead to setting goals. PMID:9871872

Hatcher, M

1998-12-01

137

Internal dosimetry of 210Pb in the human cranium: preliminary results from instrumentation needs for in vivo counting in a low-background underground counting facility.  

PubMed

Internal dosimetry of (210)Pb in the cranium deals with the determination of the amount of energy deposited in tissue by (210)Pb radiations within the cranium. (210)Pb in the human cranium was monitored by in vivo counting in a low background facility 640 m (2100 ft) underground with a germanium (Ge) gamma-ray detector having a beryllium window. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) was established with this system to be 0.2 Bq (5 pCi) in 25-h counting time with a 15-mm diameter and 7-mm thick Ge detector, having a beryllium window of thickness of 0.08 mm, in contact with the cranium just above the ear adjacent to the temple region. To establish an MDA of 0.004 Bq (0.1 pCi) with this system, the limitation arising from the ambient radon level at 10 Bq m(-3) was investigated. PMID:23620563

Pillalamarri, Ila; Jagam, P; Lykken, Glenn I

2013-11-01

138

Executive summary: Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background information on, and the objectives of, the NASA Global Biology Research Program are given. The following issues were addressed: (1) geographic distribution of wetland parameters, (2) the processes of wetland material fluxes, and (3) the relation of local fluxes with global processes. Wetland inventorying and categorizing, gas-phase exchanges with the atmosphere, material exchange with the aquatic environment, and material storage in wetland sediments were identified as topics requiring further research.

1983-01-01

139

Information preferences and practices among people living with HIV/AIDS: results from a nationwide survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was designed to reach many segments of the diverse HIV/AIDS community and broaden understanding of how information can better assist people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Data were collected through a self-administered mail survey distributed nationwide at clinics, drug treatment centers, and other AIDS service organizations. Results: The 662 respondents preferred getting information from people—including health professionals, family, and friends—and considered people the most trustworthy, useful, understandable, and available information sources. Forty-three percent selected doctors as their most preferred source. The Internet was not rated highly overall but was preferred by those with more education or living in metropolitan areas. Seventy-two percent said they actively search for HIV/AIDS-related information, and 80% said they give advice or tell others where to get such information. However, 71% agreed that it is easy to feel overwhelmed by information, and 31% agreed that not seeking information can be beneficial. Conclusions: Overall, information seeking is an important activity for this sample of people living with HIV/AIDS. Many sources are widely available to them but, together, can be overwhelming. They rely on health professionals far more than print or media sources and receive encouragement and support from family and friends.

Hogan, Timothy P.; Palmer, Carole L.

2005-01-01

140

Information of deterministic functions and quantum information of non probabilistic matrices A unified approach and new results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides new results on the entropy of functions on the one hand, and exhibits a unified approach to entropy of\\u000a functions and quantum entropy of matrices with or without probability. The entropy of continuously differentiable functions\\u000a is extended to stair-wise functions, a measure of relative information between two functions is obtained, which is fully consistent\\u000a with Kullback cross-entropy,

Guy Jumarie

1993-01-01

141

CLAST Results for June 2000: Miami-Dade Community College and Statewide. Information Capsule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of the June 2000 CLAST administration are reported in this information capsule. Results are reported for first-time examinees, retake examinees, and students earning alternatives to the CLAST requirement. During this administration period, 3,858 Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) (Florida) students earned an alternative in at least…

Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL. Office of Institutional Research.

142

Value of Search Results As a Whole As the Best Single Measure of Information Retrieval Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses value of search results as a whole, a measure which asks for a user's rating of the usefulness of a set of search results based on a Likert scale, and suggests that this measure provides a simple way for system comparison and eliminates problems of information-retrieval evaluation with multiple measures. (Author/LRW)

Su, Louise T.

1998-01-01

143

Correlative Significance of Test Results, Educational Background, Grades Achieved in Vocational Training, and Assessment of Competence with Regard to the Grades in the Final Examinations in Vocational Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some results from a research project that inquired into the relationship between learning at school and learning at work and the relationship of these two types of learning in the area of vocational training. Results show a high correlation between grades obtained in different subjects at vocational school and assessments by vocational…

Jungkunz, Diethelm; Bodinet, Karl

1989-01-01

144

Visualizing Information in the Biological Sciences: Using WebTheme to Visualize Internet Search Results  

SciTech Connect

Information visualization is an effective method for displaying large data sets in a pictorial or graphical format. The visualization aids researchers and analysts in understanding data by evaluating the content and grouping documents together around themes and concepts. With the ever-growing amount of information available on the Internet, additional methods are needed to analyze and interpret data. WebTheme allows users to harvest thousands of web pages and automatically organize and visualize their contents. WebTheme is an interactive web-based product that provides a new way to investigate and understand large volumes of HTML text-based information. It has the ability to harvest data from the World Wide Web using search terms and selected search engines or by following URLs chosen by the user. WebTheme enables users to rapidly identify themes and concepts found among thousands of pages of text harvested and provides a suite of tools to further explore and analyze special areas of interest within a data set. WebTheme was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for NASA as a method for generating meaningful, thematic, and interactive visualizations. Through a collaboration with the Laboratory's Information Science and Engineering (IS&E) group, information specialists are providing demonstrations of WebTheme and assisting researchers in analyzing their results. This paper will provide a brief overview of the WebTheme product, and the ways in which the Hanford Technical Library's information specialists are assisting researchers in using this product.

Buxton, Karen A.; Lembo, Mary Frances

2003-08-11

145

Barriers to implementation of a redesign of information transfer and feedback in acute care: results from a multiple case study  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate information transfer is an important element of continuity of care and patient safety. Despite the demonstrated urge for improvement of communication in acute care, there is a lack of data on improvements of communication. This study aims to describe the barriers to implementation of a redesign of the existing model for information transfer and feedback. Methods A case study with six cases (i.e. acute care chains), using mixed methods was carried out in the Netherlands. The redesign was implemented in one acute care chain while the five other acute care chains served as control groups. Focus group interviews were held with members of the acute care chains and questionnaires were sent to care providers working in the acute care chains. Results Respondents reported three sets of barriers for implementation of the model: (a) existing routines for information transfer and feedback in organizations within the acute care chain; (b) barriers related to the implementation method and time period; and (c) the absence of a high ‘sense of urgency’ amongst providers in the acute care chain which would aid in improving the communication process. Conclusions This study shows that organizational factors play an important role in the success or failure of redesigning a communication process. Organizational routines can hamper implementation of a redesign if it differs too much from the routines of care providers involved. Besides focussing on provider characteristics in the implementation of a redesigned process, specific attention should be paid to unlearning existing organizational routines.

2014-01-01

146

Information Navigation on the Web by Clustering and Summarizing Query Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports an approach to interactive information seeking that is grounded in the idea of summarizing query results through automated document clustering. The authors' prototype acted as an intermediate layer between the user and a commercial Internet search engine. Data was processed from 36 users and it was concluded that the prototype improved…

Roussinov, Dmitri G.; Chen, Hsinchun

2001-01-01

147

Impact of Using Information Technology in Central University Libraries in India: Results of a Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research study conducted to assess the perceptions and opinions of 100 staff working in libraries on the impact of using IT on library housekeeping operations and information services, in eight central university libraries in India. Design/methodology/approach: Data gathering…

Peyala, Venkataramana

2011-01-01

148

US ITER background summary papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following brief summaries were prepared by members of the US ITER Home Team to provide background information on the ITER CDA design and in several instances to provide personal observations and suggestions regarding continuation of the ITER Conceptua...

J. N. Doggett C. A. Flanagan D. E. Post J. C. Wesley

1991-01-01

149

An Entropy-Based Hierarchical Search Result Clustering Method by Utilizing Augmented Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the improvement of the technology of search engines, and the massively increase of the number of web pages, the\\u000a results returned by the search engines are always mixed and disordered. Especially for the queries with multiple topics, the\\u000a mixed and disorderly situation of the search results would be more obvious. The search engines can return information of several

Kao Hung-yu; Hsiao Hsin-wei; Lin Chih-lu; Shih Chia-chun; Tsai Tse-ming

2008-01-01

150

A study of cloud-generated radiative heating and its generation of available potential energy. I - Theoretical background. II - Results for a climatological zonal mean January  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of radiative heating and cooling by clouds on the available potential energy (APE) is theoretically discussed. It is shown that the cloud radiative contribution to the generation of APE is determined by the net cloud radiative heating and the efficiency factor, which is a function of the temperature distribution of the atmosphere. Results are presented for low and middle cloud effects for three atmospheric layers. Cloud radiative heating is found to be a single function of cloud optical thickness for all classes designed in terms of cloud top heights and optical thickness. Low clouds at low latitudes destroy APE an midclouds generate APE. A concept is developed to relate the cloud radiative heating to cloud heights and optical depths. Cloud-generated radiative heating is computed for January zonal mean conditions for low and midclouds. For both cases, the strongest influence is found in the low troposphere, with marked differences in signs and magnitudes. At extratropical latitudes, both cloud classes generate net radiative cooling. In the tropics, the effect of low cloud changes from net cooling to the net heating as the optical thickness increases, and midclouds cause net heating. A mechanism is described whereby this dependence produces a strong positive feedback effect on the development of SST anomalies in the tropical oceans.

Stuhlmann, R.; Smith, G. L.

1988-01-01

151

Number of information and its relation to the cosmological constant resulting from Landauer's principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a recent published formula for the number of information N that results from Landauer's principle we obtain an expression for the cosmological constant ?. Next, assuming the universe as a system of mass M satisfying Landauer's principle and eliminating its mass M from the given expression for the number of information, we obtain a new expression that agrees with the expression derived by Lloyd. Furthermore, we modify the generalized entropy relation and three equivalent entropy expressions are obtained. Finally, in two different universes the time rate of change of the entropy is calculated. In a flat universe the time rate of the entropy is time independent and depends on fundamental constants of physics.

Gkigkitzis, Ioannis; Haranas, Ioannis; Kirk, Samantha

2013-12-01

152

The other backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of the cosmic microwave background or CMB (3K, ther- mal, relict, black body, isotropic, etc) radiation in confirming a hot big bang model of the early Universe and in setting precise values of many of the parameters of that model is widely known and has recently been enhanced by the results of three years of operation of the

Virginia Trimble

2006-01-01

153

Hanford Site background: Part 3, Groundwater background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents and interprets groundwater background data collected from the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site, a U.S. Department of Energy complex located near Richland, Washington. Characterization of background composition is an importa...

1997-01-01

154

Return of results in translational iPS cell research: considerations for donor informed consent  

PubMed Central

Efforts have emerged internationally to recruit donors with specific disease indications and to derive induced pluripotent cell lines. These disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cell lines have the potential to accelerate translational goals such as drug discovery and testing. One consideration for donor recruitment and informed consent is the possibility that research will result in findings that are clinically relevant to the cell donor. Management protocols for such findings should be developed a priori and disclosed during the informed consent process. The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has developed recommendations for informing donors in sponsored research. These recommendations include obtaining consent to recontact tissue donors for a range of scientific, medical and ethical considerations. This article reviews the basis for these recommendations and suggests conditions that may be appropriate when reporting findings to donors.

2013-01-01

155

Unitarity and singular backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the graviton Kaluza-Klein spectrum on a gravity-dilaton background with a naked singularity for all possible boundary conditions at the singularity which are consistent with unitary evolution. We apply methods from nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with singular Schrödinger potentials. In general, the spectrum contains a tachyon, a sign of instability. Only for a particular boundary condition at the singularity is the spectrum free of tachyons. In this case, the lowest-lying graviton mode is massless. We argue that this result will also hold for other backgrounds with similar geometry near the curvature singularity. We complete our study with a brief discussion on radion perturbations and the Higgs mechanism on this singular background.

Brouzakis, Nikolaos; Quiros, Mariano

2013-11-01

156

Results of an assessment of information needs among speech-language pathologists and audiologists in Idaho*  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The research assesses the information needs of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and audiologists in Idaho and identifies specific needs for training in evidence-based practice (EBP) principles and searching EBP resources. Methods: A survey was developed to assess knowledge and skills in accessing information. Questionnaires were distributed to 217 members of the Idaho Speech-Language-Hearing Association, who were given multiple options to return the assessment survey (web, email, mail). Data were analyzed descriptively and statistically. Results: The total response rate was 38.7% (84/217). Of the respondents, 87.0% (73/84) indicated insufficient knowledge and skills to search PubMed. Further, 47.6% (40/84) indicated limited knowledge of EBP. Of professionals responding, 52.4% (44/84) reported interest in learning more about EBP and 47.6% (40/84) reported interest in learning to search PubMed. SLPs and audiologists who graduated within the last 10 years were more likely to respond online, while those graduating prior to that time preferred to respond via hard copy. Discussions/Conclusion: More effort should be made to ensure that SLPs and audiologists develop skills in locating information to support their practice. Results from this information needs assessment were used to design a training and outreach program on EBP and EBP database searching for SLPs and audiologists in Idaho.

Guo, Ruiling; Bain, Barbara A.; Willer, Janene

2008-01-01

157

Informal screencasting: results of a customer-satisfaction survey with a convenience sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to define and describe informal screencasting (i.e. capturing your actions on a computer screen with the goal of showing others how to accomplish tasks on a website or in a given software environment). Customer-satisfaction survey results from 103 faculty, staff, and students are presented. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An online survey revealing customer satisfaction

Jody Bailey

2012-01-01

158

Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

2001-01-01

159

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks: Background Information for Proposed Standards. Marvin Branscome and Sandra Burns, RTI and Lula Melton.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes the background information used in the development of MACT standards for the coke ovens: pushing, quenching, and battery stacks source category. All references cited in this document are available in EPA Docket A-2000-34. In addit...

L. Melton M. Branscome S. Burns

2001-01-01

160

Use of the Internet as a Health Information Resource Among French Young Adults: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet is one of the main resources of health information especially for young adults, but website content is not always trustworthy or validated. Little is known about this specific population and the importance of online health searches for use and impact. It is fundamental to assess behaviors and attitudes of young people looking for online health-related information and their level of trust in such information. Objective The objective is to describe the characteristics of Internet users aged 15-30 years who use the Web as a health information resource and their trust in it, and to define the context and the effect of such use on French young adults’ behavior in relation to their medical consultations. Methods We used the French Health Barometer 2010, a nationally representative survey of 27,653 individuals that investigates population health behaviors and concerns. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed using a subsample of 1052 young adults aged 15-30 years to estimate associations between demographics, socioeconomic, and health status and (1) the use of the Internet to search for health information, and (2) its impact on health behaviors and the physician-patient relationship. Results In 2010, 48.5% (474/977) of Web users aged 15-30 years used the Internet for health purposes. Those who did not use the Internet for health purposes reported being informed enough by other sources (75.0%, 377/503), stated they preferred seeing a doctor (74.1%, 373/503) or did not trust the information on the Internet (67.2%, 338/503). However, approximately 80% (371/474) of young online health seekers considered the information found online reliable. Women (P<.001) and people with higher sociocultural positions (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9 and OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7 for employees and manual workers, respectively, vs individuals with executive or manager positions) were more likely to use the Internet for health purposes. For a subsample of women only, online health seeking was more likely among those having a child (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.7) and experiencing psychological distress (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-4.0). Finally, for online health seekers aged 15-30 years, one-third (33.3%, 157/474) reported they changed their health behaviors (eg, frequency of medical consultations, way of taking care of one’s own health) because of their online searches. Different factors were associated with different outcomes of change, but psychological distress, poor quality of life, and low income were the most common. Conclusions The Internet is a useful tool to spread health information and prevention campaigns, especially to target young adults. Young adults trust online information and consider the Internet as a valid source of health advice. Health agencies should ensure the improvement of online health information quality and the creation of health-related websites and programs dedicated to young adults.

Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Nguyen-Thanh, Viet; Montagni, Ilaria; Parizot, Isabelle; Renahy, Emilie

2014-01-01

161

Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present in the standard big bang model. In the present calculation, evolutionary effects on grain opacity and abundance are estimated. At wavelengths used in studying the microwave background, the optical depth of the grains is found to be 0.18 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.03, and 0.05 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.5. The results indicate that microwave background can provide information on an early dense phase of the universe.

Pollaine, S.

1978-01-01

162

How do patient characteristics influence informal payments for inpatient and outpatient health care in Albania: Results of logit and OLS models using Albanian LSMS 2005  

PubMed Central

Background Informal payments for health care are common in most former communist countries. This paper explores the demand side of these payments in Albania. By using data from the Living Standard Measurement Survey 2005 we control for individual determinants of informal payments in inpatient and outpatient health care. We use these results to explain the main factors contributing to the occurrence and extent of informal payments in Albania. Methods Using multivariate methods (logit and OLS) we test three models to explain informal payments: the cultural, economic and governance model. The results of logit models are presented here as odds ratios (OR) and results from OLS models as regression coefficients (RC). Results Our findings suggest differences in determinants of informal payments in inpatient and outpatient care. Generally our results show that informal payments are dependent on certain characteristics of patients, including age, area of residence, education, health status and health insurance. However, they are less dependent on income, suggesting homogeneity of payments across income categories. Conclusions We have found more evidence for the validity of governance and economic models than for the cultural model.

2011-01-01

163

Information needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered health care professionals: results of an Internet survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To obtain basic facts and considered opinions from health care professionals and students (nonlibrarian and librarian) about the information needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered (GLBT) health care professionals and their interactions with medical librarians. Methods: The survey instrument was a Web-based questionnaire. A nonrandom sample of health care professionals and students (librarian and nonlibrarian) was obtained by posting messages to several large Internet electronic discussion groups (GLBT and general) and to randomly selected members of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. A total of 152 forms were analyzed with about 50% of the participants being GLBT persons. Results: GLBT people have specific health information needs and concerns. More than 75% of medical librarians and students believed that GLBT persons have special information needs, with similar response rates by nonlibrarian health professionals and students. The delivery of services needs to be done with privacy and respect for the feelings of the patron. Major areas of need include the topics of health care proxy, cancer, adolescent depression and suicide, adoption, sexual health and practices, HIV infection, surrogate parenting, mental health issues, transgender health issues, intimate partner violence, and intimate partner loss. Conclusions: Most GLBT health care professionals desire GLBT-friendly health information services. Making GLBT-oriented health information resources available on a library Web page and making an effort to show acceptance of cultural diversity through signs or displays would be helpful. Education directed toward instilling an awareness of GLBT persons may also be advisable. Most survey participants make some use of medical reference services and many find medical librarians to be very helpful and resourceful.

Fikar, Charles R.; Keith, Latrina

2004-01-01

164

Non-extensitivity vs. informative moments for financial models —A unifying framework and empirical results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information-theoretic approaches still play a minor role in financial market analysis. Nonetheless, there have been two very similar approaches evolving during the last years, one in the so-called econophysics and the other in econometrics. Both generalize the notion of GARCH processes in an information-theoretic sense and are able to capture kurtosis better than traditional models. In this article we present both approaches in a more general framework. The latter allows the derivation of a wide range of new models. We choose a third model using an entropy measure suggested by Kapur. In an application to financial market data, we find that all considered models - with similar flexibility in terms of skewness and kurtosis - lead to very similar results.

Herrmann, K.

2009-11-01

165

Population distribution of flexible molecules from maximum entropy analysis using different priors as background information: application to the ?, ?-conformational space of the ?-(1-->2)-linked mannose disaccharide present in N- and O-linked glycoproteins.  

PubMed

The conformational space available to the flexible molecule ?-D-Manp-(1-->2)-?-D-Manp-OMe, a model for the ?-(1-->2)-linked mannose disaccharide in N- or O-linked glycoproteins, is determined using experimental data and molecular simulation combined with a maximum entropy approach that leads to a converged population distribution utilizing different input information. A database survey of the Protein Data Bank where structures having the constituent disaccharide were retrieved resulted in an ensemble with >200 structures. Subsequent filtering removed erroneous structures and gave the database (DB) ensemble having three classes of mannose-containing compounds, viz., N- and O-linked structures, and ligands to proteins. A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the disaccharide revealed a two-state equilibrium with a major and a minor conformational state, i.e., the MD ensemble. These two different conformation ensembles of the disaccharide were compared to measured experimental spectroscopic data for the molecule in water solution. However, neither of the two populations were compatible with experimental data from optical rotation, NMR (1)H,(1)H cross-relaxation rates as well as homo- and heteronuclear (3)J couplings. The conformational distributions were subsequently used as background information to generate priors that were used in a maximum entropy analysis. The resulting posteriors, i.e., the population distributions after the application of the maximum entropy analysis, still showed notable deviations that were not anticipated based on the prior information. Therefore, reparameterization of homo- and heteronuclear Karplus relationships for the glycosidic torsion angles ? and ? were carried out in which the importance of electronegative substituents on the coupling pathway was deemed essential resulting in four derived equations, two (3)J(COCC) and two (3)J(COCH) being different for the ? and ? torsions, respectively. These Karplus relationships are denoted JCX/SU09. Reapplication of the maximum entropy analysis gave excellent agreement between the MD- and DB-posteriors. The information entropies show that the current reparametrization of the Karplus relationships constitutes a significant improvement. The ?(H) torsion angle of the disaccharide is governed by the exo-anomeric effect and for the dominating conformation ?(H) = -40 degrees and ?(H) = 33 degrees. The minor conformational state has a negative ?(H) torsion angle; the relative populations of the major and the minor states are approximately 3 : 1. It is anticipated that application of the methodology will be useful to flexible molecules ranging from small organic molecules to large biomolecules. PMID:20574564

Säwén, Elin; Massad, Tariq; Landersjö, Clas; Damberg, Peter; Widmalm, Göran

2010-08-21

166

Backgrounds Data Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) is the designated archive for backgrounds data collected by Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) programs, some of which include ultraviolet sensors. Currently, the BDC holds ultraviolet data from the IBSS, UVPI, UVLIM, and FUVCAM sensors. The BDC will also be the prime archive for Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) data and is prepared to negotiate with program managers to handle other datasets. The purpose of the BDC is to make data accessible to users and to assist them in analyzing it. The BDC maintains the Science Catalog Information Exchange System (SCIES) allowing remote users to log in, read or post notices about current programs, search the catalogs for datasets of interest, and submit orders for data. On-site facilities are also available for the analysis of data, and consist of VMS and UNIX workstations with access to software analysis packages such as IDL, IRAF, and Khoros. Either on-site or remotely, users can employ the BDC-developed graphical user interface called the Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) to generate catalog queries and to display and analyze data. SCIES and VISTA permit nearly complete access to BDC services and capabilities without the need to be physically present at the data center.

Snyder, William A.; Gursky, Herbert; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Lucke, Bob L.; Dorland, Bryan N.; Kessel, R. A.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.

1994-09-01

167

Evaluation and promotion strategy research on information communication ability of public crisis under the background of public relations in the crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the progress of science and technology and the development of the economic globalization, social is in an open system environment, in which government's image and executive force will be affected by internal and external factors and so on, so the crisis of public relations possible happens at any time, and the information communication of public crisis is an important

Xi-bo Sun; Qi Wang

2011-01-01

168

Using the Viking biology experimental results to obtain chemical information about Martian regolith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although initially formulated as biology experiments, most of the results produced by the Viking Labeled Release (LR), Gas Exchange (GEX), and Pyrolytic Release (PR) experiments have been reproduced by chemical means. The experiments do not need more study as 'biological' phenomena, but they do deserve much more careful consideration from a chemical viewpoint. They are the only 'wet-chemical' experiments that scientists have performed on another planet, but they have not found very general use as sources of scientific information. There is a large set of potentially useful chemical observations, e.g., the three resolvable and precisely measured kinetic components of the release of C-14-labeled gases, the thermal sensitivity and magnitudes of the oxidation reaction(s) of the LR experiments, the kinetics and magnitude of the O2 and CO2 release of the GEX experiments, the thermal sensitivity of the GEX results, the differences between the thermal sensitivity of the GEX and the thermal sensitivity of the LR responses, and the kinetics and magnitudes of the LR successive injection reabsorption effect. It should be possible to test many chemical aspects of hypothetical martian phenomena in experiments using the biology experimental configurations and derive much valuable information by comparisons with the Viking observations.

Plumb, Robert C.

1992-01-01

169

ICPES analyses using full image spectra and astronomical data fitting algorithms to provide diagnostic and result information  

SciTech Connect

ICP emission analyses are prone to errors due to changes in power level, nebulization rate, plasma temperature, and sample matrix. As a result, accurate analyses of complex samples often require frequent bracketing with matrix matched standards. Information needed to track and correct the matrix errors is contained in the emission spectrum. But most commercial software packages use only the analyte line emission to determine concentrations. Changes in plasma temperature and the nebulization rate are reflected by changes in the hydrogen line widths, the oxygen emission, and neutral ion line ratios. Argon and off-line emissions provide a measure to correct the power level and the background scattering occurring in the polychromator. The authors` studies indicated that changes in the intensity of the Ar 404.4 nm line readily flag most matrix and plasma condition modifications. Carbon lines can be used to monitor the impact of organics on the analyses and calcium and argon lines can be used to correct for spectral drift and alignment. Spectra of contaminated groundwater and simulated defense waste glasses were obtained using a Thermo Jarrell Ash ICP that has an echelle CID detector system covering the 190-850 nm range. The echelle images were translated to the FITS data format, which astronomers recommend for data storage. Data reduction packages such as those in the ESO-MIDAS/ECHELLE and DAOPHOT programs were tried with limited success. The radial point spread function was evaluated as a possible improved peak intensity measurement instead of the common pixel averaging approach used in the commercial ICP software. Several algorithms were evaluated to align and automatically scale the background and reference spectra. A new data reduction approach that utilizes standard reference images, successive subtractions, and residual analyses has been evaluated to correct for matrix effects.

Spencer, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Goode, S.R. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemsitry

1997-10-01

170

Information Security in the Extended Enterprise: Some Initial Results From a Field Study of an Industrial Firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the main drivers of private-section investment in information security? How exposed are firms to cyber risks arising from their reliance on the information infrastructure? Initial results are presented from a field study of a manufacturing company and four of its suppliers of different sizes. We find that many managers believe: that information security is less a competitive advantage

Scott Dynes; Hans Brechbühl; M. Eric Johnson

2005-01-01

171

LAE Informatieplan: Het Resultaat van de Eerste Fase (LAE Information-Plan: The Result of the First Phase).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the result of the first stage of a project to develop an information-plan for the Laboratory for Waste Materials and Emissions (LAE). A structured information-policy is a necessary condition for an organization to deal with information-flows...

J. P. Hettelingh G. J. Carsjens R. van Weenen A. U. C. J. van Beurden

1990-01-01

172

Developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. Methods GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Discussion Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems globally.

2013-01-01

173

Preliminary Results with a Computerized Information System for Emergency Medical Services  

PubMed Central

The design and implementation of a comprehensive Emergency Medical Care system for Central Virginia is described. From its inception, the design of the proposed EMS System was based on the concept that continuous monitoring and evaluation of systems performance is necessary if the impact of the system on the medical care provided within the region was to be assessed. To provide the necessary data for this task, a computerized information system was designed and implemented, that provides three functions: 1. A data base, accessible in real time, containing demographic characteristics, process and outcome data and treatment protocols. 2. Online consultation for physician and Advanced Life Support personnel. 3. Systems structure: (Resource inventory) Preliminary results obtained with this system are discussed.

Attinger, E. O.; Anne, A.; Edlich, R.

1977-01-01

174

Freedom of information rights may result in the FSA's views about regulated firms becoming public  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implications of recent decisions by the UK Information Commissioner under the Freedom of Information Act 2000, ordering the UK Financial Services Authority (FSA), over its objections, to disclose details of certain investigations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Explains the details of two recent decisions by the Information Commissioner that have called into

Carlos Conceicao; Rosalind Gray

2008-01-01

175

Informal payments in government health facilities in Albania: Results of a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

As governments seek to expand access to quality health care services, policy makers in many countries are confronting the problem of informal payments to medical personnel. The aim of this study was to help health planners in Albania understand informal payments occurring in government health facilities. Researchers used in-depth interviews and focus groups with 131 general public and provider informants

Taryn Vian; Kristina Grybosk; Zamira Sinoimeri; Rachel Hall

2006-01-01

176

Wetlands in the Lake Champlain region of Vermont: Present and future threats to the resource. Boundary determination and background information for the EPA's proposed advanced identification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

EPA Region 1 Wetlands Protections Section is planning an Advanced Identification Project for the Lake Champlain Region of Vermont. 'Advanced Identification' refers to the two authorities EPA can utilize under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act to protect wetlands in advance of permit applications. In Vermont, a combined activities-based Advanced Identification of Sites (AIS) and Advance 404(c) project is proposed. This study determines the boundaries for the Advanced Identification action. It discusses the criteria developed to evaluate watershed considerations and both present and future threats to the resource. All towns in four counties bordering Lake Champlain were evaluated with regard to location in watershed, wetland acreage, wetland loss, population projections, historical growth trends, tax information, and housing stock estimates. Based on the criteria listed above, the towns selected are experiencing the types of growth pressures that will lead to continued wetland loss. EPA plans to restrict work at especially valuable sites with this area using Advance 404(c).

Borre, M.A.

1988-11-01

177

Advanced Network Technology. Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This background paper analyzes technologies for tomorrow's information superhighways. Advanced networks will first be used to support scientists in their work, but will soon be deployed more widely in business, entertainment, health care, and education. Significant progress has been made toward the development of gigabit network technology since…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

178

National toxicovigilance for pesticide exposures resulting in health care contact - An example from the UK's National Poisons Information Service.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Although there are extensive systems in place for pharmacovigilance, similar systems for detecting adverse health effects relating to pesticide exposure are rare. In 2004, the National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) pesticide surveillance study was implemented to identify cases requiring health care contact in the UK. This report describes the epidemiology of pesticide exposures reported to poison centres in the UK over a 9-year period. Methods. Data on exposures were gathered through monitoring access to the NPIS's online clinical toxicology database TOXBASE(®) and through monitoring calls to the four NPIS units (Edinburgh, Cardiff, Newcastle and Birmingham). Severity was judged by both caller and NPIS staff. Results. During the 9 years, 34,092 enquiries concerning pesticides were recorded; 7,804 cases of pesticide exposure were derived from these enquiries. Exposures were predominantly unintentional and acute (6,789; 87.0%); 217 (2.8%) and 755 (9.7%) were chronic unintentional and acute deliberate self-harm exposures, respectively. The majority of cases occurred in children, especially the 0-4 year age group The minimum incidence of pesticide exposure requiring health care contact was 2.0 cases/100,000 population per year. Reported numbers were 6- to 25-fold greater than those picked up through other UK pesticide toxicovigilance schemes. There were 81 cases of severe toxicity and 38 cases of fatal exposure. Deliberate self-harm accounted for 62.3% of severe cases and 79% of deaths. Aluminium phosphide, paraquat, diquat and glyphosate were responsible for most severe and fatal cases. Conclusions. The data gathered from this pesticide surveillance study indicate that poison centre resources can usefully monitor pesticide exposures resulting in health care contact in the UK. The NPIS may usefully be one component of the UK's response to European legislation requiring surveillance of complications resulting from pesticide use. PMID:24735003

Perry, L; Adams, R D; Bennett, A R; Lupton, D J; Jackson, G; Good, A M; Thomas, S H L; Vale, J A; Thompson, J P; Bateman, D N; Eddleston, M

2014-06-01

179

12 CFR 1238.5 - Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related information.  

...Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related information...FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS STRESS TESTING OF REGULATED ENTITIES § 1238.5 Required report to FHFA and the FRB of stress test results and related...

2014-01-01

180

The Cosmological Background Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides an introduction to the physics, astrophysics and cosmology of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Adopting the Standard Big Bang model of the universe, the authors cover topics including the origin of the background, intrinsic fluctuations, and the universe and background radiation after recombination. Finally they present measurement of the radiation and its anisotropies, along with a review

Marc Lachièze-Rey; Edgard Gunzig

1999-01-01

181

An effective and efficient results merging strategy for multilingual information retrieval in federated search environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilingual information retrieval is generally understood to mean the retrieval of relevant information in multiple target\\u000a languages in response to a user query in a single source language. In a multilingual federated search environment, different\\u000a information sources contain documents in different languages. A general search strategy in multilingual federated search environments\\u000a is to translate the user query to each language

Luo Si; Jamie Callan; Suleyman Cetintas; Hao Yuan

2008-01-01

182

The implementation of information technology in Vietnamese libraries : Results of a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a survey administered to 36 information professionals in Vietnamese libraries, this paper discusses progress in the implementation of IT in the library and information sector. It describes a number of emerging networks and services with potential for further development. In addition there is discussion of weaknesses in service provision, and a series of suggestions as to how the

Lan Anh Tran; G. E. Gorman

1999-01-01

183

Updating contextual information during consolidation as result of a new memory trace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconsolidation studies have led to the hypothesis that memory, when labile, would be modified in order to incorporate new information. This view has reinstated original propositions suggesting that short-term memory provides the organism with an opportunity to evaluate and rearrange information before storing it, since it is concurrent with the labile state of consolidation. The Chasmagnathus associative memory model is

Luis Daniel Suárez; Leticia Smal; Alejandro Delorenzi

2010-01-01

184

The Integration of the Information and Communication Functions, and the Marketing of the Resulting Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the theoretical basis for integration of information functions and communication functions, the relevance of this integration in the scientific information cycle, and its positive effect on commodity research networks. The application of this theory is described using three commodity programs of the Centro Internacional de Agricultura…

Harris, Susan C.

1985-01-01

185

Development of computational information technology for monitoring NCD risks in the Russian population: preliminary results.  

PubMed

Here, we report first results on the development of computational health information technology for monitoring chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) risks in Russia based on data of the large-scale ongoing population survey in Health Centers (HCs). The technology involve algorithms for automated raw data process and generation of joint database, tools for data standardization and visualization, the assessment of risks, and other components. The data on physical status of Russians, including height, weight, and BMI are provided and compared with Belgian (1835), Swiss (2002), and US (1988-1994) reference datasets. The age-standardized prevalence of obesity in 5-85 years-old Russians according to the conventional WHO criteria was found to be high (18.9% in males and 26.7% in females) and varied significantly across federal subjects of Russia thus suggesting an importance of the Russian NCDs risks monitoring system for planning and evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive and therapeutic measures. PMID:25000064

Chernykh, Svetlana P; Rudnev, Sergey G; Nikolaev, Dmitriy V; Starunova, Olga A

2014-01-01

186

Informal Caregiving and Self-Reported Mental and Physical Health: Results From the Gazel Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated whether, and under what conditions, informal caregiving is associated with improved self-reported physical and mental health, most notably in terms of cognitive functioning. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2008 data from the Gazel Cohort Study, which involved 10 687 men and women aged 54 to 70 years. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between self-reported health and caregiving status and burden. Results. Regular caregivers with the highest burden scores reported significantly worse health status than did noncaregivers for almost all of the physical and mental outcomes evaluated after adjustment for potential confounding factors. In particular, they reported more cognitive complaints (odds ratio [OR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 1.73). Conversely, caregivers with the lowest burden scores reported better perceived health status, less physical and mental tiredness, and fewer depressive symptoms (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.37, 0.68) than did noncaregivers; however, they did not report decreases in cognitive difficulties (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.81, 1.18). Conclusions. Our findings support the hypothesis that caregiving can have positive effects on health, provided that caregiving activities themselves are not too heavy a burden.

Bonnaud, Sophie; Boumendil, Ariane; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bonenfant, Sebastien; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Ankri, Joel

2011-01-01

187

Limitations of diabetes pharmacotherapy: results from the Vermont Diabetes Information System study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are a wide variety of medications available for the treatment of hyperglycemia in diabetes, including some categories developed in recent years. The goals of this study were to describe the glycemic medication profiles in a cohort of adult patients enrolled in primary care, to compare the regimens with measures of glycemic control, and to describe potential contraindicated regimens.

Charles D MacLean; Benjamin Littenberg; Amanda G Kennedy

2006-01-01

188

Comparing human and machine performance for natural language information extraction: results for English microelectronics from the MUC5 evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In evaluating the state of technology for extracting information from natural language text by machine, it is valuable to compare the performance of machine extraction systems with that achieved by humans performing the same task. The purpose of this paper is to present some results from a comparative study of human and machine performance for one of the information extraction

Craig A. Will

1993-01-01

189

Background level care.  

PubMed

The framework enabled by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System to allow appropriate, patient-centred caries management includes a frequently encountered scenario in which a comprehensive assessment of the teeth and the patient reveals no lesions in need of active preventive or operative care. The issue addressed here is: what background care is appropriate for patients attending a dental practice for routine caries care who, at present, appear to have no active or progressing caries lesions? It is proposed that, in addition to the use of criteria for lesion extent, treatment planning systems should also express the results of lesion assessments in terms of background level care (BLC), preventive treatment options and operative treatment options. The specific treatment options recommended for specific lesions and patients will depend upon a variety of other factors, including lesion activity, monitoring lesion behaviour over time and a range of other prognostic factors. Over recent decades, there has been comparatively little focus on appropriate BLC in a general practice setting. There are a range of issues around the need to support caries prevention and health maintenance from a behavioural and patient-focussed perspective. Even if a patient is deemed to be at low risk of future caries at a particular examination, there is a need for maintenance care. Intrinsic issues which need to be managed for both patients and their caries lesions in this patient group are: (1) the possibility of a change in caries risk status and (2) the impact of incorrect lesion assessments/diagnoses. PMID:19494681

Pitts, N B

2009-01-01

190

The Cosmic Background Explorer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

1990-01-01

191

49 CFR 655.72 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...For information on where to submit MIS forms and for the electronic version of the form, see: http://transit-safety.volpe.dot.gov/DAMIS. (e) To calculate the total number of covered employees eligible for random testing...

2009-10-01

192

49 CFR 655.72 - Reporting of results in a management information system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...For information on where to submit MIS forms and for the electronic version of the form, see: http://transit-safety.volpe.dot.gov/DAMIS. (e) To calculate the total number of covered employees eligible for random testing...

2010-10-01

193

Improving Informed Consent with Minority Participants: Results from Researcher and Community Surveys  

PubMed Central

Strengthening the informed consent process is one avenue for improving recruitment of minorities into research. This study examines that process from two different perspectives, that of researchers and that of African American and Latino community members. Through the use of two separate surveys, we compared strategies used by researchers with the preferences and attitudes of community members during the informed consent process. Our data suggest that researchers can improve the informed consent process by incorporating methods preferred by the community members along with methods shown in the literature for increasing comprehension. With this approach, the informed consent process may increase both participants’ comprehension of the material and overall satisfaction, fostering greater trust in research and openness to future research opportunities.

Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Garza, Mary A.; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S.; Casper, Erica T.; Thomas, Stephen B.; Barnard, David; Kim, Kevin H.

2013-01-01

194

76 FR 28625 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program; State Referendum Results  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service 7 CFR 1221 [AMS-LS-11-0040] Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...Marketing Service (AMS) is announcing that sorghum producers voting in a national referendum...have approved the continuation of the Sorghum Promotion, Research, and...

2011-05-18

195

How do hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background estimate their language skills and their comprehension of medical information - a prospective cross-sectional study and comparison to native patients in Germany to assess the language barrier and the need for translation  

PubMed Central

Background Today more than two million people with Turkish migration background live in Germany making them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Data concerning language skills and the perception of medical information in hospitalised patients with Turkish migration background (T) are scarce. Our study is the first to gather quantitative information on this important subject. Methods T and hospitalised German patients without migration background (G) of our university hospital were prospectively included into a cross-sectional study and completed a questionnaire - each group in the appropriate language (T: Turkish, G: German). Results 121 T and 121 G were included. Groups significantly differed in age (T: 44.9?±?17.8, G: 56.9?±?16.7y) and proportion of males (T: 37.2, G: 54.5%) but not regarding the proportion of college graduates (T: 19.3, G: 15.7%). The majority of T was born in Turkey (71%) and is of Turkish nationality (66%). 74% of T speak mainly Turkish at home; however, 73% speak German at work. 74.4% of T self-rated their German linguistic proficiency as “average” or better while 25.6% reported it as “very bad” or “bad”. 10.7% of T need translation in order to pursue everyday activities. T were significantly less satisfied with the physician’s information on disease and estimated to understand significantly less of what the physician told them: 46.3% of T estimated their reception of the physician’s information to be “average” or worse. 43.3% of T had the impression that it would have helped them “much” or “very much” to be aided by an interpreter at the hospital. The information transmitted while giving informed consent to invasive medical procedure was judged to be “mostly” or “completely” sufficient by the majority of T (76%) and G (89.8%). In this setting 37 of 96 T (38.5%) reported being helped by an interpreter – in most cases (64.9%) a family member. Conclusion Although the majority of patients with Turkish migration background have spent most of their lives in Germany (28.94?±?10.41y) a large part of this population has limited German language skills and difficulties obtaining medical information when hospitalised.

2013-01-01

196

The state of emergency obstetric care services in Nairobi informal settlements and environs: Results from a maternity health facility survey  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge with estimates exceeding 1,000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in some countries. Successful prevention of maternal deaths hinges on adequate and quality emergency obstetric care. In addition to skilled personnel, there is need for a supportive environment in terms of essential drugs and supplies, equipment, and a referral system. Many household surveys report a reasonably high proportion of women delivering in health facilities. However, the quality and adequacy of facilities and personnel are often not assessed. The three delay model; 1) delay in making the decision to seek care; 2) delay in reaching an appropriate obstetric facility; and 3) delay in receiving appropriate care once at the facility guided this project. This paper examines aspects of the third delay by assessing quality of emergency obstetric care in terms of staffing, skills equipment and supplies. Methods We used data from a survey of 25 maternity health facilities within or near two slums in Nairobi that were mentioned by women in a household survey as places that they delivered. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Kenya Medical Research Institute. Permission was also sought from the Ministry of Health and the Medical Officer of Health. Data collection included interviews with the staff in-charge of maternity wards using structured questionnaires. We collected information on staffing levels, obstetric procedures performed, availability of equipment and supplies, referral system and health management information system. Results Out of the 25 health facilities, only two met the criteria for comprehensive emergency obstetric care (both located outside the two slums) while the others provided less than basic emergency obstetric care. Lack of obstetric skills, equipment, and supplies hamper many facilities from providing lifesaving emergency obstetric procedures. Accurate estimation of burden of morbidity and mortality was a challenge due to poor and incomplete medical records. Conclusion The quality of emergency obstetric care services in Nairobi slums is poor and needs improvement. Specific areas that require attention include supervision, regulation of maternity facilities; and ensuring that basic equipment, supplies, and trained personnel are available in order to handle obstetric complications in both public and private facilities.

Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Mills, Samuel; Madise, Nyovani; Saliku, Teresa; Fotso, Jean-Christophe

2009-01-01

197

A Method for the Design and Development of Medical or Health Care Information Websites to Optimize Search Engine Results Page Rankings on Google  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet is a widely used source of information for patients searching for medical/health care information. While many studies have assessed existing medical/health care information on the Internet, relatively few have examined methods for design and delivery of such websites, particularly those aimed at the general public. Objective This study describes a method of evaluating material for new medical/health care websites, or for assessing those already in existence, which is correlated with higher rankings on Google's Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs). Methods A website quality assessment (WQA) tool was developed using criteria related to the quality of the information to be contained in the website in addition to an assessment of the readability of the text. This was retrospectively applied to assess existing websites that provide information about generic medicines. The reproducibility of the WQA tool and its predictive validity were assessed in this study. Results The WQA tool demonstrated very high reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95) between 2 independent users. A moderate to strong correlation was found between WQA scores and rankings on Google SERPs. Analogous correlations were seen between rankings and readability of websites as determined by Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores. Conclusions The use of the WQA tool developed in this study is recommended as part of the design phase of a medical or health care information provision website, along with assessment of readability of the material to be used. This may ensure that the website performs better on Google searches. The tool can also be used retrospectively to make improvements to existing websites, thus, potentially enabling better Google search result positions without incurring the costs associated with Search Engine Optimization (SEO) professionals or paid promotion.

Cummins, Niamh Maria; Hannigan, Ailish; Shannon, Bill; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter

2013-01-01

198

Communicating Uncertainties in Weather and Climate Information: Results of a National Academies Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a major East Coast snowstorm was forecast during the winter of 2001, people began preparing - both the public and the decision-makers responsible for public services. There was an air of urgency, heightened because just the previous year the region had been hit hard by a storm of unpredicted strength. But this time, the storm never materialized and people were left wondering what went "wrong" with the forecast. Did something go wrong or did forecasters just fail to communicate their information in an effective way? Did they convey a sense of the likelihood of the event and keep people up to date as information changed? In the summer of 2001, the National Academies' Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate hosted a workshop designed to explore the communication of uncertainty in weather and climate information. Workshop participants examined five case studies that were chosen to illustrate a range of forecast timescales and certainty levels. The cases were: Red River Flood, Grand Forks, April 1997; East Coast Winter Storm, March 2001; Oklahoma-Kansas Tornado Outbreak, May 3, 1999; El Nino 1997-1998, and Climate Change Science, a report issued in 2001. In each of these cases, participants examined who said what, when, to whom, how, and with what effect. The last two cases specifically address climate-related topics. This paper summarizes the final workshop report (Communicating Uncertainties in Weather and Climate Information: Summary of a Workshop, NRC 2002), including an overview of the five cases and lessons learned about communicating uncertainties in weather and climate forecasts. Among other findings, the report stresses that communication and appropriate dissemination of information, including information about uncertainty in the forecasts and the forecaster's confidence in the product, should be an integral, ongoing part of the forecasting process, not an afterthought. Explaining uncertainty should be an integral part of what weather and climate forecasters do and is essential to delivering accurate and useful information.

Friday, E.; Barron, E. J.; Elfring, C.; Geller, L.

2002-12-01

199

Bayesian rule-based complex background modeling and foreground detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting foreground objects from image sequences has played an important role in many machine vision applications. Background modeling, which is a preliminary processing step for foreground detection, is a challenging task due to the complexity and variety of background regions, unexpected situations, and image artifacts such as noise factors, impairments, etc. In this work, we propose a pixel-based background modeling method that uses nonparametric kernel density estimation and foreground/background classification based on the Bayesian decision rule. To reduce the complexity of the kernel density estimation technique, we estimate the probability density function for the background regions using histograms. Hue, saturation, and value (HSV) color and gradient information is also used to represent the background features. After the background statistics are estimated, we detect the foreground regions by using a background subtracting method based on the Bayesian decision rule, which eliminates the need to select and tune the threshold value for foreground/background region classification. The proposed algorithm is validated using datasets acquired in indoor and outdoor environments with a fixed camera. The proposed algorithm is quantitatively compared with two existing background modeling methods. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm produces more accurate and stable results.

Park, Jong Geun; Lee, Chulhee

2010-02-01

200

Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

Mello Koch, Robert de [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

2009-01-15

201

Phase 1, Background study results under the Council of Great Lake Governors program to perform stack sampling and analysis of emissions from densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF)  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the results of the first part of the study. Chapter 2 contains a summary of the d-RDF literature which was surveyed. Chapter 3 contains a compilation of existing and proposed regulation information from the seven participating Great Lakes States. Chapter 4 includes identification of pellet producers in the region. Chapter 5 contains a description of the pellet producers and test burn facilities selected for the experimental work to be undertaken in the second part of the program study. Chapter 6 contains a list of references. 27 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1989-04-07

202

Tautatietoa energiaturpeesta. (Background information of energy peat).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of Finnish energy policy is to maintain well operating energy supply, to improve the energy independence, to maintain alternatives in energy production and to decentralize energy production. The energy independence of Finland is only 38%, while in...

1990-01-01

203

Water Watch Program Overview. Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lakes, streams, and wetlands serve many purposes for the people of the state of Kentucky and are necessary and valued elements of its natural resources. The Water Watch program promotes individual responsibility for a common resource, educates people about the use and protection of local water resources, provides recreational opportunities through…

Kentucky State Div. of Water, Frankfort. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet.

204

Individually Prescribed Instruction: Background Information and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of individually prescribed instruction (IPI) in reading as compared to the traditional mode of instruction are examined. The IPI model includes four components: analysis of subject matter content, diagnosis of student preinstructional behavior, sequencing of materials to facilitate learning, and evaluation strategies. Elementary…

DeRenzis, Joseph J.

205

LED Roadway Lighting Volume 1: Background Information.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Roadway lighting is a fundamental public service that leads to a safer environment for both pedestrians and drivers. It is estimated that lighting alone accounts for around 3% of the total U.S. electricity consumption. Currently, street lighting applicati...

J. Medina K. A. Avrenli R. R. Benekohal

2012-01-01

206

Design philosophy of Eurocodes — background information  

Microsoft Academic Search

ENV 1993-1.4 — Supplementary rules for stainless steels — may be used as a complementary part to Eurocode 3 Part 1.1 — General rules and rules for buildings — to design structural elements made of stainless steel. The rules specified in ENV 1993-1.4 are based on the design rules for carbon steels although the stress–strain curves for austenitic stainless steels

Gerhard Sedlacek; Heiko Stangenberg

2000-01-01

207

TransCom 3 CO2 inversion intercomparison: 1. Annual mean control results and sensitivity to transport and prior flux information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations contain information about surface sources and sinks, which can be quantitatively interpreted through tracer transport inversion. Previous CO2 inversion calculations obtained differing results due to different data, methods and transport models used. To isolate the sources of uncertainty, we have conducted a set of annual mean inversion experiments in which 17 different transport models or model variants were used to calculate regional carbon sources and sinks from the same data with a standardized method. Simulated transport is a significant source of uncertainty in these calculations, particularly in the response to prescribed "background" fluxes due to fossil fuel combustion, a balanced terrestrial biosphere, and air-sea gas exchange. Individual model-estimated fluxes are often a direct reflection of their response to these background fluxes. Models that generate strong surface maxima near background exchange locations tend to require larger uptake near those locations. Models with weak surface maxima tend to have less uptake in those same regions but may infer small sources downwind. In some cases, individual model flux estimates cannot be analyzed through simple relationships to background flux responses but are likely due to local transport differences or particular responses at individual CO2 observing locations. The response to the background biosphere exchange generates the greatest variation in the estimated fluxes, particularly over land in the Northern Hemisphere. More observational data in the tropical regions may help in both lowering the uncertain tropical land flux uncertainties and constraining the northern land estimates because of compensation between these two broad regions in the inversion. More optimistically, examination of the model-mean retrieved fluxes indicates a general insensitivity to the prior fluxes and the prior flux uncertainties. Less uptake in the Southern Ocean than implied by oceanographic observations, and an evenly distributed northern land sink, remain in spite of changes in this aspect of the inversion setup.

Gurney, Kevin Robert; Law, Rachel M.; Denning, A. Scott; Rayner, Peter J.; Baker, David; Bousquet, Philippe; Bruhwiler, Lori; Chen, Yu-Han; Ciais, Philippe; Fan, Songmiao; Fung, Inez Y.; Gloor, Manuel; Heimann, Martin; Higuchi, Kaz; John, Jasmin; Kowalczyk, Eva; Maki, Takashi; Maksyutov, Shamil; Peylin, Philippe; Prather, Michael; Pak, Bernard C.; Sarmiento, Jorge; Taguchi, Shoichi; Takahashi, Taro; Yuen, Chiu-Wai

2003-04-01

208

Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

SciTech Connect

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of volcanic aerosol is over 30% faster than one would obtain without this correction. At background, the aerosol size distribution is found to remain remarkably constant between the tropopause and an altitude of approx.25 km, with a sudden transition to a distribution dominated by smaller particles above this altitude. The observations, in some respects, compare favorably with equilibrium one-dimensional stratospheric aerosol models and thus to some extent support the concept of relatively inert tropospheric sulfurous gases, such as carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide, as the main background stratospheric aerosol sulfur source. Models which incorporate sulfur chemistry are apparently not able to predict the observed variation of particle size with altitude. The 2-year background period is not long enough in itself to establish long-term trends. The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in May 1980 has considerably disrupted the background stratospheric aerosol which will probably not recover for several years. A comparison of the 1978--79 observations with Junge's original measurements made some 20 years earlier, also during a period void of volcanic perturbations, does not preclude a long-term increase in the background stratospheric aerosol level.

Hofmann, D.J.; Rosen, J.M.

1981-01-01

209

Similarity-Based Restoration of Metrical Information: Different Listening Experiences Result in Different Perceptual Inferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do perceivers apply knowledge to instances they have never experienced before? On one hand, listeners might use idealized representations that do not contain specific details. On the other, they might recognize and process information based on more detailed memory representations. The current study examined the latter possibility with respect…

Creel, Sarah C.

2012-01-01

210

The Adoption and Use of Health Information Technology in Rural Areas: Results of a National Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Health information technology (HIT) is a national policy priority. Knowledge about the special needs, if any, of rural health care providers should be taken into account as policy is put into action. Little is known, however, about rural-urban differences in HIT adoption at the national level. Purpose: To conduct the first national…

Singh, Ranjit; Lichter, Michael I.; Danzo, Andrew; Taylor, John; Rosenthal, Thomas

2012-01-01

211

Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices. Research Results Digest 17.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating s...

2013-01-01

212

Rate of information processing in visual perception: Some results and methodological considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequacies involved in the methodologies for studying rate of information processing in visual perception were discussed in terms of current models and knowledge of visual perception. A different methodology was introduced based on a l0-channel tachistoscope which permitted the presentation of letter stimuli at varying rates. The task was visual search with Ss reguired to detect whether an A (target)

Charles W. Eriksen; Terry Spencer

1969-01-01

213

Evaluating an Automated Career Information Development System: Research Results and Techniques for System Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to summarize an evaluation of the PLATO career information development system (CIDS) at two sites in Illinois: Truman College, Chicago, and the Champaign Comprehensive Employment and Training Act Consortium. Data were obtained between March 31 and June 28, 1982 from 229 users in regard to six questions/issues that were…

Flynn, Marilyn L.; DiBello, Louis V.

214

25 CFR 181.6 - How are applicants informed of the results?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAM § 181.6 How are applicants informed of...selection or non-selection for participation in the Indian Highway Safety Program for the upcoming fiscal year. BIA will...

2011-04-01

215

An Evaluation of Selected NASA Scientific and Technical Information Products: Results of a Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pilot study was conducted to evaluate selected NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) scientific and technical information (STI) products. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire, had a two-fold purpose--to gather baseline data on the use and perceived usefulness of selected…

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron

216

Adaptive background model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adaptive background model aiming at outdoor vehicle detection is presented in this paper. This model is an improved model of PICA (pixel intensity classification algorithm), it classifies pixels into K-distributions by color similarity, and then a hypothesis that the background pixel color appears in image sequence with a high frequency is used to evaluate all the distributions to determine which presents the current background color. As experiments show, the model presented in this paper is a robust, adaptive and flexible model, which can deal with situations like camera motions, lighting changes and so on.

Lu, Xiaochun; Xiao, Yijun; Chai, Zhi; Wang, Bangping

2007-11-01

217

The cosmic neutrino background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

Dar, Arnon

1991-01-01

218

Background and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

Background & Statistics FAQ About Homeless Veterans Homeless Veterans Facts Demographics of Homeless Veterans Incarcerated Veterans Research Briefs Sources FAQ ... VETERANS In May 2007, the Bureau of Justice Statistics released a special report on incarcerated veterans. The ...

219

Background Oriented Schlieren Demonstrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this project report we present the application of a novel schlieren technique for two different tests. The optical method is referred to as 'Background Oriented Schlieren' (BOS) in the following. Additionally the differences between BOS and an extensio...

H. Richard M. Raffel

2000-01-01

220

Using the Internet to Help With Diet, Weight, and Physical Activity: Results From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet offers a viable platform for cost-effective and wide-reaching health interventions. However, little is known about use of the Internet to help with diet, weight, and physical activity (DWPA) using a nationally representative sample from the United States. Objective To (1) assess the demographic characteristics of people who use the Internet to help with DWPA, (2) assess whether usage trends changed over time, and (3) investigate the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and health behaviors. Methods Data on Internet users from the 2007 and 2011 iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), N=4827 were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the demographic correlates of using the Internet for help with DWPA. Multiple linear regression was used to test the associations between Internet use for DWPA and three health behaviors: fruit intake, vegetable intake, and physical activity. Results A larger percentage of Internet users used the Internet for DWPA in 2011 (42.83%) than in 2007 (40.43%). In general, Internet users who were younger (OR 0.98, P<.001), more educated (OR 1.40, P<.001), married (OR 1.06, P=.03), of a minority race (non-Hispanic blacks: OR 1.14, P=.02; Hispanics: OR 1.42, P=.01), and who had a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) (OR 1.04, P<.001) were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA. Across survey years, gender was not associated with using the Internet for DWPA (OR 1.03, P=.12), but there was a significant interaction between survey year and gender (OR 1.95, P=.002); in 2007, men were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA, but women were more likely to do so in 2011. Using the Internet for DWPA was associated with more vegetable intake (B=.22, P=.002), more fruit intake (B=.19, P=.001), and more moderate exercise (B=.25, P=.001), although the strength of the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and fruit intake and exercise was weaker in 2011 than in 2007. Conclusions Contrary to prior research, our population-level study did not show a pronounced gender difference in the use of the Internet for DWPA. Our results support the increasing viability of the Internet as a platform for behavior change intervention, as a growing percentage of Internet users are turning to the Internet for help with DWPA. Additionally, using the Internet for DWPA is associated with better DWPA-related health behaviors.

McCully, Scout N; Don, Brian P

2013-01-01

221

The informational content of insider trading disclosures: empirical results for the Polish stock market  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we try to answer the question as to whether insider trading disclosures convey valuable information to market\\u000a participants, valuable in the sense of the profitability of an investment strategy that faithfully mirrors insider behaviour.\\u000a Our interest in this subject is limited to the case of announcements concerning insider transactions issued over a 6 year-period\\u000a on the Warsaw Stock

Henryk Gurgul; Pawe? Majdosz

2007-01-01

222

Modeling extreme values resulting from compromising electromagnetic emanations generated by an information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic intelligence and attacks pose unacceptable risks for the security and safety of critical networks and more specifically the power network. In this paper, it is pointed out how the use of the excess model allows one to extrapolate the very high level of spurious compromising emanations induced by an information system in realistic power network models. It is shown that the design of appropriate protections and risk management methodologies can be enhanced thanks to the extreme value statistics.

Kasmi, Chaouki; Hélier, Marc; Darces, Muriel; Prouff, Emmanuel

2014-05-01

223

Updating contextual information during consolidation as result of a new memory trace.  

PubMed

Reconsolidation studies have led to the hypothesis that memory, when labile, would be modified in order to incorporate new information. This view has reinstated original propositions suggesting that short-term memory provides the organism with an opportunity to evaluate and rearrange information before storing it, since it is concurrent with the labile state of consolidation. The Chasmagnathus associative memory model is used here to test whether during consolidation it is possible to change some attribute of recently acquired memories. In addition, it is tested whether these changes in behavioral memory features can be explained as modifications on the consolidating memory trace or as a consequence of a new memory trace. We show that short-term memory is, unlike long-term memory, not context specific. During this short period after learning, behavioral memory can be updated in order to incorporate new contextual information. We found that, during this period, the cycloheximide retrograde amnesic effect can be reverted by a single trial in a new context. Finally, by means of memory sensitivity to cycloheximide during consolidation and reconsolidation, we show that the learning of a new context (CS) during this short-term memory period builds up a new memory trace that sustains the behavioral memory update. PMID:20188846

Suárez, Luis Daniel; Smal, Leticia; Delorenzi, Alejandro

2010-05-01

224

Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coleridge's famous line about water everywhere without a drop to drink may serve as a useful metaphor for the contemporary design studio. Engulfed within a sea of information, where does the designer look for references? This paper outlines the results of an ongoing research project entitled 'Interactive Multimedia within the Design Studio' (grant awarded by FAPEMIG - Fundação de Amparo

Philip Rhodes

1991-01-01

225

The cosmological background radiation. Echo of the early universe.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an introduction to the physics, astrophysics and cosmology of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The standard big bang model of the universe is adopted at the outset. The topics then covered include the origin of the background, then intrinsic fluctuations, followed by the universe and background radiation after recombination. Finally, measurement of the radiation and its anisotropies is presented, together with a review of the current status of results and experiments. The authors assume that the reader has a basic understanding of the central concepts of general relativity, but they avoid rigorous mathematical proofs and manipulations, preferring instead to concentrate on the information needed by hands-on cosmologists and astrophysicists.

Lachièze-Rey, M.; Gunzig, E.

226

Health information seeking among Mbararan adolescents: results from the Uganda Media and You survey.  

PubMed

To maximize scarce intervention dollars, pediatricians and other adolescent health professionals must position health promotion efforts in mediums that most effectively reach youth. This may be especially true in resource-limited settings where access to primary health care and medications is limited. To improve the efficiency and impact of disease prevention and health promotion efforts in resource-limited settings, we examine sources of health information cited by adolescents in Mbarara Uganda. Participants in the Uganda Media and You survey were students aged 12-18 (n = 500) randomly identified in five secondary schools in Mbarara municipality, Uganda. Ninety-three percent of eligible and invited youth completed the cross-sectional, pencil-and-paper survey. Four in five adolescents (81%) indicated they turned to parents, teachers, and other adults while around half read a book/went to the library (56%) or turned to siblings and friends (50%) for information about health and disease. More than one in three (38%) indicated that they used the computer and Internet to search for health information. Older versus younger respondents tended to rely upon siblings and friends for all types of health questions. On the other hand, younger versus older youth were significantly more likely to turn to parents, teachers, and other adults for their questions about sexual health. Adults may be an important component of effective disease prevention and health promotion campaigns. Multiple delivery methods may be especially effective for reaching older adolescents. Technology also may be an important health promotion tool in resource-limited settings. PMID:17639121

Ybarra, Michele L; Emenyonu, Nneka; Nansera, Denis; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R

2008-04-01

227

Unified treatment algorithm for the management of crotaline snakebite in the United States: results of an evidence-informed consensus workshop  

PubMed Central

Background Envenomation by crotaline snakes (rattlesnake, cottonmouth, copperhead) is a complex, potentially lethal condition affecting thousands of people in the United States each year. Treatment of crotaline envenomation is not standardized, and significant variation in practice exists. Methods A geographically diverse panel of experts was convened for the purpose of deriving an evidence-informed unified treatment algorithm. Research staff analyzed the extant medical literature and performed targeted analyses of existing databases to inform specific clinical decisions. A trained external facilitator used modified Delphi and structured consensus methodology to achieve consensus on the final treatment algorithm. Results A unified treatment algorithm was produced and endorsed by all nine expert panel members. This algorithm provides guidance about clinical and laboratory observations, indications for and dosing of antivenom, adjunctive therapies, post-stabilization care, and management of complications from envenomation and therapy. Conclusions Clinical manifestations and ideal treatment of crotaline snakebite differ greatly, and can result in severe complications. Using a modified Delphi method, we provide evidence-informed treatment guidelines in an attempt to reduce variation in care and possibly improve clinical outcomes.

2011-01-01

228

[Towards informed choice: design and results of projects on (cancer) screening funded by the Federal Ministry of Health].  

PubMed

There has been a gradual paradigm shift in the area of screening and early detection of diseases. For many years, the sole focus of public health policies was increasing the uptake rates in screening programs. However, today there is an increasing awareness of the importance of informed decision making -- particularly in the area of screening. The provision of high-quality, evidence-based, and comprehensive information on benefit and harm is an important approach in achieving this objective. The current paper presents a project that was funded by the Federal Ministry of Health. It examines whether existing information material is appropriate to support informed decision making. In the first phase of the project, different screening procedures were assessed systematically and compared using several indicators. Based on the results of an expert workshop, the subsequent research activities focused on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening as one example. Phase II included the systematic search and assessment of print media, e.g., flyers and brochures, while phase III applied the same methods to websites on CRC screening. The information material was analyzed with a mix of methods, involving both experts and users. Finally, the results were presented and discussed with the authors/providers of the information material. Based on the results of this project, the Federal Center for Health Education developed a module on CRC screening for an Internet platform on women's health that is currently being evaluated. In sum, this research project contributes to the development of evidence-based and balanced information as well as informed decision making. PMID:24562711

Walter, U; Töppich, J; Stomper, B

2014-03-01

229

76 FR 68518 - Request for Information: Public Access to Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Publications Resulting From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Access to Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Publications Resulting From Federally Funded Research...access to the peer-reviewed scholarly publications that result from federally funded scientific...Force on Public Access to Scholarly Publications. Release Date: November 3,...

2011-11-04

230

76 FR 80418 - Request for Information: Public Access to Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Publications Resulting From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Access to Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Publications Resulting From Federally Funded Research...access to the peer-reviewed scholarly publications that result from federally funded scientific...Force on Public Access to Scholarly Publications. Release Date: November 3,...

2011-12-23

231

Reporting of results of interventional studies by the information service of the National Institutes of Health  

PubMed Central

The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that sponsors of applicable studies must provide results within one year of study completion. We aimed to analyze the factors associated with reporting of results from interventional studies registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. On May 20, 2010, we retrieved 20 available fields from 57,233 closed studies on the website and identified 31,161 interventional studies that were required to post results. We compared the proportion of studies with results versus studies without results by age, gender, and disease status of participants, by interventions, sponsors, phase of clinical trials, and completion dates. The results of studies were reported for 4.7% of applicable studies, 8% of industry-sponsored studies, 7.5% of Phase II and 6.5% of Phase IV clinical trials, 4.9% of drug studies, and 0% of genetic studies. Withdrawn (n = 486) and suspended (n = 414) interventions did not provide results. The percentage of studies with results varied from 0% to 21% among different sponsors. The first studies with results were completed in 1992. The proportion of studies with results increased over time. Completion dates were not available for 7446 studies. The database does not have fields available to facilitate routine analysis of the rate of compliance with federal law for posting results. The analysis of accuracy of the protocols in relation to the results and publications is not possible without time-consuming evaluation of individual postings and individual publications.

Shamliyan, Tatyana

2010-01-01

232

The Cosmic Background Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

1990-01-01

233

Cosmic Microwave Background  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the cosmic microwave background to understand why it permeates the universe and why it peaks as microwave radiation. Students should be able to explain that the origin of the background radiation is the uniform thermal radiation of the big bang and that the radiation produced was evenly distributed around the small early universe, causing it to permeate today's universe. This activity is part of the Cosmic Times teachers guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1965 Cosmic Times Poster.

234

Long-term efficacy and safety of Raltegravir combined with optimized background therapy in treatment-experienced patients with drug-resistant HIV infection: week 96 results of the BENCHMRK 1 and 2 Phase III trials.  

PubMed

BENCHMRK-1 and -2 are ongoing double-blind phase III studies of raltegravir in patients experiencing failure of antiretroviral therapy with triple-class drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus infection. At week 96 (combined data), raltegravir (400 mg twice daily) plus optimized background therapy was generally well tolerated, with superior and durable antiretroviral and immunological efficacy, compared with optimized background therapy alone. PMID:20085491

Steigbigel, Roy T; Cooper, David A; Teppler, Hedy; Eron, Joseph J; Gatell, Jose M; Kumar, Princy N; Rockstroh, Jurgen K; Schechter, Mauro; Katlama, Christine; Markowitz, Martin; Yeni, Patrick; Loutfy, Mona R; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lennox, Jeffrey L; Clotet, Bonaventura; Zhao, Jing; Wan, Hong; Rhodes, Rand R; Strohmaier, Kim M; Barnard, Richard J; Isaacs, Robin D; Nguyen, Bach-Yen T

2010-02-15

235

Cosmic Background Bose Condensation (CBBC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degeneracy effects for bosons are more important for smaller particle mass, smaller temperature and higher number density. Bose condensation requires that particles be in the same lowest energy quantum state. We propose a cosmic background Bose condensation, present everywhere, with its particles having the lowest quantum energy state, ?c/ ?, with ? about the size of the visible universe, and therefore unlocalized. This we identify with the quantum of the self gravitational potential energy of any particle, and with the bit of information of minimum energy. The entropy of the universe (˜10122 bits) has the highest number density (˜1036 bits/cm3) of particles inside the visible universe, the smallest mass, ˜10-66 g, and the smallest temperature, ˜10-29 K. Therefore it is the best candidate for a Cosmic Background Bose Condensation (CBBC), a completely calmed fluid, with no viscosity, in a superfluidity state, and possibly responsible for the expansion of the universe.

Alfonso-Faus, A.; Fullana i Alfonso, M. J.

2013-09-01

236

Do Participants in Genome Sequencing Studies of Psychiatric Disorders Wish to Be Informed of Their Results? A Survey Study  

PubMed Central

Objective As large-scale genome sequencing technology advances, concerns surrounding the reporting of individual findings to study volunteers have grown and fueled controversy. This is especially true in mental health research, where the clinical importance of sequencing results is particularly unclear. The ethical, legal, and social issues are being widely debated, but less is known about the attitudes of actual study volunteers toward sequencing studies or what they wish to learn about their DNA sequence and its health implications. This study provides information on psychiatric research volunteers’ attitudes, beliefs, and concerns with respect to participation in DNA sequencing studies and reporting of individual results. Method We conducted a pilot study using a questionnaire that we developed to assess what information volunteers in an ongoing family study of bipolar disorder would like to receive if they underwent genome sequencing, what they would do with that information, and what concerns they may have. Results Almost all of the respondents were willing to participate in genome sequencing. Most respondents wished to be informed about all their health-related genetic risks, including risks for diseases without known prevention or treatment. However, few respondents felt well informed about the nature of genome sequencing or its implications for their health, insurability, or offspring. Conclusions Despite generally positive attitudes toward genome sequencing among study volunteers, most are not fully aware of the special issues raised by genome sequencing. The attitudes of study volunteers should be considered in the debate about the reporting of individual findings from genome sequencing.

Bui, Elise T.; Anderson, Natalie K.; Kassem, Layla; McMahon, Francis J.

2014-01-01

237

Targets, backgrounds, and discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present volume discusses a model-based aircraft identification technique, target intensity and angle scintillations, spatiotemporal nonstationary scene generation, an overview of the Strategic Scene Generation Model (SSGM), nuclear backgrounds for SSGM, and an atmospheric and transmittance code for 50-300 km altitudes. Also discussed are a data base for airborne target signatures, the auroral module of the Strategic High Altitude Radiance

J. S. Accetta; G. H. Kelley

1992-01-01

238

Cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is widely interpreted as the thermal afterglow of a hot big bang. Measurements of the CMBR intensity as a function of frequency constrain the history of cosmic energetics. Measurements of the anisotropy in the CMBR temperature provide a snapshot of the distribution of fluctuations in the gravitational potential at the earliest stages of cosmic

Lyman Page; David Wilkinson

1999-01-01

239

The Cosmic Background Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the current status of experimental data for spectral distortions and angular anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, as well as discussing the relevant physical processes. This is one of a number of new articles in astrophysics and cosmology which will appear in the 1996 Review of Particle Properties (Phys. Rev. D. in press). Other relevant reviews include: \\

G. F. Smoot; D. Scott

1996-01-01

240

Iran: The Background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The set is composed of three reports which are also available individually from NTIS. The set was assembled to provide scholars and other interested persons with historical background to the U.S.-Iran crisis of 1979-80. ;Titles included in the set are: IR...

1979-01-01

241

Integrable Background Geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ?-manifold, determines a (k+?)-dimensional geometry (k+??4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ?-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+?)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(?) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(?^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently , degenerate or null reductions have attracted increased interest. Two of these reductions and their gauge theories (arguably, the two most significant) are also described.

Calderbank, David M. J.

2014-03-01

242

Cosmic Microwave Background: Past, Future, and Present.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) carry an enormous amount of information about the early universe. The anisotropy spectrum depends sensitively on close to a dozen cosmological parameters, some of which have never been measured before....

S. Dodelson

2000-01-01

243

47 CFR 215.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It...

2010-10-01

244

47 CFR 215.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It...

2013-10-01

245

47 CFR 215.1 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is part of the complex environment produced by nuclear explosions. It...

2009-10-01

246

An evaluation of selected NASA scientific and technical information products: Results of a pilot study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pilot study was conducted to evaluate selected NASA scientific and technical information (STI) products. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire, had a two-fold purpose -- to gather baseline data regarding the use and perceived usefulness of selected NASA STI products and to develop/validate questions that could be used in a future study concerned with the role of the U.S. government technical report in aeronautics. The sample frame consisted of 25,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in the U.S. with academic, government or industrial affiliation. Simple random sampling was used to select 2000 individuals to participate in the study. Three hundred fifty-three usable questionnaires (17 percent response rate) were received by the established cutoff date. The findings indicate that: (1) NASA STI is used and is generally perceived as being important; (2) the use rate for NASA-authored conference/meeting papers, journal articles, and technical reports is fairly uniform; (3) a considerable number of respondents are unfamiliar with STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports), IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts), SCAN (Selected Current Aerospace Notices), and the RECON on-line retrieval system; (4) a considerable number of respondents who are familiar with these media do not use them; and (5) the perceived quality of NASA-authored journal articles and technical reports is very good.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron

1989-01-01

247

An Inquiry into Testing of Information Retrieval Systems. Comparative Systems Laboratory Final Technical Report, Part II: Analysis of Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comparative Systems Laboratory (CSL) proposed to deal with the problems of testing retrieval systems by examining a number of processes involved in such systems, with particular attention to the human factor. It is hoped that the results of the project will be useful in refining methodologies for experimentation with information retrieval (IR)…

Saracevic, Tefko

248

Diffuse UV Background Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse UV sky is expected to glow with significant amounts of starlight that is scattered from the interstellar dust. The albedo and scattering pattern of the dust in the ultraviolet are both well established, and are both fairly independent of wavelength from 912 Å to 3000 Å. We present 1943 Voyager spectra of the diffuse cosmic background radiation from 500 Å to 1200 Å, and we compare their brightnesses, and their distribution on the sky, to those observed (Murthy et al., ApJ 724, 1389, 2010) from the GALEX mission at longer wavelengths (1530 Å). Significant differences appear, suggesting that background radiation components in addition to dust-scattered starlight may be present in both spectral regions.

Conn Henry, Richard; Murthy, J.

2012-01-01

249

Background illumination simulator  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a testing apparatus for testing and evaluating the performance of laser seeking warheads for missiles, under simulated weather conditions. It comprises support means for supporting a warhead seeker; laser means for generating a laser beam and for directing a laser beam towards the seeker; a diffusion screen interposed between the seeker support means and the laser means for diffusing the laser beam; a collimating lens interposed between the diffusion screen and the seeker support means for collimating the diffused laser beam and for directing the collimated laser beam onto a warhead seeker, supported in the seeker support; background illuminator means for illuminating the seeker support and a seeker disposed therein, supported for movement into and out of an operating position between the diffusion means and the collimating lens for providing background lighting in simulation of weather lighting conditions; and control means for controlling the intensity of the light provided by the illuminator means to simulate various weather conditions.

Towry, E.R.

1992-05-12

250

Detector Background at Muon Colliders  

SciTech Connect

Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

251

Satisfaction with information provision is associated with baseline but not with follow-up quality of life among lymphoma patients: Results from the PROFILES registry.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Appropriate information provision is an important determinant of patient satisfaction and might also affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of cancer patients. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived information provision at baseline and HRQoL, anxiety and depression among lymphoma patients two years later. Material and methods. This study is part of a longitudinal, population-based survey among all lymphoma patients diagnosed between 1999 and 2009 as registered in the Eindhoven Cancer Registry (southern part of The Netherlands). Patients between six months and 10 years after diagnoses received the first questionnaire including the EORTC QLQ-INFO25, EORTC QLQ-C30 and HADS at baseline (T1) and the second two years later (T2). All analyses are stratified for time since diagnosis (< 2 and ? 2 years since diagnosis). Results. At baseline 69% of the patients (n = 1186) responded, at T2 355 (30%) patients responded. For patients < 2 years since diagnosis, receiving more medical test information was associated with higher levels of cognitive functioning (ß = 0.46; p = 0.04) and lower levels of anxiety (ß = -0.41; p = 0.04) at baseline, no prospective relationships were found. For patients ? 2 years since diagnosis, receiving more medical test information (ß = 0.20; p = 0.03) was associated with better emotional functioning, while receiving more treatment information was associated with worse emotional functioning (ß = -0.21; p = 0.04). Among this group, satisfaction with the received information was associated with better functioning (ß ranging from -0.15 to -0.33; all p < 0.05) at baseline, and these relationships remained significant prospectively for physical (ß = -0.13; p = 0.02) and emotional functioning (ß = -0.13; p = 0.04) only. Stability of satisfaction with received information over time was associated with better emotional (ß = -0.13) and better cognitive functioning (ß = -0.09; p < 0.05) at T2. Conclusion. The present study showed that satisfaction with received information among lymphoma patients was associated with better HRQoL at baseline (only for patients ? 2 years since diagnosis), but not at follow-up when corrected for baseline HRQoL. PMID:24456497

Husson, O; Oerlemans, S; Mols, F; Smeets, R E H; Poortmans, P M; van de Poll-Franse, L V

2014-07-01

252

TOWARD A UNIFIED INFORMATION SPACE FOR THE SPECIFICATION OF BUILDING PERFORMANCE SIMULATION RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for the specification of building performance simulation output results. Toward this end, we describe a simulation output space, whose primary dimensions include scalar and vector attributes, spatial destination, temporal destination, and aggregation method. We then test the corresponding matrix empirically, by considering a number of performance simulation applications for thermal, lighting, and acoustic analysis. We demonstrate

Ardeshir Mahdavi; Julia Bachinger; Georg Suter

2005-01-01

253

Adaptation Processes during the Implementation of an Information System: Preliminary Results from a Longitudinal Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes preliminary results of a longitudinal study that examined implementation of an automated library system in a three-college consortium, focusing on technical services departments. Mutual adaptation research and factors affecting implementation are discussed. Findings on organizational issues, changes in work and workflow, role changes,…

Lopata, Cynthia

1991-01-01

254

Possibilities and acceptance of mobile information technologies for the elderly - first results of an empirical study.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the results of a questionnaire-study conducted for the project "Safe and mobile through accompanying assistance systems" (SIMBA) founded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The study analyzes the mobility requirements and obstacles of the 55 yearold and older seniors in three age-groups (N=210) to develop suitable health-enabling technologies. It focuses on the mobility of the elderly on foot, by public transport, by bicycle and by taxi. The usage and the acceptance of existing mobile devices are determined, to select a suitable terminal for assistance systems. The results show, that although public transport is a very important way of travelling for seniors, its role decreases with higher age. Above the age of 65 years only a small fraction of seniors uses new communication technologies. This implies that smartphones as mobility aids are only suitable for the youngest group of seniors and for future, perhaps more technology-friendly generations. PMID:23920722

Szarvas, Ildikó; Nitsch, Manuela; Lambacher, Oliver; Howe, Jürgen; Reichwaldt, Nina; von Bargen, Tobias; Haux, Reinhold

2013-01-01

255

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 22: US academic librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: Results of the phase 3 survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. academic librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

256

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report number 21: US aerospace industry librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: Results of the phase 2 survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. aerospace industry librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

1994-01-01

257

Language and Cultural Background  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language is inseparable from its cultural context. Considered here are: aspects of culture to be learned (not just odd differences); method; use of suitable, well-balanced materials; aims - informational, communicative (for life situations), and motivational. Motivation is higher in students with favorable attitudes toward the foreign people.…

Littlewood, William T.

1978-01-01

258

Presentation 1: Background  

Cancer.gov

The Objectives of this presentation are to explain why, and a bit about how, the new rules were developed; to describe the Hematopoietic Working Group; to provide some general information about the Hematopoietic Working Group and its membership, and the objectives of the Working Group.

259

Detection of a small target in infrared images based on a multiband background model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main Infrared Search and Track systems (IRST) purpose is to realize optimal discrimination between true targets and background clutter (false alarm). In such single band systems, background prediction is frequently used for detecting small targets. However, detection performances are strongly influenced by background gurgitation. The method based on maximum background model can reduce this kind of influence. But present background prediction methods choose background pixels around the prediction pixel from every direction, as a result, background pixels around the target will be 'poisoned' by target, and contrast will be greatly reduced accordingly. Threshold chosen to detect the target in the predicted residual image will decrease, and this will result in too many false targets and increase false alarms. For the small targets detection in IR images, a method of background prediction based on multi-band background model is proposed. For the purpose of removing the target poison, an improved rule of selecting background pixels according to the certain spectral difference between the expected target and background has been developed in this method. The use of this information is based on theoretical spectral radiance discrimination in LWIR and MWIR bands, between targets and backgrounds. When the current spectral parameter matches spectral background response, the current pixel is judged as a background pixel, and involve in background prediction operation, otherwise, it is judged as a target pixel, and will not involve in this operation. The multi-band background model, which improves the performance of small targets detection, eliminates the effect of target on the background prediction, achieves more accurate prediction of background, and increases the contrast of target and background. This is a significant development to the background prediction algorithm by extending to multi-band domain. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the algorithm in this paper.

Huang, Xi; Zhang, Jian-qi

2005-01-01

260

Image segmentation by background extraction refinements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image segmentation method refining background extraction in two phases is presented. In the first phase, the method detects homogeneous-background blocks and estimates the local background to be extracted throughout the image. A block is classified homogeneous if its left and right standard deviations are small. The second phase of the method refines background extraction in nonhomogeneous blocks by recomputing the shoulder thresholds. Rules that predict the final background extraction are derived by observing the behavior of successive background statistical measurements in the regions under the presence of dark and/or bright object pixels. Good results are shown for a number of outdoor scenes.

Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Mitchell, O. Robert

1990-01-01

261

Holography for Schrödinger backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss holography for Schrödinger solutions of both topologically massive gravity in three dimensions and massive vector theories in ( d + 1) dimensions. In both cases the dual field theory can be viewed as a d-dimensional conformal field theory (two dimensional in the case of TMG) deformed by certain operators that respect the Schrödinger symmetry. These operators are irrelevant from the viewpoint of the relativistic conformal group but they are exactly marginal with respect to the non-relativistic conformal group. The spectrum of linear fluctuations around the background solutions corresponds to operators that are labeled by their scaling dimension and the lightcone momentum k v . We set up the holographic dictionary and compute 2-point functions of these operators both holographically and in field theory using conformal perturbation theory and find agreement. The counterterms needed for holographic renormalization are non-local in the v lightcone direction.

Guica, Monica; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika; van Rees, Balt C.

2011-02-01

262

VNIR hyperspectral background characterization methods in adverse weather conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral technology is currently being used by the military to detect regions of interest where potential targets may be located. Weather variability, however, may affect the ability for an algorithm to discriminate possible targets from background clutter. Nonetheless, different background characterization approaches may facilitate the ability for an algorithm to discriminate potential targets over a variety of weather conditions. In a previous paper, we introduced a new autonomous target size invariant background characterization process, the Autonomous Background Characterization (ABC) or also known as the Parallel Random Sampling (PRS) method, features a random sampling stage, a parallel process to mitigate the inclusion by chance of target samples into clutter background classes during random sampling; and a fusion of results at the end. In this paper, we will demonstrate how different background characterization approaches are able to improve performance of algorithms over a variety of challenging weather conditions. By using the Mahalanobis distance as the standard algorithm for this study, we compare the performance of different characterization methods such as: the global information, 2 stage global information, and our proposed method, ABC, using data that was collected under a variety of adverse weather conditions. For this study, we used ARDEC's Hyperspectral VNIR Adverse Weather data collection comprised of heavy, light, and transitional fog, light and heavy rain, and low light conditions.

Romano, João M.; Rosario, Dalton; Roth, Luz

2009-05-01

263

WFC3/UVIS Sky Backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the on-orbit background levels present in WFC3/UVIS full-frame images. The results are based on nearly all standard readout images taken since the installation of WFC3 on HST in May 2009, with a relatively small number of exclusions e.g. images with obvious anomalous backgrounds (such as extended targets filling the field of view) or those taken with the quad filters (different bandpass in each amp). Comparisons are provided to estimates from the Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). We anticipate these results to be helpful in fine-tuning the level of post-flash required to achieve the optimum balance of charge transfter efficiency (CTE) loss mitigation versus noise penalty. Observers considering the use of post-flash should refer to the White Paper (MacKenty & Smith 2012) on the CTE WWW page (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/ins_performance/CTE/).

Baggett, Sylvia; Anderson, Jay

2012-06-01

264

Superspace geometry for supermembrane backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct part of the superspace vielbein and tensor gauge field in terms of the component fields of 11-dimensional on-shell supergravity. The result can be utilized to describe supermembranes and corresponding matrix models for Dirichlet particles in non-trivial supergravity backgrounds to second order in anticommuting coordinates. We exhibit the ?-invariance of the corresponding supermembrane action, which at this order holds

Bernard de Wit; Kasper Peeters; Jan Plefka

1998-01-01

265

The results from a two-year case study of an information and communication technology support system for family caregivers.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The aim was to better understand how information and communication technology (ICT) can provide support to elderly family caregivers caring for significant others suffering from dementia or stroke. Method: Ten households equipped with an ICT system, with a family caregiver and a spouse diagnosed with dementia or stroke, were followed and observed in a two-year case study. The family caregivers had regular meetings in groups organised by the municipal care of the elderly. Data from observations, semi-structured interviews, user data from the ICT system and data about the support provided by the municipality has been used to validate the findings. Results: The family caregivers socialised with users in the group as long as the users were stayed in the group. Meetings in the group were an important opportunity for exchanging experiences and to easing one"s mind. The ICT system did not reduce the municipality"s level of services to the participating families. The information built into the system has to be constantly updated to be of interest. Conclusions: An ICT support must be provided in a context of personal meetings and with a formal caregiver backing. This will empower informal or family caregivers. Such support must give the user the possibility to communicate and get access to the Internet. Implications for Rehabilitation Benefits were obtained when informal caregivers met with a group of people with whom they share the same kind of experiences and were supported by a formal caregiver. Informal caregivers need more attention and recognition. ICT systems can help but must be current and maintain the users interest. PMID:23855387

Lundberg, Stefan

2014-07-01

266

Unified treatment algorithm for the management of crotaline snakebite in the United States: results of an evidence-informed consensus workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Envenomation by crotaline snakes (rattlesnake, cottonmouth, copperhead) is a complex, potentially lethal condition affecting thousands of people in the United States each year. Treatment of crotaline envenomation is not standardized, and significant variation in practice exists. METHODS: A geographically diverse panel of experts was convened for the purpose of deriving an evidence-informed unified treatment algorithm. Research staff analyzed the

Eric J Lavonas; Anne-Michelle Ruha; William Banner; Vikhyat Bebarta; Jeffrey N Bernstein; Sean P Bush; William P Kerns; William H Richardson; Steven A Seifert; David A Tanen; Steve C Curry; Richard C Dart

2011-01-01

267

Unlocking the Barriers to Women and Minorities in Computer Science and Information Systems Studies: Results from a Multi-Methodological Study Conducted at Two Minority Serving Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The under representation of women and minorities in undergraduate computer science and information systems programs is a pervasive and persistent problem in the United States. Needed is a better understanding of the background and psychosocial factors that attract, or repel, minority students from computing disciplines. An examination of these…

Buzzetto-More, Nicole; Ukoha, Ojiabo; Rustagi, Narendra

2010-01-01

268

Plutonium measurements near background levels  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of a nationwide nuclear weapons research, development, and production complex administered by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Low-levels of environmental Plutonium occurs in and about RFP as a result of plant operations. Plutonium is a key element in remediation investigations and surface water discharge limits. Most of the plutonium analyses at RFP measure concentrations at or near background levels. Measurements often show little, if any, plutonium in the media being sampled, except at known contamination sites. Many plutonium results are less than the calculated minimum detectable-level (MDL). (MDL is an a priori estimate of the activity concentration that can be practically achieved under a specified set of typical measurement conditions.) This paper investigates the relationship between plutonium concentrations and the counting uncertainty when measurements are near background, and suggests why the MDL should not be used as a criteria for limiting data. Issues with defining site background and determining attainment of standards are presented.

Not Available

1992-01-01

269

Plutonium measurements near background levels  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of a nationwide nuclear weapons research, development, and production complex administered by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Low-levels of environmental Plutonium occurs in and about RFP as a result of plant operations. Plutonium is a key element in remediation investigations and surface water discharge limits. Most of the plutonium analyses at RFP measure concentrations at or near background levels. Measurements often show little, if any, plutonium in the media being sampled, except at known contamination sites. Many plutonium results are less than the calculated minimum detectable-level (MDL). (MDL is an a priori estimate of the activity concentration that can be practically achieved under a specified set of typical measurement conditions.) This paper investigates the relationship between plutonium concentrations and the counting uncertainty when measurements are near background, and suggests why the MDL should not be used as a criteria for limiting data. Issues with defining site background and determining attainment of standards are presented.

Not Available

1992-08-01

270

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: background.  

PubMed

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a fascinating disease for the cytogeneticist, as so many cases have a clone detectable by cytogenetics or FISH, and because identifying the abnormalities provides such useful information to the clinician. However, it is also a frustrating disease, as it has technical challenges such as a marked tendency for the sample to clot during harvesting, frequently poor chromosome morphology, and, especially in the high count cases, failure to provide any divisions at all for analysis. For these reasons, this book includes two chapters on the practical aspects of undertaking cytogenetic studies in ALL to illustrate contrasting approaches. The first is from a laboratory that is a world leader in its success rates, which has an enviably low sample/cytogeneticist ratio, and which is usually able to expect a good-sized sample commensurate with the importance given to a diagnostic cytogenetic study. The second is from a laboratory that also has a good success rate, despite having to cope with a higher workload and often much smaller samples. This is not to imply that each technique is limited to such circumstances; both are worthy of study and emulation. PMID:12744206

Swansbury, John

2003-01-01

271

Background Subtraction Approach based on Independent Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

In this work, a new approach to background subtraction based on independent component analysis is presented. This approach assumes that background and foreground information are mixed in a given sequence of images. Then, foreground and background components are identified, if their probability density functions are separable from a mixed space. Afterwards, the components estimation process consists in calculating an unmixed matrix. The estimation of an unmixed matrix is based on a fast ICA algorithm, which is estimated as a Newton-Raphson maximization approach. Next, the motion components are represented by the mid-significant eigenvalues from the unmixed matrix. Finally, the results show the approach capabilities to detect efficiently motion in outdoors and indoors scenarios. The results show that the approach is robust to luminance conditions changes at scene.

Jimenez-Hernandez, Hugo

2010-01-01

272

Direction dependent background fitting for the Fermi GBM data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. We present a method for determining the background of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) using the satellite positional information and a physical model. Since the polynomial fitting method typically used for GRBs is generally only indicative of the background over relatively short timescales, this method is particularly useful in the cases of long GRBs or those that have autonomous repoint request (ARR) and a background with much variability on short timescales. Aims: Modern space instruments, like Fermi, have some specific motion to survey the sky and catch gamma-ray bursts in the most effective way. However, GBM bursts sometimes have highly varying backgrounds (with or without ARR), and modelling them with a polynomial function of time is not efficient - one needs more complex, Fermi-specific methods. This article presents a new direction dependent background fitting method and shows how it can be used for filtering the lightcurves. Methods: First, we investigate how the celestial position of the satellite may have influence on the background and define three underlying variables with physical meaning: celestial distance of the burst and the detector's orientation, the contribution of the Sun and the contribution of the Earth. Then, we use multi-dimensional general least square fitting and Akaike model selection criterion for the background fitting of the GBM lightcurves. Eight bursts are presented as examples, of which we computed the duration using background fitted cumulative lightcurves. Results: We give a direction dependent background fitting (DDBF) method for separating the motion effects from the real data and calculate the duration (T90, T50, and confidence intervals) of the nine example bursts, from which two resulted an ARR. We also summarize the features of our method and compare it qualitatively with the official GBM Catalogue. Conclusions: Our background filtering method uses a model based on the physical information of the satellite position. Therefore, it has many advantages compared to previous methods. It can fit long background intervals, remove all the features caused by the rocking behaviour of the satellite, and search for long emissions or not-triggered events. Furthermore, many parts of the fitting have now been automatised, and the method has been shown to work for both sky survey mode and ARR mode data. Future work will provide a burst catalogue with DDBF.

Szécsi, D.; Bagoly, Z.; Kóbori, J.; Horváth, I.; Balázs, L. G.

2013-09-01

273

Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}

Tsujikawa, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Tamaki, Takashi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tavakol, Reza, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp, E-mail: r.tavakol@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)] [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

2009-05-15

274

Organic acids in continental background aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a newly developed method aerosol samples from three distinctly different continental sites were analyzed: an urban site (Vienna), a savanna site in South Africa (Nylsvley Nature Reserve, NNR) and a free tropospheric continental background site (Sonnblick Observatory, SBO). In all samples a range of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) and dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) has been identified and quantified. The three most abundant MCAs in Vienna were the C18, C16 and C14 acids with concentrations of 66, 45 and 36 ng m -3, respectively. At the mid tropospheric background site (SBO) the three most abundant MCAs were the C18, C16 and C12 acid. For the DCAs at all three sites oxalic, malonic and succinic acid were the dominant compounds. For some individual compounds an information about the sources could be obtained. For example the determined unsaturated MCAs in South Africa appear to result from biogenic sources whereas in Vienna those acids are considered to be derived from combustion processes. Oxalic and glyoxalic acid appear to have a free tropospheric air chemical source. The relative high amounts at SBO in comparison to Vienna can only be explained by secondary formation of oxalic acid in the atmosphere.

Limbeck, Andreas; Puxbaum, Hans

275

Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM) VDL-3 and 1090ES Final Test Requirements, Test Plans, and Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Aviation Safety Program was created for the purpose of making a significant reduction in the incidents of weather related aviation accidents by improving situational awareness. The objectives of that program are being met in part through advances in weather sensor technology, and in part through advances in the communications technology that are developed for use in the National Airspace System. It is this latter element, i.e., the improvements in aviation communication technologies, that is the focus of the Weather Information Communications project. This report describes the final flight test results completed under the WINCOMM project at the NASA Glenn Research Center of the 1090 Extended Squitter (1090ES) and VDL Mode 3 (VDL-3) data links as a medium for weather data exchange. It presents the use of 1090ES to meet the program objectives of sending broadcast turbulence information and the use of VDL-3 to send graphical weather images. This report provides the test requirements and test plans, which led to flight tests, as well as final results from flight testing. The reports define the changes made to both avionics and ground-based receivers as well as the ground infrastructure to support implementation of the recommended architecture, with a focus on the issues associated with these changes.

Griner, James H.; Jirberg, Russ; Frantz, Brian; Kachmar, Brian A.

2006-01-01

276

The Status of Federal Libraries and Information Centers in the United States: Results from the 1994 Federal Libraries and Information Centers Survey. Statistical Analysis Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data collected through the 1994 Federal Libraries and Information Centers Survey present a picture of federal libraries and information centers that provide a wide variety of services to their respective agencies as well as to the general public. Federal libraries and information centers reported holding over 51 million volumes or volume…

Hawkins, Evelyn F.; Rossi, Robert J.

277

Background reionization history from omniscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurements of the 21-cm brightness temperature fluctuations from the neutral hydrogen at the Epoch of Reionization should inaugurate the next generation of cosmological observables. In this respect, many works have concentrated on the disambiguation of the cosmological signals from the dominant reionization foregrounds. However, even after perfect foregrounds removal, our ignorance on the background reionization history can significantly affect the cosmological parameter estimation. In particular, the interdependence between the hydrogen ionized fraction, the baryon density and the optical depth to the redshift of observation induce nontrivial degeneracies between the cosmological parameters that have not been considered so far. Using a simple but consistent reionization model, we revisit their expected constraints for a futuristic giant 21-cm omniscope by using for the first time Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods on multiredshift full sky simulated data. Our results agree well with the usual Fisher matrix analysis on the three-dimensional flat sky power spectrum but only when the above-mentioned degeneracies are kept under control. In the opposite situation, Fisher results can be inaccurate. We show that these conditions can be fulfilled by combining cosmic microwave background measurements with multiple observation redshifts probing the beginning of the Epoch of Reionization. This allows a precise reconstruction of the total optical depth, reionization duration and maximal spin temperature. Finally, we discuss the robustness of these results in presence of unresolved ionizing sources. Although most of the standard cosmological parameters remain weakly affected, we find a significant degradation of the background reionization parameter estimation in presence of nuisance ionizing sources.

Clesse, Sébastien; Lopez-Honorez, Laura; Ringeval, Christophe; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Tytgat, Michel H. G.

2012-12-01

278

Infrared Target/Background Discrimination - Background Spectral Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the development of statistical models for signals in the background radiance distribution. Techniques for analyzing multispectral line scan data are developed and demonstrated on background data obtained by the Environmental Research...

L. J. Pinson P. M. Goggans

1978-01-01

279

Laboratory-based HIV surveillance with information on exposure: importance of discriminating person-based from test-based results.  

PubMed

Within a surveillance programme in a Regional Public Health Laboratory anonymous information on HIV test, requesting physician and tested individual is automatically selected, regardless of test result. Thereby, personal identifiers are transformed into unique but meaningless numeric codes. Besides, requesting physicians receive a questionnaire on indication for testing (response 87%). Between April 1989 and June 1993 12,219 HIV tests were performed in 10,972 individuals. The percentage of positive tests (2.1%) was twice the percentage of positive individuals (1%). No increase in number of new infections was observed over time. Of individuals, 41.6% were tested due to third party requests (mainly insurance): HIV was demonstrated once (0.03%). Among the remainder, with medical indications, seroprevalence was 1.4%. At relatively little expense, we were able to provide valid information about patterns of HIV-testing and HIV seroprevalences among people tested in routine medical practice. Prevention of double counts proved to be important. Extension to other Dutch areas is expected. PMID:8737336

van Duynhoven, Y T; Houweling, H; Wiessing, L G; Esveld, M I; Nieste, H L; Katchaki, J N

1996-01-01

280

Background of the workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term effects of the Challenger accident on solar-terrestrial science resulted in the need to examine the near-term missions under development for the next five years. The workshop was organized to seek ideas and opinions about the future of solar-terrestrial flight programs. Included are considerations of all types of space platforms, i.e., balloons, rockets, free flying satellites, and the variety of platforms supported by NASA astronauts. Specific issues include: the establishment of the level of understanding to be accomplished with the completion of the current worldwide program of research in solar-terrestrial sciences; the identification of major questions to be answered by the future solar-terrestrial sciences research program as it might be if initiated within the next ten years; the identification of space capabilities to be available to the future program and provision of input about the Space Physics Division's priorities for using these to accomplish its future scientific program; and mapping a program strategy to accomplish a future program of research in the solar-terrestrial sciences within the research community's perception of capabilities and constraints.

1989-09-01

281

Sakhalin tender background detailed  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that on Jan. 27, 1992, the committee constituted by order of the Russian government of Dec. 23, 1991, and headed by V.I. Danilov-Danilyan, the Russian Federation's Minister for Ecology and Natural Resources, assessed the results of a tender announced in May 1991. The tender was for foreign companies to submit feasibility studies for exploration and development of oil and gas on the continental shelf off Sakhalin Island. The announced winner was the MMM group consisting of McDermott International Inc., Marathon Oil Co., and Mitsui and Co. Ltd. In its decision the governmental tender committee (GTC) begged to differ from V. Fedorov, governor of the Territory of Sakhalin, in whose opinion the U.S.-Japanese combine of Exxon Corp.-Sakhalin Oil Development Co. (Sodeco) should have been pronounced winner at the bidding's end. GTC's decision also ran counter to the verdict by a panel of experts constituted by decision of the Examining Council under the Chairman of the Russian Government on Dec. 3, 1991, and headed by F. Salmanov, first deputy Minister of Geology of the U.S.S.R.

Konoplyanik, A. (Russian Federation Ministry for Fuels and Energy (SU))

1992-03-23

282

Molecules in the mirror: how SERS backgrounds arise from the quantum method of images† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional derivation of eqn (5). See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp00093e Click here for additional data file.  

PubMed Central

The Raman coupling of light to molecular vibrations is strongly modified when they are placed near a plasmonic metal surface, with the appearance of a strong broad continuum background in addition to the normal surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peaks. Using a quantum method of images approach, we produce a simple but quantitative explanation of the inevitable presence of the background, due to the resistive damping of the image molecule. This model thus suggests new strategies for enhancing the SERS peak to background ratio.

Barnett, Stephen M.; Harris, Nadine

2014-01-01

283

Video coding with dynamic background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

2013-12-01

284

A comparison of two position estimate algorithms that use ILS localizer and DME information. Simulation and flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation and flight tests were conducted to compare the accuracy of two algorithms designed to compute a position estimate with an airborne navigation computer. Both algorithms used ILS localizer and DME radio signals to compute a position difference vector to be used as an input to the navigation computer position estimate filter. The results of these tests show that the position estimate accuracy and response to artificially induced errors are improved when the position estimate is computed by an algorithm that geometrically combines DME and ILS localizer information to form a single component of error rather than by an algorithm that produces two independent components of error, one from a DMD input and the other from the ILS localizer input.

Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Scanlon, C.

1984-01-01

285

The Cosmic Background Radiation, Snowmass Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the Cosmic Microwave background have provided many of the most powerful constraints we have on cosmology and events in the early universe. The spectrum and isotropy of CBR have long been a pillar of Big Bang models. The discovery of low levels on anisotropy has provided new information and tools for our understanding of the early universe. Further

George F. Smoot

1995-01-01

286

X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this investigation was to perform a spectral survey of the low energy diffuse X-ray background using the X-ray Background Survey Spectrometer (XBSS) on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF). XBSS obtains spectra of the X-ray diffuse background in the 11-24 A and 44-84 A wavelength intervals over the entire sky with 15 deg spatial resolution. These X-rays are almost certainly from a very hot (10(exp 6) K) component of the interstellar medium that is contained in regions occupying a large fraction of the interstellar volume near the Sun. Astrophysical plasmas near 10(exp 6) K are rich in emission lines, and the relative strengths of these lines, besides providing information about the physical conditions of the emitting gas, also provide information about its history and heating mechanisms.

Sanders, W. T. (Principal Investigator); Paulos, R. J.

1996-01-01

287

Radar Background Signal Reduction Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a study whose objective was to identify materials and/or techniques to reduce radar background signals for ground plane radar cross section (RCS) ranges. Background signal reduction is essential for improving the accuracy of RCS mea...

E. F. Knott C. J. Ray M. S. West R. J. Wohlers

1980-01-01

288

Pregalactic Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An outline is given that estimates the expected gravitational wave background, based on plausible pregalactic sources. Some cosmologically significant limits can be put on incoherent gravitational wave background arising from pregalactic cosmic evolution....

R. A. Matzner

1989-01-01

289

Infrared Background and Target Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis describes measurements of IR background radiance. To provide background radiance values for the development of the AN/SAR - 8 (IRSTD) system, the radiance of clouds and buildings was measured using the AGA Thermovision 780. The measurement val...

A. Manolopoulos

1985-01-01

290

Infrared background analysis of bay environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day naval operations take place in coastal environments as well as narrow straits all over the world. Coastal environments around the world are exhibiting a number of threats to naval forces. In particular a large number of asymmetric threats can be present in environments with cluttered backgrounds as well as rapidly varying atmospheric conditions. During trials executed in False Bay a large amount of target, background and atmosphere data was gathered that is of use in analysis of optical characteristics of targets and backgrounds. During the trials a variety of backgrounds were recorded. We have used these backgrounds to validate the TNO background model MIBS to incorporate also coastal backgrounds and sunlit sea backgrounds. In the paper we show results of the background analysis, for coastal bay backgrounds. In particular the detection of small targets by automatic system may be hampered by small surface structure variations at the surface and near the horizon. The data that we analyzed are sea surface structure, temporal behaviour, and spectral differences during different environmental conditions that occurred during the trials. This data is essential to feed detection algorithms, and performance models for the assessment of sensor performance in coastal environment.

Schwering, Piet B. W.; Gunter, Willem H.; Bezuidenhout, Dirk F.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.

2008-08-01

291

IRST infrared background analysis of bay environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day naval operations take place in coastal environments as well as narrow straits all over the world. Coastal environments around the world are exhibiting a number of threats to naval forces. In particular a large number of asymmetric threats can be present in environments with cluttered backgrounds as well as rapidly varying atmospheric conditions. During trials executed in False Bay a large amount of target, background and atmosphere data was gathered that is of use in analysis of optical characteristics of targets and backgrounds. During the trials a variety of backgrounds were recorded. We have used these backgrounds to validate the TNO background model MIBS to incorporate also coastal backgrounds and sunlit sea backgrounds. In the paper we show results of the background analysis, for coastal bay backgrounds. In particular the detection of small targets by automatic system may be hampered by small surface structure variations at the surface and near the horizon. The data that we analyzed are sea surface structure, temporal behaviour, and spectral differences during different environmental conditions that occurred during the trials. This data is essential to feed detection algorithms, and performance models for the assessment of sensor performance in coastal environment. Some sensor management approaches for application in IRST systems is discussed.

Schwering, Piet B. W.; Bezuidenhout, Dirk F.; Gunter, Willem H.; le Roux, Francois P. J.; Sieberhagen, Rheinhardt H.

2008-05-01

292

The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention Citation: Hall, R. and Hanna, P. (2004), The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention, Behaviour & Information Technology, forthcoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text\\/background color combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioral intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four color-combination conditions. Major findings were: a) Colors with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater

Richard H. Hall

293

Understanding Cancer Series: Patient's Genetic Background  

Cancer.gov

While attention must be paid to the changes discovered within the genomic profile of a cancerous growth, equal attention must be paid to the intrinsic genetic background of each patient. Cancer does not develop in a vacuum, but within a patient, and each patient's distinctive genetic background results from both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

294

IRST testing methodologies: maritime infrared background simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss methodologies to incorporate the effects of environments and scenarios in the testing of IRST systems. The proposed methodology is based on experience with sea based IRST trials combining the possibilities of performance assessment in required scenarios to the real performance in available coastal scenarios. For this purpose testing procedures depend strongly on accurate infrared target, background and atmosphere models. In particular, background effects can be dominating the performance in clutter conditions and can also dominate contrast values. For this purpose a maritime background model has been developed for use in test procedures. The model generates a scene image sequence containing background structure, including sea, sky, clouds, coastal and sun glint information up to a frame rate of 25 Hz.

Schwering, Piet B. W.

2006-06-01

295

Fast Lighting Independent Background Subtraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a simple method of fast background subtraction based upon disparity verification that is invariant to arbitrarily rapid run-time changes in illumination. Using two or more cameras, the method requires the off-line construction of disparity fields mapping the primary background images. At runtime, segmentation is performed by checking background image to each of the additional auxiliary color intensity

Yuri Ivanov; Aaron Bobick; John Liu

2000-01-01

296

Spatial variations of groundwater background concentrations in coastal aquifers, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In coastal aquifers the mixing between fresh terrestrial water and seawater occurs, which influences groundwater quality. Due to mixing elevated chloride concentrations are often observed in coastal aquifers. In coastal areas terrestrial water-seawater mixing can be caused by anthropogenic activities or natural factors such as tides and sea level changes. Therefore, it is difficult or even impossible to characterize groundwater background concentrations in coastal aquifers. Although it is usual to exclude coastal aquifer when characterizing background concentrations, it is essential to accurately characterize naturally-affected groundwater quality in coastal areas because groundwater is a major water resource for potable, irrigation, domestic uses. So in this work we define groundwater background concentrations as naturally occurring ambient concentrations with excluding groundwater abstraction. Based on this definition, we evaluate groundwater background concentrations in various geologic formations and analyze characteristics of groundwater quality in coastal aquifers by utilizing Groundwater Quality Monitoring System (GQMS) data. The results show that high concentrations of chloride are observed in some coastal areas but not always. Tidal effects and topographical characteristics are thought to be as factors affecting such spatial variations. In some coastal areas high concentrations of chloride are observed with high nitrate concentrations. This means that agricultural practices can attribute to anthropogenic background, leading to elevated concentrations of nitrate. These results provide some essential information for groundwater resources management in coastal areas. Further data collection and analysis is required for evaluating the effect of tide and sea level changes on groundwater quality.

Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Soojae

2014-05-01

297

Zero background yeast reporter plasmids.  

PubMed

UAS-less reporter plasmids are widespread and powerful tools for the identification and analysis of binding sites for transcriptional activators. The common reporter plasmids for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are multicopy (2mu) vectors with the CYC1 core promoter upstream of the lacZ gene. Insertion of putative or known activator binding sites upstream of the core promoter puts lacZ (beta-galactosidase) expression under the control of the corresponding activator. Although these constructs have proved to work well for most purposes, they have certain limitations: (1) they give significant and carbon-source-dependent lacZ background expression; (2) unlike most other yeast promoters, the CYC1 upstream region has a partially open chromatin structure with an accessible TATA box; (3) they use only a single, moderately sensitive reporter; and (4) the use of multicopy vectors can result in activator titration. Here, we introduce novel reporter plasmids based on the yeast MEL1 (alpha-galactosidase) gene that can overcome all of these limitations. It is also shown that background expression is due to fortuitous activator binding sites within the plasmid backbones that are insufficiently shielded from the core promoters in the common CYC1 reporter plasmids. PMID:10773444

Melcher, K; Sharma, B; Ding, W V; Nolden, M

2000-04-18

298

Background radiation from fission pulses  

SciTech Connect

Extensive source terms for beta, gamma, and neutrons following fission pulses are presented in various tabular and graphical forms. Neutron results from a wide range of fissioning nuclides (42) are examined and detailed information is provided for four fuels: /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 239/Pu; these bracket the range of the delayed spectra. Results at several cooling (decay) times are presented. For ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. spectra, only /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu results are given; fission-product data are currently inadequate for other fuels. The data base consists of all known measured data for individual fission products extensively supplemented with nuclear model results. The process is evolutionary, and therefore, the current base is summarized in sufficient detail for users to judge its quality. Comparisons with recent delayed neutron experiments and total ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. decay energies are included. 27 refs., 47 figs., 9 tabs.

England, T.R.; Arthur, E.D.; Brady, M.C.; LaBauve, R.J.

1988-05-01

299

A European Network of Email and Telephone Help Lines Providing Information and Support on Rare Diseases: Results From a 1-Month Activity Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Information on rare diseases are often complex to understand, or difficult to access and additional support is often necessary. Rare diseases helplines work together across Europe to respond to calls and emails from the public at large, including patients, health care professionals, families, and students. Measuring the activity of helplines can help decision makers to allocate adequate funds when deciding to create or expand an equivalent service. Objective Data presented are referred to a monthly user profile analysis, which is one of the activities that each helpline has to carry out to be part of the network. This survey aimed to explore the information requests and characteristics of users of rare diseases helplines in different European countries. Another aim was to analyze these data with respect to users’ characteristics, helpline characteristics, topics of the inquiries, and technologies used to provide information. With this survey, we measure data that are key for planning information services on rare diseases in the context of the development of national plans for rare diseases. Methods A survey was conducted based on all calls, emails, visits, or letters received from November 1 to 30, 2012 to monitor the activity represented by 12 helplines. Data were collected by a common standardized form, using ORPHA Codes for rare diseases, when applicable. No personal data identifying the inquirer were collected. It was a descriptive approach documenting on the number and purpose of inquiries, the number of respondents, the mode of contact, the category of the inquirer in relation to the patient, the inquirer’s gender, age and region of residence, the patient’s age when applicable, the type and duration of response, and the satisfaction as scored by the respondents. Results A total of 1676 calls, emails, or letters were received from November 1 to 30, 2012. Inquiries were mostly about specific diseases. An average of 23 minutes was spent for each inquiry. The inquirer was a patient in 571/1676 inquiries (ie, 34.07% of all cases; 95% CI 31.8-36.3). Other inquirers included relatives (520/1676, 31.03%; 95% CI 28.9-33.3), health care professionals (354/1676, 21.12%; 95% CI 19.2-23.1), and miscellaneous inquirers (230/1676, 13.72%; 95% CI 12.1-15.4). Telephone remained the main mode of contact (988/1676, 58.95%; 95% CI 56.6-61.3), followed by emails (609/1676, 36.34%; 95% CI 34.0-38.6). The three main reasons of inquiries were to acquire about information on the disease (682/2242, 30.42%; 95% CI 27.8-32.1), a specialized center/expert (404/2242, 18.02%; 95% CI 15.9-19.6), and social care (240/2242, 10.70%; 95% CI 9.1-12.0). Conclusions The helplines service responds to the demands of the public, however more inquiry-categories could be responded to. This leaves the possibility to expand the scope of the helplines, for example by providing assistance to patients when they are reporting suspected adverse drug reactions as provided by Directive 2010/84/EU or by providing information on patients’ rights to cross-border care, as provided by Directive 2010/24/EU.

Sanchez de Vega, Rosa; Brignol, Tuy Nga; Mazzucato, Monica; Polizzi, Agata

2014-01-01

300

Low Background Counting At SNOLAB  

SciTech Connect

It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

2011-04-27

301

Deleterious background selection with recombination  

SciTech Connect

An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Hudson, R.R. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kaplan, N.L. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-12-01

302

Clinical efficacy of the use of information technology in cardiology: initial results of angiographic teleconsultation in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background With the increasing use of cineless diagnostic angiography laboratories, modern telecommunication networks provide an excellent opportunity to transfer dynamic cardiac catheterisation images from a referring centre to a cardiac intervention centre. This electronic data transfer may lead to improved patient care and reduced waiting times. Methods Two departments of cardiology started a pilot project using a digital ISDN-30 point-to-point data-line connection between Alkmaar and Amsterdam over which MPEG compressed angiograms are sent. The network consists of a PC based client/server structure and two ISDN modular routers. Results From June 1998 to January 2001, 127 patients were referred for urgent PTCA or CABG using this network. All patients were admitted to the CCU for unstable angina and had a suitable anatomy for coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery. In all cases the MPEG compressed images were successfully stored on the server and could be accessed in Amsterdam. During the pilot phase all X-ray runs (11 + 3) were sent. Following transmission, all patients were accepted for intervention. Review of the DICOM images from the CD-Medical immediately before the PTCA or CABG did not change the planned strategy. The patients were successfully treated 1 to 2 days after data transmission. During this phase, the average variable costs of this network was € 5.90 per patient as opposed to € 69.00 when using a courier service. Conclusion This study shows that personal computer-based telecommunication network systems are feasible for clinical use in daily practise. Access to a remotely located cardiac intervention centre can be achieved promptly at low costs and improves patient care by reducing waiting times.

Otterspoor, L.C.; Bronzwaer, J.; Huybregts, M.; Spruijt, H.J.; Umans, V.A.

2001-01-01

303

Background matrix subtraction (BMS): A novel background removal algorithm for GPR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background noise is a common type of coherent noise that severely compromises the integrity of the high-resolution images provided by ground penetrating radar survey. Several existing techniques employ different approaches to attenuate background noise. In this study, we present the background matrix subtraction (BMS) as an alternative technique to remove horizontal background noise and we compare its efficiency to that of the conventional background removal technique. Instead of calculating an average trace that is subtracted from the GPR data in the conventional background removal methods, the BMS technique is based on calculating a complete background matrix of the same size of the GPR section. The background matrix is created through a series of windowing, sample exclusion, weighting, and iteration. This series of processes guarantees that the background matrix is least affected by target response and is composed purely of horizontal background noise. The computed background matrix is then subtracted from the GPR data to remove horizontal events. Results of experiments conducted on both synthetic and real GPR data show that the BMS technique yields better results than the commonly used background removal technique.

Rashed, Mohamed; Harbi, Hussein

2014-07-01

304

Does the source of death information affect cancer screening efficacy results? A study of the use of mortality review versus death certificates in four randomized trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Often in randomized controlled trials of cancer screening, cause of death is determined by a mortality review committee. However, little is known regarding how findings from mortality review compare to those from death certificates alone.Purpose To examine the results of four different U. S. trials of cancer screening when death certificate data only were used, as compared to results

V Paul Doria-Rose; Pamela M Marcus; Anthony B Miller; Eric J Bergstralh; Jack S Mandel; Melvyn S Tockman; Philip C Prorok

2010-01-01

305

23 CFR 777.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MITIGATION OF IMPACTS TO WETLANDS AND NATURAL HABITAT § 777.3 Background...p. 121) Protection of Wetlands, and DOT Order 5660.1A...and management of impacts to wetlands and natural habitats which result...

2013-04-01

306

New Technology for Libraries. A Layman's Guide to Reducing Public Library Costs and Improving Services through Scientific Methods and Tools. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of background papers for the White House Conference, explores the potential of new technologies to improve library services while reducing library costs. Separate subsections describe the application of technology to the following library functions: acquisitions, catalogs and cataloging, serials control, circulation…

Weisbrod, David L.

307

What Does the Public Know about Preventing Cancer? Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides information about the public's familiarity with cancer prevention strategies and examines the association between this familiarity and actual prevention behavior. Data from interviews with 5,589 adults included in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed. Most respondents were able to cite one or…

Hawkins, Nikki A.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Peipins, Lucy A.

2010-01-01

308

Solving the background mystery in acoustical resonance scattering theory (RST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acoustical resonance scattering theory (RST) aims to solving inverse scattering problems by decomposing the backscattering echoes into a background part and a resonance part. The former contains scatterers shape information, and the latter contains the material composition information. RST assumes the existence of an intermediate background for general scatterer and surrounding combinations. However, despite the efforts taken in the

Changzheng Huang

2002-01-01

309

3-D subsurface modeling within the framework of an environmental restoration information system: Prototype results using earthvision  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR) placement on the EPA Superfund National Priorities List in December of 1989, all remedial activities, including characterization, remedial alternatives selection, and implementation of remedial measures, must meet the combined requirements of RCRA, CERCLA, and NEPA. The Environmental Restoration Program, therefore, was established with the mission of eliminating or reducing to prescribed safe levels the risks to the environment or to human health and safety posed by inactive and surplus DOE-ORR managed sites and facilities that have been contaminated by radioactive and surplus DOE-ORR managed sites and facilities that have been contaminated by radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes. In accordance with an established Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA), waste sites and facilities across the DOE-ORR have been inventoried, prioritized, and are being systematically investigated and remediated under the direction of Environmental Restoration. EarthVision, a product of Dynamic Graphics, Inc., that provides three-dimensional (3-D) modeling and visualization, was exercised within the framework of an environmental restoration (ER) decision support system. The goal of the prototype was to investigate framework integration issues including compatibility and value to decision making. This paper describes the ER program, study site, and information system framework; selected EarthVision results are shown and discussed. EarthVision proved effective in integrating complex data from disparate sources and in providing 3-D visualizations of the spatial relationships of the data, including contaminant plumes. Work is under way to expand the analysis to the full site, covering about 1600 acres, and to include data from new sources, particularly remote-sensing studies.

Goeltz, R.T.; Zondlo, T.F.

1994-12-31

310

Relevance of electronic health information to doctors in the developing world: results of the Ptolemy Project's Internet-based Health Information Study (IBHIS).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons' clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at least 6 months. Survey questions concerned time spent reading medical literature, preferred information sources, preferred type of publication, relevance, preference for western versus local medical literature, and academic productivity. Among the 75 eligible participants, 37 (48%) responded. From these responses it was found that African surgeons with access to EHI read more than articles than they did before they had such access, and they find that the information obtained is highly relevant to their clinical, teaching, and research activities. They prefer electronic journals to textbooks and are more inclined to change their practice based on information found in western journals than local journals. Ptolemy resources helped the respondents who reported academic work write a total of 33 papers for presentation or publication. Overall, access to EHI enables doctors in Africa to read more, is relevant, and contributes directly to academic productivity; thus Western medical literature is useful in the developing world, and EHI delivery should continue to expand. PMID:16096863

Burton, Kirsteen R; Howard, Andrew; Beveridge, Massey

2005-09-01

311

The Education Choice and Competition Index: Background and Results 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring the critical role of school choice in the future of education reform, Grover (Russ) Whitehurst introduces the Education Choice and Competition Index (ECCI), an interactive web application that scores large school districts based on thirteen categories of policy and practice. The intent of the ECCI is to create public awareness of the…

Whitehurst, Grover J.

2011-01-01

312

Initial Results: An Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Treaty verification techniques, environmental surveillance, and physics experiments continue to require increased sensitivity for detecting and quantifying radionuclides of interest. This can be accomplished with new detector designs that establish high d...

A. R. Day C. E. Aalseth J. E. Fast L. E. Erikson M. E. Keillor

2010-01-01

313

Interferometry of background acoustic-gravity waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to acoustic-gravity waves generated in the ocean and atmosphere by strong transient events such as earthquakes and tsunamis, there exists a certain background level of acoustic-gravity waves. Because of their large free path length and a wide spatial distribution of the wave sources, background acoustic-gravity waves form a diffuse (but not necessarily isotropic), random wave field. Wave fields generated by uncorrelated sources are known to retain finite correlation at ranges large compared to the wavelength and spatial dimensions of the random wave sources. A technique known as noise (or wave) interferometry has been shown in seismology, helioseismology, acoustics, and other fields to be an effective tool for retrieving information about the deterministic propagation environment and the random wave field from two-point cross-correlation functions of diffuse noise. Here, we apply wave interferometry to acoustic-gravity waves in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The primary dataset analyzed in this study was obtained by 30 differential pressure gauges deployed from January 2009 to February 2010 on the seafloor offshore the South Island of New Zealand in the course of the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) Seismic Experiment [Yang, Z., A. Sheehan, J. A. Collins, and G. Laske (2012), The character of seafloor ambient noise recorded offshore New Zealand: Results from the MOANA ocean bottom seismic experiment, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q10011]. By applying time-reversal ideas to processing of cross-correlations of random wave fields, we have developed a compressed cross-correlation function technique to compensate for wave dispersion in evaluating the cross-correlation function of a random wave field. When applied to the seafloor pressure data, the technique drastically reduces the signal averaging times necessary for emergence of deterministic features and allows for accurate passive measurements of wave travel times and directivity. The reduction in the averaging time makes it possible to study dynamics on the acoustic-gravity wave field and helps to identify specific wave types that contribute to observed pressure variations. We will discuss implications of the seafloor measurements for observations of acoustic-gravity waves in air above the ocean and feasibility of extending the wave interferometry to other modalities of observation of background acoustic-gravity waves, including ionospheric radio sounding performed with Dynasonde systems.

Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Godin, Oleg A.; Sheehan, Anne F.

2013-04-01

314

Verification of DICOM GSDF in complex backgrounds.  

PubMed

While previous research has determined the contrast detection threshold in medical images, it has focused on uniform backgrounds, has not used calibrated monitors, or has involved a low number of readers. With complex clinical images, how the Grayscale Standard Display Function (GSDF) affects the detection threshold and whether the median background intensity shift has been minimized by GSDF remains unknown. We set out to determine if the median background affected the detection of a low-contrast object in a clustered lumpy background, which simulated a mammography image, and to define the contrast detection threshold for these complex images. Clustered lumpy background images were created of different median intensities and disks of varying contrasts were inserted. A reader study was performed with 17 readers of varying skill level who scored with a five-point confidence scale whether a disk was present. The results were analyzed using reader operating characteristic (ROC) methodology. Contingency tables were used to determine the contrast detection threshold. No statistically significant difference was seen in the area under the ROC curve across all of the backgrounds. Contrast detection fell below 50 % between +3 and +2 gray levels. Our work supports the conclusion that Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine GSDF calibrated monitors do perceptually linearize detection performance across shifts in median background intensity. The contrast detection threshold was determined to be +3 gray levels above the background for an object of 1° visual angle. PMID:22535193

Leong, David L; Rainford, Louise; Haygood, Tamara Miner; Whitman, Gary J; Tchou, Philip M; Geiser, William R; Carkaci, Selin; Brennan, Patrick C

2012-10-01

315

On the Difficulties of Applying the Results of Information Retrieval Research to Aid in the Searching of Large Scientific Databases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problems inherent in applying what is learned in a carefully controlled information retrieval (IR) research project to searching the scientific databases available through a large commercial database. STN International is used as an example. (five references) (LAE)

Ledwith, Robert

1992-01-01

316

Multi-Disciplinary University Research Initiative in Hard and Soft Information Fusion: Overview, Research Strategies and Initial Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University at Buffalo (UB) Center for Multisource Information Fusion (CMIF) along with a team including the Pennsylvania State University (PSU), Iona College (Iona), and Tennessee State University (TSU) is conducting research to develop a generalized ...

D. Hall J. Lavery J. Llinas R. Nagi

2010-01-01

317

Background reduction in cryogenic detectors  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

2005-04-01

318

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation is discussed beginning with radio astronomical measuring techniques, followed by the history of the detection of background radiation, and a summary of some of its properties. Attention is given to the design and operation of a radiotelescope, its antenna and radiometer, exhibiting its advantages, including the ability to measure a collecting area

R. W. Wilson

1979-01-01

319

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize the theoretical and observational status of the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Its thermodynamic spectrum is a robust prediction of the Hot Big Bang cosmology and has been confirmed observationally. There are now 75 observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy, which we present in a table with references. We discuss the theoretical origins of these anisotropies

Eric Gawiser; Joseph Silk

2000-01-01

320

Simulation of HEAO 3 Background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma- ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, the decay of ...

B. F. Phlips B. L. Graham J. D. Kurfess R. A. Kroeger

2007-01-01

321

Background modeling for the GERDA experiment  

SciTech Connect

The neutrinoless double beta (0???) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0??? decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ??} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and ? emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

2013-08-08

322

Sampling and coverage issues of telephone surveys used for collecting health information in Australia: results from a face-to-face survey from 1999 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the trend of "mobile only" households, and households that have a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the telephone directory, and to describe these groups by various socio-demographic and health indicators. Method Representative face-to-face population health surveys of South Australians, aged 15 years and over, were conducted in 1999, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008 (n = 14285, response rates = 51.9% to 70.6%). Self-reported information on mobile phone ownership and usage (1999 to 2008) and listings in White Pages telephone directory (2006 to 2008), and landline telephone connection and listings in the White Pages (1999 to 2008), was provided by participants. Additional information was collected on self-reported health conditions and health-related risk behaviours. Results Mobile only households have been steadily increasing from 1.4% in 1999 to 8.7% in 2008. In terms of sampling frame for telephone surveys, 68.7% of South Australian households in 2008 had at least a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the White Pages (73.8% in 2006; 71.5% in 2007). The proportion of mobile only households was highest among young people, unemployed, people who were separated, divorced or never married, low income households, low SES areas, rural areas, current smokers, current asthma or people in the normal weight range. The proportion with landlines or mobiles telephone numbers listed in the White Pages telephone directory was highest among older people, married or in a defacto relationship or widowed, low SES areas, rural areas, people classified as overweight, or those diagnosed with arthritis or osteoporosis. Conclusion The rate of mobile only households has been increasing in Australia and is following worldwide trends, but has not reached the high levels seen internationally (12% to 52%). In general, the impact of mobile telephones on current sampling frames (exclusion or non-listing of mobile only households or not listed in the White Pages directory) may have a low impact on health estimates obtained using telephone surveys. However, researchers need to be aware that mobile only households are distinctly different to households with a landline connection, and the increase in the number of mobile-only households is not uniform across all groups in the community. Listing in the White Pages directory continues to decrease and only a small proportion of mobile only households are listed. Researchers need to be aware of these telephone sampling issues when considering telephone surveys.

2010-01-01

323

Guidelines for return of research results from pediatric genomic studies: deliberations of the Boston Children's Hospital Gene Partnership Informed Cohort Oversight Board.  

PubMed

Purpose:Approaches to return individual results to participants in genomic research variably focus on actionability, duty to share, or participants' preferences. Our group at Boston Children's Hospital has prioritized participants' preferences by implementing the Gene Partnership, a genomic research repository, based on the "Informed Cohort" model that offers return of results in accordance with participant preferences. Recognizing that ethical oversight is essential, the Gene Partnership Informed Cohort Oversight Board was convened in 2009.Methods:Over 3 years, the Informed Cohort Oversight Board developed guidelines for the return of individual genomic research results.Results:The Informed Cohort Oversight Board defined its guiding principles as follows: to respect the developing autonomy of pediatric participants and parental decision-making authority by returning results consistent with participants' preferences and to protect participants from harm. Potential harms and strategies to eliminate harm were identified. Guidelines were developed for participant preferences that consider the child's development and family dynamics. The Informed Cohort Oversight Board agreed that to prevent harm, including harms related to interfering with a child's future autonomy, there will be results that should not be returned regardless of participant preferences.Conclusion:The Informed Cohort Oversight Board developed guidelines for the return of results that respect the preferences of parents, children, and adult participants while seeking to protect against harm.Genet Med 16 7, 547-552. PMID:24406460

Holm, Ingrid A; Savage, Sarah K; Green, Robert C; Juengst, Eric; McGuire, Amy; Kornetsky, Susan; Brewster, Stephanie J; Joffe, Steven; Taylor, Patrick

2014-07-01

324

Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility  

SciTech Connect

The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3? muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Wang, B. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-08-08

325

Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3? muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO2 for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

Thomas, K. J.; Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Norman, E. B.; Wang, B. S.; Hurley, D. L.

2013-08-01

326

Initial Submission: Letter to USEPA re: Results of Eye Irritation Screening Study in Rabbits with (Confidential Information), A Substituted Nitrogen Containing Aromatic, dated 10/22/99 (Sanitized).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this letter is to inform you, under TSCA Section 8(e), results of an eye irritation screening study in rabbits. The research material is identified as: substituted nitrogen containing aromatic. Eye Irritation Screening Study in Rabbits (Stu...

1999-01-01

327

The Cosmic Background Radiation, Snowmass Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the Cosmic Microwave background have provided many of the\\u000amost powerful constraints we have on cosmology and events in the early\\u000auniverse. The spectrum and isotropy of CBR have long been a pillar of Big Bang\\u000amodels. The discovery of low levels on anisotropy has provided new information\\u000aand tools for our understanding of the early universe. Further

George F. Smoot

1995-01-01

328

The state of emergency obstetric care services in Nairobi informal settlements and environs: Results from a maternity health facility survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge with estimates exceeding 1,000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in some countries. Successful prevention of maternal deaths hinges on adequate and quality emergency obstetric care. In addition to skilled personnel, there is need for a supportive environment in terms of essential drugs and supplies, equipment, and a referral system. Many

Abdhalah K Ziraba; Samuel Mills; Nyovani Madise; Teresa Saliku; Jean-Christophe Fotso

2009-01-01

329

Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2005 and 2006 School Years. National Goals for Schooling. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. First Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to implement changes required by Education Ministers to enrolment forms (and associated data collection and storage processes). This is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the "National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." The…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2004

2004-01-01

330

Impacts of Neuroscience: Background Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The background paper surveys the scientific basis of research on the nervous system, identifies several medical applications, examines some of the social effects, and discusses some of the difficult ethical and political issues that may arise from discove...

1984-01-01

331

Characterisation of Background Biological Aerosol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sampling of ambient air using a glass cyclone system for fluorescence background determination is described. Weekly samples over 12 hour sampling periods are taken at the University College Galway 5 atmospheric research field station at Mace Head, on the ...

S. G. Jennings C. M. Kenny

1997-01-01

332

Background Rejection for the MAJORANA Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MAJORANA project is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment based on the use of high purity, enriched, ^76Ge crystals housed in ultra low background Cu cryostats as both the source ans the detector. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the experiment, the collaboration is currently building a demonstrator consisting of up to 30 kg of enriched High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors and 10 kg of natural HPGe detectors. These detectors, which will take a P-type Point Contact (PPC) geometry, are designed to maximise performance in terms of energy resolution and background rejection efficacy. In order to achieve the background goal of 1 count per tonne-year in a 4 keV wide region of interest around the 2039 keV neutrinoless double beta decay Q-value, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will be constructed using ultra-clean materials and will employ sophisticated background rejection techniques. One such technique, which is key to achieving this background goal, is the ability to distinguish between single-site events from neutrinoless double beta decay and multiple-site events resulting from background gamma rays. This will be achieved through analysis of the digitised signal response of the HPGe detectors. The physics goals of the MAJORANA experiment will be discussed, along with the roles played by digital electronics and digital pulse processing techniques. Details of key background rejection algorithms will also be presented.

Cooper, Reynold

2011-10-01

333

Observational Study in Ten Beauty Salons: Results Informing Development of the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers from the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project conducted an observational study in 10 North Carolina beauty salons to gain insight into naturally occurring conversations between cosmetologists and customers, and to assess features of the salon environment that might be used to inform the development of salon-based health promotion…

Solomon, Felicia M.; Linnan, Laura A.; Wasilewski, Yvonne; Lee, Ann Marie; Katz, Mira L.; Yang, Jingzhen

2004-01-01

334

Benefits Resulting from the Combined Use of ISO\\/IEC 15504 with the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper relates how different thoughts and experiences with ISO\\/IEC 15504 standard and the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) lead to a R&D project definition for a combined use of both standards, in a SMEs adapted way. The idea is born from empirical findings emanating from several IT process improvement projects taking place in the Centre de Recherche Public Henri

Béatrix Barafort; Bernard Di Renzo; Olivier Merlan

2002-01-01

335

Nongeometric fluxes as supergravity backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider examples of D=4 string theory vacua which, although globally nongeometric, admit a local description in terms of D=10 supergravity backgrounds. We analyze such backgrounds and find that the supersymmetry spinors vary nontrivially along the internal manifold, reproducing the interpolating supergravity solutions found by Frey and Graña. Finally, we propose a simple, local expression for nongeometric fluxes in terms of the internal spinors of the compactification.

Marchesano, Fernando; Schulgin, Waldemar

2007-08-01

336

Nongeometric fluxes as supergravity backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We consider examples of D=4 string theory vacua which, although globally nongeometric, admit a local description in terms of D=10 supergravity backgrounds. We analyze such backgrounds and find that the supersymmetry spinors vary nontrivially along the internal manifold, reproducing the interpolating supergravity solutions found by Frey and Grana. Finally, we propose a simple, local expression for nongeometric fluxes in terms of the internal spinors of the compactification.

Marchesano, Fernando [ASC, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Munich (Germany); Schulgin, Waldemar [Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

2007-08-15

337

Oregon Coaches Background Survey. Background of Coaches in Oregon High Schools 1984-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey questionnaire sought information on the background of paid coaches in Oregon high schools during 1984-85. Specific questions addressed coaches' teacher certification status, preparation for coaching, and training for athletic injury management. Additionally, the gender of the coach was identified. A secondary purpose of the study was to…

Sisley, Becky L.; Capel, Susan A.

338

Sources of the Radio Background Considered  

SciTech Connect

We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

2011-08-22

339

Improved diagnosis and prognosis using Decisions Informed by Combining Entities (DICE): results from the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To introduce an algorithmic approach to improve the interpretation of myocardial perfusion images in women with suspected myocardial ischemia. Background Gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance (MR) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) approaches have relatively poor diagnostic and prognostic value in women with suspected myocardial ischemia. Here we introduce an approach: Decisions Informed by Combining Entities (DICE) that forms a mathematical model utilizing MPI and cardiac dimensions generated by one modality to predict the perfusion status of another modality. The effect of the model is to systematically incorporate cardiac metrics that influence the interpretation of perfusion images, leading to greater consistency in designation of myocardial perfusion status between studies. Methods Women (n=213), with suspected myocardial ischemia, underwent MPI assessment for regional perfusion defects using two modalities: gated SPECT (n=207) and MR imaging (n=203). To determine perfusion status, MR data were evaluated qualitatively and semi-quantitatively while SPECT data were evaluated using conventional clinical criteria. These perfusion status readings were designated “Original”. Four regression models were generated to model perfusion status obtained with one modality [e.g., semi-quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] against another modality (e.g., SPECT) and a threshold applied (DICE modeling) to designate perfusion status as normal or low. The DICE models included perfusion status, left ventricular (LV) chamber volumes and myocardial wall thickness. Women were followed for 40±16 months for the development of first major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE: CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) or hospitalization for congestive heart failure). Original and DICE perfusion status were compared in their ability to detect high-grade coronary artery disease (CAD) and for prediction of MACE. Results Adverse events occurred in 25 (12%) women and CAD was present in 34 (16%). In receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis for CAD detection, the average area under the curve (AUC) for DICE vs. Original status was 0.77±0.03 vs. 0.70±0.03, P<0.01. Similarly, in Kaplan-Meier survival analysis the average log-rank statistic was higher for DICE vs. the Original readings (10.6±5.2 vs. 3.0±0.6, P<0.05). Conclusions While two data sets are required to generate the DICE models no knowledge of follow-up results is needed. DICE modeling improved diagnostic and prognostic value vs. the Original interpretation of the myocardial perfusion status.

Pohost, Gerald M.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey; Shaw, Leslee J.; Sopko, George; Rogers, William J.; Sharaf, Barry L.; Pepine, Carl J.; Vido-Thompson, Diane A.; Rayarao, Geetha; Tauxe, Lindsey; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Mc Nair, Douglas; Biederman, Robert W.

2013-01-01

340

A background model for the MAJORANA low-background broad energy germanium detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MAJORANA Collaboration will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of germanium-76 with an array of enriched germanium detectors called the DEMONSTRATOR. MAJORANA Collaborators operate a low-background research and development detector in a shielded environment at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility near Ripplemeade, Virginia. The contents of the detector cryostat are well known, making it a good candidate for testing the MAJORANA background model. This talk describes the creation of a background energy-spectrum model for the Kimballton detector. Energy spectra measured with the detector at Kimballton are compared to results of the background model, and implications for the DEMONSTRATOR are explored.

Schubert, Alexis

2013-04-01

341

Predictions of rodent carcinogenicity testing results: interpretation in light of the Lave-Omenn value-of-information model.  

PubMed

The recent National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program Carcinogen Prediction Challenge elicited a valuable array of predictions of the carcinogenicity of chemicals tested in the lifetime rodent bioassay. The data warrant additional analyses of the similarities and differences of the predictive methods. We provide here analyses of the sensitivity, specificity, and false-positive/false-negative tendencies of the different sets of predictions. Our value-of-information model provides guidance to testing agencies and regulatory agencies in determining the social value of additional information and setting up the framework for assessing the social consequences of different test strategies and nontest predictive methods. These considerations deserve attention in the second round of the Carcinogen Prediction Challenge. PMID:7546223

Omenn, G S; Stuebbe, S; Lave, L B

1995-09-01

342

Gravitational wave background from rotating neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background of gravitational waves produced by the ensemble of rotating neutron stars (which includes pulsars, magnetars, and gravitars) is investigated. A formula for ?(f) (a function that is commonly used to quantify the background, and is directly related to its energy density) is derived, without making the usual assumption that each radiating system evolves on a short time scale compared to the Hubble time; the time evolution of the systems since their formation until the present day is properly taken into account. Moreover, the formula allows one to distinguish the different parts of the background: the unresolvable (which forms a stochastic background or confusion noise, since the waveforms composing it cannot be either individually observed or subtracted out of the data of a detector) and the resolvable. Several estimations of the background are obtained, for different assumptions on the parameters that characterize neutron stars and their population. In particular, different initial spin period distributions lead to very different results. For one of the models, with slow initial spins, the detection of the background by present or planned detectors can be rejected. However, other models do predict the detection of the background, that would be unresolvable, by the future ground-based gravitational wave detector ET. A robust upper limit for the background of rotating neutron stars is obtained; it does not exceed the detection threshold of two cross-correlated Advanced LIGO interferometers. If gravitars exist and constitute more than a few percent of the neutron star population, then they produce an unresolvable background that could be detected by ET. Under the most reasonable assumptions on the parameters characterizing a neutron star, the background is too faint to be detected. Previous papers have suggested neutron star models in which large magnetic fields (like the ones that characterize magnetars) induce big deformations in the star, which produce a stronger emission of gravitational radiation. Considering the most optimistic (in terms of the detection of gravitational waves) of these models, an upper limit for the background produced by magnetars is obtained; it could be detected by ET, but not by BBO or DECIGO. Simple approximate formulas to characterize both the total and the unresolvable backgrounds are given for the ensemble of rotating neutron stars, and, for completion, also for the ensemble of binary star systems.

Rosado, Pablo A.

2012-11-01

343

Background simulations and shielding calculations  

SciTech Connect

Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

2011-04-27

344

Genetic background of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a one of the group of diseases labeled as "common complex". Virtually all common complex traits, genetic and environmental components have important roles, both independently and interactively, in disease susceptibility and stochastic and epigenetic effects cannot be overlooked. Data presented are largely part of the Canada-wide prospective, population-based longitudinal Canadian Collaborative Project on Genetic Susceptibility to MS (CCPGSMS) which includes over 30,000 unique families having at least 1 member with MS. Findings do not support a general propensity to autoimmune disease in MS families, but clearly highlight the importance of controlling for gender (patient, informant) when conducting such studies. The MHC class II association has been fine-mapped to the HLA-DRB5*0101-HLA-DRB1*1501-HLA-DQA1*0102-HLA-DQB1*0602 extended haplotype. This HLA haplotype confers a relative risk of approximately 3 and homozygosity for this haplotype increases the risk by over 6 fold. However, the HLA haplotype loci interactions are complex and include, epistasis, trans and cis effects, and parent-of-origin effects. As well, there may be interactions of EBV and vitamin D with the HLA, In conclusion, using MS as an example, susceptibility for common complex disease most likely results from interactions of genes, environmental interactions and gene/environment interactions. PMID:21619948

Sadovnick, A Dessa

2012-01-01

345

Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.  

PubMed

When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

2010-06-25

346

Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

Willshire, K. F.

1984-01-01

347

Early Adoption of Dabigatran and Its Dosing in US Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Results From the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Background Dabigatran is a novel oral anticoagulant approved for thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation. Adoption patterns of this new agent in community practice are unknown. Methods and Results We studied patterns of dabigatran use among patients enrolled in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT?AF) Registry between June 2010 and August 2011 and followed for 12 months. Among 9974 atrial fibrillation patients included, 1217 (12%) were treated with dabigatran during the study. Overall, patients receiving dabigatran were younger (median age 72 versus 75 years, P<0.0001), more likely to be white (92% versus 89%, P=0.005), more likely to have private insurance (33% versus 25%, P<0.0001), and less likely to have prior cardiovascular disease (4% versus 33%, P<0.0001). They had more new?onset atrial fibrillation (8.8% versus 4.1%, P<0.0001), lower CHADS2 scores (estimated risk based on the presence of congestive heart failure, hypertension, aged ?75 years, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke or transient ischemic attack; mean 2.0 versus 2.3, P<0.0001), and lower Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation scores (mean 2.4 versus 2.8, P<0.0001). More than half (n=14/25, 56%) of patients with severe kidney disease were not prescribed reduced dosing, whereas 10% (n=91/920) with preserved renal function received lower dosing. Among patients not on dabigatran at baseline, 8% had dabigatran initiated during follow?up. Patient education was significantly associated with switching from warfarin to dabigatran (adjusted odds ratio for postgraduate 1.73, P=0.007), whereas antiarrhythmic drug use significantly correlated with de novo adoption of dabigatran (adjusted odds ratio 2.4, P<0.0001). Conclusions Patients receiving dabigatran were younger and at a lower risk of stroke and bleeding. Patients appeared to drive switching from warfarin, whereas clinical characteristics influenced de novo start of dabigatran. These data suggest cautious early uptake of dabigatran, and more careful attention to dosing adjustments is warranted. Clinical Trial Registration URL: Clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01165710.

Steinberg, Benjamin A.; Holmes, DaJuanicia N.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Ansell, Jack; Chang, Paul; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Gersh, Bernard; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Kowey, Peter R.; Ezekowitz, Michael D.; Singer, Daniel E.; Thomas, Laine; Peterson, Eric D.; Hylek, Elaine M.

2013-01-01

348

C-B4-02: Enhancing the Quality and Efficiency of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening Using Health Information Technology: Results of a Geisinger Clinic Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Health information technology (HIT) can improve the screening and delivery of care to patients with chronic illnesses. To date there are no published data describing the use of HIT for screening patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a prevalent under-diagnosed chronic condition representing a substantial and growing socio-economic burden. Geisinger Clinic is a physician-led, multi-specialty group practice in rural Central Pennsylvania with integrated electronic medical records. Aim We sought to determine whether HIT could be used to identify OSA amongst patients at risk for the disease through the use of a simple questionnaire and a physician approved referral protocol. Methods Using an internet-based portal through which patients can review their Electronic Health Record (EHR), schedule appointments, and receive communication, patients with a body mass index (BMI) >40 and without a diagnosis or prior evaluation for sleep apnea were invited to complete the “STOP” questionnaire, a self-administered validated screening tool consisting of 4 “yes/no” questions; “yes” answers to 2 questions identify individuals at high risk of having OSA. Patients who screened positive were then contacted to schedule a sleep medicine evaluation. Results Electronic invitations were sent to 2,283 eligible patients to take the questionnaire; 279 (12%) completed and submitted their responses. Based on their answers, 122/279 (44%) were identified as being at high risk for having OSA and recommended to undergo evaluation in the sleep clinic. To date, 104/122 patients (85%) were offered an appointment with a sleep specialist; the remaining 18 (15%) are waiting scheduling. Of those offered a clinic appointment, 41/104 (40%) have undergone a sleep medicine evaluation, 38/104 (36%) are waiting to be scheduled, and 25/104 (24%) cancelled or did not keep their appointment. Of the evaluated patients, 38/41 (93%) were diagnosed with OSA, 2/41(5%) had negative sleep studies, and 1/41(2%) are awaiting polysomnographic evaluation. The positive predictive value of the STOP questionnaire among patients who underwent polysomnography was 95%. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that utilizing an internet-based patient portal via the EHR can identify patients at high risk of OSA and facilitate their ultimate evaluation and diagnosis through the administration of a simple questionnaire.

Moser, Robert; Boyer, Elizabeth; Lupinski, Diana; Darer, Jonathan; Anderer, Tammy; Villareal, Alexander; Berger, Peter

2011-01-01

349

Magnetohydrodynamics in a homogeneous cosmological background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetohydrodynamic waves through a plasma with a general equation of state P ~ ?? in the presence of a homogeneous ambient background magnetic field are studied in a general Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background universe with the metric components being an arbitrary power function of time (~tn). We find that for a suitable choice of ? and n our results reduce to those found by Holcomb and Tajima [Phys. Rev. D 40, 3809 (1989)] and later by Holcomb [Astrophys. J. 362, 381 (1990)]. Our general approach to this problem makes it possible to realize the existence of an extra term in the equation for the velocity of the fluid, which until now had remained unnoticed. This extra term has no Newtonian analogue. Unlike the usual results in magnetohydrodynamics, transverse waves traveling perpendicular to the background magnetic field are found to exist.

Sil, A.; Banerjee, N.; Chatterjee, S.

1996-06-01

350

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE): Emergency support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Mission will measure the diffuse radiation from the universe in the wavelength band 1 micron to 9.6 mm. The band includes the 3 K cosmic background radiation, the known relic of the primeval cosmic explosion. The COBE satellite will be launched from the Western Space and Missile Center (EWSMC) via a Delta launch vehicle into a circular parking orbit of about 300 km. COBE will be placed into a 900-km altitude circular orbit. Coverage will be provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN) for COBE emergencies that would prevent communications via the normal channels of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Emergency support will be provided by the DSN 26-m subnetwork. Information is given in tabular form for DSN network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, and command.

Stanford, R.; Mattson, R.

1991-01-01

351

Comparing cosmic microwave background datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

To extract reliable cosmic parameters from cosmic microwave background datasets, it is essential to show that the data are not contaminated by residual non-cosmological signals. We describe general statistical approaches to this problem, with an emphasis on the case in which there are two datasets that can be checked for consistency. A first visual step is the Wiener filter mapping

L. Knox; J. R. Bond; A. H. Jaffe; M. Segal; D. Charbonneau

1998-01-01

352

Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

Hansen, Janet S.

2008-01-01

353

The cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found

Joseph Silk

1981-01-01

354

Wormhole on the Lobachevsky background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The exact spherical symmetric static solution of Rosen like equations of the bi metric theory is investigated. The background metric is not flat, but curved, with the Lobachevsky spatial sections and 'cosmic time' c(sup 2) d t(sup 2). There are two branch...

M. N. Tentyukov

1994-01-01

355

Educational Choice. A Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

356

Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

Behrends, Ehrhard

2004-05-01

357

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, provides an overview of how scientists are working to explain the origin of the universe. Specifically, it discusses the two major theories about the origin of the universe (Big Bang and Steady State), the search for microwave background radiation, and the discovery of the first observational evidence to support the Big Bang theory.

358

Surface induced background in CUORE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bolometers are very promising detectors for neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0?DBD) searches because of their excellent energy resolution, the high detector efficiency and a wide choice of different materials used as absorber. In order to further improve the achievable sensitivity, many studies have been done in recent years in order to understand and thereby reduce the radioactive background. The current model of the background in the 0?DBD region assumes that it is mainly due to degraded ?'s from surface contamination of materials facing the crystals. This model is derived from the Cuoricino experience and it is mainly based on the study of coincident events between TeO2 bolometers since conventional techniques have not enough sensitivity to study the very low level of surface contaminations reached. In order to be able to identify the nature of the background observed in all the TeO2 bolometric tests and then confirm the background model, a very accurate measurement with BGO scintillating bolometers was performed.

Gironi, L.; CUORE Collaboration

2013-08-01

359

Heritage Learners in the Chinese Language Classroom: Home Background  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies from information-processing and language comprehension research have reported that background knowledge facilitates reading and writing. By comparing Chinese language development of heritage students who had home background in Chinese language and culture with those who did not, this study found that heritage learners did significantly…

Xiao, Yun

2006-01-01

360

Wicked Problems and Gnarly Results: Reflecting on Design and Evaluation Methods for Idiosyncratic Personal Information Management Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a case study of an artifact design and evaluation process; it is a reflection on how right thinking about design methods may at times result in sub-optimal results. Our goal has been to assess our decision making process throughout the design and evaluation stages for a software prototype in order to consider where design methodology may need

Michael Bernstein; Max Van Kleek; Deepali Khushraj; Rajeev Nayak; Curtis Liu; David R. Karger

361

BACKGROUND RADIATION IN THE UNIVERSE - Short Contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A determination of the motion of the Sun and Local Group relative to the backdrop of galaxies extending to 70 Mpc is used to correct the observed dipole anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background. The resultant intrinsic dipole component of ?T/T = 3±2×10-4 is consistent with no detected anisotropy.

Davies, R. D.

362

Background environmental pollution of the Eurasian continent.  

PubMed

(1) The interest to studying pollution of environmental media on the background level has grown in the recent years. There arose a necessity to establish a specialized observational system for conducting observations of changes in the state of the environment, and of ecological consequences of pollution as well as to produce assessments of the current and predicted states. The realized program of background monitoring and first results of integrated background measurements have already been published. The paper presented illustrates time-and-space features of the background pollution of natural environmental media according to data from various background stations. (2) Long-term systematic measurements at the 'Borovoe' station (Kazakh SSR) commenced in 1976 have been supplemented with the results of the background pollution studies carried out in Berezinskyi, Caucasian, Central-Chernozem, Sary-Chelek, and Repetek Biosphere Reserves and in locations of the background stations in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The data from the Hungarian and Czechoslovak stations were obtained during joint expeditions. Details are given in the relevant publications. (3) Ozone. Ozone measurements show the diurnal variation with the day-time maxima from 35 up to 160 ?g m(-3). The correlation between day-time and nocturnal concentrations is a good indicator of the anthropogenic effect. (4) Sulphur dioxide and sulphates. The annual variation of sulphur dioxide characterised by winter maximum and summer minimum indicates the direct dependence on the amount of fuel burnt in the given region. Mean values of the sulphur dioxide content in the surface layer of the atmosphere correlates with the extent of the region urbanization and varies within 0.2-12.5 ?g m(-3). The value of sulphur dioxide and sulphates correlation in the atmosphere is rather stable and varies within 0.18-0.37 ?g m(-3). (5) Heavy metals. The annual cycle of the atmospheric content of lead, cadmium and arsenic is well expressed by winter maximum and summer minimum (which is opposite in case of mercury). As for lead and mercury, their annual variation is more distinct than that of cadmium and arsenic; their time-and-space variation is also more distinct. The content of these metals in the urbanized regions of Europe is 5 times higher than in Asia and the Caucasus. Atmospheric contents of arsenic and cadmium vary insignificantly from region to region. The content of all these metals in other environmental media (soil, water, vegetation) is of insignificant spatial variability. Observations in the Caucasian Biosphere Reserve showed minimum levels of the background atmospheric pollution: lead-16 ?g m(-3), mercury-5 ng m(-3), arsenic-3.9 ng m(-3), cadmium-0.5 ng m(-3). (6) Organochloride pesticides. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in the environmental media of European background regions are 3 times higher than those in Asia ('Borovoe'). (7) PAH. Atmospheric content of BaP has a well expressed annual variation with winter maximum; the difference between winter and summer periods reaches the magnitude of an order. Background concentrations in European regions (Hungary, Berzinskyi Biosphere Reserve) are noticeably higher than in Asia; the difference reaches 3-5 times. (8) Comparisons with literature data on the background pollution show that observational materials from the background monitoring stations supplement to a considerable extent, and extent, the current notions on the background pollution and show the effects of the man-made impact on the background regions. PMID:24264348

Rovinsky, F Y; Afanasjev, M I; Burtseva, L V; Yegorov, V I

1982-12-01

363

The Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) is the weak glow of megaelectronvolt neutrinos and antineutrinos from distant core-collapse supernovae. The DSNB has not been detected yet, but the Super-Kamiokande (SK) 2003 upper limit on the [Formula: see text] flux is close to predictions, now quite precise, that are based on astrophysical data. If SK is modified with dissolved gadolinium to reduce detector backgrounds and increase the energy range for analysis, then it should detect the DSNB at a rate of a few events per year, providing a new probe of supernova neutrino emission and the cosmic core-collapse rate. If the DSNB is not detected, then new physics will be required. Neutrino astronomy, although uniquely powerful, has proven extremely difficult—only the Sun and the nearby Supernova 1987A have been detected to date—so the promise of detecting new sources soon is exciting indeed.

Beacom, John F.

2010-11-01

364

Background stratospheric aerosol reference model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

1989-01-01

365

Conductivity in an anisotropic background  

SciTech Connect

By using the gauge/gravity duality, we investigate the dual field theories of the anisotropic backgrounds, which are exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with a Liouville potential. When we turn on the bulk gauge field fluctuation A{sub x} with a nontrivial dilaton coupling, the AC conductivity of this dual field theory is proportional to the frequency with an exponent depending on parameters of the anisotropic background. In some parameter regions, we find that this conductivity can have the negative exponent like the strange metal. In addition, we also investigate another U(1) gauge field fluctuation, which is not coupled with a dilaton field. We classify all possible conductivities of this system and find that the exponent of the conductivity is always positive.

Lee, Bum-Hoon [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Siyoung [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Pang, Da-Wei; Park, Chanyong [Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15

366

Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background.  

PubMed

The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background, is investigated by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse, we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density, there is focusing and the subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed. PMID:14611403

Marklund, Mattias; Brodin, Gert; Stenflo, Lennart

2003-10-17

367

Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

1992-01-01

368

Compressive Sensing for Background Subtraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressive sensing (CS) is an emerging field that provides a framework for image recovery using sub-Nyquist sampling rates.\\u000a The CS theory shows that a signal can be reconstructed from a small set of random projections, provided that the signal is\\u000a sparse in some basis, e.g., wavelets. In this paper, we describe a method to directly recover background subtracted images\\u000a using

Volkan Cevher; Aswin C. Sankaranarayanan; Marco F. Duarte; Dikpal Reddy; Richard G. Baraniuk; Rama Chellappa

2008-01-01

369

ICPES analyses using full image spectra and astronomical data fitting algorithms to provide diagnostic and result information.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ICP emission analyses are prone to errors due to changes in power level, nebulization rate, plasma temperature, and sample matrix. As a result, accurate analyses of complex samples often require frequent bracketing with matrix matched standards. Informati...

W. A. Spencer S. R. Goode

1997-01-01

370

Advancing PROMIS's methodology: results of the Third Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Psychometric Summit  

PubMed Central

In 2002, the NIH launched the ‘Roadmap for Medical Research’. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) is one of the Roadmap’s key aspects. To create the next generation of patient-reported outcome measures, PROMIS utilizes item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing. In 2009, the NIH funded the second wave of PROMIS studies (PROMIS II). PROMIS II studies continue PROMIS’s agenda, but also include new features, including longitudinal analyses and more sociodemographically diverse samples. PROMIS II also includes increased emphasis on pediatric populations and evaluation of PROMIS item banks for clinical research and population science. These aspects bring new psychometric challenges. To address this, investigators associated with PROMIS gathered at the Third Psychometric Summit in September 2010 to identify, describe and discuss pressing psychometric issues and new developments in the field, as well as make analytic recommendations for PROMIS. The summit addressed five general themes: linking, differential item functioning, dimensionality, IRT models for longitudinal applications and new IRT software. In this article, we review the discussions and presentations that occurred at the Third PROMIS Psychometric Summit.

Carle, Adam C; Cella, David; Cai, Li; Choi, Seung W; Crane, Paul K; Curtis, S McKay; Gruhl, Jonathan; Lai, Jin-Shei; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Reise, Steven P; Teresi, Jeanne A; Thissen, David; Wu, Eric J; Hays, Ron D

2012-01-01

371

The homogeneity conjecture for supergravity backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These notes record three lectures given at the workshop "Higher symmetries in Physics", held at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in November 2008. In them we explain how to construct a Lie (super)algebra associated to a spin manifold, perhaps with extra geometric data, and a notion of privileged spinors. The typical examples are supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds; although there are more classical instances of this construction. We focus on two results: the geometric constructions of compact real forms of the simple Lie algebras of type B4, F4 and E8 from S7, S8 and S15, respectively; and the construction of the Killing superalgebra of eleven-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. As an application of this latter construction we show that supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds with enough supersymmetry are necessarily locally homogeneous.

Figueroa-O'Farrill, José Miguel

2009-06-01

372

Adaptive control is enhanced by background estimation.  

PubMed

The automated control of physiological variables must often contend with an unknown and time-varying background (i.e., the output level corresponding to no input). To allow for simultaneous real-time identification of background as well as the parameters of an autoregressive moving average model with exogenous inputs (ARMAX model) during adaptive control, a "floating identifier" (FI) approach was developed which may be used with most recursive identification algorithms. This method separates input and output data into low- and high-frequency components. The high-frequency components are used to identify the ARMAX model parameters and the low-frequency components to identify background. This approach was evaluated in computer simulations and animal experiments comparing an adaptive controller coupled to the FI with the same controller coupled to two other standard least squares identifiers. In the animal experiments, sodium nitroprusside was used to control mean arterial pressure of anesthetized dogs in the presence of background changes. Results showed that with the FI, the controller performed satisfactorily, while with the other identifiers, it sometimes failed. It is concluded that the FI approach is useful when applying ARMAX-based adaptive controllers to systems in which a change in background is likely. PMID:2066141

Timmons, W D; Chizeck, H J; Katona, P G

1991-03-01

373

Gravitational wave background from Population III binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Current star formation models imply that the binary fraction of Population III stars is non-zero. The evolution of these binaries must have led to the formation of compact object binaries. Aims: We estimate the gravitational wave background originating in these binaries and discuss its observability. Methods: The properties of the Population III binaries are investigated using a binary population synthesis code. We numerically model the background and take into account the evolution of eccentric binaries. Results: The gravitational wave background from Population III binaries dominates the spectrum below 100 Hz. If the binary fraction is larger than 10-2, the background will be detectable by Einstein Telescope (ET), Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), and DECi-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO). Conclusions: The gravitational wave background from Population III binaries will dominate the spectrum below 100 Hz. The instruments LISA, ET, and DECIGO should either see it easily or, in the case of non-detection, provide very strong constraints on the properties of the Population III stars.

Kowalska, I.; Bulik, T.; Belczynski, K.

2012-05-01

374

Initial Submission: Letter to USEPA re: Results of Eye Irritation Screening Study in Rabbits with (Confidential Information), Substituted Small Ring Heterocyucle, dated 10/22/99 (Sanitized).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this letter is to inform you, under TSCA Section 8(e), of results of an eye irritation screening study in rabbits. The research material is identified as: substituted small ring heterocycle. Eye Irritation Screening Study in Rabbits (Study ...

1999-01-01

375

Initial Submission: Letter to USEPA re: Results of Eye Irritation Screening Study in Rabbits with (Confidential Information), Aromatic Substituted Small Ring Nitrile, dated 10/27/99 (Sanitized).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this letter is to inform you, under TSCA Section 8(e), results of an eye irritation screening study in rabbits. The research material is identified as: an aromatic substituted small ring nitrile. Eye Irritation Screening Study in Rabbits (S...

1999-01-01

376

WWC Quick Review of the Report "The Role of Simplification and Information in College Decisions: Results from the H&R Block FAFSA Experiment" Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an updated WWC (What Works Clearinghouse) Quick Review of the report "The Role of Simplification and Information in College Decisions: Results from the H&R Block FAFSA Experiment". The study examined whether assistance in filling out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) increases the likelihood of filing the…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

377

Ratios among atmospheric trace gases together with winds imply exploitable information for bird navigation: a model elucidating experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of avian goal-oriented navigation is described that is based on two empirical findings: (1) To orient their courses homeward from distant unfamiliar areas, homing pigeons require long-term exposure to undisturbed winds at the home site and olfactory access to the environmental air at home and abroad. (2) Above Germany, ratios among some atmospheric trace gases vary along differently oriented spatial gradients and in dependence on wind direction. The model emulates finding (1) by utilising the analysed air samples on which finding (2) is based. Starting with an available set of 46 omnipresent compounds, virtual pigeons determine the profile of relative weights among them at each of 96 sites regularly distributed around a central home site within a radius of 200 km and compare this profile with corresponding profiles determined at home under varying wind conditions. Referring to particular similarities and dissimilarities depending on home-wind direction, they try to estimate, at each site, the compass direction they should fly in order to approach home. To make the model working, an iterative algorithm imitates evolution by modifying sensitivity to the individual compounds stepwise at random. In the course of thousands of trial-and-error steps it gradually improves homeward orientation by selecting smaller sets of most useful and optimally weighted substances from whose proportional configurations at home and abroad it finally derives navigational performances similar to those accomplished by real pigeons. It is concluded that the dynamic chemical atmosphere most likely contains sufficient spatial information for home-finding over hundreds of kilometres of unfamiliar terrain. The underlying chemo-atmospheric processes remain to be clarified.

Wallraff, H. G.

2013-07-01

378

Measurements of Diffuse Night Sky Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results of measurements of night sky background in the range 300-650 nm and several sub-intervals. Measurements were performed at Piano Battaglia (Sicily) pointing both to the zenithal direction and towards a mountain about 1 km far. These results are very useful for studying the sensitivity ? of fluorescence and Cerenkov on-ground telescopes, and for fluorescence on-space detectors looking down to the Earth to observe cosmic-rays and neutrinos.

Catalano, O.; Mineo, T.; Catalano, O.; Agnetta, G.; Biondo, B.; Cusumano, G.; Giarruso, S.; Gugliotta, G.; Mangano, A.; Russo, F.

2003-07-01

379

Design, Implementation and Execution Results for Simulations and C2 Information Systems Connectivity Experiments (SINCE). Experiment 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we describe the design, implementation, and execution results obtained from the SINCE experiment 2b (SINCEx2b) which took place 17-28 July, 2006 at the Fort Dix facility of the NJ Army National Guard. The objective of SINCE is to conduct R&D...

A. Chan, B. Goren, D. Klose, I. Mayk, M. Mai

2006-01-01

380

Decision-Making in Flight with Different Convective Weather Information Sources: Preliminary Results from the Langley CoWS Experiment (COnvective Weather Sources)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides information on an airborne experiment designed to test the decision making of pilots receiving different sources of meteorological data. The presentation covers the equipment used in the COnvective Weather Sources (CoWS) Experiment), including the information system and display devices available to some of the subjects. It also describes the experiment, which featured teams of general aviation pilots, who were onboard but did not actually fly the aircraft used in the experiment. The presentation includes the results of a survey of the subjects' confidence.

Chamberlain, Jim; Latorella, Kara

2003-01-01

381

Dietary patterns in six European populations: results from EURALIM, a collaborative European data harmonization and information campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine and describe the extent to which European dietary data collected in disparate surveys can be meaningfully compared.Design: Seven independent population-based surveys from six European countries were initially included. Differences in study designs and methodological approaches were examined. Risk factor data for 31, 289 adults aged 40–59 y were harmonized and pooled in a common, centralized database.Results: Direct

S Hercberg; A Morabia; P Galan; R Galasso; S Giampaoli; E McCrum; S Panico; P Preziosi; L Ribas; L Serra-Majem; MF Vescio; O Vitek; J Yarnell; ME Northridge

2000-01-01

382

Cuba: Background to a Revolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

De La Fuente, Alejandro

2000-01-01

383

Building Better Career Futures: Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource booklet, one of the three components that make up the Building Better Career Futures (BBCF) program, provides information on theories and approaches of BBCF; articles on themes of the program; and group activities addressing the specific career development outcomes of BBCF. This booklet is organized into four parts. The first part,…

Bezanson, Lynne; Hopkins, Sareena

384

Teaching about natural background radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

2013-07-01

385

Background noise levels in PC home environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was designed and conducted to determine the background noise levels in the home environment. This is an important factor in determining the acoustic performance of the computing devices that go into these environments. A specialized methodology was developed and measurements were carried out in homes in the United States, Sweden, Germany, and China. The sound levels in three rooms in 15-18 homes in each country were collected over 24-h periods. The results indicated that the background noise levels ranged between 30 and 40 dBA across the four countries. Variations in the background noise levels between the different rooms in the homes were minimal. No significant variations were found between home types (detached, semi-detached, and apartment) and community types (urban, suburban). However, European homes were quieter than United States and Chinese homes. The variations between countries were statistically significant. In addition to the background noise levels, the acoustical characteristics of the rooms were measured. The results indicated that the reverberation radius was typically below 1 m and was fairly consistent between geographies.

Doherty, Rina; Salskov, Eric; Corriveau, Philip J.; Sorenson, Paul; Gabel, Doug; Beltman, Willem M.

2005-09-01

386

Improved Background Corrections for Uranium Holdup Measurements  

SciTech Connect

In the original Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) model, all holdup deposits were modeled as points, lines, and areas[1, 5]. Two improvements[4] were recently made to the GGH model and are currently in use at the Y-12 National Security Complex. These two improvements are the finite-source correction CF{sub g} and the self-attenuation correction. The finite-source correction corrects the average detector response for the width of point and line geometries which in effect, converts points and lines into areas. The result of a holdup measurement of an area deposit is a density-thickness which is converted to mass by multiplying it by the area of the deposit. From the measured density-thickness, the true density-thickness can be calculated by correcting for the material self-attenuation. Therefore the self-attenuation correction is applied to finite point and line deposits as well as areas. This report demonstrates that the finite-source and self-attenuation corrections also provide a means to better separate the gamma rays emitted by the material from the gamma rays emitted by background sources for an improved background correction. Currently, the measured background radiation is attenuated for equipment walls in the case of area deposits but not for line and point sources. The measured background radiation is not corrected for attenuation by the uranium material. For all of these cases, the background is overestimated which causes a negative bias in the measurement. The finite-source correction and the self-attenuation correction will allow the correction of the measured background radiation for both the equipment attenuation and material attenuation for area sources as well as point and line sources.

Oberer, R.B.; Gunn, C.A.; Chiang, L.G.

2004-06-21

387

Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise.  

PubMed

Studies of visual detection of a signal superimposed on one of two identical backgrounds show performance degradation when the background has high contrast and is similar in spatial frequency and/or orientation to the signal. To account for this finding, models include a contrast gain control mechanism that pools activity across spatial frequency, orientation and space to inhibit (divisively) the response of the receptor sensitive to the signal. In tasks in which the observer has to detect a known signal added to one of M different backgrounds grounds due to added visual noise, the main sources of degradation are the stochastic noise in the image and the suboptimal visual processing. We investigate how these two sources of degradation (contrast gain control and variations in the background) interact in a task in which the signal is embedded in one of M locations in a complex spatially varying background (structured background). We use backgrounds extracted from patient digital medical images. To isolate effects of the fixed deterministic background (the contrast gain control) from the effects of the background variations, we conduct detection experiments with three different background conditions: (1) uniform background, (2) a repeated sample of structured background, and (3) different samples of structured background. Results show that human visual detection degrades from the uniform background condition to the repeated background condition and degrades even further in the different backgrounds condition. These results suggest that both the contrast gain control mechanism and the background random variations degrade human performance in detection of a signal in a complex, spatially varying background. A filter model and added white noise are used to generate estimates of sampling efficiencies, an equivalent internal noise, an equivalent contrast-gain-control-induced noise, and an equivalent noise due to the variations in the structured background. PMID:9291610

Eckstein, M P; Ahumada, A J; Watson, A B

1997-09-01

388

Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of visual detection of a signal superimposed on one of two identical backgrounds show performance degradation when the background has high contrast and is similar in spatial frequency and/or orientation to the signal. To account for this finding, models include a contrast gain control mechanism that pools activity across spatial frequency, orientation and space to inhibit (divisively) the response of the receptor sensitive to the signal. In tasks in which the observer has to detect a known signal added to one of M different backgrounds grounds due to added visual noise, the main sources of degradation are the stochastic noise in the image and the suboptimal visual processing. We investigate how these two sources of degradation (contrast gain control and variations in the background) interact in a task in which the signal is embedded in one of M locations in a complex spatially varying background (structured background). We use backgrounds extracted from patient digital medical images. To isolate effects of the fixed deterministic background (the contrast gain control) from the effects of the background variations, we conduct detection experiments with three different background conditions: (1) uniform background, (2) a repeated sample of structured background, and (3) different samples of structured background. Results show that human visual detection degrades from the uniform background condition to the repeated background condition and degrades even further in the different backgrounds condition. These results suggest that both the contrast gain control mechanism and the background random variations degrade human performance in detection of a signal in a complex, spatially varying background. A filter model and added white noise are used to generate estimates of sampling efficiencies, an equivalent internal noise, an equivalent contrast-gain-control-induced noise, and an equivalent noise due to the variations in the structured background.

Eckstein, M. P.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B.

1997-01-01

389

21-cm background anisotropies can discern primordial non-Gaussianity.  

PubMed

The non-Gaussianity of initial perturbations provides information on the mechanism that generated primordial density fluctuations. We find that 21-cm background anisotropies due to inhomogeneous neutral hydrogen distribution prior to reionization captures information on primordial non-Gaussianity better than a high-resolution cosmic microwave background anisotropy map. An all-sky 21-cm experiment over the frequency range from 14 to 40 MHz with angular information out to a multipole of 10(5) can limit the primordial non-Gaussianity parameter f(NL) <, similar 0.01. PMID:17280413

Cooray, Asantha

2006-12-31

390

Background canceling surface alpha detector  

DOEpatents

A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1996-06-11

391

The microwave background anisotropies: Observations  

PubMed Central

Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation—fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 ?K fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1° and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe—the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century.

Wilkinson, David

1998-01-01

392

Cosmic Microwave Background Bispectrum from Recombination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum generated by nonlinearities at recombination on all scales. We use CosmoLib2nd, a numerical Boltzmann code at second order to compute cosmic microwave background bispectra on the full sky. We consistently include all effects except gravitational lensing, which can be added to our result using standard methods. The bispectrum is peaked on squeezed triangles and agrees with the analytic approximation in the squeezed limit at the few percent level for all the scales where this is applicable. On smaller scales, we recover previous results on perturbed recombination. For cosmic-variance limited data to lmax?=2000, its signal-to-noise ratio is S/N=0.47, corresponding to fNLeff=-2.79, and will bias a local signal by fNLloc?0.82.

Huang, Zhiqi; Vernizzi, Filippo

2013-03-01

393

Dim point target detection against bright background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For target detection within a large-field cluttered background from a long distance, several difficulties, involving low contrast between target and background, little occupancy, illumination ununiformity caused by vignetting of lens, and system noise, make it a challenging problem. The existing approaches to dim target detection can be roughly divided into two categories: detection before tracking (DBT) and tracking before detection (TBD). The DBT-based scheme has been widely used in practical applications due to its simplicity, but it often requires working in the situation with a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In contrast, the TBD-based methods can provide impressive detection results even in the cases of very low SNR; unfortunately, the large memory requirement and high computational load prevents these methods from real-time tasks. In this paper, we propose a new method for dim target detection. We address this problem by combining the advantages of the DBT-based scheme in computational efficiency and of the TBD-based in detection capability. Our method first predicts the local background, and then employs the energy accumulation and median filter to remove background clutter. The dim target is finally located by double window filtering together with an improved high order correlation which speeds up the convergence. The proposed method is implemented on a hardware platform and performs suitably in outside experiments.

Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Qiheng; Xu, Zhiyong; Xu, Junping

2010-04-01

394

A Complete and Comprehensive Sky Background Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current era of precision astronomy, a complete sky background model is crucial, especially as the telescopes become even larger in the next decade. Such a model is needed for planning observations as well as understanding and correcting the data for the sky background. We have developed a sky model for this purpose, and it is the most complete and universal sky model that we know of to date. It covers a wide range of wavelengths from 0.3 to 30 micron up to a resolution of 1,000,000 and is instrument independent. Currently it is optimized for the telescopes at Cerro Paranal and the future site Cerro Armazones in Chile. Our sky model includes several components necessary to describe the sky background flux, such as scattered moonlight and starlight, zodiacal light, airglow emission and continuum, thermal emission from the telescope and lower atmosphere, and scattering and absorption within the Earth's atmosphere. Each component was designed with the latest knowledge and results in the field and was thoroughly checked with archival ESO data. Our sky background model will be a valuable asset for astronomical observatories and the community.

Jones, A. M.; Noll, S.; Kausch, W.; Kimeswenger, S.; Szyszka, C.

2014-05-01

395

Raman background photobleaching as a possible method of cancer diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetics of photobleaching of background in Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of plant toxins ricin and ricin agglutinin, ricin binding subunit, and normal and malignant human blood serum were measured. For the excitation of the spectra cw and pulsed laser radiation were used. The spectra of Raman background change upon laser irradiation. Background intensity is lower for the samples with small molecular weight. The cyclization of amino acid residues in the toxin molecules as well as in human blood serum can be a reason of the Raman background. The model of the background photobleaching is proposed. The differences in photobleaching kinetics in the cases of cw and pulsed laser radiation are discussed. It is shown that Raman background photobleaching can be very informative for cancer diagnostics.

Brandt, Nikolai N.; Brandt, Nikolai B.; Chikishev, Andrey Y.; Gangardt, Mihail G.; Karyakina, Nina F.

2001-06-01

396

Lidar backscattering measurements of background stratospheric aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparative lidar-dustsonde experiment was conducted in San Angelo, Texas, in May 1974 in order to estimate the uncertainties in stratospheric-aerosol backscatter for the NASA Langley 48-inch lidar system. The lidar calibration and data-analysis procedures are discussed. Results from the Texas experiment indicate random and systematic uncertainties of 35 and 63 percent, respectively, in backscatter from a background stratospheric-aerosol layer at 20 km.

Remsberg, E. E.; Northam, G. B.; Butler, C. F.

1979-01-01

397

Lidar backscattering measurements of background stratospheric aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative lidar-dustsonde experiment was conducted in San Angelo, Texas, in May 1974 in order to estimate the uncertainties in stratospheric-aerosol backscatter for the NASA Langley 48-inch lidar system. The lidar calibration and data-analysis procedures are discussed. Results from the Texas experiment indicate random and systematic uncertainties of 35 and 63 percent, respectively, in backscatter from a background stratospheric-aerosol layer

E. E. Remsberg; G. B. Northam; C. F. Butler

1979-01-01

398

Personality, social background, and occupational career success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pooled cross-sectional and life-history data from the Dutch Family Survey 1998 and 2000 (N=4000) were used to investigate whether personality was directly related to income attainment and occupational career transitions after controlling for human capital indicators, working hours, and parental social background. The results indicated that there were substantive direct relations between personality traits and occupational career success. Extraversion related

J. P. T. M. Gelissen; Paul M. de Graaf

2006-01-01

399

SPECTRUM OF RADIATION BACKGROUND UNDER WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis was made of the radiation background under water with a ; scintillation spectrometer consisting of Nal(T1) crystal and a transistorized 118-; channel analyzer for pulse-height sorting. The spectral results showed ; essentially three major energy peaks at 1.46. 2.6. and 3.3 Mev. and two minor ; peaks at 1.8 and 2.1 Mev. The peak at 1.46 Mev, K⁴°.

GORDON K. RIEL; JOHN P. DOLFIS; DONALD G. SIMONS

1960-01-01

400

Beverage can surface coating industry: background information for promulgated standards  

SciTech Connect

On November 26, 1980, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed standards of performance for the beverage can surface coating industry (45 CFR 78980) under authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. Public comments were requested on the proposal in the Federal Register. Eighteen comments were received, mostly from beverage can makers. Also commenting were State air pollution control agencies, coating suppliers, a trade association, and federal agencies. Four presentations were made at the public hearing on January 6, 1981. The comments that were submitted, along with responses to those comments, are summarized in this document. The summary of comments and responses serves as the basis for the revisions made to the standards between proposal and promulgation.

Not Available

1983-08-01

401

LANL-IPF responses to isotopes workshop background information survey  

SciTech Connect

Responses to the following are provided: (A) Which isotopes do you (company, agency, university, community) currently use in your activities or distribute (repackage) to end-users? (B) Describe generally what these isotopes are used for, i.e. the science or application. (C) Which isotope(s) do you anticipate may have significant future increase in demand. Identify the isotope(s), its priority, possible chemical form and for what purpose it would be used. (D) Are there other isotopes that you might use but are currently unavilable or not available in difficient quantities? If so, please identify this isotope, from whom have you tired to obtain it and for what prupose would it be used. (E) Do you have any specific issues with respect to the purity, availability, reliability of supply, etc. of isotopes at present?

Nortier, Francois Meiring [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

402

Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information. Updated October 6, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DOD) through the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) component called DLA Disposition Services formerly the Defense Utilization and Marketing Service (DRMS) has a policy for disposing of government equipment and supplies considered s...

V. B. Grasso

2010-01-01

403

Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information. Updated September 10, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DOD) through a Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) component called DLA Disposition Services formerly the Defense Utilization and Marketing Service (DRMS) has a policy for disposing of government equipment and supplies considered sur...

V. B. Grasso

2013-01-01

404

Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information (October 6, 2010).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DOD) through the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) component called DLA Disposition Services (formerly the Defense Utilization and Marketing Service (DRMS)) has a policy for disposing of government equipment and supplies considered...

V. B. Grasso

2010-01-01

405

Defense Surplus Equipment Disposal: Background Information, February 28, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DoD) has a policy for disposing of government equipment and supplies considered 'surplus' for a different mission, or deemed unnecessary to the agency's designated mission. The effort to dispose of surplus military equipment dat...

V. B. Grasso

2005-01-01

406

42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...compensation may be provided are cancers. There are two categories of covered employees with cancer under EEOICPA for whom...category is employees with cancer for whom a dose...

2013-10-01

407

Polymer manufacturing industry - background information for promulgated standards. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Standards of performance for the control of volatile organic compoud emissions from the polymer manufacturing industry are being promulgated under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. These standards apply to new, modified, and reconstructed facilities that manufacture polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, or poly(ethylene terephthalate). The document contains a summary of public comments, EPA responses, and a discussion of differences between the proposed and promulgated standard.

Not Available

1990-10-01

408

Background Information Bearing Upon Panama Canal Treaty Implementing Legislation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Treaty calls for the establishment of the Panama Canal Commission to replace on October 1, 1979, the Canal Zone Government and Panama Canal Company presently responsible for administering Canal operations. The Treaty expires on December 31, 1999, at w...

1979-01-01

409

Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Data analysis for the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be complicated by the huge number of sources in the LISA band. In the frequency band {approx}10{sup -4}-2x10{sup -3} Hz, galactic white dwarf binaries (GWDBs) are sufficiently dense in frequency space that it will be impossible to resolve most of them, and ''confusion noise'' from the unresolved Galactic binaries will dominate over instrumental noise in determining LISA's sensitivity to other sources in that band. Confusion noise from unresolved extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) could also contribute significantly to LISA's total noise curve. To date, estimates of the effect of LISA's confusion noise on matched-filter searches and their detection thresholds have generally approximated the noise as Gaussian, based on the central limit theorem. However in matched-filter searches, the appropriate detection threshold for a given class of signals may be located rather far out on the tail of the signal-to-noise probability distribution, where a priori it is unclear whether the Gaussian approximation is reliable. Using the Edgeworth expansion and the theory of large deviations, we investigate the probability distribution of the usual matched-filter detection statistic, far out on the tail of the distribution. We apply these tools to four somewhat idealized versions of LISA data searches: searches for EMRI signals buried in GWDB confusion noise, and searches for massive black hole binary signals buried in (i) GWDB noise, (ii) EMRI noise, and (iii) a sum of EMRI noise and Gaussian noise. Assuming reasonable short-distance cutoffs in the populations of confusion sources (since the very closest and hence strongest sources will be individually resolvable), modifications to the appropriate detection threshold, due to the non-Gaussianity of the confusion noise, turn out to be quite small for realistic cases. The smallness of the correction is partly due to the fact that these three types of sources evolve on quite different time scales, so no single background source closely resembles any search template. We also briefly discuss other types of LISA searches where the non-Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds could perhaps have a much greater impact on search reliability and efficacy.

Racine, Etienne [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Cutler, Curt [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

2007-12-15

410

Genetic background of febrile seizures.  

PubMed

Febrile seizures (FSs) occur in children older than 1 month and without prior afebrile seizures in the absence of a central nervous system infection or acute electrolyte imbalance. Their pathogenesis is multifactorial. The most relevant familial studies evidence an occurrence rate ranging from 10% to 46% and median recurrence rate of 36% in children with positive familial history for FS. The main twin studies demonstrated a higher concordance rate in monozygotic twins with FS than in dizygotic ones. Linkage studies have proposed 11 chromosomal locations responsible to FS attributed to FEB1 to FEB11. Population-based association studies have shown at least one positive association for 14 of 41 investigated genes with FS. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1? (IL-1?) was the most investigated and also gene associated with susceptibility to FS. A possible role in the overlapping of epilepsy and FS was found for 16 of 36 investigated genes. SCN1A, IL-1?, CHRNA4, and GABRG2 were the most commonly involved genes in this context. The genetic background of FS involves the regulation of different processes, including individual and familial susceptibility, modulation of immune response, and neuronal excitability and interactions with exogenous agents such as viruses. PMID:24399675

Saghazadeh, Amene; Mastrangelo, Mario; Rezaei, Nima

2014-01-01

411

Cosmic Infrared Background and Early Stellar Populations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmic infrared background (CIB) contains information about galaxy luminosities over the entire history of the Universe and can be a powerful diagnostic of the early populations otherwise inaccessible to telescopic studies. Its measurements are very difficult because of the strong IR foregrounds from the Solar system and the Galaxy. Nevertheless, substantial recent progress in measuring the CIB and its structure has been made. The measurements now allow to set significant constraints on early galaxy evolution and, perhaps, even detect the elusive Population III era. We discuss briefly the theory behind the CIB, review the latest measurements of the CIB and its structure, and discuss their implications for detecting and/or constraining the first stars and their epochs.

Kashlinsky, A.

2005-01-01

412

Background-Oriented Schlieren Pattern Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a test series to investigate background patterns used for the Background-Oriented Schlieren field density measurement technique. Several varying background patterns were substituted under similar fluid density conditions to visualize ...

J. E. Hartberger

2011-01-01

413

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 13: Source selection and information use by US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of a telephone survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A telephone survey of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists belonging to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was conducted between December 4, 1991 and January 5, 1992. The survey was undertaken to (1) validate the telephone survey as an appropriate technique for collecting data from U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists; (2) collect information about how the results of NASA/DoD aerospace research are used in the R&D process; (3) identify those selection criteria which affect the use of federally-funded aerospace R&D; and (4) obtain information that could be used to develop a self-administered mail questionnaire for use with the same population. The average rating of importance of U.S. government technical reports was 2.5 (on a 4-point scale); The mean/median number of times U.S. government technical reports were used per 6 months was 8/2. Factors scoring highest for U.S. government technical reports were technical accuracy (2.9), reliable data and technical information (2.8), and contains comprehensive data and information (2.7) on a 4-point system. The factors scoring highest for influencing the use of U.S. government technical reports were relevance (3.1), technical accuracy (3.06), and reliable data/information (3.02). Ease of use, familiarity, technical accuracy, and relevance correlated with use of U.S. government technical reports. Survey demographics, survey questionnaire, and the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project publications list are included.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.

1992-01-01

414

The peak region of the extragalactic background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cosmic X-ray background carries the information of cosmic accretion onto super-massive black holes. The intensity at its peak can be used to constrain the integrated space density of highly obscured AGNs. Determining the shape and intensity of the Cosmic X-ray background radiation represents, however, a first step towards the understanding of the population of Comptonthick AGNs. The study of

Marco Ajello

2009-01-01

415

Gamma Reaction History Backgrounds at the NIF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at NIF detects gamma-rays, emitted directly from DT fusion reactions (DT?), through the use of four Gas Cherenkov detectors with adjustable gamma-ray energy thresholds. It is primarily used to determine bang time, burn width and total DT yield of the implosion. Background interference to the signal is insignificant when capsules are driven directly by the lasers, but can be significant during indirect-drive using a hohlraum, forming an approximately 20 ns plateau under the narrow ˜200 ps FWHM fusion signal. This background is independent of fusion yield and most likely the result of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) induced hot electron bremsstrahlung radiation. These hard x-rays stream out target chamber ports and take multiple scatter paths to reach the GRH photomultiplier tubes (PMT), where they then bypass the Cherenkov conversion process and generate signal by direct interaction with the PMT microchannel plates. An examination of this background contribution to the GRH signal and possible mitigation strategies will be presented.

Church, J. A.; Stoeffl, W. S.; Watts, P. W.; Carpenter, A. C.; Liebman, J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Grafil, E.

2011-11-01

416

Density measurements using near-field background-oriented Schlieren  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification of the constant correction factor in the known equations of the background-oriented Schlieren is presented in order to be applicable to the near-field. Near-Field background-oriented Schlieren has the advantage over standard background-oriented Schlieren of being able to obtain reliable density distributions for set-ups in which the background pattern is placed directly behind the investigated flow field. It is proven that the modified correction factor depends solely on the distance between the background pattern and the flow field and on the external shape of the investigated flow field itself. The proof of principle and the accuracy of the proposed technique are obtained by the simulation of a 2D density variation with the use of glass wedge prism. The measurement of the whole-field density information of a supersonic underexpanded free jet is presented as an example that confirms the theoretical predictions.

van Hinsberg, N. P.; Rösgen, T.

2014-04-01

417

Cosmic Infrared Background and Early Galaxy Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cosmic infrared background (CIB) reflects the sum total of galactic luminosities integrated over the entire age of the universe. From its measurement the red-shifted starlight and dust-absorbed and re-radiated starlight of the CIB can be used to determine (or constrain) the rates of star formation and metal production as a function of time and deduce information about objects at epochs currently inaccessible to telescopic studies. This review discusses the state of current CIB measurements and the (mostly space-based) instruments with which these measurements have been made, the obstacles (the various foreground emissions) and the physics behind the CIB and its structure. Theoretical discussion of the CIB levels can now be normalized to the standard cosmological model narrowing down theoretical uncertainties. We review the information behind and theoretical modeling of both the mean (isotropic) levels of the CIB and their fluctuations. The CIB is divided into three broad bands: near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and far-IR (FIR). For each of the bands we review the main contributors to the CIB flux and the epochs at which the bulk of the flux originates. We also discuss the data on the various quantities relevant for correct interpretation of the CIB levels: the star-formation history, the present-day luminosity function measurements, resolving the various galaxy contributors to the CIB, etc. The integrated light of all galaxies in the deepest NIR galaxy counts to date fails to match the observed mean level of the CIB, probably indicating a significant high-redshift contribution to the CIB. Additionally, Population III stars should have left a strong and measurable signature via their contribution to the CIB anisotropies for a wide range of their formation scenarios, and measuring the excess CIB anisotropies coming from high z would provide direct information on the epoch of the first stars.

Kashlinsky, Alexander

2005-01-01

418

Automated analysis of background EEG and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia in comatose patients after cardiac arrest.  

PubMed

Visual analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) background and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia provides important outcome information, but is time-consuming and not always consistent between reviewers. Automated EEG analysis may help quantify the brain damage. Forty-six comatose patients in therapeutic hypothermia, after cardiac arrest, were included in the study. EEG background was quantified with burst-suppression ratio (BSR) and approximate entropy, both used to monitor anesthesia. Reactivity was detected through change in the power spectrum of signal before and after stimulation. Automatic results obtained almost perfect agreement (discontinuity) to substantial agreement (background reactivity) with a visual score from EEG-certified neurologists. Burst-suppression ratio was more suited to distinguish continuous EEG background from burst-suppression than approximate entropy in this specific population. Automatic EEG background and reactivity measures were significantly related to good and poor outcome. We conclude that quantitative EEG measurements can provide promising information regarding current state of the patient and clinical outcome, but further work is needed before routine application in a clinical setting. PMID:24452769

Noirhomme, Quentin; Lehembre, Rémy; Lugo, Zulay Del Rosario; Lesenfants, Damien; Luxen, André; Laureys, Steven; Oddo, Mauro; Rossetti, Andrea O

2014-01-01

419

Spectral observations of the extreme ultraviolet background.  

PubMed

A grazing incidence spectrometer was designed to measure the diffuse extreme ultraviolet background. It was flown on a sounding rocket, and data were obtained on the diffuse background between 80 and 650 angstroms. These are the first spectral measurements of this background below 520 angstroms. Several emission features were detected, including interplanetary He I 584 angstroms emission and geocoronal He II 304 angstroms emission. Other features observed may originate in a hot ionized interstellar gas, but if this interpretation is correct, gas at several different temperatures is present. The strongest of these features is consistent with O V emission at 630 angstroms. This emission, when combined with upper limits for other lines, restricts the temperature of this component to 5.5 < log T < 5.7, in agreement with temperatures derived from O VI absorption studies. A power-law distribution of temperatures is consistent with this feature only if the power-law coefficient is negative, as is predicted for saturated evaporation of clouds in a hot medium. In this case, the O VI absorption data confine the filling factor of the emission of f < or = 4% and the pressure to more than 3.7 x 10(4) cm-3 K, substantially above ambient interstellar pressure. Such a pressure enhancement has been predicted for clouds undergoing saturated evaporation. Alternatively, if the O V emission covers a considerable fraction of the sky, it would be a major source of ionization. A feature centered at about 99 angstroms is well fitted by a cluster of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX lines from gas at log T = 6.6-6.8. These results are consistent with previous soft X-ray observations with low-resolution detectors. A feature found near 178 angstroms is consistent with Fe X and Fe XI emission from gas at log T = 6; this result is consistent with results from experiments employing broad-band soft X-ray detectors. PMID:11538706

Labov, S E; Bowyer, S

1991-04-20

420

Ponderable soliton stars and cosmic background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory is developed to describe the possible perturbations of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) by radiation from ponderable soliton stars in the early universe. Since the temperature of such stars is in the range of 10 to the 6th K, thermalization of their emitted radiation is possible. Two models are considered: one in which thermalization is ignored and one in which decoupling from thermalization is considered as a sudden process. The expected perturbation of the CBR is probably less than 1 percent and is largely around the short-wavelength end, in the form of point radio sources. This result is consistent with the most recent COBE measurements.

Chiu, Hong-Yee

1990-01-01

421

Suppression of Background Odor Effect in Odor Sensing System Using Olfactory Adaptation Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a new method for suppressing the background odor effect is proposed. Since odor sensors response to background odors in addition to a target odor, it is difficult to detect the target odor information. In the conventional odor sensing systems, the effect of the background odors are compensated by subtracting the response to the background odors (the baseline response). Although this simple subtraction method is effective for constant background odors, it fails in the compensation for time-varying background odors. The proposed method for the background suppression is effective even for the time-varying background odors.

Ohba, Tsuneaki; Yamanaka, Takao

422

Dual-tracer background subtraction approach for fluorescent molecular tomography  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Diffuse fluorescence tomography requires high contrast-to-background ratios to accurately reconstruct inclusions of interest. This is a problem when imaging the uptake of fluorescently labeled molecularly targeted tracers in tissue, which can result in high levels of heterogeneously distributed background uptake. We present a dual-tracer background subtraction approach, wherein signal from the uptake of an untargeted tracer is subtracted from targeted tracer signal prior to image reconstruction, resulting in maps of targeted tracer binding. The approach is demonstrated in simulations, a phantom study, and in a mouse glioma imaging study, demonstrating substantial improvement over conventional and homogenous background subtraction image reconstruction approaches.

Holt, Robert W.; El-Ghussein, Fadi; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Leblond, Frederic; Pogue, Brian W.

2013-01-01

423

A novel background reduction strategy for high level triggers and processing in gamma-ray Cherenkov detectors  

SciTech Connect

Gamma ray astronomy is now at the leading edge for studies related both to fundamental physics and astrophysics. The sensitivity of gamma detectors is limited by the huge amount of background, constituted by hadronic cosmic rays (typically two to three orders of magnitude more than the signal) and by the accidental background in the detectors. By using the information on the temporal evolution of the Cherenkov light, the background can be reduced. We will present here the results obtained within the MAGIC experiment using a new technique for the reduction of the background. Particle showers produced by gamma rays show a different temporal distribution with respect to showers produced by hadrons; the background due to accidental counts shows no dependence on time. Such novel strategy can increase the sensitivity of present instruments.

Cabras, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M. M.; De Sabata, F.; Mansutti, O. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Udine and INFN, Udine (Italy); Frailis, M.; Persic, M. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste and Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Udine (Italy); Bigongiari, C.; Doro, M.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Saggion, A.; Scalzotto, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Padova and INFN, Padova (Italy); Paoletti, R.; Scribano, A.; Turini, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Siena and INFN, Siena (Italy); Moralejo, A.; Tescaro, D. [Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, Edifici Cn., E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

2008-05-29

424

A self-organizing approach to background subtraction for visual surveillance applications.  

PubMed

Detection of moving objects in video streams is the first relevant step of information extraction in many computer vision applications. Aside from the intrinsic usefulness of being able to segment video streams into moving and background components, detecting moving objects provides a focus of attention for recognition, classification, and activity analysis, making these later steps more efficient. We propose an approach based on self organization through artificial neural networks, widely applied in human image processing systems and more generally in cognitive science. The proposed approach can handle scenes containing moving backgrounds, gradual illumination variations and camouflage, has no bootstrapping limitations, can include into the background model shadows cast by moving objects, and achieves robust detection for different types of videos taken with stationary cameras. We compare our method with other modeling techniques and report experimental results, both in terms of detection accuracy and in terms of processing speed, for color video sequences that represent typical situations critical for video surveillance systems. PMID:18586624

Maddalena, Lucia; Petrosino, Alfredo

2008-07-01

425

In-mine testing of a natural background sensor, part B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of a natural background sensor for measuring the thickness of top coal on a longwall face was examined. The limitations on the time during which tests could be performed, and the roof conditions, did not produce readings of top coal measurements during the shearer operation. It was demonstrated that the system is capable to survive operating conditions in the mine environment, while the static tests confirmed that the natural background sensor approach is a valid method of measuring top coal thickness in mines where the roof rock provides a constant radiation level. It is concluded that the practical results will improve sequent development of an integrated vertical control system which is information from the natural background system.

Martzloff, F. D.

1981-01-01

426

Ideal-Observer Performance under Signal and Background Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the performance of the Bayesian ideal observer as a flgure of merit for hardware optimization because this observer makes optimal use of signal-detection information. Due to the high dimen- sionality of certain integrals that need to be evaluated, it is di-cult to compute the ideal observer test statistic, the likelihood ratio, when background variability is taken into account.

Matthew A. Kupinski; Eric Clarkson; Harrison H. Barrett

2003-01-01

427

Statistical challenges in the analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enormous amount of observations on Cosmic Microwave Background radiation has been collected in the last decade, and much more data are expected in the near future from planned or operating satellite missions. These datasets are a goldmine of information for Cosmology and Theoretical Physics; their efficient exploitation posits several intriguing challenges from the statistical point of view. In this

Paolo Cabella; Domenico Marinuccu

2009-01-01

428

Collection and evaluation of false alarm signatures in background data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant amount of background airborne data was collected as part of May 2005 tests for airborne minefield detection at an arid site. The locations of false alarms which occurred consistently during different runs, were identified and geo-referenced by MultiSensor Science LLC. Ground truth information, which included pictures, type qualifiers and some hyperspectral data for these identified false alarm locations,

Sanjeev Agarwal; Shivakar Vulli; Neil J. Malloy; Elizabeth M. Lord; Josh R. Fairley; Bruce M. Sabol; Wesley Johnson; Richard Ess; Anh H. Trang

2009-01-01

429

Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy's FY2011 budget proposes canceling the CG(X) program as unaffordable and instead building an improved version of the Arleigh Burke (DDG- 51) class Aegis destroyer called the Flight III version. This report provides background information on the C...

R. O'Rourke

2010-01-01

430

Source Counts and Background Fluctuations in X Rays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurement of the cell to cell fluctuations in X-ray background radiation contains information equivalent to a source count below the minimum resolvable source. The parameters of a power law distribution of the sources vs. flux can be bounded from the an...

A. Cavaliere

1973-01-01

431

Political Correctness: Background, Perspective, and Implications for Student Affairs Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information about the Political Correctness debate, encourages student affairs administrators to reflect on their own perceptions and actions, offers ideas and suggestions about the debate, and explores the debate's implications for student affairs staff. Is intended to promote both individual reflection and group discussions…

Forney, Deanna S.

1996-01-01

432

The Cosmic Background Radiation and the New Aether Drift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discussion of the cosmic background radiation covers the origin of this radiation, is used as an information source for the universe, temperature constancy, the effects of gravity wave generation, the ether drift, possible experiments to detect this drift, and the velocity of milky way motion. (JFP)

Richard A. Muller

1978-01-01

433

Background Checks for Firearm Transfers, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Brady Act) mandates criminal history background checks on persons applying to purchase firearms from federally licensed firearm dealers. The act established the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (...

M. Bowling G. Lauver M. J. Hickman D. B. Adams

2006-01-01

434

32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

2013-07-01

435

Median model for background subtraction in intelligent transportation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is generally divided into two phases: the first phase deals with background image generation and vehicle detection, the second phase deals with vehicle tracking and video handoff. In the first phase we view the image as a mixture of three data distributions: vehicle, background and shadow. Thus the problem is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian problem and our goal is to separate the background data from other data distributions. We proposed a median model and an improved median model to separate the background data from mixture data and to generate background reference images. In median model we keep track of deviation between the median and its neighbors in a reordered pixel sequence. When sample size is big enough, the reordered pixel sequence is in what we called balanced-median model. This model is indicated by a very small deviation value. In this case the median of the pixel sequence falls in background set and could be used for background estimation. When sample size is not big enough, the reordered pixel sequence is in what we called shifted-median model. This model is indicated by a much bigger deviation value. In this case the median falls out of background set and are excluded for background estimation. This median model has an impressive performance to handle slow moving or even stationary vehicles. But the time complexity is still expensive for real time image processing. The improved median model is proposed to reduce the time complexity to a reasonable level. In improved median model, we take samples in a bigger time interval to make it capable of dealing with slow moving and stationary vehicles. The sample size from experimentation is obtained as a small constant value between 5 and 20. This small sample constant size could dramatically reduce the time complexity. As a complementary to this improved median model, a mask-classified updating method is introduced to update the background image in a short term and only classified background pixels are being used for updating. Threshold, erosion, dilation and connected components labeling are used for noise removing and object labeling. After the first phase, the vehicle information is separated from image and input to the second phase for video hand-off and vehicle tracking. In the second phase, the weighted intensity information and shape information for each vehicle is scored and minimum-distance classification method is used for vehicle match. More than 400 vehicles are tested. An overall detection rate of 100% and tracking rate of 74% are obtained in this system.

Shi, Peijun; Jones, Elizabeth G.; Zhu, Qiuming

2004-05-01

436

Background-free piezoresponse force microscopy for quantitative measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an effective method to remove the system-inherent background [Jungk et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253511 (2007)] that is present in nominal piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) setup. Control experiments performed in both ambient and ultrahigh vacuum environments indicate that the system-inherent background probably originates from the interactions between the modulation voltage and surface absorptions. By minimizing such interactions, background-free PFM results were obtained on glass, ?-quartz, hexagonal ErMnO3, and periodically poled LiNbO3. The removal of background signal allows quantitative measurements of local intrinsic piezoelectric response with high sensitivity (?0.1 pm/V).

Wang, Wenbo; Geng, Yanan; Wu, Weida

2014-02-01

437

Probing Inflation via Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been a rich source of information about the early Universe. Detailed measurements of its spectrum and spatial distribution have helped solidify the Standard Model of Cosmology. However, many questions still remain. Standard Cosmology does not explain why the early Universe is geometrically flat, expanding, homogenous across the horizon, and riddled with a small anisotropy that provides the seed for structure formation. Inflation has been proposed as a mechanism that naturally solves these problems. In addition to solving these problems, inflation is expected to produce a spectrum of gravitational waves that will create a particular polarization pattern on the CMB. Detection of this polarized signal is a key test of inflation and will give a direct measurement of the energy scale at which inflation takes place. This polarized signature of inflation is expected to be -9 orders of magnitude below the 2.7 K monopole level of the CMB. This measurement will require good control of systematic errors, an array of many detectors having the requisite sensitivity, and a reliable method for removing polarized foregrounds, and nearly complete sky coverage. Ultimately, this measurement is likely to require a space mission. To this effect, technology and mission concept development are currently underway.

Chuss, David T.

2008-01-01

438

Toward an automated background oriented schlieren (BOS) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique is a useful method for visualizing refractive disturbances in a wide range of experimental settings. The technique visualizes refractive disturbances via their distortion of a distant background pattern (typically a speckle pattern). A cross-correlation computer algorithm is typically used to identify and measure distortions of the background pattern, thus revealing the refractive disturbance changes between images and producing a schlieren image. The cross-correlation algorithm, however, can be time-consuming and prevents an instantaneous schlieren image from being observed, thus hampering some potential BOS applications. Here a novel background patterning approach is presented which eliminates the need for the cross-correlation algorithm. Results are presented showing the sensitivity of the new background pattern and its potential application for providing instantaneous BOS images. Background pattern characteristics are explored for high- and low-speed fluid-dynamic applications.

Hargather, Michael; Settles, Gary

2011-11-01

439

GENETIC BACKGROUND, GENDER, AGE, BODY TEMPERATURE, AND ARTERIAL BLOOD pH HAVE A MAJOR IMPACT ON MYOCARDIAL INFARCT SIZE IN THE MOUSE AND NEED TO BE CAREFULLY MEASURED AND/OR TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT: RESULTS OF A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS OF INFARCT SIZE IN 1074 MICE  

PubMed Central

To determine whether the myocardial response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury varies depending on genetic background, gender, age, body temperature, and arterial blood pH, we studied 1074 mice from 19 strains (including 129S6/SvEvTac (129S6), B6/129P2-Ptgs2tm1Unc, B6/129SvF2/J, B6/129/D2, B6/CBAF1, B6/DBA/1JNcr, BALB/c, BPH2/J, C57BL/6/J (B6/J), C3H/DBA, C3H/FB/FF, C3H/HeJ-Pde6brd1, FVB/N/J [FVB/N], FVB/B6, FVB/ICR and Crl:ICR/H [ICR]) and distributed them into 69 groups depending on strain and: (i) two phases of ischemic preconditioning (PC); (ii) coronary artery occlusion (O) time; (iii) gender; (iv) age; (v) blood transfusion; (vi) core body temperature; and (vii) arterial blood pH. Mice underwent O either without (non-preconditioned [naïve]) or with prior cyclic O/reperfusion (R) (PC stimulus) consisting of six 4-min O/4-min R cycles 10 min (early PC, EPC) or 24 h (late PC, LPC) prior to 30 or 45-min O and 24 h R. In B6/J and B6/129/D2 mice, almost the entire risk region was infarcted after a 60-min O. Of the naïve mouse hearts, B6/ecSODWT and FVB/N mice had infarct sizes significantly smaller than those of the other mice. All strains except FVB/N benefited from the cardioprotection afforded by the early phase of PC; in contrast, development of LPC was inconsistent amongst groups and was strain-dependent. Female gender (i) was associated with reduced infarct size in ICR mice, (ii) determined whether LPC developed in ICR mice, and (iii) limited the protection afforded by EPC in 129S6 mice. Importantly, mild hypothermia (1 °C decrease in core temperature) and mild acidosis (0.18 decrease in blood pH) resulted in a striking cardioprotective effect in ICR mice: 67.5% and 43.0% decrease in infarct size, respectively. Replacing blood losses with crystalloid fluids (instead of blood) during surgery also reduced infarct size. To our knowledge, this is the largest analysis of the determinants of infarct size in mice ever published. The results demonstrate that genetic background, gender, age (but not in ICR), body temperature and arterial blood pH have a major impact on infarct size, and thus need to be carefully measured and/or taken into account when designing a study of myocardial infarction in mice; failure to do so makes results uninterpretable. For example, core temperature and blood pH need to be measured, respiratory acidosis (or alkalosis) and hypothermia (or hyperthermia) must be avoided, and comparisons cannot be made between mouse strains or genders that exhibit different susceptibility to I/R injury (e.g., FVB/N male mice and ICR female mice are inherently protected against I/R injury).

Guo, Yiru; Flaherty, Michael P.; Wu, Wen-Jian; Tan, Wei; Zhu, Xiaoping; Li, Qianhong; Bolli, Roberto

2013-01-01

440

Worst-Case Background Knowledge in Privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work has shown the necessity of considering an attacker's background knowledge when reasoning about privacy in data publishing.