Note: This page contains sample records for the topic background information vocabulary from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

A Vocabulary Test to Assess Information Security Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The dependence on human involvement and human behavior to protect information assets necessitates an information security awareness program to make people aware of their roles and responsibilities towards information security. The purpose of this paper is to examine the feasibility of an information security vocabulary test as an aid to assess awareness levels and to assist with the

Hennie A. Kruger; Lynette Drevin; Tjaart Steyn

2010-01-01

2

Vocabulary Uptake from Informal Learning Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is common to encourage foreign-language learners to use their language outside the classroom and to read books and papers, listen to songs and watch films in the foreign language. One of the benefits which are thought to accrue from these activities is that learners can build good vocabularies. It has even been argued that casual exposure to…

Milton, James

2008-01-01

3

Mind Your Vocabulary: Query Mapping Across Heterogeneous Information Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a mechanism for translating constraint queries, i.e., Boolean expressions of constraints, across heteroge- neous information sources. Integrating such systems is difficult in part because they use a wide range of constraints as the vocabulary for formulating queries. We describe algorithms that apply user- provided mapping rules to translate query constraints into ones that are understood

Kevin Chen-Chuan Chang; Hector Garcia-Molina

1999-01-01

4

Background Information on Ammonia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the synthesis, production, and use of ammonia (7664417) is reviewed. The importance of a catalyst in the process of uniting hydrogen and nitrogen to form ammonia, producers of ammonia between 1961 and 1974, their annual production capacity,...

R. Hartle

1975-01-01

5

Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

Cimino, James J.

1995-01-01

6

From Potential to Reality: Content-Rich Vocabulary and Informational Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content vocabulary is essential for children's comprehension of informational text. Teachers will need to support children in developing the technical or specialized words they need for informational text and in linking these words to key concepts in content area instruction. This article describes the vocabulary instruction that was observed…

Wright, Tanya S.

2014-01-01

7

45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation...Specifications for Health Information Technology § 170.207 Vocabulary...electronic health information. The Secretary...United States National Library of Medicine....

2013-10-01

8

45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation...Specifications for Health Information Technology § 170.207 Vocabulary...electronic health information. The Secretary...United States National Library of Medicine....

2010-10-01

9

Improving Vocabulary and Comprehension Skills of Secondary-Level Students from Diverse Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary-level students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds who struggle with reading need strategies for aligning new information with their previous knowledge as well as for obtaining and retaining essential information from the text. Important components of all secondary literacy support must include instruction in…

McCollin, Michelle; O'Shea, Doris J.; McQuiston, Kathleen

2009-01-01

10

Developing a Controlled Vocabulary for the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center Outpatient Clinical Information System  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the development of a Controlled Vocabulary for medication and problem/diagnostic lists in an ambulatory patient care information system within the institution's overall IAIMS framework. This Controlled Vocabulary is used in a spell-checking filter for uploading existing free text data and for on-line entry of new data by physicians. The Controlled Vocabulary consists of a reference file, keyed by code, and an inverted word index file to access it. It is currently loaded with an in-house produced set of medication codes and SNOMED Level 1 Disease codes supplemented by additional user entries.

Clark, Anthony S.; Shea, Steven

1990-01-01

11

Linguistic Information in the Vocabulary of Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the procedures employed in compiling and coding a basic set of vocabulary words and related linguistic data intended for use in elementary communication skills instruction. Ten thousand words were selected from eight studies of words used by children at various grade levels, one through six. Each word was assigned a grade…

Cronnell, Bruce; Rhode, Mary

12

Strategies and Success in Technical Vocabulary Learning: Students' Approaches in One Academic Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing the importance of lexis and vocabulary learning strategies (VLS) in academic studies, this article presents a descriptive case study of technical vocabulary learning in English over one academic term in an intact, required first year course in a graduate school of theology in Canada. After outlining background information and describing the research methods, the article discusses the vocabulary learning

MICHAEL LESSARD-CLOUSTON

2008-01-01

13

A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research presents an algorithmic approach to ad- dressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biol- ogy domain as an example. We first present a literature review of cognitive stud!es related to the vcrcabulaw prob- lem and vocabulary-based search aids (thesauri) and then discuss technques for building robust and domain-spe- cific thesauri to

Hsinchun Chen; Tobun D. Ng; Joanne Martinez; Bruce R. Schatz

1997-01-01

14

Developing Pupil Background Information for Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are often provided with background information before reading an assigned selection. This background information functions differently in the following reading variations: individualized reading; basal reading; big book approaches; programmed reading, the language experience approach; and predictable books. Students often pick subjects…

Ediger, Marlow

15

A balanced approach to health information evaluation: A vocabulary-based naïve Bayes classifier and readability formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since millions seek health information online, it is vital for this information to be comprehensible. Most studies use readability formulas, which ignore vocabulary, and conclude that online health information is too difficult. We developed a vocabularly-based, naïve Bayes classi- fier to distinguish between three difficulty levels in text. It proved 98% accurate in a 250-document evaluation. We compared our classifier

Gondy Leroy; Trudi Miller; Graciela Rosemblat; Allen Browne

2008-01-01

16

NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

1991-01-01

17

Vocabulary Notebook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for a fine way to get your vocabulary up to speed, you should definitely check out Vocabulary Notebook. Teachers can use the program to study words with their students in the classroom and individuals can use it to craft their own personalized vocabulary lists for reviewing while on the go. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-02-13

18

Visualizing Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

19

Contemporary Classroom Vocabulary Assessment for Content Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the challenges of teaching disciplinary vocabulary effectively is the paucity of available, classroom-friendly vocabulary assessments that can be used to gauge students' vocabulary growth and to inform vocabulary instruction. This article describes the intricacies of word knowledge that make assessment difficult. Three continua…

Stahl, Katherine A. Dougherty; Bravo, Marco A.

2010-01-01

20

Nonfossil fuel fired industrial boilers: background information  

SciTech Connect

This document provides background information about air emissions and controlling these emissions for the nonfossil fuel fired boiler (NFFB) source category. This source category includes boilers firing wood, bagasse (sugar cane residue), municipal type solid waste, and refuse derived fuels. This document identifies the industries which use NFFBs and the numbers of new NFFBs expected to be built in 1982 through 1990. The uncontrolled emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides are quantified and factors affecting these emissions are discussed. State and Federal regulations which apply to the NFFB source category are summarized. Control technologies to reduce these emissions are identified and emission test data are presented. Factors which affect the performance of emission control technologies are also discussed. Finally, environmental, energy and cost impacts of applying these control technologies to nonfossil fuel fired boilers are presented and discussed. This information was developed in support of a potential new source performance standard for nonfossil fuel fired boilers.

Not Available

1982-03-01

21

Strategies and Success in Technical Vocabulary Learning: Students' Approaches in One Academic Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the importance of lexis and vocabulary learning strategies (VLS) in academic studies, this article presents a descriptive case study of technical vocabulary learning in English over one academic term in an intact, required first year course in a graduate school of theology in Canada. After outlining background information and…

Lessard-Clouston, Michael

2008-01-01

22

76 FR 81523 - Proposed Information Collection; Federal Advisory Committee Background Information Nomination Form  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Federal Advisory Committee Background Information Nomination Form AGENCY...Title: Federal Advisory Committee Background Information Nomination Form. Forms: Resource Advisory Council Background Information Nomination Form....

2011-12-28

23

Vocabulary Instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the web site Doing What Works, this section describes research-based practices to promote vocabulary development in middle and high school. It includes a multimedia overview of the importance of providing explicit vocabulary instruction, video clips, links to research, and other resources. Content area teachers and strategies for use in content areas like science are specifically addressed in the recommendations.

2008-01-01

24

Use of Ontology for Field Geological Data in Geological Sheet Maps at 1:50,000: "Outcrop Information Vocabulary" Prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological Survey of Japan has published series of geological map at 1:50,000. The study attempts to acquire, distribute, and utilize the outcrop information as digital information. We aim at construction of an open system which is available in a various position, and then establishment of standard technology for the realization of the system. The purpose of this paper is to consider and carry out manufacture of “Outcrop Information Vocabulary(OIV)” as the first stage of the study. Since outcrop information is basic primary information, the semantic web technology is employed to associate with various other systems on the Web; for instance, OIV is designed with use of ontology and described by Web Ontology Language(OWL). The OIV includes 14 classes including “FieldObservation” class to describe field observation. Moreover, we create test system which field researchers use to test the effectiveness of OIV. The result lead to the conclusion that files created by use of OIV are easy of mutual alteration and association function with other XML-base format, therefore, OIV has high affinity with existing technology. ULM Class Diagram for "Outcop Informaion Vocabulary"

Nishioka, Y.; Fusejima, Y.; Takarada, S.; Iwaya, T.; Igawa, T.; Masaka, Y. A.

2010-12-01

25

Math Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page has suggestions for ways to make effective use of word walls, including making it interactive and setting expectations with students. Several activities are described. Links to supporting workbooks and vocabulary cards are provided.

2013-01-01

26

Compulsive Gambling: Background Information for Security Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of compulsive gambling pulls together in one place information useful to personnel security Policy-makers, practitioners, and researchers when reviewing standards and procedures, establishing priorities or developing training programs. It focus...

R. J. Heuer

1992-01-01

27

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Breast CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the materials cited below.

28

Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child  

MedlinePLUS

... Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child Email Order (Free) ... rated. Series: Factsheets for Families Author(s): Child Welfare Information Gateway Year Published: 2012 ( PDF - 470 KB) This ...

29

American Memory: Background Papers and Content Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this site, newly updated and reorganized, the Library of Congress continues to share its experience in the digitization of images, text, maps, sound files, and movies. In addition to American Memory White papers (some previously described in the August 7, 1998 Scout Report), which are technical papers based on the experience gained during the American Memory Pilot Project, the site also includes a variety of resources to help any library or institution embarking on a digitizing project, such as sample Requests for Proposals (RFPs) for scanning and text conversion services, the National Digital Library Project Planning checklist, final reports, workshop proceedings, and recommendations. Also included are some background readings produced outside the Library of Congress on the concept of creating digital library collections.

30

Background Information Framework for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This framework will define the purpose and scope of NAEP's system of collecting background information, including background questionnaires and other sources of non-cognitive data. It will establish criteria for reporting background information as part of the National Assessment. The approach it suggests provides for asking various groups of…

National Assessment Governing Board, Washington, DC.

31

Vocabulary Teaching Strategies: Effects on Vocabulary Recognition and Comprehension at the First Grade Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined teaching methods for vocabulary at the first grade level. The study compared teaching vocabulary in context and teaching vocabulary in isolation. Subjects were 32 culturally diverse first-grade students from varying socio-economic backgrounds. The sample consisted of 14 boys and 18 girls, heterogeneously grouped. Two teacher-made…

Peitz, Patricia; Vena, Patricia

32

Vocabulary at the Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

2009-01-01

33

Vocabulary: Needed If More Children Are To Read Well.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that vocabulary has long been recognized as a strong determinant of reading success. Discusses how children's vocabulary knowledge is largely determined by informal factors, such as parental interaction and other sources, such as the television. Addresses individual differences in vocabulary acquisition; amount of vocabulary needed for…

Biemiller, Andrew

2003-01-01

34

Language experiences and vocabulary development in Dominican and Mexican infants across the first 2 years.  

PubMed

We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during interviews at infants' birth. Infants' language experiences were measured at ages 14 months and 2 years through mothers' reports of mothers' and fathers' engagement in English and Spanish literacy activities with infants and mothers' English and Spanish utterances during videotaped mother-infant interactions. Infants' vocabulary development at 14 months and 2 years was examined using standardized vocabulary checklists in English and Spanish. Both parental language context and infants' language experiences predicted infants' vocabularies in each language at both ages. Furthermore, language experiences mediated associations between parental language context and infants' vocabularies. However, the specific mediation mechanisms varied by language. PMID:22142187

Song, Lulu; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

2012-07-01

35

The Relationship between Vocabulary and Writing Quality in Three Genres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocabulary in writing across three genres. Fifth graders (N = 105) wrote three compositions: story, persuasive, and informative. Each composition revolved around the topic of outer space to control for background knowledge. Written compositions were scored for holistic writing quality and…

Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Wilson, Joshua

2013-01-01

36

Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…

Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.

2002-01-01

37

42 CFR 82.0 - Background information on this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION...Background information on this part. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation...employees, of the United States Department of Energy (âDOEâ), its predecessor...

2012-10-01

38

Term Identification Methods for Consumer Health Vocabulary Development  

PubMed Central

Background The development of consumer health information applications such as health education websites has motivated the research on consumer health vocabulary (CHV). Term identification is a critical task in vocabulary development. Because of the heterogeneity and ambiguity of consumer expressions, term identification for CHV is more challenging than for professional health vocabularies. Objective For the development of a CHV, we explored several term identification methods, including collaborative human review and automated term recognition methods. Methods A set of criteria was established to ensure consistency in the collaborative review, which analyzed 1893 strings. Using the results from the human review, we tested two automated methods—C-value formula and a logistic regression model. Results The study identified 753 consumer terms and found the logistic regression model to be highly effective for CHV term identification (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 95.5%). Conclusions The collaborative human review and logistic regression methods were effective for identifying terms for CHV development.

Tse, Tony; Divita, Guy; Keselman, Alla; Crowell, Jon; Browne, Allen C; Goryachev, Sergey; Ngo, Long

2007-01-01

39

Marathi Vocabulary Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is part of a set of elementary and intermediate Marathi teaching materials. It consists of three parts: a classified vocabulary, a Marathi-English vocabulary, and an English-Marathi vocabulary. The classified vocabulary presents lists of words the student needs in talking about the natural world and the material culture. The…

Nimbkar, Jai; Berntsen, Maxine

40

Remove Limits to Learning with Systematic Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is a pivotal component of a student's background knowledge, and the research indicates that vocabulary instruction can be an effective means for increasing it. This booklet describes the positive outcomes that result when a school- or district-wide vocabulary program is strategically developed and intentionally implemented. The…

Stone, Bj; Urquhart, Vicki

2008-01-01

41

Partitioning a vocabulary's IS-A hierarchy into trees.  

PubMed Central

Controlled medical vocabularies are useful in application areas such as medical information-systems and decision-support. However, such vocabularies are large and complex, and working with them can be daunting. It is important to provide a means for orienting users to the vocabulary's contents. This paper introduces a methodology for partitioning a vocabulary into small, meaningful pieces. The partitioning is done with respect to the vocabulary's IS-A hierarchy. The methodology, based on a set of rules for refining the IS-A hierarchy, is a process carried out by a user in conjunction with the computer. The methodology is demonstrated on a complex portion of a vocabulary.

Gu, H.; Perl, Y.; Geller, J.; Halper, M.; Cimino, J. J.; Singh, M.

1997-01-01

42

Extracting Enterprise Vocabularies Using Linked Open Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common vocabulary is vital to smooth business operation, yet codifying and maintaining an enterprise vocabulary is an arduous, manual task. We describe a process to automatically extract a domain specific vocabulary (terms and types) from unstructured data in the enterprise guided by term definitions in Linked Open Data (LOD). We validate our techniques by applying them to the IT (Information Technology) domain, taking 58 Gartner analyst reports and using two specific LOD sources - DBpedia and Freebase. We show initial findings that address the generalizability of these techniques for vocabulary extraction in new domains, such as the energy industry.

Dolby, Julian; Fokoue, Achille; Kalyanpur, Aditya; Schonberg, Edith; Srinivas, Kavitha

43

A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may be more easily mapped to the OGC Observations & Measurements model for cross-domain applications.

Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

2014-05-01

44

Assessing the language skills of children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds: the expressive vocabulary performance of Singaporean English-Mandarin bilingual pre-schoolers.  

PubMed

Standardized language assessments such as the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Pre-school 2 United Kingdom (CELF Preschool 2 UK) are often used in speech-language pathology clinics to determine if a child is at risk of language difficulties. Many of these assessments are designed and standardized for use with monolingual Standard English-speaking children. It is thus recommended that these assessments should only be used with the populations they were designed for; if not test bias might result. However, such tests are still selected and used in the clinics of many multicultural and multilinguistic communities (e.g., Singapore). This research aimed to explore the performance of 79 Singaporean English-Mandarin pre-school children on the Expressive Vocabulary (EV) sub-test of the CELF Preschool 2 UK and to determine if their performance on the EV sub-test accurately reflected their language abilities by comparing their performance on a local screening language assessment tool, the Singapore English Action Picture Test (SEAPT). Results showed that local children performed poorly as compared to their UK counterparts. Two plausible reasons for the findings are: (1) the sub-test elicited only a single measure in English which ignored the language abilities of these bilingual children in their second language; and (2) the presence of culturally and linguistically biased test items. PMID:22335605

Teoh, Wei Qin; Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul

2012-06-01

45

Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their collaborators using SISSvoc3, including: * geologic timescale (multiple versions) * soils classification * definitions from OGC standards * geosciml vocabularies * mining commodities * hyperspectral scalars Several other agencies in Australia have adopted SISSvoc3 for their vocabularies. SISSvoc3 differs from other SKOS-based vocabulary-access APIs such as GEMET [3] and NVS [4] in that (a) the service is decoupled from the content store, (b) the service URI is independent of the content URIs This means that a SISSvoc3 interface can be deployed over any SKOS vocabulary which is available at a SPARQL endpoint. As an example, a SISSvoc3 query and presentation interface has been deployed over the NERC vocabulary service hosted by the BODC, providing a search interface which is not available natively. We use vocabulary services to populate menus in user interfaces, to support data validation, and to configure data conversion routines. Related services built on LDA have also been used as a generic registry interface, and extended for serving gazetteer information. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The CSIRO SISSvoc3 implementation is built using the Epimorphics ELDA platform http://code.google.com/p/elda/. We thank Jacqui Githaiga and Terry Rankine for their contributions to SISSvoc design and implementation. REFERENCES 1. SISSvoc3 Specification https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/Siss/SISSvoc30Specification 2. Linked Data API http://code.google.com/p/linked-data-api/wiki/Specification 3. GEMET https://svn.eionet.europa.eu/projects/Zope/wiki/GEMETWebServiceAPI 4. NVS 2.0 http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/

Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

2013-04-01

46

What Is Academic Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

2010-01-01

47

Language Experiences and Vocabulary Development in Dominican and Mexican Infants across the First 2 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during interviews…

Song, Lulu; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

2012-01-01

48

Facilitating the development of controlled vocabularies for metabolomics technologies with text mining  

PubMed Central

Background Many bioinformatics applications rely on controlled vocabularies or ontologies to consistently interpret and seamlessly integrate information scattered across public resources. Experimental data sets from metabolomics studies need to be integrated with one another, but also with data produced by other types of omics studies in the spirit of systems biology, hence the pressing need for vocabularies and ontologies in metabolomics. However, it is time-consuming and non trivial to construct these resources manually. Results We describe a methodology for rapid development of controlled vocabularies, a study originally motivated by the needs for vocabularies describing metabolomics technologies. We present case studies involving two controlled vocabularies (for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography) whose development is currently underway as part of the Metabolomics Standards Initiative. The initial vocabularies were compiled manually, providing a total of 243 and 152 terms. A total of 5,699 and 2,612 new terms were acquired automatically from the literature. The analysis of the results showed that full-text articles (especially the Materials and Methods sections) are the major source of technology-specific terms as opposed to paper abstracts. Conclusions We suggest a text mining method for efficient corpus-based term acquisition as a way of rapidly expanding a set of controlled vocabularies with the terms used in the scientific literature. We adopted an integrative approach, combining relatively generic software and data resources for time- and cost-effective development of a text mining tool for expansion of controlled vocabularies across various domains, as a practical alternative to both manual term collection and tailor-made named entity recognition methods.

Spasic, Irena; Schober, Daniel; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Kell, Douglas B; Paton, Norman W

2008-01-01

49

Community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constrained clustering has been well-studied in the unsupervised learning society. However, how to encode constraints into community structure detection, within complex networks, remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised learning framework for community structure detection. This framework implicitly encodes the must-link and cannot-link constraints by modifying the adjacency matrix of network, which can also be regarded as de-noising the consensus matrix of community structures. Our proposed method gives consideration to both the topology and the functions (background information) of complex network, which enhances the interpretability of the results. The comparisons performed on both the synthetic benchmarks and the real-world networks show that the proposed framework can significantly improve the community detection performance with few constraints, which makes it an attractive methodology in the analysis of complex networks.

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

2013-02-01

50

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

51

Cell Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to cells, organelles, and the plasma membrane. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

52

Genetics Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing genetics vocabulary. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

53

Graded Readers and Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the potential for vocabulary learning using a corpus of 42 grade readers from one series of graded readers (seven at each of six levels in the series). It was found that in order to have 95% coverage of the running words at a level in the series, it was necessary to already know the vocabulary of the current level in the scheme.…

Nation, Paul; Ming-Tzu, Karen Wang

1999-01-01

54

Marathi Illustrated Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a set of Marathi teaching materials, this book is designed to help the student learn vocabulary through the association of printed words and pictures. The book represents more than 400 basic vocabulary items in pictorial form. It includes sketches of the natural world, the human body, clothing, house and furnishings, town and village,…

Berntsen, Maxine; Nimbkar, Jai

55

Content Area Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2014-01-01

56

Vocabulary Practice Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates games that can be used for developing vocabulary in the English-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom. The games are intended to be integrated into the general language syllabus and can be an important and enjoyable way of practicing vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

Shaptoshvili, Shalva

2002-01-01

57

tagging, communities, vocabulary, evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tagging community's vocabulary of tags forms the basis for social navigation and shared expression. We present a user-centric model of vocabulary evolution in tagging com- munities based on community influence and personal ten- dency. We evaluate our model in an emergent tagging sys- tem by introducing tagging features into the MovieLens rec- ommender system. We explore four tag selection

Shilad Sen; Shyong K. Lam; Al Mamunur Rashid; Dan Cosley; Dan Frankowski; Jeremy Osterhouse; F. Maxwell Harper; John Riedl

2006-01-01

58

VISUAL VOCABULARY IN BRANDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual vocabulary or visual language is a set of symbols used to describe a system or a process; it refers to all graphical representations that supplement a brand image, a logo, and build a brand identity that is bound to remain invariable even when the sign undergoes fundamental changes. The article is a presentation of the concept of visual vocabulary\\/language

Adriana Vintean; Ovidiu Matiu

2011-01-01

59

Utilizing OODB schema modeling for vocabulary management.  

PubMed Central

Comprehension of complex controlled vocabularies is often difficult. We present a method, facilitated by an object-oriented database, for depicting such a vocabulary (the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) from the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center) in a schematic way which uses a sparse inheritance network of area classes. The resulting Object Oriented Health Vocabulary repository (OOHVR) allows visualization of the 43,000 MED concepts as 90 area classes. This view has provided valuable information to those responsible with maintaining the MED. As a result, the MED organization has been improved and some previously-unrecognized errors and inconsistencies have been removed. We believe that this schematic approach allows improved comprehension of the gestalt of large controlled medical vocabulary.

Gu, H.; Cimino, J. J.; Halper, M.; Geller, J.; Perl, Y.

1996-01-01

60

Teaching Vocabulary Awareness with OBSERVING STARS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading strategy guide in a series of guides that utilizes articles from the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) program. These strategy guides provide teachers of middle school students with a reading strategy (in this case, Teaching Vocabulary Awareness) and supplemental resources, background information on that strategy, connections to standards, classroom implementation techniques, tips for utilizing this strategy with students with dyslexia, and a two-page reading based on a particular space science concept. The reading incorporated into this strategy guide, OBSERVING STARS, describes the process scientists use to observe and collect evidence about the life cycle of a star. Students will encounter the following challenging terms in this article: remnants, nebula, nebulae, supernova, and neutron star. This strategy guide is also mapped to the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts Literacy in Science & Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8.

61

Reading Vocabulary Knowledge and Deafness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of the relationship of reading vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension offers a vocabulary acquisition model that asserts that both breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are critical to comprehension. The vocabulary/comprehension relationship and the acquisition of word meanings are compared for hearing and deaf students,…

Paul, Peter V.

1996-01-01

62

Semantic representation of CDC-PHIN vocabulary using Simple Knowledge Organization System.  

PubMed

PHIN Vocabulary Access and Distribution System (VADS) promotes the use of standards based vocabulary within CDC information systems. However, the current PHIN vocabulary representation hinders its wide adoption. Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C draft specification to support the formal representation of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) within the framework of the Semantic Web. We present a method of adopting SKOS to represent PHIN vocabulary in order to enable automated information sharing and integration. PMID:18999292

Zhu, Min; Mirhaji, Parsa

2008-01-01

63

Background Information: National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Apollo Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The origins and development of NASA are detailed, with related information about the Space Act of 1958. Additionally, a historical summary of the Apollo program is presented. This document additionally covers NASA installations, milestones and budget hist...

1969-01-01

64

Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.  

PubMed

Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses. PMID:24807935

Kerren, A

2013-01-01

65

Playing Games: Vocabulary Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding ways to keep students active and engaged in the classroom is not easy. Introducing a game like Vocabulary Survival in which students are allowed to compete while also learning moral concepts can create a fun and successful learning environment.

Dea, Sara

2011-02-01

66

Building Digital Collections: Technical Information and Background Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced on May 9, this newly updated site from the Library of Congress National Digital Library Program (NDLP) documents "technical activities relating to the procedures and practices employed by the NDLP, and its precursor American Memory Program, over the past decade." Of use to anyone involved in digital library projects, the highlight of the site is probably the Building Digital Collections section, which links to the technical documents (included with most American Memory Collections) describing how the collection was digitized and what technology was used. The site also contains descriptions of technical practices, workflow production, and a selection of background papers.

67

Service Learning: Flooding Students with Vocabulary through Read Alouds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.

Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith

2014-01-01

68

76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Investigation National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency...Department of Justice (DOJ) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division's National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS)...

2011-11-08

69

Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nat

70

Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very nearly the speed of light. Optical studies of a December 1997 burst (GRB 971214) indicated a distance for it of nearly 12 billion light-years. With distances known, astronomers could calculate the amount of energy released during the explosion. The answers were astounding. GRB 970508, in a mere 15 seconds, released nearly ten times more energy than our Sun will release in its entire, 10-billion-year lifetime. GRB 971214, for one or two seconds, outshone the entire rest of the universe. These energies ruled out many of the numerous theories for the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts that had arisen over the previous three decades. Many answers about the origins of Gamma Ray Bursts and the physics of the fireballs will come from radio telescopes. The VLA, with its combination of sensitivity and resolving power, "has a unique role to play in deciphering GRB fireball physics," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. First, radio astronomers can see the GRB fireball far longer than it is visible at other wavelengths. A Gamma Ray Burst is visible in the gamma rays for typically seconds or minutes, in X-rays for days, and in visible light for weeks, based on the past year's experience. "With radio telescopes, we can see the fireballs for months, gaining new information every day," said Greg Taylor, also of NRAO in Socorro. "Also, at other wavelengths, they see the emission only as it is rapidly getting weaker. At radio wavelengths, we can study the emission as it rises in strength, peaks, then slowly decays." In addition, radio observations can measure the size of the fireball. "Only radio telescopes can measure the size, and we can do it in three different ways," Frail said. These techniques involve studying the scintillation, or "twinkling" of the radio emission; absorption characteristics of the emission; and, for bright, energetic afterglows, direct measurements of sizes can be made through the great resolving power of continent-wide radio telescope arrays such as t

71

The Effect of Keeping Vocabulary Notebooks on Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary notebooks are frequently advocated as a way for students to take control of their vocabulary learning (Fowle, 2002), with the added benefit of improvements in vocabulary learning (Schmitt and Schmitt, 1995; Laufer and Nation, 1999). The study described in this article attempts to lend empirical support to these claims, by investigating…

Walters, JoDee; Bozkurt, Neval

2009-01-01

72

Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

2013-12-01

73

Sources of the Medical Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to determine as precisely as possible just how much of medical vocabulary is derived from every source, the vocabulary defined in the 24th edition of "Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary" was analyzed. Results indicate that medical vocabulary is relying increasingly upon the Greek and Latin languages as the sources of its…

Butler, Roy F.

1980-01-01

74

Teaching Vocabulary across the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning vocabulary is an important instructional aim for teachers in all content areas in middle grades schools. Recent research, however, indicates that vocabulary instruction may be problematic because many teachers are not "confident about best practice in vocabulary instruction and at times don't know where to begin to form an instructional…

Bintz, William P.

2011-01-01

75

New Directions in Vocabulary Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been great strides made in research on vocabulary in the last 30 years. However, there has been relatively little progress in the development of new vocabulary tests. This may be due in some degree to the impressive contributions made by tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (Nation, 1983; Schmitt et al., 2001) and the Word…

Webb, Stuart A.; Sasao, Yosuke

2013-01-01

76

Teaching Vocabulary to ESL Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the ways in which vocabulary is taught and in particular what important learning points ESL students should know in order to understand new vocabulary words. It also discusses various ideas of how teachers could teach vocabulary. It highlights the importance of a theory that states there are 3 key stages that students progress…

McBain, Robert

2011-01-01

77

Vocabulary Development and the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A person can communicate more accurately by possessing a rich vocabulary, be it in listening, speaking, reading, or writing. Then too, students need a well developed vocabulary which is integrated across the entire curriculum. This paper focuses on the plethora of vocabulary terms in diverse curriculum areas, including social studies, science,…

Ediger, Marlow

78

Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

Lu, M.

2008-01-01

79

The Future of Indexing and Retrieval Vocabularies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

T e role of formal, controlled vocabularies for indexing and retrieval is contrasted with the use of natural language for these activities. The following credo is advanced for large central information processors as appropriate to the 1970's. (a) Highly s...

P. H. Klingbiel

1970-01-01

80

MMIE training of large vocabulary recognition systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a framework for optimising the structure and parameters of a continuous density HMM-based large Ž. vocabulary recognition system using the Maximum Mutual Information Estimation MMIE criterion. To reduce the computational complexity of the MMIE training algorithm, confusable segments of speech are identified and stored as word lattices of alternative utterance hypotheses. An iterative mixture splitting procedure is

V. Valtchev; J. J. Odell; Philip C. Woodland; S. J. Young

1997-01-01

81

Research into Practice: Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a personal view of the application of research on vocabulary to teaching and how there are three different types or categories of relationship between that research and the teaching to which it is applied: first, where the research is not applied or not applied well, second, where it is reasonably well applied, and third, where it…

Nation, I. S. P.

2011-01-01

82

The Electric Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

Sheils, James

2012-01-01

83

"Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

Voorhees, Roxy

84

Vocabulary: Desk versus Table.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complexity of teaching second-language vocabulary is illustrated with numerous examples of words that do not have an exact reciprocal from one language to another. Some insurmountable differences are cited, and the rationale for usage of an inaccurate but culturally acceptable word is offered. (13 references) (LB)

Torna, Zelda

1992-01-01

85

Building Students' Technical Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the structured overview, a chart that helps students associate known terms with new terms. Discusses a method of introducing the structured overview. The author then presents two exercises that reinforce learning of vocabulary and the relationship between key concepts: the scrambled overview and label-object matching. More advanced…

Darlington, Alan J.

1985-01-01

86

VOCABULARY AND CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PROCESSES OF THOUGHT, OF CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT, AND OF VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT ARE SIGNIFICANTLY INTERRELATED. COMMUNICATION OF IDEAS DEPENDS UPON THE ABILITY TO ASSOCIATE WRITTEN AND VERBAL SYMBOLS WITH THE REFERENTS THROUGH A SYSTEMATIC PROCESS OF REORGANIZING AND INTEGRATING OLD AND NEW CONCEPTS. THE ABILITY TO ASSOCIATE, IN TURN, DEPENDS UPON…

LANGER, JOHN H.

87

Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

2014-05-01

88

Standard controlled vocabulary for climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scope of climate modeling has grown tremendously in the last 10 years, resulting in a large variety of climate models, increasing complexity with more physical or chemical components and huge volumes of data sets (simulation outputs). While significant efforts to standardise the associated metadata (i.e. data describing data and models) have already been made in recent projects (e.g. CF standard names for CMIP3), detailed standards documentation of the models and experiments that created this data is still lacking. The EU METAFOR Project (http://metaforclimate.eu) is specifically addressing this issue by creating new metadata schemas in cooperation with existing standards in Earth System Modeling (Curator, GridSpec, CF convention, NumSim, etc.). Descriptions of climate simulations, of the data they produce, and of the numerical models used to perform these simulations are all within the scope of METAFOR and these descriptions are assembled in a common information model (the CIM). Of particular note is the metadata for numerical models that is found in the CIM. This paper presents the controlled vocabulary (CV) that has been collected by METAFOR to describe (in a common manner) the components of the numerical models developed by the different modeling centres. This vocabulary is used in the model part of the web-based questionnaire that METAFOR has developed in support of the upcoming IPCC exercise (the CMIP5 questionnaire). The methods to (1) establish standards for this vocabulary via interactions with climate scientists, (2) utilise the vocabulary in the web-based questionnaire and (3) process the vocabulary for ingestion in the Earth System Grid (ESG) portal, are described. Governance aspects of this new controlled vocabulary are also addressed.

Moine, Marie-Pierre; Pascoe, Charlotte; Guilyardi, Eric; Ford, Rupert

2010-05-01

89

Facilitating Next Generation Science Collaboration: Respecting and Mediating Vocabularies with Information Model Driven Semantics in Ecosystems Assessments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Earth and space science, there is steady evolution away from isolated and single purpose data 'systems' toward systems of systems, data ecosystems, or data frameworks that provide access to highly heterogeneous data repositories. As a result, common informatics approaches are being sought for the development and implementation of newer architectures. One clear need is a repeatable method for modeling, implementing and evolving the information architectures. A newly funded U.S. initiative is developing and deploying integrated ecosystem assessment (IEA) capability for marine ecosystems using an information science and semantic technologies. The intention is to advance the capacity of an IEA to provide the foundation for synthesis and quantitative analysis of natural and socio-economic ecosystem information to support ecosystem-based management. The initiative is creating capacity to assess the impacts of changing climate on two large marine ecosystems: the northeast U.S. and the California Current. These assessments will be essential parts of the science-based decision-support tools used to develop adaptive management measures. Enhanced collaboration is required to achieve these goals: interaction and information sharing within and among diverse data providers, analysis tool developers and user groups that constitute the broader coastal and marine ecosystem science application community. This presentation outlines new component design approaches and sets of information model and semantic encodings for mediation.

Fox, P.; Maffei, A.

2012-04-01

90

42 CFR 83.0 - Background information on the procedures in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EMPLOYEES AS MEMBERS OF THE SPECIAL EXPOSURE COHORT UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000...Background information on the procedures in this part. The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act, as...

2012-10-01

91

Background Information on Hydrocarbon Emissions from Marine Terminal Operations. Volume I. Discussion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents results of a study to develop background information necessary for the accurate assessment of hydrocarbon emissions from ship and barge loading and unloading of gasoline and crude oil. The report assesses marine terminal facilities, m...

C. E. Burklin J. D. Colley M. L. Owen

1976-01-01

92

Children with Developmental Language Impairment Have Vocabulary Deficits Characterized by Limited Breadth and Depth  

PubMed Central

Background Deficient vocabulary is a frequently reported symptom of developmental language impairment but the nature of the deficit and its developmental course are not well documented. Aims We aimed to describe the nature of the deficit in terms of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge and to determine whether the nature and the extent of the deficit change over the school years. Methods A total of 25,681 oral definitions produced by 177 children with developmental language impairment (LI) and 325 grade-mates with normally developing language (ND) in grades 2, 4, 8, and 10 were taken from an existing longitudinal database. We analyzed these for breadth by counting the number of words defined correctly and for depth by determining the amount of information in each correct definition. Via a linear mixed model, we determined whether breadth and depth varied with language diagnosis independent of nonverbal IQ, mothers’ education level, race, gender, income and (for depth only) word. Results Children with LI scored significantly lower than children with ND on breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in all grades. The extent of the deficit did not vary significantly across grades. Language diagnosis was an independent predictor of breadth and depth and as strong a predictor as maternal education. For the LI group, growth in depth relative to breadth was slower than for the ND group. Conclusions Compared to their grade-mates, children with LI have fewer words in their vocabularies and they have shallower knowledge of the words that are in their vocabularies. This deficit persists over developmental time.

McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob; Bahnsen, Alison; Duff, Dawna

2012-01-01

93

Students Seeking Access to Four-Year Institutions: Community College Transfers [Background Information].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides background information for a hearing by the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education and Outreach on December 3, 1997. The Introduction presents the Committee announcement, press release, agenda, information about transfer efforts in California, facts and figures about the community colleges, and the text of…

Moore, Jamillah

94

Vocabulary and Environment Adaptation in Vocabulary-Independent Speech Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we are looking into the adaptation issues of vocabulary-independent (VI) systems. Just as with speaker-adaptation in speaker-independent system, two vocabulary adaptation algorithms are implemented in order to tailor the VI subword models t...

H. Hon K. Lee

1992-01-01

95

Vocabulary Visits: Virtual Field Trips for Content Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant body of research suggests that wide differences in concept and vocabulary knowledge exacerbate the achievement gap among students, especially in schools with large numbers of children of poverty. Educators sometimes attribute this difference to the Matthew effect: the sad reality that having a well-developed vocabulary allows a…

Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.; Obrochta, Connie

2005-01-01

96

Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of Northwest rental housing owners and, to a lesser extent, tenants toward energy conservation and energy-efficiency improvements. Available market research data on these subjects were found to be quite limited. The most useful data were two surveys of Seattle rental housing owners conducted in late 1984 for Seattle City Light. Several other surveys provided supplemental market research information in selected areas. In addition to market research information, the report also includes background information on rental housing characteristics in the Northwest.

Hendrickson, P.L.

1986-02-01

97

A moving ship detection based on edge information of single image and background subtraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship detection based on video is important in the application of surveillance and marine safety, the detection results of tradition methods, such as background subtraction, have much noise because of background noise such as ocean wave. In this paper we present a simple but efficient method for ship detection, It is based on the edge information of single image and movement information of multi images. Firstly, detect those movement pixels used the background subtraction to the video image, and the distance transformation is operation on the difference images; Secondly, we detect the edge of video image used Canny detector , and morphological operation on the edge image, lastly, eliminate the movement pixels if their distance transformation value is bigger than the threshold. The experimental results demonstrate that is efficient to eliminate the background noise and detect the real target.

Shi, Tingyan; Yang, Lichun; Liu, Zhicheng

2013-10-01

98

Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…

Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

2009-01-01

99

The State of Vocabulary Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

2011-01-01

100

Learner centredness in vocabulary learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary learning has, to a great extent, been left to the students to cope with, possibly because teachers, in general, prefer to dedícate time and effort to more complex teaching matters. But, although vocabulary acquisition is still a neglected aspect of language learning, it is rapidly changing status and becoming an área of growing research and publication. Current second language

Miriam Manzanares Codesal

101

Vocabulary Development: A Continuing Need.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strong relationship between knowledge of vocabulary and reading achievement leads to the conclusion that knowing the meaning of words in a passage enables the reader to answer questions about the passage. The goal of vocabulary instruction is the acquisition of the concepts represented by words as well as the ability to recognize and analyze…

Kapinus, Barbara A.

1987-01-01

102

Teaching Science Vocabulary with THE SHAPE OF A MOON'S ORBIT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading strategy guide in a series of guides that utilizes articles from the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) program. These strategy guides provide teachers of middle school students with a reading strategy (in this case, Teaching Science Vocabulary) and supplemental resources, background information on that strategy, connections to standards, classroom implementation techniques, tips for utilizing this strategy with students with dyslexia, and a two-page reading based on a particular space science concept. The reading incorporated into this strategy guide, THE SHAPE OF A MOON'S ORBIT, describes the orbital path, or trajectory, of Dione, one of Saturn's many moons. Through description and diagrammatic models, the article demonstrates how Dione orbits Saturn in a wavy path, rather than in a perfectly circular pattern, as a result of the gravitational pull of the Sun. This strategy guide is also mapped to the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts Literacy in Science & Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8.

103

Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

1982-03-01

104

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

105

Children with Developmental Language Impairment Have Vocabulary Deficits Characterized by Limited Breadth and Depth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deficient vocabulary is a frequently reported symptom of developmental language impairment, but the nature of the deficit and its developmental course are not well documented. Aims: To describe the nature of the deficit in terms of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge and to determine whether the nature and the extent of the…

McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob; Bahnsen, Alison; Duff, Dawna

2013-01-01

106

A Vocabulary Flood: Making Words "Sticky" with Computer-Response Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's literature is a primary source for introducing young children to new words at home and at school, and children's early vocabulary knowledge is a key component of oral language, which is essential for comprehension. This column is focused on children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who frequently find themselves in a vocabulary

Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary S.; Ryan, Tammy

2007-01-01

107

Mapping Opthalmic Terms to a Standardized Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes work by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) to expand the standardized vocabulary, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), to accommodate a definitive ophthalmic standardized vocabulary. Mapped a practice-based clinical ophthalmic vocabulary to SNOMED and other vocabularies in the Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical…

Patrick, Timothy B.; Reid, John C.; Sievert, MaryEllen; Popescu, Mihail; Gigantelli, James W.; Shelton, Mark E.; Schiffman, Jade S.

2000-01-01

108

Vocabulary's Influence on Successful Writing. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguing that the ability to write effectively hinges upon having an adequate vocabulary, this digest explores some of the ways vocabulary influences writing ability, and how teachers can use vocabulary development specifically to improve writing skills. The digest suggests that the breadth and depth of a student's vocabulary will have a direct…

Brynildssen, Shawna

109

Molecular Biology Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to molecular biology, including DNA and RNA structure and function, transcription and translation. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

110

REVIEW OF IN-PLACE TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS. VOLUME 2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR IN SITU TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This two-volume report presents information on in-place treatment technologies applicable to contaminated soils at shallow depths. This volume provides background information and relevant chemical data. The information presented on monitoring to determine treatment effectiveness,...

111

Electroencephalogram Background Activity Characterization with Approximate Entropy and Auto Mutual Information in Alzheimer's Disease Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze the electroencephalogram (EEG) background activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with two non-linear methods: Approximate Entropy (ApEri) and Auto Mutual Information (AMI). ApEn quantifies the regularity in data, while AMI detects linear and non-linear dependencies in time series. EEGs were recorded from the 19 scalp loci of the international 10-20 system in 11

Daniel Abásolo; Roberto Hornero; Pedro Espino; Javier Escudero; Carlos Gómez

2007-01-01

112

Discriminating direction of motion trajectories from angular speed and background information  

PubMed Central

The effects of a background scene on the perception of the trajectory of an approaching object and its relation to changes in angular speed and angular size were examined in 5 experiments. Observers judged the direction (upward or downward) of two sequentially presented motion trajectories simulating a sphere traveling towards the observer at a constant 3D speed from a fixed distance. In Experiments 1 – 4 we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and the presence of a scene background, with changes in angular size based either on the trajectories being discriminated or on an intermediate trajectory. In Experiment 5 we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and scene background with angular size either constant or consistent with an intermediate 3D trajectory. Overall, we found that: (1) observers were able to judge the direction of object motion trajectories from angular speed changes; (2) observers were more accurate with a 3D scene background as compared to a uniform background, suggesting that scene information is important for recovering object motion trajectories; and (3) observers were more accurate in judging motion trajectories based on angular speed when the angular size function was consistent with motion in depth than when the angular size was constant.

Bian, Zheng; Braunstein, Myron L.; Andersen, George J.

2013-01-01

113

Progress Report on the Development of a Laser/Maser Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a laser/maser vocabulary follows the pattern established earlier in two similar projects--(1) Development of a Multi-Coordinate Vocabulary--Chemical Physics, and (2) Development of a Multi-Coordinate Index--Plasma Physics. A set of lists of terms judged to be important to a user of information was developed by a specialist in…

Lerner, Rita G.

114

Translating Vocabulary Research to Social Studies Instruction: Before, during, and after Text-Reading Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the upper elementary grades, content-area text gains increasing importance as a primary source of reading and information. This article focuses on the specialized vocabulary demands of social studies texts and presents a framework of teaching and learning strategies based on vocabulary research. Strategies are introduced before, during, and…

Hairrell, Angela; Simmons, Deborah; Swanson, Elizabeth; Edmonds, Meaghan; Vaughn, Sharon; Rupley, William H.

2011-01-01

115

Toward vocabulary control for chief complaint.  

PubMed

The chief complaint (CC) is the data element that documents the patient's reason for visiting the emergency department (ED). The need for a CC vocabulary has been acknowledged at national meetings and in multiple publications, but to our knowledge no groups have specifically focused on the requirements and development plans for a CC vocabulary. The national consensus meeting "Towards Vocabulary Control for Chief Complaint" was convened to identify the potential uses for ED CC and to develop the framework for CC vocabulary control. The 10-point consensus recommendations for action were 1) begin to develop a controlled vocabulary for CC, 2) obtain funding, 3) establish an infrastructure, 4) work with standards organizations, 5) address CC vocabulary characteristics for all user communities, 6) create a collection of CC for research, 7) identify the best candidate vocabulary for ED CCs, 8) conduct vocabulary validation studies, 9) establish beta test sites, and 10) plan publicity and marketing for the vocabulary. PMID:18439204

Haas, Stephanie W; Travers, Debbie; Tintinalli, Judith E; Pollock, Daniel; Waller, Anna; Barthell, Edward; Burt, Catharine; Chapman, Wendy; Coonan, Kevin; Kamens, Donald; McClay, James

2008-05-01

116

25 Years of Controlled Vocabularies in Oceanographic Data Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1980s data managers in IOC realised that data exchange required a common terminology for concepts such as parameters, instruments and platforms. They rose to the challenge by developing a set of 7 controlled vocabularies that were published in print as part of the GF3 standard in 1987. Unfortunately, because this was based on print, the vocabularies couldn't be maintained and were little used. However, in the 1990s the pan-European SeaSearch project developed them into a usable digital vocabulary library. Whilst this was a significant step forward, vocabulary content governance was delegated to individuals, technical governance procedures were far from watertight and the terms had no definitions. Consequently, usage problems, especially local copy evolution and term misunderstandings persisted. When SeaDataNet started in 2006 there was a determination to use technology to solve these problems. Now, list server content governance harnesses domain expertise, relational database technology provides robust, scalable, versioned storage and the NERC DataGrid SOAP and pseudo-RESTful Web Service APIs serve lists and mappings. The SeaDataNet vocabulary technology currently addresses two use cases: semantic cross-walking and metadata field content verification. Basic metadata cross-walks do not transfer fields populated from different vocabularies, thereby losing information, because machine-accessible translations are unavailable. In SeaDataNet we have assembled mappings between lists of interest, particularly parameter vocabularies, into an RDF triple store. The resulting ontology is served as RDF documents through API method calls and term URLs. Metadata content verification is implemented by embedding URNs into documents defined by Schematron- extended schemas that are automatically built by a service monitoring the vocabulary server for content changes. These schemas allow generic XML editors, such as Oxygen, to validate document semantic content against the latest vocabulary version. The NERC DataGrid/SeaDataNet Vocabulary Server is fully operational delivering over 100 lists containing over 120,000 terms linked by nearly 80,000 mappings. It is receiving approximately 400 catalogue requests and 3000 list accesses per month accompanied by over 200,000 hits from robots mining the semantic content.

Lowry, R. K.

2008-12-01

117

Relationship between intelligence and vocabulary.  

PubMed

This study explored the correlations of scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III in screening language problems and scores on the three Comprehensive Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test subscales. Participants were 243 students ages 6 to 17 years in Grades K-11 who were identified as learning disabled, learning disabled with speech impairment, mentally retarded, and speech impaired. Analysis indicated strong correlations between the two measures, particularly between the CREVT General Vocabulary and WISC-III Verbal IQ (r = .80), WISC-III Verbal Comprehension Index (r =.83), and the Vocabulary subtest (r =.76). These results held across the grades. Supporting earlier studies of relationships of Verbal IQ and Receptive Vocabulary, correlations were lower between participants in Grades K through 2 than those in higher grades on the WISC-III Verbal IQ and the Receptive Vocabulary subtest. An analysis of the accuracy of the WISC-III for classifying students with language problems indicated improvement in classification over chance. These findings suggest that the WISC-III may be an effective screen for language problems. PMID:15773700

Smith, Billy L; Smith, Teresa D; Taylor, Loria; Hobby, Melissa

2005-02-01

118

Teaching Vocabulary in Storybooks: Embedding Explicit Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary instruction is a critical component of early language and literacy programs. Vocabulary skills in the early elementary school years are strong predictors of later reading achievement and there is a correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Children who have limited vocabulary in kindergarten are at high risk of…

Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth

2012-01-01

119

The Effects of Individualized, Online Vocabulary Instruction on Picture Vocabulary Scores: An Efficacy Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is of fundamental importance to reading comprehension, and many students lack the vocabulary knowledge necessary to facilitate learning to read. A study was conducted to determine the effects of an individualized, online vocabulary program on picture vocabulary test scores. Elementary summer school students (N = 43), entering…

Fehr, Charles N.; Davison, Mark L.; Graves, Michael F.; Sales, Gregory C.; Seipel, Ben; Sekhran-Sharma, Sarah

2012-01-01

120

Evaluation of the Vocabulary Switching System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vocabulary Switching System (VSS) is an experimental system designed to enhance search strategies and ultimately retrieval performance for those who use online bibliographic data bases. VSS contains 15 indexing and retrieval vocabularies from 12 diffe...

R. Niehoff G. Mack

1984-01-01

121

Development of Indexing Vocabularies in Electrical Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the project was to develop a controlled indexing vocabulary and classification system. Sections of the Ei indexing vocabulary pertaining to electrical engineering, computer technology, and automatic control were correlated with the Electr...

D. Dosamantes

1971-01-01

122

77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...them a wide variety of backgrounds, cultures, and experiences...relating to the diverse background of those customers...including employees of all backgrounds, all DOI employees...measure of knowledge, background, experience, and...

2012-04-12

123

77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...background investigation. The minimum background investigation is the National...required to complete the criminal history background checks mandated in the Crime...in leased space must undergo a background check. According to GSA...

2012-05-24

124

77 FR 41999 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: OMB Control Number 1091-0001, Applicant Background...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...them a wide variety of backgrounds, cultures, and experiences...relating to the diverse background of those customers...including employees of all backgrounds, all DOI employees...measure of knowledge, background, experience, and...

2012-07-17

125

Optimal Document-Indexing Vocabulary for MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indexing vocabulary is an important determinant of success in text retrieval. Researchers have compared the effectiveness of indexing using free-text and controlled vocabularies in a variety of text contexts. A number of studies have investigated the relative merits of free-text, MeSH and UMLS Metathesaurus indexing vocabularies for MEDLINE document indexing. Most of these studies conclude that controlled vocabularies offer

Padmini Srinivasan

1996-01-01

126

Controlled vocabularies and ontologies in proteomics: Overview, principles and practice?  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on the use of controlled vocabularies (CVs) and ontologies especially in the area of proteomics, primarily related to the work of the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI). It describes the relevant proteomics standard formats and the ontologies used within them. Software and tools for working with these ontology files are also discussed. The article also examines the “mapping files” used to ensure correct controlled vocabulary terms that are placed within PSI standards and the fulfillment of the MIAPE (Minimum Information about a Proteomics Experiment) requirements. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan.

Mayer, Gerhard; Jones, Andrew R.; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Deutsch, Eric W.; Orchard, Sandra; Montecchi-Palazzi, Luisa; Vizcaino, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Oveillero, David; Julian, Randall; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E.; Eisenacher, Martin

2014-01-01

127

Controlled vocabularies and ontologies in proteomics: overview, principles and practice.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the use of controlled vocabularies (CVs) and ontologies especially in the area of proteomics, primarily related to the work of the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI). It describes the relevant proteomics standard formats and the ontologies used within them. Software and tools for working with these ontology files are also discussed. The article also examines the "mapping files" used to ensure correct controlled vocabulary terms that are placed within PSI standards and the fulfillment of the MIAPE (Minimum Information about a Proteomics Experiment) requirements. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan. PMID:23429179

Mayer, Gerhard; Jones, Andrew R; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Deutsch, Eric W; Orchard, Sandra; Montecchi-Palazzi, Luisa; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Oveillero, David; Julian, Randall; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Eisenacher, Martin

2014-01-01

128

FPGA-Based Vocabulary Recognition Module for Humanoid Robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on using FPGA board to realize the ability of vocabulary recognition for humanoid robot. At first, the system structure of the humanoid robot system is setup. The central process unit of the humanoid robot is a FPGA board, ALTERA Nios II EP2C20F324C8, which not only controls all the motors of robot but also processes the information of vision system. The vocabulary recognition method is then introduced. We apply the image segment to find the valid region, and use the encoding method to sample the word. After matching algorithm, we use a speech module, Emic TTS module, to pronounce the word. Finally the experiments verify the procedure of the proposed module and demonstrate the feasibility of the vocabulary recognition and speak out function for the humanoid robot.

Su, Yu-Te; Hu, Chun-Yang; Li, Tzuu-Hseng S.

129

Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

2010-01-01

130

A Hybrid Method for Determining Technical Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of technical vocabulary has become increasingly important over the last few decades along with the advances in various subject disciplines. ESP teachers and book authors need to know what words are considered technical vocabulary when creating ESP learning materials. LSP lexicographers need to know how to determine technical vocabulary

Kwary, Deny Arnos

2011-01-01

131

Teaching Vocabulary in the Literature Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates concept-related vocabulary instruction, in which students link individual words with larger literature concepts. Outlines four steps to creating a concept-related vocabulary lesson. Offers examples of how concept-related vocabulary lessons can be conducted while reading, before reading, and after reading. Outlines web, weave, and…

Barton, James

2001-01-01

132

Vocabulary Instruction for the Struggling Reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's acquisition of vocabulary is essential for gains in reading comprehension and reading development. Struggling readers often do not make gains in their reading comprehension because they have a limited reading vocabulary. Enhancing the vocabulary development and growth for children who are experiencing reading difficulties enables them to better identify key concepts in text that they read, make inferences within

William H. Rupley; William Dee Nichols

2005-01-01

133

Computer Assisted Vocabulary Learning: Design and Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the design and evaluation of the computer-assisted vocabulary learning (CAVL) software WUFUN. It draws on the current research findings of vocabulary acquisition and CALL, aiming to help Chinese university students to improve their learning of English vocabulary, particularly that with which they experience most difficulty.…

Ma, Qing; Kelly, Peter

2006-01-01

134

A Core Vocabulary for Tamil. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocabulary list is directed towards the Tamil instructor and the advanced student. Its primary goal is to bring some order to the teaching of vocabulary in the first two years of Tamil instruction. A secondary goal is to help the student through the vocabulary maze of Tamil diglossia. Three main criteria were employed in selecting words for…

McAlpin, David W.

135

Enhancing Vocabulary Development in Multiple Classroom Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes ways teachers can enhance students' vocabulary development through multiple contexts available in typical middle school classroom settings. Addresses questions about vocabulary learning and offers suggestions for enhancing vocabulary with narrative and expository texts that involve multiple classroom contexts. Considers the Vocab-o-gram…

Harmon, Janis M.; Staton, Denise G.

1999-01-01

136

Pre-Service Teacher Cognition and Vocabulary Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The knowledge and beliefs that teachers hold are an important determiner of what happens in the classroom. Ideally teacher cognition should be informed by research and theory about effective language learning. This paper examines the beliefs related to vocabulary teaching held by a cohort of 60 Malaysian pre-service teachers engaged in a…

Macalister, John

2012-01-01

137

Intensity in Vocabulary Instruction and Effects on Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has shown that vocabulary instruction can enhance the comprehension of passages when instruction includes definitional and contextual information, provides multiple instructional encounters with the words, and requires learners to engage actively in processing of word meanings (M. F. Graves, 1986; S. A. Stahl & M. M. Fairbanks,…

Baumann, James F.

2009-01-01

138

Chinese Scientific & Technical Vocabulary System for domain content computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese Scientific & Technical Vocabulary System (CSTVS) is a kind of knowledge organization systems for Chinese SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL information resources management and deep knowledge services that proposed by us. Now we provides the CSTVS as free semantic resources for research and education users all over the world. In this paper, knowledge infrastructure and related content computing tools are introduced.

Yunliang Zhang; Shuo Xu; Lijun Zhu; Xiaodong Qiao; Chunxiang Xue; Shujuan Jiao; Yingying Yan

2010-01-01

139

Teaching Vocabulary Expeditiously: Three Keys to Improving Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating vocabulary games and activities more often into the structure of the day, Thomas B. Smith establishes a word-rich environment for high school students to experiment with unfamiliar words in varying, playful contexts. Smith asserts that giving frequent opportunities for hearing, speaking, and writing in the typical context of the day is…

Smith, Thomas B.

2008-01-01

140

Development of the Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) Vocabulary  

PubMed Central

The LOINC (Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes) vocabulary is a set of more than 10,000 names and codes developed for use as observation identifiers in standardized messages exchanged between clinical computer systems. The goal of the study was to create universal names and codes for clinical observations that could be used by all clinical information systems. The LOINC names are structured to facilitate rapid matching, either automated or manual, between local vocabularies and the universal LOINC codes. If LOINC codes are used in clinical messages, each system participating in data exchange needs to match its local vocabulary to the standard vocabulary only once. This will reduce both the time and cost of implementing standardized interfaces. The history of the development of the LOINC vocabulary and the methodology used in its creation are described.

Huff, Stanley M.; Rocha, Roberto A.; McDonald, Clement J.; De Moor, Georges J. E.; Fiers, Tom; Bidgood, W. Dean; Forrey, Arden W.; Francis, William G.; Tracy, Wayne R.; Leavelle, Dennis; Stalling, Frank; Griffin, Brian; Maloney, Pat; Leland, Diane; Charles, Linda; Hutchins, Kathy; Baenziger, John

1998-01-01

141

Development of the Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) vocabulary.  

PubMed

The LOINC (Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes) vocabulary is a set of more than 10,000 names and codes developed for use as observation identifiers in standardized messages exchanged between clinical computer systems. The goal of the study was to create universal names and codes for clinical observations that could be used by all clinical information systems. The LOINC names are structured to facilitate rapid matching, either automated or manual, between local vocabularies and the universal LOINC codes. If LOINC codes are used in clinical messages, each system participating in data exchange needs to match its local vocabulary to the standard vocabulary only once. This will reduce both the time and cost of implementing standardized interfaces. The history of the development of the LOINC vocabulary and the methodology used in its creation are described. PMID:9609498

Huff, S M; Rocha, R A; McDonald, C J; De Moor, G J; Fiers, T; Bidgood, W D; Forrey, A W; Francis, W G; Tracy, W R; Leavelle, D; Stalling, F; Griffin, B; Maloney, P; Leland, D; Charles, L; Hutchins, K; Baenziger, J

1998-01-01

142

Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information  

PubMed Central

Background Although described in several reports, imported malaria in Europe has not been surveyed nationwide with overall coverage of patients and individually rechecked background information. Plasmodium falciparum infections have been reported despite regularly taken appropriate chemoprophylaxis, yet the reliability of such questionnaire-based retrospective data has been questioned. This was the starting-point for conducting a prospective nationwide survey of imported malaria where compliance data was double-checked. Methods Data was collected on all cases of imported malaria confirmed and recorded by the reference laboratory of Finland (population 5.4 million) from 2003 to 2011, and these were compared with those reported to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR). Background information was gathered by detailed questionnaires sent to the clinicians upon diagnosis; missing data were enquired by telephone of clinician or patient. Special attention was paid to compliance with chemoprophylaxis: self-reported use of anti-malarials was rechecked for all cases of P. falciparum. Results A total of 265 malaria cases (average annual incidence rate 0.5/100,000 population) had been recorded by the reference laboratory, all of them also reported to NIDR: 54% were born in malaria-endemic countries; 86% were currently living in non-endemic regions. Malaria was mainly (81%) contracted in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasmodium falciparum proved to be the most common species (72%). Immigrants constituted the largest group of travellers (44%). Pre-travel advice was received by 20% of those born in endemic regions and 81% of those from non-endemic regions. Of those with P. falciparum, 4% reported regular use of appropriate chemoprophylaxis (mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with chloroquine-resistant and atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with mefloquine-resistant P. falciparum); after individual rechecking, however, it was found that none of them had been fully compliant. Conclusions Information on compliance with chemoprophylactic regimen cannot be relied on, and it should be rechecked if malaria is suspected. The results of the present study suggest that mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil and doxycycline are effective as chemoprophylaxis against P. falciparum malaria, when taken conscientiously.

2013-01-01

143

Teaching New Words to Children with Poor Existing Vocabulary Knowledge: A Controlled Evaluation of the Definition and Context Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children who have poor vocabulary knowledge are at risk of wider language weaknesses and reading comprehension difficulties, which will impact upon their educational achievement. The central question addressed in this paper is how best to teach new vocabulary items to these children. Aims: To investigate the effects of two different…

Nash, Hannah; Snowling, Margaret

2006-01-01

144

Multisensory Strategies for Science Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeing, touching, smelling, hearing, and learning! The authors observed that their English Language Learner (ELL) students achieved a deeper understanding of the properties of matter, as well as enhanced vocabulary development, when they were guided through inquiry-based, multisensory explorations that repeatedly exposed them to words and…

Husty, Sandra; Jackson, Julie

2008-01-01

145

Academic Vocabulary and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College and Career Ready Standards of the CCSS articulate a range of expectations regarding what students should be able to do with regards to academic vocabulary: (1) Interpret technical, connotative, and figurative meanings of words and phrases; (2) Analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone; (3) Determine or clarify the meaning…

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01

146

Vocabulary, Intelligence, and Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted at Cuyahoga Community College to test the relationship between student scores on timed and untimed reading comprehension and vocabulary tests, and to investigate the relationship between those scores and intelligence. The study sample included 72 students enrolled in classes at developmental, freshman, and sophomore levels.…

Gabriel, Dennis; Richards, Irving

147

Vocabulary Resources for Material Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for writers of instructional materials for teaching English as a Second Language (ESL), the list describes word lists and language corpora that may be of use in creating, simplifying, and refining vocabulary content in ESL materials. The sources are dated from 1944 to the present, and include a freeware computer program. Some limited…

Bauman, John

1996-01-01

148

77 FR 10508 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks for Contractor Employees (Renewal...to www.regulations.gov. Title: Background Checks for Contractor Employees. ICR...these types of incidents to conduct background checks and apply...

2012-02-22

149

Planned NLM/AHCPR large-scale vocabulary test: using UMLS technology to determine the extent to which controlled vocabularies cover terminology needed for health care and public health.  

PubMed

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) are sponsoring a test to determine the extent to which a combination of existing health-related terminologies covers vocabulary needed in health information systems. The test vocabularies are the 30 that are fully or partially represented in the 1996 edition of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, plus three planned additions: the portions of SNOMED International not in the 1996 Metathesaurus Read Clinical Classification, and the Logical Observations Identifiers, Names, and Codes (LOINC) system. These vocabularies are available to testers through a special interface to the Internet-based UMLS Knowledge Source Server. The test will determine the ability of the test vocabularies to serve as a source of controlled vocabulary for health data systems and applications. It should provide the basis for realistic resource estimates for developing and maintaining a comprehensive "standard" health vocabulary that is based on existing terminologies. PMID:8816351

Humphreys, B L; Hole, W T; McCray, A T; Fitzmaurice, J M

1996-01-01

150

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

151

Re-use of standard ontologies in a water quality vocabulary (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations provide the key constraints on environmental and earth science investigations. Where an investigation uses data sourced from multiple providers, data fusion depends on the observation classifications being comparable. Standard models for observation metadata are available (ISO 19156) which provide slots for key classifiers, in particular, the observed property and observation procedure. While universal use of common vocabularies might be desirable in achieving interoperability, this is unlikely in practice. However, semantic web vocabularies provide the means for asserting proximity and other relationships between items in different vocabularies, thus enabling mediation as an interoperability solution. Here we report on the development of a vocabulary for water quality observations in which recording relationships with existing vocabularies was a core strategy. The vocabulary is required to enable combination of a number of groundwater, surface water and marine water quality datasets on an ongoing basis. Our vocabulary model is based on the principle that observations generally report values of specific parameters which are defined by combining a number of facets. We start from Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Data Types (QUDT), which is an OWL ontology developed by NASA and TopQuadrant. We extend this with two additional classes, for Observed Property and Identified Object, and two linking properties, which enable us to create an observed property vocabulary for water quality applications. This ontology is comparable with models for observed properties developed as part of OGC's Observations and Measurements v1.0 standard, the INSPIRE Generic Conceptual Model, and may also be compared with the W3C SSN Ontology, which is based on the DOLCE Ultralite upper-ontology. Water quality observations commonly report concentrations of chemicals, both natural and contaminant, so we tie many of the Identified Objects to items from Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI). ChEBI is an OWL-based dictionary of over 70 000 molecular entities, based on existing scientific work and linked through to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Nomenclature. Within the model the relevant classes, including those from QUDT, are declared to be subclasses of SKOS Concept, so the resulting vocabularies may be directly mapped to other SKOS-based vocabularies, such as from the NERC Vocabulary Service or the Marine Metadata Initiative, using SKOS predicates. Where the external vocabularies are not published with persistent URIs, such as CUAHSI, the mapping may be recorded more informally using annotations, or use proxy URIs for the external vocabulary. The resulting SKOS vocabularies demonstrate a separation of governance of key definitions such as units and quantities and chemical entities, ensuring reuse where possible and extending and adding detail where necessary.

Cox, S. J.; Simons, B.; Yu, J.

2013-12-01

152

Chromium Emissions from Chromium Electroplating and Chromic Acid Anodizing Operations. Background Information for Proposed Standards. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being proposed for the chromium electroplating and chromic acid anodizing industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. This background information...

1993-01-01

153

Supporting Young Children’s Vocabulary Growth: The Challenges, the Benefits, and Evidence-Based Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of words makes vocabulary development a multi-faceted process that presents challenges to early childhood educators,\\u000a offers benefits to young learners, and must be supported through evidence-based strategies. All students, regardless of socio-economic\\u000a status or background, need to make significant gains in receptive and expressive vocabulary at home and at school each year\\u000a in order to support their growth

Mary Renck Jalongo; Michelle J. Sobolak

2011-01-01

154

Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction for Secondary Students. Professional Development Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide an overview of vocabulary development and to focus on ways that enhance secondary vocabulary instruction. It includes strategies for teaching vocabulary and for integrating vocabulary into a lesson. It includes specific instructional strategies for teaching vocabulary skills based on the Texas Essential Knowledge…

Texas Univ., Austin. Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts.

155

Analysis of the magnetoencephalogram background activity in Alzheimer's disease patients with auto-mutual information.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyse the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) background activity in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the most frequent disorders among elderly population. For this pilot study, we recorded the MEGs with a 148-channel whole-head magnetometer in 20 patients with probable AD and 21 age-matched control subjects. Artefact-free epochs of 3392 samples were analysed with auto-mutual information (AMI). Average AMI decline rates were lower for the AD patients' recordings than for control subjects' ones. Statistically significant differences were found using a Student's t-test (p<0.01) in 144 channels. Mean AMI values were analysed with a receiver operating characteristic curve. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of 75%, 90.5% and 82.9% were obtained. Our results show that AMI estimations of the magnetic brain activity are different in both groups, hence indicating an abnormal type of dynamics associated with AD. This study suggests that AMI might help medical doctors in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:17686545

Gómez, Carlos; Hornero, Roberto; Abásolo, Daniel; Fernández, Alberto; Escudero, Javier

2007-09-01

156

Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information  

SciTech Connect

This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

None

1980-11-01

157

A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) vocabularies  

PubMed Central

Background Large biomedical data sets have become increasingly important resources for medical researchers. Modern biomedical data sets are annotated with standard terms to describe the data and to support data linking between databases. The largest curated listing of biomedical terms is the the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The UMLS contains more than 2 million biomedical terms collected from nearly 100 medical vocabularies. Many of the vocabularies contained in the UMLS carry restrictions on their use, making it impossible to share or distribute UMLS-annotated research data. However, a subset of the UMLS vocabularies, designated Category 0 by UMLS, can be used to annotate and share data sets without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Methods The UMLS Category 0 vocabularies can be extracted from the parent UMLS metathesaurus using a Perl script supplied with this article. There are 43 Category 0 vocabularies that can be used freely for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Among the Category 0 vocabularies are: MESH (Medical Subject Headings), NCBI (National Center for Bioinformatics) Taxonomy and ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modifiers). Results The extraction file containing all Category 0 terms and concepts is 72,581,138 bytes in length and contains 1,029,161 terms. The UMLS Metathesaurus MRCON file (January, 2003) is 151,048,493 bytes in length and contains 2,146,899 terms. Therefore the Category 0 vocabularies, in aggregate, are about half the size of the UMLS metathesaurus. A large publicly available listing of 567,921 different medical phrases were automatically coded using the full UMLS metatathesaurus and the Category 0 vocabularies. There were 545,321 phrases with one or more matches against UMLS terms while 468,785 phrases had one or more matches against the Category 0 terms. This indicates that when the two vocabularies are evaluated by their fitness to find at least one term for a medical phrase, the Category 0 vocabularies performed 86% as well as the complete UMLS metathesaurus. Conclusion The Category 0 vocabularies of UMLS constitute a large nomenclature that can be used by biomedical researchers to annotate biomedical data. These annotated data sets can be distributed for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. These vocabularies may be of particular importance for sharing heterogeneous data from diverse biomedical data sets. The software tools to extract the Category 0 vocabularies are freely available Perl scripts entered into the public domain and distributed with this article.

Berman, Jules J

2003-01-01

158

Closing the Gap: Addressing the Vocabulary Needs of English-Language Learners in Bilingual and Mainstream Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gaps in reading performance between Anglo and Latino children are associated with gaps in vocabulary knowledge. An intervention was designed to enhance fifth graders' academic vocabulary. The meanings of academically useful words were taught together with strategies for using information from context, from morphology, from knowledge about multiple…

Carlo, Mara S.; August, Diane; McLaughlin, Barry; Snow, Catherine E.; Dressler, Cheryl; Lippman, David N.; Lively, Teresa J.; White, Claire E.

2004-01-01

159

Adaptive vocabularies for transcribing multilingual broadcast news  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most prevailing problems of large-vocabulary speech recognition systems is the large number of out-of-vocabulary words. This is especially the case for automatically transcribing broadcast news in languages other than English, that have a large number of inflections and compound words. We introduce a set of techniques to decrease the number of out-of-vocabulary words during recognition by using

P. Geutner; M. Finke; P. Scheytt

1998-01-01

160

American Holidays: Exploring Traditions, Customs and Backgrounds. Vocabureader Workbook 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The workbook is an English vocabulary development text focusing on words associated with traditions, customs, and background of holidays celebrated in the United States, and in some cases also in Canada and elsewhere. The special vocabulary is presented in seventeen readings, written in repetitive style so the student can learn the definitions of…

Klebanow, Barbara; Fischer, Sara

161

NASA thesaurus: Astronomy vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A terminology of descriptors used by the NASA Scientific and Technical information effort to index documents in the area of astronomy is presented. The terms are listed in hierarchical format derived from the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus Volume 1 -- Hierarchical Listing. Over 1600 terms are included. In addition to astronomy, space sciences covered include astrophysics, cosmology, lunar flight and exploration, meteors and meteorites, celestial mechanics, planetary flight and exploration, and planetary science.

1988-01-01

162

What's in a Word? Using Content Vocabulary to "Generate" Growth in General Academic Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of vocabulary knowledge in supporting students' comprehension and understanding of their content-area reading is critical. This article explores how content-area teachers can help students become aware of, understand, and apply generative knowledge about English words to grow and develop their vocabularies. Generative vocabulary

Flanigan, Kevin; Templeton, Shane; Hayes, Latisha

2012-01-01

163

76 FR 67182 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...felony convictions, and parties prohibited from receiving federal contracts. (2) Drug tests are for the presence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP). Contractors shall maintain records of all background...

2011-10-31

164

Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

Schmitt, Norbert

2008-01-01

165

Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

2012-01-01

166

Vocabulary Instruction in the Middle Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Michael Graves points out that it is only in the last 40 years that a rich base of theory and research about teaching and learning vocabulary has come into being. Grounding his article in this research, he lists some of the factors testifying to the importance of vocabulary and discusses what may be the most crucial fact about the task of teaching…

Graves, Michael F.

2007-01-01

167

Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio) on (a) the learning of written and aural word forms, (b) overall vocabulary gains, (c) attention to input, and (d) vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian…

Sydorenko, Tetyana

2010-01-01

168

Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary

Feezell, Greg

2012-01-01

169

A Framework for Developing EFL Reading Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective second language vocabulary acquisition is particularly important for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners who frequently acquire impoverished lexicons despite years of formal study. This paper comprehensively reviews and critiques second language (L2) reading vocabulary research and proposes that EFL teachers and administrators…

Hunt, Alan; Beglar, David

2005-01-01

170

Tuning in to Vocabulary Frequency in Coursebooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For second language learners vocabulary growth is of major importance, and for many learners commercially published coursebooks will be the source of this vocabulary learning. In this preliminary study, input from three levels of the coursebook series "New English File" (Oxenden and Latham-Koenig, 2006; Oxenden, Latham-Koenig, and Seligson, 2004,…

O'Loughlin, Richard

2012-01-01

171

A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

Labrie, Gilles

2000-01-01

172

Redirective Labels and Early Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents' object labels can be distinguished by whether the child is already attending to the object (follow-in) or not (lead-in). Lead-in labels have been found to be associated with low vocabulary. The current study examines whether the relation between lead-in labels and child vocabulary is influenced by whether the child's attention is…

Shimpi, Priya Mariana; Huttenlocher, Janellen

2007-01-01

173

Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

Howell, Gina

2012-01-01

174

Multiword Vocabulary in Japanese ESL Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe our analysis of vocabulary across three sets of Japanese ESL texts. We focus upon frequency analysis of individual words and multiword sequences (n-grams), giving cross comparisons of 2, 3 and 4-gram multiword sequences. In addition, we consider the degree of emphasis on multiword vocabulary that is evident in each textbook corpus. This is derived from

George R S Weir; Toshiaki Ozasa

2008-01-01

175

A Self-Organizing Spatial Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language is a shared set of conventions for mapping meaningsto expressions. This paper explores self-organization as the primarymechanism for the formation of a vocabulary. It reports on a computationalexperiment in which a group of distributed agents developways to identify each other using names or spatial descriptions. It isalso shown that the proposed mechanism copes with the acquisitionof an existing vocabulary

Luc Steels

1995-01-01

176

Promoting Vocabulary Learning for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge, which is key to the reading comprehension of English learners (ELs), must be a focus for every teacher in today's increasingly diverse schools, including those in the mainstream classroom. This article strives to increase awareness of the five characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction as well as demonstrate how such…

Wessels, Stephanie

2011-01-01

177

Building Academic Vocabulary Student Notebook, Revised Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We've changed our BAV (Building Academic Vocabulary) student materials to a sturdy bound notebook to give you a lower price and a more durable format. Instead of using loose-leaf pages, teachers can now give each student this colorful notebook that follows the 6-step method for teaching academic vocabulary. There is space for more terms, and…

Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra

2008-01-01

178

Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary

Sparks, Sarah D.

2013-01-01

179

Promoting Vocabulary Development in Your Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After reviewing the literature, this paper seeks to show the importance and significance of direct vocabulary instruction on students' critical literacy skills; specifically, reading comprehension. Although some may suggest that the greatest amount of vocabulary growth occurs through incidental word learning in wide reading, research indicates…

Long, Nicole Amber

180

Are Racial Differences in Patient–Physician Cancer Communication and Information Explained by Background, Predisposing, and Enabling Factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research shows that African Americans tend to have poorer and less informative patient–physician communication than Whites. We analyzed survey data from 248 African American and 244 White cancer patients to examine whether this disadvantage could be explained by race variability on several other variables commonly reported to affect communication. These variables were organized into background, enabling, and predisposing factors, based

Clara Manfredi; Karen Kaiser; Alicia K. Matthews; Timothy P. Johnson

2010-01-01

181

29 CFR Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and... - Background Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION Selection practices. §§ 1605.2 &1605.3, App. A Appendix A to §§ 1605.2 and 1605.3âBackground...

2013-07-01

182

Scientific results from the cosmic background explorer (COBE). [Information on cosmic radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 [+-] 0.06 K, with no deviation from

C. L. Bennett; N. W. Boggess; E. S. Cheng; M. G. Hauser; T. Kelsall; J. C. Mather; S. H. Jr. Moseley; R. A. Shafer; R. F. Silverberg; T. L. Murdock; G. F. Smoot; R. Weiss; E. L. Wright

1993-01-01

183

Development of a Change Model for a Controlled Medical Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing change in controlled medical vocabularies is labor intensive and costly, but change is inevitable if vocabularies are to be kept up to date. The changes that are appropriate for a controlled medical vocabulary depend on the data stored for that vocabulary, and those data in turn depend on the needs of users. The set of change operations is the

Diane E. Oliver

1997-01-01

184

Vocabulary: The Key to Teaching English Language Learners to Read  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The greatest challenge inhibiting the ability of English-language learners (ELLs) to read at the appropriate grade level is perhaps a lack of sufficient vocabulary development. While extensive reading is beneficial, these students must acquire the necessary vocabulary in order to read extensively. Both vocabulary breadth and vocabulary depth are…

Wallace, Christopher

2008-01-01

185

Vocabulary: The Key to Teaching English Language Learners to Read  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The greatest challenge inhibiting the ability of English-language learners (ELLs) to read at the appropriate grade level is perhaps a lack of sufficient vocabulary development. While extensive reading is beneficial, these students must acquire the necessary vocabulary in order to read extensively. Both vocabulary breadth and vocabulary depth are…

Wallace, Christopher

2007-01-01

186

Assessing the Depth of Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge*11  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the constructs of vocabulary knowledge, some of the estab- lished measures of the depth of L2 vocabulary knowledge, and proposes three measures to assess the depth of meaning dimension of L2 vocabulary knowl- edge and one measure of the breadth of meaning dimension of L2 vocabulary knowledge. The depth of meaning dimension refers to the knowledge of

Fransiscus Xaverius Mukarto

2005-01-01

187

Risk Factors for Children's Receptive Vocabulary Development from Four to Eight Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children  

PubMed Central

Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4–8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4–8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes increase over time.

Taylor, Catherine L.; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

188

Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.  

PubMed

Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes increase over time. PMID:24039856

Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

2013-01-01

189

Product information with enhanced background description for improved revision of decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of products has been organized around product lifecycle management (PLM) systems during the past decade in leading industries. In mechatronics, where product structures are very complex and inhomogeneous, it is urgent to apply high level information technology for engineering purposes. The new style of engineering, where engineers work in remote workplaces and communicate through sophisticated model of product is

László Horváth; Imre J. Rudas; Nicola Belfiore

2008-01-01

190

Closing the Vocabulary Gap?: A Review of Research on Early Childhood Vocabulary Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our qualitative literature review of 31 published studies found that (a) three major approaches are used in early childhood classrooms to support children's vocabulary learning—exposing children to advanced words, providing direct word-meaning instruction, and employing mixed-method interventions; (b) these practices support children's learning of targeted vocabulary words and\\/or general vocabulary knowledge gains, but various methods have differential impacts on children's

Tanya Christ; X. Christine Wang

2011-01-01

191

Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

Sutter, S. L.

1982-05-01

192

Enhanced community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information.  

PubMed

Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework. PMID:24247657

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi

2013-01-01

193

Enhanced Community Structure Detection in Complex Networks with Partial Background Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework.

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi

2013-11-01

194

Knowledge of words, knowledge about words: Dimensions of vocabulary in first and second language learners in sixth grade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite acknowledging the complex nature of vocabulary knowledge, researchers have rarely investigated the dimensionality\\u000a of this construct empirically. This study was designed to test a multi-dimensional model of English vocabulary knowledge for\\u000a sixth-grade students from linguistically diverse backgrounds (n = 584). Participants included language minority students learning English as a second language (L2) and students who learned\\u000a English as a first language

Michael J. KiefferNonie; Nonie K. Lesaux

195

Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

Kuvich, Gary

2006-06-01

196

Qualitative Vocabulary Test Responses and Age.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vocabulary test responses as traditionally scored were compared to these same responses when scored for finer nuances of understanding, as determined by the criterion of superior synonyms. It was hypothesized that the latter would be more related to age i...

J. Botwinick R. West M. Storandt

1975-01-01

197

Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board's request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concernin...

D. Nolet

1995-01-01

198

Vocabulary Usage and Intelligibility in Learner Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In verbal communication, the primary purpose of which is to convey and understand messages, speakers need to make intelligible utterances. The intelligibility of an utterance depends on the sentence structure, discourse, and the vocabulary usage. In foreign-language utterances, \\

Emi Izumi; Kiyotaka Uchimoto; Hitoshi Isahara

199

Planning serials cancellations and cooperative collection development in the health sciences: methodology and background information.  

PubMed

In an era of steady-state budgets many research and academic libraries must cancel a significant number of current serials to maintain acquisitions of monographs. Thus paper reviews several techniques that have been used or that are of potential use in a rational selection of titles for cancellation. The context of the proposed methodology involves a network of libraries rather than an individual library. The methodology was tested with specific health sciences serial titles held by University of California libraries and resource libraries in NLM Region XI. As a test for the proposed methodology, background data were collected on 600 current foreign language serial titles included in SERLINE and held by at least one of the libraries in the networks of interest. Price, major secondary service coverage with productivity/impact factors, extent of holdings, and average number of recorded circulations per year in several of the libraries were recorded for each title. With the use of several different rules, estimates were made of the subscription savings that might be realized. It seems feasible to extend the same methodology to other groups of serial titles. PMID:1191822

Bourne, C P

1975-10-01

200

Planning serials cancellations and cooperative collection development in the health sciences: methodology and background information.  

PubMed Central

In an era of steady-state budgets many research and academic libraries must cancel a significant number of current serials to maintain acquisitions of monographs. Thus paper reviews several techniques that have been used or that are of potential use in a rational selection of titles for cancellation. The context of the proposed methodology involves a network of libraries rather than an individual library. The methodology was tested with specific health sciences serial titles held by University of California libraries and resource libraries in NLM Region XI. As a test for the proposed methodology, background data were collected on 600 current foreign language serial titles included in SERLINE and held by at least one of the libraries in the networks of interest. Price, major secondary service coverage with productivity/impact factors, extent of holdings, and average number of recorded circulations per year in several of the libraries were recorded for each title. With the use of several different rules, estimates were made of the subscription savings that might be realized. It seems feasible to extend the same methodology to other groups of serial titles.

Bourne, C P

1975-01-01

201

Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

2014-05-01

202

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1982-01-01

203

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1985-01-01

204

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1988-01-01

205

Municipal-waste combustion: Background information for materials separation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Several issues related to materials separation from municipal solid waste (MSW) are discussed. Current nationwide rates of materials separation and recycling, as well as the methodology for determining municipal solid waste separation rates, are presented. Case studies of four community curbside separation programs include performance data and program costs. Two centralized materials separation facilities which separate materials from unsorted MSW are described with respect to the separation mechanisms employed, performance, and available cost data. Available data on the impacts of materials separation on municipal waste combustor (MWC) air emissions, combustor operation, and MWC ash are presented. The potential occupational risks of the handpicking process used to separate materials from MSW at some centralized separation facilities are discussed. The use of mercury in household batteries, and current information on community battery separation and collection programs and recycling efforts, are also discussed.

Not Available

1991-01-01

206

Exposing SAMOS Data and Vocabularies within the Semantic Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), we at the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) will present the development process for the exposure of quality-controlled data and core vocabularies managed by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative using Semantic Web technologies. Participants in the SAMOS initiative collect continuous navigational (position, course, heading, speed), meteorological (winds, pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity) parameters while at sea. One-minute interval observations are packaged and transmitted back to COAPS via daily emails, where they undergo standardized formatting and quality control. The authors will present methods used to expose these daily datasets. The Semantic Web, a vision of the World Wide Web Consortium, focuses on extending the principles of the web from connecting documents to connecting data. The creation of a web of Linked Data that can be used across different applications in a machine-readable way is the ultimate goal. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard language and format used in the Semantic Web. RDF pages may be queried using the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). The authors will showcase the development of RDF resources that map SAMOS vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies such as those found in the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server. Each individual SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described in an RDF resource page. These RDF resources will define each SAMOS vocabulary term and provide a link to the mapped vocabulary term (or multiple terms) served externally. Along with enhanced retrieval by parameter, time, and location, we will be able to add additional parameters with the confidence that they follow an international standard. The production of RDF resources that link daily SAMOS data to descriptors such as parameters, time and location information, quality assurance reports, and cruise tracks will also be described. The data is housed on a Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) data server, so these RDF resources will enable enhanced retrieval by any of the linked descriptors. We will showcase our collaboration with the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program to develop SPARQL endpoints that distribute SAMOS content. R2R packages and transmits data on a per cruise basis, so an immediate result of the SAMOS exposure will be the narrowing of the gap between expedition type data (e.g. R2R cruises) and SAMOS observatory type data. The authors will present the development of RDF resources that will collectively expose shipboard data, vocabularies, and quality assurance reports in an overall structure which will serve as the basis for a COAPS SPARQL endpoint, enabling easier programmatic access to SAMOS data.

Dockery, Nkemdirim; Elya, Jocelyn; Smith, Shawn

2014-05-01

207

Comparing Multidimensional and Continuum Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: An Empirical Examination of the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second language vocabulary acquisition has been modeled both as multidimensional in nature and as a continuum wherein the learner's knowledge of a word develops along a cline from recognition through production. In order to empirically examine and compare these models, the authors assess the degree to which the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS;…

Stewart, Jeffrey; Batty, Aaron Olaf; Bovee, Nicholas

2012-01-01

208

Effects of Four Vocabulary Exercises on Facilitating Learning Vocabulary Meaning, Form, and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims to answer the questions concerning whether composition tasks or blank-filling tasks better facilitate vocabulary learning, which aspect of vocabulary knowledge is enhanced, whether the benefits can be retained over two weeks, and which task is more suitable to foreign language classrooms facing the challenge of time…

Lu, Minhui

2013-01-01

209

Online Vocabulary Games as a Tool for Teaching and Learning English Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary learning is often perceived as boring by learners, especially for those who grew up in the digital age. This paper reports a study of the usefulness of online games in vocabulary learning for some undergraduate students. Three teachers and 100 engineering students participated in a quasi-experimental study for approximately nine weeks.…

Yip, Florence W. M.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.

2006-01-01

210

The Vocabulary-Rich Classroom: Modeling Sophisticated Word Use to Promote Word Consciousness and Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is a critical contributor to reading, especially reading comprehension. A word-rich classroom environment maximizes students' opportunities to learn new words. The teacher's use of language provides an important model for children's vocabulary development. By modeling the use of sophisticated words, teachers can promote…

Lane, Holly B.; Allen, Stephanie Arriaza

2010-01-01

211

Primary Grade Understanding Vocabulary as Measured by Orally Administered Basic Word Vocabulary Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Basic Word Vocabulary Test (BWVT) was extended downward by administering it orally to 96 pupils selected randomly from grades one through four. Estimates of aural understanding vocabulary at each grade were obtained and were found to be much lower than results from previous studies, due to the strict criteria of the BWVT. Correlations with the…

Bayer, Maria L.

212

Procedures for Mapping Vocabularies from Non-Professional Discourse A Case Study: "Consumer Medical Vocabulary."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a methodology for collecting and extracting linguistic forms from documents authored by healthcare consumers. The forms were mapped to concepts and the resulting terms were analyzed. Although the case study uses examples from a "consumer medical vocabulary," procedures are applicable to investigating non-professional vocabularies in…

Tse, Tony; Soergel, Dagobert

2003-01-01

213

The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

Kulkofsky, Sarah

2010-01-01

214

Supporting Young Children's Vocabulary Growth: The Challenges, the Benefits, and Evidence-Based Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complexity of words makes vocabulary development a multi-faceted process that presents challenges to early childhood educators, offers benefits to young learners, and must be supported through evidence-based strategies. All students, regardless of socio-economic status or background, need to make significant gains in receptive and expressive…

Jalongo, Mary Renck; Sobolak, Michelle J.

2011-01-01

215

Technical support for amending standards for management of uranium byproduct materials: 40 cfr part 192-subpart d. Background information document  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is amending 40 CFR 192, Subpart D, dealing with disposal of uranium mill tailings at non-operational sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or an agreement state pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. The Background Information Document (BID) was prepared in support of the rulemaking proceedings for EPA's action. The BID only considers long-term disposal of tailings at facilities licensed by the NRC or an agreement state, and designated Title II facilities in the UMTRCA.

Not Available

1993-10-01

216

Ground-water protection standards for inactive uranium tailings sites (40 CFR 192): Background information for final rule. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Final Background Information Document summarizes the information and data considered by the Agency in developing the ground-water protection standards. The report presents a brief description of the Title II ground water standard and how it can be used to develop the Title I rulemaking. A description of the 24 designated uranium-tailings sites and their current status in the DOE remedial-action program is included as well as a detailed analysis of the available data on the ground water in the vicinity of 14 of the 24 sites. It also describes different methods that can be used for the restoration of ground water and the costs of using these restoration methods.

Not Available

1989-03-01

217

The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database: From Bioinformatics to Lexomics  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic methods have revolutionised evolutionary biology and have recently been applied to studies of linguistic and cultural evolution. However, the basic comparative data on the languages of the world required for these analyses is often widely dispersed in hard to obtain sources. Here we outline how our Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database (ABVD) helps remedy this situation by collating wordlists from over 500 languages into one web-accessible database. We describe the technology underlying the ABVD and discuss the benefits that an evolutionary bioinformatic approach can provide. These include facilitating computational comparative linguistic research, answering questions about human prehistory, enabling syntheses with genetic data, and safe-guarding fragile linguistic information.

Greenhill, Simon J.; Blust, Robert; Gray, Russell D.

2008-01-01

218

Background Information for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

2001-01-01

219

Background Information about PLCO  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large population-based randomized trial evaluating screening programs for these cancers. The primary goal of this long-term trial of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and on secondary endpoints.

220

Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

Carrier, Sarah J.

2013-03-01

221

Content Area Vocabulary Instruction: Is Preteaching Worth the Effort? (Research).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research concerning the preteaching of content area vocabulary. Questions the value of solely preteaching content terms and suggests teaching both general and content vocabulary in ways that aid students in becoming independent word learners. (MG)

Mealey, Donna; Konopak, Bonnie

1990-01-01

222

A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

Prevost, Jill K.

223

Development and exploitation of a controlled vocabulary in support of climate modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are three key components for developing a metadata system: a container structure laying out the key semantic issues of interest and their relationships; an extensible controlled vocabulary providing possible content; and tools to create and manipulate that content. While metadata systems must allow users to enter their own information, the use of a controlled vocabulary both imposes consistency of definition and ensures comparability of the objects described. Here we describe the controlled vocabulary (CV) and metadata creation tool built by the METAFOR project for use in the context of describing the climate models, simulations and experiments of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The CV and resulting tool chain introduced here is designed for extensibility and re-use and should find applicability in many more projects.

Moine, M.-P.; Valcke, S.; Lawrence, B. N.; Pascoe, C.; Ford, R. W.; Alias, A.; Balaji, V.; Bentley, P.; Devine, G.; Guilyardi, E.

2013-05-01

224

Development and exploitation of a controlled vocabulary in support of climate modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are three key components for developing a metadata system: a container structure laying out the key semantic issues of interest and their relationships; an extensible controlled vocabulary providing possible content; and tools to create and manipulate that content. While metadata systems must allow users to enter their own information, the use of a controlled vocabulary both imposes consistency of definition and ensures comparability of the objects described. Here we describe the controlled vocabulary (CV) and metadata creation tool built by the METAFOR project for use in the context of describing the climate models, simulations and experiments of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The CV and resulting tool chain introduced here is designed for extensibility and reuse and should find applicability in many more projects.

Moine, M.-P.; Valcke, S.; Lawrence, B. N.; Pascoe, C.; Ford, R. W.; Alias, A.; Balaji, V.; Bentley, P.; Devine, G.; Callaghan, S. A.; Guilyardi, E.

2014-03-01

225

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

226

Developing an Integrated Diagnostic Test of Vocabulary Size and Depth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following growing interest in vocabulary acquisition, a number of researchers have proposed how learners' vocabulary knowledge can be measured both in terms of how many words they know (vocabulary size) and how well they know those words (depth of knowledge). However, most of the depth measures have addressed only a single depth aspect (often for…

Ishii, Tomoko; Schmitt, Norbert

2009-01-01

227

Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

2013-01-01

228

In Search of Introductory Psychology's Classic Core Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether there was a common vocabulary present within introductory psychology textbooks during the 1950s and if a classic core vocabulary exists. Reports that no common core existed in the textbooks during the 1950s, but there is a set of 100 classic vocabulary terms. (CMK)

Griggs, Richard A.; Mitchell, Montserrat C.

2002-01-01

229

Focus on the Forms: Recognition Practice in Chinese Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…

Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying

2013-01-01

230

A Web-Based Architecture for a Medical Vocabulary Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

For health care providers to share computing resources and medical application programs across different sites, those applications must share a common medical vocabulary. To construct a common vocabulary, researchers must have an architecture that supports collaborative, networked devel- opment. In this paper, we present a web-based server archi- tecture for the collaborative development of a medical vocabulary: a system that

John H. Gennari; Diane E. Oliver; Wanda Pratt; James Rice; Mark A. Musen

1995-01-01

231

Assessing Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge: Depth Versus Breadth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a detailed analysis of techniques used for second language vocabulary assessment and the implied assumptions about the underlying construct of vocabulary knowledge. The article notes that existing measures of vocabulary size are uninformative as to the depth of knowledge that learners have about particular words. (56 references)…

Wesche, Marjorie; Paribakht, T. Sima

1996-01-01

232

Wikipedia as a tool promoting specialized vocabulary learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timely learning of discipline-specific vocabulary is critical for building solid knowledge base in any field of study. Without a doubt students with good vocabulary knowledge master the material faster, communicate their knowledge better and start critical analysis of the discussed material sooner. To emphasize, the point in a fashion that students can easily relate to, I have designed a vocabulary

Boriana Marintcheva

2012-01-01

233

Reliability Assessment for Two Versions of Vocabulary Levels Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a reliability study of two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test at the 5000 word level. This study was motivated by a finding from an ongoing longitudinal study of vocabulary acquisition that Version A and Version B of Vocabulary Levels Test at the 5000 word level were not parallel. In order to investigate this issue,…

Xing, Peiling; Fulcher, Glenn

2007-01-01

234

Prominent Content Vocabulary Strategies and What Secondary Preservice Teachers Think about Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation focused on two research questions. The first question examined what specific instructional strategies for teaching vocabulary appear most frequently in current content area textbooks. The second question built on the first and used that information to develop a survey that was administered to secondary-level preservice teachers…

Hedrick, Wanda B.; Harmon, Janis M.; Wood, Karen

2008-01-01

235

Women's Issues Searching with DIALOG OnDisc ERIC: Natural Language and Controlled Vocabulary Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares free text versus controlled vocabulary searching for information relating to women's issues on the ERIC laserdisk database from Dialog. Topics discussed include terminology and women's studies; Boolean operators; and adequacy of the ERIC thesaurus for searching relevant topics including women's social roles, antiabortion movement, teenage…

Nicholls, Paul; Holtmann, Susanne

1989-01-01

236

Do Language Proficiency and Lecture Comprehension Matter? OpenCourseWare Lectures for Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open source lectures not only provide knowledge-seekers with convenient ways to obtain knowledge and information, they also serve as potential language learning resources that provide extensive language input and repeated exposure to vocabulary within specific topics or disciplines. This current study aims to examine the relationship between…

Sun, Yu-Chih; Yang, Hui-Chi

2012-01-01

237

THE LONG PAST AND SHORT HISTORY OF THE VOCABULARY OF ANGLOPHONE PSYCHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do particular words come to be part of the vocabulary of Anglophone psychology? The present study sampled 600 words with psychological senses from the Oxford English Dictionary, which not only gives the number of senses for each word but also the date and author for the earliest known occurrence of each sense. Analogous information for the same words was

John G. Benjafield

2012-01-01

238

Researching Native Americans: Tips on Vocabulary, Search Strategies and Internet Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes search strategies and vocabulary selection for researching information on Native Americans using DIALOG databases as examples. Highlights include tribal names search strategy; examples of false drops; revised search strategies for full-text databases; Internet sources, including various software systems; and CD-ROM products about Native…

Mueller-Alexander, Jeanette M.; Seaton, Helen J.

1994-01-01

239

A Comparison of Undergraduate Students' English Vocabulary Learning: Using Mobile Phones and Flash Cards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowing a foreign language has become crucial to reach information. Learning vocabulary is the fundamental step to learn a foreign language. New devices are invented everyday to fulfill the needs of citizens of the twenty-first century. Increased use of mobile phones has made them popular for not only communication, but also entertainment and…

Basoglu, Emrah Baki; Akdemir, Omur

2010-01-01

240

Vocabulary Assessment of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children From Infancy Through the Preschool Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to inform researchers and prac- titioners about potential challenges in the selection, adminis- tration, and interpretation of results of measures of vocabu- lary assessment when working with deaf and hard-of-hearing children. This article reviews methods that can be used to assess vocabulary of children through the age of 5 years, in- cluding naturalistic observation,

Amy K. Prezbindowski; Amy R. Lederberg

2003-01-01

241

Tracking the unique effects of print exposure in children: Associations with vocabulary, general knowledge, and spelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the construct validity of a recently introduced measure of children's exposure to print, the Title Recognition Test (TRT). In samples of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children, the TRT demonstrated significant correlations with spelling, vocabulary, verbal fluency, word knowledge, and general information. Most important, it accounted for variance in these criterion variables when differences in both general ability

Anne E. Cunningham; Keith E. Stanovich

1991-01-01

242

Actors, Domains, and Constraints in the Design and Construction of Controlled Vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification schemes, thesauri, taxonomies, and other controlled vocabularies play important roles in the or- ganization and retrieval of information in many different environments. While the design and construction of controlled vo- cabularies have been prescribed at the technical level in great detail over the past decades, the methodological level has been somewhat neglected. However, classification research has in recent years

Jens-Erik Mai

2008-01-01

243

Dynamic time warping for off-line recognition of a small gesture vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We focus on the visual sensory information to recognize human activity in form of hand-arm movements from a small, predefined vocabulary. We accomplish this task by means of a matching technique by determining the distance between the unknown input and a set of previously defined templates. A dynamic time warping algorithm is used to perform the time alignment and normalization

Andrea Corradini

2001-01-01

244

An Operational System for Subject Switching between Controlled Vocabularies: A Computational Linguistics Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a new automated process that pioneers full-scale operational use of subject switching by the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Facility. The subject switching process routinely translates machine-readable subject terms from one controlled vocabulary into the…

Silvester, June P.; And Others

245

Enhancing Teacher Read Alouds with Small-Group Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Low Vocabulary in First-Grade Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of small-group instruction on the vocabulary and comprehension of first-grade students identified with low language and low vocabulary skills. Overall, 102 first-grade students scoring below the 50th percentile on relational vocabulary were blocked by classroom, matched according to…

Fien, Hank; Santoro, Lana; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Chard, David J.; Williams, Susanna; Haria, Priti

2011-01-01

246

Investigating the Receptive Vocabulary Size of University-Level Chinese Learners of English: How Suitable Is the Vocabulary Levels Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) is widely used to assess the vocabulary size of second-language learners of English. The test assesses learners' knowledge of words of different frequencies within general English and of high-frequency words within academic texts. We used the VLT to measure the English vocabulary size of Chinese university students…

Li, Lan; MacGregor, Lucy J.

2010-01-01

247

ESL learners' vocabulary use in writing and the effects of explicit vocabulary instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated vocabulary use in writing of 65 secondary school multi-grade and multi-L1 intermediate ESL learners of a Greater Vancouver public secondary school. The investigator was their regular ESL teacher. The subjects' target recognition vocabulary, (assessed in a fill-in-the blanks test consisting of 30 single words and six lexical phrases) was significantly lower than that of 79 grade 8

Siok H. Leea

248

Optimal Document-Indexing Vocabulary for MEDLINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of MEDLINE document indexing focuses on a study that assessed the use of free text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), and a variety of combination retrieval strategies. Prior research involving free text and controlled vocabularies is reviewed, and results of the study indicate that MeSH does have an important role in text retrieval.…

Srinivasan, Padmini

1996-01-01

249

The Cognitive Vocabulary Approach to Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English teachers face myriad demands every day that include not only helping students read literature in interesting and engaging ways but also attending to the needs of students challenged by the demands of more complex and sophisticated texts. Vocabulary learning is at the heart of this struggle for many students, especially for English language…

Harmon, Janis M.; Buckelew-Martin, Elizabeth; Wood, Karen D.

2010-01-01

250

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Thesaurus -- Volume 2, Access Vocabulary -- contains an alphabetical listing of all Thesaurus terms (postable and nonpostable) and permutations of all multiword and pseudo-multiword terms. Also included are Other Words (non-Thesaurus terms) consisting of abbreviations, chemical symbols, etc. The permutations and Other Words provide 'access' to the appropriate postable entries in the Thesaurus.

1976-01-01

251

Issues in Large Vocabulary, Multilingual Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on our activities in multilingual, sp eaker- independent, large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. The multilingual aspect of this work is of particular importanc e in Eu- rope, where each country has its own national language. Our exist- ing recognizer for American English and French, has been ported to British English and German. It has been

Lori Lamel; Martine Adda-Decker; Jean-Luc Gauvain

1995-01-01

252

A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. The tutor includes words, pic- tures, and sounds to help students learn new words and their pronuncia- tion. The article highlights salient features and design of the tutor and then focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabu- lary

Gilles Labrie

253

Word Walk: Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Storybook reading offers an ideal context for teaching young children new words. Text Talk is one method designed for teaching elementary students new words after reading. However, using the Text Talk vocabulary procedures with young children, the authors observed several challenges both for teachers' implementation and children's learning.…

Blarney, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.

2011-01-01

254

A Computer-Adaptive Vocabulary Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical competence is considered to be an essential step in the development and consolidation of a student's linguistic ability, and thus the reliable assessment of such competence turns out to be a fundamental aspect in this process. The design and construction of vocabulary tests has become an area of special interest, as it may provide teachers…

Molina, Maria Teresa Lopez-Mezquita

2009-01-01

255

Uncertainty in training large vocabulary speech recognizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a technique for annotating data used to train a speech recognizer. The proposed scheme is based on labeling only a single frame for every word in the training set. We make use of the virtual evidence (VE) framework within a graphical model to take advantage of such data. We apply this approach to a large vocabulary speech recognition

Amarnag Subramanya; Chris Bartels; Jeff Bilmes; Patrick Nguyen

2007-01-01

256

A Comprehensive Approach to Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marzano offers a brief review of research in vocabulary instruction, focusing on the concept of "tiers" to describe words used with different contexts and purposes. He then suggests teaching tools that may work to help specific student populations learn and retain those words across the K-12 curriculum.

Marzano, Robert J.

2012-01-01

257

In-Depth Study of Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development is a crucial aspect of literacy. It is our duty as teachers to enrich the language of our students to better prepare them for a successful lifetime of communication. This paper offers several methods to enhance levels of speech in the classroom. Some of the techniques included are the use of repetitive reading, reading…

Mixan, Marisa

2013-01-01

258

Comparative experiments on large vocabulary speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes several key experiments in large vocabulary speech recognition. We demonstrate that, counter to our intuitions, given a fixed amount of training speech, the number of training speakers has little effect on the accuracy. We show how much speech is needed for speaker-independent (SI) recognition in order to achieve the same performance as speaker-dependent (SD) recognition. We demonstrate

Richard Schwartz; Tasos Anastasakos; Francis Kubala; John Makhoul; Long Nguyen; George Zavaliagkos

1993-01-01

259

Interactive Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word walls are designed to serve as visual scaffolds and are a common classroom tool used to support reading and language arts instruction. To support vocabulary development in science and support students who are ELLs, Husty and Jackson (2008) created interactive word walls that resemble semantic maps (Masters, Mori, and Mori 1993). Semantic maps…

Jackson, Julie; Tripp, Sherry; Cox, Kimberly

2011-01-01

260

On vocabulary-independent speech modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of vocabulary-independent (VI) models to improve the usability of speech recognizers is described. Initial results using generalized triphones as VI models show that with more training data and more detailed modeling, the error rate of VI models can be reduced substantially. For example, the error rates for VI models with 5000, 10000, and 15000 training sentences, are 23.9%,

H.-W. Hon; K.-F. Lee

1990-01-01

261

Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

2012-01-01

262

MATERIAL KNOWLEDGE FOR DESIGN - THE ARCHITECT'S VOCABULARY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how architects select materials during the design process. It argues that not only performance aspects are factored in, but also aspects related to the experience or sensorial stimulation take part in this choice. The argument starts by constructing a hierarchy in the vocabulary that is used to discuss spaces, elements and materials. This hierarchy is derived from

Lisa Wastiels; Ine Wouters; Jonas Lindekens

263

Flip-a-Chip to Build Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a word-game strategy that builds vocabulary and comprehension while motivating students. Concludes that activities like Flip-a-Chip (along with crossword puzzles and other forms of wordplay) have helped the author create a pleasantly literate environment in her classroom. (SG)

Mountain, Lee

2002-01-01

264

Improving Vocabulary Acquisition with Multisensory Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this action research project was to improve student vocabulary acquisition through a multisensory, direct instructional approach. The study involved three teachers and a target population of 73 students in second and seventh grade classrooms. The intervention was implemented from September through December of 2006 and analyzed in…

D'Alesio, Rosemary; Scalia, Maureen T.; Zabel, Renee M.

2007-01-01

265

Morphological Analysis and Vocabulary Development: Critical Criteria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphological Analysis as a vocabulary acquisition strategy has both its advocates and antagonists. Criticism from opponents is often warranted when programs omit one or more of the three critical criteria that establish the framework behind a successful curriculum. The intent behind this paper is to disseminate and explicate these three criteria,…

Bellomo, Tom S.

2009-01-01

266

Predicting Reading Vocabulary from Selected Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between two dummy variables representing school effect and five self-concept factors were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of these variables in predicting the reading vocabulary of 432 boys and 424 girls in grades three through six. Also, an effort was made to determine if the percentage of criterion variance accounted…

DeVito, Pasquale J.

267

Effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of multimedia glosses on L2 reading comprehension and incidental vocabulary learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of visual and verbal multimedia information on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of learners of English with lower proficiency levels. In the interactive display condition, learners were allowed to select the type of multimedia information whereas the simultaneous display condition presented the verbal (definitions) and visual (associated pictures) information

Emine Türk; Gülcan Erçetin

2012-01-01

268

Personnel Reactions to Incentives, Naval Conditions and Experiences (PRINCE): Demographic and Background Information, Expectations, Attitudes, Values and Motivations of New Recruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a longitudinal study of the reactions of enlisted personnel incentives, Naval conditions and experiences, information on backgrounds, expectations, attitudes, values and motivations were obtained at entry into the Navy from 6,795 recruits in Ca...

A. Katz

1971-01-01

269

Effectiveness of a vocabulary data file, encyclopaedia, and Internet homepages in a conversation?support system for people with moderate?to?severe aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In order to facilitate conversation for people with moderate?to?severe aphasia, a conversation?support system has been developed. This system consists of three electronic resources: a vocabulary data file, an encyclopaedia, and homepages on the Internet. The vocabulary data file we created contains approximately 50,000 words, mostly consisting of various proper names, which are classified into 10 categories. These words function

Kiyoshi Yasuda; Tatsuya Nemoto; Keisuke Takenaka; Mami Mitachi; Kazuhiro Kuwabara

2007-01-01

270

Incidental Acquisition of Foreign Language Vocabulary through Brief Multi-Modal Exposure  

PubMed Central

First language acquisition requires relatively little effort compared to foreign language acquisition and happens more naturally through informal learning. Informal exposure can also benefit foreign language learning, although evidence for this has been limited to speech perception and production. An important question is whether informal exposure to spoken foreign language also leads to vocabulary learning through the creation of form-meaning links. Here we tested the impact of exposure to foreign language words presented with pictures in an incidental learning phase on subsequent explicit foreign language learning. In the explicit learning phase, we asked adults to learn translation equivalents of foreign language words, some of which had appeared in the incidental learning phase. Results revealed rapid learning of the foreign language words in the incidental learning phase showing that informal exposure to multi-modal foreign language leads to foreign language vocabulary acquisition. The creation of form-meaning links during the incidental learning phase is discussed.

Bisson, Marie-Josee; van Heuven, Walter J. B.; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J.

2013-01-01

271

Incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary through brief multi-modal exposure.  

PubMed

First language acquisition requires relatively little effort compared to foreign language acquisition and happens more naturally through informal learning. Informal exposure can also benefit foreign language learning, although evidence for this has been limited to speech perception and production. An important question is whether informal exposure to spoken foreign language also leads to vocabulary learning through the creation of form-meaning links. Here we tested the impact of exposure to foreign language words presented with pictures in an incidental learning phase on subsequent explicit foreign language learning. In the explicit learning phase, we asked adults to learn translation equivalents of foreign language words, some of which had appeared in the incidental learning phase. Results revealed rapid learning of the foreign language words in the incidental learning phase showing that informal exposure to multi-modal foreign language leads to foreign language vocabulary acquisition. The creation of form-meaning links during the incidental learning phase is discussed. PMID:23579363

Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

2013-01-01

272

Growth Curves for Receptive Vocabulary Inventories in Non-speaking Toddlers with Developmental Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Early vocabulary development is predictive of many later language and academic skills in children with developmental disabilities (McCathren, Yoder & Warren, 1998) ? Many milestones of vocabulary development are based on expressive vocabulary, such as the association between 50 word expressive vocabularies and rapid vocabulary growth ? Children with severe developmental disabilities at risk for being non-speaking have limited

Cynthia J. Cress; Melody Herzog

273

A Structural Factor Analysis of Vocabulary Knowledge and Relations to Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary knowledge may not be a unidimensional construct, and the relations between vocabulary knowledge and age may depend on the aspect of vocabulary knowledge being assessed. In this study, we examined the factor structure of a vocabulary test given to a large nationally representative sample of individuals (N ; 20,500). Results indicated that the vocabulary test is not unidimensional but

Ryan P. Bowles; Kevin J. Grimm; John J. McArdle

2005-01-01

274

English Vocabulary Learning System Based on Theory of Depths of Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

English learning involves memorization and practice of vocabularies. It is widely known that English learning should pay great attention to vocabulary learning, and what's more, the vocabulary learning is considered to be a key issue for English learning because vocabularies are fundamental in an English sentence. This study proposes a study system of English vocabulary learning based on theory of

Zheng Hongyan; Wang Xiaohui; Han Liyang

2009-01-01

275

Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Acquisition: The CSLU Vocabulary Tutor in Oral-Deaf Education.  

PubMed

Deficits in vocabulary have a negative impact on literacy and interpersonal interaction for deaf children. As part of an evaluation, an outcomes assessment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a computer-based vocabulary tutor in an elementary auditory/oral program. Participants were 19 children, 16 profoundly deaf and 3 hearing. The vocabulary tutor displays line drawings or photographs of the words to be learned while a computer-generated avatar of a "talking head" provides synthesized audiovisual speech driven from text. The computer system also generates printed words corresponding to the imaged items. Through audiovisual reception, children memorized up to 218 new words for everyday household items. After 4 weeks, their receptive vocabulary was tested, using the avatar to speak the name of each item. Most of the students retained more than half of the new words. The freely available vocabulary tutor, whose characteristics can be tailored to individual need, can provide a language-intensive, independent learning environment to supplement classroom teaching in content areas. PMID:15448067

Barker, Lecia J.

2003-01-01

276

Spanish dermatological vocabulary used by Mexican workers.  

PubMed

Spanish is the second most common language spoken in the United States. Physicians can expect a growing population of patients who speak Spanish as their primary language. The purpose of this study was to develop a glossary of Spanish dermatological vocabulary commonly used by Mexican workers. Dermatologic terms were gathered from transcripts of in-depth interviews with 31 Latino farmworkers in North Carolina. Participants were asked to name and define words related to skin irritations. Farmworkers provided several definitions of some terms, and several Spanish equivalents exist for specific English words. This glossary is a supplement to other resources for learning medical Spanish and expands health care professionals' knowledge of dermatology-related Spanish vocabulary. PMID:16150240

Vallejos, Quirina M; Marin, Antonio J; Feldman, Steven R; Krejci-Manwaring, Jennifer; Fleischer, Alan; Quandt, Sara A; Schulz, Mark; Smith, Gerell; Rapp, Stephen R; Arcury, Thomas A

2005-01-01

277

Effects of Interactive versus Simultaneous Display of Multimedia Glosses on L2 Reading Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of visual and verbal multimedia information on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of learners of English with lower proficiency levels. In the interactive display condition, learners were allowed to select the type of multimedia information whereas the…

Türk, Emine; Erçetin, Gülcan

2014-01-01

278

Essay: What Is the Vocabulary of Science?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the nature of the vocabulary words that children need to know to do well in science? How and where might children learn these words? In this essay, the authors explore these questions about the teaching and learning of the words of science. They also turn their attention to what is, in some sense, the most crucial question of all: Does knowing such words actually make a difference in children's learning and performance?

Catherine Snow, Harvard G.

2008-01-01

279

An unrestricted vocabulary Arabic speech synthesis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for synthesizing Arabic speech has been developed which uses a reasonably sized set of subphonetic elements as the synthesis units to allow synthesis of unlimited-vocabulary speech of good quality. The synthesis units have been defined after a careful study of the phonetic properties of modern standard Arabic, and they consist of central steady-state portions of vowels, central steady-state

YOUSIF A. EL-IMAM

1989-01-01

280

Strategic Analysis of New-type Industrialization Which is Under the Background of Information-Based Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of information and economic globalization, Chinese economy is stepping from industrialization age into information age. The advent of information age gives an impetus to the emergence of a completely new type of Business known as “Information-based Business”. It has become not only a new way for social and economic development characterized by high added-value, high growth, high

Delin Sun; Gaoxiang Xu; Xinhua Xie; Nana Ai; Yongyong Qu; Zhipeng Guo; Changqing Liang

2010-01-01

281

English­French bilingual children's phonological awareness and vocabulary skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between English-speaking children's vocabulary skills in English and in French and their phonological aware- ness skills in both languages. Forty-four kindergarten-aged children attending French immersion programs were administered a receptive vocabulary test, an expressive vocabulary test and a phonological awareness test in English and French. Results showed that French phonological awareness was largely explained by

Yu Chiang; Susan Rvachew

282

Academic vocabulary and middle school English learners: an intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this experimental intervention study was to determine if evidence-based instructional strategies for general vocabulary\\u000a words are effective with middle school English learner (EL) students and academic vocabulary words. Participants showed significantly\\u000a more growth in their knowledge of academic vocabulary during the treatment condition than during the control condition. A\\u000a secondary goal of this study was to examine

Dianna Townsend; Penny Collins

2009-01-01

283

Vocabulary Knowledge Is a Critical Determinant of the Difference in Reading Comprehension Growth between First and Second Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examines the role of decoding and vocabulary skills as longitudinal predictors of reading comprehension in young first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. Methods: Two-group latent growth models were used to assess differences in growth and predictions of growth between the 198 L1 and 90 L2 language learners. Results: L1…

Lervag, Arne; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

2010-01-01

284

Neighborhood Information Service Centers. Public Library "Information and Referral" Provides Significant New Personal Service to the Individual Library User. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series of background papers for the White House Conference, presents information and referral services as one of the ways libraries are developing programs to discharge their responsibilities to the public they serve. It details the determination of a woman librarian in Detroit to develop the first comprehensive I&R service…

Layne, Elizabeth N.

285

Idea Bank: Literature Circle Roles for Science Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study of science is often vocabulary intensive. An analysis of high school chemistry, biology, physics, and Earth science textbooks showed that approximately 1,000 to 3,000 novel science terms are contained in each (Groves 1995). Given the shear magnitude of terms, science vocabulary is problematic for many science teachers and learners. To provide students with meaningful experiences with science vocabulary, the authors group students into literature circles. This article describes how they have modified traditional literature circle roles to help students learn science vocabulary.

Kucan, Linda; Miller, Linda; Dass, Max; Straits, William; Trathen, Woodrow

2007-07-01

286

Clinical vocabulary as a boundary object in multidisciplinary care management of multiple chemical sensitivity, a complex and chronic condition  

PubMed Central

Background: Research has shown that accurate and timely communication between multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of complex and chronic health conditions is often challenging. The domain knowledge for these conditions is heterogeneous, with poorly categorized, unstructured, and inconsistent clinical vocabulary. The potential of boundary object as a technique to bridge communication gaps is explored in this study. Methods: A standardized and controlled clinical vocabulary was developed as a boundary object in the domain of a complex and chronic health condition, namely, multiple chemical sensitivity, to improve communication among multidisciplinary clinicians. A convenience sample of 100 patients with a diagnosis of multiple chemical sensitivity, nine multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of patients with multiple chemical sensitivity, and 36 clinicians in the community participated in the study. Results: Eighty-two percent of the multidisciplinary and inconsistent vocabulary was standardized using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine – Clinical Terms (SNOMED® CT as a reference terminology. Over 80% of the multidisciplinary clinicians agreed on the overall usefulness of having a controlled vocabulary as a boundary object. Over 65% of clinicians in the community agreed on the overall usefulness of the vocabulary. Conclusion: The results from this study are promising and will be further evaluated in the domain of another complex chronic condition, ie, chronic pain. The study was conducted as a preliminary analysis for developing a boundary object in a heterogeneous domain of knowledge.

Sampalli, Tara; Shepherd, Michael; Duffy, Jack

2011-01-01

287

Hispanic Families' Perspectives on Using a Bilingual Vocabulary Kit to Enhance Their Prekindergarten Children's Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine Hispanic families' perspectives on using a prepared kit to enhance their preschoolers' vocabulary development at home. Families enrolled in a public prekindergarten program were provided with a bilingual (English/Spanish) home literacy kit that included ways in which to engage their children in activities…

Query, Rebecca Robinson; Ceglowski, Deborah; Clark, Patricia; Li, Yongmei

2011-01-01

288

Strategies and Precise Vocabulary Knowledge: Exploring the Relationships Among Mathematics Vocabulary, Problem Solving, and Confidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this action research study I focused on my eighth grade pre-algebra students’ abilities to attack problems with enthusiasm and self confidence whether they completely understand the concepts or not. I wanted to teach them specific strategies and introduce and use precise vocabulary as a part of the problem solving process in hopes that I would see students’ confidence improve

Deb Borgelt

2008-01-01

289

Grabbed Early by Vocabulary: Nation's Ongoing Contributions to Vocabulary and Reading in a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"I was grabbed early [by vocabulary] and never let go. That's why it's difficult to explain why I enjoy working in this area. I just love doing it," said Paul Nation (in Coxhead, 2005, p. 46). How many people get grabbed by an area of research, teaching, and learning that continues to engage interest and cause excitement after 30 years? In this…

Coxhead, Averil

2010-01-01

290

Implementation of MedVI Agent a Medical Vocabulary Interpreter for Medical Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of having different vocabularies pointed at the same terminology for health care parties are today’s issue. Communication\\u000a problem of this kind in health information system around the globe are still without answers. By fast growing Intelligent\\u000a Agent technology in the medical field, this issue becomes large enough to halt the progress. Agents for valid communication\\u000a need to have same

Beesung Kam; Il Kim; Hune Cho; Yun Kwak

291

Lifelong Learning on the Knowledge Highway. Access to Lifelong Learning Opportunities on Canada's Information Highway. A Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines access to lifelong learning opportunities on Canada's information highway. The report begins with a glossary and a learner-centered model in which the information highway links learners with learning opportunities provided through educational institutions, community organizations, government, and business and industry.…

Faris, Ron

292

Pictures and Words: Spanish and English Vocabulary in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study evaluated the relation between Spanish and English vocabulary. Whereas previously reported correlations have revealed strong differences among types of vocabulary measures used and the ages of the students tested, no prior study had used a multilevel model to control for classroom-level differences. The current study used…

Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Francis, David J.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles

2009-01-01

293

Evaluation Study of "Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!" Spring 2006 Pilot  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A pilot study of the "Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!" program was conducted by Learning Gauger, Inc., for National Geographic School Publishing, in spring 2006. The program evaluation examined the classroom adoption approaches used by participating teachers and the subsequent impact of the "Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!" (LLV)…

McNabb, Mary

2006-01-01

294

A Linguistic Approach to Social Studies Vocabulary Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates using a linguistic approach to supplement teaching social studies vocabulary. Highlights advantages of teaching vocabulary through etymological analysis, including greater student interest, more precise definitions, and the approach's transferability. Disadvantages include the complexity of some prefix meanings. Concludes that this…

Milligan, Jerry L.; Ruff, Thomas P.

1990-01-01

295

Strategies and Performance in Intentional L2 Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to identify strategies used during intentional vocabulary learning and to assess the relationship between strategy use and vocabulary learning performance. English-speaking students of Spanish studied new Spanish words while viewing word-picture pairs. The participants then completed posttests and answered questions about…

Barcroft, Joe

2009-01-01

296

VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

KRIPPNER, STANLEY

297

Use of Audio Modification in Science Vocabulary Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to examine the utilization of audio modification in vocabulary assessment in school subject areas, specifically in elementary science, and to present a web-based key vocabulary assessment tool for the elementary school level. Audio-recorded readings were used to replace independent student readings as the task…

Adiguzel, Tufan

2011-01-01

298

Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge.  

PubMed

25 engineering students in India, who were highly motivated to improve their English, filled out a questionnaire about their reading habits in English and took a demanding vocabulary test based on words taken from preparation books for the Graduate Records Examination. The correlation between reading habits and vocabulary was substantial (r = .78). PMID:24611248

Pratheeba, N; Krashen, S

2013-10-01

299

Direct and Extended Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten: Investigating Transfer Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an 18-week program of direct and extended vocabulary instruction with kindergarten students on both proximal measures of target word knowledge and transfer measures of generalized language and literacy. A second purpose was to examine whether treatment effects would be moderated by initial receptive vocabulary knowledge measured at pretest. In

Michael D. Coyne; D. Betsy McCoach; Susan Loftus; Richard Zipoli Jr; Maureen Ruby; Yvel C. Crevecoeur; Sharon Kapp

2010-01-01

300

Expanding Academic Vocabulary with an Interactive On-Line Database  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University students used a set of existing and purpose-built on-line tools for vocabulary learning in an experimental ESL course. The resources included concordance, dictionary, cloze-builder, hypertext, and a database with interactive self-quizzing feature (all freely available at www.lextutor.ca). The vocabulary targeted for learning consisted…

Horst, Marlise; Cobb, Tom; Nicolae, Ioana

2005-01-01

301

What Classroom Observations Reveal about Oral Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is now compelling evidence that children's early vocabulary development is essential to their long-term reading comprehension. Findings from experimental studies have indicated that vocabulary knowledge influences the development of conceptual knowledge and comprehension, suggesting a causal relationship among these fundamental language…

Wright, Tanya S.

2012-01-01

302

The PRO-VOC Method: Combining Pronunciation and Vocabulary Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a new method for the combined teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary to learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). While there is commonly strong emphasis on the teaching of vocabulary, pronunciation teaching is frequently neglected in the EFL classroom. The proposed method aims to address such imbalance which may…

Nicolaidis, Katerina; Mattheoudakis, Marina

2012-01-01

303

Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et…

Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

2012-01-01

304

Improving Vocabulary Acquisition By Designing A Storytelling Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the review of many literatures, it is considered that there are still prevailing obstacles for second language learners due to insufficient vocabulary. Fortunately, there is a way to increase onepsilas vocabulary by means of extensive reading realizing stories. The research tries to utilize robot as a medium to design a pressure-free and intriguing learning system. It is a learning

Chun-cheng Wu; Chih-wei Chang; Baw-jhiune Liu; Gwo-dong Chen

2008-01-01

305

Fragmentation and Consolidation: Recent Articles on Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary can no longer be said to be "a Cinderella topic", at least so far as its representation in other journals is concerned. Research articles on vocabulary learning and teaching now occur frequently and have been particularly well represented in recent issues of the North American research journal "Language Learning". While studies of…

Broady, Elspeth

2008-01-01

306

Comparative Usefulness of Online and Traditional Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acquiring vocabulary in L2 is rather a difficult and demanding process and most of the language learners wish to know which vocabulary learning method and/or activity is more beneficial or even the best one; however, the responses to this question vary and there is no clear-cut answer though there are some various suggestions and conclusions drawn…

Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

2010-01-01

307

Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

Gao, Xuesong

2012-01-01

308

Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2011-01-01

309

Does Translation Contribute to Learners' Free Active Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into four "male…

Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

2012-01-01

310

Teaching vocabulary using innovative ways in an EFL classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning and enhancing vocabulary is important to gain proficiency in any language. It enables one to communicate her\\/his message to others meaningfully. Yet, it is not being given attention in most language classes. Thus, most of the students are confronted with a limited vocabulary, which hinders their language proficiency. This participatory action research aimed at exploring possibilities, and tried to

Sitara Zaidi

2004-01-01

311

Enhancing Subject Access to OPACs: Controlled Vocabulary vs. Natural Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigation of retrieval performance of controlled vocabulary derived from natural language terms in tables of contents and book indexes assumed that controlled vocabulary representative of users' queries should adequately represent documents' contents. Queries were indexed using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LSCH), Dewey Decimal…

Cousins, Shirley Anne

1992-01-01

312

Using Knowledge Networks to Develop Preschoolers' Content Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that children accrue vocabulary knowledge by understanding relationships between new words and their connected concepts. This article describes three research-based principles that preschool teachers can use to design shared book reading lessons that accelerate content vocabulary knowledge by helping young children to talk about…

Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda

2012-01-01

313

Preventing a Vocabulary Lag: What Lessons Are Learned from Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses why early and sustained vocabulary development is important for listening and reading comprehension development and presents findings from 8 studies implemented with children of mostly low socioeconomic status in settings from day care to first grade. Program interventions were based on learning new vocabulary developed out…

Sinatra, Richard; Zygouris-Coe, Vicky; Dasinger, Sheryl B.

2012-01-01

314

Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Young English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Method: Twenty-two…

Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

2010-01-01

315

Untutored Vocabulary Acquisition and L2 Reading Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a self-instruction procedure designed to provide students of science and technology at the tertiary level with a basic vocabulary in a foreign language of around 1,000 items. The technique represents an efficient method for bridging the gap between the vocabulary that beginning L2 students possess and that required to read L2 scientific…

Pino-Silva, Juan

1993-01-01

316

Japanese Vocabulary Acquisition by Learners in Three Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an investigation of the development of vocabulary knowledge during study abroad (SA), intensive domestic immersion (IM) and academic-year formal classroom (AY) learning. Its focus was the growth of vocabulary knowledge in Japanese--a language where little SA research has been conducted to date. Unlike most studies addressing…

Dewey, Dan P.

2008-01-01

317

Using Explicit Instruction to Promote Vocabulary Learning for Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research supports the need for active vocabulary learning across grade levels and subject areas to help increase readers' comprehension of diverse texts that they encounter. Given the increasing emphasis on decoding and reading comprehension, the relative importance of vocabulary instruction has been diminished in recent years. The authors argue…

Taylor, D. Bruce; Mraz, Maryann; Nichols, William D.; Rickelman, Robert J.; Wood, Karen D.

2009-01-01

318

Redefining Vocabulary: The New Learning Strategy for Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although vocabulary development is an important part of the social studies curriculum, vocabulary activities are often inadequate, leaving students with cursory knowledge of terms. Worse still is the fact that many of the most critical words demarcating the field are not included in those activities. Therefore, a transformation from viewing…

Alexander-Shea, Aimee

2011-01-01

319

Effect of Strategy Training on Vocabulary in EFL Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty Iranian high school EFL learners between 14 and 16 males participated in this study were randomly divided into two groups; experimental, and control. As the study aimed to know whether vocabulary strategy training effects on vocabulary learning of Iranian students, at first the control and experimental group were given a writing per-test…

Ostovar-Namaghi, Seyd Ali; Rajaee, Mehdi

2013-01-01

320

Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different grades. The results showed significant progress on…

Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; Vermeer, Anne

2011-01-01

321

To Push or Not to Push: A Vocabulary Research Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experiment, 122 university students in 4 intact classes learned 10 new vocabulary words via three different methods representing strong theoretical perspectives on second language vocabulary acquisition; extensive reading (Input- Hypothesis), activity-based (Task-based learning), and writing words in original sentences (Pushed Output Theory and Depth of Processing Theory). Results indicate that regardless of the language level of the learner,

Charles Browne

322

Multiple-Choice Test Items of Foreign Language Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the various multiple-choice formats used in testing foreign language vocabulary with special reference to the underlying constructs of vocabulary competence. While all formats are argued to categorically measure recognition of second language word meaning, they are claimed to differ with respect to whether they measure receptive recognition or productive recognition, following a distinction drawn by Nation (2001).

Meral Öztürk

2007-01-01

323

Vocabulary hierarchy optimization for effective and transferable retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalable image retrieval systems usually involve hierarchical quantization of local image descriptors, which produces a visual vocabulary for inverted indexing of images. Although hierarchical quantization has the merit of retrieval efficiency, the resulting visual vocabulary representation usually faces two crucial problems: (1) hierarchical quantization errors and biases in the generation of ldquovisual wordsrdquo; (2) the model cannot adapt to database

Rongrong Ji; Xing Xie; Hongxun Yao; Wei-Ying Ma

2009-01-01

324

Demystifying Lexical Inferencing: The Role of Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical study examines how English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners use their vocabulary knowledge for inferring meanings of unknown words in reading comprehension. The data, collected through interviews with young adult ESL students in Canadian universities, indicate that: (a) semantic and morphological aspects of vocabulary knowledge…

Qian, David D.

2005-01-01

325

A lowbit rate vocabulary coding scheme for mobile landmark search  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a low bit rate vocabulary coding scheme in the context of mobile landmark search. Our scheme exploits location cues to boost a compact subset of visual vocabulary, which is discriminative for visual search and incurs low bit rate query for efficient upstream wireless transmission. To validate the coding scheme, we have developed mobile landmark search prototype systems within

Rongrong Ji; Ling-Yu Duan; Jie Chen; Hongxun Yao; Wen Gao

2011-01-01

326

Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition and Learning Strategies in ICALL Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research described in this paper investigates the role of Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS) in ICALL environments. Although VLS taxonomies do exist, they have been developed for traditional classroom-type learning, and tend to be incomplete in terms of strategies or factors arguably important for vocabulary learning. Based on existing taxonomies, a VLS taxonomy for an ICALL environment will be developed

Thomas M. Segler; Helen Pain; Antonella Sorace

2002-01-01

327

Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. The Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of essays on second language vocabulary learning includes: "Historical Trends in Second Language Vocabulary Instruction" (Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman); "The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading: Words You Don't Know, Words You Think You Know, and Words You Can't Guess" (Batia Laufer); "Orthographic Knowledge in L2 Lexical Processing: A…

Coady, James, Ed.; Huckin, Thomas, Ed.

328

Cognitive Correlates of Vocabulary Growth in English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study modeled vocabulary trajectories in 91 English language learners (ELLs) with Punjabi, Tamil, or Portuguese home languages, and 50 English monolinguals (EL1) from Grades 1 to 6. The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory and vocabulary were examined. ELLs underperformed…

Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther

2011-01-01

329

Differences in Vocabulary Input-Output in Psychodiagnosis of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper supports the hypothesis that picture vocabulary tests should not be used as interchangeable measures of intelligence for complex, lengthy intelligence tests (WISC and Stanford-Binet). In picture vocabulary tests assessing receptive functions (input), the child recognizes a word by pointing to or stating the number standing for an…

L'Abate, Luciano

330

Combining Contextual and Morphemic Cues Is Beneficial during Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: Semantic Transparency in Novel Compound Word Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two studies, we investigated how skilled readers use contextual and morphemic information in the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition during reading. In Experiment 1, we monitored skilled readers' eye movements while they silently read sentence pairs containing novel and known English compound words that were either semantically…

Brusnighan, Stephen M.; Folk, Jocelyn R.

2012-01-01

331

Supporting vocabulary growth of high school students: An analysis of the potential of a mobile learning device and gaming app  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the educational benefits of using an app on a mobile device (i.e. iPod Touch) to aid in the process of high school students' learning. The emphasis of this study explored the possibilities of learning vocabulary using a mobile device in an informal environment. Mobile devices embrace and encourage ubiquitous learning through their

Jennifer Redd

2011-01-01

332

Measuring Productive Vocabulary of Toddlers in Low-Income Families: Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Three Sources of Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined parental report as a source of information about toddlers' productive vocabulary in 105 low-income families living in either urban or rural communities. Parental report using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory-Short Form (CDI) at child age 2;0 was compared to concurrent spontaneous speech measures and…

Pan, Barbara Alexander; Rowe, Meredith L.; Spier, Elizabeth; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine

2004-01-01

333

Draft Environmental Impact Statement Sulfur Oxides Emissions from Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit Regenerators: Background Information for Proposed Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standards of performance to control emissions of sulfur oxides (SOX) from new, modified, and reconstructed fluid catalytic cracking unit regenerators are being proposed under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. This document contains information on the back...

1984-01-01

334

Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Typically Developing Language and Low Language Skills: Comparing Embedded and Explicit Vocabulary Instructional Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who enter kindergarten with low oral language skills are at great risk for reading problems, especially in the areas of vocabulary and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional vocabulary methods of storybook reading with children who exhibit typically developing language skills and…

Capellini, Cara S.

2010-01-01

335

Controlled Vocabularies, Mini Ontologies and Interoperability (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interoperability has been an elusive goal, but in recent years advances have been made using controlled vocabularies, mini-ontologies and a lot of collaboration. This has led to increased interoperability between disciplines in the U.S. and between international projects. We discuss the successful pattern followed by SPASE, IVOA and IPDA to achieve this new level of international interoperability. A key aspect of the pattern is open standards and open participation with interoperability achieved with shared services, public APIs, standard formats and open access to data. Many of these standards are expressed as controlled vocabularies and mini ontologies. To illustrate the pattern we look at SPASE related efforts and participation of North America's Heliophysics Data Environment and CDPP; Europe's Cluster Active Archive, IMPEx, EuroPlanet, ESPAS and HELIO; and Japan's magnetospheric missions. Each participating project has its own life cycle and successful standards development must always take this into account. A major challenge for sustained collaboration and interoperability is the limited lifespan of many of the participating projects. Innovative approaches and new tools and frameworks are often developed as competitively selected, limited term projects, but for sustainable interoperability successful approaches need to become part of a long term infrastructure. This is being encouraged and achieved in many domains and we are entering a golden age of interoperability.

King, T. A.; Walker, R. J.; Roberts, D.; Thieman, J.; Ritschel, B.; Cecconi, B.; Genot, V. N.

2013-12-01

336

The effects of problem content and scientific background on information search and the assessment and valuation of correlations.  

PubMed

The effects of problem contents and one's scientific background on the detection of correlations and the assessment of their strength were studied using a task that required active data search, assessment of the strength of a correlation, and monetary valuation of the correlation's predictive utility. Participants (N = 72) who were trained either in the natural sciences or in the social sciences and humanities explored data sets differing in contents and actual strength of correlation. Data search was consistent across all variables: Participants drew relatively small samples whose relative sizes would favor the detection of a correlation, if one existed. In contrast, the assessment of the correlation strength and the valuation of its predictive utility were strongly related not only to its objective strength, but also to the correspondence between problem contents and one's scientific background: When the two matched, correlations were judged to be stronger and more valuable than when they did not. PMID:21264572

Soffer, Shira; Kareev, Yaakov

2011-01-01

337

Background Knowledge and the Magazine Reading Students Choose  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can students read difficult but self-selected texts--and if so, how? In this article we describe what we learned about middle school students' use of background knowledge and specific vocabulary from interviews and surveys in our longitudinal study of magazine reading habits. Then we discuss the implications of these findings for structuring…

Gabriel, Rachael; Allington, Richard; Billen, Monica

2012-01-01

338

The Challenge of Validation: Assessing the Performance of a Test of Productive Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the performance of a vocabulary test designed to measure second language productive vocabulary knowledge.The test, Lex30, uses a word association task to elicit vocabulary, and uses word frequency data to measure the vocabulary produced. Here we report firstly on the reliability of the test as measured by a test-retest study, a…

Fitzpatrick, Tess; Clenton, Jon

2010-01-01

339

The Role of Vocabulary Size in Predicting Performance on TOEFL Reading Item Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine a) whether vocabulary knowledge, captured in the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), is related to the performance on the five types of reading comprehension items tested in TOEFL, i.e., Guessing Vocabulary, Main Idea, Inference, Reference, and Stated Detail; and b) whether EFL learners with different levels of vocabulary

Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Akbarian, Is'haaq

2012-01-01

340

Modifying Robust Vocabulary Instruction for the Benefit of Low-Socioeconomic Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have long acknowledged the important role that vocabulary plays in assisting reading comprehension. Because of the importance of vocabulary, it is necessary to determine how to ensure that all students are making adequate vocabulary gains. The research base for the best ways to instruct students in robust vocabulary is strong. The…

Sobolak, Michelle J.

2011-01-01

341

Assessing the Roles of Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge in Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the relationships between depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension in English as a Second Language. Results support the hypotheses that scores on vocabulary size, depth of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension are highly and positively correlated; and scores on depth of vocabulary knowledge can make a…

Qian, David D.

1999-01-01

342

Enhancing Long-Term Retention of New Vocabulary Using Visual Images.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A practicum used a new learning tool to enhance long-term retention of new vocabulary. Sixteen seventh-graders in Language Arts, who had a long-term retention mean score of approximately 40% of newly learned vocabulary, increased their long-term retention of new vocabulary by 25% (a new mean of 65% of new vocabulary). Additional objectives…

Igelsrud, Karen

343

An ODIP effort to map R2R ocean data terms to international vocabularies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneity of terminology used in describing data creates a barrier to the efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a US program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving the interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access international ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed locally or are specific to the US. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international vocabularies, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: R2R science party names to ORCID person identifiers, UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, and R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO). Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships only, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. The majority of ports were successfully mapped. Differences in the character sets (i.e. whether diacritic marks were used) caused automated matching to fail occasionally, but the number of ports was small enough that these could be manually reviewed. Both organizations and device models have initial mappings, and R2R will propose new terms to the EDMO and SeaVoX Device vocabularies to complete coverage. Mapping to ORCID identifiers was abandoned (though R2R will still hold and expose them when supplied by the data provider). Most ORCID entries do not contain insufficient metadata to confirm potential mappings: the match of a family and given name was considered inconclusive without further support. ORCID also does not assign identifiers posthumously, which is occasionally necessary for historical data in R2R.

Ferreira, Renata; Stocks, Karen; Arko, Robert

2014-05-01

344

Mnemonic instruction of eighth-grade science vocabulary: A focus on retention, and specific vs. general transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There were three goals to this study: (a) to teach eighth-grade students how to use a mnemonic to improve their knowledge of science vocabulary; (b) to investigate retention on an immediate, 2-day, and 2-week retention test among students who use of the method of loci, pegword, keyword mnemonics or free study to study eighth-grade science vocabulary; and (c) to understand whether students could transfer use of a mnemonic under both specific and general transfer conditions. One-hundred and eight eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (e.g., method of loci, pegword, keyword, or free study). Over a 2-week period, students learned their assigned mnemonic device, were tested on immediate, 2-day, and 2-week delay retention of science vocabulary examples and definitions, and were tested on their ability to transfer their mnemonic under a specific transfer condition (study metal alloy uses) and a general transfer condition (study Revolutionary War battle events). The results of this study indicate that students who used the keyword mnemonic to study both science vocabulary examples and definitions outperformed students who used the method of loci and free study methods to study this information. Results also demonstrate that students can use the pegword mnemonic to study science vocabulary definitions. Results also indicate that students who used the keyword and pegword mnemonics retained science vocabulary examples and definitions over time. Additionally, results suggest that students using the keyword mnemonic could transfer the use of a mnemonic under specific transfer and general transfer conditions. The results of this study provide evidence to researchers and teachers that the keyword and pegword mnemonics may help improve eighth-grade students' science knowledge.

Richmond, Aaron S.

345

Searching biomedical databases on complementary medicine: the use of controlled vocabulary among authors, indexers and investigators  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal retrieval of a literature search in biomedicine depends on the appropriate use of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), descriptors and keywords among authors and indexers. We hypothesized that authors, investigators and indexers in four biomedical databases are not consistent in their use of terminology in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Methods Based on a research question addressing the validity of spinal palpation for the diagnosis of neuromuscular dysfunction, we developed four search concepts with their respective controlled vocabulary and key terms. We calculated the frequency of MeSH, descriptors, and keywords used by authors in titles and abstracts in comparison to standard practices in semantic and analytic indexing in MEDLINE, MANTIS, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Results Multiple searches resulted in the final selection of 38 relevant studies that were indexed at least in one of the four selected databases. Of the four search concepts, validity showed the greatest inconsistency in terminology among authors, indexers and investigators. The use of spinal terms showed the greatest consistency. Of the 22 neuromuscular dysfunction terms provided by the investigators, 11 were not contained in the controlled vocabulary and six were never used by authors or indexers. Most authors did not seem familiar with the controlled vocabulary for validity in the area of neuromuscular dysfunction. Recently, standard glossaries have been developed to assist in the research development of manual medicine. Conclusions Searching biomedical databases for CAM is challenging due to inconsistent use of controlled vocabulary and indexing procedures in different databases. A standard terminology should be used by investigators in conducting their search strategies and authors when writing titles, abstracts and submitting keywords for publications.

Murphy, Linda S; Reinsch, Sibylle; Najm, Wadie I; Dickerson, Vivian M; Seffinger, Michael A; Adams, Alan; Mishra, Shiraz I

2003-01-01

346

Controlled vocabularies for plant anatomical parts optimized for use in data analysis tools and for cross-species studies  

PubMed Central

Background It is generally accepted that controlled vocabularies are necessary to systematically integrate data from various sources. During the last decade, several plant ontologies have been developed, some of which are community specific or were developed for a particular purpose. In most cases, the practical application of these ontologies has been limited to systematically storing experimental data. Due to technical constraints, complex data structures and term redundancies, it has been difficult to apply them directly into analysis tools. Results Here, we describe a simplified and cross-species compatible set of controlled vocabularies for plant anatomy, focussing mainly on monocotypledonous and dicotyledonous crop and model plants. Their content was designed primarily for their direct use in graphical visualization tools. Specifically, we created annotation vocabularies that can be understood by non-specialists, are minimally redundant, simply structured, have low tree depth, and we tested them practically in the frame of Genevestigator. Conclusions The application of the proposed ontologies enabled the aggregation of data from hundreds of experiments to visualize gene expression across tissue types. It also facilitated the comparison of expression across species. The described controlled vocabularies are maintained by a dedicated curation team and are available upon request.

2013-01-01

347

Vocabulary in Action: Strategies for Turning Students into Wordsmiths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school teacher Amy R. Hardwick-Ivey loves teaching vocabulary. She describes numerous activities that increase students' understanding of the nuances of language and their confidence in using language well.

Hardwick-Ivey, Amy R.

2008-01-01

348

Kontrastive Lexik Deutsch-Russisch (Contrastive German-Russian Vocabulary)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses, using examples, problems raised by differences in meaning between "equivalent" Russian and German words. Calls for clear definitions of Russian basic vocabulary words. (Text is in German and Russian.) (IFS/WGA)

Birkenmaier, Willy

1977-01-01

349

Trait and Process Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge and Verbal Ability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study sought to investigate the construct validity of vocabulary tests and the nature of verbal ability by integrating findings and theories of cognitive psychology with those of differential psychology. The study included three kinds of measurements...

B. Marshalek

1981-01-01

350

Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

1985-06-01

351

Amelia Earhart's Missing Electra (Turboprop transports): controlled vocabulary in Contentdm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Society of American Archivists presentation (Chicago, Ill., 2007)explores controlled vocabulary, which is a collection of preferred terms used to categorize content. A controlled vocabulary is considered necessary in order to reconcile all variations on search terms used to express a concept, and to differentiate among all possible meanings of a word.\\u000aSubject searching in a digital environment is a

Janet V. Addison

2007-01-01

352

Automated derivation of behavior vocabularies for autonomous humanoid motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the problem of automatically deriving vocabularies of motion modules from human motion data, taking advantage of the underlying spatio-temporal structure in motion. We approach this problem with a data-driven methodology for modularizing a motion stream (or time-series of human motion) into a vocabulary of parameterized primitive motion modules and a set of meta-level behaviors characterizing

Odest Chadwicke Jenkins; Maja J. Mataric

2003-01-01

353

Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Educational metadata schemas are obligated to provide learning-related attributes in learning objects. The examination of\\u000a current educational metadata standards found that few of them have places for incorporating educational vocabulary. Even within\\u000a the educational category of metadata standards there is a lack of learning-related vocabulary for characterizing attributes\\u000a that can help users identify the type of learning, objective, or context.

Jian Qin; Carol Jean Godby

354

Exploring Java software vocabulary: A search and mining perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conduct a large-scale analysis of Java source code vocabulary for 12,151 open source projects from Source-Forge and Apache, a corpus substantially larger than considered previously. Simple statistical analysis demonstrates robust power-law behavior for word count distributions across multiple program entities. We then identify salient vocabulary trends for classes, interfaces, methods, and fields. Our results provide low-level insight into the

Erik Linstead; Lindsey Hughes; Cristina Lopes; Pierre Baldi

2009-01-01

355

Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary.  

PubMed

Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language. PMID:24583922

Kraljevi?, Jelena Kuva?; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja

2014-05-01

356

Maintaining Scientific Community Vocabularies in Drupal through Consumption of Linked Open Data and Web Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Summer of 2011, a one-year pilot project was funded by the National Science Foundation to build a pre-cruise planning application using the Drupal content management system (CMS). This application will be used to assist the individual operators of research vessels in the UNOLS fleet. A large portion of the operator's pre-cruise process revolves around a questionnaire presented to the principal investigator(PI) that is used to gather information about the nature of their upcoming cruise. The Drupal-based application will be delivered as a distribution for use by any operator of a UNOLS vessel to construct customized questionnaires and provide an interface for the PI to complete this questionnaire at their leisure. A major goal of the project is to develop an application that will require as little programming maintenance as possible after the initial development effort. One of the strategies employed is the reuse of existing controlled vocabularies and linked open data wherever possible for fields of the questionnaire - most notably to populate the concepts of Country, Organization, Port, and Ship. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program manages controlled vocabularies for these concepts and currently exposes these concepts as linked open data. Furthermore, R2R has identified the authoritative source for pertinent oceanographic community vocabularies as ICES for Ship, UNOLS for Port, IANA for Organization, ISO for Country, ISO for Language, SeaDataNet for Device, FIPS for State, and IHO for Sea Area as described at http://www.rvdata.us/voc. The scope of the terms provided by these sources matches the scope of the operator's needs for these concepts, and so the application is being designed to automatically consume served information about these vocabulary terms to populate and update Drupal taxonomies for use in the questionnaire. Where newer terms are required for a PI to complete a questionnaire (before they appear in the vocabularies), the Drupal-based application employs features that provide extensibility to the Drupal taxonomies while striving for lower development and maintenance costs through the use of existing Drupal modules such as web_taxonomy, autocomplete field widgets and custom modules for consuming and managing data at SPARQL endpoints.

Shepherd, A.; Arko, R. A.; Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.

2012-12-01

357

The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to the marine environmental sciences domain since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for • metadata mark-up with verifiable content • populating dynamic drop down lists • semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata • so-called smart search • and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium Web Processing Services in projects including: the NERC Data Grid; SeaDataNet; Geo-Seas; and the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model and following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes in this standard. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". The latest version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: • the removal of the potential for multiple Uniform Resource Names for the same concept to ensure consistent identification of concepts • the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content • the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS • the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base • a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier • and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS Version 2 of the NVS underpins the semantic layer for the Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR) project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. Here we present the results of upgrading the NVS from version 1 to 2 and show applications which have been built on top of the NVS using its Application Programming Interface, including a demonstration version of a SPARQL interface.

Leadbetter, A.; Lowry, R.; Clements, O.

2012-04-01

358

[Are German information materials on colorectal cancer screening understandable or do they fail? Rating of health information by users with different educational backgrounds].  

PubMed

Evidence-based patient information is an essential part of decision making in health issues. A qualitative study was conducted to examine whether consumers consider the health information on colorectal cancer screening in Germany helpful in supporting their decision making. In this study, eight texts from different German authors about colorectal cancer screening were evaluated with a criteria-based selection. The texts were tested for understandability, structure, design, and effect on readers. Thirteen semi-structured focus groups were formed including 59 higher-educated and 15 lower-educated testers, 46?% of them being male with a mean age of 62.9 years. The transcripts were analyzed by content-analytic assessment. The testers provided detailed comments on the content and design of the texts. They revealed inaccuracies and suggested improvements of the texts. The testers differed from each other in terms of the intensity of their participation in the discussions and comprehension of the material. The reception of the flyers and brochures varied according to the educational level of the testers. Lower-educated testers often skipped passages of texts about risks as well as passages containing numbers and graphics. The texts had different effects on the testers, regardless of the level of education. If adverse effects were presented, some testers became scared while others were reassured because they felt informed. Most of the testers appreciated a call for participation as a central message of the text. Sometimes, if there was no clear appeal to attend the screening, the testers even asked for it. The recently introduced political strategy of promoting an informed choice is applied to an unprepared population who was used to getting a clear yes-or-no recommendation. Thus, at first, the population has to learn how to make an informed choice. This topic must be addressed and taken into account in the process of developing health information. Since this is not always the case, we conclude that current materials are limited in their contribution toward the decision of attending CRC screening. PMID:24562713

Seidel, G; Münch, I; Dreier, M; Borutta, B; Walter, U; Dierks, M-L

2014-03-01

359

Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information  

MedlinePLUS

... a botanical? A botanical is a plant or plant part valued for its medicinal or therapeutic properties, flavor, and/or scent. Herbs are a subset of botanicals. Products made from botanicals that are used to maintain or ... species of the plant. Under this system the botanical black cohosh is ...

360

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical listing. Volume 2: Access vocabulary. Volume 3: Definitions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are over 17,500 postable terms and some 4,000 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary and Volume 3 - Definitions.

1994-01-01

361

Vocabulary of aerospace safety terms pertaining to cryogenic safety, fires, explosions, and structure failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This vocabulary listing characterizes the contents of over 10,000 documents of the NASA Aerospace Safety Research and Data Institute's (ASRDI) safety engineering collection. The ASRDI collection is now one of the series accessible on the NASA RECON data base. There are approximately 6,300 postable terms that describe literature in the areas of cryogenic fluid safety, specifically hydrogen, oxygen, liquified natural gas; fire and explosion technology; and the mechanics of structural failure. To facilitate the proper selection of information nonpostable, related and array terms have been included in this listing.

Pelouch, J. J., Jr.; Mandel, G.; Ordin, P. M.

1976-01-01

362

Coherent Image Layout using an Adaptive Visual Vocabulary  

SciTech Connect

When querying a huge image database containing millions of images, the result of the query may still contain many thousands of images that need to be presented to the user. We consider the problem of arranging such a large set of images into a visually coherent layout, one that places similar images next to each other. Image similarity is determined using a bag-of-features model, and the layout is constructed from a hierarchical clustering of the image set by mapping an in-order traversal of the hierarchy tree into a space-filling curve. This layout method provides strong locality guarantees so we are able to quantitatively evaluate performance using standard image retrieval benchmarks. Performance of the bag-of-features method is best when the vocabulary is learned on the image set being clustered. Because learning a large, discriminative vocabulary is a computationally demanding task, we present a novel method for efficiently adapting a generic visual vocabulary to a particular dataset. We evaluate our clustering and vocabulary adaptation methods on a variety of image datasets and show that adapting a generic vocabulary to a particular set of images improves performance on both hierarchical clustering and image retrieval tasks.

Dillard, Scott E.; Henry, Michael J.; Bohn, Shawn J.; Gosink, Luke J.

2013-03-06

363

Number-concept acquisition and general vocabulary development.  

PubMed

How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et al., 2003). This result calls into question arguments that (a) the number-concept creation process is scaffolded mainly by visuo-spatial development and (b) that language only becomes integrated after the concepts are created (D. Ansari et al., 2003). Instead, this may suggest that having a larger nominal vocabulary helps children learn number words. Experiment 3 shows that the differences with previous results are likely due to changes in how the data were analyzed. PMID:22803603

Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W

2012-11-01

364

Geoscientific Vocabularies and Linked Data at The British Geological Survey - progress and pragmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The British Geological Survey makes extensive use of controlled vocabularies to promote standardisation and interoperability between its databases and other digital information systems. Many of our vocabularies are published and searchable at http://www.bgs.ac.uk/data/vocabularies/home.html/. There is a movement to ';open up' government data in both the US and UK. In the UK this is promoted by data.gov.uk. Some view linked data as the best way to share and connect disparate data, information and knowledge, in order to develop a ';Web of Data'. Linked data facilitate connections between data sets, and lower the barriers to accessing data that must otherwise be discovered and exploited using other methods. Recently there has been a rapid increase in the rate of publication of linked data, this increase currently being estimated at 300% per year. In the past 2 years we have undertaken a pilot study to publish some of our authoritative vocabularies as linked data. This study has focussed primarily on publishing BGS' 1:625 000 scale geologic map data for the UK, supported by development of linked data sets for: Earth materials - based on the BGS Rock Classification Scheme; lithostratigraphy - based on the BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units; and geochronology - based on the International Commission on Stratigraphy. The BGS linked data sets are published at data.bgs.ac.uk. We have learned a number of lessons about the potential and limitations of linked data and associated technologies. We do not envisage SPARQL endpoints being the primary route for public access to linked data because the user would require technical knowledge of the data structure, and because it can be a security threat. Rather, SPARQL may lie behind a user-friendly API. Federated SPARQL queries that can interrogate distributed data sources are in reality too slow, and in practise the data sets would likely be combined in a single store. The data sets in our pilot study are all reasonably static and we solve performance and security issues by serving the linked data as pre-generated static files in a range of formats rather than using a triple-store. This also allows the data to be indexed by search engines. Wherever possible it is good practice to use predicates from well-known published sources, for example RDFS, SKOS, or Dublin Core, in preference to inventing new ones. This promotes re-use of the linked data by as many potential users as possible. Linked data do not directly address logical inference, which is supposed to be one of the aims of the ';Semantic Web'. This sort of ';calculating with knowledge' must be implemented using additional, possibly human-based rather than mechanical, reasoning. Linked data come with all the same issues surrounding provenance and authority of the data that any web resource is subject to. There are issues surrounding versioning and permanence of URIs. Our work on publishing BGS' vocabularies as linked data is proceeding in parallel with our work with the Commission of Geoscience Information (CGI) Geoscience Terminology Working Group which is jointly developing multilingual vocabularies in range of knowledge domains.

McCormick, T.; Heaven, R.

2013-12-01

365

Computer-Assisted Update of a Consumer Health Vocabulary Through Mining of Social Network Data  

PubMed Central

Background Consumer health vocabularies (CHVs) have been developed to aid consumer health informatics applications. This purpose is best served if the vocabulary evolves with consumers’ language. Objective Our objective was to create a computer assisted update (CAU) system that works with live corpora to identify new candidate terms for inclusion in the open access and collaborative (OAC) CHV. Methods The CAU system consisted of three main parts: a Web crawler and an HTML parser, a candidate term filter that utilizes natural language processing tools including term recognition methods, and a human review interface. In evaluation, the CAU system was applied to the health-related social network website PatientsLikeMe.com. The system’s utility was assessed by comparing the candidate term list it generated to a list of valid terms hand extracted from the text of the crawled webpages. Results The CAU system identified 88,994 unique terms 1- to 7-grams (“n-grams” are n consecutive words within a sentence) in 300 crawled PatientsLikeMe.com webpages. The manual review of the crawled webpages identified 651 valid terms not yet included in the OAC CHV or the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, a collection of vocabularies amalgamated to form an ontology of medical terms, (ie, 1 valid term per 136.7 candidate n-grams). The term filter selected 774 candidate terms, of which 237 were valid terms, that is, 1 valid term among every 3 or 4 candidates reviewed. Conclusion The CAU system is effective for generating a list of candidate terms for human review during CHV development.

2011-01-01

366

"The Most Annoying Assignment Ever": Helping Composition Students Navigate New Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost all of the author's community college students feel self-conscious about their vocabulary. She thinks that their resistance to expanding their vocabulary has many tangled roots: sometimes the students seem nervous about what they leave behind as they notch their vocabulary up to a more formal, college level. This article discusses how the…

McKnight, Heal

2010-01-01

367

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading[R]: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate- to high-poverty elementary schools. Forty-four schools participated over a period spanning 2 consecutive school years. At baseline, 1,057 teachers and 16,471 students…

Apthorp, Helen; Randel, Bruce; Cherasaro, Trudy; Clark, Tedra; McKeown, Margaret; Beck, Isabel

2012-01-01

368

I Need Directions! Where am I in the Universe? Vocabulary Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an introductory lesson in vocabulary for a unit of study on space. It is designed to assist students with understanding the vocabulary in an engaging game while students and teacher can easily track student thinking and understanding of these vocabulary terms specific to the space content and standards.

Magdaleno, Maribel

2012-07-18

369

Using Vocabulary Acquisition To Improve the Performance in Reading and Attitude of Students in Second Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written by a counselor-teacher-program coordinator working in an urban elementary school, this practicum aimed to improve the receptive vocabulary development program for second grade students. Specific goals were to: (1) improve second grade students' receptive vocabulary; (2) use students' improved receptive vocabulary to increase their reading…

Bunish, Norbert T.

370

English Language Learners and English-Only Learners' Response to Direct Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined data from an 18-week kindergarten vocabulary intervention study to determine whether treatment outcomes had differential effects that favored English language learners (ELLs) or English-only learners (EOLs) and whether the relationship between initial English general receptive vocabulary knowledge and response to vocabulary

Crevecoeur, Yvel C.; Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy

2014-01-01

371

Building Word Knowledge: Opportunities for Direct Vocabulary Instruction in General Education for Students with Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct vocabulary instruction is 1 critical component of reading instruction. Although most students in the elementary grades need to continue building their vocabulary knowledge, students with reading difficulties are at the greatest risk of falling further behind each year in vocabulary and concept knowledge without effective instruction. This…

Wanzek, Jeanne

2014-01-01

372

Proximal Effects of Robust Vocabulary Instruction in Primary and Intermediate Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational practices are needed to promote strong vocabulary growth so that vocabulary can be both the cause and result of successful reading. Vocabulary interventions need to begin early and continue for a sustained period of time (Beck & McKeown, 2007a; Biemiller, 2003; Foorman, Seals, Anthony & Pollard-Durodola, 2003). According to theoretical…

Apthorp, Helen; McKeown, Margaret; Igel, Charles; Clemons, Trudy; Randel, Bruce; Clark, Tedra

2011-01-01

373

Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

Zhang, Dongbo

2012-01-01

374

Predicting Expressive Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. Method: This study…

Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

2010-01-01

375

Context-dependent phonetic Markov models for large vocabulary speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

One approach to large vocabulary speech recognition, is to build phonetic Markov models, and to concatenate them to obtain word models. In previous work, we already designed a recognizer based on 40 phonetic Markov machines, which accepts a 10,000 words vocabulary ([3]), and recently 200,000 words vocabulary ([5]). Since there is one machine per phoneme, these models obviously do not

A.-M. Derouault

1987-01-01

376

Bridging the Gap between Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Size through Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that extensive reading promotes the incidental learning of L1 and L2 receptive vocabulary; however, little is known about its effectiveness on productive gains in vocabulary knowledge. This paper investigates the extent to which extensive reading combined with writing tasks promotes productive vocabulary growth of Japanese…

Yamamoto, Yuka

2011-01-01

377

Depth of Reading Vocabulary in Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main point of our study was to examine the vocabulary knowledge of pupils in grades 3-6, and in particular the relative reading vocabulary disadvantage of hearing-impaired pupils. The achievements of 394 pupils with normal hearing and 106 pupils with a hearing impairment were examined on two vocabulary assessment tasks: a lexical decision task…

Coppens, Karien M.; Tellings, Agnes; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

2011-01-01

378

Shyness and Chinese and English Vocabulary Skills in Hong Kong Kindergartners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study examined relations between parent-rated shyness and children's vocabulary skills in 54 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners who learned English as a foreign language at school. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary were assessed both in Chinese and in English. Parent-rated shyness was uniquely associated with…

Tong, Xiuli; Ting, Ka-Tsun; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2011-01-01

379

Software Application for Computer Aided Vocabulary Learning in a Blended Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the effect of computer-aided vocabulary learning software called "ArabCAVL" on students' vocabulary acquisition. It was hypothesized that students who use the ArabCAVL software in blended learning environment will surpass students who use traditional vocabulary learning strategies in face-to-face learning environment even…

Essam, Rasha

2010-01-01

380

Vocabulary Comprehension of Evaluation Form: Its Influence on Student Rating of Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of vocabulary comprehension on underprepared freshman student responses and their rating of faculty teaching performances at Delaware State University. Learning Skills Center students have weak vocabulary comprehension that might hinder their ability to accurately rate instructors. A vocabulary quiz was given to…

Dujari, Anuradha

381

The Relations of Early Television Viewing to School Readiness and Vocabulary of Children from Low-Income Families: The Early Window Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collected time-use diaries of television viewing from two cohorts of children (ages 2-5 and 4-7) from low-income families and gave annual tests of reading, math, receptive vocabulary, and school readiness. Found that viewing of child-audience informative programs between ages 2 and 3 predicted higher academic performance. Frequent viewers of…

Wright, John C.; Auston, Aletha C.; Murphy, Kimberlee C.; St. Peters, Michelle; Pinon, Ronda Scantlin; Kotler, Jennifer

2001-01-01

382

Knowing a Lot for One's Age: Vocabulary Skill and Not Age Is Associated with Anticipatory Incremental Sentence Interpretation in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults.…

Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Fernald, Anne

2012-01-01

383

New Vocabulary: Araneiform and Lace Terrains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

The south polar terrain on Mars contains landforms unlike any that we see on Earth, so much that a new vocabulary is required to describe them. The word 'araneiform' means 'spider-like.' There are radially organized channels on Mars that look spider-like, but we don't want to confuse anyone by talking about 'spiders' when we really mean 'channels,' not 'bugs.'

The first subimage (figure 1) shows an example of 'connected araneiform topography,' terrain that is filled with spider-like channels whose arms branch and connect to each other. Gas flows through these channels until it encounters a vent, where is escapes out to the atmosphere, carrying dust along with it. The dark dust is blown around by the prevailing wind.

The second subimage (figure 2) shows a different region of the same image where the channels are not radially organized. In this region they form a dense tangled network of tortuous strands. We refer to this as 'lace.'

Observation Geometry Image PSP_002651_0930 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 18-Feb-2007. The complete image is centered at -86.9 degrees latitude, 97.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 268.7 km (167.9 miles). At this distance the image scale is 53.8 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 161 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 04:56 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 86 degrees, thus the sun was about 4 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 186.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

2007-01-01

384

Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2007 School Year. National Goals for Schooling. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to collect student background information as required by Education Ministers. The purpose is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century. It involves the collection of information on…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

385

Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2008 School Year. National Goals for Schooling in the 21st Century. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to collect student background information as required by Education Ministers. The purpose is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the "National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." It involves the collection of information on…

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2007

2007-01-01

386

Word Lists to Simplify Vocabulary of Technical Information. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes eight word lists developed for use as part of the computer readability editing system (CRES), which was developed to serve as an author's aid in improving the ease of comprehending Navy technical manuals and training materials. The system has features which flag uncommon and misspelled words and long sentences, suggest simple…

Kincaid, J. Peter; And Others

387

The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to marine environmental sciences since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for - metadata mark-up with verifiable content - populating dynamic drop down lists - semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata - so-called smart search - and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Services in the NERC Data Grid and the European Commission SeaDataNet, Geo-Seas, and European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) projects. The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". Following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes. This version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: - the removal of the potential for multiple identifiers for the same concept to ensure consistent addressing of concepts - the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content - the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS - the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base - a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier - and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS Version 2 of the NVS (NVS2.0) underpins the semantic layer for the Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR) project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. Within NETMAR, NVS2.0 has been used for: - semantic validation of inputs to chained OGC Web Processing Services - smart discovery of data and services - integration of data from distributed nodes of the International Coastal Atlas Network Since its deployment, NVS2.0 has been adopted within the European SeaDataNet community's software products which has significantly increased the usage of the NVS2.0 Application Programming Interace (API), as illustrated in Table 1. Here we present the results of upgrading the NVS to version 2 and show applications which have been built on top of the NVS2.0 API, including a SPARQL endpoint and a hierarchical catalogue of oceanographic hardware.Table 1. NVS2.0 API usage by month from 467 unique IP addressest;

Leadbetter, A. M.; Lowry, R. K.

2012-12-01

388

Design and evaluation of a vocabulary switching system for use in multi-base search environments. Final report. [VSS  

SciTech Connect

The Vocabulary Switching System (VSS) described in this report specifically addresses the problem of heterogeneous data base vocabularies and indexes, and how these differences can be neutralized to facilitate multi-base switching. VSS is an experimental, on-line, automated subject switching system. The system produces semantic, syntactic, and generic relatives to search terms supplied by the user because it is a system based on the linguistic structures of existing thesauri or controlled vocabularies. The performance of 29 experimental stacks was evaluated with the aid of three useful measures, coverage, precision, and speed. Several stacks showed promise for becoming an optimal switching strategy, that is, a strategy with the combined qualities of high precision and broad coverage. Results from term level analyses suggest that an optimal strategy could contain word and stem options, but the placement of these options within an overall strategy is critical. Initial attempts to evaluate VSS with the aid of an actual retrieval experiment were encouraging but inclusive. The results support observations that no single data base is an authorative source for information sought and significantly higher recall is possible when multi-base searching is employed. A nationwide on-line user survey was undertaken. It provides a concise anatomy of searching habits and preferences in today's world of on-line information retrieval. 26 figures, 32 tables.

Niehoff, R.; Kwasny, S.; Walker, A.; Wessells, M.

1980-01-01

389

VIP Manual: Guidelines and Procedures for ERIC Vocabulary Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed for use by ERIC personnel involved in the two and a half year Vocabulary Improvement Project (VIP) which culminated in the publication of the 1980 completely revised edition of the Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors. Based on the idea that indexing is not about description of documents but about retrieval, it applies criteria…

Booth, Barbara

390

Shared Understanding and Idiosyncratic Expression in Early Vocabularies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To what extent do toddlers have shared vocabularies? We examined CDI data collected from 14,607 infants and toddlers in five countries and measured the amount of variability between individual lexicons during development for both comprehension and production. Early lexicons are highly overlapping. However, beyond 100 words, toddlers share more…

Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

2014-01-01

391

English Coursebooks: Prototype Texts and Basic Vocabulary Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that grading in the English-as-a-Foreign/International Language lexical syllabus takes place within the limitations of the basic area of English vocabulary. This is shown to be a consequence of the non-departure from "general interests: topics or topics that are deemed central to learning a target language. (Author/VWL)

Reda, Ghsoon

2003-01-01

392

How Can Teachers Increase Classroom Use of Academic Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose for this action research study was to answer the question: "How can we enhance students' active engagement with academic vocabulary in social studies classes?" In this article, the authors share the strategies they developed through their research that proved most effective in engaging middle school students with active academic…

Larson, Lisa; Dixon, Temoca; Townsend, Dianna

2013-01-01

393

Direct and Extended Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten: Investigating Transfer Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an 18-week program of direct and extended vocabulary instruction with kindergarten students on both proximal measures of target word knowledge and transfer measures of generalized language and literacy. A second purpose was to examine whether treatment effects would be moderated by…

Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Loftus, Susan; Zipoli, Richard, Jr.; Ruby, Maureen; Crevecoeur, Yvel C.; Kapp, Sharon

2010-01-01

394

Strategies for Increasing the Expressive Vocabulary of Kindergarten Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A practicum study, recognizing the expressive language delays of inner-city kindergarten children, implemented two strategies to increase their expressive language ability and their mean length of utterance. The target population, 14 kindergarten students who demonstrated vocabulary development delays on the Brigance Kindergarten Screening Test,…

Remaly, Beth K.

395

Reexamining the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to reexamine the effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phones. Students (N=78) from two intact classes of sophomores at a Chinese university were assigned to two groups: the SMS group (the experimental group) and the paper group (the control group). Then, they were administered a pretest to identify the level…

Zhang, Haisen; Song, Wei; Burston, Jack

2011-01-01

396

Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

2013-01-01

397

Research-Based Vocabulary Instruction for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major reading-achievement gap exists between English language learners and English-only students. In order for ELLs to experience school success, they must achieve English language proficiency. This article presents why vocabulary acquisition plays the most vital role in ELLs' learning of the English language. Factors include the severity and…

Chung, Stephanie F.

2012-01-01

398

DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-COORDINATE VOCABULARY, CHEMICAL PHYSICS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A METHOD (SCHEME) FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A VOCABULARY IN THE FIELD OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS FROM PRIMARY JOURNAL ARTICLES. ALL TERMS APPEARING IN A RECENT JOURNAL (VOL. 39, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS) JUDGED TO BE IMPORTANT WERE DIVIDED INTO THREE CATEGORIES--(1) PROPERTIES, PROCESSES, PHENOMENA, (2) OBJECTS, INCLUDING SYSTEMS AND…

LERNER, RITA G.

399

Nursing Assistant: Handbook to Accompany VESL Vocabulary Cards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is one of four self-contained components of a larger handbook designed to assist secondary and postsecondary instructors and support staff in meeting the needs of limited-English-proficiency (LEP) students in vocational training programs. Together with an accompanying set of vocational English as a second language (VESL) vocabulary

Shay, Gail; Lenhart, Debra

400

A Rasch-Based Validation of the Vocabulary Size Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study was to provide preliminary validity evidence for a 140-item form of the Vocabulary Size Test, which is designed to measure written receptive knowledge of the first 14,000 words of English. Nineteen native speakers of English and 178 native speakers of Japanese participated in the study. Analyses based on the Rasch…

Beglar, David

2010-01-01

401

Towards a Mapping from ERDF(S) to Take Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a mapping solution from ERDF(S) to Take vocabulary. The work is related to an investigation of integrat- ing ERDF Derivation Rules into Take inference engine. Some steps are required to finalize this task: a mapping between ERDF(S) and Take vo- cabulary, integration of ERDF knowledge base in Take, and empowering Take inference engine to deal with both

Ion-mircea Diaconescu; Adrian Giurca; Gerd Wagner; Jens Dietrich

2008-01-01

402

The Interactions of Vocabulary, Phonemic Awareness, Decoding, and Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used data from a large, national sample to examine the interaction of various literacy measures among young children with disabilities. Using structural equation modeling, they examined the relationships among measures of phonemic awareness, decoding, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Child and family factors, including sex,…

Carlson, Elaine; Jenkins, Frank; Li, Tiandong; Brownell, Mary

2013-01-01

403

Vocabulary, Context, and Speech Perception among Good and Poor Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the interaction between speech perception and sentential context among 13 poor readers and 49 good readers in grades one to three. Children's performance was examined on tasks assessing expressive and receptive vocabulary, reading skill, phonological awareness, pseudoword repetition, and phoneme identification. Good readers…

Chiappe, Penny; Chiappe, Dan L.; Gottardo, Alexandra

2004-01-01

404

Development of a Multi-Coordinate Vocabulary: Chemical Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of thesauri have been created in the past by bringing together groups of subject experts to determine relevant terms, or by merging lists of terms derived from various sources within a field. The paper describes a method of creating a vocabulary ...

R. G. Lerner

1968-01-01

405

SAT Vocabulary Instruction for High School Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher wanted to know whether mnemonic strategies would be useful for high school students with learning disabilities. Over a 6-week period, this teacher taught the students SAT vocabulary words using either a traditional instructional approach or pictorial mnemonic keyword strategies she had developed. At the end of the instructional period,…

Terrill, M.C.; Scruggs, T.E.; Mastropieri, M.A.

2004-01-01

406

Speaking My Mind: Why I No Longer Teach Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's one of those assumptions of the English teaching game that students must learn and store up vocabulary as a precondition of tackling literature or history or any of those fields that feature big words. How, some ask, could a child read a challenging passage if he or she didn't understand those key, usually multisyllabic, words often sprinkled…

Heverly, Jerry

2011-01-01

407

Vocabulary Development during Read-Alouds: Primary Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading aloud is a common practice in primary classrooms and is viewed as an important vehicle for vocabulary development. Research indicates that interactive read-aloud styles and adult mediation of word learning are effective in enhancing word learning, but less is known about the actual practices of primary teachers. Read-alouds are complex…

Kindle, Karen J.

2009-01-01

408

Effect of Screen Size on Multimedia Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of three different screen sizes (small, medium and large) and two types of multimedia instruction (text only and text with pictorial annotation) on vocabulary learning. One hundred thirty-five Korean middle school students learning English as a foreign language were randomly distributed…

Kim, Daesang; Kim, Dong-Joong

2012-01-01

409

Redundancy Effect on Retention of Vocabulary Words Using Multimedia Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effect of the redundancy principle in a multimedia presentation constructed for foreign language vocabulary learning on undergraduate students' retention. The underlying hypothesis of this study is that when the students are exposed to the material in multiple ways through animation, concurrent narration,…

Samur, Yavuz

2012-01-01

410

Linking vocabulary to imagery: Improving science knowledge through multimedia design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study looked at the vocabulary development of four urban sixth-grade students as they used laser disk and computer technologies to view images and then connect those images to textual definitions through multimedia design. Focusing on three science content areas (the water cycle, the rock cycle, and the web of life), students worked in pairs to create their own

Tracy R. Adler

2000-01-01

411

How Well Does Teacher Talk Support Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Opportunities for incidental vocabulary acquisition were explored in a 121,000-word corpus of teacher talk addressed to advanced adult learners of English as a second language (ESL) in a communicatively-oriented conversation class. In contrast to previous studies that relied on short excerpts, the corpus contained all of the teacher speech the…

Horst, Marlise

2010-01-01

412

Listening to Learn: Boosting Vocabulary with Interactive Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite being one of our most important and most often used modalities, listening is an area of language instruction that is often overlooked by teachers and researchers alike as fertile ground for the enhancement of students' vocabulary knowledge. For low-level learners, especially those not in full control of the first 2000 most-frequent words…

Cohen, Joshua

2008-01-01

413

Development of a Vocabulary Building Program for Vocational Education Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In view of the fact that vocational education students want only the essentials of the reading curriculum, the reading center at Eastern New Mexico University (Roswell) began a program of direct vocabulary building. This method stresses application of words to be learned, making them function for the learner, as well as a high interest factor.…

James, Bobby M.

414

Multilingual large vocabulary speech recognition: the European SQALE project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Sqaleproject in which the ARPA large vocabulary evaluation paradigm was adapted to meet the needs of European multilingual speech recognition development. It involved establishing a framework for sharing training and test materials, defining common protocols for training and testing systems, developing systems, running an evaluation and analysing the results. The specifically multilingual issues addressed included the

S. J. Young; M. Adda-Dekker; X. Aubert; C. Dugast; J. L. Gauvain; D. J. Kershaw; L. Lamel; D. A. Leeuwen; D. Pye; A. J. Robinson; H. J. M. Steeneken; P. C. Woodland

1997-01-01

415

Semantic Prosody and ESL/EFL Vocabulary Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence that semantic prosody, a novel linguistic theme, should attract much attention in ESL/EFL (English as a second/foreign language) vocabulary learning and teaching. Research suggests that inappropriate word choice arising from ignorance of semantic prosody is common among ESL/EFL learners (Wei, 2006; Xiao & McEnery, 2006). This…

Zhang, Weimin

2009-01-01

416

Tracking the Changes: Vocabulary Acquisition in the Study Abroad Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical evidence suggests that the study abroad experience accelerates growth in global vocabulary knowledge. The exact nature of this growth is rarely reported, however, and there is little documented evidence to indicate whether it is linear or uneven, whether the speed of growth is constant or changing, or whether the study abroad context…

Fitzpatrick, Tess

2012-01-01

417

Beyond Raw Frequency: Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition in Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second language vocabulary can be learned incidentally while the learner is engaged in extensive reading or reading for meaning, inferring the meaning of unknown words (Huckin & Coady, 1999; Hulstijn, 1992; Krashen, 1993; Pigada & Schmitt, 2006). 12 Korean learners of English read authentic literary texts and were tested on their knowledge of…

Kweon, Soo-Ok; Kim, Hae-Ri

2008-01-01

418

Second Language Vocabulary Learning and Teaching: Still a Hot Topic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many reasons second language vocabulary learning and teaching continues to be a topic of interest for learners, instructors, and researchers. This article describes the implementation of personal glossaries in a community program offering English as second language classes to Latina/o Spanish speaking adults. Field notes, interviews, and…

Larrotta, Clarena

2011-01-01

419

Building English Language Learners' Academic Vocabulary: Strategies and Tips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's Three Tier Model (2002), when it comes to language instruction the distinction between academic vocabulary words and content specific words has a significant bearing on the language success of English language learners (ELLs). In this article, the author describes strategies that give teachers and parents…

Sibold, Claire

2011-01-01

420

Vocabulary and Working Memory in Children Fit with Hearing Aids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Method: Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward…

Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.

2012-01-01

421

Evaluating Computer-Generated Domain-Oriented Vocabularies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods for automatically compiling domain-oriented vocabularies in natural language systems and describes techniques for evaluating the quality of the resulting word lists. A study is described that used subject headings from Grolier's Encyclopedia and the United Press International newswire, and filters for removing high frequency…

Damerau, Fred J.

1990-01-01

422

Vocabulary Materials and Study Strategies at Advanced Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study of the effect of different vocabulary study materials and strategies used by upper-intermediate English as a foreign language students in higher education. Students were assigned a selection of 163 words from the Academic Word List and were provided with different types of study materials. They were…

Pauwels, Paul

2012-01-01

423

Mindful of Words: Spelling and Vocabulary Explorations 4-8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides tools to enhance upper-level spelling and vocabulary instruction, and features more than 120 reproducible sorting activities and games. It offers suggestions for helping students build mastery of vowel patterns, syllable structure, syllable stress, consonant and vowel alternations, compound words, prefixes, suffixes, and word…

Ganske, Kathy

2008-01-01

424

Differing Qualitative Levels of the Vocabularies of Intellectually Average Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational Leadership/Research Supplement, v3, n2, December 1969. Measurement of responses to a vocabulary scale suggests that usual verbal classroom presentations may be beyond the grasp of some pupils due to their level of conceptual ability. (AP/Author)

Weiser, Margaret G.

1969-01-01

425

In Search of the Keyword Method/Vocabulary Comprehension Link.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has indicated that the keyword method of vocabulary learning facilitates students' performance on comprehension-demanding tasks as well as test of definition recall. When conditions and undergraduate subjects within conditions were equated with respect to their initial levels of definition recall, the comprehension advantage of keyword…

Levin, Joel R.; And Others

1985-01-01

426

Terminologie des appareils electromenagers (Vocabulary for Electric Appliances).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This glossary of common French words and expressions used in reference to major electric appliances is designed for consumers, producers, and advertisers. Emphasis is placed on current rather than technical French-Canadian vocabulary. The terms are classified into five sections according to type of appliance: (1) electric range, (2) refrigerator,…

Dupuis, Henriette, Comp.; Lalut, Jeanne, Comp.

427

Deliberate Learning and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates outcomes of deliberate learning on vocabulary acquisition in a second language (L2). Acquisition of 48 pseudowords was measured using the lexical decision task with visually presented stimuli. The experiments drew on form priming, masked repetition priming, and automatic semantic priming procedures. Data analyses revealed a…

Elgort, Irina

2011-01-01

428

Automotive Mechanics: Handbook to Accompany VESL Vocabulary Cards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is one of four self-contained components of a larger handbook designed to assist secondary and postsecondary instructors and support staff in meeting the needs of limited-English-proficiency (LEP) students in vocational training programs. Together with an accompanying set of vocational English as a second language (VESL) vocabulary

Shay, Gail; Lenhart, Debra

429

Crossing the Vocabulary Bridge: Differentiated Strategies for Diverse Secondary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her new book, nationally known professional development consultant and literacy expert Socorro Herrera is joined by two colleagues to provide a framework for academic vocabulary and language instruction in today's diverse classrooms. The authors present a set of strategies and tools that work effectively across all content to support enhanced…

Herrera, Socorro G.; Kavimandan, Shabina K.; Holmes, Melissa A.

2011-01-01

430

Automating Repeated Exposure to Target Vocabulary for Second Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A web-based tool is described, called the Supplementary Reading Provider (SRP), devised to find related readings according to learners' lexical level which offer repeated exposure to target vocabulary. The SRP exploits text retrieval techniques based upon the hypothesis that there is a parallel between text similarity measurement on the one hand and the pedagogical task of providing supplementary readings which

David Wible; Chin-hwa Kuo; Feng-yi Chien; Nai Lung Taso

2001-01-01

431

Nouns and Verbs in the Vocabulary Acquisition of Italian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vocabulary development of 24 Italian children aged between 1;4 and 1;6 at the beginning of the study was longitudinally monitored on a monthly basis using the Italian version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory drawn up by their mothers. This study analyzes data from children for whom two sampling stages were available; the…

D'Odorico, Laura; Fasolo, Mirco

2007-01-01

432

Peek, Peak, Pique: Using Homophones to Teach Vocabulary (and Spelling!).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that regular homophone practice enhances vocabulary knowledge, spelling skills, pronunciation ability, and overall reading proficiency. Describes how card games played with decks of homophones helped to accomplish these things. Notes particular benefits of homophone games to English-as-a-second-language students, and outlines key advantages…

Pryle, Marilyn Bogusch

2000-01-01

433

Vocabulary Acquisition--First Year German Language Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment was conducted using the suggestopedia method to learn German vocabulary words. Four students who had failed, or nearly failed, tests during the regular university term, took part in two tutoring sessions in which the following procedure was used. First, a pretest of 72 lexical items was given. The students cooperated with the teacher…

Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

434

Vocabulary Acquisition in Young Children: The Role of the Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sharing storybooks with babies increases their future achievements in literacy, especially in reading (Hall, 2001; Moore and Wade, 1997, 2003; Scarborough et al., 1991; Wade and Moore, 1998; Wells, 1985). This study, focusing on case studies of two 20-month-old children, attempts to identify the role the storybook plays in children's vocabulary

Hepburn, Emma; Egan, Bridget; Flynn, Naomi

2010-01-01

435

Using morphology towards better large-vocabulary speech recognition systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To guarantee unrestricted natural language processing, state-of-the-art speech recognition systems require huge dictionaries that increase search space and result in performance degradations. This is especially true for languages where there do exist a large number of inflections and compound words such as German, Spanish, etc. One way to keep up decent recognition results with increasing vocabulary is the use of

P. Geutner

1995-01-01

436

Linear discriminant analysis for improved large vocabulary continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and a modeling approach using continuous Laplacian mixture density HMM is studied experimentally. The largest improvements in speech recognition could be obtained when the classes for the LDA transform were defined to be sub-phone units. On a 12000 word German recognition task with small overlap between training and test vocabulary a reduction in

R. Haeb-Umbach; H. Ney

1992-01-01

437

Perceptions of an EL Learner on Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This single case study addresses an action research design (Wolcott, 1994) that utilizes observations, interviews, and documents to access what teaching and learning techniques have improved the acquisition of vocabulary of a single intermediate English language (EL) learner from Turkey. Findings are reported and discussed in terms of the…

Erkaya, Odilea Rocha; Drower, Iris S.

2012-01-01

438

Improving environmental robustness in large vocabulary speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes techniques to improve the robustness of the HTK large vocabulary speech recognition system to non-ideal acoustic environments. The primary methods are single-pass retraining using stereo training data; parallel model combination which combines HMMs trained on clean data with estimates of convolutional and additive noise; and maximum likelihood linear regression which estimates a set of linear transformations of

P. C. Woodland; M. J. F. Gales; D. Pye

1996-01-01

439

Confidence measures for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present several confidence measures for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. We propose to estimate the confidence of a hypothesized word directly as its posterior probability, given all acoustic observations of the utterance. These probabilities are computed on word graphs using a forward-backward algorithm. We also study the estimation of posterior probabilities on N-best lists instead of

Frank Wessel; Ralf Schlüter; Klaus Macherey; Hermann Ney

2001-01-01

440

Free software toolkit for Japanese large vocabulary continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sharable software repository for Japanese LVCSR (Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition) is in- troduced. It is designed as a baseline platform for research and developed by researchers of different academic insti- tutes under a governmental support. The repository con- sists of a recognition engine (Julius), Japanese acoustic models and statistical language models as well as Japanese morphological analysis tools.

Tatsuya Kawahara; Akinobu Lee; Tetsunori Kobayashi; Kazuya Takeda; Nobuaki Minematsu; Shigeki Sagayama; Katsunobu Itou; Akinori Ito; Mikio Yamamoto; Atsushi Yamada; Takehito Utsuro; Kiyohiro Shikano

2000-01-01

441

A word graph algorithm for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for the construction of a word graph (or lattice) for large vocabulary, continuous speech recognition. The advantage of a word graph is that a fairly good degree of decoupling between acoustic recognition at the 10-ms level and the final search at the word level using a complicated language model can be achieved. The word graph

Stefan Ortmanns; Hermann Ney; Xavier Aubert

1997-01-01

442

Effects of Frequency and Vocabulary Type on Phonological Speech Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological speech errors only rarely occur in common function words. This paper explores whether this effect is due to these words' status as function (closed-class) morphemes, or simply their high frequency of usage. Experiments that elicit phonological speech errors revealed strong requency effects (the segments of frequent words tend not to be misordered) and no effect of vocabulary type-the segments

Gary S. Dell

1990-01-01

443

Contextual Marketing: The Language\\/Vocabulary of Marketing in SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is part of ongoing descriptions of Contextual Marketing in SMEs. To date two previous papers have addressed a variety of key factors that contribute to Contextual Marketing. Our first paper, (Carson et al 2002*), addressed the overriding theme of Contextual Marketing and considered issues such as commonalities, triggers, variances, situation specific and language\\/vocabulary. Our second paper, (Copley et

Michael Enright; Paul Copley; Jonathan Deacon; David Carson; Andrew McAuley

444

Building interoperable vocabulary and structures for learning objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural, functional, and production views on learning objects influence metadata structure and vocabulary. We drew on these views and conducted a literature review and in-depth analysis of 14 learning objects and over 500 components in these learning objects to model the knowledge framework for a learning object ontology. The learning object ontology reported in this paper consists of 8

Jian Qin; Naybell Hernández

2006-01-01

445

The English Vocabulary Knowledge of Indonesian University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reports on a research study conducted in an Indonesian university to estimate the English vocabulary knowledge of a large sample of first-year students. This is a significant topic because the students are expected to be able to read English language texts in their university courses, something that is difficult for them to manage without an adequate knowledge of

Ari Nurweni; John Read

1999-01-01

446

Improving the Knowledge and Application of Vocabulary within Content Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research paper depicts the teacher-developed instructional strategies to enhance vocabulary instruction among school-age students in the public school setting. The selected population spans across three school districts and includes a third grade classroom, a fifth grade classroom, as well as a select fourth and fifth grade students…

Austermuehle, Dana; Kautz, Tabitha; Sprenzel, Jennifer

2007-01-01

447

French Vocabulary--Looking for "le mot juste."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The apparent difficulty of students of French as a second language to acquire French vocabulary is examined, drawing on experience with teaching Irish university students and the structures and stylistic traits peculiar to French. It is noted that while certain kinds of words (noun, verb, adjective, adverb) occupy little space in text, they take…

Parris, David L.

1996-01-01

448

Oral Language & Vocabulary Development: Grades K-1. Alabama Reading Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This inservice professional development module, part of the Alabama Reading Initiative, presents research summaries, notes for presenters, and activities. The Oral Language and Vocabulary module elaborates on a student's comprehension of text as it relates to the overlap between the student's system of language and the author's system of language.…

Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

449

Connectives: Fitting Another Piece of the Vocabulary Instruction Puzzle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connectives (e.g., although, consequently, in contrast) are often considered the "signposts" of texts. In this article we argue that connectives represent a special kind of vocabulary knowledge that students need to develop both in order to read challenging, academic texts with understanding and to produce academic writing. Yet tapping…

Crosson, Amy C.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2013-01-01

450

Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

2010-01-01

451

Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther

2013-01-01

452

Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

2012-01-01

453

The Effects of Animation Cues on Vocabulary Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates effectiveness of animated cues in electronic books on children's vocabulary development. Notes that subjects were 15 third-grade students from a suburban elementary school who participated in a one-group pretest-posttest program evaluation. Finds significant differences favoring the posttest. Describes suggestions for using electronic…

Higgins, Norman C.; Cocks, Patricia

1999-01-01

454

The Keyword Method and Children's Vocabulary Learning in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey indicated that British teachers still use vocabulary learning in second language instruction. These two studies suggested that 11-year-olds are quite capable of using the keyword method, modified for group presentation, to learn English meanings of French words and vice versa, for both immediate and delayed tests. (Author/SJL)

Merry, R.

1980-01-01

455

Vocabulary learning in bilingual and monolingual clinical intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a single-case alternating treatments design to compare the effectiveness of monolingual and bilingual clinical treatment approaches in teaching English vocabulary to a bilingual child with language impairment. In contrast to the widespread belief that regular exposure to two languages should not be recommended for children with language impairments, recent findings suggest that bilingual acquisition is a reasonable

Elin T. Thordardottir; Susan Ellis Weismer; Mary E. Smith

1997-01-01

456

Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilinguals from 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method: Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to…

Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa

2013-01-01

457

What's Meaning Got to Do with It: The Role of Vocabulary in Word Reading and Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is at present no clear consensus as to the nature of the relations between oral vocabulary and specific literacy skills. The present study distinguished between vocabulary breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge to better explain the role of oral vocabulary in various reading skills. A sample of 60 typically developing Grade 4 students…

Oullette, Gene P.

2006-01-01

458

Vocabulary intervention for school-age children with language impairment: A review of evidence and good practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to provide evidence to support direct vocabulary intervention practices for primary school-age children with language impairment (LI). A rationale for providing direct vocabulary intervention for children with LI is outlined by reviewing typical and atypical vocabulary acquisition, evidence of instructional strategies from research in mainstream and special education is summarized, and suggestions for vocabulary

Sara C Steele; Monique T Mills

2011-01-01

459

How Does Second Language Vocabulary Grow over Time? A Multi-Methodological Study of Incremental Vocabulary Knowledge Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the longitudinal development of L2 vocabulary by 17 individual adult L2 learners in an English as a second language (ESL) instructed context over one academic year, combining a longitudinal case study design with two cross-sectional comparisons in order to enhance (a) detailed documentation addressing the idiosyncrasy of L2…

Huang, Hung-Tzu

2010-01-01

460

Kindergartners' Vocabulary Acquisition as a Function of Active vs. Passive Storybook Reading, Prior Vocabulary, and Working Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that children either actively participated by asking questions or passively participated by listening to a recast containing a familiar synonym for each target word. Finds that children with higher vocabulary knowledge acquired significantly more words than did passive participants, and children with high versus low working memory did not…

Ewers, Cynthia A.; Brownson, Shirley M.

1999-01-01

461

The Vertebrate Trait Ontology: a controlled vocabulary for the annotation of trait data across species  

PubMed Central

Background The use of ontologies to standardize biological data and facilitate comparisons among datasets has steadily grown as the complexity and amount of available data have increased. Despite the numerous ontologies available, one area currently lacking a robust ontology is the description of vertebrate traits. A trait is defined as any measurable or observable characteristic pertaining to an organism or any of its substructures. While there are several ontologies to describe entities and processes in phenotypes, diseases, and clinical measurements, one has not been developed for vertebrate traits; the Vertebrate Trait Ontology (VT) was created to fill this void. Description Significant inconsistencies in trait nomenclature exist in the literature, and additional difficulties arise when trait data are compared across species. The VT is a unified trait vocabulary created to aid in the transfer of data within and between species and to facilitate investigation of the genetic basis of traits. Trait information provides a valuable link between the measurements that are used to assess the trait, the phenotypes related to the traits, and the diseases associated with one or more phenotypes. Because multiple clinical and morphological measurements are often used to assess a single trait, and a single measurement can be used to assess multiple physiological processes, providing investigators with standardized annotations for trait data will allow them to investigate connections among these data types. Conclusions The annotation of genomic data with ontology terms provides unique opportunities for data mining and analysis. Links between data in disparate databases can be identified and explored, a strategy that is particularly useful for cross-species comparisons or in situations involving inconsistent terminology. The VT provides a common basis for the description of traits in multiple vertebrate species. It is being used in the Rat Genome Database and Animal QTL Database for annotation of QTL data for rat, cattle, chicken, swine, sheep, and rainbow trout, and in the Mouse Phenome Database to annotate strain characterization data. In these databases, data are also cross-referenced to applicable terms from other ontologies, providing additional avenues for data mining and analysis. The ontology is available at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/50138.

2013-01-01

462

Executive summary: Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background information on, and the objectives of, the NASA Global Biology Research Program are given. The following issues were addressed: (1) geographic distribution of wetland parameters, (2) the processes of wetland material fluxes, and (3) the relation of local fluxes with global processes. Wetland inventorying and categorizing, gas-phase exchanges with the atmosphere, material exchange with the aquatic environment, and material storage in wetland sediments were identified as topics requiring further research.

1983-01-01

463

Scalable Recognition with a Vocabulary Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recognition scheme that scales efficiently to a large number of objects is presented. The efficiency and quality is exhibited in a live demonstrationthat recognizesCD-covers from a database of 40000 images of popular music CD's. The scheme builds upon popular techniques of indexing descriptors extracted from local regions, and is robust to background clutter and occlusion. The local region descriptors

David Nistér; Henrik Stewénius

2006-01-01

464

Vocabulary Input from School Textbooks as a Potential Contributor to the Small Vocabulary Uptake Gained by English as a Foreign Language Learners in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research repeatedly reports very little vocabulary uptake by English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in public schools in Saudi Arabia. Factors such as the teaching methodology employed and learner motivation have been suggested to explain this but a further explanation, the vocabulary input these learners receive, remains uninvestigated. An…

Alsaif, Abdullah; Milton, James

2012-01-01

465

The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R. J.; Case, J. E.

1992-01-01

466

Shared understanding and idiosyncratic expression in early vocabularies.  

PubMed

To what extent do toddlers have shared vocabularies? We examined CDI data collected from 14,607 infants and toddlers in five countries and measured the amount of variability between individual lexicons during development for both comprehension and production. Early lexicons are highly overlapping. However, beyond 100 words, toddlers share more words with other toddlers in comprehension than in production, even when matched for lexicon sizes. This finding points to a structural difference in early comprehension and production: Toddlers are generalists in comprehension but develop a unique, expressive voice. Variability in production decreases after two years of age, suggesting convergence to a common expressive core vocabulary. We discuss potential exogenous and endogenous contributions to the inverted U-shaped development observed in young children's expressive lexical variability. PMID:24410758

Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

2014-05-01

467

Compound decomposition in dutch large vocabulary speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses compound splitting for Dutch in the con- text of broadcast news transcription. Language models were created using original text versions and text versions that were decomposed using a data-driven compound splitting algorithm. Language model performances were compared in terms of out- of-vocabulary rates and word error rates in a real-world broad- cast news transcription task. It was

Roeland Ordelman; Arjan van Hessen; Franciska de Jong

2003-01-01

468

Large-vocabulary speech recognition under adverse acoustic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report our recent work on noise-robust large-vocabulary speech recognition. Three key innovations are developed and evaluated in this work: 1) a new model learning paradigm that comprises a noise-insertion process followed by noise reduction; 2) a noise adaptive training algorithm that integrates noise reduction into probabilistic multi-style system training; and 3) a new algorithm (SPLICE) for noise reduction that

Li Deng; Alex Acero; Mike Plumpe; Xuedong Huang

2000-01-01

469

The 1994 HTK large vocabulary speech recognition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recent work on the HTK large vocabulary speech recognition system. The system uses tied-state cross-word context-dependent mixture Gaussian HMMs and a dynamic network decoder that can operate in a single pass. In the last year the decoder has been extended to produce word lattices to allow flexible and efficient system development, as well as multi-pass operation for

P. C. Woodland; C. J. Leggetter; J. J. Odell; V. Valtchev; S. J. Young

1995-01-01

470

A One Pass Decoder Design For Large Vocabulary Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve reasonable accuracy in large vocabulary speech recognition systems, it is important to use detailed acoustic models together with good long span language models. For example, in the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) task both cross-word triphones and a trigram language model are necessary to achieve state-of-the-art performance. However, when using these models, the size of a pre-compiled recognition network

J. J. Odell; V. Valtchev; Philip C. Woodland; S. J. Young

1994-01-01

471

Incremental visual objects clustering with the growing vocabulary tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the bag-of-visual-words image representation, we can use the text analysis methods, such as pLSA and LDA, to solve the\\u000a visual objects clustering and classification problems. However the previous works only used a fixed visual vocabulary, which\\u000a is formed by vector quantizing SIFT like region descriptors, and so the learned visual topic models are also only based on\\u000a the fixed

Zhenyong Fu; Hongtao Lu; Wenbin Li

472

Universal and Adapted Vocabularies for Generic Visual Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generic visual categorization (GVC) is the pattern classification problem that consists in assigning labels to an image based on its semantic content. This is a challenging task as one has to deal with inherent object\\/scene variations, as well as changes in viewpoint, lighting, and occlusion. Several state-of-the-art GVC systems use a vocabulary of visual terms to characterize images with a

Florent Perronnin

2008-01-01

473

Interactively building a discriminative vocabulary of nameable attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-nameable visual attributes offer many advantages when used as mid-level features for object recognition, but existing techniques to gather relevant attributes can be inefficient (costing substantial effort or expertise) and\\/or insufficient (descriptive properties need not be discriminative). We introduce an approach to define a vocabulary of attributes that is both human understandable and discriminative. The system takes object\\/scene-labeled images as

Devi Parikh; Kristen Grauman

2011-01-01

474

Interactive electronic storybooks for kindergartners to promote vocabulary growth.  

PubMed

The goals of this study were to examine (a) whether extratextual vocabulary instructions embedded in electronic storybooks facilitated word learning over reading alone and (b) whether instructional formats that required children to invest more effort were more effective than formats that required less effort. A computer-based "assistant" was added to electronic storybooks. The assistant posed extratextual vocabulary questions. Questions were presented in a multiple-choice format so that children could respond by clicking on the picture that best represented the target word. In Experiment 1 (N=20), children read stories with and without questions. Children learned more words when reading with questions than without. Expressive vocabulary was particularly affected by question insertion. In Experiment 2 (N=27), we used two methods for teaching words: one requiring more effort on the part of children (questions) and one requiring less effort ("hotspots" that provide definitions). Results revealed that questions were more beneficial than just providing a definition or synonym of the target word. Implications for designing new e-book apps are discussed. PMID:22265347

Smeets, Daisy J H; Bus, Adriana G

2012-05-01

475

Informatics-Assisted Statistical Analysis of Vocabularies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one of the most important concerns in the training of library and informatics-experts, information provision requires a thorough knowledge of professional texts used in different fields. This is, however, due to the sheer number of publications appearing in various periodicals, which is a difficult goal to accomplish when making a thorough…

Lengyel, Tunde-Molnar

2004-01-01

476

TANGO: Vocabulary Learning Environment Using RFID Tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubiquitous computing will help in the organization and mediation of social interactions wherever and whenever these situations might occur. With those technologies, learning environment can be embedded in daily real life. Especially, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags are very useful and important technology to realize ubiquitous computing, because they enable to bridge real objects and information in a virtual world.

Hiroaki OGATA; Ryo Akamatsu; Yoneo YANO

477

Personalised context-aware ubiquitous learning system for supporting effective English vocabulary learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English sentences. Therefore, numerous studies have attempted to increase the efficiency and performance of learning English vocabulary. ‘The

Chih-Ming Chen; Yi-Lun Li

2010-01-01

478

Personalized mobile English vocabulary learning system based on item response theory and learning memory cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since learning English is very popular in non-English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning tools that support effective English learning is a critical issue in the English-language education field. Learning English involves memorization and practice of a large number of vocabulary words and numerous grammatical structures. Vocabulary learning is a principal issue for English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building

Chih-ming Chen; Ching-ju Chung

2008-01-01

479

Stem-Based Approach to Pronunciation Vocabulary Construction and Language Modeling for Russian  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of pronunciation dictionary construction for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR). Here we present a method of constructing a stem-inflexion pronunciation vocabularies designed to use with a stem-based language model (LM) of Russian as an inflective language. We show that stem-based approach leads to 13 times reduction in the size of pronunciation vocabularies. On

Ilya Oparin; Andre Talanov

480

Depth of reading vocabulary in hearing and hearing-impaired children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main point of our study was to examine the vocabulary knowledge of pupils in grades 3–6, and in particular the relative\\u000a reading vocabulary disadvantage of hearing-impaired pupils. The achievements of 394 pupils with normal hearing and 106 pupils\\u000a with a hearing impairment were examined on two vocabulary assessment tasks: a lexical decision task and a use decision task.\\u000a The

Karien M. Coppens; Agnes Tellings; Ludo Verhoeven; Robert Schreuder

2011-01-01

481

Improving the Acquisition of Novel Vocabulary Through the Use of Imagery Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of imagery interventions on the vocabulary acquisition abilities of\\u000a second grade students. A total of 15 students were randomly assigned to three different intervention conditions: Word Only,\\u000a which involves the simple verbal presentation of a vocabulary word; Dual Coding, in which a picture was paired with the vocabulary\\u000a word, and

Marisa T. CohenHelen; Helen L. Johnson

2011-01-01

482

US ITER background summary papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following brief summaries were prepared by members of the US ITER Home Team to provide background information on the ITER CDA design and in several instances to provide personal observations and suggestions regarding continuation of the ITER Conceptua...

J. N. Doggett C. A. Flanagan D. E. Post J. C. Wesley

1991-01-01

483

Cross-linguistic analysis of vocabulary in young children: spanish, dutch, French, hebrew, italian, korean, and american english.  

PubMed

The composition of young children's vocabularies in 7 contrasting linguistic communities was investigated. Mothers of 269 twenty-month-olds in Argentina, Belgium, France, Israel, Italy, the Republic of Korea, and the United States completed comparable vocabulary checklists for their children. In each language and vocabulary size grouping (except for children just learning to talk), children's vocabularies contained relatively greater proportions of nouns than other word classes. Each word class was consistently positively correlated with every other class in each language and for children with smaller and larger vocabularies. Noun prevalence in the vocabularies of young children and the merits of several theories that may account for this pattern are discussed. PMID:15260868

Bornstein, Marc H; Cote, Linda R; Maital, Sharone; Painter, Kathleen; Park, Sung-Yun; Pascual, Liliana; Pêcheux, Marie-Germaine; Ruel, Josette; Venuti, Paola; Vyt, Andre

2004-01-01

484

Children's vocabulary growth in English and Spanish across early development and associations with school readiness skills.  

PubMed

In line with evidence that variation in children's vocabulary size facilitates learning, we asked whether growth in Mexican and Dominican children's expressive vocabularies in English and/or Spanish would predict later cognitive skills. Children and mothers were video-recorded sharing wordless books at 2, 3, 4, and 5 years, and children were assessed on language, literacy, and math skills at 5 years. Growth in children's English and Spanish vocabularies, based on transcriptions of booksharing interactions, predicted specific cognitive skills and was associated with changes to mothers' language use across time. Mothers' years in the United States predicted children's English vocabulary growth. PMID:24571927

Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Song, Lulu; Luo, Rufan; Kuchirko, Yana; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Raufman, Julia

2014-01-01

485

Hanford Site background: Part 3, Groundwater background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents and interprets groundwater background data collected from the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site, a U.S. Department of Energy complex located near Richland, Washington. Characterization of background composition is an importa...

1997-01-01

486

Automated annotation of Drosophila gene expression patterns using a controlled vocabulary  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Regulation of gene expression in space and time directs its localization to a specific subset of cells during development. Systematic determination of the spatiotemporal dynamics of gene expression plays an important role in understanding the regulatory networks driving development. An atlas for the gene expression patterns of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been created by whole-mount in situ hybridization, and it documents the dynamic changes of gene expression pattern during Drosophila embryogenesis. The spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression are integrated by anatomical terms from a controlled vocabulary linking together intermediate tissues developed from one another. Currently, the terms are assigned to patterns manually. However, the number of patterns generated by high-throughput in situ hybridization is rapidly increasing. It is, therefore, tempting to approach this problem by employing computational methods. Results: In this article, we present a novel computational framework for annotating gene expression patterns using a controlled vocabulary. In the currently available high-throughput data, annotation terms are assigned to groups of patterns rather than to individual images. We propose to extract invariant features from images, and construct pyramid match kernels to measure the similarity between sets of patterns. To exploit the complementary information conveyed by different features and incorporate the correlation among patterns sharing common structures, we propose efficient convex formulations to integrate the kernels derived from various features. The proposed framework is evaluated by comparing its annotation with that of human curators, and promising performance in terms of F1 score has been reported. Contact: jieping.ye@asu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Ji, Shuiwang; Sun, Liang; Jin, Rong; Kumar, Sudhir; Ye, Jieping

2008-01-01

487

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks: Background Information for Proposed Standards. Marvin Branscome and Sandra Burns, RTI and Lula Melton.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes the background information used in the development of MACT standards for the coke ovens: pushing, quenching, and battery stacks source category. All references cited in this document are available in EPA Docket A-2000-34. In addit...

L. Melton M. Branscome S. Burns

2001-01-01

488

The relationship between measures of vocabulary and narrative writing quality in second- and fourth-grade students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between measures of written vocabulary and writing quality. Participants\\u000a included 92 second-grade students and 101 fourth-grade students. Students completed two writing samples: one an experimenter-developed\\u000a writing task and the other, a standardized assessment of writing quality. Research questions examined whether four vocabulary\\u000a measures (vocabulary diversity, less frequent vocabulary, mean syllable

Natalie G. Olinghouse; Jacqueline T. Leaird

2009-01-01

489

Using Story Dictation to Support Young Children's Vocabulary Development: Outcomes and Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating opportunities for children to apply newly learned vocabulary in meaningful contexts is an important aspect of supporting vocabulary development. However, previous research has not adequately examined how this can be accomplished in preschool classrooms. To address this issue, we explored using story dictation to support preschoolers'…

Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine; Chiu, Ming Ming

2011-01-01

490

The Legacy of Diglossia in English Vocabulary: What Learners Need to Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past two decades, vocabulary researchers have determined the number of word families that an undergraduate needs to know in order to read effectively in English, and further work has examined vocabulary size among Indonesian university students. What this research has so far not considered, however, is the distinction in the learner's…

Boyle, Ronald

2009-01-01

491

Exploring Long-Term Productive Vocabulary Development in an EFL Context: The Role of Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reports on a longitudinal multiple-case study that probed into four advanced university-level Chinese EFL learners' situated vocabulary learning experiences and explored the role of L2 motivation in their productive vocabulary development. In the study, Lexical Frequency Profile analysis and semi-structured interviews were conducted with…

Zheng, Yongyan

2012-01-01

492

Library of Congress Controlled Vocabularies and Their Application to the Semantic Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses how various controlled vocabularies, classification schemes, and thesauri can serve as some of the building blocks of the Semantic Web. These vocabularies have been developed over the course of decades, and can be put to great use in the development of robust Web services and Semantic Web technologies. The article covers how initial collaboration between the Semantic

Corey A. Harper; Barbara B. Tillett

2007-01-01

493

The Effect of Type of Written Exercise on L2 Vocabulary Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used a within-subjects design to examine the effect of the type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. Using input for the meaning and usage of the new words from a specially prepared minidictionary, university intensive English program students (n = 154) practiced target vocabulary in three types of written exercises…

Folse, Keith S.

2006-01-01

494

The Effects of Hypertext Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines (1) the effects of hypertext gloss use on L2 vocabulary acquisition in computerized reading contexts; (2) which specific combination of either text-only (single) or text + visual (multiple) hypertext glosses is more effective on L2 vocabulary acquisition; and (3) potential moderators to systematically account for between study…

Yun, Jeehwan

2011-01-01

495

A Comparative Study on Second Language Vocabulary Development: Study Abroad vs Classroom Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper aims to achieve a better understanding of the process of vocabulary acquisition by examining the development of lexical knowledge in both classroom and study abroad contexts. Taking Ife, Vives Boix, and Meara's (2000) study as a starting point, this study attempts to determine whether development in both levels of vocabulary

Jimenez-Jimenez, Antonio F.

2010-01-01

496

A Vocabulary-Added Reading Intervention for English Learners At-Risk of Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the added value of a vocabulary plus phonological awareness (vocab+) intervention against a phonological awareness (PA only) intervention only. The vocabulary intervention built networks among words through attention to morphological and semantic relationships. This supplementary classroom instruction augmented existing…

Filippini, Alexis L.; Gerber, Michael M.; Leafstedt, Jill M.

2012-01-01

497

Validity of a Parent-Report Measure of Vocabulary and Grammar for Spanish-Speaking Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of the Fundacion MacArthur Inventaria de Habilidades Communicativas: Palabras y Enuciados was examined with twenty 20- and nineteen 28-month-old, typically developing, monolingual, Spanish-speaking children in Mexico. Results indicated validity for assessing expressive vocabulary in 20-month-olds and expressive vocabulary and grammar…

Thal, Donna; Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; Acosta, Dora

2000-01-01

498

A Summary of the Vocabulary Research with Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is essential for communicating, reading, thinking, and learning. In comparison to typical hearing peers, students who are deaf or hard of hearing demonstrate vocabulary knowledge that is quantitatively reduced. The authors review and summarize research studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1967 and 2008 focusing on…

Luckner, John L.; Cooke, Christine

2010-01-01

499

Patterns of Parental Vocabulary Selection in Speech to Very Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examination of the speech of eight mothers and eight fathers to their one- to two-year-olds (N=8) indicated that, while paternal speech was not more diverse than maternal speech, paternal speech did show greater use of rare vocabulary and lower use of common vocabulary. (Author/CB)

Ratner, Nan Bernstein

1988-01-01

500

The Effects of Audiovisual Support on EFL Learners' Productive Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study concerned multiple exposures to English before writing and aimed to explore the possibility of an increase in free active vocabulary with a focus on latent productive vocabulary beyond the first 2,000 most frequent words. The researcher incorporated online video into her college freshman composition class and examined its effects on…

Hsu, Wenhua

2014-01-01