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1

Vocabulary Questions on Informal Reading Inventories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the utility of informal reading inventories (IRI) and acknowledges four limitations of the research. Indicates that no validity-enhancing measures were implemented in conjunction with the three IRIs analyzed. Suggests that IRI vocabulary questions do not appear to be useful. (MG)

Duffelmeyer, Fredrick A.; And Others

1989-01-01

2

Effects of Stimulus Characteristics and Background Music on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning and Forgetting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of three stimulus variables and background music on paired-associate learning of foreign language (FL) vocabulary. The stimulus variables were the frequency and concreteness of the native language (L1) words and the (phonotactical) typicality of the FL words. Sixty-four L1-FL pairs were presented for learning six…

de Groot, Annette M. B.

2006-01-01

3

The Use of Vocabulary Files for Online Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the text retrieval system, EUREKA, and its techniques for helping the unsophisticated user through the search for and understanding of information based on the vocabulary file concept. Methods for easy construction and maintenance of a suitable data base organization through the EURUP system are described. (RAA)

And Others; Burket, T. J.

1979-01-01

4

Integrating Stress Information in Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition  

E-print Network

Integrating Stress Information in Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Bogdan Ludusan, by performing well even for foreign-accented speech. Index Terms: speech recognition, stress, rhythm 1 investigated, stress seems suitable for speech recognition tasks. This is due to its intrinsic characteristics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

An Investigation of the Effects of Background Music on Learning of Vocabulary and Grammar and in Public Speaking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the effect of background music during classroom instruction in vocabulary and grammar and in the delivery of speeches, sophomore high school students were divided into an experimental group (66 students) and a control group (60 students). For one semester the experimental group heard classical background music during instruction,…

Wolff, Florence I.

6

Developing Science Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This wiki page explores best practices in vocabulary development for middle school science teachers. Science, like other disciplines, has a specialized vocabulary, encompassing both terms that represent scientific concepts and those that describe process skills. Although science education focuses on inquiry and hands-on experiences, current research shows that teachers must also help students develop vocabulary to be successful in both the content and methods of science.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-07-01

7

From Potential to Reality: Content-Rich Vocabulary and Informational Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content vocabulary is essential for children's comprehension of informational text. Teachers will need to support children in developing the technical or specialized words they need for informational text and in linking these words to key concepts in content area instruction. This article describes the vocabulary instruction that was observed…

Wright, Tanya S.

2014-01-01

8

Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in the…

Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

2012-01-01

9

Using syntactic information to improve large-vocabulary word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global, context-sensitive parsing procedure that aids a large-vocabulary isolated-word speech recognition system is described. Presented with a long sequence of word candidates, the parser identifies likely erroneous words on the basis of a syntactic analysis of the preceding words. The parser suggests likely locations in the word sequence for punctuation marks such as sentence-final periods. It is not as

Douglas O'Shaughnessy

1989-01-01

10

The Validity of the Information and Vocabulary Subtests of the WAIS for Predicting College Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the comparative validity of the Information and Vocabulary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the WAIS Verbal and Full Scale Intelligence Quotients, the verbal scores of several standardized scholastic aptitude tests, and their corresponding composite scores relative to a college…

Feingold, Alan

1983-01-01

11

The Validity of the Information and Vocabulary Subtests of the WAIS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed published data on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) to ascertain whether the Information and Vocabulary subtests can function as measures of intelligence. Concluded that the addition of more WAIS subtests will not result in any increase in predictive validity and these additional tests, therefore, lack incremental validity.…

Feingold, Alan

1982-01-01

12

BACKGROUND INFORMATION October 4, 2004  

E-print Network

their health. Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange, Atlanta (HELIX-Atlanta) is an effort to build an EPHT network in five Metropolitan Atlanta counties (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinnett counties). The following activities are examples of how information from the HELIX-Atlanta Network could

13

A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research presents an algorithmic approach to ad- dressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biol- ogy domain as an example. We first present a literature review of cognitive stud!es related to the vcrcabulaw prob- lem and vocabulary-based search aids (thesauri) and then discuss technques for building robust and domain-spe- cific thesauri to

Hsinchun Chen; Tobun D. Ng; Joanne Martinez; Bruce R. Schatz

1997-01-01

14

Extension and integration of the gene ontology (GO): combining GO vocabularies with external vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured vocabulary development enhances the management of information in biological databases. As information grows, handling the complexity of vocabularies becomes difficult. Defined methods are needed to manipulate, expand and integrate complex vocabularies. The Gene Ontology (GO) project provides the scientific community with a set of structured vocabularies to describe domains of molecular biology. The vocabularies are used for annotation of

D. P. Hill; J A Blake; J E Richardson; M Ringwald

2002-01-01

15

NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

1991-01-01

16

A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

1997-01-01

17

Background Information 1. What are stem cells?  

E-print Network

Background Information 1. What are stem cells? 2. What might stem cell research achieve? 3. Why we need to continue research using embryonic stem cells? 4. Time taken for discoveries 5. Examples of stem of Embryonic cell lines 8. Fertility Research using human embryos and blastocysts 1. What are stem cells? Stem

Rambaut, Andrew

18

Employment and Training Legislation-1968; Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume supplied background information for employment and training legislation for the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare of the United States Senate for 1968. It includes: (1) excerpts from reports and recommendations of national committees and commissions on civil disorders, rural poverty, technology and automation, food and fiber, and…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

19

Italian Basic Course: Area Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement to the Basic Course in Italian developed by the Defense Language Institute provides area background information on a variety of topics. They include: (1) housing and servants, (2) dining and a glossary of gastronomic terminology, (3) driving in Italy, and (4) relations with the police. The appendix contains material on: the Italian…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

20

German Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses in general terms derivational aspects of English vocabulary. Citing examples of Anglo-Saxon origin, the author provides a glimpse into the nature of the interrelatedness of English, German, and French vocabulary. (RL)

Coombs, Virginia M.

21

Vocabularies in the VO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

2009-09-01

22

EVS (Enterprise Vocabulary Services) — CBIIT: Welcome to the NCI Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Thesaurus and NCI Metathesaurus provide standard vocabularies for biomedical research. The content of the NCI Thesaurus is available for download in tab-delimited flat file format, Web Ontology Language (OWL) format and in LexGrid XML format. LexEVS is the terminology server used at NCI to support programmatic and web browser access to the vocabularies; it is also available for download and use by third parties.

23

Division of Undergraduate Education Reviewer Background Information Form  

NSF Publications Database

... information is retained for future reference in selecting reviewers. The information requested on ... of all information is entirely voluntary. The purpose of this background information is to assist in ...

24

Math Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page has suggestions for ways to make effective use of word walls, including making it interactive and setting expectations with students. Several activities are described. Links to supporting workbooks and vocabulary cards are provided.

2013-01-01

25

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Colon CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the descriptive manuscript cited below.

26

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Breast CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the materials cited below.

27

VOCABULARY: NEEDED IF MORE CHILDREN ARE TO READ WELL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary has long been recognized as a strong determinant of reading success. Despite the importance of vocabulary knowledge, very little information is available about effective strategies for vocabulary instruction in elementary grades and there is a paucity of data on the relative merits of the different programs that are designed to promote vocabulary growth in elementary children. Available information indicates

ANDREW BIEMILLER

2003-01-01

28

Indirect Costs of University Research: Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is intended to provide a solid base of information about the treatment of indirect university research costs in various jurisdictions and to highlight some of the factors that have contributed to increased interest in the issues surrounding the funding of indirect costs of research. University research in Ontario has continued to evolve…

Voet, Tony Vander

29

The Relationship between Vocabulary and Writing Quality in Three Genres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocabulary in writing across three genres. Fifth graders (N = 105) wrote three compositions: story, persuasive, and informative. Each composition revolved around the topic of outer space to control for background knowledge. Written compositions were scored for holistic writing quality and…

Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Wilson, Joshua

2013-01-01

30

Language experiences and vocabulary development in Dominican and Mexican infants across the first 2 years.  

PubMed

We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during interviews at infants' birth. Infants' language experiences were measured at ages 14 months and 2 years through mothers' reports of mothers' and fathers' engagement in English and Spanish literacy activities with infants and mothers' English and Spanish utterances during videotaped mother-infant interactions. Infants' vocabulary development at 14 months and 2 years was examined using standardized vocabulary checklists in English and Spanish. Both parental language context and infants' language experiences predicted infants' vocabularies in each language at both ages. Furthermore, language experiences mediated associations between parental language context and infants' vocabularies. However, the specific mediation mechanisms varied by language. PMID:22142187

Song, Lulu; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

2012-07-01

31

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information  

E-print Network

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepared by Joel. Introduction_______________________________________________ 1 1.1. Goals of the IMRC's Smog Check Evaluation for the IMRC Smog Check Evaluation _________________ 2 3. Evaluation Process

Denver, University of

32

Remove Limits to Learning with Systematic Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is a pivotal component of a student's background knowledge, and the research indicates that vocabulary instruction can be an effective means for increasing it. This booklet describes the positive outcomes that result when a school- or district-wide vocabulary program is strategically developed and intentionally implemented. The…

Stone, Bj; Urquhart, Vicki

2008-01-01

33

UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information  

E-print Network

1 UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information: Re-employment compensation position. Re-employment compensation is a federal-state partnership based upon federal law but it is administered at the state level. Re-employment compensation is a temporary, partial wage replacement

Wu, Shin-Tson

34

Partitioning a vocabulary's IS-A hierarchy into trees.  

PubMed Central

Controlled medical vocabularies are useful in application areas such as medical information-systems and decision-support. However, such vocabularies are large and complex, and working with them can be daunting. It is important to provide a means for orienting users to the vocabulary's contents. This paper introduces a methodology for partitioning a vocabulary into small, meaningful pieces. The partitioning is done with respect to the vocabulary's IS-A hierarchy. The methodology, based on a set of rules for refining the IS-A hierarchy, is a process carried out by a user in conjunction with the computer. The methodology is demonstrated on a complex portion of a vocabulary. PMID:9357702

Gu, H.; Perl, Y.; Geller, J.; Halper, M.; Cimino, J. J.; Singh, M.

1997-01-01

35

Acquisition of background and technical information and class trip planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instructors who are very familiar with a study area, as well as those who are not, find the field trip information acquisition and planning process speeded and made more effective by organizing it in stages. The stage follow a deductive progression: from the associated context region, to the study area, to the specific sample window sites, and from generalized background information on the study region to specific technical data on the environmental and human use systems to be interpreted at each site. On the class trip and in the follow up laboratory, the learning/interpretive process are at first deductive in applying previously learned information and skills to analysis of the study site, then inductive in reading and interpreting the landscape, imagery, and maps of the site, correlating them with information of other samples sites and building valid generalizations about the larger study area, its context region, and other (similar and/or contrasting) regions.

Mackinnon, R. M.; Wake, W. H.

1981-01-01

36

Assessing the language skills of children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds: the expressive vocabulary performance of Singaporean English-Mandarin bilingual pre-schoolers.  

PubMed

Standardized language assessments such as the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Pre-school 2 United Kingdom (CELF Preschool 2 UK) are often used in speech-language pathology clinics to determine if a child is at risk of language difficulties. Many of these assessments are designed and standardized for use with monolingual Standard English-speaking children. It is thus recommended that these assessments should only be used with the populations they were designed for; if not test bias might result. However, such tests are still selected and used in the clinics of many multicultural and multilinguistic communities (e.g., Singapore). This research aimed to explore the performance of 79 Singaporean English-Mandarin pre-school children on the Expressive Vocabulary (EV) sub-test of the CELF Preschool 2 UK and to determine if their performance on the EV sub-test accurately reflected their language abilities by comparing their performance on a local screening language assessment tool, the Singapore English Action Picture Test (SEAPT). Results showed that local children performed poorly as compared to their UK counterparts. Two plausible reasons for the findings are: (1) the sub-test elicited only a single measure in English which ignored the language abilities of these bilingual children in their second language; and (2) the presence of culturally and linguistically biased test items. PMID:22335605

Teoh, Wei Qin; Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul

2012-06-01

37

Improved Large Vocabulary Mandarin Speech Recognition Using Prosodic and Lexical Information in Maximum Entropy Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tone plays an important role in distinguishing ambiguous words in Chinese Mandarin speech recognition. In this paper, we make full use of pitch information. On the one hand, we interpolate F0 contour to make the F0 contour continuous between voiced and unvoiced segments in order to embed F0 into speech recognition system in two streams, which cepstrum and its first

Chongjia Ni; Wenju Liu; Bo Xu

2009-01-01

38

Trainable Mentally Handicapped: Protective Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 21 materials for teaching protective vocabulary to trainable mentally handicapped students. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and include…

National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

39

Wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing industry - background information for proposed standards  

SciTech Connect

A Standard of Performance for the control of emissions from wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing facilities is being proposed under authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. This standard would apply to new, modified, or reconstructed wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing lines that utilize the rotary spin forming process and that commence construction on or after the date of proposal of the regulation. This document contains background information and environmental and economic impact assessments of the regulatory alternatives considered in developing the proposed standard. 79 references, 280 tables.

Not Available

1983-12-01

40

Language Experiences and Vocabulary Development in Dominican and Mexican Infants across the First 2 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during interviews…

Song, Lulu; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

2012-01-01

41

Community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constrained clustering has been well-studied in the unsupervised learning society. However, how to encode constraints into community structure detection, within complex networks, remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised learning framework for community structure detection. This framework implicitly encodes the must-link and cannot-link constraints by modifying the adjacency matrix of network, which can also be regarded as de-noising the consensus matrix of community structures. Our proposed method gives consideration to both the topology and the functions (background information) of complex network, which enhances the interpretability of the results. The comparisons performed on both the synthetic benchmarks and the real-world networks show that the proposed framework can significantly improve the community detection performance with few constraints, which makes it an attractive methodology in the analysis of complex networks.

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

2013-02-01

42

Cell Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to cells, organelles, and the plasma membrane. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

43

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Simultaneous Confidence Intervals with more  

E-print Network

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Outline Bounds Illustrations Women's Health Initiative #12;Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence

Stark, Philip B.

44

An introduction to "keeping the 'health' in health communication": a column devoted to interdisciplinary vocabulary.  

PubMed

Health communication research and practice often involve interdisciplinary collaborations. These endeavors include vocabularies associated with the different disciplines and backgrounds of the collaborators. This feature will be devoted to providing glossaries to introduce these vocabularies. PMID:25121633

Parrott, Roxanne

2015-01-01

45

tagging, communities, vocabulary, evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tagging community's vocabulary of tags forms the basis for social navigation and shared expression. We present a user-centric model of vocabulary evolution in tagging com- munities based on community influence and personal ten- dency. We evaluate our model in an emergent tagging sys- tem by introducing tagging features into the MovieLens rec- ommender system. We explore four tag selection

Shilad Sen; Shyong K. Lam; Al Mamunur Rashid; Dan Cosley; Dan Frankowski; Jeremy Osterhouse; F. Maxwell Harper; John Riedl

2006-01-01

46

Building Mathematics Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

Kovarik, Madeline

2010-01-01

47

Vocabulary: Five Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When young readers encounter texts that contain too many unfamiliar words, their comprehension suffers. Reading becomes slow, laborious, and frustrating, impeding their learning. That's why vocabulary knowledge is a key element in reading comprehension. To comprehend fully and learn well, all students need regular vocabulary exploration.…

Padak, Nancy; Bromley, Karen; Rasinski, Tim; Newton, Evangeline

2012-01-01

48

Second Language Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vocabulary knowledge of 166 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners in Taiwan was measured annually over a five year period using a bilingual version of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) (Nation, 1983, 1990; Schmitt, Schmitt, and Clapham, 2001). The five years of data collection involved English language instruction in high school and…

Webb, Stuart Alexander; Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

2012-01-01

49

Math Vocabulary Bingo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"This lesson provides students an opportunity to assess their understanding of mathematical vocabulary as they relate to key concepts from the five content areas. Through the use of a familiar game format, Bingo, students will identify numbers 0-75 that correspond to mathematical descriptions from math vocabulary clue cards" from NCTM's Illuminations).

Nctm

2010-06-03

50

Student-Centered Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher initiates and successfully develops a new method for increasing the vocabulary of eighth grade students. The new method abandons rote-memory techniques for a method which allows the students to choose the words they will learn while participating in the teaching of the new vocabulary. (LF)

Kahle, David J.

1972-01-01

51

Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

Surajlal, K. C.

1986-01-01

52

The Superlearning of Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…

Fillmer, H. Thompson

1983-01-01

53

Invited Commentary: Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While formal research into the effect various technologies have on vocabulary acquisition is still in its infancy, it is clear that--intentionally or incidentally--students have used various electronic media to learn new words for some time now. Moreover, although it is still far from clear exactly how one acquires vocabulary in a second language…

Martinez, Ron; Schmitt, Norbert

2010-01-01

54

Utilizing OODB schema modeling for vocabulary management.  

PubMed Central

Comprehension of complex controlled vocabularies is often difficult. We present a method, facilitated by an object-oriented database, for depicting such a vocabulary (the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) from the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center) in a schematic way which uses a sparse inheritance network of area classes. The resulting Object Oriented Health Vocabulary repository (OOHVR) allows visualization of the 43,000 MED concepts as 90 area classes. This view has provided valuable information to those responsible with maintaining the MED. As a result, the MED organization has been improved and some previously-unrecognized errors and inconsistencies have been removed. We believe that this schematic approach allows improved comprehension of the gestalt of large controlled medical vocabulary. PMID:8947671

Gu, H.; Cimino, J. J.; Halper, M.; Geller, J.; Perl, Y.

1996-01-01

55

Playing Games: Vocabulary Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding ways to keep students active and engaged in the classroom is not easy. Introducing a game like Vocabulary Survival in which students are allowed to compete while also learning moral concepts can create a fun and successful learning environment.

Dea, Sara

2011-02-01

56

Geospatial Revolution: GIS Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive based on Penn State Public Broadcasting’s Geospatial Revolution project, learn vocabulary that has developed with the growth of GIS, watch relevant videos and check your understanding of those words using the embedded assessment.

Wpsu

2010-10-12

57

Semantic representation of CDC-PHIN vocabulary using Simple Knowledge Organization System.  

PubMed

PHIN Vocabulary Access and Distribution System (VADS) promotes the use of standards based vocabulary within CDC information systems. However, the current PHIN vocabulary representation hinders its wide adoption. Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C draft specification to support the formal representation of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) within the framework of the Semantic Web. We present a method of adopting SKOS to represent PHIN vocabulary in order to enable automated information sharing and integration. PMID:18999292

Zhu, Min; Mirhaji, Parsa

2008-01-01

58

Math Vocabulary Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These math vocabulary cards are available as both an iOS app and as a web app. Each card features three sections: a math term, a representative example or model, and a concise definition. The user can choose which of the three they want to be visible and which they would like students to identify. The teacher can choose which vocabulary terms the students will view based on grade, math topic, and even specific word selection from the given list.

Innovations, Clarity

2014-01-01

59

Building Digital Collections: Technical Information and Background Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced on May 9, this newly updated site from the Library of Congress National Digital Library Program (NDLP) documents "technical activities relating to the procedures and practices employed by the NDLP, and its precursor American Memory Program, over the past decade." Of use to anyone involved in digital library projects, the highlight of the site is probably the Building Digital Collections section, which links to the technical documents (included with most American Memory Collections) describing how the collection was digitized and what technology was used. The site also contains descriptions of technical practices, workflow production, and a selection of background papers.

60

Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

Rosenblatt, D.H.

1996-11-01

61

HIGH INTEREST-LOW VOCABULARY READING MATERIALS. 1967 SUPPLEMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

APPROXIMATELY 900 TITLES PUBLISHED BETWEEN 1959 AND 1966 ARE GRADED BY VOCABULARY LEVEL (RANGING FROM GRADE 1 TO GRADE 7 AND UP) AND INTEREST LEVEL (RANGING FROM KINDERGARTEN TO GRADE 12). EASY VOCABULARY, HIGH INTEREST LEVEL BOOKS ARE INCLUDED. THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION IS PRESENTED FOR EACH BOOK--(1) TITLE, (2) AUTHOR, (3) PUBLISHER, (4)…

CULLITON, THOMAS E., JR.; TOLMAN, LORRAINE E.

62

Using a Generative Vocabulary Matrix in the Learning Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As teachers organize classroom schedules to meet curricular demands and time constraints, they strive to seek ways to motivate and sustain student engagement in quality vocabulary instruction, enjoyable learning experiences, and interesting informational books. This article addresses these concerns and describes a vocabulary acquisition strategy…

Larson, Sue C.

2014-01-01

63

Service Learning: Flooding Students with Vocabulary through Read Alouds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.

Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith

2014-01-01

64

Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nat

65

Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very nearly the speed of light. Optical studies of a December 1997 burst (GRB 971214) indicated a distance for it of nearly 12 billion light-years. With distances known, astronomers could calculate the amount of energy released during the explosion. The answers were astounding. GRB 970508, in a mere 15 seconds, released nearly ten times more energy than our Sun will release in its entire, 10-billion-year lifetime. GRB 971214, for one or two seconds, outshone the entire rest of the universe. These energies ruled out many of the numerous theories for the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts that had arisen over the previous three decades. Many answers about the origins of Gamma Ray Bursts and the physics of the fireballs will come from radio telescopes. The VLA, with its combination of sensitivity and resolving power, "has a unique role to play in deciphering GRB fireball physics," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. First, radio astronomers can see the GRB fireball far longer than it is visible at other wavelengths. A Gamma Ray Burst is visible in the gamma rays for typically seconds or minutes, in X-rays for days, and in visible light for weeks, based on the past year's experience. "With radio telescopes, we can see the fireballs for months, gaining new information every day," said Greg Taylor, also of NRAO in Socorro. "Also, at other wavelengths, they see the emission only as it is rapidly getting weaker. At radio wavelengths, we can study the emission as it rises in strength, peaks, then slowly decays." In addition, radio observations can measure the size of the fireball. "Only radio telescopes can measure the size, and we can do it in three different ways," Frail said. These techniques involve studying the scintillation, or "twinkling" of the radio emission; absorption characteristics of the emission; and, for bright, energetic afterglows, direct measurements of sizes can be made through the great resolving power of continent-wide radio telescope arrays such as t

66

New Directions in Vocabulary Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been great strides made in research on vocabulary in the last 30 years. However, there has been relatively little progress in the development of new vocabulary tests. This may be due in some degree to the impressive contributions made by tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (Nation, 1983; Schmitt et al., 2001) and the Word…

Webb, Stuart A.; Sasao, Yosuke

2013-01-01

67

Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

Lu, M.

2008-01-01

68

High Interest Low Vocabulary Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The annotated bibliography lists approximately 800 high interest-low vocabulary books available in a Missouri child service demonstration center school for learning reading disabled elementary students. Entries are arranged by topic area (e.g. adventure, cats, city life, humor, sea stories, etc.) and included information on reading level, call…

Casey, Joann, Comp.

69

Instant Mapping of American Regional Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it is published in four or five years, the "Dictionary of American Regional English" (DARE) will be the official dictionary of the American Dialect Society. This dictionary will contain information concerning vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammatical forms which are restricted regionally or socially in American speech. One distinctive…

Hirshberg, Jeffrey

70

The Electric Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

Sheils, James

2012-01-01

71

Supporting Math Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing appropriate language support is important for all students and essential to the success of English Language Learners (ELLs), struggling readers, and students with learning disabilities. In a mathematics classroom, the support includes the ongoing development of everyday vocabulary--such as names of fruit and actions such as skipping--and…

Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.; Livers, Stefanie

2009-01-01

72

EFL Vocabulary Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains a set of experimental English language vocabulary tests designed to be used with learners of English as a Second Language (ESL). The tests are graded into 6 levels of difficulty and there are 20 tests at each level. Teachers can use the tests to provide a rough lexical profile of individual students, or to monitor the progress…

Meara, Paul

73

Emotion Vocabulary in Interlanguage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines five factors that may impact the use of second language emotion vocabulary. Considers the impact of language proficiency, gender, and extroversion on the use of emotion words in the advanced French interlanguage of 29 native Dutch speakers, and examines influence of sociocultural competence, gender, and type of linguistic material on use…

Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Pavlenko, Aneta

2002-01-01

74

Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

2014-05-01

75

Children with Developmental Language Impairment Have Vocabulary Deficits Characterized by Limited Breadth and Depth  

PubMed Central

Background Deficient vocabulary is a frequently reported symptom of developmental language impairment but the nature of the deficit and its developmental course are not well documented. Aims We aimed to describe the nature of the deficit in terms of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge and to determine whether the nature and the extent of the deficit change over the school years. Methods A total of 25,681 oral definitions produced by 177 children with developmental language impairment (LI) and 325 grade-mates with normally developing language (ND) in grades 2, 4, 8, and 10 were taken from an existing longitudinal database. We analyzed these for breadth by counting the number of words defined correctly and for depth by determining the amount of information in each correct definition. Via a linear mixed model, we determined whether breadth and depth varied with language diagnosis independent of nonverbal IQ, mothers’ education level, race, gender, income and (for depth only) word. Results Children with LI scored significantly lower than children with ND on breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in all grades. The extent of the deficit did not vary significantly across grades. Language diagnosis was an independent predictor of breadth and depth and as strong a predictor as maternal education. For the LI group, growth in depth relative to breadth was slower than for the ND group. Conclusions Compared to their grade-mates, children with LI have fewer words in their vocabularies and they have shallower knowledge of the words that are in their vocabularies. This deficit persists over developmental time. PMID:23650887

McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob; Bahnsen, Alison; Duff, Dawna

2012-01-01

76

Students Seeking Access to Four-Year Institutions: Community College Transfers [Background Information].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides background information for a hearing by the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education and Outreach on December 3, 1997. The Introduction presents the Committee announcement, press release, agenda, information about transfer efforts in California, facts and figures about the community colleges, and the text of…

Moore, Jamillah

77

Information Loss Paradox Tested on Chiral Fermion Coupled to a Background Dilatonic Field  

E-print Network

A model where chiral boson is coupled to a background dilatonic field is considered to study the s-wave scattering of fermion by a back ground dilatonic black hole. Unlike the conclusion drawn in \\cite{MIT} it is found that the presence of chiral fermion does not violate unitarity and information remains preserved. Regularization plays a crucial role on the information paradox.

Anisur Rahaman

2006-07-24

78

Vocabulary Development Using Visual Displays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kindergarten teachers use a variety of strategies that focus on vocabulary development. A common and effective practice to introduce new vocabulary to kindergarteners is reading storybooks to children, what is commonly known as "read-alouds" (Bus, van Ijzendoorn, & Pelligrini, 1995; Christ & Wang, 2010; Newton, Padak &…

McKenzie, Ellen

2014-01-01

79

Making Connections in Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary teaching and learning constitute a major problem for EFL instructors and students. The pretest showed that freshman students at COLT have difficulty in pronouncing, recognizing the meaning of, using and spelling English words. In their first semester, freshman students are required to take a vocabulary course that consists of 50 lessons…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2006-01-01

80

The State of Vocabulary Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

2011-01-01

81

Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…

Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

2009-01-01

82

A moving ship detection based on edge information of single image and background subtraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship detection based on video is important in the application of surveillance and marine safety, the detection results of tradition methods, such as background subtraction, have much noise because of background noise such as ocean wave. In this paper we present a simple but efficient method for ship detection, It is based on the edge information of single image and movement information of multi images. Firstly, detect those movement pixels used the background subtraction to the video image, and the distance transformation is operation on the difference images; Secondly, we detect the edge of video image used Canny detector , and morphological operation on the edge image, lastly, eliminate the movement pixels if their distance transformation value is bigger than the threshold. The experimental results demonstrate that is efficient to eliminate the background noise and detect the real target.

Shi, Tingyan; Yang, Lichun; Liu, Zhicheng

2013-10-01

83

Teaching Science Vocabulary with "The Shape of a Moon's Orbit"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading strategy guide in a series of guides that utilizes articles from the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) program. These strategy guides provide teachers of middle school students with a reading strategy (in this case, Teaching Science Vocabulary) and supplemental resources, background information on that strategy, connections to standards, classroom implementation techniques, tips for utilizing this strategy with students with dyslexia, and a two-page reading based on a particular space science concept. The reading incorporated into this strategy guide, "The Shape of a Moon's Orbit," describes the orbital path, or trajectory, of Dione, one of Saturn's many moons. Through description and diagrammatic models, the article demonstrates how Dione orbits Saturn in a wavy path, rather than in a perfectly circular pattern, as a result of the gravitational pull of the Sun. This strategy guide is also mapped to the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts Literacy in Science & Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8.

84

Teaching Vocabulary Awareness with "Observing Stars"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading strategy guide in a series of guides that utilizes articles from the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) program. These strategy guides provide teachers of middle school students with a reading strategy (in this case, Teaching Vocabulary Awareness) and supplemental resources, background information on that strategy, connections to standards, classroom implementation techniques, tips for utilizing this strategy with students with dyslexia, and a two-page reading based on a particular space science concept. The reading incorporated into this strategy guide, "Observing Stars," describes the process scientists use to observe and collect evidence about the life cycle of a star. Students will encounter the following challenging terms in this article: remnants, nebula, nebulae, supernova, and neutron star. This strategy guide is also mapped to the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts Literacy in Science & Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8.

85

Factors that Influence Vocabulary Development in Two-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This research explored the relative impact of demographic, cognitive, behavioural, and psycholinguistic factors on vocabulary development in two-year-old children. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two children (24-30 months) were tested on expressive and receptive vocabulary, cognitive development, word learning and working memory…

Stokes, Stephanie F.; Klee, Thomas

2009-01-01

86

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

87

Ohio's Literacy Situation. Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services for Literacy. Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by participants in the Ohio Preconference and the 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services (WHCLIS), this background paper on one of the three major WHCLIS themes examines Ohio's literacy problem and reviews the state's current literacy programs and funding sources. Definitions of terms, a brief history of…

Luther, Barbara

88

Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

1982-03-01

89

Part 1: Background Information Part 1 will cover APEX Scope, Phases, Process, "How we got here",  

E-print Network

APEX Part 1: Background Information · Part 1 will cover APEX Scope, Phases, Process, "How we got for the Chamber Technology that might: 1. In the near-term: enable plasma experiments to more fully achieve, particulate bed, spray cooling, liquid walls, etc.) External Events: Snowmass and its impact - The physics

California at Los Angeles, University of

90

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2009Operating System Concepts 8th Edition, Lecture 15: Background Information  

E-print Network

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009Operating System Concepts ­ 8th Edition, Lecture 15: Background Information for the VMWare ESX Memory Management paper #12;14.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009OperatingKB of data each. How much physical memory needed with shared pages? #12;14.3 Silberschatz, Galvin

Iamnitchi, Adriana

91

Vocabularies and Vocabulary Structure: A New Approach Linking Categories, Practices, and Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational scholars have long used vocabularies, and with the rise of research on language this work has grown. Yet the research drawing on vocabularies is wide-ranging and not integrated. We review work on vocabularies from literatures on rhetoric, culture, cognition, and coordination. We integrate and extend this work on vocabularies, introducing the new concept of vocabulary structure to capture different

Jeffrey Loewenstein; William Ocasio; Candace Jones

2012-01-01

92

Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 14 essays on reading and vocabulary learning in second language acquisition. Chapters include: "Research on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: Putting It in Context" (James Coady); "Implications for L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Instruction From L1 Vocabulary Research" (Fredricka Stoller and William Grabe); "Patterns and Perils of…

Huckin, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

93

Molecular Biology Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to molecular biology, including DNA and RNA structure and function, transcription and translation. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

94

A virtual vocabulary speech recognizer  

E-print Network

A system for the automatic recognition of human speech is described. A commercially available speech recognizer sees its recognition vocabulary increased through the use of virtual memory management techniques. central to ...

Pathe, Peter D

1983-01-01

95

Translating Vocabulary Research to Social Studies Instruction: Before, during, and after Text-Reading Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the upper elementary grades, content-area text gains increasing importance as a primary source of reading and information. This article focuses on the specialized vocabulary demands of social studies texts and presents a framework of teaching and learning strategies based on vocabulary research. Strategies are introduced before, during, and…

Hairrell, Angela; Simmons, Deborah; Swanson, Elizabeth; Edmonds, Meaghan; Vaughn, Sharon; Rupley, William H.

2011-01-01

96

Progress Report on the Development of a Laser/Maser Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a laser/maser vocabulary follows the pattern established earlier in two similar projects--(1) Development of a Multi-Coordinate Vocabulary--Chemical Physics, and (2) Development of a Multi-Coordinate Index--Plasma Physics. A set of lists of terms judged to be important to a user of information was developed by a specialist in…

Lerner, Rita G.

97

New Ways in Teaching Vocabulary. New Ways in TESOL Series: Innovative Classroom Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is a collection of practical ideas for teaching vocabulary and vocabulary development skills to learners of a second language. Most are contributed by teachers of English as a Second Language, but the activities may be appropriate for teaching other languages. Each idea is described briefly, with information given about appropriate…

Nation, Paul, Ed.

98

Distinguishing vegetation from soil background information. [by gray mapping of Landsat MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In aircraft and satellite multispectral scanner data, soil background signals are superimposed on or intermingled with information about vegetation. A procedure which accounts for soil background would, therefore, make a considerable contribution to an operational use of Landsat and other spectral data for monitoring the productivity of range, forest, and crop lands. A description is presented of an investigation which was conducted to obtain information for the development of such a procedure. The investigation included a study of the soil reflectance that supplies the background signal of vegetated surfaces. Landsat data as recorded on computer compatible tapes were used in the study. The results of the investigation are discussed, taking into account a study reported by Kauth and Thomas (1976). Attention is given to the determination of Kauth's plane of soils, sun angle effects, vegetation index modeling, and the evaluation of vegetation indexes. Graphs are presented which show the results obtained with a gray mapping technique. The technique makes it possible to display plant, soil, water, and cloud conditions for any Landsat overpass.

Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.

1977-01-01

99

Large Vocabulary, Multilingual Speech Recognition: Session Overview  

E-print Network

Large Vocabulary, Multilingual Speech Recognition: Session Overview Lori LAMEL, Yoshinori SAGISAKA developed for a given language provide cruical input to speech recognition technology world-wide. However associate knowledge on speaker-independent, large vocabulary, continuous speech recognition technology among

100

Teaching Vocabulary in Storybooks: Embedding Explicit Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary instruction is a critical component of early language and literacy programs. Vocabulary skills in the early elementary school years are strong predictors of later reading achievement and there is a correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Children who have limited vocabulary in kindergarten are at high risk of…

Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth

2012-01-01

101

The Effects of Individualized, Online Vocabulary Instruction on Picture Vocabulary Scores: An Efficacy Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is of fundamental importance to reading comprehension, and many students lack the vocabulary knowledge necessary to facilitate learning to read. A study was conducted to determine the effects of an individualized, online vocabulary program on picture vocabulary test scores. Elementary summer school students (N = 43), entering…

Fehr, Charles N.; Davison, Mark L.; Graves, Michael F.; Sales, Gregory C.; Seipel, Ben; Sekhran-Sharma, Sarah

2012-01-01

102

The use of prior information for extracting the post-edge background.  

PubMed

A new method for extracting the post-edge background mu0 is proposed, the method of Bayesian smoothing. A further evolution of the smoothing spline method is considered as well. Both techniques are capable to take into account prior information about the peculiarities on the mu0. In addition, since the Bayesian approach works in terms of the posterior probability density functions, it contains a natural way to determine the errors of the mu0 construction, which has always been an unresolvable problem for any other method. Even with use of the prior information, which narrows the posterior probabilities, the errors of mu0 are shown to be larger than the experimental noise. PMID:11512751

Klementev, K V

2001-03-01

103

Exploring and Developing Consumer Health Vocabularies  

PubMed Central

Laypersons (“consumers”) often have difficulty finding, understanding, and acting on health information due to gaps in their domain knowledge. Ideally, consumer health vocabularies (CHVs) would reflect the different ways consumers express and think about health topics, helping to bridge this vocabulary gap. However, despite the recent research on mismatches between consumer and professional language (e.g., lexical, semantic, and explanatory), there have been few systematic efforts to develop and evaluate CHVs. This paper presents the point of view that CHV development is practical and necessary for extending research on informatics-based tools to facilitate consumer health information seeking, retrieval, and understanding. In support of the view, we briefly describe a distributed, bottom-up approach for (1) exploring the relationship between common consumer health expressions and professional concepts and (2) developing an open-access, preliminary (draft) “first-generation” CHV. While recognizing the limitations of the approach (e.g., not addressing psychosocial and cultural factors), we suggest that such exploratory research and development will yield insights into the nature of consumer health expressions and assist developers in creating tools and applications to support consumer health information seeking. PMID:16221948

Zeng, Qing T.; Tse, Tony

2006-01-01

104

The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2012-01-01

105

Teaching Vocabulary Expeditiously: Three Keys to Improving Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating vocabulary games and activities more often into the structure of the day, Thomas B. Smith establishes a word-rich environment for high school students to experiment with unfamiliar words in varying, playful contexts. Smith asserts that giving frequent opportunities for hearing, speaking, and writing in the typical context of the day is…

Smith, Thomas B.

2008-01-01

106

Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

2010-01-01

107

A Hybrid Method for Determining Technical Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of technical vocabulary has become increasingly important over the last few decades along with the advances in various subject disciplines. ESP teachers and book authors need to know what words are considered technical vocabulary when creating ESP learning materials. LSP lexicographers need to know how to determine technical vocabulary

Kwary, Deny Arnos

2011-01-01

108

Character Trait Vocabulary: A Schoolwide Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has documented the large differences in young children's vocabulary knowledge. In light of the strong relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension, this gap is particularly worrisome and points to the critical need for well-articulated vocabulary instruction across the grades. The author describes character trait…

Manyak, Patrick

2007-01-01

109

Controlled vocabularies and ontologies in proteomics: overview, principles and practice.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the use of controlled vocabularies (CVs) and ontologies especially in the area of proteomics, primarily related to the work of the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI). It describes the relevant proteomics standard formats and the ontologies used within them. Software and tools for working with these ontology files are also discussed. The article also examines the "mapping files" used to ensure correct controlled vocabulary terms that are placed within PSI standards and the fulfillment of the MIAPE (Minimum Information about a Proteomics Experiment) requirements. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan. PMID:23429179

Mayer, Gerhard; Jones, Andrew R; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Deutsch, Eric W; Orchard, Sandra; Montecchi-Palazzi, Luisa; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Oveillero, David; Julian, Randall; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Eisenacher, Martin

2014-01-01

110

Controlled vocabularies and ontologies in proteomics: Overview, principles and practice?  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on the use of controlled vocabularies (CVs) and ontologies especially in the area of proteomics, primarily related to the work of the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI). It describes the relevant proteomics standard formats and the ontologies used within them. Software and tools for working with these ontology files are also discussed. The article also examines the “mapping files” used to ensure correct controlled vocabulary terms that are placed within PSI standards and the fulfillment of the MIAPE (Minimum Information about a Proteomics Experiment) requirements. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan. PMID:23429179

Mayer, Gerhard; Jones, Andrew R.; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Deutsch, Eric W.; Orchard, Sandra; Montecchi-Palazzi, Luisa; Vizcaino, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Oveillero, David; Julian, Randall; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E.; Eisenacher, Martin

2014-01-01

111

Improving Reading Comprehension through Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An action research project described an implementation of vocabulary strategies designed to increase reading comprehension. The targeted population consisted of inner city elementary students located in central Illinois. Research shows that some children from low-income environments have below average reading abilities. Analysis of probable cause…

Berg, Andy; Cressman, Kelley Shea; Pfanz, Tomi

112

Multisensory Strategies for Science Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeing, touching, smelling, hearing, and learning! The authors observed that their English Language Learner (ELL) students achieved a deeper understanding of the properties of matter, as well as enhanced vocabulary development, when they were guided through inquiry-based, multisensory explorations that repeatedly exposed them to words and…

Husty, Sandra; Jackson, Julie

2008-01-01

113

A New Academic Vocabulary List  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…

Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

2014-01-01

114

Environmental Influences on the Longitudinal Covariance of Expressive Vocabulary: Measuring the Home Literacy Environment in a Genetically Sensitive Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite the well-replicated relationship between the home literacy environment and expressive vocabulary, few studies have examined the extent to which the home literacy environment is associated with the development of early vocabulary ability in the context of genetic influences. This study examined the influence of the home literacy…

Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; DeThorne, Laura S.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee A.; Schatschneider, Chris; Cutting, Laurie E.

2009-01-01

115

When Eastern and Western Language Systems Meet: Crossing the English Vocabulary Threshold Versus Breaking the Kanji Barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many lessons can be learned from relevant research in vocabulary- and language-learning strategy training as well as from comparative studies of those learning Oriental languages, which could greatly help language teachers and learners in Kanji-background countries. This article contrasts the minimal threshold levels of vocabulary needed for reading common English text, versus that required for reading basic texts using Kanji

John Paul Loucky

2005-01-01

116

Background information on high temperature insulation for liquid-immersed power transformers  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the availability of insulation materials having a higher temperature rating than cellulose had led to the design of high temperature power transformers for specialized applications where size and weight are important considerations. Such applications include traction transformers, mobile transformers, and power transformers with special loading requirements. Even through such equipment has been in use for many years, there are presently no standards which address high temperature materials in liquid-immersed transformers. Recognizing this deficiency, the IEEE Transformers Committee has established a Working Group to investigate what standards or guides could be formulated. As a first step, the Working Group has prepared this state-of-the-art paper to document background information on the materials and their application. It is hoped that discussion of this paper will help to establish future directions for standards.

Not Available

1994-10-01

117

New concepts for building vocabulary for cell image ontologies  

PubMed Central

Background There are significant challenges associated with the building of ontologies for cell biology experiments including the large numbers of terms and their synonyms. These challenges make it difficult to simultaneously query data from multiple experiments or ontologies. If vocabulary terms were consistently used and reused across and within ontologies, queries would be possible through shared terms. One approach to achieving this is to strictly control the terms used in ontologies in the form of a pre-defined schema, but this approach limits the individual researcher's ability to create new terms when needed to describe new experiments. Results Here, we propose the use of a limited number of highly reusable common root terms, and rules for an experimentalist to locally expand terms by adding more specific terms under more general root terms to form specific new vocabulary hierarchies that can be used to build ontologies. We illustrate the application of the method to build vocabularies and a prototype database for cell images that uses a visual data-tree of terms to facilitate sophisticated queries based on a experimental parameters. We demonstrate how the terminology might be extended by adding new vocabulary terms into the hierarchy of terms in an evolving process. In this approach, image data and metadata are handled separately, so we also describe a robust file-naming scheme to unambiguously identify image and other files associated with each metadata value. The prototype database http://sbd.nist.gov/ consists of more than 2000 images of cells and benchmark materials, and 163 metadata terms that describe experimental details, including many details about cell culture and handling. Image files of interest can be retrieved, and their data can be compared, by choosing one or more relevant metadata values as search terms. Metadata values for any dataset can be compared with corresponding values of another dataset through logical operations. Conclusions Organizing metadata for cell imaging experiments under a framework of rules that include highly reused root terms will facilitate the addition of new terms into a vocabulary hierarchy and encourage the reuse of terms. These vocabulary hierarchies can be converted into XML schema or RDF graphs for displaying and querying, but this is not necessary for using it to annotate cell images. Vocabulary data trees from multiple experiments or laboratories can be aligned at the root terms to facilitate query development. This approach of developing vocabularies is compatible with the major advances in database technology and could be used for building the Semantic Web. PMID:22188658

2011-01-01

118

Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

2013-10-01

119

Planned NLM/AHCPR large-scale vocabulary test: using UMLS technology to determine the extent to which controlled vocabularies cover terminology needed for health care and public health.  

PubMed

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) are sponsoring a test to determine the extent to which a combination of existing health-related terminologies covers vocabulary needed in health information systems. The test vocabularies are the 30 that are fully or partially represented in the 1996 edition of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, plus three planned additions: the portions of SNOMED International not in the 1996 Metathesaurus Read Clinical Classification, and the Logical Observations Identifiers, Names, and Codes (LOINC) system. These vocabularies are available to testers through a special interface to the Internet-based UMLS Knowledge Source Server. The test will determine the ability of the test vocabularies to serve as a source of controlled vocabulary for health data systems and applications. It should provide the basis for realistic resource estimates for developing and maintaining a comprehensive "standard" health vocabulary that is based on existing terminologies. PMID:8816351

Humphreys, B L; Hole, W T; McCray, A T; Fitzmaurice, J M

1996-01-01

120

ARTICULATORY TRAJECTORIES FOR LARGE-VOCABULARY SPEECH RECOGNITION Vikramjit Mitra1  

E-print Network

ARTICULATORY TRAJECTORIES FOR LARGE-VOCABULARY SPEECH RECOGNITION Vikramjit Mitra1 , Wen Wang1 and can potentially help to improve speech recognition performance. Most of the studies involving used such features for speech recognition. Speech recognition studies using articulatory information

Stolcke, Andreas

121

How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish-English bilinguals  

PubMed Central

Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26; 2;6 yrs). Between-language associations were weak: vocabulary size in Spanish was uncorrelated with vocabulary in English, and children’s facility in online comprehension in Spanish was unrelated to their facility in English. Instead, efficiency of online processing in one language was significantly related to vocabulary size in that language, after controlling for processing speed and vocabulary size in the other language. These links between efficiency of lexical access and vocabulary knowledge in bilinguals parallel those previously reported for Spanish and English monolinguals, suggesting that children’s ability to abstract information from the input in building a working lexicon relates fundamentally to mechanisms underlying the construction of language. PMID:19726000

Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

2010-01-01

122

2003 --Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT-BACKGROUND COLOR  

E-print Network

and the other consisted of information on a fictitious TV/DVD player. After studying each page they completed that the relationship between font/background color combinations and outcomes is complex and often inconsistent with web background (negative text) is almost as good. Although the contrast ratio is the same as for positive text

Missouri-Rolla, University of

123

Re-use of standard ontologies in a water quality vocabulary (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations provide the key constraints on environmental and earth science investigations. Where an investigation uses data sourced from multiple providers, data fusion depends on the observation classifications being comparable. Standard models for observation metadata are available (ISO 19156) which provide slots for key classifiers, in particular, the observed property and observation procedure. While universal use of common vocabularies might be desirable in achieving interoperability, this is unlikely in practice. However, semantic web vocabularies provide the means for asserting proximity and other relationships between items in different vocabularies, thus enabling mediation as an interoperability solution. Here we report on the development of a vocabulary for water quality observations in which recording relationships with existing vocabularies was a core strategy. The vocabulary is required to enable combination of a number of groundwater, surface water and marine water quality datasets on an ongoing basis. Our vocabulary model is based on the principle that observations generally report values of specific parameters which are defined by combining a number of facets. We start from Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Data Types (QUDT), which is an OWL ontology developed by NASA and TopQuadrant. We extend this with two additional classes, for Observed Property and Identified Object, and two linking properties, which enable us to create an observed property vocabulary for water quality applications. This ontology is comparable with models for observed properties developed as part of OGC's Observations and Measurements v1.0 standard, the INSPIRE Generic Conceptual Model, and may also be compared with the W3C SSN Ontology, which is based on the DOLCE Ultralite upper-ontology. Water quality observations commonly report concentrations of chemicals, both natural and contaminant, so we tie many of the Identified Objects to items from Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI). ChEBI is an OWL-based dictionary of over 70 000 molecular entities, based on existing scientific work and linked through to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Nomenclature. Within the model the relevant classes, including those from QUDT, are declared to be subclasses of SKOS Concept, so the resulting vocabularies may be directly mapped to other SKOS-based vocabularies, such as from the NERC Vocabulary Service or the Marine Metadata Initiative, using SKOS predicates. Where the external vocabularies are not published with persistent URIs, such as CUAHSI, the mapping may be recorded more informally using annotations, or use proxy URIs for the external vocabulary. The resulting SKOS vocabularies demonstrate a separation of governance of key definitions such as units and quantities and chemical entities, ensuring reuse where possible and extending and adding detail where necessary.

Cox, S. J.; Simons, B.; Yu, J.

2013-12-01

124

Two Languages, One Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cultures (scientific and clinical) speaking different theoretical languages reside in psychology. The categorical structure of scientific language is based on sensorially, linearly, and analytically formatted cognitive processes (common sense). The categorical structure of the clinical language is formatted for cognitive processes accommodating nonsensory, nonlinear information about purposive personality processes. Clinically and scientifically oriented psychologists have difficulty communicating with one

Zoltan Gross

2001-01-01

125

Vocabulary Acquisition and Reading Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lexical acquisition ability for aurally taught words was studied in fourth- grade children. Reading ability, intelligence,\\u000a and working memory were evaluated as predictor factors in vocabulary learning. Reading ability was found to predict facility\\u000a at learning the novel phonological sequences, while intelligence was the only factor which accounted for performance level\\u000a for the semantic content of the words. The working

Linda Aguiar; Susan Brady

126

Multisensory Strategies for Science Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Seeing, touching, smelling, hearing, and learning! The authors observed that their English Language Learner (ELL) students achieved a deeper understanding of the properties of matter, as well as enhanced vocabulary development, when they were guided through inquiry-based, multisensory explorations that repeatedly exposed them to words and definitions in context. In this article, they describe their experiences using a multisensory approach with a group of third-grade students who are classified as ELL.

Jackson, Julie; Husty, Sandra

2008-12-01

127

Learning Strategies for Vocabulary Development 105 Learning Strategies for  

E-print Network

Learning Strategies for Vocabulary Development 105 Learning Strategies for Vocabulary Development of changes in vocabulary learning strategies and how these changes are related to vocabulary development. One in Singapore answered a vocabulary learning questionnaire at the beginning and end of the programme

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

128

Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information  

SciTech Connect

This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

None

1980-11-01

129

Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background  

E-print Network

We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.

Misao Sasaki; Dong-han Yeom

2014-04-06

130

Extracting Enterprise Vocabularies Using Linked Open Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common vocabulary is vital to smooth business operation, yet codifying and maintaining an enterprise vocabulary is an arduous,\\u000a manual task. We describe a process to automatically extract a domain specific vocabulary (terms and types) from unstructured\\u000a data in the enterprise guided by term definitions in Linked Open Data (LOD). We validate our techniques by applying them to\\u000a the IT

Julian Dolby; Achille Fokoue; Aditya Kalyanpur; Edith Schonberg; Kavitha Srinivas

2009-01-01

131

Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to mitosis, meiosis and fertilization. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

132

Perseus Greek and Latin Vocabulary Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Perseus Digital Library of Tufts University (first discussed in the October 17, 1997 Scout Report) has just introduced the Perseus Vocabulary Tool, intended to help users of texts in the Perseus Digital Library build word lists based on those texts. The tool shows the frequency of words used by specific authors or in specific texts, and identifies key terms for building vocabulary lists. For each vocabulary word, a pop-up window containing the definition, part of speech, and word gender, plus links are given. It's a good idea to check out the help page before embarking on a journey through the Perseus Vocabulary Tool.

2001-01-01

133

American Holidays: Exploring Traditions, Customs and Backgrounds. Vocabureader Workbook 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The workbook is an English vocabulary development text focusing on words associated with traditions, customs, and background of holidays celebrated in the United States, and in some cases also in Canada and elsewhere. The special vocabulary is presented in seventeen readings, written in repetitive style so the student can learn the definitions of…

Klebanow, Barbara; Fischer, Sara

134

The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention  

E-print Network

Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary...

Kong, Na Young

2013-05-31

135

Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Young English Language Learners.  

E-print Network

?? A vocabulary intervention during shared storybook reading was implemented with 22 Spanish-English bilingual children. One intervention consisted of English expansions of vocabulary words and… (more)

Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.

2007-01-01

136

Rat Strain Ontology: structured controlled vocabulary designed to facilitate access to strain data at RGD  

PubMed Central

Background The Rat Genome Database (RGD) ( http://rgd.mcw.edu/) is the premier site for comprehensive data on the different strains of the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). The strain data are collected from various publications, direct submissions from individual researchers, and rat providers worldwide. Rat strain, substrain designation and nomenclature follow the Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains, instituted by the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. While symbols and names aid in identifying strains correctly, the flat nature of this information prohibits easy search and retrieval, as well as other data mining functions. In order to improve these functionalities, particularly in ontology-based tools, the Rat Strain Ontology (RS) was developed. Results The Rat Strain Ontology (RS) reflects the breeding history, parental background, and genetic manipulation of rat strains. This controlled vocabulary organizes strains by type: inbred, outbred, chromosome altered, congenic, mutant and so on. In addition, under the chromosome altered category, strains are organized by chromosome, and further by type of manipulations, such as mutant or congenic. This allows users to easily retrieve strains of interest with modifications in specific genomic regions. The ontology was developed using the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) file format, and is organized on the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structure. Rat Strain Ontology IDs are included as part of the strain report (RS: ######). Conclusions As rat researchers are often unaware of the number of substrains or altered strains within a breeding line, this vocabulary now provides an easy way to retrieve all substrains and accompanying information. Its usefulness is particularly evident in tools such as the PhenoMiner at RGD, where users can now easily retrieve phenotype measurement data for related strains, strains with similar backgrounds or those with similar introgressed regions. This controlled vocabulary also allows better retrieval and filtering for QTLs and in genomic tools such as the GViewer. The Rat Strain Ontology has been incorporated into the RGD Ontology Browser ( http://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/ontology/view.html?acc_id=RS:0000457#s) and is available through the National Center for Biomedical Ontology ( http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/1150) or the RGD ftp site ( ftp://rgd.mcw.edu/pub/ontology/rat_strain/). PMID:24267899

2013-01-01

137

Is Form-Focused Vocabulary Instruction Worthwhile?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hearing stories can result in considerable incidental vocabulary development, for both first and second language acquisition (e.g. Elley 1992; Robbins and Ehri 1994; Senechal, LeFevre, Hudson and Lawson 1996). It has also been claimed, however, that direct instruction is more effective than incidental vocabulary acquisition and that combining both…

Mason, Beniko; Krashen, Stephen

2004-01-01

138

Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

Nisbet, Deanna L.

2010-01-01

139

Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary

Sparks, Sarah D.

2013-01-01

140

Morphological Analysis and Vocabulary Development: Critical Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological Analysis as a vocabulary acquisition strategy has both its advocates and antagonists. Criticism from opponents is often warranted when programs omit one or more of the three critical criteria that establish the framework behind a successful curriculum. The intent behind this paper is to disseminate and explicate these three criteria, along with the methodology employed in a vocabulary acquisition

Tom S. Bellomo

2009-01-01

141

Hypermedia and Vocabulary Acquisition for Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of multimedia as a delivery tool for enhancing vocabulary in second-language classrooms. The mixed method design focused on specific techniques to help students acquire Spanish vocabulary and communication skills. The theoretical framework for this study consisted of second language theories…

Meli, Rocio

2009-01-01

142

Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…

Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

2006-01-01

143

Evaluation of CALL: Initial Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary learning theory suggests that productive recall should strengthen learning of new vocabulary items (Nation, 2001). CALL can provide both the opportunities for productive recall and the feedback to motivate repeated efforts to reproduce new items. The latter capability appears to give CALL some advantages over paper-based exercises, in…

Allum, Paul

2004-01-01

144

Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

2007-01-01

145

The Teacher's Mediation in Students' Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three stages of teaching second language vocabulary are examined using examples of typical situations for Poles learning English. A basic assumption is that the vocabulary of any two languages, especially Indo-European languages, exhibits both ethnological and accidental similarity. The first stage is to make the phonic, or graphic, or both forms,…

Krakowian, Bogdan

146

Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary

Feezell, Greg

2012-01-01

147

A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

Labrie, Gilles

2000-01-01

148

Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

2012-01-01

149

Adapted Vocabularies for Generic Visual Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several state-of-the-art Generic Visual Categorization (GVC) systems are built around a vocabulary of visual terms and char- acterize images with one histogram of visual word counts. We propose a novel and practical approach to GVC based on a universal vocabu- lary, which describes the content of all the considered classes of images, and class vocabularies obtained through the adaptation of

Florent Perronnin; Christopher R. Dance; Gabriela Csurka; Marco Bressan

2006-01-01

150

All Student Background Information (Calculus-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete this questionnaire. The information you provide will help  

E-print Network

. Computer Science D. Engineering E. Mathematics 32. A. Pre-medical B. Physics/Astrophysics C. Social ScienceAll Student Background Information (Calculus-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete this questionnaire. The information you provide will help the Physics Department evaluate the usefulness

Minnesota, University of

151

Background for Builders--Related Science and Trade Information for the Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primarily intended for instructors but also useful to students, this guide provides a set of lessons (interlaced with humorous phrases and cartoons) for teaching fundamental information for the building trades. Each lesson contains objectives, related information, and a review or summary. Unit I is a brief, humorous message to the student on the…

Lucas, Joseph

152

Vocabulary Is Important for Some, but Not All Reading Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for unique variance in exception word reading and reading

Jessie Ricketts; Kate Nation; Dorothy V. M. Bishop

2007-01-01

153

Fluctuation Analysis of the Far-Infrared Background - Information from the Confusion  

E-print Network

We are investigating to what extent one can use a P(D) analysis to extract number counts of unclustered sources from maps of the far infrared background. Currently available such maps, and those expected to emerge in near future are dominated by confusion noise due to poor resolution. We simulate background maps with an underlying two slope model for N(S) and we find that in an experiment of FIRBACK type we can extract the high flux slope with an error of few percent while other parameters are not so well constrained. We find, however, that in a SIRTF type experiment all parameters of this N(S) model can be extracted with errors of only few percent.

Yasmin Friedmann; Francois Bouchet

2003-10-28

154

Risk Factors for Children's Receptive Vocabulary Development from Four to Eight Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children  

PubMed Central

Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4–8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4–8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes increase over time. PMID:24039856

Taylor, Catherine L.; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

155

Word Watching: Learning Vocabulary Becomes a Hobby.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method, developed to make vocabulary learning a creative challenge, that consists of a four-step learning process that makes the student responsible for selecting words to learn daily. (Author/AM)

Kramsch, Claire J.

1979-01-01

156

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1988-01-01

157

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1985-01-01

158

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1982-01-01

159

Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

2014-05-01

160

The Creation and Establishment of Moral Vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The moral vocabularies approach offers a way of examining and organizing the essential moral claims disseminated by a group\\u000a of claimsmakers. Moral claims and understandings are organized internally (in claims and the actions of moral entrepreneurs)\\u000a and externally (how internal moral vocabularies intersect with the larger societal dynamics). This framework seeks to strike\\u000a a theoretical balance between recognizing the essential

Brian M. Lowe

161

Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

Sutter, S. L.

1982-05-01

162

Student Background Information (Algebra-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete this questionnaire. The information you provide will help  

E-print Network

Student Background Information (Algebra-Based Physics) Please take a moment to complete high school math class you completed? a Algebra b Geometry or Trigonometry c Pre-calculus, Functions completed prior to taking this course? a I have not taken a college math class b Algebra, Geometry

Minnesota, University of

163

Exposing SAMOS Data and Vocabularies within the Semantic Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), we at the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) will present the development process for the exposure of quality-controlled data and core vocabularies managed by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative using Semantic Web technologies. Participants in the SAMOS initiative collect continuous navigational (position, course, heading, speed), meteorological (winds, pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity) parameters while at sea. One-minute interval observations are packaged and transmitted back to COAPS via daily emails, where they undergo standardized formatting and quality control. The authors will present methods used to expose these daily datasets. The Semantic Web, a vision of the World Wide Web Consortium, focuses on extending the principles of the web from connecting documents to connecting data. The creation of a web of Linked Data that can be used across different applications in a machine-readable way is the ultimate goal. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard language and format used in the Semantic Web. RDF pages may be queried using the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). The authors will showcase the development of RDF resources that map SAMOS vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies such as those found in the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server. Each individual SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described in an RDF resource page. These RDF resources will define each SAMOS vocabulary term and provide a link to the mapped vocabulary term (or multiple terms) served externally. Along with enhanced retrieval by parameter, time, and location, we will be able to add additional parameters with the confidence that they follow an international standard. The production of RDF resources that link daily SAMOS data to descriptors such as parameters, time and location information, quality assurance reports, and cruise tracks will also be described. The data is housed on a Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) data server, so these RDF resources will enable enhanced retrieval by any of the linked descriptors. We will showcase our collaboration with the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program to develop SPARQL endpoints that distribute SAMOS content. R2R packages and transmits data on a per cruise basis, so an immediate result of the SAMOS exposure will be the narrowing of the gap between expedition type data (e.g. R2R cruises) and SAMOS observatory type data. The authors will present the development of RDF resources that will collectively expose shipboard data, vocabularies, and quality assurance reports in an overall structure which will serve as the basis for a COAPS SPARQL endpoint, enabling easier programmatic access to SAMOS data.

Dockery, Nkemdirim; Elya, Jocelyn; Smith, Shawn

2014-05-01

164

Supporting Young Children's Vocabulary Growth: The Challenges, the Benefits, and Evidence-Based Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complexity of words makes vocabulary development a multi-faceted process that presents challenges to early childhood educators, offers benefits to young learners, and must be supported through evidence-based strategies. All students, regardless of socio-economic status or background, need to make significant gains in receptive and expressive…

Jalongo, Mary Renck; Sobolak, Michelle J.

2011-01-01

165

The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

Kulkofsky, Sarah

2010-01-01

166

Academic Vocabulary, Writing and English for Academic Purposes: Perspectives from Second Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on vocabulary and writing at university level from the perspectives of 14 English as an additional language students studying at a New Zealand university. The students individually carried out an integrated reading and writing task and then participated in an interview which focused on their language learning background and…

Coxhead, Averil

2012-01-01

167

Long-term maintenance of novel vocabulary in persons with chronic aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The study of novel word learning in aphasia can shed light on the functionality of patients' learning mechanisms and potentially help in treatment planning. Previous studies have indicated that persons with aphasia are able to learn some new vocabulary. However, these learning outcomes appear short-lived and evidence for the ability to use the newly learned words in the long

Leena Tuomiranta; Pirkko Rautakoski; Juha O. Rinne; Nadine Martin; Matti Laine

2012-01-01

168

EFL Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention: Reading plus Vocabulary Enhancement Activities and Narrow Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effectiveness of reading plus vocabulary-enhancement activities (RV) and narrow reading (NR)--repeated reading thematically related articles--on vocabulary acquisition and retention among English as a foreign language (EFL) secondary school students. Twenty-five third-year male…

Min, Hui-Tzu

2008-01-01

169

Effects of Four Vocabulary Exercises on Facilitating Learning Vocabulary Meaning, Form, and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims to answer the questions concerning whether composition tasks or blank-filling tasks better facilitate vocabulary learning, which aspect of vocabulary knowledge is enhanced, whether the benefits can be retained over two weeks, and which task is more suitable to foreign language classrooms facing the challenge of time…

Lu, Minhui

2013-01-01

170

The Vocabulary-Rich Classroom: Modeling Sophisticated Word Use to Promote Word Consciousness and Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is a critical contributor to reading, especially reading comprehension. A word-rich classroom environment maximizes students' opportunities to learn new words. The teacher's use of language provides an important model for children's vocabulary development. By modeling the use of sophisticated words, teachers can promote…

Lane, Holly B.; Allen, Stephanie Arriaza

2010-01-01

171

ESL Learners' Vocabulary Use in Writing and the Effects of Explicit Vocabulary Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated vocabulary use in the writing of 65 secondary school multi-grade and multi first language intermediate English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners at a Greater Vancouver public secondary school. Proposes systematic vocabulary instruction based on teacher-directed interaction and negotiation and psycholinguistic principles of word…

Lee, Siok H.

2003-01-01

172

Ground-water protection standards for inactive uranium tailings sites (40 CFR 192): Background information for final rule. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Final Background Information Document summarizes the information and data considered by the Agency in developing the ground-water protection standards. The report presents a brief description of the Title II ground water standard and how it can be used to develop the Title I rulemaking. A description of the 24 designated uranium-tailings sites and their current status in the DOE remedial-action program is included as well as a detailed analysis of the available data on the ground water in the vicinity of 14 of the 24 sites. It also describes different methods that can be used for the restoration of ground water and the costs of using these restoration methods.

Not Available

1989-03-01

173

To Kindle a Flame: Teaching Vocabulary in College Composition Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a vocabulary activity the author uses in first-year composition classes which is effective, interesting, and fun for students who write an ongoing serialized short story with required vocabulary words chosen weekly from assigned student readings. (SR)

McDonald, Jean

1998-01-01

174

BIBLIOGRAPHY Text-to-speech in Vocabulary Acquisition and Student  

E-print Network

BIBLIOGRAPHY Text-to-speech in Vocabulary Acquisition and Student Knowledge Models: a Classroom comprehension." Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing. Pittsburgh, U-assisted vocabulary acquisition in the ESL class

175

A web-based architecture for a medical vocabulary server.  

PubMed Central

For health care providers to share computing resources and medical application programs across different sites, those applications must share a common medical vocabulary. To construct a common vocabulary, researchers must have an architecture that supports collaborative, networked development. In this paper, we present a web-based server architecture for the collaborative development of a medical vocabulary: a system that provides network services in support of medical applications that need a common, controlled medical terminology. The server supports vocabulary browsing and editing and can respond to direct programmatic queries about vocabulary terms. We have tested the programmatic query-response capability of the vocabulary server with a medical application that determines when patients who have HIV infection may be eligible for certain clinical trials. Our emphasis in this paper is not on the content of the vocabulary, but rather on the communication protocol and the tools that enable collaborative improvement of the vocabulary by any network-connected user. PMID:8563284

Gennari, J. H.; Oliver, D. E.; Pratt, W.; Rice, J.; Musen, M. A.

1995-01-01

176

Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

Carrier, Sarah J.

2013-03-01

177

SECONDARY CLASSROOM VOCABULARY: DATA FROM TYPICALLY DEVELOPING STUDENTS  

E-print Network

Students who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) need access to specific vocabulary to participate fully in general education classrooms. To date, there is no research on the vocabulary used in secondary ...

McKim Thomas, Sarah Summer

2012-05-31

178

Mononucleosis Background Information  

E-print Network

or drinks, and by coughing or sneezing. The incubation period (time from exposure to symptoms) is 4 to 6. · No contact sports or strenuous exercise for at least 6 weeks. Trauma to the abdomen may possibly rupture

Suzuki, Masatsugu

179

Background Information for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

2001-01-01

180

The NIFSTD and BIRNLex Vocabularies: Building Comprehensive Ontologies for Neuroscience  

PubMed Central

A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF. PMID:18975148

Bug, William J.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R.; Larson, Stephen D.; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E.

2009-01-01

181

A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

Prevost, Jill K.

182

Vocabulary and verbal fluency of bilingual and monolingual college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the English vocabulary and verbal fluency of college students who were either bilinguals who were born abroad and spoke English or monolingual speakers of English. We examined the relationship between age of arrival to the U.S. of bilinguals and their English vocabulary. The bilinguals’ performance on English vocabulary was in the average range. However, despite arriving to the

José S. Portocarrero; Richard G. Burright; Peter J. Donovick

2007-01-01

183

Using PDA for Undergraduate Student Incidental Vocabulary Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been…

Song, Yanjie; Fox, Robert

2008-01-01

184

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

185

Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

Carrier, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

186

Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

2013-01-01

187

Spellings of Words: A Neglected Facilitator of Vocabulary Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary learning is central to reading ability and academic achievement. Vocabulary researchers and educators have viewed its essence as a process of associating the pronunciations and meanings of words in memory, and they have paid little attention to the contribution that spellings might make to vocabulary learning. We review theory and evidence showing that this is a serious oversight. Once

Linnea C. Ehri; Julie Rosenthal

2007-01-01

188

Focus on the Forms: Recognition Practice in Chinese Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…

Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying

2013-01-01

189

Does input influence uptake? Links between maternal talk, processing speed and vocabulary size in Spanish-learning children.  

PubMed

It is well established that variation in caregivers' speech is associated with language outcomes, yet little is known about the learning principles that mediate these effects. This longitudinal study (n = 27) explores whether Spanish-learning children's early experiences with language predict efficiency in real-time comprehension and vocabulary learning. Measures of mothers' speech at 18 months were examined in relation to children's speech processing efficiency and reported vocabulary at 18 and 24 months. Children of mothers who provided more input at 18 months knew more words and were faster in word recognition at 24 months. Moreover, multiple regression analyses indicated that the influences of caregiver speech on speed of word recognition and vocabulary were largely overlapping. This study provides the first evidence that input shapes children's lexical processing efficiency and that vocabulary growth and increasing facility in spoken word comprehension work together to support the uptake of the information that rich input affords the young language learner. PMID:19046145

Hurtado, Nereyda; Marchman, Virginia A; Fernald, Anne

2008-11-01

190

TR120625-42: Vocabulary Normalization's Impact on IR-Based Concept Location Christopher Uehlinger  

E-print Network

--Tool support is crucial to modern software de- velopment, evolution, and maintenance. Early tools reused not only the code, but artifacts from all phases of software construction and its subsequent evolution.0001). Keywords-vocabulary normalization; information retrieval; concept location I. INTRODUCTION Modern software

Binkley, David W.

191

A Comparison of Undergraduate Students' English Vocabulary Learning: Using Mobile Phones and Flash Cards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowing a foreign language has become crucial to reach information. Learning vocabulary is the fundamental step to learn a foreign language. New devices are invented everyday to fulfill the needs of citizens of the twenty-first century. Increased use of mobile phones has made them popular for not only communication, but also entertainment and…

Basoglu, Emrah Baki; Akdemir, Omur

2010-01-01

192

Dynamic time warping for off-line recognition of a small gesture vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We focus on the visual sensory information to recognize human activity in form of hand-arm movements from a small, predefined vocabulary. We accomplish this task by means of a matching technique by determining the distance between the unknown input and a set of previously defined templates. A dynamic time warping algorithm is used to perform the time alignment and normalization

Andrea Corradini

2001-01-01

193

COMMON TEXTILE VOCABULARIES AND DOCUMENTS A Conceptual Foundation of a Globally Interoperable Textile e-Marketplace  

E-print Network

COMMON TEXTILE VOCABULARIES AND DOCUMENTS A Conceptual Foundation of a Globally Interoperable Textile e-Marketplace Jingzhi Guo and Zhuo Hu Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Macau, Av. Padre Tomás, Pereira, S.J., Taipa, Macau jzguo@umac.mo, ma66571@umac.mo Keywords: Textile

Guo, Jingzhi

194

An Operational System for Subject Switching between Controlled Vocabularies: A Computational Linguistics Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a new automated process that pioneers full-scale operational use of subject switching by the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Facility. The subject switching process routinely translates machine-readable subject terms from one controlled vocabulary into the…

Silvester, June P.; And Others

195

Building Vocabulary to Build Literacy Skills: How to Help Children Build a Rich Vocabulary Day by Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language and vocabulary represent the very foundation of learning to read and write. Children who do not develop strong oral language skills and vocabulary in these early years will find it difficult to keep pace with their peers. Children use the natural medium of language for thinking. Those who acquire a substantial vocabulary are often able to…

Neuman, Susan B.

2006-01-01

196

The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

2014-01-01

197

S'COOL Lesson Plan 57: Vocabulary Art Using Art as a Vocabulary Strategy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this lesson plan students focus on a predetermined vocabulary list, then use the words, definitions, or familiar context to draw (either by hand or on the computer) a picture that depicts that word. Detailed Procedure and Materials, Vocabulary linked to an on-line glossary, and Teacher Notes are provided. This activity is related to the Students' Cloud Observations Online (SâCOOL) project.

2009-01-01

198

Mars Background Information General Information  

E-print Network

as fuel, oxygen or potable water. The Mars Exploration Rovers are will look for evidence of liquid water The atmosphere on Mars is mostly carbon dioxide and at very low pressure. This poses several problems relief than Moon or Earth Elevation range: +27 km (Olympus Mons) to -4km (Hellas Basin) No Liquid water

Dennis, Robert G.

199

Predicting Reading Vocabulary from Selected Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between two dummy variables representing school effect and five self-concept factors were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of these variables in predicting the reading vocabulary of 432 boys and 424 girls in grades three through six. Also, an effort was made to determine if the percentage of criterion variance accounted…

DeVito, Pasquale J.

200

Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

2014-01-01

201

Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

David, Annabelle

2008-01-01

202

Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

2012-01-01

203

Standardizing "HyperVocabulary": A Proposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary used to describe things that are "hyper" is very confusing. This paper discusses four factor which contribute to the confusion: the same idea is often described using different terms; even though people sometimes use the same terms, quite often they are referring to different ideas; people tend to confuse "hyperdocuments" with…

Chen, Der-Thanq

204

Some Comments on Priorities in Vocabulary Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides suggestions for ways of exploring the varied contributions of the classical languages to our vocabulary, as well as advice for those who are involved in the area of classical teaching. Reviews several books, dealing with such topics as Latin and Greek prefixes and suffixes, word bases, and other parallel phenomena of the classical…

Dee, James H.

1984-01-01

205

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Thesaurus -- Volume 2, Access Vocabulary -- contains an alphabetical listing of all Thesaurus terms (postable and nonpostable) and permutations of all multiword and pseudo-multiword terms. Also included are Other Words (non-Thesaurus terms) consisting of abbreviations, chemical symbols, etc. The permutations and Other Words provide 'access' to the appropriate postable entries in the Thesaurus.

1976-01-01

206

Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

2010-01-01

207

In-Depth Study of Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development is a crucial aspect of literacy. It is our duty as teachers to enrich the language of our students to better prepare them for a successful lifetime of communication. This paper offers several methods to enhance levels of speech in the classroom. Some of the techniques included are the use of repetitive reading, reading…

Mixan, Marisa

2013-01-01

208

Quantity, Quality, Children's Characteristics, and Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of literature shows that how often a child is read to is related to subsequent gains in vocabulary. Not only do adults differ in the frequency with which they read to children (quantity), they also vary in reading style (quality). Several studies have proposed that the cognitive demand level of questions children are asked may be…

Walsh, Bridget A.

2008-01-01

209

Shared Reading to Build Vocabulary and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents four approaches to shared reading that he used with first through third graders in a high-needs, urban elementary school with a large population of students from immigrant homes. Using sociocultural and cognitive constructivist principles, the author shows how these approaches built students' academic vocabulary and…

Kesler, Ted

2010-01-01

210

ACADEMIC VOCABULARY SERIES Verbs For Citing Sources  

E-print Network

ACADEMIC VOCABULARY SERIES Verbs For Citing Sources It is important that you learn how to cite level of motivation to succeed depends not only on factors in the home but also used in oral conversation but are not appropriate in formal academic writing. The following table

Boonstra, Rudy

211

Improving Vocabulary Acquisition with Multisensory Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this action research project was to improve student vocabulary acquisition through a multisensory, direct instructional approach. The study involved three teachers and a target population of 73 students in second and seventh grade classrooms. The intervention was implemented from September through December of 2006 and analyzed in…

D'Alesio, Rosemary; Scalia, Maureen T.; Zabel, Renee M.

2007-01-01

212

Vocabulary Support: Constructing (Not Obstructing) Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language that students are learning in mathematics classrooms is intimately tied to the mathematics they are learning. The goal for any lesson or unit is for all students to be able to understand the mathematics they read or hear and be able to speak and write about that mathematics. Structured vocabulary placement can support that dual…

Livers, Stefanie D.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

2014-01-01

213

Adaptive Training for Large Vocabulary Continuous  

E-print Network

Adaptive Training for Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Kai Yu Hughes Hall College for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy #12;ii Summary In recent years, there has been a trend towards training is to train hidden Markov models (HMMs) on the whole data set as if all data comes from a single acoustic

Hain, Thomas

214

Interactive Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word walls are designed to serve as visual scaffolds and are a common classroom tool used to support reading and language arts instruction. To support vocabulary development in science and support students who are ELLs, Husty and Jackson (2008) created interactive word walls that resemble semantic maps (Masters, Mori, and Mori 1993). Semantic maps…

Jackson, Julie; Tripp, Sherry; Cox, Kimberly

2011-01-01

215

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development.  

PubMed

Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge, but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and reading continued for word recognition and decoding through grade 4, but genetic and environmental correlations between vocabulary and reading comprehension approached unity by grade 4, when vocabulary and word recognition accounted for all of the genetic and shared environment influences on reading comprehension. PMID:21132077

Olson, Richard K; Keenan, Janice M; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik G; Defries, John C; Pennington, Bruce F; Hulslander, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

216

Development of a change model for a controlled medical vocabulary.  

PubMed Central

Managing change in controlled medical vocabularies is labor intensive and costly, but change is inevitable if vocabularies are to be kept up to date. The changes that are appropriate for a controlled medical vocabulary depend on the data stored for that vocabulary, and those data in turn depend on the needs of users. The set of change operations is the change model; the data stored about concepts comprise the concept model. Because the change model depends directly on the concept model, a discussion of the former necessitates a discussion of the latter. In this paper, we first present a set of tasks that we believe controlled medical vocabularies should handle. Next, we describe our concept model for a controlled medical vocabulary. Then, we review the literature on changes in existing vocabulary systems. Finally, we present our change model. We call our system, which incorporates the concept model and change model, the General Online Dictionary of Medicine (GOLDMINE). PMID:9357697

Oliver, D. E.; Shahar, Y.

1997-01-01

217

Effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of multimedia glosses on L2 reading comprehension and incidental vocabulary learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of visual and verbal multimedia information on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of learners of English with lower proficiency levels. In the interactive display condition, learners were allowed to select the type of multimedia information whereas the simultaneous display condition presented the verbal (definitions) and visual (associated pictures) information

Emine Türk; Gülcan Erçetin

2012-01-01

218

Effectiveness of a vocabulary data file, encyclopaedia, and Internet homepages in a conversation?support system for people with moderate?to?severe aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In order to facilitate conversation for people with moderate?to?severe aphasia, a conversation?support system has been developed. This system consists of three electronic resources: a vocabulary data file, an encyclopaedia, and homepages on the Internet. The vocabulary data file we created contains approximately 50,000 words, mostly consisting of various proper names, which are classified into 10 categories. These words function

Kiyoshi Yasuda; Tatsuya Nemoto; Keisuke Takenaka; Mami Mitachi; Kazuhiro Kuwabara

2007-01-01

219

Sign iconicity and receptive vocabulary testing.  

PubMed

Development of valid receptive sign vocabulary tests and the influence of sign iconicity on test performance were investigated. Forty items were taken from the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (Lloyd M. Dunn & Leota M. Dunn, 1982). For each target item, three alternative distractor items were developed to draw nonsigning participants away from a perceptual matching strategy. The sample comprised 34 deaf signing undergraduates and 36 hearing nonsigning undergraduates. Deaf students outperformed hearing students on both sets of items. Hearing students' scores on the original items were significantly higher than on the manipulated items, but both exceeded chance level (25%), indicating that many of the items were iconic for this sample. Complete elimination of iconicity is difficult for sophisticated participants. Recommendations for development of tests for signing deaf students include involvement of nonsigning hearing participants to reduce the effects of iconicity in obtaining valid results. PMID:18488532

Miller, Margery

2008-01-01

220

Development of a Controlled Vocabulary for Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent emergence of a number of Environmental Observing systems calls the for the need of a nationwide geoscience cyberinfrastructure. One of the problems that need to be overcome when building a nationwide CI is the vexing problem of disparate and incompatible metadata descriptions that exist due to the use of different standards (if at all) and also the use of different vocabularies to describe the same thing or multiple use of a single word to describe different things leading to interoperability problems. To avoid syntactic interoperability problems many data clearinghouses (UK's Gigateway, Canada's GeoConnections, Australian Spatial Data Directory, US NSDI etc.) are migrating to ISO 19115 metadata standard. While the adoption of a standard is a first step towards solving the syntactic interoperability problem to some extent semantic difference remain because the ISO 19115 does not provide any controlled vocabulary for scientific terminology. In this study our aim is to develop a thesaurus for hydraulic science (as it is a central subject of all environmental observing systems) and engineering keywords that consists of several thousand entries which will help solving homonym, synonym problems as well as allowing discovery of more specific terms when a broader term was searched for. Development methods allow multi-lingual controlled vocabulary as in ISO standard since the relations (classification, narrower term, broader term, synonym etc.) between the terms in the thesaurus are independent of the language used. Human readable vocabulary may be attached to concepts as labels with a "language" identifier such that an entry of e.g. n0231 returns "rain" in English while "pluie" in French.

Beran, B.; Piasecki, M.; Choi, Y.

2005-12-01

221

Use of standard vocabulary services in validation of water resources data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ontology repositories are increasingly being exposed through vocabulary and concept services. Primarily this is in support of resource discovery. Thesaurus functionality and even more sophisticated reasoning offers the possibility of overcoming the limitations of simple text-matching and tagging which is the basis of most search. However, controlled vocabularies have other important roles in distributed systems: in particular in constraining content validity. A national water information system established by the Australian Bureau of Meterorology ('the Bureau') has deployed a system for ingestion of data from multiple providers. This uses a http interface onto separately maintained vocabulary services as part of the quality assurance chain. With over 200 data providers potentially transferring data to the Bureau, a standard XML-based Water Data Transfer Format (WDTF) was developed for receipt of data into an integrated national water information system. The WDTF schema was built upon standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The structure and syntax specified by a W3C XML Schema is complemented by additional constraints described using Schematron. These implement important content requirements and business rules including: • Restricted cardinality: where optional elements and attributes inherited from the base standards become mandatory in the application, or repeatable elements or attributes are limited to one or omitted. For example, the sampledFeature element from O&M is optional but is mandatory for a samplingPoint element in WDTF. • Vocabulary checking: WDTF data use seventeen vocabularies or code lists derived from Regulations under the Commonwealth Water Act 2007. Examples of codelists are the Australian Water Regulations list, observed property vocabulary, and units of measures. • Contextual constraints: in many places, the permissible value is dependent on the value of another field. For example, within observations the unit of measure must be commensurate with the observed property type Validation of data submitted in WDTF uses a two-pass approach. First, syntax and structural validation is performed by standard XML Schema validation tools. Second, validation of contextual constraints and code list checking is performed using a hybrid method combining context-sensitive rule-based validation (allowing the rules to be expressed within a given context) and semantic vocabulary services. Schematron allows rules to incorporate assertions of XPath expressions to access and constrain element content, therefore enabling contextual constraints. Schematron is also used to perform element cardinality checking. The vocabularies or code lists are formalized in SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System), an RDF-based language. SKOS provides mechanisms to define concepts, associate them with (multi-lingual) labels or terms, and record thesaurus-like relationships between them. The vocabularies are managed in a RDF database or semantic triple store. Querying is implemented as a semantic vocabulary service, with an http-based API that allows queries to be issued from rules written in Schematron. WDTF has required development and deployment of some ontologies whose scope is much more general than this application, in particular covering 'observed properties' and 'units of measure', which also have to be related to each other and consistent with the dimensional analysis. Separation of the two validation passes reflects the separate governance and stability of the structural and content rules, and allows an organisation's business rules to be moved out of the XML schema definition and the XML schema to be reused by other businesses with their own specific rules. With the general approach proven, harmonization opportunities with more generic services are being explored, such as the GEMET API for SKOS, developed by the European Environment Agency. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the AUSCOPE team for their development and support provided of the vocabulary services.

Yu, Jonathan; Cox, Simon; Ratcliffe, David

2010-05-01

222

Some Techniques for Teaching Vocabulary. ERIC Focus Reports on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Number 27.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of techniques for teaching vocabulary in language programs centers on five major areas: (1) "knowing" the word, (2) selection of vocabulary, (3) grading vocabulary for presentation, (4) teaching methods, and (5) vocabulary expansion in advanced levels. Theory of vocabulary instruction is largely supported by writings of Nelson Brooks,…

Michel, Joseph; Patin, Paul

223

Beyond Static Assessment of Children's Receptive Vocabulary: The Dynamic Assessment of Word Learning (DAWL)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children's low scores on vocabulary tests are often erroneously interpreted as reflecting poor cognitive and/or language skills. It may be necessary to incorporate the measurement of word-learning ability in estimating children's lexical abilities. Aims: To explore the reliability and validity of the Dynamic Assessment of…

Camilleri, Bernard; Botting, Nicola

2013-01-01

224

Vocabulary Knowledge Is a Critical Determinant of the Difference in Reading Comprehension Growth between First and Second Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examines the role of decoding and vocabulary skills as longitudinal predictors of reading comprehension in young first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. Methods: Two-group latent growth models were used to assess differences in growth and predictions of growth between the 198 L1 and 90 L2 language learners. Results: L1…

Lervag, Arne; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

2010-01-01

225

Academic vocabulary and middle school English learners: an intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this experimental intervention study was to determine if evidence-based instructional strategies for general vocabulary\\u000a words are effective with middle school English learner (EL) students and academic vocabulary words. Participants showed significantly\\u000a more growth in their knowledge of academic vocabulary during the treatment condition than during the control condition. A\\u000a secondary goal of this study was to examine

Dianna Townsend; Penny Collins

2009-01-01

226

Science Sampler: Using direct instruction to teach content vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The magnitude of vocabulary students need to know in the middle school science curriculum is vast and can be daunting. As educators, it is our job to efficiently and effectively teach students so that they are not only able to apply the new vocabulary to that year's curriculum, but to store it in their memory for future use in high school and college. This article describes a direct instruction approach to teaching vocabulary that provides students with the ability to interact with the vocabulary verbally, visually, spatially, and intrapersonally.

Dougherty, Laura A.; Leno, Lisa C.

2007-09-01

227

Clinical vocabulary as a boundary object in multidisciplinary care management of multiple chemical sensitivity, a complex and chronic condition  

PubMed Central

Background: Research has shown that accurate and timely communication between multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of complex and chronic health conditions is often challenging. The domain knowledge for these conditions is heterogeneous, with poorly categorized, unstructured, and inconsistent clinical vocabulary. The potential of boundary object as a technique to bridge communication gaps is explored in this study. Methods: A standardized and controlled clinical vocabulary was developed as a boundary object in the domain of a complex and chronic health condition, namely, multiple chemical sensitivity, to improve communication among multidisciplinary clinicians. A convenience sample of 100 patients with a diagnosis of multiple chemical sensitivity, nine multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of patients with multiple chemical sensitivity, and 36 clinicians in the community participated in the study. Results: Eighty-two percent of the multidisciplinary and inconsistent vocabulary was standardized using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine – Clinical Terms (SNOMED® CT as a reference terminology. Over 80% of the multidisciplinary clinicians agreed on the overall usefulness of having a controlled vocabulary as a boundary object. Over 65% of clinicians in the community agreed on the overall usefulness of the vocabulary. Conclusion: The results from this study are promising and will be further evaluated in the domain of another complex chronic condition, ie, chronic pain. The study was conducted as a preliminary analysis for developing a boundary object in a heterogeneous domain of knowledge. PMID:21594060

Sampalli, Tara; Shepherd, Michael; Duffy, Jack

2011-01-01

228

Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

1981-01-01

229

Closing the Vocabulary Gap?: A Review of Research on Early Childhood Vocabulary Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our qualitative literature review of 31 published studies found that (a) three major approaches are used in early childhood classrooms to support children's vocabulary learning--exposing children to advanced words, providing direct word-meaning instruction, and employing mixed-method interventions; (b) these practices support children's learning…

Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

2011-01-01

230

Groundwork for a Better Vocabulary. Second Edition. Instructor's Edition. Townsend Press Vocabulary Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's edition of a vocabulary textbook for college students, who read at the fifth to eighth grade level, features 25 chapters and teaches 250 basic words. The first and third chapters in each unit contain word-part practices. The second and fourth chapters in each unit contain synonym-antonym practices. The book's last chapter in each…

Smith, R. Kent; Johnson, Beth; Mohr, Carole

231

The Conceptual Nature of Gain in Vocabulary Research: An Analysis of Vocabulary Data from Schoolchildren  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two ways of measuring change are presented and compared: A conventional "change score", defined as the difference between scores before and after an interim period, and a process-oriented approach focusing on detailed analysis of conceptually defined response patterns. The validity of the two approaches was investigated. Vocabulary

Frost, Jørgen; Ottem, Ernst; Snow, Catherine E.; Hagtvet, Bente E.; Lyster, Solveig Alma Helaas; White, Claire

2014-01-01

232

Grabbed Early by Vocabulary: Nation's Ongoing Contributions to Vocabulary and Reading in a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"I was grabbed early [by vocabulary] and never let go. That's why it's difficult to explain why I enjoy working in this area. I just love doing it," said Paul Nation (in Coxhead, 2005, p. 46). How many people get grabbed by an area of research, teaching, and learning that continues to engage interest and cause excitement after 30 years? In this…

Coxhead, Averil

2010-01-01

233

Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: Direct Tests and Text-Derived Simulations of Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determining word meanings that ought to be taught or introduced is important for educators. A sequence for vocabulary growth can be inferred from many sources, including testing children's knowledge of word meanings at various ages, predicting from print frequency, or adult-recalled Age of Acquisition. A new approach, Word Maturity, is based…

Biemiller, Andrew; Rosenstein, Mark; Sparks, Randall; Landauer, Thomas K.; Foltz, Peter W.

2014-01-01

234

Helping Children Learn Vocabulary during Computer-Assisted Oral Reading  

E-print Network

Helping Children Learn Vocabulary during Computer-Assisted Oral Reading Gregory Aist December 12 component: helping children learn to read by using computer-assisted oral reading to help children learn vocabulary. We build on Project LISTEN's Reading Tutor, a computer program that adapts automatic speech

Eskenazi, Maxine

235

Sex Differences in Expressive Vocabulary of Head Start Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test was administered to 56 males and 52 females from 45 to 80 months of age to investigate sex differences in the expressive vocabulary of Head Start children. Data indicated no significant sex differences. (Author/PN)

Stoner, Sue B.; Spencer, W. Boyd

1983-01-01

236

Improving Vocabulary Skills through Assistive Technology: Rick's Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examines the use of two assistive technologies, the Franklin Language Master 6000b and Microsoft PowerPoint 2003, as visual support systems to aid in the vocabulary acquisition skills of a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention used children's literature and best practices in teaching vocabulary skills in…

Lindsey-Glenn, Pam F.; Gentry, James E.

2008-01-01

237

VOCABULARY CONCERNS IN THE MASTERY OF MATHEMATICS: COLLEGE ALGEBRA  

E-print Network

VOCABULARY CONCERNS IN THE MASTERY OF MATHEMATICS: COLLEGE ALGEBRA Richard L. Francis 1 comprehension that may have an adverse effect on College Algebra mastery. Thus, such a study exam- ines, derivations, and tests (both diagnostic and achievement). Thus, vocabulary mastery goes beyond the memorizing

Baldwin, John T.

238

Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge.  

PubMed

25 engineering students in India, who were highly motivated to improve their English, filled out a questionnaire about their reading habits in English and took a demanding vocabulary test based on words taken from preparation books for the Graduate Records Examination. The correlation between reading habits and vocabulary was substantial (r = .78). PMID:24611248

Pratheeba, N; Krashen, S

2013-10-01

239

The PRO-VOC Method: Combining Pronunciation and Vocabulary Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a new method for the combined teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary to learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). While there is commonly strong emphasis on the teaching of vocabulary, pronunciation teaching is frequently neglected in the EFL classroom. The proposed method aims to address such imbalance which may…

Nicolaidis, Katerina; Mattheoudakis, Marina

2012-01-01

240

Vocabulary Strategies that Work: Do This-Not that!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Update your vocabulary practices to meet the Common Core and improve students' word knowledge! This new, clearly-structured guide shows you how. It's packed with engaging, research-based, classroom-ready strategies for teaching vocabulary. Topics include: (1) Selecting meaningful words for direct instruction; (2) Strategies for engaging students…

Wilfong, Lori

2013-01-01

241

Using Knowledge Networks to Develop Preschoolers' Content Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that children accrue vocabulary knowledge by understanding relationships between new words and their connected concepts. This article describes three research-based principles that preschool teachers can use to design shared book reading lessons that accelerate content vocabulary knowledge by helping young children to talk about…

Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda

2012-01-01

242

Using Objects To Teach Vocabulary Words with Multiple Meanings. Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared outcomes of traditional direct instruction and pictorial worksheets with that of a hands-on approach using objects, word cards, and definition cards to teach vocabulary words with multiple meanings to public school third graders. Found that the hands-on students made significantly greater vocabulary progress than direct instruction…

Rule, Audrey C.; Barrera, Manuel T., III

2003-01-01

243

Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. The Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of essays on second language vocabulary learning includes: "Historical Trends in Second Language Vocabulary Instruction" (Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman); "The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading: Words You Don't Know, Words You Think You Know, and Words You Can't Guess" (Batia Laufer); "Orthographic Knowledge in L2 Lexical Processing: A…

Coady, James, Ed.; Huckin, Thomas, Ed.

244

Vocabulary Teaching: A Way To Improve Learners' Fluency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A classroom research project in English-as-a-Second-Language vocabulary development, conducted in an English language school in Brazil, is described. The study had two major aims: to help students build a large lexicon for future use, and to encourage students to be responsible for their own learning by teaching strategies for learning vocabulary.…

Vianna, Jane Mello

245

To Push or Not to Push: A Vocabulary Research Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experiment, 122 university students in 4 intact classes learned 10 new vocabulary words via three different methods representing strong theoretical perspectives on second language vocabulary acquisition; extensive reading (Input- Hypothesis), activity-based (Task-based learning), and writing words in original sentences (Pushed Output Theory and Depth of Processing Theory). Results indicate that regardless of the language level of the learner,

Charles Browne

246

Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

Gao, Xuesong

2012-01-01

247

Explicit Programming: Improving the Design Vocabulary of Your Program  

E-print Network

to introduce project- specific design vocabulary into existing general-purpose languages. Using explicit programming(EP), present ELIDE (Extension Language for Incremental Design Encoding), which supports Explicit extend a general-purpose programming language with such vocabulary. In explicit programming, new

De Volder, Kris

248

Mass Communication Thesauri and Controlled Vocabularies: An Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a basis for determining how the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) should proceed to meet its controlled vocabulary needs, this paper analyzes and evaluates the major published controlled vocabularies and thesauri used for the retrieval of mass communication literature. Following brief definitions of…

Brunning, Dennis R.

249

Knowledge of Storybooks as a Predictor of Young Children's Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared book reading provides a rich source of linguistic stimulation for young children. The authors examined whether variations in knowledge of storybooks (assumed to index factors such as frequency of shared reading) were related to vocabulary scores for 3- to 6-year-olds. In Experiment 1, parents' knowledge of storybooks explained unique variance in children's receptive vocabulary scores after controlling for children's

Monique Sénéchal; Jo-Anne LeFevre; Ernie Hudson; E. Penelope Lawson

1996-01-01

250

The Critical Role of Vocabulary Development for English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

English language learners (ELLs) who experience slow vocabulary development are less able to comprehend text at grade level than their English-only peers. Such students are likely to perform poorly on assessments in these areas and are at risk of being diagnosed as learning disabled. In this article, we review the research on methods to develop the vocabulary knowledge of ELLs

Diane August; Maria Carlo; Cheryl Dressler; Catherine Snow

2005-01-01

251

The Relationship Among Vocabulary Knowledge, Syntactic Awareness And Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship among vocabulary knowledge, syntactic awareness and reading comprehension in 155 English-speaking undergraduate and graduate students. Confirmatory factor analysis analyses show syntactic awareness is highly correlated with reading comprehension; there is strong positive correlation between vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness; the same high correlation holds for the relationship between syntactic awareness and reading comprehension. Structural equation

Ying Guo

2006-01-01

252

Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2011-01-01

253

Fragmentation and Consolidation: Recent Articles on Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary can no longer be said to be "a Cinderella topic", at least so far as its representation in other journals is concerned. Research articles on vocabulary learning and teaching now occur frequently and have been particularly well represented in recent issues of the North American research journal "Language Learning". While studies of…

Broady, Elspeth

2008-01-01

254

The Bangs Receptive Vocabulary Checklist: Manual and Stimulus Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This package presents a standardized receptive vocabulary checklist to identify language deficits in preschool and kindergarten students, especially in students who are mentally retarded, have hearing impairments, language/learning disabilities, or autism. The checklist offers 95 vocabulary words and phrases that children normally acquire in a…

Bangs, Tina E.

255

What Is Most Important to Know about Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes use of Perfetti's Lexical Quality Hypothesis as a perspective for thinking about vocabulary instruction in terms of semantics (meaning), phonology (pronunciation), orthography (spelling), morphology (meaningful word parts), and syntax (how words function in sentences). Examples are presented of how these aspects of vocabulary

Kucan, Linda

2012-01-01

256

Mathematics Vocabulary and Its Effect on Student Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research project describes a program for improving student comprehension of mathematical vocabulary. The targeted population consisted of two classes of fifth grade students from two elementary schools located in the suburbs of a large metropolitan area in Illinois. The problem of poor mathematical vocabulary was documented through…

Blessman, Jennifer; Myszczak, Beverly

257

Missing in Action: Vocabulary Instruction in Pre-K  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the importance of starting early, the purpose of our article is to examine if and how vocabulary is taught in commercially prepared early literacy curriculum for pre-K. Ten curriculum programs are reviewed to determine the prevalence of vocabulary instruction and the pedagogical practices used to support the learning of words and their…

Neuman, Susan B.; Dwyer, Julie

2009-01-01

258

Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

2013-01-01

259

Interactive Frames for Vocabulary Growth and Word Consciousness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited vocabulary knowledge has been cited as a key factor in the literacy achievement gap, particularly for students with learning disabilities, students of color, and English-language learners. Recent authorities have recommended multipronged approaches to assist vocabulary growth in classrooms. In addition, authorities have called for…

Winters, Rod

2009-01-01

260

Does Translation Contribute to Learners' Free Active Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into four "male…

Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

2012-01-01

261

Direct and Extended Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten: Investigating Transfer Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an 18-week program of direct and extended vocabulary instruction with kindergarten students on both proximal measures of target word knowledge and transfer measures of generalized language and literacy. A second purpose was to examine whether treatment effects would be moderated by initial receptive vocabulary knowledge measured at pretest. In

Michael D. Coyne; D. Betsy McCoach; Susan Loftus; Richard Zipoli Jr; Maureen Ruby; Yvel C. Crevecoeur; Sharon Kapp

2010-01-01

262

Japanese Vocabulary Acquisition by Learners in Three Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an investigation of the development of vocabulary knowledge during study abroad (SA), intensive domestic immersion (IM) and academic-year formal classroom (AY) learning. Its focus was the growth of vocabulary knowledge in Japanese--a language where little SA research has been conducted to date. Unlike most studies addressing…

Dewey, Dan P.

2008-01-01

263

Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

Kugelmass, Rachel

264

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was established in the fall of 1995, with the cooperation and financial support of  

E-print Network

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was established in the fall in their quest for higher education. This free book rental scholarship program assists students each semester intersession for utilization in spring 2013. This free book rental scholarship program is administered

de Lijser, Peter

265

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was estab-lished in the fall of 1995, with the cooperation and financial support of Titan  

E-print Network

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was estab- lished in the fall for utilization in fall 2014. This free book rental scholarship program is administered by theAssociated Students in their quest for higher education. This free book rental scholarship program assists students each semester

de Lijser, Peter

266

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was established in the fall of 1995, with the cooperation and financial support of  

E-print Network

Background Information: This free book rental scholarship program was established in the fall in their quest for higher education. This free book rental scholarship program assists students each semester for utilization in spring 2014. This free book rental scholarship program is administered by the Associated

de Lijser, Peter

267

Controlled Vocabularies, Mini Ontologies and Interoperability (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interoperability has been an elusive goal, but in recent years advances have been made using controlled vocabularies, mini-ontologies and a lot of collaboration. This has led to increased interoperability between disciplines in the U.S. and between international projects. We discuss the successful pattern followed by SPASE, IVOA and IPDA to achieve this new level of international interoperability. A key aspect of the pattern is open standards and open participation with interoperability achieved with shared services, public APIs, standard formats and open access to data. Many of these standards are expressed as controlled vocabularies and mini ontologies. To illustrate the pattern we look at SPASE related efforts and participation of North America's Heliophysics Data Environment and CDPP; Europe's Cluster Active Archive, IMPEx, EuroPlanet, ESPAS and HELIO; and Japan's magnetospheric missions. Each participating project has its own life cycle and successful standards development must always take this into account. A major challenge for sustained collaboration and interoperability is the limited lifespan of many of the participating projects. Innovative approaches and new tools and frameworks are often developed as competitively selected, limited term projects, but for sustainable interoperability successful approaches need to become part of a long term infrastructure. This is being encouraged and achieved in many domains and we are entering a golden age of interoperability.

King, T. A.; Walker, R. J.; Roberts, D.; Thieman, J.; Ritschel, B.; Cecconi, B.; Genot, V. N.

2013-12-01

268

Relationships of General Vocabulary, Science Vocabulary, and Student Questioning with Science Comprehension in Students with Varying Levels of English Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influence of general vocabulary knowledge, science vocabulary knowledge, and text based questioning on the science reading comprehension of three types of students who varied in their English language proficiency. Specifically, grade 5 English-Only speakers, English Language Learners in the United States, and students…

Taboada, Ana

2012-01-01

269

The Exploring Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition and Common Main Gaps in the Current Studies of Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary can be a key factor for success, central to a language, and paramount to a language learner. In such situation, the lexicon may be the most important component for learners (Grass and Selinker, 1994), and mastering of vocabulary is an essential component of second/foreign language teaching and learning that has been repeatedly…

Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

2012-01-01

270

Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Typically Developing Language and Low Language Skills: Comparing Embedded and Explicit Vocabulary Instructional Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who enter kindergarten with low oral language skills are at great risk for reading problems, especially in the areas of vocabulary and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional vocabulary methods of storybook reading with children who exhibit typically developing language skills and…

Capellini, Cara S.

2010-01-01

271

Growing Capacity with the Vocabulary of English Language Arts Programs: Vocabulary Megaclusters. Reading Research Report. #11.02  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The typical approach to teaching vocabulary in English/Language Arts programs has been to focus on six to eight words per text. Even though these words may add meaning to a particular story, the target words are often rare and their generalizability is limited. The Vocabulary Megaclusters provides a framework for selecting and teaching words…

Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

2011-01-01

272

Receptive Vocabulary, Expressive Vocabulary, and Speech Production of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys…

Roberts, Joanne; Price, Johanna; Barnes, Elizabeth; Nelson, Lauren; Burchinal, Margaret; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Edwards, Anne; Malkin, Cheryl; Anderson, Kathleen; Misenheimer, Jan; Hooper, Stephen R.

2007-01-01

273

Hurricane Backgrounder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides basic information on hurricanes. topics include the definition of hurricane , where they are likely to form, and their potential for damage, including high winds, heavy rainfall, flooding, tornadoes, and microbursts. There is also an illustration showing the Saffir-Simpson scale for classifying hurricane intensity, information on naming hurricanes, and a set of links to additional information.

2007-12-12

274

Supporting vocabulary growth of high school students: An analysis of the potential of a mobile learning device and gaming app  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the educational benefits of using an app on a mobile device (i.e. iPod Touch) to aid in the process of high school students' learning. The emphasis of this study explored the possibilities of learning vocabulary using a mobile device in an informal environment. Mobile devices embrace and encourage ubiquitous learning through their

Jennifer Redd

2011-01-01

275

Measuring Productive Vocabulary of Toddlers in Low-Income Families: Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Three Sources of Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined parental report as a source of information about toddlers' productive vocabulary in 105 low-income families living in either urban or rural communities. Parental report using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory-Short Form (CDI) at child age 2;0 was compared to concurrent spontaneous speech measures and…

Pan, Barbara Alexander; Rowe, Meredith L.; Spier, Elizabeth; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine

2004-01-01

276

Narrative and Vocabulary Development of Bilingual Children From Kindergarten to First Grade: Developmental Changes and Associations Among English and Spanish Skills  

PubMed Central

Purpose Research has identified English oral language proficiency as being critical for bilingual students’ literacy development. This study examines developmental patterns and associations among oral vocabulary and narrative skills in a longitudinal sample of 24 Spanish/English bilingual children from low socioeconomic backgrounds so as to further our understanding of the development of oral proficiency. Method English and Spanish data were gathered using standardized vocabulary tests and narrative elicitation tasks provided to kindergartners and first graders. Narratives were coded for length using two measures of productivity and for quality at two levels: story score and language score. Descriptive, correlation, multivariate, and regression analyses were conducted. Results Significant gains from kindergarten to first grade were found for all English oral language measures. Despite showing improvements in English vocabulary, the majority of children continued to score below the monolingual mean in first grade. For English narrative productivity, total number of different words (TDW) proved to be a sensitive developmental measure in contrast to total number of words (TNW). In Spanish, significant gains were noted only for narrative story score. Kindergarten Spanish story scores predicted first-grade English narrative quality even when controlling for the effects of English vocabulary and English narrative productivity. First-grade Spanish narrative quality was best predicted by Spanish vocabulary. Implications The need for early assessment and monitoring of expressive vocabulary and oral narrative skills, and the potential contributions of Spanish story organization skills to English narrative performance in bilingual children from low socioeconomic families, are highlighted. PMID:17625049

Uccelli, Paola; Paez, Mariela M.

2010-01-01

277

Background Use of Sensitive Information to Aid in Analysis of Non-sensitive Data on Threats and Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the 9-11 commission’s recommendations on a different way of organizing intelligence activities of the United States\\u000a was to unify the effort in information sharing across the Intelligence Community. Challenges include the need to deal with\\u000a information that is geographically distributed and held in compartmented repositories having restricted access. A demonstrated\\u000a ‘need to know’ is required before the data

Richard A. Smith

2005-01-01

278

An harmonised vocabulary for communicating and interchanging Biofilms experimental results.  

PubMed

Biofilm studies are at the crossroads of Biology, Chemistry, Medicine, Material Science and Engineering, among other fields. Data harmonisation in Biofilms is therefore crucial to allow for researchers to collaborate, interchange, understand, and replicate studies at an inter-laboratory and inter-domain scale. The international Minimum Information About a Biofilms Experiment initiative has prepared a set of guidelines for documenting biofilms experiments and data, namely the minimum information checklist. This paper goes a step forward and describes a new ontology for the broad description of biofilm experiments and data. In such an interdisciplinary context we chose to rely on a common integration framework provided by a foundational ontology that facilitates the addition and extension of various sub-domain modules, and the consistent integration of terminology extracted from several existing ontologies, e.g. EXPO and ChEBI. The community is participating actively in the production of this resource, and it is already used by public biofilms-centred databases, such as BiofOmics, and bioinformatics tools, such as the Biofilms Experiment Workbench. This practical validation serves the purpose of disseminating the controlled vocabulary among researchers and identifying current limitations, glitches, and inconsistencies. Information branches will be added, extended or refactored according to user feedback and group discussions. PMID:25339083

Sousa, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Azevedo, Nuno F; Lourenço, Anália

2014-01-01

279

The Role of Vocabulary Size in Predicting Performance on TOEFL Reading Item Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine a) whether vocabulary knowledge, captured in the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), is related to the performance on the five types of reading comprehension items tested in TOEFL, i.e., Guessing Vocabulary, Main Idea, Inference, Reference, and Stated Detail; and b) whether EFL learners with different levels of vocabulary

Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Akbarian, Is'haaq

2012-01-01

280

Online study of frequency list vocabulary with the WordChamp website  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intentional study of vocabulary is an effective way for learners to increase their vocabulary in the target language. Word frequency lists help learners determine the most useful words to study. In order to systematically study vocabulary, learners may first take a test to determine their vocabulary knowledge, then drill the appropriate words. However, to date, classroom teachers and researchers

John Spiri

281

The Effect of Enhanced Storybook Interaction on Signing Deaf Children's Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The link between vocabulary and later literacy is well documented in the research base. One way children gain vocabulary is through incidental learning. Deaf or hard-of-hearing children (D/HH) often struggle with incidental learning and require vocabulary intervention to increase their lexicon. An effective vocabulary intervention is storybook…

Trussell, Jessica W.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

2014-01-01

282

Documenting the Vocabulary of Astronomy Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning astronomy can be a life-long process, with the seeds of knowledge planted in K-12 classes blossoming in elective college courses to create adults who actively acquire astronomy content. One of the goals of many astronomy 101 courses is to prepare students to be intelligent consumers of mainstream astronomy content, including magazine articles, popular books, and online news. To meet this goal, astronomy educators need to understand what content is being presented in the media and what level vocabulary is being used. The most simplistic way to address this problem is to examine the topics covered and vocabulary used in mainstream astronomy blogs and news feeds. In this study we looked at a selection of prominent blogs and news feeds and we present a statistical study of the frequency different scientific terms are used and topics are addressed. To make this study possible, software to read in RSS feeds was created. This software had to meet the following design specifications: runs in a reasonable amount of time, removes all XML and HTML code from text, sees words with different capitalizations as the same word, ignores end of sentence or phrase punctuation without ignoring hyphens, and has an editable list of "common English words.” This code will be available after the conference at http://www.starstryder.com. Results of this study find that many of the primary topics of Astronomy 101 classes, such as the HR Diagram, are rarely mentioned in blogs and online news, while often de-emphasized topics, such as extra solar planets, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics, show up regularly.

Miller, Scott; Parrish, M.; Gay, P. L.

2008-05-01

283

An ODIP effort to map R2R ocean data terms to international vocabularies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneity of terminology used in describing data creates a barrier to the efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a US program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving the interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access international ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed locally or are specific to the US. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international vocabularies, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: R2R science party names to ORCID person identifiers, UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, and R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO). Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships only, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. The majority of ports were successfully mapped. Differences in the character sets (i.e. whether diacritic marks were used) caused automated matching to fail occasionally, but the number of ports was small enough that these could be manually reviewed. Both organizations and device models have initial mappings, and R2R will propose new terms to the EDMO and SeaVoX Device vocabularies to complete coverage. Mapping to ORCID identifiers was abandoned (though R2R will still hold and expose them when supplied by the data provider). Most ORCID entries do not contain insufficient metadata to confirm potential mappings: the match of a family and given name was considered inconclusive without further support. ORCID also does not assign identifiers posthumously, which is occasionally necessary for historical data in R2R.

Ferreira, Renata; Stocks, Karen; Arko, Robert

2014-05-01

284

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry-background information for proposed air emission standards. Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, and semi-chemical mills. Interim final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being proposed for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. The document provides technical background information and analyses used in the development of the proposed pulp and paper NESHAP. It covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills. Effluent guideline limitations for pulp and paper mills are being developed concurrently under the Clean Water Act. Technical information used for the development of effluent guideline limitations is in separate documents.

Not Available

1993-10-01

285

Modelling out-of-vocabulary words for robust speech recognition  

E-print Network

This thesis concerns the problem of unknown or out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words in continuous speech recognition. Most of today's state-of-the-art speech recognition systems can recognize only words that belong to some ...

Bazzi, Issam

2002-01-01

286

Constructing Understanding through Integrated Science Concept Formation and Vocabulary Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Science Concept-Vocabulary Acquisition (SCVA) model which promotes simultaneous cognitive construction of science concepts and the scientific nomenclature needed to understand and communicate those concepts. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

Estes, Thomas H.; Prather, J. Preston

1998-01-01

287

Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Young English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vocabulary intervention during shared storybook reading was implemented with 22 Spanish-English bilingual children. One intervention consisted of English expansions of vocabulary words and the other of English-supplemented-with-Spanish instruction. Participants between the ages of 4 and 6 received both interventions during a four-week summer program. It was hypothesized that the intervention incorporating Spanish would produce greater learning in three areas:

Mirza J. Lugo-Neris

2007-01-01

288

An Information System for the Council of Educational Facility Planners International Membership Information Network. Volume 1: Background Report and Implementation Models. Volume 2: Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to assist the Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFP/I) in planning for the establishment of an information system for its members and other stakeholders who need information on educational facilities. The report focuses on the major activities to be accomplished and the issues to be considered when…

Hruday, Connie; And Others

289

Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary.  

PubMed

Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language. PMID:24583922

Kraljevi?, Jelena Kuva?; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja

2014-05-01

290

The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to the marine environmental sciences domain since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for • metadata mark-up with verifiable content • populating dynamic drop down lists • semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata • so-called smart search • and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium Web Processing Services in projects including: the NERC Data Grid; SeaDataNet; Geo-Seas; and the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model and following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes in this standard. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". The latest version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: • the removal of the potential for multiple Uniform Resource Names for the same concept to ensure consistent identification of concepts • the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content • the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS • the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base • a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier • and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS Version 2 of the NVS underpins the semantic layer for the Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR) project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. Here we present the results of upgrading the NVS from version 1 to 2 and show applications which have been built on top of the NVS using its Application Programming Interface, including a demonstration version of a SPARQL interface.

Leadbetter, A.; Lowry, R.; Clements, O.

2012-04-01

291

Maintaining Scientific Community Vocabularies in Drupal through Consumption of Linked Open Data and Web Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Summer of 2011, a one-year pilot project was funded by the National Science Foundation to build a pre-cruise planning application using the Drupal content management system (CMS). This application will be used to assist the individual operators of research vessels in the UNOLS fleet. A large portion of the operator's pre-cruise process revolves around a questionnaire presented to the principal investigator(PI) that is used to gather information about the nature of their upcoming cruise. The Drupal-based application will be delivered as a distribution for use by any operator of a UNOLS vessel to construct customized questionnaires and provide an interface for the PI to complete this questionnaire at their leisure. A major goal of the project is to develop an application that will require as little programming maintenance as possible after the initial development effort. One of the strategies employed is the reuse of existing controlled vocabularies and linked open data wherever possible for fields of the questionnaire - most notably to populate the concepts of Country, Organization, Port, and Ship. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program manages controlled vocabularies for these concepts and currently exposes these concepts as linked open data. Furthermore, R2R has identified the authoritative source for pertinent oceanographic community vocabularies as ICES for Ship, UNOLS for Port, IANA for Organization, ISO for Country, ISO for Language, SeaDataNet for Device, FIPS for State, and IHO for Sea Area as described at http://www.rvdata.us/voc. The scope of the terms provided by these sources matches the scope of the operator's needs for these concepts, and so the application is being designed to automatically consume served information about these vocabulary terms to populate and update Drupal taxonomies for use in the questionnaire. Where newer terms are required for a PI to complete a questionnaire (before they appear in the vocabularies), the Drupal-based application employs features that provide extensibility to the Drupal taxonomies while striving for lower development and maintenance costs through the use of existing Drupal modules such as web_taxonomy, autocomplete field widgets and custom modules for consuming and managing data at SPARQL endpoints.

Shepherd, A.; Arko, R. A.; Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.

2012-12-01

292

! In addition to morphosyntactic deficits, children with SLI have lexical deficits.They have delayed acquisition and smaller vocabularies as compared to peers; require more exposure to  

E-print Network

BACKGROUND ·! In addition to morphosyntactic deficits, children with SLI have lexical deficits.They have delayed acquisition and smaller vocabularies as compared to peers; require more exposure (Leonard, et al., 2007), children with SLI have deficits in cognitive mechanisms believed to support word

293

Coherent Image Layout using an Adaptive Visual Vocabulary  

SciTech Connect

When querying a huge image database containing millions of images, the result of the query may still contain many thousands of images that need to be presented to the user. We consider the problem of arranging such a large set of images into a visually coherent layout, one that places similar images next to each other. Image similarity is determined using a bag-of-features model, and the layout is constructed from a hierarchical clustering of the image set by mapping an in-order traversal of the hierarchy tree into a space-filling curve. This layout method provides strong locality guarantees so we are able to quantitatively evaluate performance using standard image retrieval benchmarks. Performance of the bag-of-features method is best when the vocabulary is learned on the image set being clustered. Because learning a large, discriminative vocabulary is a computationally demanding task, we present a novel method for efficiently adapting a generic visual vocabulary to a particular dataset. We evaluate our clustering and vocabulary adaptation methods on a variety of image datasets and show that adapting a generic vocabulary to a particular set of images improves performance on both hierarchical clustering and image retrieval tasks.

Dillard, Scott E.; Henry, Michael J.; Bohn, Shawn J.; Gosink, Luke J.

2013-03-06

294

Vocabulary of aerospace safety terms pertaining to cryogenic safety, fires, explosions, and structure failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This vocabulary listing characterizes the contents of over 10,000 documents of the NASA Aerospace Safety Research and Data Institute's (ASRDI) safety engineering collection. The ASRDI collection is now one of the series accessible on the NASA RECON data base. There are approximately 6,300 postable terms that describe literature in the areas of cryogenic fluid safety, specifically hydrogen, oxygen, liquified natural gas; fire and explosion technology; and the mechanics of structural failure. To facilitate the proper selection of information nonpostable, related and array terms have been included in this listing.

Pelouch, J. J., Jr.; Mandel, G.; Ordin, P. M.

1976-01-01

295

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical listing. Volume 2: Access vocabulary. Volume 3: Definitions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are over 17,500 postable terms and some 4,000 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary and Volume 3 - Definitions.

1994-01-01

296

Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information  

MedlinePLUS

... botanical dietary supplements? Disclaimer Can botanicals be dietary supplements? To be classified as a dietary supplement , a ... use in capsules or tablets. Are botanical dietary supplements standardized? Standardization is a process that manufacturers may ...

297

Receptive vocabulary in boys with autism spectrum disorder: cross-sectional developmental trajectories.  

PubMed

In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4-11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2-11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for boys with ASD relative to age and nonverbal cognition. Relative to expressive vocabulary, assessed with the Expressive Vocabulary Test, receptive vocabulary increased at a lower rate for boys with ASD. Vocabulary trajectories in ASD are distinguished from typical development; however, nonverbal cognition largely accounts for the patterns observed. PMID:23588510

Kover, Sara T; McDuffie, Andrea S; Hagerman, Randi J; Abbeduto, Leonard

2013-11-01

298

Computer-Assisted Update of a Consumer Health Vocabulary Through Mining of Social Network Data  

PubMed Central

Background Consumer health vocabularies (CHVs) have been developed to aid consumer health informatics applications. This purpose is best served if the vocabulary evolves with consumers’ language. Objective Our objective was to create a computer assisted update (CAU) system that works with live corpora to identify new candidate terms for inclusion in the open access and collaborative (OAC) CHV. Methods The CAU system consisted of three main parts: a Web crawler and an HTML parser, a candidate term filter that utilizes natural language processing tools including term recognition methods, and a human review interface. In evaluation, the CAU system was applied to the health-related social network website PatientsLikeMe.com. The system’s utility was assessed by comparing the candidate term list it generated to a list of valid terms hand extracted from the text of the crawled webpages. Results The CAU system identified 88,994 unique terms 1- to 7-grams (“n-grams” are n consecutive words within a sentence) in 300 crawled PatientsLikeMe.com webpages. The manual review of the crawled webpages identified 651 valid terms not yet included in the OAC CHV or the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, a collection of vocabularies amalgamated to form an ontology of medical terms, (ie, 1 valid term per 136.7 candidate n-grams). The term filter selected 774 candidate terms, of which 237 were valid terms, that is, 1 valid term among every 3 or 4 candidates reviewed. Conclusion The CAU system is effective for generating a list of candidate terms for human review during CHV development. PMID:21586386

2011-01-01

299

Effects of Teachers' Reading-Aloud Styles on Vocabulary Acquisition and Comprehension of Students in the Early Elementary Grades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of just reading, performance reading, and interactional reading-aloud styles on learning were assessed for 117 1st graders and 129 3rd graders. Preservice teachers, trained and guided by scripted procedures, read 2 informational storybooks to students using 1 of the styles. Multivariate analyses of variance and univariate tests showed that reading-aloud styles produced statistically significant effects on vocabulary acquisition and

Edna Greene Brabham; Carol Lynch-Brown

2002-01-01

300

New Vocabulary: Araneiform and Lace Terrains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

The south polar terrain on Mars contains landforms unlike any that we see on Earth, so much that a new vocabulary is required to describe them. The word 'araneiform' means 'spider-like.' There are radially organized channels on Mars that look spider-like, but we don't want to confuse anyone by talking about 'spiders' when we really mean 'channels,' not 'bugs.'

The first subimage (figure 1) shows an example of 'connected araneiform topography,' terrain that is filled with spider-like channels whose arms branch and connect to each other. Gas flows through these channels until it encounters a vent, where is escapes out to the atmosphere, carrying dust along with it. The dark dust is blown around by the prevailing wind.

The second subimage (figure 2) shows a different region of the same image where the channels are not radially organized. In this region they form a dense tangled network of tortuous strands. We refer to this as 'lace.'

Observation Geometry Image PSP_002651_0930 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 18-Feb-2007. The complete image is centered at -86.9 degrees latitude, 97.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 268.7 km (167.9 miles). At this distance the image scale is 53.8 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 161 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 04:56 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 86 degrees, thus the sun was about 4 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 186.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

2007-01-01

301

Omani Norms for the Arabic Picture Vocabulary Test (APVT) for Schoolchildren at the Elementary Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Arabic Picture Vocabulary Test (APVT) was derived from the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test in order to provide an estimate of a student's acquired verbal ability in Arabic (Modern Standard Arabic) through his or her aural vocabulary. It is an individually administered norm-referenced power test for students aged 5 to 9 plus years. Each item…

Khammash, Salma B.

302

Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

Zhang, Dongbo

2012-01-01

303

Who's Learning What Words and How Fast? Preschoolers' Vocabulary Growth in an Early Literacy Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the composition of vocabulary and preschoolers' vocabulary learning in an early literacy program. Fifty-six children with typical achievement, with special needs, and at risk for disabilities participated. Curriculum-based measures (CBM) were used to track children's receptive and expressive vocabulary growth over three…

Roskos, Kathleen; Ergul, Cevriye; Bryan, Tanis; Burstein, Karen; Christie, James; Han, Myae

2008-01-01

304

eVoc Strategies: 10 Ways to Use Technology to Build Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is key to comprehension and expression. For students in the intermediate grades, the need for breadth and depth of vocabulary accelerates as they encounter more challenging academic texts in print and on the Internet. Drawing on research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning, this article presents…

Dalton, Bridget; Grisham, Dana L.

2011-01-01

305

Assessment of the Design Efficacy of a Preschool Vocabulary Instruction Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broad-stroke approaches to vocabulary teaching in preschool include effective instructional elements, yet may be too ill-structured to affect the vocabulary learning of children experiencing serious delays. Using a formative research approach, this study examines the design potential of a supplemental vocabulary instruction technique that…

Roskos, Kathleen; Burstein, Karen

2011-01-01

306

Shyness and Chinese and English Vocabulary Skills in Hong Kong Kindergartners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study examined relations between parent-rated shyness and children's vocabulary skills in 54 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners who learned English as a foreign language at school. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary were assessed both in Chinese and in English. Parent-rated shyness was uniquely associated with…

Tong, Xiuli; Ting, Ka-Tsun; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2011-01-01

307

Inquiring into Familiar Objects: An Inquiry-Based Approach to Introduce Scientific Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning science vocabulary is an often tedious but important component of many curricula. Frequently, students are expected to learn science vocabulary indirectly, but this method can hinder the success of lower-performing students (Carlisle, Fleming, and Gudbrandsen 2000). We have developed an inquiry-based vocabulary activity wherein students…

Hicks Pries, Caitlin; Hughes, Julie

2012-01-01

308

I Need Directions! Where am I in the Universe? Vocabulary Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an introductory lesson in vocabulary for a unit of study on space. It is designed to assist students with understanding the vocabulary in an engaging game while students and teacher can easily track student thinking and understanding of these vocabulary terms specific to the space content and standards.

Magdaleno, Maribel

2012-07-18

309

Vocabulary Comprehension of Evaluation Form: Its Influence on Student Rating of Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of vocabulary comprehension on underprepared freshman student responses and their rating of faculty teaching performances at Delaware State University. Learning Skills Center students have weak vocabulary comprehension that might hinder their ability to accurately rate instructors. A vocabulary quiz was given to…

Dujari, Anuradha

310

E-Book as Facilitator of Vocabulary Acquisition: Support of Adults, Dynamic Dictionary and Static Dictionary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the effects of three facilitators: adults' support, dynamic visual vocabulary support and static visual vocabulary support on vocabulary acquisition in the context of e-book reading. Participants were 144 Israeli Hebrew-speaking preschoolers (aged 4-6) from middle SES neighborhoods. The entire sample read the e-book without a…

Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Atishkin, Shifra; Turgeman, Merav

2014-01-01

311

Developing Reading Comprehension and Academic Vocabulary for English Language Learners Through Science Content: A Formative Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This formative experiment explored the extent to which two instructional frameworks that varied in the explicitness of academic vocabulary instruction, comprehension strategy instruction, and supports for student autonomy influenced reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, perceptions of autonomy supports, and reading engagement in fourth-grade English-language learners (ELLs). In the contextualized vocabulary instruction (CVI) framework, four reading comprehension strategies were integrated with two

Ana Taboada; Vanessa Rutherford

2011-01-01

312

Does the Freedom of Reader Choice Affect Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effect of freedom of reader choice on the incidental acquisition of vocabulary was investigated in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading classes. Despite advocating free extensive reading as a means of obtaining a native-like L2 vocabulary,existing studies investigating the incidental acquisition of vocabulary have not…

Reynolds, Barry Lee; Bai, Yi Ling

2013-01-01

313

Erfahrungen bei der Arbeit am russischen Wortschatz (Experiences in Work on the Russian Vocabulary)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on experiences with vocabulary booklets written by the students from Grade 5 through Grade 10. These included vocabularies grouped as to subject matter; special attention was given to vocabularies which would have a bearing on the whole school career and on developing free speaking ability. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

Kruechten, Christa von

1975-01-01

314

Proximal Effects of Robust Vocabulary Instruction in Primary and Intermediate Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational practices are needed to promote strong vocabulary growth so that vocabulary can be both the cause and result of successful reading. Vocabulary interventions need to begin early and continue for a sustained period of time (Beck & McKeown, 2007a; Biemiller, 2003; Foorman, Seals, Anthony & Pollard-Durodola, 2003). According to theoretical…

Apthorp, Helen; McKeown, Margaret; Igel, Charles; Clemons, Trudy; Randel, Bruce; Clark, Tedra

2011-01-01

315

Computer-Assisted Second Language Vocabulary Instruction: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing attention to incorporating computer-mediated instruction for language learning and teaching. Specifically, vocabulary is arguably the foundation of mastering a language, as the mastery of vocabulary is the fundamental step of learning a language. Second language (L2) vocabulary is important in the development of cognitive systems…

Chiu, Yi-Hui

2013-01-01

316

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading[R]: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate- to high-poverty elementary schools. Forty-four schools participated over a period spanning 2 consecutive school years. At baseline, 1,057 teachers and 16,471 students…

Apthorp, Helen; Randel, Bruce; Cherasaro, Trudy; Clark, Tedra; McKeown, Margaret; Beck, Isabel

2012-01-01

317

A New Twist on Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities in Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An essential element of science instruction is content literacy. In order to improve literacy specific to science, vocabulary must be addressed. As Jitendra et al. (2004) pointed out, "because learning vocabulary during independent reading is very inefficient for students with reading difficulties, vocabulary and word learning skills must be…

Grillo, Kelly J.; Dieker, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

318

Learning to Speak to a Spoken Language System: Vocabulary Convergence in Novice Users  

E-print Network

recognition errors remains higher. Finally, we observe that only 50% of each user's small vocabulary is sharedLearning to Speak to a Spoken Language System: Vocabulary Convergence in Novice Users Gina than 60 hours of interactions, we quantitatively analyze the acquisition of system vocabulary by novice

Levow, Gina-Anne

319

Computer-assisted oral reading helps third graders learn vocabulary better than a  

E-print Network

Computer-assisted oral reading helps third graders learn vocabulary better than a classroom control children learn vocabulary during computer-assisted oral reading. This paper focuses on one aspect ­ vocabulary learning ­ of a larger study comparing computerized oral reading tutoring to classroom instruction

Mostow, Jack

320

Predicting Expressive Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. Method: This study…

Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

2010-01-01

321

The Magic of Words: Teaching Vocabulary in the Early Childhood Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing a large and rich vocabulary is central to learning to read. Children must know the words that make up written texts in order to understand them, especially as the vocabulary demands of content-related materials increase in the upper grades. Studies have documented that the size of a person's vocabulary is strongly related to how…

Neuman, Susan B.; Wright, Tanya S.

2014-01-01

322

Context-dependent phonetic Markov models for large vocabulary speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

One approach to large vocabulary speech recognition, is to build phonetic Markov models, and to concatenate them to obtain word models. In previous work, we already designed a recognizer based on 40 phonetic Markov machines, which accepts a 10,000 words vocabulary ([3]), and recently 200,000 words vocabulary ([5]). Since there is one machine per phoneme, these models obviously do not

A.-M. Derouault

1987-01-01

323

Does Discussion Make a Difference in Vocabulary Learning from Expository Text Read Alouds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of discussion on vocabulary learning from expository text read alouds. This study used a pre-/post within-subjects design to investigate whether discussion contributed to improved vocabulary knowledge from expository text read alouds and whether the placement of discussion makes a difference in vocabulary

Zelinke, Sarah Beall

2011-01-01

324

On Multi-Dimensional Vocabulary Teaching Mode for College English Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the major approaches in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) vocabulary teaching from historical perspective and puts forward multi-dimensional vocabulary teaching mode for college English. The author stresses that multi-dimensional approaches of communicative vocabulary teaching, lexical phrase teaching method, the grammar…

Zhou, Li-na

2010-01-01

325

Software Application for Computer Aided Vocabulary Learning in a Blended Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the effect of computer-aided vocabulary learning software called "ArabCAVL" on students' vocabulary acquisition. It was hypothesized that students who use the ArabCAVL software in blended learning environment will surpass students who use traditional vocabulary learning strategies in face-to-face learning environment even…

Essam, Rasha

2010-01-01

326

Knowing a Lot for One's Age: Vocabulary Skill and Not Age Is Associated with Anticipatory Incremental Sentence Interpretation in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults.…

Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Fernald, Anne

2012-01-01

327

Word Lists to Simplify Vocabulary of Technical Information. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes eight word lists developed for use as part of the computer readability editing system (CRES), which was developed to serve as an author's aid in improving the ease of comprehending Navy technical manuals and training materials. The system has features which flag uncommon and misspelled words and long sentences, suggest simple…

Kincaid, J. Peter; And Others

328

Large vocabulary decoding and confidence estimation using word posterior probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the estimation of word posterior probabilities based on word lattices and presents applications of these posteriors in a large vocabulary speech recognition system. A novel approach to integrating these word posterior probability distributions into a conventional Viterbi decoder is presented. The problem of the robust estimation of confidence scores from word posteriors is examined and a method

G. Evermann; P. C. Woodland

2000-01-01

329

Luck in the vocabulary of motives of professional ice hockey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines an important aspect of professional ice hockey. While the game has become increasingly commodified and rationalized, and so organized on scien- tific and economic grounds, the notion of luck still finds a place in interpretations of action and outcomes in the sport. As one feature of the vocabulary of motives present in hockey, the use of luck

Philip Moore

330

Growing Academic Vocabulary with a Collaborative On-Line Database.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how collaborative on-line databases can be used to meet the need for individualized instruction for academic vocabulary learners intending to do university work in English. It is argued that effective teaching and course design for preparing non-native English speaking students for study at English language universities must be…

Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

331

Crossing the Vocabulary Bridge: Differentiated Strategies for Diverse Secondary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her new book, nationally known professional development consultant and literacy expert Socorro Herrera is joined by two colleagues to provide a framework for academic vocabulary and language instruction in today's diverse classrooms. The authors present a set of strategies and tools that work effectively across all content to support enhanced…

Herrera, Socorro G.; Kavimandan, Shabina K.; Holmes, Melissa A.

2011-01-01

332

Influence of General and Crystallized Intelligence on Vocabulary Test Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary tests, part of most test batteries of general intellectual ability, measure both verbal and general ability. Newly developed techniques for confirmatory factor analysis of dichotomous variables make it possible to analyze the influence of different abilities on the performance on each item. In the testing procedure of the Computerized Swedish Enlistment test battery, eight different subtests of a new

Eva Ullstadius; Jan-Eric Gustafsson; Berit Carlstedt

2002-01-01

333

Small-vocabulary speech recognition using surface electromyography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of electromyographic (EMG) speech recognition on a small vocabulary of 15 English words. EMG speech recognition holds promise for mitigating the effects of high acoustic noise on speech intelligibility in communication systems, including those used by first responders (a focus of this work). We collected 150 examples per word of single-channel EMG data from a male subject,

Bradley J. Betts; Kim Binsted; Charles Jorgensen

2006-01-01

334

Vocabulary used by sexual offenders: meaning and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how some sexual violence offenders use culturally acquired vocabularies to describe episodes of rape. The paper is based on an analysis of 12 accounts obtained from death-row inmates in Kenya who had been convicted of violent crimes and sexual violence. The accounts were elicited while conducting a larger study to explore the individual motivations, and social and

Samuel Muchoki

2011-01-01

335

DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-COORDINATE VOCABULARY, CHEMICAL PHYSICS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A METHOD (SCHEME) FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A VOCABULARY IN THE FIELD OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS FROM PRIMARY JOURNAL ARTICLES. ALL TERMS APPEARING IN A RECENT JOURNAL (VOL. 39, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS) JUDGED TO BE IMPORTANT WERE DIVIDED INTO THREE CATEGORIES--(1) PROPERTIES, PROCESSES, PHENOMENA, (2) OBJECTS, INCLUDING SYSTEMS AND…

LERNER, RITA G.

336

Perceptions of an EL Learner on Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This single case study addresses an action research design (Wolcott, 1994) that utilizes observations, interviews, and documents to access what teaching and learning techniques have improved the acquisition of vocabulary of a single intermediate English language (EL) learner from Turkey. Findings are reported and discussed in terms of the…

Erkaya, Odilea Rocha; Drower, Iris S.

2012-01-01

337

Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther

2013-01-01

338

Reexamining the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to reexamine the effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phones. Students (N=78) from two intact classes of sophomores at a Chinese university were assigned to two groups: the SMS group (the experimental group) and the paper group (the control group). Then, they were administered a pretest to identify the level…

Zhang, Haisen; Song, Wei; Burston, Jack

2011-01-01

339

Effects of Captioning on Video Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how three captioning types (i.e., on-screen text in the same language as the video) can assist L2 learners in the incidental acquisition of target vocabulary words and in the comprehension of L2 video. A sample of 133 Flemish undergraduate students watched three French clips twice. The control group (n = 32) watched the clips…

Perez, Maribel Montero; Peters, Elke; Clarebout, Geraldine; Desmet, Piet

2014-01-01

340

Gamified Vocabulary: Online Resources and Enriched Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the ways "gamification" can play a role in adolescents' development of vocabulary. Gamification involves the application of game-design thinking and play elements to non-game activities, such as routine homework or classroom lessons. Drawing upon data from in-school and after-school settings, the authors…

Abrams, Sandra Schamroth; Walsh, Sara

2014-01-01

341

Semantic Prosody and ESL/EFL Vocabulary Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence that semantic prosody, a novel linguistic theme, should attract much attention in ESL/EFL (English as a second/foreign language) vocabulary learning and teaching. Research suggests that inappropriate word choice arising from ignorance of semantic prosody is common among ESL/EFL learners (Wei, 2006; Xiao & McEnery, 2006). This…

Zhang, Weimin

2009-01-01

342

Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

2012-01-01

343

Measuring the Utility of a Basic French Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using frequency, range, availability, and coverage as objectively weighted indices of utility in the development of a basic French vocabulary list, the authors describe the technical procedure used in this study and list the resultant first 153 words according to the four indices and the utility rating. Weighting factors for each index, based on…

Savard, Jean-Guy; Richards, Jack C.

344

Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

2010-01-01

345

How Can Teachers Increase Classroom Use of Academic Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose for this action research study was to answer the question: "How can we enhance students' active engagement with academic vocabulary in social studies classes?" In this article, the authors share the strategies they developed through their research that proved most effective in engaging middle school students with active academic…

Larson, Lisa; Dixon, Temoca; Townsend, Dianna

2013-01-01

346

Connectives: Fitting Another Piece of the Vocabulary Instruction Puzzle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connectives (e.g., although, consequently, in contrast) are often considered the "signposts" of texts. In this article we argue that connectives represent a special kind of vocabulary knowledge that students need to develop both in order to read challenging, academic texts with understanding and to produce academic writing. Yet tapping…

Crosson, Amy C.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2013-01-01

347

The Link between Vocabulary Knowledge and Spoken L2 Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of the vast numbers of articles devoted to vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language, few studies address the contribution of lexical knowledge to spoken fluency. The present article begins with basic definitions of the temporal characteristics of oral fluency, summarizing L1 research over several decades, and then presents fluency…

Hilton, Heather

2008-01-01

348

Vocabulary Acquisition in Young Children: The Role of the Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sharing storybooks with babies increases their future achievements in literacy, especially in reading (Hall, 2001; Moore and Wade, 1997, 2003; Scarborough et al., 1991; Wade and Moore, 1998; Wells, 1985). This study, focusing on case studies of two 20-month-old children, attempts to identify the role the storybook plays in children's vocabulary

Hepburn, Emma; Egan, Bridget; Flynn, Naomi

2010-01-01

349

The Interactions of Vocabulary, Phonemic Awareness, Decoding, and Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used data from a large, national sample to examine the interaction of various literacy measures among young children with disabilities. Using structural equation modeling, they examined the relationships among measures of phonemic awareness, decoding, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Child and family factors, including sex,…

Carlson, Elaine; Jenkins, Frank; Li, Tiandong; Brownell, Mary

2013-01-01

350

Vocabulary Size Research at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The English Language Institute (now the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies) at Victoria University of Wellington has a long history of corpus-based vocabulary research, especially after the arrival of the second director of the institute, H. V. George, and the appointment of Helen Barnard, whom George knew in India. George's…

Nation, Paul; Coxhead, Averil

2014-01-01

351

Extent and Use of Indigenous Vocabulary in Guatemalan Spanish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the actual content and use of Indian vocabulary in standard Guatemalan Spanish, as opposed to the numerous entries found in antiquated dictionaries. Over 600 Indian words were extracted from contemporary Guatemalan literature and Lisandro Sandoval's "Semantica guatemalense." Interviews were arranged with middle and upper class…

Scavnicky, Gary Eugene A.

352

Language Independent and Language Adaptive Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition  

E-print Network

Language Independent and Language Adaptive Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition T. Schultz and A. The benefits of such an approach are: 1. Reduced complexity of systems by sharing models and param­ eters clustering procedure we trained three context dependent sys­ tems which share their parameters in different

Schultz, Tanja

353

Supporting Preschool Teachers’ Vocabulary Instruction During Storybook Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preschool educators represent a unique population for which to design professional development; as a result, innovative professional development models are necessary. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training preschool teachers to use a Shared Reading Innovation Configuration (IC) tool on their planning, implementation, and reflection of vocabulary instruction during shared storybook reading. Findings revealed that

Katrin L. Blamey; Katherine A. Beauchat; Heidi Sweetman

2012-01-01

354

Perceptual Learning Style Matching and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored learning and retention of concrete nouns in second language Spanish by first language English undergraduates (N = 128). Each completed a learning style (visual, auditory, tactile/kinesthetic, mixed) assessment, took a vocabulary pretest, and then studied 12 words each through three conditions (matching, mismatching, mixed…

Tight, Daniel G.

2010-01-01

355

A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Students' Vocabularies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group test and individual interviews were used to investigate quantitative and qualitative aspects of students' vocabularies. Subjects for the group test were 144 high-, middle-, and low-ability fourth and sixth graders. Subjects for the interviews were eight high- and low-ability third and fifth graders. The group test consisted of two forms of…

Graves, Michael F.

356

A Mnemonic Method for Learning a Second-Language Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments evaluate the effectiveness of a two-stage mnemonic procedure, the keyword method, for learning Spanish vocabulary. This method proved highly effective, yielding in one experiment a final test score of 88 percent correct for the keyword group compared to 28 percent for the control group. (Author/RC)

Raugh, Michael R.; Atkinson, Richard C.

1975-01-01

357

The problem of business ethics: Oxymoron or inadequate vocabulary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently critics have faulted American business schools for failing to impart to their students an understanding of ethics and its role in business. In this paper, we agree and attribute this situation, at least in part, to the need for a vocabulary of ethics and a failure to communicate Adam Smith's moral orientation to capitalism. So long as business schools

Jon M. Shepard; Richard E. Wokutch

1991-01-01

358

Shared Understanding and Idiosyncratic Expression in Early Vocabularies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To what extent do toddlers have shared vocabularies? We examined CDI data collected from 14,607 infants and toddlers in five countries and measured the amount of variability between individual lexicons during development for both comprehension and production. Early lexicons are highly overlapping. However, beyond 100 words, toddlers share more…

Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

2014-01-01

359

Classroom Concordancing: Vocabulary Materials Derived from Relevant, Authentic Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the use of concordances to prepare classroom vocabulary materials that are both authentic and relevant, assuming the databases used are pertinent to students, and shows how concordance-based exercises can enhance student competence in both semantic and syntactic elements of language. (nine references) (Author/CB)

Steven, Vance

1991-01-01

360

The Effect of Viewing Subtitled Videos on Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second language development could be achieved through various teaching or learning processes; however, employing multimedia has recently intruded the process in easing or complicating manners. This study has focused on the effectiveness of English subtitles on the EFL learner's vocabulary learning. The participants were 92 Iranian degree…

Harji, Madhubala Bava; Woods, Peter Charles; Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal

2010-01-01

361

Second Language Vocabulary Learning and Teaching: Still a Hot Topic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many reasons second language vocabulary learning and teaching continues to be a topic of interest for learners, instructors, and researchers. This article describes the implementation of personal glossaries in a community program offering English as second language classes to Latina/o Spanish speaking adults. Field notes, interviews, and…

Larrotta, Clarena

2011-01-01

362

Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition from Oral and Written Dialogue Journals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hypothesis-generating study of advanced university English-as-a-Foreign-Language learners' incidental vocabulary acquisition from oral and written dialogue journals over a semester. Teacher and student entries were analyzed and transcribed using WordCruncher (1993). Analyses compare characteristics of the input to the learners in the…

Brown, Cheryl; Sagers, Sherri L.; LaPorte, Carrie

1999-01-01

363

Learning English Vocabulary Collaboratively in a Technology-Supported Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was intended to investigate whether computer-assisted collaborative learning is comparable with computer-free and individual learning; in particular, it examined each of their effects on learning English vocabulary, followed by an analysis of their behavior patterns. In a junior high school in northern Taiwan, a normal classroom was…

Lin, Chih-Cheng; Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Tseng, Sheng-ping; Chan, Hsin-jung

2014-01-01

364

Confidence measures for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present several confidence measures for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. We propose to estimate the confidence of a hypothesized word directly as its posterior probability, given all acoustic observations of the utterance. These probabilities are computed on word graphs using a forward-backward algorithm. We also study the estimation of posterior probabilities on N-best lists instead of

Frank Wessel; Ralf Schlüter; Klaus Macherey; Hermann Ney

2001-01-01

365

Can Toddlers Learn Vocabulary from Television? An Experimental Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was inspired by the rise in television targeting toddlers and preverbal infants (e.g., Teletubbies, Baby Mozart). Overall, we investigated if very young children who are in the early stages of language acquisition can learn vocabulary quickly (fast map) from television programs. Using a fast mapping paradigm, this study examined a group (n = 48) of toddlers (15–24 months)

Marina Krcmar; Bernard Grela; Kirsten Lin

2007-01-01

366

Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English receptive vocabulary scores from 797 monolingual and 808 bilingual participants between the ages of 17 and 89 years old were aggregated from 20 studies to compare standard scores across language groups. The distribution of scores was unimodal for both groups but the mean score was significantly different, with monolinguals obtaining higher…

Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

2012-01-01

367

Improving the Knowledge and Application of Vocabulary within Content Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research paper depicts the teacher-developed instructional strategies to enhance vocabulary instruction among school-age students in the public school setting. The selected population spans across three school districts and includes a third grade classroom, a fifth grade classroom, as well as a select fourth and fifth grade students…

Austermuehle, Dana; Kautz, Tabitha; Sprenzel, Jennifer

2007-01-01

368

Tailoring Lexical Choice to the User's Vocabulary in  

E-print Network

Tailoring Lexical Choice to the User's Vocabulary in Multimedia Explanation Generation Kathleen Mc) for selecting words with which the user is familiar. When pictures can not be used to disambiguate a word or phrase, COMET has four strategies for avoiding unknown words. We give examples for each

369

The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

2011-01-01

370

Getting Into Words: Vocabulary Instruction that Strengthens Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For children with poor vocabulary development, reading is intimidating rather than exciting. That is why elementary and middle school teachers need this activity-filled guidebook--to improve students' independent word learning skills and strengthen their comprehension so they will tackle their schoolwork with confidence. Teachers will start by…

Lubliner, Shira

2005-01-01

371

Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

2013-01-01

372

Vocabulary and Working Memory in Children Fit with Hearing Aids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Method: Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward…

Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.

2012-01-01

373

Variation in Vocabulary Development as a Function of Birth Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated birth-order differences in children's early vocabulary development. Compared the composition and age of acquisition of the first 50 and 100 words of 9 firstborns and their younger siblings, using a longitudinal maternal diary methodology. A small but significant birth-order effect was found for the age at which the 50-word milestone…

Pine, Julian M.

1995-01-01

374

Words as Tools: Learning Academic Vocabulary as Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing awareness of the importance of academic vocabulary, and more generally, of academic language proficiency, for students' success in school. There is also a growing body of research on the nature of the demands that academic language places on readers and writers, and on interventions to help students meet these demands. In this…

Nagy, William; Townsend, Dianna

2012-01-01

375

The Effects of Animation Cues on Vocabulary Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates effectiveness of animated cues in electronic books on children's vocabulary development. Notes that subjects were 15 third-grade students from a suburban elementary school who participated in a one-group pretest-posttest program evaluation. Finds significant differences favoring the posttest. Describes suggestions for using electronic…

Higgins, Norman C.; Cocks, Patricia

1999-01-01

376

Vocabulary growth in an English as a foreign language context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines vocabulary growth in two dimensions, receptive and controlled productive, and the interrelationship between these dimensions. The study focuses on the 2000, 3000, 5000 and academic word list levels. Data were collected from 41 high school students in China. The participants completed a pre-test in the third week of the first semester, and a post-test ten weeks later.

HUA ZHONG; DAVID HIRSH

2009-01-01

377

Peek, Peak, Pique: Using Homophones to Teach Vocabulary (and Spelling!).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that regular homophone practice enhances vocabulary knowledge, spelling skills, pronunciation ability, and overall reading proficiency. Describes how card games played with decks of homophones helped to accomplish these things. Notes particular benefits of homophone games to English-as-a-second-language students, and outlines key advantages…

Pryle, Marilyn Bogusch

2000-01-01

378

Proactive and reactive effects of vigorous exercise on learning and vocabulary comprehension.  

PubMed

College students (N = 90) were randomly assigned to participate in vigorous, moderate or no physical exercise and vocabulary recall and comprehension learning activities under varying conditions to assess whether or not increased intensities of exercise, performed either before a vocabulary recall and comprehension learning activity (i.e., proactive effect) or after a vocabulary recall and comprehension learning activity (i.e., reactive effect), would improve vocabulary recall and comprehension. The results demonstrated that performing exercise at a vigorous intensity before or after rehearsing for a vocabulary comprehension test improved test results. PMID:24175463

Salis, Andrea S

2013-06-01

379

An Investigation of At-Risk Kindergarten Students' Response to a Two-Tiered Vocabulary Intervention: A Regression Discontinuity Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of kindergarten students at-risk for reading failure to a two-tiered vocabulary intervention delivered in the context of a shared storybook reading activity employing rich and robust vocabulary instruction. Rich vocabulary instruction is defined as explicit vocabulary instruction in which…

Tuckwiller, Elizabeth D.

2009-01-01

380

What's Meaning Got to Do With It: The Role of Vocabulary in Word Reading and Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is at present no clear consensus as to the nature of the relations between oral vocabulary and specific literacy skills. The present study distinguished between vocabulary breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge to better explain the role of oral vocabulary in various reading skills. A sample of 60 typically developing Grade 4 students was assessed on measures of receptive

Gene P. Ouellette

2006-01-01

381

The Vertebrate Trait Ontology: a controlled vocabulary for the annotation of trait data across species  

PubMed Central

Background The use of ontologies to standardize biological data and facilitate comparisons among datasets has steadily grown as the complexity and amount of available data have increased. Despite the numerous ontologies available, one area currently lacking a robust ontology is the description of vertebrate traits. A trait is defined as any measurable or observable characteristic pertaining to an organism or any of its substructures. While there are several ontologies to describe entities and processes in phenotypes, diseases, and clinical measurements, one has not been developed for vertebrate traits; the Vertebrate Trait Ontology (VT) was created to fill this void. Description Significant inconsistencies in trait nomenclature exist in the literature, and additional difficulties arise when trait data are compared across species. The VT is a unified trait vocabulary created to aid in the transfer of data within and between species and to facilitate investigation of the genetic basis of traits. Trait information provides a valuable link between the measurements that are used to assess the trait, the phenotypes related to the traits, and the diseases associated with one or more phenotypes. Because multiple clinical and morphological measurements are often used to assess a single trait, and a single measurement can be used to assess multiple physiological processes, providing investigators with standardized annotations for trait data will allow them to investigate connections among these data types. Conclusions The annotation of genomic data with ontology terms provides unique opportunities for data mining and analysis. Links between data in disparate databases can be identified and explored, a strategy that is particularly useful for cross-species comparisons or in situations involving inconsistent terminology. The VT provides a common basis for the description of traits in multiple vertebrate species. It is being used in the Rat Genome Database and Animal QTL Database for annotation of QTL data for rat, cattle, chicken, swine, sheep, and rainbow trout, and in the Mouse Phenome Database to annotate strain characterization data. In these databases, data are also cross-referenced to applicable terms from other ontologies, providing additional avenues for data mining and analysis. The ontology is available at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/50138. PMID:23937709

2013-01-01

382

Mixed-Method Research on Learning Vocabulary through Technology Reveals Vocabulary Growth in Second-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mixed-method embedded research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the integration of technology for second-grade students' vocabulary development and learning. Two second-grade classes with a total of 40 students (21 boys and 19 girls) were randomly selected to participate in this study for the course of a semester. One…

Huang, SuHua

2015-01-01

383

Japanese and American Folk Vocabularies for Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated how emotions are labeled and conceptualized by individuals representing widely varying ages and educational backgrounds, who live in rural areas of Japan and the United States. The authors gathered data in 2 phases: 30 participants in each country first produced emotion terms, and another 2 groups of 28 (1 group from each country) sorted out those emotion

Futoshi Kobayashi; Diane L. Schallert; Holly A. Ogren

2003-01-01

384

The Role of Background Knowledge in Text Comprehension for Children Learning English as an Additional Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience difficulties with reading comprehension relative to their monolingual peers. While low levels of vocabulary appear to be one factor underlying these difficulties, other factors such as a relative lack of appropriate background knowledge may also contribute. Sixteen children…

Burgoyne, Kelly; Whiteley, Helen E.; Hutchinson, Jane M.

2013-01-01

385

Vocabulary Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Relation to Visuospatial Construction Ability  

PubMed Central

Purpose This project was designed to identify relative strengths and weaknesses in vocabulary ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS) and to demonstrate the importance of stringent matching criteria for cross-group comparisons. Methods Children with WS and typically developing (TD) children completed standardized assessments of intellectual and language ability. Children with WS also completed a visuospatial construction ability assessment. Results Study 1: Concrete and relational vocabulary standard scores were significantly lower for 5 – 7-year-olds with WS than for TD children. Children with WS earned significantly higher standard scores for concrete than for relational vocabulary. When groups were stringently matched for relational vocabulary size, children with WS did not evidence a specific weakness in spatial vocabulary. Study 2: Standard scores for relational vocabulary were similar to those for visuospatial construction ability for 5 – 7-year-olds with WS. Study 3: 9 – 11-year-olds with WS demonstrated very limited relational vocabulary ability; relational vocabulary ability at 5 – 7 years was highly correlated with later relational language ability. Conclusions Concrete vocabulary is a relative strength for children with WS; relational vocabulary ability is very limited and is at about the level of visuospatial construction ability. Accurate determination of group comparison results depends on stringent group matching. PMID:18658065

Mervis, Carolyn B.; John, Angela E.

2008-01-01

386

Vocabulary Input from School Textbooks as a Potential Contributor to the Small Vocabulary Uptake Gained by English as a Foreign Language Learners in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research repeatedly reports very little vocabulary uptake by English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in public schools in Saudi Arabia. Factors such as the teaching methodology employed and learner motivation have been suggested to explain this but a further explanation, the vocabulary input these learners receive, remains uninvestigated. An…

Alsaif, Abdullah; Milton, James

2012-01-01

387

Vocabulary used by sexual offenders: meaning and implications.  

PubMed

This paper examines how some sexual violence offenders use culturally acquired vocabularies to describe episodes of rape. The paper is based on an analysis of 12 accounts obtained from death-row inmates in Kenya who had been convicted of violent crimes and sexual violence. The accounts were elicited while conducting a larger study to explore the individual motivations, and social and cultural factors that predispose men to acts of rape. Findings suggest that some sex offenders are immersed in normative cultural expectations about sexuality and gender and that, within this framework, they endeavour to create a picture that shifts the blame from themselves to their victims. They attempt to foster the belief that women and girls, in one way or another, provoke rape. Such vocabularies are used to trivialise and neutralise instances of rape within the wider society. PMID:20721766

Muchoki, Samuel

2011-01-01

388

Shared understanding and idiosyncratic expression in early vocabularies.  

PubMed

To what extent do toddlers have shared vocabularies? We examined CDI data collected from 14,607 infants and toddlers in five countries and measured the amount of variability between individual lexicons during development for both comprehension and production. Early lexicons are highly overlapping. However, beyond 100 words, toddlers share more words with other toddlers in comprehension than in production, even when matched for lexicon sizes. This finding points to a structural difference in early comprehension and production: Toddlers are generalists in comprehension but develop a unique, expressive voice. Variability in production decreases after two years of age, suggesting convergence to a common expressive core vocabulary. We discuss potential exogenous and endogenous contributions to the inverted U-shaped development observed in young children's expressive lexical variability. PMID:24410758

Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

2014-05-01

389

Wordplay games: three game modules to improve student vocabulary knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Wordplay Games, a project involving two iterations of a two-game educational module. Each module, composed of the games Code Invaders and Cipher Force, is meant to supplement traditional classroom practices and improve middle-grade student vocabulary knowledge. The original version of the Wordplay Games module uses commonly encountered academic words and is meant for in-class play using Nintendo

Jay Bachhuber; Tobi Saulnier

2012-01-01

390

The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

1992-01-01

391

Deaf students' recall of Spanish vocabulary under three testing conditions.  

PubMed

This investigation examined the effects of three training conditions on deaf students' recall of Spanish word meaning as measured by performance on a Spanish vocabulary test. The conditions were; a) repeated written productions, b) repeated fingerspelling, and c) repeated silent reading of selected Spanish words and their English equivalents. Subjects were 30 deaf undergraduate students enrolled in introductory Spanish courses at Gallaudet University in Washington, DC. Researchers assigned 10 subjects to each of the 3 training groups. A 30 item pretest was administered to verify that the vocabulary was not known to the subjects. A posttest containing 25 items from the pretest was administered twice to the subjects. For short-term memory there were no statistically significant differences across the 3 conditions. For long-term memory scores under the repeated written condition were significantly higher than scores under fingerspelling and silent reading conditions. The use of a study strategy incorporating writing may enhance the learning of Spanish vocabulary by deaf college students. The strategy could also be applied to other foreign languages and a range of academic subjects for deaf students. PMID:9002318

Ammons, D K; Miller, M S

1996-12-01

392

Selective exposure to and acquisition of information from educational television programs as a function of appeal and tempo of background music  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Exp I with 30 1st and 2nd graders, an educational program that contained no background music, appealing music of fast tempo, or unappealing music of slow tempo competed against 2 other programs. Appealing music of fast tempo produced exposure time significantly above the levels associated with the no-music control and the program with unappealing background music of slow tempo.

Jacob J. Wakshlag; Raymond Reitz; Dolf Zillmann

1982-01-01

393

Assessment of the Design Efficacy of a Preschool Vocabulary Instruction Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broad-stroke approaches to vocabulary teaching in preschool include effective instructional elements, yet may be too ill-structured to affect the vocabulary learning of children experiencing serious delays. Using a formative research approach, this study examines the design potential of a supplemental vocabulary instruction technique that incorporated research-based instructional elements into a highly structured approach. The intervention design was tested for instructional

Kathleen Roskos; Karen Burstein

2011-01-01

394

Word Finding Difficulties: Differentiated Vocabulary Instruction in the Speech and Language Room  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considered the efficacy of a differentiated approach to vocabulary instruction for learners with word-finding difficulties (WFD) in the speech and language pathologist’s room. Using a pretest–posttest design to study treatment outcomes, 10 second graders with WFD received first semantic-based vocabulary instruction (S) and then semantic- and phonological-based vocabulary instruction (S & P). The S instruction focused on teaching

Diane J. German; Jan Heath Schwanke; Ruth Ravid

2012-01-01

395

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading®: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate- to high-poverty elementary schools. Forty-four schools participated over a period spanning 2 consecutive school years. At baseline, 1,057 teachers and 16,471 students from kindergarten, first, third, and fourth grade participated. The schools were randomly assigned to

Helen Apthorp; Bruce Randel; Trudy Cherasaro; Tedra Clark; Margaret McKeown; Isabel Beck

2012-01-01

396

Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization  

E-print Network

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is our richest source of cosmological information; the standard cosmological model was largely established thanks to study of the temperature anisotropies. By the end of the decade, the Planck satellite will close this important chapter and move us deeper into the new frontier of polarization measurements. Numerous ground--based and balloon--borne experiments are already forging into this new territory. Besides providing new and independent information on the primordial density perturbations and cosmological parameters, polarization measurements offer the potential to detect primordial gravity waves, constrain dark energy and measure the neutrino mass scale. A vigorous experimental program is underway worldwide and heading towards a new satellite mission dedicated to CMB polarization.

James G. Bartlett

2006-01-25

397

Continuity and change in the home literacy environment as predictors of growth in vocabulary and reading.  

PubMed

One hundred and ten English-speaking children schooled in French were followed from kindergarten to Grade 2 (Mage : T1 = 5;6, T2 = 6;4, T3 = 6;11, T4 = 7;11). The findings provided strong support for the Home Literacy Model (Sénéchal & LeFevre, ) because in this sample the home language was independent of the language of instruction. The informal literacy environment at home predicted growth in English receptive vocabulary from kindergarten to Grade 1, whereas parent reports of the formal literacy environment in kindergarten predicted growth in children's English early literacy between kindergarten and Grade 1 and growth in English word reading during Grade 1. Furthermore, 76% of parents adjusted their formal literacy practices according to the reading performance of their child, in support of the presence of a responsive home literacy curriculum among middle-class parents. PMID:24467656

Sénéchal, Monique; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

2014-01-01

398

Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment. PMID:22436100

Tillotson, Alan Keith

2008-01-01

399

Limited vocabulary voice recognition and synthesis for HF communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since most military and commercial transmissions usually implement only a 256 word vocabulary for communications, then actual voice communications are not required, particularly in military jamming environments. The voice can be synthesized at the receiving end after transmission of a code sequence. A look-up table will suffice for synthesis of analog baseband signals. The system could also recognize the phonetic-letters-spelled-out (PLSO) system (e.g., Tango, Charley, Able, etc.). The technique permits HF utilization with an ionospheric hop and acceptable reception in all but very extreme jamming situations. It is noted that the simplified coding permits translation between operators who do not speak the same language.

Smith, R.

400

The University of Oklahoma Background Check Authorization (updated 02/05/2013) Hiring department completes this section. Incomplete information will delay the hiring process.  

E-print Network

for termination of past employment, financial/credit history, criminal history records from any criminal justice to substantiate their qualifications for employment. Criminal background checks will be conducted in addition (including the Social Security Administration and the Immigration & Naturalization Service) subject to state

Oklahoma, University of

401

The Evolution–Intelligent Design Debate: A Meaningful Context for Teaching the Nature of Science in Information Literacy. Part 1: Historical Background and Philosophical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although absent from the ACRL Information Literacy Standards for Science and Technology, the ability to distinguish between what is and is not science is an essential component of information literacy. Addressing this question requires the librarian to introduce concepts such as the nature of science, its realm, rules, and limits, as well as the nature of pseudoscience and nonscience before

Claudia Lascar; Loren D. Mendelsohn

2011-01-01

402

Promoting an Interest in Language To Stimulate College Students' Vocabulary Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes using the book "The Professor and the Madman" (which tells the story of how the "Oxford English Dictionary" came into being) in a college or developmental reading class. Notes it motivates students to take greater interest in language and work on expanding their vocabularies, thus promoting vocabulary development and close attention to…

Wellington, Kathy

1999-01-01

403

A Descriptive Study on the Use of Materials in Vocabulary Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is important because it is highly correlated with content area learning. Strategies for vocabulary instruction recommend using new words in multiple contexts as key to learning. To date, the term "multiple contexts" emphasizes written contexts, not three-dimensional concrete material contexts. This article describes the…

Holmes, Kerry; Holmes, Stacy V.; Watts, Karley

2012-01-01

404

The Effects of Audiovisual Support on EFL Learners' Productive Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study concerned multiple exposures to English before writing and aimed to explore the possibility of an increase in free active vocabulary with a focus on latent productive vocabulary beyond the first 2,000 most frequent words. The researcher incorporated online video into her college freshman composition class and examined its effects on…

Hsu, Wenhua

2014-01-01

405

Self-efficacy, word reading, and vocabulary knowledge in English language learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

English language learners (ELLs) are dramatically behind in the number of English vocabulary words they have acquired when they enter kindergarten. Research that has been conducted on early reading skills and vocabulary knowledge in ELLs focuses almost exclusively on instruction despite the fact that student characteristics such as self-efficacy play a significant role in academic outcomes. The aim of this

Tricia Florence Mase

2011-01-01

406

Personalised Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning System for Supporting Effective English Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English…

Chen, Chih-Ming; Li, Yi-Lun

2010-01-01

407

Enhancing the Vocabulary Knowledge of First-Grade Children with Supplemental Booster Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of instructional intensity on the acquisition of storybook vocabulary in first graders who were at risk of early reading failure. It also measured whether the intervention was effective for closing the vocabulary knowledge gap between students who were at risk and their average-achieving peers. A total of 66…

Puhalla, Eve M.

2011-01-01

408

Examining Listening Previewing as a Classwide Strategy to Promote Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classwide instructional strategies to improve not only reading fluency but also comprehension and vocabulary knowledge are essential for student reading success. The current study examined the immediate effects of two classwide listening previewing strategies on reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. Twenty-one, fourth-grade general…

Hawkins, Renee O.; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Hale, Andrea D.; McGuire, Shannon; Hailley, Jennifer

2010-01-01

409

Contrasting Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge on Temporal and Parietal Brain Structure across Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using behavioral, structural, and functional imaging techniques, we demonstrate contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure in 47 healthy volunteers who ranged in age from 7 to 73 years. In the left posterior supramarginal gyrus, vocabulary knowledge was positively correlated with gray matter density in…

Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Filippi, Roberto; Harth, Helen; Price, Cathy J.

2010-01-01

410

Too Close for (Brain) Comfort: Improving Science Vocabulary Learning in the Middle Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how researchers take a multidisciplinary approach to investigating how middle grades students learn science vocabulary. The authors investigated teaching strategies for increasing retention of science vocabulary with seventh graders and stumbled upon an interesting finding that was not even a target for their study, yet it…

Shore, Rebecca; Ray, Jenna; Goolkasian, Paula

2013-01-01

411

Aspects of Validity of a Test of Productive Vocabulary: Lex30  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates aspects of validity of an alternative measure of productive vocabulary. Lex30, developed by Meara and Fitzpatrick, is a word association task that claims to give an indication of productive vocabulary knowledge. Previous studies of Lex30 have assessed test-retest reliability, performance against native speaker norms,…

Walters, JoDee

2012-01-01

412

Teaching conceptually referenced core vocabulary for initial augmentative and alternative communication.  

PubMed

Individuals with significant intellectual disabilities who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) often fail to acquire large vocabularies. To maximize the functionality of a small vocabulary, AAC users' initial vocabulary typically consists of words that can be used frequently across contexts and functions (i.e., core vocabulary). For many AAC users, core vocabulary often references concepts rather than concrete items. For individuals with severe intellectual disabilities, however, initial AAC vocabulary often consists of concretely referenced words instead. There is little evidence that these individuals can learn to use conceptually referenced words in initial AAC. A variation of a single subject multiple baseline design across four stimuli was used to demonstrate that an individual with severe intellectual disabilities could learn to use conceptually referenced words as an initial AAC vocabulary. As a result of the intervention (a modified PECS procedure), a 9-year-old boy with multiple disabilities, including intellectual disability and deaf-blindness, learned to make appropriate use of three conceptually referenced tactile symbols for the concepts of more, done, and new as an initial communication vocabulary. PMID:24229336

Snodgrass, Melinda R; Stoner, Julia B; Angell, Maureen E

2013-12-01

413

Exploring a Comprehensive Model for Early Childhood Vocabulary Instruction: A Design Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing a critical need for effective vocabulary practices in early childhood classrooms, we conducted a design experiment to achieve three goals: (1) developing a comprehensive model for early childhood vocabulary instruction, (2) examining the effectiveness of this model, and (3) discerning the contextual conditions that hinder or facilitate…

Wang, X. Christine; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming

2014-01-01

414

Examining Continuity of Early Expressive Vocabulary Development: The Generation R Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors investigated continuity and discontinuity of vocabulary skills in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Method: Mothers of 3,759 children completed the Dutch version of the MacArthur Short Form Vocabulary Checklist (Zink & Lejaegere, 2003) at 18 months and a Dutch translation of the Language Development Survey…

Henrichs, Jens; Rescorla, Leslie; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Schmidt, Henk G.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2011-01-01

415

Longer Term Effects of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the longer term effectiveness of a standard protocol, Tier 2 supplemental vocabulary intervention for kindergarten English learners, designed to develop root word vocabulary knowledge and reinforce beginning word reading skills. Participating students in the original study ("n" = 93 treatment, 92 control) received 20 weeks of…

Vadasy, Patricia F.; Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

416

Linking Outcomes from Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Forms Using Item Response Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present work describes how vocabulary ability as assessed by 3 different forms of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT; Dunn & Dunn, 1997) can be placed on a common latent metric through item response theory (IRT) modeling, by which valid comparisons of ability between samples or over time can then be made. Method: Responses from…

Hoffman, Lesa; Templin, Jonathan; Rice, Mabel L.

2012-01-01

417

A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary

Jill K. Prevost

2010-01-01

418

Using Eye Tracking to Understand the Responses of Learners to Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of morphological instruction in an eye-tracking English vocabulary recognition task. Sixty-eight freshmen enrolled in an English course and received either traditional or morphological instruction for learning English vocabulary. The experimental part of the study was conducted over two-hour class periods for…

Liu, Pei-Lin

2014-01-01

419

Effects of Video Caption Modes on English Listening Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition Using Handheld Devices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effects of different display modes of video captions on mobile devices, including non-caption, full-caption, and target-word modes, on the English comprehension and vocabulary acquisition of fifth graders. During the one-month experiment, the status of the students' English listening comprehension and vocabulary

Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Chang, Chih-Kai

2013-01-01

420

Relationships of Expressive Vocabulary to Frequency of Reading and Television Experience among Bilingual Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationships of expressive vocabulary size with frequency of being read to and frequency of watching television among 64 bilingual 21- 27-month-old children from homes in which Spanish and English were spoken. Frequency of being read to in each language was positively correlated with expressive vocabulary size. Frequency of…

Patterson, Janet L.

2002-01-01

421

Meaning Recall and Retention: The Impact of the Translation Method on Elementary Level Learners' Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whilst the communicative approach advocates the use of the target language and implicit/incidental learning in vocabulary teaching, recent literature suggests that there is a need for these methods to be reconsidered. This is motivated by studies which suggest that for effective vocabulary learning process to occur explicit learning should be…

Ramachandran, Sharimllah Devi; Rahim, Hajar Abdul

2004-01-01

422

The Effect of Type of Written Exercise on L2 Vocabulary Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used a within-subjects design to examine the effect of the type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. Using input for the meaning and usage of the new words from a specially prepared minidictionary, university intensive English program students (n = 154) practiced target vocabulary in three types of written exercises…

Folse, Keith S.

2006-01-01

423

Effect of Focused Vocabulary Instruction on 7th Graders' Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports an investigation on the effects of directed vocabulary and whole class instruction on improving students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Fifty-eight seventh grade students participated in the study, and a pre-test/post-test experimental design was employed. The results did not indicate any statistically…

Horn, Mary; Feng, Jianhua

2012-01-01

424

Building a Strong Vocabulary: A Twelve-Week Plan for Students. 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second edition presents 12 strategies (focusing on one strategy a week) for students to increase vocabulary and boost communication skills, suggesting that these techniques can easily double the average person's vocabulary. After an introduction, the book presents the following 12 techniques: (1) Expand on What You Know: Synonyms, Antonyms,…

Smith, Carl B.

425

Building a Strong Vocabulary: A Twelve-Week Plan for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 12 strategies (focusing on one strategy a week) for students to increase vocabulary and boost communication skills, suggesting that these techniques can easily double the average person's vocabulary. After an introduction, the book presents the following 12 techniques: (1) "Expand on What You Know: Synonyms, Antonyms, and…

Smith, Carl B.

426

The Development and Validation of a Bilingual Version of the Vocabulary Size Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports an attempt to develop and validate a bilingual Persian version of the Vocabulary Size Test (VST). Due to the particular educational system in Iran, there is a dire need for a test that can effectively estimate English learners' vocabulary sizes. Previous research (Nguyen and Nation, 2011) has indicated that bilingual versions of…

Karami, Hossein

2012-01-01

427

Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…

Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

2014-01-01

428

Effects of Augmentative Communication on Vocabulary Acquisition with Primary Age Students with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention was designed to increase vocabulary acquisition in five mild to moderately handicapped children (ages seven to nine) in a self-contained class. The intervention resulted in high rates of vocabulary and sentence selection for all the children, an improvement which persisted after…

Snyder, Therese L.; And Others

1993-01-01

429

The Effects of Augmentative Communication on Vocabulary Acquisition with Primary Age Students with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention to increase vocabulary acquisition by 5 children (ages 7-9) with mild to moderate mental disabilities was evaluated. The AAC communication procedure resulted in higher rates of vocabulary and sentence selection for each of the children; improvement persisted above baseline levels…

Snyder, Therese L.; And Others

1994-01-01

430

Vocabulary Acquisition and Verbal Short-Term Memory: Computational and Neural Bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that human vocabulary acquisition processes and verbal short-term memory abilities utilize a common cognitive and neural system. We begin by reviewing behavioral evidence for a shared set of processes. Next, we examine what the computational bases of such a shared system might be and how vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory might be

Prahlad Gupta; Brian MacWhinney

1997-01-01

431

Exploring the Impact of Television Watching on Vocabulary Skills in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rising incidence of television consumption in children, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of such habits on vocabulary skills in young children. Very little research has targeted a key cognitive skill--vocabulary--during the toddler years, which represent a critical developmental period. We recruited toddlers,…

Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Williams, Skyler; Jones, Britney; Cochrane, Fiona

2014-01-01

432

Early Action and Gesture "Vocabulary" and Its Relation with Word Comprehension and Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 492 Italian infants (8-18 months) were collected with the parental questionnaire MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories to describe early actions and gestures (A-G) "vocabulary" and its relation with spoken vocabulary in both comprehension and production. A-G were more strongly correlated with word comprehension than word…

Caselli, Maria Cristina; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Stefanini, Silvia; Volterra, Virginia

2012-01-01

433

English Vocabulary Development in Bilingual Kindergarteners: What Are the Best Predictors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines growth rates in vocabulary over an academic year for 150 Latino English language learners. In October, February, and June of kindergarten, participants completed standardized measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary. Before the second and third assessments, a third of the children watched Arthur three times a week during…

Uchikoshi, Yuuko

2006-01-01

434

A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

2012-01-01

435

The Quality and Frequency of Encounters with Vocabulary in an English for Academic Purposes Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal case study tracks an adult second-language (L2) learner's quality and quantity of encounters with 20 vocabulary items in an English for Academic Purposes course over 3 months. The learner completed pretest and posttest vocabulary knowledge interviews, submitted course materials and notes for analysis, and was observed during…

Joe, Angela

2010-01-01

436

Learning "Special Words": Technical Vocabulary in the Talk of Adults and Preschoolers during Shared Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely recognized that there is a relationship between vocabulary development and children's reading ability. This article will focus on the strategies employed by 24 adults (12 mothers and 12 qualified preschool teachers) when introducing new and unusual vocabulary to four-year-old children during shared reading. The mothers differed in…

Torr, Jane; Scott, Claire

2006-01-01

437

The Effect of Vocabulary Instruction on the Reading Achievement of at Risk Third-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this quantitative research study the researcher investigated the effect of vocabulary instruction on the reading achievement of at risk students. A quasi-experimental design was used to determine the effect that vocabulary instruction had on the reading achievement of the at risk students. The sample used in the study was purposive, because…

Corbett, Linda D.

2009-01-01

438

Teaching Vocabulary During Shared Storybook Readings: An Examination of Differential Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A storybook intervention for kindergarten children that integrates principles of explicit vocabulary instruction within the shared storybook reading experience is described with findings from an experimental study demonstrating the effects of this intervention on the vocabulary development of kindergarten students at risk of reading difficulty.…

Coyne, Michael D.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Stoolmiller, Michael

2004-01-01

439

Learning ‘special words’Technical vocabulary in the talk of adults and preschoolers during shared reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely recognized that there is a relationship between vocabulary development and children's reading ability. This article will focus on the strategies employed by 24 adults (12 mothers and 12 qualified preschool teachers) when introducing new and unusual vocabulary to four-year-old children during shared reading. The mothers differed in terms of educational achievement; half the mothers had left school

Jane Torr; Claire Scott

2006-01-01

440

Middle School Students Increase Their Vocabulary Knowledge Using Learning Style Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared students' individual learning style preferences on vocabulary achievement in grade seven of communication arts classes by investigating those factors that contribute to intermediate school students' vocabulary achievement. The Dunn and Dunn Model of Learning Styles preferences (1989) served as a frame- work to analyze the interconnections among auditory, visual, tactile, and kinesthetic learning modalities and its effect

Vivian Nespoli Koppleman

441

The Initial Growth of Expressive Vocabulary Among Children With Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal data on the unstructured interactions at home of 9 children with Down syndrome were used to compare individual differences in initial expressive vocabulary growth to group data identically collected longitudinally on children without disabilities. The overall pattern of vocabulary growth was similar in all the children. Among the children with Down syndrome, differences in initial learning strategies, an asynchrony

BETTY HART

1996-01-01

442

Developing Reading Comprehension and Academic Vocabulary for English Language Learners through Science Content: A Formative Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This formative experiment explored the extent to which two instructional frameworks that varied in the explicitness of academic vocabulary instruction, comprehension strategy instruction, and supports for student autonomy influenced reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, perceptions of autonomy supports, and reading engagement in…

Taboada, Ana; Rutherford, Vanessa

2011-01-01

443

Engaging Student Interpreters in Vocabulary Building: Web Search with Computer Workbench  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the usefulness of Web portals in a workbench for assisting student interpreters in the search for and collection of vocabulary. The experiment involved a class of fifteen English as a Foreign Language (EFL) student interpreters, who were required to equip themselves with the appropriate English vocabulary to handle an…

Lim, Lily

2014-01-01

444

The Relationship between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer…

Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Pae, Hye K.

2014-01-01

445

Vocabulary Improvement Program for English Language Learners and Their Classmates. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Vocabulary Improvement Program for English Language Learners and Their Classmates" ("VIP") is a vocabulary development curriculum for English language learners and native English speakers (grades 4-6). The 15-week program includes 30-45 minute whole class and small group activities, which aim to increase students' understanding of target…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

446

Low-Income Immigrant Pupils Learning Vocabulary through Digital Picture Storybooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children from immigrant, low-income families in the Netherlands start school with a limited vocabulary in the language of instruction; therefore, this places them at risk for developing reading difficulties. Exposure to books is assumed to reduce their 2nd language (L2) vocabulary disadvantage. In this experiment, we examined the effects of video…

Verhallen, Marian J. A. J.; Bus, Adriana G.

2010-01-01

447

Parental strategies in supporting Chinese children’s learning of English vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils’ efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents regulating and controlling their children’s learning process and provided

Xuesong Gao

2011-01-01

448

A Formative Study Investigating Interactive Reading and Activities to Develop Kindergartners' Science Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A formative intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of words to increase the breadth, or size of their vocabularies, and to repeatedly and supportively expose children to words to increase the depth, or semantic understanding of vocabulary. Science content words were selected since they are less likely to be included in an…

Ward, Allison Elizabeth

2009-01-01

449

Vietnamese Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Ngoc Thang Vu, Tanja Schultz  

E-print Network

Vietnamese Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Ngoc Thang Vu, Tanja Schultz Cognitive@ira.uka.de Abstract--We report on our recent efforts toward a large vocabulary Vietnamese speech recognition system websites. To bootstrap the Vietnamese speech recognition system we used our Rapid Language Adaptation

Schultz, Tanja

450

Vocabularies, Knowledge and Social Action in Citizenship Education: The Highlander Example.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the history and vocabularies of the Highlander Folk School (Tennessee), an adult education school emphasizing decision-making, critical thinking, and active citizen participation. Encourages social studies teachers to become aware of their vocabularies, using the Highlander example in the discourse about the nature of knowledge and the…

Oldendorf, Sandra Brenneman

1989-01-01

451

Specifications of Content for Vocabulary Instruction in Alternative Language: Figurative, Affective, and Confusing Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development includes learning to recognize, comprehend, and produce alternative ways of communicating a word, an image, or a concept. Instruction in such language alternatives can increase the effectiveness of students' communication skills, making their vocabulary usage more appropriate, precise, descriptive, and interesting.…

Humes, Ann; Cronnell, Bruce

452

A Summary of the Vocabulary Research with Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is essential for communicating, reading, thinking, and learning. In comparison to typical hearing peers, students who are deaf or hard of hearing demonstrate vocabulary knowledge that is quantitatively reduced. The authors review and summarize research studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1967 and 2008 focusing on…

Luckner, John L.; Cooke, Christine

2010-01-01

453

Estimating Guessing Effects on the Vocabulary Levels Test for Differing Degrees of Word Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) are often viewed as a preferable estimator of vocabulary knowledge when compared to yes/no checklists, because self-reporting tests introduce the possibility of students overreporting or underreporting scores. However, multiple-choice tests have their own unique disadvantages. It has…

Stewart, Jeffrey; White, David A.

2011-01-01

454

Elementary School EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning: The Effects of Post-Reading Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As language learning involves the acquisition of thousands of words, teachers and learners alike would like to know how vocabulary learning can be fostered, especially in EFL settings where learners frequently acquire impoverished lexicons, despite years of formal study. Research indicates that reading is important but not sufficient for second-language vocabulary learning, and that it should be supplemented by post-reading

Derin. Atay; Gökce. Kurt

2006-01-01

455

Using Songs to Enhance L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at the effects of a teaching sequence of song-based activities on the L2 vocabulary acquisition of a group of five-year-old Spanish child EFL learners. Twenty-five preschool children received three 30-minute lessons organized around the presentation and practice of a well-known children's song. Vocabulary picture tests were…

Coyle, Yvette; Gómez Gracia, Remei

2014-01-01

456

Effects of Synonym Generation on Incidental and Intentional L2 Vocabulary Learning during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined effects of synonym generation on second language (L2) vocabulary learning during reading in both incidental and intentional vocabulary learning contexts. Spanish-speaking adult learners of L2 English (N = 114) at low- and high-intermediate proficiency levels read an English passage containing 10 target words translated in the…

Barcroft, Joe

2009-01-01

457

Improving the Acquisition of Novel Vocabulary through the Use of Imagery Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of imagery interventions on the vocabulary acquisition abilities of second grade students. A total of 15 students were randomly assigned to three different intervention conditions: Word Only, which involves the simple verbal presentation of a vocabulary word; Dual Coding, in which a picture…

Cohen, Marisa T.; Johnson, Helen L.

2011-01-01

458

PROVIDING CONTROLLED EXPOSURE TO TARGET VOCABULARY THROUGH THE SCREENING AND ARRANGING OF TEXTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the problem of how to bring foreign language students with a limited vocabulary knowledge, consisting mainly of high-frequency words, to the point where they are able to adequately comprehend authentic texts in a target domain or genre. It proposes bridging the vocabulary gap by first determining whic h word families account for 95% of the target domain's

Sina Ghadirian

2002-01-01

459

Sustainability of Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary after Implicit versus Explicit Instruction in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the sustained effects of explicit versus implicit instruction on the breadth and depth of children's vocabularies, while taking their general vocabulary and verbal short-term memory into account. Two experimental groups with 12 and 15 kindergarten children respectively learned two sets of 17 words counterbalanced to be taught…

Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

2014-01-01

460

Building Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary in Science in the Intermediate Grades: Creating Hooks for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is a salient factor influencing success both in and out of school. The specialized vocabulary knowledge in science represents the concept-laden hooks on which learning is hung and enables students to build prior knowledge through the expansion of these conceptual hooks. We have identified four levels of learners--struggling…

Rupley, William H.; Slough, Scott

2010-01-01

461

Adding a Vocabulary Component to Incremental Rehearsal to Enhance Retention and Generalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigates the effect of adding a semantic component, in the form of vocabulary, to the incremental rehearsal (IR) procedure. Sixty-one second- and third-grade students in a suburban elementary school were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: IR or IR with vocabulary. Each participant was taught seven previously unknown…

Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Burns, Matthew K.

2011-01-01

462

The Graeco-Latin Vocabulary of Formal English: Some Pedagogical Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corson's argument regarding points of difficulty about the Graeco-Latin vocabulary (morphological complexity and form/meaning relationship "opacity") are the basis of a proposal that much of the Graeco-Latin vocabulary of formal English can be shown to be quite regular and can be systematically taught. (Contains 10 references.) (LB)

Kelly, Robert

1991-01-01

463

Attainment of sitting and walking predicts development of productive vocabulary between ages 16 and 28 months.  

PubMed

Productive vocabulary was measured every four months in 16- to 28-months-olds. Attainment of motor-milestones was also measured. An earlier age of sitting and walking predicted a higher intercept and a larger slope (growth) of productive vocabulary respectively, suggesting that attainment of walking propels linguistic development. PMID:22982273

Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Volman, M Chiel J M; Leseman, Paul P M

2012-12-01

464

"It takes a village" to support the vocabulary development of children with multiple risk factors.  

PubMed

Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly associated with language stimulation and learning materials in all families regardless of risk status. Maternal warmth and responsiveness supported vocabulary competence in families of low economic status only when maternal depressive symptoms were low. In families with the highest levels of risk, that is, with depression and economic distress jointly present, support by the extended family and neighbors for caring for the child protected children's vocabulary development against these adverse conditions. The empirical evidence on the positive contribution of extrafamilial support to young children's receptive vocabulary under adverse conditions allows an expansion of our current theorizing about influences on language development. PMID:24188041

Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

2014-04-01

465

Morphological awareness and vocabulary development among kindergartners with different ability levels.  

PubMed

Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children significantly improved their morphological awareness skills and vocabulary over a period of 4 months ( eta(p)(2) = .61 for morphological awareness and eta(p)(2) = .53 for vocabulary), with the greatest gains made by children who were initially low on these measures. Morphological awareness and vocabulary skills were reciprocally related; each made a unique contribution to growth in the other. The results suggest that it may be beneficial to combine instruction in vocabulary and morphological awareness and that kindergarten teachers can successfully do so with guidance. PMID:24306459

Ramirez, Gloria; Walton, Patrick; Roberts, William

2014-01-01

466

Automated Diagnosis of Otitis Media: Vocabulary and Grammar  

PubMed Central

We propose a novel automated algorithm for classifying diagnostic categories of otitis media: acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and no effusion. Acute otitis media represents a bacterial superinfection of the middle ear fluid, while otitis media with effusion represents a sterile effusion that tends to subside spontaneously. Diagnosing children with acute otitis media is difficult, often leading to overprescription of antibiotics as they are beneficial only for children with acute otitis media. This underscores the need for an accurate and automated diagnostic algorithm. To that end, we design a feature set understood by both otoscopists and engineers based on the actual visual cues used by otoscopists; we term this the otitis media vocabulary. We also design a process to combine the vocabulary terms based on the decision process used by otoscopists; we term this the otitis media grammar. The algorithm achieves 89.9% classification accuracy, outperforming both clinicians who did not receive special training and state-of-the-art classifiers. PMID:23997759

Kuruvilla, Anupama; Hoberman, Alejandro; Kovacevic, Jelena

2013-01-01

467

Speaking up for vocabulary: reading skill differences in young adults.  

PubMed

This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (a) Does the simple view of reading capture all nonrandom variation in reading comprehension? (b) Does orally assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the lexical quality hypothesis? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, and experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly played an important role in reading comprehension. The simple view of reading gave a reasonable fit to the data, although it did not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captured unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill were accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215

Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P; Mencl, W Einar

2007-01-01

468

Speaking up for Vocabulary: Reading Skill Differences in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study is part of a broader project that has the goal of developing cognitive and neuro-cognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. The study explores relationships among reading related abilities in participants aged 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (1) Does the Simple View of Reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986) capture all non-random variation in reading comprehension? (2) Does orally-assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002)? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly plays an important role in reading comprehension. Gough and Tunmer’s Simple View of Reading gives a reasonable fit to the data, though it does not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captures unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill are accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215

Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald; Mencl, Einar

2010-01-01

469

Vocabularies of motive for illicit steroid use among bodybuilders.  

PubMed

Illicit steroid use, for purposes of performance and physique enhancement, is widely deemed unnecessary, wrong and dangerous. Such activity would appear especially foolhardy when engaged in by non-professional athletes who otherwise adhere to 'healthy' exercise regimens. Here a gap exists between many illicit steroid users' actions and societal expectations. Using qualitative data generated in South Wales, this paper explores bodybuilders' vocabularies of motive for illicit steroid use. These accounts which justified, rather than excused, steroid use were predominant during question situations between the participant observer and the researched. In supporting the fundamental tenets of their drug subculture, and as part of the underlying negotiation of self-identity, respondents espoused three main justifications for their own and/or other bodybuilders' illicit steroid use; namely: self-fulfilment accounts, condemnation of condemners and a denial of injury. Here steroid use was rationalised as a legitimate means to an end, observers passing negative judgements were rejected and it was claimed steroids do not (seriously) harm the user's health or threaten society more generally. These vocabularies of motive, acquired and honoured within bodybuilding settings, comprise a complex of subjective meanings which seem to the actor to be an adequate ground for the conduct in question. Similar to other sociological studies, this paper states that it is imperative to explore the social meanings which illicit drug users attach to their 'risk' practices. Without these understandings, researchers and health promoters may struggle to appreciate fully why illicit drug users behave as they do. PMID:12190264

Monaghan, Lee F

2002-09-01

470

Bilingual vocabulary size and lexical reading in Italian.  

PubMed

In the present study we investigated how the vocabulary size of English-Italian bilinguals affects reading aloud in Italian (L2) modulating the reader's sensitivity to lexical aspects of the language. We divided adult bilinguals in two groups according to their vocabulary size (Larger - LV, and smaller - SV), and compared their naming performance to that of native Italian (NI) readers. In Experiment 1 we investigated the lexicality and word frequency effects in reading aloud. Similarly to NI, both groups of bilinguals showed these effects. In Experiment 2 we investigated stress assignment - which is not predictable by rule - to Italian words. The SV group made more stress errors in reading words with a non-dominant stress pattern compared to the LV group. The results suggest that the size of the reader's L2 lexicon affects the probability of correct reading aloud. Overall, the results indicate that proficient adult bilinguals show a similar sensibility to the statistical and distributional properties of the language as compared to Italian monolinguals. PMID:24140823

Primativo, Silvia; Rinaldi, Pasquale; O'Brien, Shaunna; Paizi, Despina; Arduino, Lisa S; Burani, Cristina

2013-11-01

471

The Role of Home and School Factors in Predicting English Vocabulary among Bilingual Kindergarten Children in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in monolingual populations indicate that vocabulary knowledge is essential to reading achievement, but how vocabulary develops in bilingual children has been understudied. The current study investigated the role of home and school factors in predicting English vocabulary among 284 bilingual kindergartners (168 Chinese, 65 Malay, 51…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2011-01-01

472

A Ubiquitous English Vocabulary Learning System: Evidence of Active/Passive Attitudes vs. Usefulness/Ease-of-Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English vocabulary learning and ubiquitous learning have separately received considerable attention in recent years. However, research on English vocabulary learning in ubiquitous learning contexts has been less studied. In this study, we develop a ubiquitous English vocabulary learning (UEVL) system to assist students in experiencing a systematic…

Huang, Yueh-Min; Huang, Yong-Ming; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Lin, Yen-Ting

2012-01-01

473

Vocabulary Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: A Review of Evidence and Good Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide evidence to support direct vocabulary intervention practices for primary school-age children with language impairment (LI). A rationale for providing direct vocabulary intervention for children with LI is outlined by reviewing typical and atypical vocabulary acquisition, evidence of instructional…

Steele, Sara C.; Mills, Monique T.

2011-01-01

474

"Yes, Your Honor!": A Corpus-Based Study of Technical Vocabulary in Discipline-Related Movies and TV Shows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is an essential element of every second/foreign language teaching and learning program. While the goal of language teaching programs is to focus on explicit vocabulary teaching to promote learning, "materials which provide visual and aural input such as movies may be conducive to incidental vocabulary learning." (Webb and Rodgers, 2009,…

Csomay, Eniko; Petrovic, Marija

2012-01-01

475

Assessing the Role of Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge in Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the extent to which scores on depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge as two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge would contribute to predicting the EFL learners' reading performance with a minimum vocabulary size of 3000 word families and also to find out the difference, if any, between the reading…

Rashidi, Nasser; Khosravi, Negar

2010-01-01

476

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Intervention on the Word Knowledge of Kindergarten Students at Risk for Language and Literacy Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a vocabulary intervention designed to supplement research-based classroom vocabulary instruction, implemented with students who may be at risk for language and learning difficulties. Participants included 43 kindergarten students who received research-based classroom vocabulary

Loftus, Susan M.; Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Zipoli, Richard; Pullen, Paige C.

2010-01-01

477

Exploring the role of hand gestures in learning novel phoneme contrasts and vocabulary in a second language  

PubMed Central

Co-speech hand gestures are a type of multimodal input that has received relatively little attention in the context of second language learning. The present study explored the role that observing and producing different types of gestures plays in learning novel speech sounds and word meanings in an L2. Naïve English-speakers were taught two components of Japanese—novel phonemic vowel length contrasts and vocabulary items comprised of those contrasts—in one of four different gesture conditions: Syllable Observe, Syllable Produce, Mora Observe, and Mora Produce. Half of the gestures conveyed intuitive information about syllable structure, and the other half, unintuitive information about Japanese mora structure. Within each Syllable and Mora condition, half of the participants only observed the gestures that accompanied speech during training, and the other half also produced the gestures that they observed along with the speech. The main finding was that participants across all four conditions had similar outcomes in two different types of auditory identification tasks and a vocabulary test. The results suggest that hand gestures may not be well suited for learning novel phonetic distinctions at the syllable level within a word, and thus, gesture-speech integration may break down at the lowest levels of language processing and learning. PMID:25071646

Kelly, Spencer D.; Hirata, Yukari; Manansala, Michael; Huang, Jessica

2014-01-01

478

Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS). The ILTS includes 1,045 twin pairs from the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia aged 5 to 8 years. We applied the DeFries-Fulker regression method to determine whether problems in PM and vocabulary tend to co-occur because of overlapping genes, overlapping environmental risk factors, or both. Results Among children with isolated PM deficits, we found significant bivariate heritability of PM and vocabulary weaknesses both within and across time. However, when probands were selected for a vocabulary deficit, there was no evidence for bivariate heritability. In this case, the PM-vocabulary relationship appeared to owe to common shared environmental experiences. Conclusions The findings are consistent with previous research on the heritability of specific language impairment and suggest that there are etiologic subgroups of children with poor vocabulary for different reasons, one more influenced by genes and another more influenced by environment. PMID:23275423

Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

2012-01-01

479

Prediction of Boston Naming Test performance from vocabulary scores: preliminary guidelines for interpretation.  

PubMed

Patients with limited education or underdeveloped vocabulary skills may perform below the normal range on the Boston Naming Test when compared to the original published norms, even in the absence of brain damage. To reduce the frequency of false positive dysnomic classifications of patients with limited vocabulary skills, we developed a score adjustment to account for the significant shared variance between scores on this test and the WAIS-R Vocabulary subtest. Vocabulary significantly predicted performance on the Boston Naming Test (r = .65, p < .0001) in a sample of 62 outpatients who had no objective evidence of brain damage. Linear regression was used to derive expected performance on the Boston Naming Test from Vocabulary scaled scores. Relative to the original published norms, scores based on the Vocabulary subtest cut-offs produced fewer false positives and more accurately classified group membership for patients with and without objectively verified brain damage. These performance predictions are offered as tentative guidelines to assist clinicians in evaluating the presence of naming deficits by controlling for the variance associated with knowledge of vocabulary. PMID:10544434

Killgore, W D; Adams, R L

1999-08-01

480

Fifty Percent Law: Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides background information about a statute that affects the fiscal operation of California community colleges. The Fifty Percent Law (Education Code 84362) requires "there shall be expended each fiscal year for payment of salaries of classroom instructors by a community college district, 50 percent of the district's current expense…

Community Coll. League of California, Sacramento.

481

The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

1991-01-01

482

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry -- Background information for promulgated air emission standards: Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, semi-chemical, mechanical, and secondary and non-wood fiber mills. Final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being promulgated for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. This background information document provides technical information and analyses used in the development of the promulgated pulp and paper NESHAP, and contains responses to comments from the proposed rule. This document covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills (i.e., mills that combine on-site production of both pulp and paper).

NONE

1997-10-01

483

Cosmic Microwave Background Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Probing whether space is curved or flat, cosmologists have been searching for clues in ripples in the universe's microwave background left from the big bang. These tutorials explain the cosmic microwave background for neophytes, as well as more advanced readers.

Hu, Wayne

2003-10-10

484

A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events.  

PubMed

Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org. PMID:24951798

Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

2014-01-01

485

Building Background Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

2014-01-01

486

NCBI More Information: Similarity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page summarizes the basic concept and vocabulary of sequence similarity searching. It is included for those new to the field who may not appreciate the importance of this technique in biology, who lack the vocabulary to understand the BLAST guide and tutorial or who require a basic rather than a sophisticated understanding of the methods involved. Sections include introduction, premise, terms, general approach, the BLAST algorithm, quantification, gaps, significance, and databases. Users can link to BLAST, BLAST tutorial, and additional BLAST information from this page.

Information, National C.

487

Automatic Presentation of Sense-Specific Lexical Information in an Intelligent Learning System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning vocabulary and understanding texts present difficulty for language learners due to, among other things, the high degree of lexical ambiguity. By developing an intelligent tutoring system, this dissertation examines whether automatically providing enriched sense-specific information is effective for vocabulary learning and reading…

Eom, Soojeong

2012-01-01

488

Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1) measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s), and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2) better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at ˜ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

Yanagisawa, Chiaki

2014-06-01

489

Towards multi-domain speech understanding with flexible and dynamic vocabulary  

E-print Network

In developing telephone-based conversational systems, we foresee future systems capable of supporting multiple domains and flexible vocabulary. Users can pursue several topics of interest within a single telephone call, ...

Chung, Grace Yuet-Chee

2001-01-01

490

Effects of Content Acquisition Podcasts on Vocabulary Performance of Secondary Students With and Without Learning Disabilities  

E-print Network

The purpose of this experimental research study was to investigate effects of using Content Acquisition Podcasts (CAPs) to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school...

Kennedy, Michael J.

2011-05-31

491

Structured story reading and retell related to listening comprehension and vocabulary acquisition among English language learners  

E-print Network

This study compared the oral language development, vocabulary, and comprehension of English language learners (ELLs) in second grade who were participating in a five-year longitudinal study, Project English Language and Literacy Acquisition (Project...

Cruz de Quiros, Ana Migdalia

2008-10-10

492

Explorations of collective form--a design vocabulary using directional village forms as references  

E-print Network

This thesis is an exploration of collective form, or that which is characterized by an unity made up of a diversity. The exploration articulates a vocabulary based on the analysis of a group of references; directional ...

Chastain, Thomas Robert

1982-01-01

493

Web-based, speech-enabled games for vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present two novel ways in which speech recognition technology might aid students with vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language. While research in the applied linguistics field of second language ...

McGraw, Ian C. (Ian Carmichael)

2008-01-01

494

Rainbow Rummy : a Web-based game for vocabulary acquisition using computer-directed speech  

E-print Network

Acquiring vocabulary in a foreign language is a long process which often involves the use of flashcards or cycling through long word lists for memorization. While many students learn effectively in this way, research at ...

Yoshimoto, Brandon (Brandon T.)

2009-01-01

495

The Role of Consulting a Dictionary in Reading and Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent research on consulting a dictionary in second language reading and vocabulary learning. From the perspective of cognitive learning theory, reevaluates the limited role that has often been accorded to dictionary consulting. (Author/VWL)

Fraser, Carol A.

1998-01-01

496

Talking to children matters: early language experience strengthens processing and builds vocabulary.  

PubMed

Infants differ substantially in their rates of language growth, and slow growth predicts later academic difficulties. In this study, we explored how the amount of speech directed to infants in Spanish-speaking families low in socioeconomic status influenced the development of children's skill in real-time language processing and vocabulary learning. All-day recordings of parent-infant interactions at home revealed striking variability among families in how much speech caregivers addressed to their child. Infants who experienced more child-directed speech became more efficient in processing familiar words in real time and had larger expressive vocabularies by the age of 24 months, although speech simply overheard by the child was unrelated to vocabulary outcomes. Mediation analyses showed that the effect of child-directed speech on expressive vocabulary was explained by infants' language-processing efficiency, which suggests that richer language experience strengthens processing skills that facilitate language growth. PMID:24022649

Weisleder, Adriana; Fernald, Anne

2013-11-01

497

The Impact of Teaching Direct Learning Strategies on the Retention of Vocabulary by EFL Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effect of teaching direct learning strategies and their subcategories on the vocabulary retention of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) learners. Participants of the study were 60 female EFL learners, aged 15-17. (Author/VWL)

Marefat, Hamideh; Shirazi, Masoomeh Ahmadi

2003-01-01

498

Chinese Scrabble : a web-based speech-enabled game for Chinese vocabulary building  

E-print Network

The subject of this thesis is a web-based language game Chinese Scrabble, whose main objective is to help students of Chinese to practice speaking, to learn and review vocabulary both in pinyin and in Chinese characters. ...

Trnovcova, Zuzana

2010-01-01

499

Anglo-American Cooperation in a Company Information System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is International Nickel's Technical Information System which involves cooperation between the London and New York offices. The problems of coordination, selection, vocabulary control, computer compatibility, communication and security are discussed. (4 references) (SJ)

Kelly, J. R.; Popper, P.

1971-01-01

500

The relationship between vocabulary and short-term memory measures in monolingual and bilingual speakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may influence the efficiency of lexical access in adults. The goals of this research were (1) to compare bilingual and monolingual adults on their native-language vocabulary performance, and (2) to examine the relationship between short-term memory skills and vocabulary performance in monolinguals and bilinguals. In Experiment 1, English-speaking monolingual adults and simultaneous English–Spanish bilingual

Margarita Kaushanskaya; Henrike K. Blumenfeld; Viorica Marian

2011-01-01