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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Background Information  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Background Information ... These have been labeled to remove fluid from patients suffering from volume overload. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

2

Improving Vocabulary and Comprehension Skills of Secondary-Level Students from Diverse Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary-level students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds who struggle with reading need strategies for aligning new information with their previous knowledge as well as for obtaining and retaining essential information from the text. Important components of all secondary literacy support must include instruction in word identification, vocabulary, and comprehension skills.

Michelle McCollin; Doris J. OShea; Kathleen McQuiston

2009-01-01

3

Vocabulary Questions on Informal Reading Inventories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the utility of informal reading inventories (IRI) and acknowledges four limitations of the research. Indicates that no validity-enhancing measures were implemented in conjunction with the three IRIs analyzed. Suggests that IRI vocabulary questions do not appear to be useful. (MG)

Duffelmeyer, Fredrick A.; And Others

1989-01-01

4

Vocabulary uptake from informal learning tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is common to encourage foreign-language learners to use their language outside the classroom and to read books and papers, listen to songs and watch films in the foreign language. One of the benefits which are thought to accrue from these activities is that learners can build good vocabularies. It has even been argued that casual exposure to the foreign

James Milton

2008-01-01

5

Use of controlled vocabularies to improve biomedical information retrieval tasks.  

PubMed

The high heterogeneity of biomedical vocabulary is a major obstacle for information retrieval in large biomedical collections. Therefore, using biomedical controlled vocabularies is crucial for managing these contents. We investigate the impact of query expansion based on controlled vocabularies to improve the effectiveness of two search engines. Our strategy relies on the enrichment of users' queries with additional terms, directly derived from such vocabularies applied to infectious diseases and chemical patents. We observed that query expansion based on pathogen names resulted in improvements of the top-precision of our first search engine, while the normalization of diseases degraded the top-precision. The expansion of chemical entities, which was performed on the second search engine, positively affected the mean average precision. We have shown that query expansion of some types of biomedical entities has a great potential to improve search effectiveness; therefore a fine-tuning of query expansion strategies could help improving the performances of search engines. PMID:23920842

Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Vishnyakova, Dina; Ruch, Patrick; Lovis, Christian

2013-01-01

6

Effects of Stimulus Characteristics and Background Music on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning and Forgetting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effects of three stimulus variables and background music on paired-associate learning of foreign language (FL) vocabulary. The stimulus variables were the frequency and concreteness of the native language (L1) words and the (phonotactical) typicality of the FL words. Sixty-four L1-FL pairs were presented for learning six…

de Groot, Annette M. B.

2006-01-01

7

45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information. 170.207...TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION...PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and...

2010-10-01

8

Background Information on Ammonia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the synthesis, production, and use of ammonia (7664417) is reviewed. The importance of a catalyst in the process of uniting hydrogen and nitrogen to form ammonia, producers of ammonia between 1961 and 1974, their annual production capacity,...

R. Hartle

1975-01-01

9

Developing Science Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This wiki page explores best practices in vocabulary development for middle school science teachers. Science, like other disciplines, has a specialized vocabulary, encompassing both terms that represent scientific concepts and those that describe process skills. Although science education focuses on inquiry and hands-on experiences, current research shows that teachers must also help students develop vocabulary to be successful in both the content and methods of science.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-07-01

10

Improving Vocabulary and Comprehension Skills of Secondary-Level Students from Diverse Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Secondary-level students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds who struggle with reading need strategies for aligning new information with their previous knowledge as well as for obtaining and retaining essential information from the text. Important components of all secondary literacy support must include instruction in…

McCollin, Michelle; O'Shea, Doris J.; McQuiston, Kathleen

2009-01-01

11

An interlingua for electronic interchange of medical information: using frames to map between clinical vocabularies.  

PubMed

The proliferation of medical knowledge has led to the development of extensive dictionaries for electronically accessing information resources. The task of standardizing terminology used for electronic hospital records and for knowledge bases for medical expert systems and indexing the medical literature cannot easily be met by developing a single, monolithic "official" medical vocabulary. Developing a monolithic vocabulary would require a massive effort, and its existence would not guarantee its use by third-party payors, by practicing clinicians, or by developers of electronic medical information systems. Recognizing this, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) has begun to develop the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as a means of promoting electronic information exchange among systems with controlled vocabularies. The authors describe a frame-based system developed as an experimental approach to mapping between controlled clinical vocabularies. PMID:1889203

Masarie, F E; Miller, R A; Bouhaddou, O; Giuse, N B; Warner, H R

1991-08-01

12

Indexical Information, Encoding Difficulty, and Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research has demonstrated that second language (L2) vocabulary learning improves when target words are presented in acoustically varied compared with acoustically consistent formats. The present study investigated the extent to which this benefit of acoustic variability is a consequence of difficult encoding demands (cognitive effort hypothesis)…

Sommers, Mitchell S.; Barcroft, Joe

2011-01-01

13

A survey of electronic drug information resources and identification of problems associated with the differing vocabularies used to key them.  

PubMed

Drug information resources are increasingly becoming electronically available. They differ in scope, granularity, and purpose. These considerations have shaped the selection of dissimilar drug name keys, complicating access. An abbreviated and simplified historical context of the development of official controlled vocabularies and their relationships is followed by a review of the kinds of information available in several electronic drug information resources. The key vocabularies used are discussed with examples. Problems using the differing terms of the resource vocabularies are identified. PMID:8130551

Gnassi, J A; Barnett, G O

1993-01-01

14

The elderly and informed consent: Effects of vocabulary level and corrected feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-seven elderly adults (57-87 years of age) divided into four WAIS vocabulary subgroups (<40, 40-49, 50-59, ?60) participated in a study of comprehension and memory of an informed consent procedure. Ss in Croup 1 read the consent form and, with the information sheet still present, answered multiple choice questions covering the main points of information. Feedback and corrected answers were

Harvey A. Taub; Gary E. Kline; Marilyn T. Baker

1981-01-01

15

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR THE PEDIATRIC ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Meeting Background Materials Blinatumomab (AMG 103) Page 1 AVAILABLE FOR PUBLIC DISCLOSURE WITHOUT REDACTION ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

16

Teaching Difficult Vocabulary in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the relationship of vocabulary to reading comprehension focuses on the instruction of difficult vocabulary to learners of English as a Second Language. The historical background of vocabulary instruction is chronicled and the importance of reading and vocabulary learning to each other is examined. Various kinds of difficult…

Washburn, Jonathan Walter

17

The Vocabulary Problem in Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research in information science and in human-computer interaction has shown that people tend to use different terms to describe a similar concept. Due to the unique backgrounds, training, and experiences of different people, the chance of two collaborators using the same term to describe a concept or an object for a common task is quite low. This vocabulary difference

Hsinchun Chen

18

Developing Pupil Background Information for Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students are often provided with background information before reading an assigned selection. This background information functions differently in the following reading variations: individualized reading; basal reading; big book approaches; programmed reading, the language experience approach; and predictable books. Students often pick subjects…

Ediger, Marlow

19

Extension and integration of the gene ontology (GO): combining GO vocabularies with external vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured vocabulary development enhances the management of information in biological databases. As information grows, handling the complexity of vocabularies becomes difficult. Defined methods are needed to manipulate, expand and integrate complex vocabularies. The Gene Ontology (GO) project provides the scientific community with a set of structured vocabularies to describe domains of molecular biology. The vocabularies are used for annotation of

D. P. Hill; J A Blake; J E Richardson; M Ringwald

2002-01-01

20

Vocabulary Integration Environment: VINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interoperability between distributed information systems requires an agreement of metadata standards, protocols, interfaces and controlled vocabularies. Such an agreement is often pursued by adopting standards published by organizations such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC); however, controlled vocabularies are domain specific, and semantic conflicts within information communities are found when extracting metadata. For

Luis E. Bermudez

21

Background Information Regarding the ISBT Label  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Background Information Regarding the ISBT Label Useful References 1.Guidance for Industry: Recognition and ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess

22

Exploring Vocabulary Development in Informational Reading Selections: Implications for the Construction of Reading Instructional Series for the Middle Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since derivatives are more likely to occur in expository or informational prose than in fictional, literary prose, a study was conducted to test the hypothesis that systematic contextual development of vocabulary is more apt to occur in informational selections than in fictional literary ones. The teaching of prefixes and the use of prefixed words…

Stotsky, Sandra

23

Visualizing Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

24

Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

1994-10-01

25

Effect of "Missing" Information on Fast Mapping by Individuals with Vocabulary Limitations Associated with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One phenomenon of language development is a dramatic increase in vocabulary size, driven by rapid word learning. For individuals with intellectual disabilities, the size of the lexicon often lags behind what would be expected both for CA and MA. I examined how well individuals with severely limited receptive vocabulary associated with intellectual…

Wilkinson, Krista

2007-01-01

26

Facilitating Transition to the Mainstream: Sheltered English Vocabulary Development. Program Information Guide Series Number 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adapted from a curriculum guide prepared by the Hartford, Connecticut Bilingual Program's Vocabulary Development Committee, this guide to vocabulary development in sheltered English offers practical ideas for content area instruction to limited-English-speaking students in the language classroom, with the objective of facilitating transition from…

Pierce, Lorraine Valdez, Comp.

27

Contemporary Classroom Vocabulary Assessment for Content Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the challenges of teaching disciplinary vocabulary effectively is the paucity of available, classroom-friendly vocabulary assessments that can be used to gauge students' vocabulary growth and to inform vocabulary instruction. This article describes the intricacies of word knowledge that make assessment difficult. Three continua…

Stahl, Katherine A. Dougherty; Bravo, Marco A.

2010-01-01

28

Vocabularies in the VO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

2009-09-01

29

The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill  

PubMed Central

Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words—some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (SES, parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n=62), and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness, and may help identify children at risk for starting behind.

Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2011-01-01

30

Providing Relevant Background Information in Smart Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a system, called GAIN (Group Adapted Interaction for News), which selects background information to be displayed in public shared environments according to preferences of the group of people present in there. In ambient intelligence contexts, we cannot assume that the system will be able to know every users physically present in the environment and therefore to access to their profiles in order to compute the preferences of the entire group. For this reason, we assume that group members may be i) totally unknown, ii) completely or iii) partially known by the system. As we describe in the paper, in the first case, the system uses a group profile that is built statistically according to the results of a preliminary study. In the second case, the model of the group is created from the profiles of known users. In the third situation the group interests are modeled by integrating preferences of known members with a statistical prediction of the interests of unknown ones. Evaluation results proved that adapting news display to the group was more effective in matching the members’ interests in all the three cases than the in the non-adaptive modality.

de Carolis, Berardina; Pizzutilo, Sebastiano

31

Use of Ontology for Field Geological Data in Geological Sheet Maps at 1:50,000: "Outcrop Information Vocabulary" Prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological Survey of Japan has published series of geological map at 1:50,000. The study attempts to acquire, distribute, and utilize the outcrop information as digital information. We aim at construction of an open system which is available in a various position, and then establishment of standard technology for the realization of the system. The purpose of this paper is to consider and carry out manufacture of “Outcrop Information Vocabulary(OIV)” as the first stage of the study. Since outcrop information is basic primary information, the semantic web technology is employed to associate with various other systems on the Web; for instance, OIV is designed with use of ontology and described by Web Ontology Language(OWL). The OIV includes 14 classes including “FieldObservation” class to describe field observation. Moreover, we create test system which field researchers use to test the effectiveness of OIV. The result lead to the conclusion that files created by use of OIV are easy of mutual alteration and association function with other XML-base format, therefore, OIV has high affinity with existing technology. ULM Class Diagram for "Outcop Informaion Vocabulary"

Nishioka, Y.; Fusejima, Y.; Takarada, S.; Iwaya, T.; Igawa, T.; Masaka, Y. A.

2010-12-01

32

Division of Undergraduate Education Reviewer Background Information Form  

NSF Publications Database

... information is retained for future reference in selecting reviewers. The information requested on ... of all information is entirely voluntary. The purpose of this background information is to assist in ...

33

Background information on the SSC project  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning.

Warren, J.

1991-10-01

34

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Colon CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the descriptive manuscript cited below.

35

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Breast CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the materials cited below.

36

Profiling Vocabulary Acquisition in Irish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigations into early vocabulary development, including the timing of the acquisition of nouns, verbs and closed-class words, have produced conflicting results, both within and across languages. Studying vocabulary development in Irish can contribute to this area, as it has potentially informative features such as a VSO word order, and…

O'Toole, Ciara; Fletcher, Paul

2012-01-01

37

Profiling Vocabulary Acquisition in Irish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations into early vocabulary development, including the timing of the acquisition of nouns, verbs and closed-class words, have produced conflicting results, both within and across languages. Studying vocabulary development in Irish can contribute to this area, as it has potentially informative features such as a VSO word order, and…

O'Toole, Ciara; Fletcher, Paul

2012-01-01

38

25 CFR 537.2 - Submission of background information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTEREST IN, OR HAVING MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY FOR, A MANAGEMENT CONTRACT § 537.2 Submission of background information. A management contractor shall submit the background information required in § 537.1 of this part: (a)...

2013-04-01

39

VOCABULARY: NEEDED IF MORE CHILDREN ARE TO READ WELL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary has long been recognized as a strong determinant of reading success. Despite the importance of vocabulary knowledge, very little information is available about effective strategies for vocabulary instruction in elementary grades and there is a paucity of data on the relative merits of the different programs that are designed to promote vocabulary growth in elementary children. Available information indicates

ANDREW BIEMILLER

2003-01-01

40

Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

Schulte, Roger R.

1987-11-01

41

Nasa Thesaurus Aeronautics Vocabulary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the...

1991-01-01

42

Vocabulary at the Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

2009-01-01

43

Learning Vocabulary Through Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the hypothesis that new vocabulary knowledge can be acquired through incidental learning of word meanings from context. Fifth graders of two reading abilities read passages containing unfamiliar words. Students were randomly assigned to different numbers of context presentations: 0, 2, 6, or 10 passages read over several days. Half of the unfamiliar words were informally taught before

Joseph R Jenkins; Marcy L Stein; Katherine Wysocki

1984-01-01

44

Vocabulary at the Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

2009-01-01

45

Vocabulary: Needed If More Children Are To Read Well.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Notes that vocabulary has long been recognized as a strong determinant of reading success. Discusses how children's vocabulary knowledge is largely determined by informal factors, such as parental interaction and other sources, such as the television. Addresses individual differences in vocabulary acquisition; amount of vocabulary needed for…

Biemiller, Andrew

2003-01-01

46

Language experiences and vocabulary development in Dominican and Mexican infants across the first 2 years.  

PubMed

We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during interviews at infants' birth. Infants' language experiences were measured at ages 14 months and 2 years through mothers' reports of mothers' and fathers' engagement in English and Spanish literacy activities with infants and mothers' English and Spanish utterances during videotaped mother-infant interactions. Infants' vocabulary development at 14 months and 2 years was examined using standardized vocabulary checklists in English and Spanish. Both parental language context and infants' language experiences predicted infants' vocabularies in each language at both ages. Furthermore, language experiences mediated associations between parental language context and infants' vocabularies. However, the specific mediation mechanisms varied by language. PMID:22142187

Song, Lulu; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

2011-12-05

47

The Relationship between Vocabulary and Writing Quality in Three Genres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocabulary in writing across three genres. Fifth graders (N = 105) wrote three compositions: story, persuasive, and informative. Each composition revolved around the topic of outer space to control for background knowledge. Written compositions were scored for holistic writing quality and…

Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Wilson, Joshua

2013-01-01

48

Relations between Vocabulary Development and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Relative Importance of Short-Term Memory for Serial Order and Item Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although many studies have shown an association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development, the precise nature of this association is not yet clear. The current study reexamined this relation in 4- to 6-year-olds by designing verbal STM tasks that maximized memory for either item or serial order information. Although…

Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Greffe, Christelle; Van der Linden, Martial

2006-01-01

49

A Comparison of Information Functions of Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Vocabulary Items. Research Report 77-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty multiple-choice vocabulary items and 20 free-response vocabulary items were administered to 660 college students. The free-response items consisted of the stem words of the multiple-choice items. Testees were asked to respond to the free-response items with synonyms. A computer algorithm was developed to transform the numerous…

Vale, C. David; Weiss, David J.

50

Obtaining Background Information on Your Prospective Adopted Child  

MedlinePLUS

... Practice Family-Centered Practice Home Philosophy and Key Elements of Family-Centered Practice Family-Centered Practice Across the ... Connections Act Laws & Policies Library Search Mandated Reporters Publications ... Stay Connected Home » Obtaining Background Information on ...

51

Alcohol Use and Abuse: Background Information for Security Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of alcohol abuse and alcoholism as it relates to personnel security is prepared as background information for policy makers, adjudicators, investigators, and researchers. It discusses the relationships between alcohol use and personnel security...

R. J. Heuer

1991-01-01

52

The Rediscovery of Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews four recent books of current research in vocabulary acquisition: "Exploring the Second Language Mental Lexicon," (D. Singleton); "Assessing Vocabulary," (J. Read); "Vocabulary in Language Teaching" (N. Schmitt); "Learning Vocabulary in Another Language" (L.S.P. Nation). (Author/VWL)|

Meara, Paul

2002-01-01

53

An Investigation of Two Ways of Presenting Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of semantic links or networks in L2 vocabulary acquisition has been a popular subject for numerous studies. On one hand, there is a strong theoretical background stating that presenting words in related fashion facilitates the learning of L2 vocabulary. On the other hand, research evidence indicates that semantically related vocabulary

Papathanasiou, Evagelia

2009-01-01

54

Generating compound words with high order n-gram information in large vocabulary speech recognition systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we concentrate on generating compound words with high order n-gram information for speech recognition. In most existing compound words generation methods, only bi-gram information is considered. They are successful for improving the performance of bi-gram models but doesn't work well in higher order n-gram cases. Since nowadays 3gram and 4-gram language models are commonly used, here we

Jie Zhou; Qin Shi; Yong Qin

2011-01-01

55

Compadre Educational Subject Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ComPADRE has developed a fixed vocabulary for educational content in collaboration with PER-CENTRAL and ENC. The vocabulary is broken into two main categories, pure research and applied research and resources. Comments and suggestions are requested.

Mason, Bruce

2005-12-29

56

Mapping Entry Vocabulary to Unfamiliar Metadata Vocabularies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on work at the University of California, Berkeley, on the design and development of English-language indices to metadata vocabularies. Discusses the significance of unfamiliar metadata and describes the Entry Vocabulary Module which helps searchers to be more effective and increases the return on the original investment in generating…

Buckland, Michael; Chen, Aitao; Chen, Hui-Min; Kim, Youngin; Lam, Byron; Larson, Ray; Norgard, Barbara; Purat, Jacek; Gey, Frederic

1999-01-01

57

The evolution of vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human language is unique among the communication systems of the natural world. The vocabulary of human language is unique in being both culturally transmitted and symbolic. In this paper I present an investigation into the factors involved in the evolution of such vocabulary systems. I investigate both the cultural evolution of vocabulary systems and the biological evolution of learning rules

Kenny Smith

2004-01-01

58

Information Routing Driven by Background Chatter in a Signaling Network  

PubMed Central

Living systems are capable of processing multiple sources of information simultaneously. This is true even at the cellular level, where not only coexisting signals stimulate the cell, but also the presence of fluctuating conditions is significant. When information is received by a cell signaling network via one specific input, the existence of other stimuli can provide a background activity –or chatter– that may affect signal transmission through the network and, therefore, the response of the cell. Here we study the modulation of information processing by chatter in the signaling network of a human cell, specifically, in a Boolean model of the signal transduction network of a fibroblast. We observe that the level of external chatter shapes the response of the system to information carrying signals in a nontrivial manner, modulates the activity levels of the network outputs, and effectively determines the paths of information flow. Our results show that the interactions and node dynamics, far from being random, confer versatility to the signaling network and allow transitions between different information-processing scenarios.

Pons, Antonio J.; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi

2011-01-01

59

Terminology Change: Effect on Index Vocabularies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents results of a study using changes in language in the "Annual Review of Information Science and Technology" over a period of eleven years to determine the effect of such change on index vocabularies. (CWM)|

Harris, Jessica L.

1979-01-01

60

Language Experiences and Vocabulary Development in Dominican and Mexican Infants across the First 2 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during…

Song, Lulu; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

2012-01-01

61

Facilitating the development of controlled vocabularies for metabolomics technologies with text mining  

PubMed Central

Background Many bioinformatics applications rely on controlled vocabularies or ontologies to consistently interpret and seamlessly integrate information scattered across public resources. Experimental data sets from metabolomics studies need to be integrated with one another, but also with data produced by other types of omics studies in the spirit of systems biology, hence the pressing need for vocabularies and ontologies in metabolomics. However, it is time-consuming and non trivial to construct these resources manually. Results We describe a methodology for rapid development of controlled vocabularies, a study originally motivated by the needs for vocabularies describing metabolomics technologies. We present case studies involving two controlled vocabularies (for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography) whose development is currently underway as part of the Metabolomics Standards Initiative. The initial vocabularies were compiled manually, providing a total of 243 and 152 terms. A total of 5,699 and 2,612 new terms were acquired automatically from the literature. The analysis of the results showed that full-text articles (especially the Materials and Methods sections) are the major source of technology-specific terms as opposed to paper abstracts. Conclusions We suggest a text mining method for efficient corpus-based term acquisition as a way of rapidly expanding a set of controlled vocabularies with the terms used in the scientific literature. We adopted an integrative approach, combining relatively generic software and data resources for time- and cost-effective development of a text mining tool for expansion of controlled vocabularies across various domains, as a practical alternative to both manual term collection and tailor-made named entity recognition methods.

Spasic, Irena; Schober, Daniel; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Kell, Douglas B; Paton, Norman W

2008-01-01

62

Community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constrained clustering has been well-studied in the unsupervised learning society. However, how to encode constraints into community structure detection, within complex networks, remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised learning framework for community structure detection. This framework implicitly encodes the must-link and cannot-link constraints by modifying the adjacency matrix of network, which can also be regarded as de-noising the consensus matrix of community structures. Our proposed method gives consideration to both the topology and the functions (background information) of complex network, which enhances the interpretability of the results. The comparisons performed on both the synthetic benchmarks and the real-world networks show that the proposed framework can significantly improve the community detection performance with few constraints, which makes it an attractive methodology in the analysis of complex networks.

Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

2013-02-01

63

Inferring New Vocabulary Using Online Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through small-scale sampling of relevant specialized texts to craft hands-on inferential vocabulary tasks, both students and teachers can benefit from corpus linguistic information. By discovering ways to collect and access real data, second-language teachers can create topic-specific corpora and use software to sort and highlight the data to create more rich and revealing classroom materials for improving vocabulary learning. This

Laurel Smith Stvan

2005-01-01

64

Math Vocabulary Bingo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides students an opportunity to assess their understanding of mathematical vocabulary as they relate to key concepts from the five content areas. Through the use of a familiar game format, Bingo, students will identify numbers 0-75 that correspond to mathematical descriptions from math vocabulary clue cards.

Nctm

2010-06-03

65

Second Language Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The vocabulary knowledge of 166 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners in Taiwan was measured annually over a five year period using a bilingual version of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) (Nation, 1983, 1990; Schmitt, Schmitt, and Clapham, 2001). The five years of data collection involved English language instruction in high school and…

Webb, Stuart Alexander; Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

2012-01-01

66

Invited Commentary: Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While formal research into the effect various technologies have on vocabulary acquisition is still in its infancy, it is clear that--intentionally or incidentally--students have used various electronic media to learn new words for some time now. Moreover, although it is still far from clear exactly how one acquires vocabulary in a second language…

Martinez, Ron; Schmitt, Norbert

2010-01-01

67

VISUAL VOCABULARY IN BRANDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual vocabulary or visual language is a set of symbols used to describe a system or a process; it refers to all graphical representations that supplement a brand image, a logo, and build a brand identity that is bound to remain invariable even when the sign undergoes fundamental changes. The article is a presentation of the concept of visual vocabulary\\/language

Adriana Vintean; Ovidiu Matiu

2011-01-01

68

Building Mathematics Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

Kovarik, Madeline

2010-01-01

69

Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

Surajlal, K. C.

1986-01-01

70

tagging, communities, vocabulary, evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tagging community's vocabulary of tags forms the basis for social navigation and shared expression. We present a user-centric model of vocabulary evolution in tagging com- munities based on community influence and personal ten- dency. We evaluate our model in an emergent tagging sys- tem by introducing tagging features into the MovieLens rec- ommender system. We explore four tag selection

Shilad Sen; Shyong K. Lam; Al Mamunur Rashid; Dan Cosley; Dan Frankowski; Jeremy Osterhouse; F. Maxwell Harper; John Riedl

2006-01-01

71

The Superlearning of Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…

Fillmer, H. Thompson

1983-01-01

72

Background Information on the He(3) Nuclear Gyroscope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the contract period the background necessary to proceed with the assembly and testing of the precision He(3) nuclear gyroscope was completed. This background work included experiments on He(3)-He(4) liquid and gas mixtures in a prototype apparatus ...

W. M. Fairbank

1983-01-01

73

Common vocabularies for collective intelligence - work in progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web based applications and tools offer a great potential to increase the effectiveness of information flow and improve communication among disparate agents in support of distributed operations. One of the factors that hinders the integration and interoperability of information models, is a lack of common, shared vocabularies. This paper discusses research aimed at placing shared vocabularies at the heart of

P. Di Maio

2009-01-01

74

Learning words by hand: Gesture's role in predicting vocabulary development  

PubMed Central

Children vary widely in how quickly their vocabularies grow. Can looking at early gesture use in children and parents help us predict this variability? We videotaped 53 English-speaking parent-child dyads in their homes during their daily activities for 90-minutes every four months between child age 14 and 34 months. At 42 months, children were given the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). We found that child gesture use at 14 months was a significant predictor of vocabulary size at 42 months, above and beyond the effects of parent and child word use at 14 months. Parent gesture use at 14 months was not directly related to vocabulary development, but did relate to child gesture use at 14 months which, in turn, predicted child vocabulary. These relations hold even when background factors such as socio-economic status are controlled. The findings underscore the importance of examining early gesture when predicting child vocabulary development.

Rowe, Meredith L.; Ozcaliskan, Seyda; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2009-01-01

75

Playing Games: Vocabulary Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding ways to keep students active and engaged in the classroom is not easy. Introducing a game like Vocabulary Survival in which students are allowed to compete while also learning moral concepts can create a fun and successful learning environment.

Dea, Sara

2011-02-01

76

Geospatial Revolution: GIS Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive based on Penn State Public Broadcasting’s Geospatial Revolution project, learn vocabulary that has developed with the growth of GIS, watch relevant videos and check your understanding of those words using the embedded assessment.

Wpsu

2010-10-12

77

Nursing research: historical background and teaching information strategies.  

PubMed Central

The expansion of research-based literature is one of the foremost goals of the nursing profession. Linked to this goal are the utilization and further development of nursing libraries. This paper discusses some historical factors that have influenced nursing literature. It presents a model for teaching graduate nursing students the relationship between research and library information skills.

Sarkis, J M; Conners, V L

1986-01-01

78

Cross Cultural Strategies: Background Information For Teachers of Indian Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet was designed as a source of information for teachers seeking a deeper understanding of Native American children and who want to take advantage of opportunities offered by a cross-cultural classroom. The first section is a collection of 13 articles from a wide variety of sources on various aspects of cross-cultural education. Each…

Council for Yukon Indians, Whitehorse (Yukon). Curriculum Development Program.

79

What effects do text-based tasks promoting generation have on incidental vocabulary acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large proportion of vocabulary is acquired incidentally from written contexts However, in text-based studies promoting generaUve processing, it is not dear if, or to what extent, generation influences incidental vocabulary learning This study examined the effects of text-based tasks and background knowledge (pnor vocabulary knowledge and a disposiuon to use generative learning tactics when tackling new vocabulary) on incidental

ANGELA JOE

1998-01-01

80

Viewpoint Paper: Exploring and Developing Consumer Health Vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laypersons (“consumers”) often have difficulty finding, understanding, and acting on health information due to gaps in their domain knowledge. Ideally, consumer health vocabularies (CHVs) would reflect the different ways consumers express and think about health topics, helping to bridge this vocabulary gap. However, despite the recent research on mismatches between consumer and professional language (e.g., lexical, semantic, and explanatory), there

Qing T. Zeng; Tony Tse

2006-01-01

81

Social validation of vocabulary selection: ensuring stakeholder relevance.  

PubMed

The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse. PMID:23641830

Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson

2013-05-06

82

Vocabulary acquistion using structured inductive reasoning  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system for increasing the vocabulary of a student using inductive reasoning is disclosed. The system displays a target word to be learned and associated derivation information, followed by a clue. The derivation information can include a pronunciation guide, historical or anecdotal background information, information about its root and prefix or its foreign derivation. The derivation does not rely on a formal definition of the target word and usually does not include such a definition. Clues then request a response from the student. The correct responses require an understanding of the derivation of the respective word. The correct answer to the clue and an explanation for that answer are then provided, thereby adding to the information the student has about the target word's meaning. Typically, the first clue or first several clues will not include the target word in the question, or the expected answer to the question. Each clue and answer provides additional understanding of the target word and the student arrives at an individualized meaning for the word through inductive reasoning developed through responding to the clues.

2000-09-19

83

The Effect of Keeping Vocabulary Notebooks on Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary notebooks are frequently advocated as a way for students to take control of their vocabulary learning (Fowle, 2002), with the added benefit of improvements in vocabulary learning (Schmitt and Schmitt, 1995; Laufer and Nation, 1999). The study described in this article attempts to lend empirical support to these claims, by investigating…

Walters, JoDee; Bozkurt, Neval

2009-01-01

84

Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nat

85

Reducing Solid Waste: Reusable Vocabulary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Recycling:  Separating, collecting, processing, marketing, and ultimately using a material that would have been thrown away.   From Reducing Solid Waste: Reusable Vocabulary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing (Marketing vocabulary)

2010-07-08

86

Conceptually based vocabulary intervention: second graders' development of vocabulary words.  

PubMed

An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students took part in the 30-minute intervention over 6-8 weeks, learning 12 new vocabulary words each week by means of the three intervention components: (a) word introduction, (b) word activity (semantic mapping), and (c) practice. Results indicated that the vocabulary intervention successfully improved all students' recognition, production, and comprehension of the vocabulary words and phrases. PMID:21305978

Dimling, Lisa M

2010-01-01

87

Notes on an Environmental Pollution Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocabulary covering the field of environmental pollution was compiled by the staff of the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution. The view of the approach is to include an outline-classification all physical, life, and social science aspects of environmental pollution, trying to achieve a balance in the representation of each…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

88

Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

Lu, M.

2008-01-01

89

MMIE training of large vocabulary recognition systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a framework for optimising the structure and parameters of a continuous density HMM-based large Ž. vocabulary recognition system using the Maximum Mutual Information Estimation MMIE criterion. To reduce the computational complexity of the MMIE training algorithm, confusable segments of speech are identified and stored as word lattices of alternative utterance hypotheses. An iterative mixture splitting procedure is

V. Valtchev; J. J. Odell; Philip C. Woodland; S. J. Young

1997-01-01

90

Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

Lu, M.

2008-01-01

91

Instant Mapping of American Regional Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it is published in four or five years, the "Dictionary of American Regional English" (DARE) will be the official dictionary of the American Dialect Society. This dictionary will contain information concerning vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammatical forms which are restricted regionally or socially in American speech. One distinctive…

Hirshberg, Jeffrey

92

BACKGROUND INFORMATION  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... in CKD patients with PRCA from antibodies to protein-based ESAs ... A nascent clinical program for chemotherapy-induced anemia was suspended ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

93

Supporting Math Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Providing appropriate language support is important for all students and essential to the success of English Language Learners (ELLs), struggling readers, and students with learning disabilities. In a mathematics classroom, the support includes the ongoing development of everyday vocabulary--such as names of fruit and actions such as…

Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.; Livers, Stefanie

2009-01-01

94

The Electric Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

Sheils, James

2012-01-01

95

"Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

Voorhees, Roxy

96

Reexamining the Vocabulary Spurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors asked whether there is evidence to support the existence of the vocabulary spurt, an increase in the rate of word learning that is thought to occur during the 2nd year of life. Using longitudinal data from 38 children, they modeled the rate of word learning with two functions, one with an inflection point (logistic), which would indicate a

Jennifer Ganger; Michael R. Brent

2004-01-01

97

Representing Background Information for Product Description to Support Product Development Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an attempt to capture and to represent product information, which is used for generating product definition, but is not explicitly represented in product description. In this paper, such information is called background information. It includes requirements, specifications, assumptions, constraints, decision history, trial-and-error processes, and “rationale” in general. It plays an important role by providing information about underlying

Fumihiko Kimura; Hiromasa Suzuki

1995-01-01

98

Facilitating Next Generation Science Collaboration: Respecting and Mediating Vocabularies with Information Model Driven Semantics in Ecosystems Assessments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Earth and space science, there is steady evolution away from isolated and single purpose data 'systems' toward systems of systems, data ecosystems, or data frameworks that provide access to highly heterogeneous data repositories. As a result, common informatics approaches are being sought for the development and implementation of newer architectures. One clear need is a repeatable method for modeling, implementing and evolving the information architectures. A newly funded U.S. initiative is developing and deploying integrated ecosystem assessment (IEA) capability for marine ecosystems using an information science and semantic technologies. The intention is to advance the capacity of an IEA to provide the foundation for synthesis and quantitative analysis of natural and socio-economic ecosystem information to support ecosystem-based management. The initiative is creating capacity to assess the impacts of changing climate on two large marine ecosystems: the northeast U.S. and the California Current. These assessments will be essential parts of the science-based decision-support tools used to develop adaptive management measures. Enhanced collaboration is required to achieve these goals: interaction and information sharing within and among diverse data providers, analysis tool developers and user groups that constitute the broader coastal and marine ecosystem science application community. This presentation outlines new component design approaches and sets of information model and semantic encodings for mediation.

Fox, P.; Maffei, A.

2012-04-01

99

Standard controlled vocabulary for climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scope of climate modeling has grown tremendously in the last 10 years, resulting in a large variety of climate models, increasing complexity with more physical or chemical components and huge volumes of data sets (simulation outputs). While significant efforts to standardise the associated metadata (i.e. data describing data and models) have already been made in recent projects (e.g. CF standard names for CMIP3), detailed standards documentation of the models and experiments that created this data is still lacking. The EU METAFOR Project (http://metaforclimate.eu) is specifically addressing this issue by creating new metadata schemas in cooperation with existing standards in Earth System Modeling (Curator, GridSpec, CF convention, NumSim, etc.). Descriptions of climate simulations, of the data they produce, and of the numerical models used to perform these simulations are all within the scope of METAFOR and these descriptions are assembled in a common information model (the CIM). Of particular note is the metadata for numerical models that is found in the CIM. This paper presents the controlled vocabulary (CV) that has been collected by METAFOR to describe (in a common manner) the components of the numerical models developed by the different modeling centres. This vocabulary is used in the model part of the web-based questionnaire that METAFOR has developed in support of the upcoming IPCC exercise (the CMIP5 questionnaire). The methods to (1) establish standards for this vocabulary via interactions with climate scientists, (2) utilise the vocabulary in the web-based questionnaire and (3) process the vocabulary for ingestion in the Earth System Grid (ESG) portal, are described. Governance aspects of this new controlled vocabulary are also addressed.

Moine, Marie-Pierre; Pascoe, Charlotte; Guilyardi, Eric; Ford, Rupert

2010-05-01

100

Everglades Online Thesaurus: A Standard Vocabulary for the South Florida Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Everglades Online Thesaurus is a structured vocabulary of concepts and terms relating to the south Florida environment. Designed as an information management tool for both researchers and metadata creators, the Thesaurus is intended to improve information retrieval across the many disparate information systems, databases, and web sites that provide Everglades-related information. The vocabulary provided by the Everglades Online Thesaurus

Gail P. Clement

2005-01-01

101

Background Information on Hydrocarbon Emissions from Marine Terminal Operations. Volume I. Discussion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents results of a study to develop background information necessary for the accurate assessment of hydrocarbon emissions from ship and barge loading and unloading of gasoline and crude oil. The report assesses marine terminal facilities, m...

C. E. Burklin J. D. Colley M. L. Owen

1976-01-01

102

Study to Develop Background Information for the Direct Meat-Firing Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains background information on the direct meat-firing industry (charbroilers and barbecues). The geographical distribution, emission levels, state and local air pollution regulations as well as control techniques for particulate and gaseou...

M. I. Bornstein

1978-01-01

103

Vocabulary and Environment Adaptation in Vocabulary-Independent Speech Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we are looking into the adaptation issues of vocabulary-independent (VI) systems. Just as with speaker-adaptation in speaker-independent system, two vocabulary adaptation algorithms are implemented in order to tailor the VI subword models t...

H. Hon K. Lee

1992-01-01

104

Conceptually Based Vocabulary Intervention: Second Graders' Development of Vocabulary Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students…

Dimling, Lisa M.

2010-01-01

105

Explore the development of information industry in Chongqing—In the background of industrialization and information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the integration of the two opportunities for industrialization and information, to develop Chongqing's Information Industry, to promote the diversity of economic structure to achieve important practical significance and long-term strategic significance. This paper analyzes the status of development and problems of information industry in Chongqing. We did empirical analysis, Chongqing's Information Industry on the impact of regional economic growth,

Zeng Degao; Li Zizhong

2011-01-01

106

A methodology for partitioning a vocabulary hierarchy into trees 1 This research was (partially) done under a cooperative agreement between the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Technology Program (under the HIIT contract #70NANB5H1011) and the Healthcare Open Systems and Trials, Inc. consortium, and the Center for Manufacturing Systems. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled medical vocabularies are useful in application areas such as medical information systems and decision-support systems. However, such vocabularies are large and complex, and working with them can be daunting. It is important to provide a means for orienting vocabulary designers and users to the vocabulary's contents. We describe a methodology for partitioning a vocabulary based on an IS-A hierarchy

Yehoshua Perl; James Geller; Michael Halper; Mansnimar Singh

1999-01-01

107

Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of

Hendrickson

1986-01-01

108

Students Seeking Access to Four-Year Institutions: Community College Transfers [Background Information].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication provides background information for a hearing by the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education and Outreach on December 3, 1997. The Introduction presents the Committee announcement, press release, agenda, information about transfer efforts in California, facts and figures about the community colleges, and the text…

Moore, Jamillah

109

The State of Vocabulary Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

2011-01-01

110

The State of Vocabulary Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of…

Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

2011-01-01

111

Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of Northwest rental housing owners and, to a lesser extent, tenants toward energy conservation and energy-efficiency improvements. Available market research data on these subjects were found to be quite limited. The most useful data were two surveys of Seattle rental housing owners conducted in late 1984 for Seattle City Light. Several other surveys provided supplemental market research information in selected areas. In addition to market research information, the report also includes background information on rental housing characteristics in the Northwest.

Hendrickson, P.L.

1986-02-01

112

Enhancing evidence-based practice - a controlled vocabulary for nursing practice and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based practice requires flexible systems for information retrieval. Search processes in electronic databases must be based on terms, which are familiar to professionals and describe accurately the problem to be solved. The paper describes the process of evolving a controlled nursing vocabulary for indexing and information retrieval purposes. The vocabulary is based on terms of the Medline thesaurus the medical

Kaija Saranto; Marianne Tallberg

2003-01-01

113

Integrating Overlapping Structures and Background Information of Words Significantly Improves Biological Sequence Comparison  

PubMed Central

Word-based models have achieved promising results in sequence comparison. However, as the important statistical properties of words in biological sequence, how to use the overlapping structures and background information of the words to improve sequence comparison is still a problem. This paper proposed a new statistical method that integrates the overlapping structures and the background information of the words in biological sequences. To assess the effectiveness of this integration for sequence comparison, two sets of evaluation experiments were taken to test the proposed model. The first one, performed via receiver operating curve analysis, is the application of proposed method in discrimination between functionally related regulatory sequences and unrelated sequences, intron and exon. The second experiment is to evaluate the performance of the proposed method with f-measure for clustering Hepatitis E virus genotypes. It was demonstrated that the proposed method integrating the overlapping structures and the background information of words significantly improves biological sequence comparison and outperforms the existing models.

Dai, Qi; Li, Lihua; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yao, Yuhua; Zhao, Fukun; Zhang, Michael

2011-01-01

114

The effects of individualized, online vocabulary instruction on picture vocabulary scores: an efficacy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary knowledge is of fundamental importance to reading comprehension, and many students lack the vocabulary knowledge necessary to facilitate learning to read. A study was conducted to determine the effects of an individualized, online vocabulary program on picture vocabulary test scores. Elementary summer school students (N = 43), entering grades 2–4, who scored poorly on a vocabulary pretest were randomly assigned to

Charles N. Fehr; Mark L. Davison; Michael F. Graves; Gregory C. Sales; Ben Seipel; Sarah Sekhran-Sharma

2011-01-01

115

The effects of individualized, online vocabulary instruction on picture vocabulary scores: an efficacy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary knowledge is of fundamental importance to reading comprehension, and many students lack the vocabulary knowledge necessary to facilitate learning to read. A study was conducted to determine the effects of an individualized, online vocabulary program on picture vocabulary test scores. Elementary summer school students (N = 43), entering grades 2–4, who scored poorly on a vocabulary pretest were randomly assigned to

Charles N. Fehr; Mark L. Davison; Michael F. Graves; Gregory C. Sales; Ben Seipel; Sarah Sekhran-Sharma

2012-01-01

116

Vocabularies and Vocabulary Structure: A New Approach Linking Categories, Practices, and Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational scholars have long used vocabularies, and with the rise of research on language this work has grown. Yet the research drawing on vocabularies is wide-ranging and not integrated. We review work on vocabularies from literatures on rhetoric, culture, cognition, and coordination. We integrate and extend this work on vocabularies, introducing the new concept of vocabulary structure to capture different

Jeffrey Loewenstein; William Ocasio; Candace Jones

2012-01-01

117

Vocabulary Expansion in Modern Standard Chinese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the discrepancy between spoken and written vocabularies in modern standard Chinese (MSC) textbooks that contributes to slow vocabulary development, and outlines a teaching technique to extend students' vocabulary using the ideographic nature of MSC characters rather than phonetic learning to increase efficient use of vocabulary

Edwards, Louise

1997-01-01

118

Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 14 essays on reading and vocabulary learning in second language acquisition. Chapters include: "Research on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: Putting It in Context" (James Coady); "Implications for L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Instruction From L1 Vocabulary Research" (Fredricka Stoller and William Grabe); "Patterns and Perils of…

Huckin, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

119

Current Perspectives on Vocabulary Teaching and Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews key vocabulary research and draws a number of teaching and learning implications from that research.\\u000a Lexical areas addressed include the amount of vocabulary required to use English, what it means to know and learn a word,\\u000a the incremental nature of vocabulary acquisition, the role of memory in vocabulary learning, incidental and intentional vocabulary\\u000a learning, techniques for effective

Norbert Schmitt

120

"Why Are There so Many Words in Math?": Planning for Content-Area Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary presents a challenge to students in content area classes, making it difficult to understand new concepts and make connections to background knowledge. This article describes the 5 Cs, a tool developed to help content area teachers consider vocabulary as part of lesson planning. By selecting a set of key words for instruction, teachers…

Smith, Antony T.; Angotti, Robin L.

2012-01-01

121

A Vocabulary Flood: Making Words "Sticky" with Computer-Response Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's literature is a primary source for introducing young children to new words at home and at school, and children's early vocabulary knowledge is a key component of oral language, which is essential for comprehension. This column is focused on children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who frequently find themselves in a vocabulary

Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary S.; Ryan, Tammy

2007-01-01

122

THE EFFECT OF CULTURAL FAMILIARITY ON INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY ACQUISITION THROUGH READING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the effects of cultural background knowledge on immediate incidental vocabulary gain through reading brief narratives that depicted either culturally familiar or culturally unfamiliar versions of everyday scenarios. Participants were high-intermediate adult learners of Spanish. Independent variables included (a) cultural familiarity, (b) group assignment, and (c) L2 passage sight vocabulary. The dependent variable was an adapted version of

Diana Pulido

2004-01-01

123

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

124

A Vocabulary Flood: Making Words "Sticky" with Computer-Response Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children's literature is a primary source for introducing young children to new words at home and at school, and children's early vocabulary knowledge is a key component of oral language, which is essential for comprehension. This column is focused on children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who frequently find themselves in a vocabulary

Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary S.; Ryan, Tammy

2007-01-01

125

Expressive Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Intellectual Disability: Speech or Manual Signs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim of this study was to examine the degree to which children with intellectual disability (ID) depend on manual signs during their expressive vocabulary acquisition, in relation to child and social-environmental characteristics. Method: Expressive vocabulary acquisition in speech and manual signs was monitored over a 2-year period…

Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

2011-01-01

126

Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations is reported. An environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program was developed. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakdown conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. An environmental

J. B. Cannon

1983-01-01

127

Toward vocabulary control for chief complaint.  

PubMed

The chief complaint (CC) is the data element that documents the patient's reason for visiting the emergency department (ED). The need for a CC vocabulary has been acknowledged at national meetings and in multiple publications, but to our knowledge no groups have specifically focused on the requirements and development plans for a CC vocabulary. The national consensus meeting "Towards Vocabulary Control for Chief Complaint" was convened to identify the potential uses for ED CC and to develop the framework for CC vocabulary control. The 10-point consensus recommendations for action were 1) begin to develop a controlled vocabulary for CC, 2) obtain funding, 3) establish an infrastructure, 4) work with standards organizations, 5) address CC vocabulary characteristics for all user communities, 6) create a collection of CC for research, 7) identify the best candidate vocabulary for ED CCs, 8) conduct vocabulary validation studies, 9) establish beta test sites, and 10) plan publicity and marketing for the vocabulary. PMID:18439204

Haas, Stephanie W; Travers, Debbie; Tintinalli, Judith E; Pollock, Daniel; Waller, Anna; Barthell, Edward; Burt, Catharine; Chapman, Wendy; Coonan, Kevin; Kamens, Donald; McClay, James

2008-05-01

128

Progress Report on the Development of a Laser/Maser Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a laser/maser vocabulary follows the pattern established earlier in two similar projects--(1) Development of a Multi-Coordinate Vocabulary--Chemical Physics, and (2) Development of a Multi-Coordinate Index--Plasma Physics. A set of lists of terms judged to be important to a user of information was developed by a specialist in…

Lerner, Rita G.

129

Gasoline distribution industry (stage i). Background information for promulgated standards. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This background information document provides technical information and analyses used in the development of the final NESHAP and Agency responses to public comments on the proposed rule. The alternatives analyzed are to limit emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from existing and new Stage I gasoline distribution facilities. Stage I sources include bulk gasoline terminals and plants, pipeline facilities, and underground storage tanks at service stations. Emissions of HAP`s from these facilities occur during gasoline tank truck and railcar loading, gasoline storage, and from vapor leaks from tank trucks, pumps, valves, flanges and other equipment in gasoline service.

Jordan, B.C.

1994-11-01

130

Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations is reported. An environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program was developed. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakdown conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. An environmental impact statement on magnetic fusion will be based with this reference as a principle.

Cannon, J. B.

1983-08-01

131

Digital Diorama: AR Exhibition System to Convey Background Information for Museums  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we propose a MR museum exhibition system, the “Digital Diorama” system, to convey background information intuitively.\\u000a The The system aims to offer more features than the function of existing dioramas in museum exhibitions by using mixed reality\\u000a technology. The system superimposes computer generated diorama scene reconstructed from related image\\/video materials onto\\u000a real exhibits. First, we implement and

Takuji Narumi; Oribe Hayashi; Kazuhiro Kasada; Mitsuhiko Yamazaki; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose

132

Cognitive Linguistic Approaches to Teaching Vocabulary: Assessment and Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pace at which new L2 words or expressions are acquired is influenced by the degree of engagement with them on the part of the learner. Several researchers with a Cognitive-Linguistics (CL) background have, since the 1990s, proposed ways of exploiting non-arbitrary aspects of vocabulary as stimuli for such engagement. Their proposals have been…

Boers, Frank

2013-01-01

133

The Expressive Vocabulary of Preschool Deaf Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From the individual expressive vocabularies of 19 preschool deaf children a composite vocabulary list of 493 words was assembled to include all words and expressions used by two or more children. (Author/MC)|

Griswold, L. Earl; Commings, Janet

1974-01-01

134

THE EFFECT OF EXPLICIT VOCABULARY TEACHING ON VOCABULARY ACQUISITION AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS READING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of explicit vocabulary teaching on vocabulary acquisition and on attitude towards reading in an EFL class. Vocabulary exercises following the Lexical Approach (Lewis, 1993, 1997, 2000) were designed to supplement a college reading comprehension course, and several reading strategies were systematically practiced. Statistical analyses revealed that the students acquired the vocabulary. In addition, at the

Leyla Hasbún Hasbún

2005-01-01

135

What's the Big Deal about Vocabulary?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his 8-page article Dunston and Tyminski discuss the importance of directly teaching math vocabulary, why this may differ from vocabulary instruction in other content areas, and methods for math vocabulary instruction. The methods for math vocabulary instruction addressed in this article include: The Frayer Model, Four Square, and Feature Analysis. While the scenarios presented in this article deal with middle school students these strategies can be applied to upper elementary students.

Dunston, Pamela J.; Tyminski, Andrew M.

2013-08-01

136

A Core Vocabulary for Tamil. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This vocabulary list is directed towards the Tamil instructor and the advanced student. Its primary goal is to bring some order to the teaching of vocabulary in the first two years of Tamil instruction. A secondary goal is to help the student through the vocabulary maze of Tamil diglossia. Three main criteria were employed in selecting words for…

McAlpin, David W.

137

A Hybrid Method for Determining Technical Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of technical vocabulary has become increasingly important over the last few decades along with the advances in various subject disciplines. ESP teachers and book authors need to know what words are considered technical vocabulary when creating ESP learning materials. LSP lexicographers need to know how to determine technical vocabulary

Kwary, Deny Arnos

2011-01-01

138

Vocabulary Development: Context Clues versus Word Definitions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study determined which approach for vocabulary development, context or definition, would yield the best results on a teacher-made content area vocabulary test. Two random samples (for a total of 45 students) of fourth graders from a central New Jersey elementary school were formed. One sample was taught 50 social studies vocabulary words using…

Szymborski, Julie Ann

139

Vocabulary assistance before and during reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermediate learners of Spanish read a Spanish newspaper article with vocabulary assistance either before reading, while reading, both, or without any such assistance. Reading performance was significantly better for students receiving vocabulary assistance during reading, but not for those receiving it before reading. Reading time of the newspaper article was less for students receiving prereading vocabulary assistance, but total lesson

Stephen Alessi; Angelique Dwyer

2008-01-01

140

Teaching Vocabulary in the Literature Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Advocates concept-related vocabulary instruction, in which students link individual words with larger literature concepts. Outlines four steps to creating a concept-related vocabulary lesson. Offers examples of how concept-related vocabulary lessons can be conducted while reading, before reading, and after reading. Outlines web, weave, and…

Barton, James

2001-01-01

141

The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2012-01-01

142

Teaching Vocabulary Expeditiously: Three Keys to Improving Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Integrating vocabulary games and activities more often into the structure of the day, Thomas B. Smith establishes a word-rich environment for high school students to experiment with unfamiliar words in varying, playful contexts. Smith asserts that giving frequent opportunities for hearing, speaking, and writing in the typical context of the day…

Smith, Thomas B.

2008-01-01

143

The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2012-01-01

144

FPGA-Based Vocabulary Recognition Module for Humanoid Robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on using FPGA board to realize the ability of vocabulary recognition for humanoid robot. At first, the system structure of the humanoid robot system is setup. The central process unit of the humanoid robot is a FPGA board, ALTERA Nios II EP2C20F324C8, which not only controls all the motors of robot but also processes the information of vision system. The vocabulary recognition method is then introduced. We apply the image segment to find the valid region, and use the encoding method to sample the word. After matching algorithm, we use a speech module, Emic TTS module, to pronounce the word. Finally the experiments verify the procedure of the proposed module and demonstrate the feasibility of the vocabulary recognition and speak out function for the humanoid robot.

Su, Yu-Te; Hu, Chun-Yang; Li, Tzuu-Hseng S.

145

Background frequency, information content, and the scoring matrix in sequence alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequence alignment tools for protein/DNA sequences have been widely used to find homologous biosequences over the past few decades. In these automated procedures, the target similarity between the two sequences compared is largely determined by the scoring matrix used. Theoretically, each matrix element of the scoring matrix is a log-odd ratio, i.e., the logarithm of the target frequency over the background frequency. In real alignment applications, however, the theoretical criterion is often overlooked. In this talk, we will present a sensible solution to forcibly maintain the theoretical criterion. We will also discuss the information content of the scoring matrix.

Yu, Yi-Kuo; Altschul, Stephen

2003-03-01

146

The Internet Vocabulary Test for Children: preliminary development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - Currently, the only mechanisms to determine children's use of the Internet are interviews and questionnaires. To increase the validity of theory and research and ensure that practitioners and policy-makers are guided by accurate information, an improved method of determining children's patterns of Internet use is required. The purpose of this study is to present the Internet Vocabulary Test

Genevieve Marie Johnson

2007-01-01

147

Intensity in Vocabulary Instruction and Effects on Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has shown that vocabulary instruction can enhance the comprehension of passages when instruction includes definitional and contextual information, provides multiple instructional encounters with the words, and requires learners to engage actively in processing of word meanings (M. F. Graves, 1986; S. A. Stahl & M. M. Fairbanks,…

Baumann, James F.

2009-01-01

148

Intensity in Vocabulary Instruction and Effects on Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prior research has shown that vocabulary instruction can enhance the comprehension of passages when instruction includes definitional and contextual information, provides multiple instructional encounters with the words, and requires learners to engage actively in processing of word meanings (M. F. Graves, 1986; S. A. Stahl & M. M. Fairbanks,…

Baumann, James F.

2009-01-01

149

Lattice-based discriminative training for large vocabulary speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a framework for optimising the parameters of a continuous density HMM-based large vocabulary recognition system using a maximum mutual information estimation (MMIE) criterion. To limit the computational complexity arising from the need to find confusable speech segments in the large search space of alternative utterance hypotheses, word lattices generated from the training data are used. Experiments are

V. Valtchev; J. J. Odell; P. C. Woodland; S. J. Young

1996-01-01

150

The effects of context on incidental vocabulary learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese university students learning English as a foreign language (EFL) encountered 10 target words in 3 sets of 10 short contexts that were rated on the amount of information available to infer the target words' meanings. One group of learners met the target words in contexts rated more highly than the contexts read by the other group. A surprise vocabulary

Stuart Webb

2008-01-01

151

Enforcing Vocabulary k-Anonymity by Semantic Similarity Based Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web query logs provide a rich wealth of information, but also present serious privacy risks. We consider publishing vocabularies, bags of query-terms extracted from web query logs, which has a variety of applications. We aim at preventing identity disclosure of such bag-valued data. The key feature of such data is the extreme sparsity, which renders conventional anonymization techniques not working

Junqiang Liu; Ke Wang

2010-01-01

152

Describing Structure and Semantics of Graphs Using an RDF Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RDF Graph Modeling Language (RGML) is a W3C RDF vocabulary to describe graph structures, including semantic information associated with a graph. Viewing general graphs as Web resources, RGML defines graph, node, and edge as RDF classes and attributes of graphs (such as label and weight) as RDF properties. Some of these RDF properties establish relationships between graph, node, and

John R. Punin; Mukkai S. Krishnamoorthy

2001-01-01

153

Is There an "Academic Vocabulary"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article considers the notion of "academic vocabulary": the assumption that students of English for academic purposes (EAP) should study a core of high frequency words because they are common in an English academic register. We examine the value of the term by using Cox-head's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) to explore the distribution of its…

Hyland, Ken; Tse, Polly

2007-01-01

154

The vocabulary of educational psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary analyses of 8 educational psychology texts published since 1937 were made by looking up every word on odd pages of each book in Thorndike's word lists and keeping a frequency count of those not found in the first 10,000 words, and by checking difficult words with Warren's Dictionary of psychology to single out those of psychological nature. Frequency of

G. M. Blair

1941-01-01

155

Vocabulary Instruction through Storybook Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article summarizes a research study investigating the effects of asking preschool teachers to use a professional development tool to support their planning, implementation, and reflection of vocabulary-rich storybook reading. Findings suggested that not only could teachers use the tool in their planning and reflection but also that use of…

Blamey, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.; Sweetman, Heidi

2012-01-01

156

Multisensory Strategies for Science Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Seeing, touching, smelling, hearing, and learning! The authors observed that their English Language Learner (ELL) students achieved a deeper understanding of the properties of matter, as well as enhanced vocabulary development, when they were guided through inquiry-based, multisensory explorations that repeatedly exposed them to words and…

Husty, Sandra; Jackson, Julie

2008-01-01

157

Interactive Vocabulary Acquisition in XTRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a practical solution to on- line dictionary update in XTRA, a machine transla- tion system developed by Xiuming Huang at the Computing Research Laboratory of New Mexico State University. The focus of the discussion in on IVES — an Interactive Vocabulary Enrichment Sys­ tem built by this writer for XTRA, It reflects an on­ going effort at

Cheng-ming Guo

1987-01-01

158

Vocabulary acquisition and reading ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical acquisition ability for aurally taught words was studied in fourthgrade children. Reading ability, intelligence, and working memory were evaluated as predictor factors in vocabulary learning. Reading ability was found to predict facility at learning the novel phonological sequences, while intelligence was the only factor which accounted for performance level for the semantic content of the words. The working memory

Linda Aguiar; Susan Brady

1991-01-01

159

Development of the Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) Vocabulary  

PubMed Central

The LOINC (Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes) vocabulary is a set of more than 10,000 names and codes developed for use as observation identifiers in standardized messages exchanged between clinical computer systems. The goal of the study was to create universal names and codes for clinical observations that could be used by all clinical information systems. The LOINC names are structured to facilitate rapid matching, either automated or manual, between local vocabularies and the universal LOINC codes. If LOINC codes are used in clinical messages, each system participating in data exchange needs to match its local vocabulary to the standard vocabulary only once. This will reduce both the time and cost of implementing standardized interfaces. The history of the development of the LOINC vocabulary and the methodology used in its creation are described.

Huff, Stanley M.; Rocha, Roberto A.; McDonald, Clement J.; De Moor, Georges J. E.; Fiers, Tom; Bidgood, W. Dean; Forrey, Arden W.; Francis, William G.; Tracy, Wayne R.; Leavelle, Dennis; Stalling, Frank; Griffin, Brian; Maloney, Pat; Leland, Diane; Charles, Linda; Hutchins, Kathy; Baenziger, John

1998-01-01

160

Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

2013-10-01

161

Teaching New Words to Children with Poor Existing Vocabulary Knowledge: A Controlled Evaluation of the Definition and Context Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Children who have poor vocabulary knowledge are at risk of wider language weaknesses and reading comprehension difficulties, which will impact upon their educational achievement. The central question addressed in this paper is how best to teach new vocabulary items to these children. Aims: To investigate the effects of two different…

Nash, Hannah; Snowling, Margaret

2006-01-01

162

When Eastern and Western Language Systems Meet: Crossing the English Vocabulary Threshold Versus Breaking the Kanji Barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many lessons can be learned from relevant research in vocabulary- and language-learning strategy training as well as from comparative studies of those learning Oriental languages, which could greatly help language teachers and learners in Kanji-background countries. This article contrasts the minimal threshold levels of vocabulary needed for reading common English text, versus that required for reading basic texts using Kanji

John Paul Loucky

2005-01-01

163

How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish-English bilinguals  

PubMed Central

Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26; 2;6 yrs). Between-language associations were weak: vocabulary size in Spanish was uncorrelated with vocabulary in English, and children’s facility in online comprehension in Spanish was unrelated to their facility in English. Instead, efficiency of online processing in one language was significantly related to vocabulary size in that language, after controlling for processing speed and vocabulary size in the other language. These links between efficiency of lexical access and vocabulary knowledge in bilinguals parallel those previously reported for Spanish and English monolinguals, suggesting that children’s ability to abstract information from the input in building a working lexicon relates fundamentally to mechanisms underlying the construction of language.

Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

2010-01-01

164

The Thesaurus in Action. Background Information for a Thesaurus Workshop at the Annual Convention of the American Society for Information Science (32nd), October 1969, San Francisco, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five facets of background information are intended to be helpful to persons interested in the construction and use of a thesaurus, in the sense of a standardized language for communication with and between information storage and retrieval systems. TEST i...

P. C. Daniels T. L. Gillum W. Hammond J. G. Peirce F. Y. Speight

1969-01-01

165

Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction for Secondary Students. Professional Development Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to provide an overview of vocabulary development and to focus on ways that enhance secondary vocabulary instruction. It includes strategies for teaching vocabulary and for integrating vocabulary into a lesson. It includes specific instructional strategies for teaching vocabulary skills based on the Texas Essential Knowledge…

Texas Univ., Austin. Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts.

166

Four Measures of Vocabulary Ability Compared in Older Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thirty-six children, aged four-five, completed four vocabulary measures: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, Picture Vocabulary subtest of the Test of Oral Language Development, Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, and Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test. Only moderate correlations were found among these tests, implying that a…

Channell, Ron W.; Peek, Michelle S.

1989-01-01

167

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and background rejection with event position information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low- ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

Wang, Gensheng

168

The adoption of a controlled nursing vocabulary in Finnish scientific journals.  

PubMed

"Hoidokki" is a Finnish controlled nursing vocabulary for indexing and information retrieval purposes. Its second edition includes nearly 1000 terms. In this study, the congruence between the key words of three Finnish scientific nursing journals and the vocabulary was explored. Also, the content of the vocabulary was validated. The data included key words (N=208) used in 49 articles of three scientific journals in 2006. Two experts used content analysis to judge each key word and inter-rater reliability was calculated. Delphi-method was used to evaluate the potential new terms. PMID:19592981

Junttila, Kristiina; Pekkala, Eila; Saranto, Kaija; Ensio, Anneli; Tallberg, Marianne

2009-01-01

169

Adaptive vocabularies for transcribing multilingual broadcast news  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most prevailing problems of large-vocabulary speech recognition systems is the large number of out-of-vocabulary words. This is especially the case for automatically transcribing broadcast news in languages other than English, that have a large number of inflections and compound words. We introduce a set of techniques to decrease the number of out-of-vocabulary words during recognition by using

P. Geutner; M. Finke; P. Scheytt

1998-01-01

170

Vocabulary influences older and younger listeners' processing of dysarthric speech.  

PubMed

This study examined younger (n?=?16) and older (n?=?16) listeners' processing of dysarthric speech-a naturally occurring form of signal degradation. It aimed to determine how age, hearing acuity, memory, and vocabulary knowledge interacted in speech recognition and lexical segmentation. Listener transcripts were coded for accuracy and pattern of lexical boundary errors. For younger listeners, transcription accuracy was predicted by receptive vocabulary. For older listeners, this same effect existed but was moderated by pure-tone hearing thresholds. While both groups employed syllabic stress cues to inform lexical segmentation, older listeners were less reliant on this perceptual strategy. The results were interpreted to suggest that individuals with larger receptive vocabularies, with their presumed greater language familiarity, were better able to leverage cue redundancies within the speech signal to form lexical hypothesis-leading to an improved ability to comprehend dysarthric speech. This advantage was minimized as hearing thresholds increased. While the differing levels of reliance on stress cues across the listener groups could not be attributed to specific individual differences, it was hypothesized that some combination of larger vocabularies and reduced hearing thresholds in the older participant group led to them prioritize lexical cues as a segmentation frame. PMID:23927132

McAuliffe, Megan J; Gibson, Elizabeth M R; Kerr, Sarah E; Anderson, Tim; LaShell, Patrick J

2013-08-01

171

Effects of Public Regulation on the U.S. Copper Industry. Volume IV, Background Information and Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume is intended to provide basic background information and analysis upon which methodologies for the assessment of regulatory impacts on the copper industry can be built and subsequent actual measurements of those impacts made. Although much of th...

1978-01-01

172

Perseus Greek and Latin Vocabulary Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Perseus Digital Library of Tufts University (first discussed in the October 17, 1997 Scout Report) has just introduced the Perseus Vocabulary Tool, intended to help users of texts in the Perseus Digital Library build word lists based on those texts. The tool shows the frequency of words used by specific authors or in specific texts, and identifies key terms for building vocabulary lists. For each vocabulary word, a pop-up window containing the definition, part of speech, and word gender, plus links are given. It's a good idea to check out the help page before embarking on a journey through the Perseus Vocabulary Tool.

2001-01-01

173

What's in a Word? Using Content Vocabulary to "Generate" Growth in General Academic Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of vocabulary knowledge in supporting students' comprehension and understanding of their content-area reading is critical. This article explores how content-area teachers can help students become aware of, understand, and apply generative knowledge about English words to grow and develop their vocabularies. Generative vocabulary

Flanigan, Kevin; Templeton, Shane; Hayes, Latisha

2012-01-01

174

A Study on Design Information Search Process of Consumer Behavior in Online Community With an Emphasis on Design Guideline Using Qualitative Method for Observing Consumer Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Consumersinterests in design have been increased on the Internet. We need to recognize the increasing importance of Internet and of consumer that are active in online communities. Consumers who have same interests in product purchasing build communities and contact fellow consumers who are seen as more objective information sources. On the process of information interchange, design property of product

Kyung-Jin Kim; Yoon-Hee Kim; Myung-Suk Kim

175

Cosmological and Astrophysical Information Content in the Low Radio Frequency 21-cm Background from High Redshifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will discuss the prospects for extracting cosmological and astrophysical parameters from the low radio frequency 21-cm background due to the spin-flip transition of neutral Hydrogen during and prior to the reionization of the Universe with radio interferometric arrays such as LOFAR and SKA We will discuss the measurement of the angular power spectrum of 21-cm anistropies, which exists due to inhomogeneities in the neutral Hydrogen density field, the gas temperature field, the intensity of the Lyman-alpha radiation from first luminous sources that emit UV photons, and the gas velocity. We consider the general case where fluctuations are induced by a variety of sources during the era of reionization. We attempt to extract parameters that describe both the underlying mass power spectrum and the global cosmology, as well as a set of simplified astrophysical parameters that connect fluctuations in the dark matter to those that govern 21-cm fluctuations by marginalizing over a model for the foregrounds at low radio frequencies. In this general description, we find large degeneracies between cosmological parameters and astrophysical parameters, though such degeneracies are not present when strong assumptions are made with respect to the spin temperature relative to the CMB temperature. Some of the parameter degeneracies are broken when 21-cm measurements are combined with information from the CMB, such as anisotropy and polarization measurements with Planck. For upcoming low frequency radio interferometers, the overall improvement on the cosmological parameter estimates when combined with Planck is not significant; we suggest that low radio frequency 21-cm measurements are, at best, suitable to understand certain astrophysical details during the era of recombination, but neither the shape of the power spectrum nor the global cosmological parameters.

Cooray, A.

2006-08-01

176

Quality not quantity of television viewing is associated with bilingual toddlers' vocabulary scores.  

PubMed

Previous research examining the relationship between television viewing and vocabulary has produced mixed findings that indicate the quality of television exposure may impact language development more than quantity. However, few infant or toddler studies have included both quality and quantity measures and no study has done so with bilinguals. Caregivers of monolingual English, monolingual French, and English-French bilingual infants and toddlers from the same geographical area completed questionnaires regarding television exposure and vocabulary. Factor analysis of the questionnaire data confirmed that quantity and quality of viewing should be assessed separately. Quantity of television viewing was not correlated with language outcomes in any group. Poor quality viewing (television unintended for children, background television, solitary viewing, and earlier age of viewing) was related to lower vocabulary scores overall, but especially the English vocabulary scores of bilingual toddlers. Possible reasons for this finding are discussed. PMID:23454426

Hudon, Tamara M; Fennell, Christopher T; Hoftyzer, Matthew

2013-02-28

177

American Holidays: Exploring Traditions, Customs and Backgrounds. Vocabureader Workbook 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The workbook is an English vocabulary development text focusing on words associated with traditions, customs, and background of holidays celebrated in the United States, and in some cases also in Canada and elsewhere. The special vocabulary is presented in seventeen readings, written in repetitive style so the student can learn the definitions of…

Klebanow, Barbara; Fischer, Sara

178

Tautatietoa turvesoiden jaelkikaeytoestae. (Background information of utilization of peat bogs after production).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This information booklet deals with possible ways of utilization of peat bogs after they have been removed from production. The booklet contain information on the present usage of peatlands. It also describes the possibilities to use old production fields...

1989-01-01

179

A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

Labrie, Gilles

2000-01-01

180

Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

2012-01-01

181

Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…

Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

2006-01-01

182

Incidental Acquisition of Vocabulary by Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the impact of reading on vocabulary development with adult ESL students at the National Institute of Technology (Trichirappalli, India). The researcher analyzes the performance of the students who devoted their time to reading, and the students who learned consciously the meaning of words to develop their vocabulary knowledge.…

Ponniah, R. Joseph

2011-01-01

183

Exploring and Developing Consumer Health Vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Laypersons (‘‘consumers’’) often have difficulty finding, understanding, and acting on health in- formation due to gaps in their domain knowledge. Ideally, consumer health vocabularies (CHVs) would reflect the different ways consumers express and think about health topics, helping to bridge this vocabulary gap. However, despite the recent research on mismatches between consumer and professional language (e.g., lexical, semantic, and

Qing T. Zeng; Tony Tse

184

Promoting Vocabulary Learning for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary knowledge, which is key to the reading comprehension of English learners (ELs), must be a focus for every teacher in today's increasingly diverse schools, including those in the mainstream classroom. This article strives to increase awareness of the five characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction as well as demonstrate how…

Wessels, Stephanie

2011-01-01

185

Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

Schmitt, Norbert

2008-01-01

186

Teaching Collocations for Productive Vocabulary Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One important but undervalued aspect of productive vocabulary is collocation--the ways in which words are combined with one another. To move from receptive to productive vocabulary, students need to learn a wide variety of ways that words collocate with each other. This paper describes the major types of collocations, typical collocational errors…

Wei, Yong

187

Effects of Morphological Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of a 20-session intervention targeting morphological word structure on vocabulary knowledge were investigated in four Grade 4 and 5 classes, assigned randomly to treatment and control conditions. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for initial vocabulary showed significant instructional effects on morphological analysis and…

Bowers, Peter N.; Kirby, John R.

2010-01-01

188

Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary

Sparks, Sarah D.

2013-01-01

189

TOAST: A system to study vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a study system designed specifically for studying vocabulary would be more effective than student?selected study methods. A study system was developed that guided students to pretest their knowledge, organize their vocabulary words, anchor them in memory, practice them at prescribed intervals to facilitate retention, and perform an exit test. The acronym

Carol Dana; Margaret Rodriguez

1992-01-01

190

Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

2007-01-01

191

Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

2007-01-01

192

The Teacher's Mediation in Students' Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three stages of teaching second language vocabulary are examined using examples of typical situations for Poles learning English. A basic assumption is that the vocabulary of any two languages, especially Indo-European languages, exhibits both ethnological and accidental similarity. The first stage is to make the phonic, or graphic, or both forms,…

Krakowian, Bogdan

193

Tuning in to Vocabulary Frequency in Coursebooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For second language learners vocabulary growth is of major importance, and for many learners commercially published coursebooks will be the source of this vocabulary learning. In this preliminary study, input from three levels of the coursebook series "New English File" (Oxenden and Latham-Koenig, 2006; Oxenden, Latham-Koenig, and Seligson, 2004,…

O'Loughlin, Richard

2012-01-01

194

Adapted Vocabularies for Generic Visual Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several state-of-the-art Generic Visual Categorization (GVC) systems are built around a vocabulary of visual terms and char- acterize images with one histogram of visual word counts. We propose a novel and practical approach to GVC based on a universal vocabu- lary, which describes the content of all the considered classes of images, and class vocabularies obtained through the adaptation of

Florent Perronnin; Christopher R. Dance; Gabriela Csurka; Marco Bressan

2006-01-01

195

Redirective Labels and Early Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents' object labels can be distinguished by whether the child is already attending to the object (follow-in) or not (lead-in). Lead-in labels have been found to be associated with low vocabulary. The current study examines whether the relation between lead-in labels and child vocabulary is influenced by whether the child's attention is…

Shimpi, Priya Mariana; Huttenlocher, Janellen

2007-01-01

196

Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary

Feezell, Greg

2012-01-01

197

MMIE training of large vocabulary speech recognition systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper describes a framework,for optimising the structure and parameters of a continuous density HMM-based large Ž. vocabulary,recognition system,using the Maximum,Mutual Information Estimation,MMIE criterion. To reduce,the computational complexity of the MMIE training algorithm, confusable segments of speech are identified and stored as word lattices of alternative utterance hypotheses. An iterative mixture splitting procedure is also employed,to adjust the number,of

V. Valtchev; J. J. Odell; P. C. Woodland; S. J. Young

1997-01-01

198

Fugitive Dust Background Document and Technical Information Document for Best Available Control Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document provides technical information for developing fugitive dust (FD) best available control measures (BACM) strategies in areas designated serious nonattainment for PM-10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 ...

R. Dunkins C. Cowherd

1992-01-01

199

The Effects of Background Information and Syntactic Cues in Reading French Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared two groups of intermediate/advanced L2 French learners on a reading comprehension test when presented with or without background knowledge of the text. This study also compared intermediate and intermediate/advanced L2 French learners' reading comprehension when presented with increasing syntactic complexity. The results of…

Garrott, Carl L.

2009-01-01

200

Intro to Space Weather Vocabulary  

NASA Video Gallery

Heliophysics research studies how energy and material from the sun affects Earth and the entire solar system. It’s a complex system that begins on the sun when events on the sun, such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections, travel out into space. These cause electromagnetic effects that drive space weather close to Earth -- from aurora to radio blackouts to changes in the radiation belts surrounding Earth. Scientists study the minutiae of how energy transfers from one event to the other and which electromagnetic waves create which conditions near Earth. Since space weather effects can disrupt satellites in space, scientists need to understand the system in even more detail. Watch the video to see how events on the sun affect Earth. Suitable for all ages, this intro to space weather covers vocabulary like coronal mass ejection (CME), solar wind, and solar flare. It also outlines potential effects of solar storms on our planet.

gsfcvideo

2013-02-26

201

Closing the Vocabulary Gap?: A Review of Research on Early Childhood Vocabulary Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our qualitative literature review of 31 published studies found that (a) three major approaches are used in early childhood classrooms to support children's vocabulary learning—exposing children to advanced words, providing direct word-meaning instruction, and employing mixed-method interventions; (b) these practices support children's learning of targeted vocabulary words and\\/or general vocabulary knowledge gains, but various methods have differential impacts on children's

Tanya Christ; X. Christine Wang

2011-01-01

202

Risk Factors for Children's Receptive Vocabulary Development from Four to Eight Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.  

PubMed

Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes increase over time. PMID:24039856

Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

2013-09-11

203

Managing the waste stream: Background information for planning source separation programs. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document includes a variety of data that can be used to help plan recycling and yard waste collection and composting programs. The report was written primarily as a reference for people using the Recycling Planning and Evaluation Program (REPEP), a simple, spreadsheet computer program for planning recycling programs. Much of the information and some of the default data in

G. Lindsey; L. Lechner

1989-01-01

204

When is ERIC Useful? A Background and Current Overview of the Education Resources Information Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) underwent substantial change during the 2004 contract cycle. Since it began in 1966, it has always been a highly respected and heavily used bibliographic resource, but some users are unaware of its current status due to the recent changes in its format and availability. This update highlights major developments and assesses the resulting ERIC

Kate Corby

2009-01-01

205

Volatile organic compound emissions from automobile refinishing. Background information for proposed standards. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

A draft rule for the regulation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from automible refinishing is being proposed under the authority of Section 183(e) of the Clean Air Act. This document contains information on the automobile refinish industry, and presents control options and their associated environmental and cost impacts.

NONE

1995-08-01

206

[A Packet of Information on the Background of the AFT-NEA Merger Break.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains informational materials about the breakdown in merger talks between the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and the National Education Association (NEA). Included in the packet are (a) the AFT statement on the breakup of unity talks; (b) transcripts of two news conferences by David Selden, president of the AFT, on the…

American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

207

Product information with enhanced background description for improved revision of decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of products has been organized around product lifecycle management (PLM) systems during the past decade in leading industries. In mechatronics, where product structures are very complex and inhomogeneous, it is urgent to apply high level information technology for engineering purposes. The new style of engineering, where engineers work in remote workplaces and communicate through sophisticated model of product is

László Horváth; Imre J. Rudas; Nicola Belfiore

2008-01-01

208

Product Definition in Virtual Space Using Background information at Description of Engineering Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current technology of engineering has reached a level where lifecycle product information, comprehensive sets of model creation procedures, product data management, and Internet based communication environment serve integrated group work of engineers. It is inevitable, that the next main phase of development of the digital product definition is enriching content of product model in order to more intelligent decision support

LÁSZLÓ HORVÁTH; IMRE J. RUDAS

209

Towards Very Large Vocabulary Word Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, preliminary considerations and some experimental results are presented in an effort to design Very Large Vocabulary Recognition (VLVR) systems. We will first consider the applicability of current recognition techniques and argue their inade...

A. Waibel

1982-01-01

210

Vocabulary Learning: A Critical Analysis of Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates more than a dozen vocabulary learning techniques for students of a second or foreign language. Each technique is evaluated in terms of underlying theoretical assumptions and practical utility. (53 references) (Author/CB)

Oxford, Rebecca; Crookall, David

1990-01-01

211

Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

Sutter, S. L.

1982-05-01

212

The Creation and Establishment of Moral Vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The moral vocabularies approach offers a way of examining and organizing the essential moral claims disseminated by a group\\u000a of claimsmakers. Moral claims and understandings are organized internally (in claims and the actions of moral entrepreneurs)\\u000a and externally (how internal moral vocabularies intersect with the larger societal dynamics). This framework seeks to strike\\u000a a theoretical balance between recognizing the essential

Brian M. Lowe

213

Planning serials cancellations and cooperative collection development in the health sciences: methodology and background information.  

PubMed

In an era of steady-state budgets many research and academic libraries must cancel a significant number of current serials to maintain acquisitions of monographs. Thus paper reviews several techniques that have been used or that are of potential use in a rational selection of titles for cancellation. The context of the proposed methodology involves a network of libraries rather than an individual library. The methodology was tested with specific health sciences serial titles held by University of California libraries and resource libraries in NLM Region XI. As a test for the proposed methodology, background data were collected on 600 current foreign language serial titles included in SERLINE and held by at least one of the libraries in the networks of interest. Price, major secondary service coverage with productivity/impact factors, extent of holdings, and average number of recorded circulations per year in several of the libraries were recorded for each title. With the use of several different rules, estimates were made of the subscription savings that might be realized. It seems feasible to extend the same methodology to other groups of serial titles. PMID:1191822

Bourne, C P

1975-10-01

214

Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Acquisition: The CSLU Vocabulary Tutor in Oral-Deaf Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated the acquisition of everyday vocabulary of 16 children (ages 8-14) with deafness in an auditory/oral program using specially designed computer-based vocabulary applications. On average, children learned 70 words for everyday objects from immediate use of the lessons and remembered nearly 39 after more than 4 weeks. (Contains…

Barker, Lecia J.

2003-01-01

215

The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

Kulkofsky, Sarah

2010-01-01

216

The Relationship between Text Comprehension and Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: A Matter of Topic Familiarity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study reported in this article describes second language (L2) vocabulary learning outcomes associated with adult L2 reading comprehension processes, thus connecting L2 learning with the complex cognitive and linguistic processing involved in reading. The study aimed to determine whether background knowledge moderated the relationship between…

Pulido, Diana

2007-01-01

217

Variables Predicting Foreign Language Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Linear Hypermedia Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Factors predicting vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced language learners of English in a linear multimedia text were investigated in the current study. Predictor variables of interest were multimedia type, reading proficiency, learning styles, topic interest and background knowledge about the topic. The outcome variables of…

Akbulut, Yavuz

2007-01-01

218

The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

Kulkofsky, Sarah

2010-01-01

219

The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database: From Bioinformatics to Lexomics  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic methods have revolutionised evolutionary biology and have recently been applied to studies of linguistic and cultural evolution. However, the basic comparative data on the languages of the world required for these analyses is often widely dispersed in hard to obtain sources. Here we outline how our Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database (ABVD) helps remedy this situation by collating wordlists from over 500 languages into one web-accessible database. We describe the technology underlying the ABVD and discuss the benefits that an evolutionary bioinformatic approach can provide. These include facilitating computational comparative linguistic research, answering questions about human prehistory, enabling syntheses with genetic data, and safe-guarding fragile linguistic information.

Greenhill, Simon J.; Blust, Robert; Gray, Russell D.

2008-01-01

220

Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers' literacy, vocabulary, and math skills.  

PubMed

This study investigated predictive relations between preschoolers' (N=310) behavioral regulation and emergent literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Behavioral regulation was assessed using a direct measure called the Head-to-Toes Task, which taps inhibitory control, attention, and working memory, and requires children to perform the opposite of what is instructed verbally. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was utilized because children were nested in 54 classrooms at 2 geographical sites. Results revealed that behavioral regulation significantly and positively predicted fall and spring emergent literacy, vocabulary, and math skills on the Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement (all ps<.05). Moreover, growth in behavioral regulation predicted growth in emergent literacy, vocabulary, and math skills over the prekindergarten year (all ps<.05), after controlling for site, child gender, and other background variables. Discussion focuses on the role of behavioral regulation in early academic achievement and preparedness for kindergarten. PMID:17605527

McClelland, Megan M; Cameron, Claire E; Connor, Carol McDonald; Farris, Carrie L; Jewkes, Abigail M; Morrison, Frederick J

2007-07-01

221

A web-based architecture for a medical vocabulary server.  

PubMed Central

For health care providers to share computing resources and medical application programs across different sites, those applications must share a common medical vocabulary. To construct a common vocabulary, researchers must have an architecture that supports collaborative, networked development. In this paper, we present a web-based server architecture for the collaborative development of a medical vocabulary: a system that provides network services in support of medical applications that need a common, controlled medical terminology. The server supports vocabulary browsing and editing and can respond to direct programmatic queries about vocabulary terms. We have tested the programmatic query-response capability of the vocabulary server with a medical application that determines when patients who have HIV infection may be eligible for certain clinical trials. Our emphasis in this paper is not on the content of the vocabulary, but rather on the communication protocol and the tools that enable collaborative improvement of the vocabulary by any network-connected user.

Gennari, J. H.; Oliver, D. E.; Pratt, W.; Rice, J.; Musen, M. A.

1995-01-01

222

Background Information about PLCO  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large population-based randomized trial evaluating screening programs for these cancers. The primary goal of this long-term trial of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and on secondary endpoints.

223

Background Information for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

2001-01-01

224

The NIFSTD and BIRNLex Vocabularies: Building Comprehensive Ontologies for Neuroscience  

PubMed Central

A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF.

Bug, William J.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R.; Larson, Stephen D.; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E.

2009-01-01

225

What's This New Emphasis on Vocabulary All about?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers, especially novice teachers, believe that teaching vocabulary is among their easier duties, but Shanklin makes a convincing argument that high-quality vocabulary teaching requires thoughtful preparation. Here she offers several sound techniques for engaging students with vocabulary in meaningful ways.

Shanklin, Nancy

2007-01-01

226

Measuring and Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Basic Skills Reading Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A vocabulary improvement project, comprised of three components, was initiated at Del Mar College (DMC) in Corpus Christi, Texas, in spring 1991. Component 1 consisted of a baseline study of vocabulary knowledge among students in two levels of remedial reading classes. The test instrument measured content-specific vocabulary in…

Snouffer, Nancy Kendall; And Others

227

Enhancing Access to Situational Vocabulary by Leveraging Geographic Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Users of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aids could benefit from novel methods for accelerating access to contextually relevant vocabulary. This paper describes our initial efforts toward improving access to situational vocabulary through the use of geographic context to predict vocabulary. A corpus of spoken data produced by one…

Patel, Rupal; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv

2007-01-01

228

MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) Vocabulary File.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MeSH Vocabulary File (Medical Subject Headings Vocabulary File) is an online vocabulary file of the 14,000 Medical Subject Headings that are used for indexing and retrieving references and for subject cataloging. Also included are approximately 22,000 che...

W. Finch

1981-01-01

229

Overlapping Vocabulary and Comprehension: Context Clues Complement Semantic Gradients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the clear and longstanding connection between meaning vocabulary and reading comprehension, programs designed to teach vocabulary have often had surprisingly little impact on overall reading ability. One possible reason for this small effect is that teaching methods may not make this vocabulary-to-comprehension connection explicit for the…

Greenwood, Scott C.; Flanigan, Kevin

2007-01-01

230

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

231

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE VOCABULARY ACQUISITION: IMPLICATIONS FOR CALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarises current cognitive psychological knowledge concerning vocabulary acquisition and discusses implications for the development of effective computer assisted vocabulary acquisition methods. It argues that there are several aspects of vocabulary acquisition which involve qualitatively different learning processes: (1) acquisition of cognitive mechanisms for pattern recognition of written or spoken word forms, as well as of mechanisms for the

Nick C. Ellis

1995-01-01

232

Developing Academic Vocabulary Independently (DAVI): A usability study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second language (L2) learners preparing for academic study in English-speaking universities face major challenges in acquiring needed vocabulary that classroom study cannot fully overcome. According to recent second language vocabulary acquisition (SLVA) research, learners must deeply process target vocabulary in comprehensible contexts appropriately spaced over time. However, effective materials facilitating such encounters outside the classroom are rare. This paper reports

Monica Richards

2009-01-01

233

Vocabulary Use in XML Standards in the Financial Market Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary issues are central to XML-based e-commerce standards. The rapid increase in the number of XML standards has made the vocabulary issues a critical area of XML applications. This paper reports the result from a study of the vocabulary use in XML standards. Choosing five DTDs from the financial and capital markets domain, we examined a total of 1346 elements

Jian Qin; Mary D. Taffet

2004-01-01

234

Developing college vocabulary: A content analysis of instructional materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research and theory question many of the traditional methods and techniques of teaching vocabulary. Yet textbooks designed to expand the vocabulary levels of post?secondary learners continue to proliferate. In light of the large number of vocabulary texts available for the college market as well as recent critical findings from research, the investigators undertook a study to determine the content

Norman A. Stahl; William G. Brozo; Michele L. Simpson

1987-01-01

235

Memory Strategy Instruction, Contextual Learning and ESP Vocabulary Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decades there has been an increasing interest in vocabulary learning strategies given that they are found to facilitate second/foreign language vocabulary learning and recall. As many learners do not develop sufficient mastery of the strategy repertoire, explicit instruction on vocabulary learning strategies may help them to become…

Atay, Derin; Ozbulgan, Cengiz

2007-01-01

236

Using PDA for Undergraduate Student Incidental Vocabulary Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been…

Song, Yanjie; Fox, Robert

2008-01-01

237

ELL preschoolers’ English vocabulary acquisition from storybook reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effects of rich explanation, baseline vocabulary, and home reading practices on English language learning (ELL) preschoolers’ sophisticated vocabulary learning from storybook reading. Eighty typically developing preschoolers were pretested in L1 (Portuguese) and L2 (English) receptive vocabulary and were assigned to experimental or control groups. Eight books were selected and paired. Experimental participants heard books read three

Molly F. Collins

2010-01-01

238

Early Vocabulary Growth: Relation to Language Input and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of exposure to speech in children's early vocabulary growth. It is generally assumed that individual differences in vocabulary depend, in large part, on variations in learning capacity. However, variations in exposure have not been systematically explored. In this study we characterize vocabulary growth rates for each of 22 children by using data obtained at several

Janellen Huttenlocher; Wendy Haight; Anthony Bryk; Michael Seltzer; Thomas Lyons

1991-01-01

239

Measuring and Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Basic Skills Reading Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A vocabulary improvement project, comprised of three components, was initiated at Del Mar College (DMC) in Corpus Christi, Texas, in spring 1991. Component 1 consisted of a baseline study of vocabulary knowledge among students in two levels of remedial reading classes. The test instrument measured content-specific vocabulary in English/literature,…

Snouffer, Nancy Kendall; And Others

240

Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

Carrier, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

241

Teaching Vocabulary through Poetry in an EFL Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study has been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using poetry to teach vocabulary in a foreign language classroom. It aims to find answers to two research questions (1) "Do the learners enhance more extensive vocabulary knowledge by means of poetry-based vocabulary teaching activities than the traditional coursebook activities?"…

Ozen, Baki; Mohammadzadeh, Behbood

2012-01-01

242

?????????????????? College Student's Difficulties and Strategies in EFL Vocabulary Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

??:?????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????,????????? ???,???????????????????????????????,? ????:????????????????????,??????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ???:??????????? Abstract: This study attempts to explore Chinese EFL learners' vocabulary learning difficulties and vocabulary learning strategies. Ninety first-year Chinese college students in the Department of Applied Foreign Languages participated in this study. The findings show that Chinese learners mainly have difficulty learning vocabulary in all aspects. The five most difficult factors affecting learning

Hsueh-Chu Chen; Huei-Chin Yeh

243

Form-based clinical input from a structured vocabulary: initial application in ultrasound reporting.  

PubMed

Ultra-STAR (Ultrasound Structured Attribute Reporting) allows a sonographer to record reports using a hierarchic standardized vocabulary. Reports are constructed interactively by using checkboxes and radio buttons in a graphical user interface to select concepts from the vocabulary. Concepts are presented in small windows that open when needed to record further detail. Preliminary reports are printed for the referring physician. Reports are later finalized by an attending radiologist and uploaded to the hospital's information system. Clinicians involved so far prefer an outline report to a natural language format. PMID:1482982

Bell, D S; Greenes, R A; Doubilet, P

1992-01-01

244

Development and maintenance of a controlled vocabulary via an electronic collaborative platform.  

PubMed

The development of electronic health records and clinical information systems has been progressing at a quickened pace in recent years. With such change, the use of standard vocabulary has aroused much interest. However, classification code sets are developed for their distinctive purposes, no single vocabulary set could satisfy the needs of all specialties; moreover, local customization would be inevitable. This poster describes how a controlled vocabulary with contribution from frontline clinicians was set up in Hong Kong Hospital Authority (HA). The adoption of an electronic maintenance portal with collaboration of representatives from all institutions would also be discussed. The use of such table has helped to maintain the interoperability of captured data between departments, specialties and institutions. PMID:23920856

Wong, Austen; Lau, Maggie; Fung, Vicky; Ho, Eric; Szeto, Karen; Chan, Ellen

2013-01-01

245

Challenges and Issues Related to Implementation of Nursing Vocabularies in Computer-based Systems  

PubMed Central

As key stakeholders from the clinical setting and vendor communities, the authors share a summary of their collective experience related to the challenges and issues associated with implementing the vocabularies recognized by the American Nurses Association in several installations of commercially available clinical information systems. Although the focus of the article is on summarizing the challenges and issues, it is of note that the authors' experiences across care settings suggest that the experience and effort of using one of the ANA-recognized vocabularies in a computer-based system are essentially worthwhile and positive. The issues and challenges fall into two categories: 1) those related to the developmental status of nursing vocabularies, and 2) those related to the adoption or implementation of new technology.

Button, Patricia; Androwich, Ida; Hibben, Lyn; Kern, Valeria; Madden, Gay; Marek, Karen; Westra, Bonnie; Zingo, Chris; Mead, Charles N.

1998-01-01

246

Plant Ontology (PO): a Controlled Vocabulary of Plant Structures and Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

The Plant Ontology Consortium (POC) (www.plantontology.org) is a collaborative effort among several plant databases and experts in plant systematics, botany and genomics. A primary goal of the POC is to develop simple yet robust and extensible controlled vocabularies that accurately reflect the biology of plant structures and developmental stages. These provide a network of vocabularies linked by relationships (ontology) to facilitate queries that cut across datasets within a database or between multiple databases. The current version of the ontology integrates diverse vocabularies used to describe Arabidopsis, maize and rice (Oryza sp.) anatomy, morphology and growth stages. Using the ontology browser, over 3500 gene annotations from three species-specific databases, The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) for Arabidopsis, Gramene for rice and MaizeGDB for maize, can now be queried and retrieved.

Avraham, Shulamit; Ilic, Katica; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; McCouch, Susan; Pujar, Anuradha; Reiser, Leonore; Rhee, Seung Y.; Sachs, Martin M.; Schaeffer, Mary; Stein, Lincoln; Stevens, Peter; Vincent, Leszek; Ware, Doreen; Zapata, Felipe

2005-01-01

247

THE LONG PAST AND SHORT HISTORY OF THE VOCABULARY OF ANGLOPHONE PSYCHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do particular words come to be part of the vocabulary of Anglophone psychology? The present study sampled 600 words with psychological senses from the Oxford English Dictionary, which not only gives the number of senses for each word but also the date and author for the earliest known occurrence of each sense. Analogous information for the same words was

John G. Benjafield

2012-01-01

248

Do Language Proficiency and Lecture Comprehension Matter? OpenCourseWare Lectures for Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open source lectures not only provide knowledge-seekers with convenient ways to obtain knowledge and information, they also serve as potential language learning resources that provide extensive language input and repeated exposure to vocabulary within specific topics or disciplines. This current study aims to examine the relationship between…

Sun, Yu-Chih; Yang, Hui-Chi

2012-01-01

249

Vocabulary Assessment of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children From Infancy Through the Preschool Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to inform researchers and prac- titioners about potential challenges in the selection, adminis- tration, and interpretation of results of measures of vocabu- lary assessment when working with deaf and hard-of-hearing children. This article reviews methods that can be used to assess vocabulary of children through the age of 5 years, in- cluding naturalistic observation,

Amy K. Prezbindowski; Amy R. Lederberg

2003-01-01

250

An Operational System for Subject Switching between Controlled Vocabularies: A Computational Linguistics Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a new automated process that pioneers full-scale operational use of subject switching by the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Facility. The subject switching process routinely translates machine-readable subject terms from one controlled vocabulary into the…

Silvester, June P.; And Others

251

Investigating the Receptive Vocabulary Size of University-Level Chinese Learners of English: How Suitable Is the Vocabulary Levels Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) is widely used to assess the vocabulary size of second-language learners of English. The test assesses learners' knowledge of words of different frequencies within general English and of high-frequency words within academic texts. We used the VLT to measure the English vocabulary size of Chinese university students…

Li, Lan; MacGregor, Lucy J.

2010-01-01

252

Fostering the Development of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension Though Contextually-Based Multiple Meaning Vocabulary Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of contextuallybased multiple meaning (i.e., words with multiple meanings) vocabulary instruction on the vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension of students. Third and 5 th grade students received either contextuallybased multiple meaning vocabulary instruction embedded in the standard language arts instruction offered to all students over a three-month period or

J. Ron. Nelson; Scott A. Stage

2007-01-01

253

The Controlled Vocabulary--A Reexamination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The controlled vocabulary method of reading instruction (popular in the 1950's and 60's in the Dick and Jane basic reading series) had many inherent and numerous strong points. As with all beginning reading instruction methods, including the Big Book, heterogeneous reading group, holism, phonics, library book, and constructivist methods,…

Ediger, Marlow

254

Researching and teaching vocabulary in the AMEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a number of years, action research projects have contributed to practitioner- based research and professional development in the Adult Migrant English Program (AMEP). In this article, we describe a recent national project focusing on the teaching of vocabulary. We worked, as a researcher from the National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research (NCELTR) and a researcher from the

ANNE BURNS; SILVA JOYCE

255

The Political Vocabulary of Hong Kong English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed patterns of usage of political vocabulary in Hong Kong English as found in newspaper reports of a leading Hong Kong English-medium newspaper and two other English-medium newspapers. Data were drawn from a computerized corpus and a clippings file. The report begins with an overview of the theoretical basis of the study of ideology…

Benson, Phil

1994-01-01

256

Science Process Vocabulary: Our Failure To Communicate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When teachers search the literature for activities they can do with their students, they are exposed to science process vocabulary that is improperly used and ambiguous in meaning. This is particularly so with the science process skills of observing, inferring, and hypothesizing. This study examines the process understanding of science teachers…

Follette, Everette; Smith, Marian

257

Teaching Vocabulary through External Context Clues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an instruction approach for teaching external clues that context clue instruction occurs over many years at all grade levels and asserts that this can used for learning vocabulary. Defines external context clues as syntactic and semantic elements within and among sentences. (SRT)|

Ryder, Randall James

1986-01-01

258

Improving out-of-vocabulary name resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents algorithms for generating targeted name lists for candidate out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words for applications in language processing, particularly speech recognition. Focusing on names, which are shown to be the dominant class of OOVs in news broadcasts, the approach involves offline generation of a large name list and online pruning based on a phonetic distance. The resulting list can

David D. Palmer; Mari Ostendorf

2005-01-01

259

LCSH Entry Vocabulary Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) Entry Vocabulary Project established a routine procedure for new cross references, suggested by designated libraries, to be considered for addition to LCSH entries by the Library of Congress Subject Catalog Division. Since October 1982, suggestions from four libraries (the University of California at…

Cochrane, Pauline A.

260

Word Walk: Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Storybook reading offers an ideal context for teaching young children new words. Text Talk is one method designed for teaching elementary students new words after reading. However, using the Text Talk vocabulary procedures with young children, the authors observed several challenges both for teachers' implementation and children's learning.…

Blarney, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.

2011-01-01

261

Interactive Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Word walls are designed to serve as visual scaffolds and are a common classroom tool used to support reading and language arts instruction. To support vocabulary development in science and support students who are ELLs, Husty and Jackson (2008) created interactive word walls that resemble semantic maps (Masters, Mori, and Mori 1993). Semantic…

Jackson, Julie; Tripp, Sherry; Cox, Kimberly

2011-01-01

262

Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

2012-01-01

263

Issues in Large Vocabulary, Multilingual Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on our activities in multilingual, sp eaker- independent, large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. The multilingual aspect of this work is of particular importanc e in Eu- rope, where each country has its own national language. Our exist- ing recognizer for American English and French, has been ported to British English and German. It has been

Lori Lamel; Martine Adda-Decker; Jean-Luc Gauvain

1995-01-01

264

The Importance of Vocabulary for Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A major component of literacy is "vocabulary," or the words employed by a language or in a field of knowledge. Understanding novel words and concepts is important for young students as they are confronted with a great deal of new terminology in the passages they read, especially in content areas such as science. Science is a discipline that…

Cohen, Marisa T.

2012-01-01

265

Package Them in Puzzles: Vocabulary, Culture, Conjugations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a method of using traditional puzzles and crosswords in foreign language instruction. Instead of merely providing amusement, the puzzles are designed to assist in the learning of various language skills. This article gives directions for developing puzzles specifically designed to teach grammar, vocabulary, and culture. (Author/PJM)|

McElroy, Mary E.; Samaniego, Fabian A.

1981-01-01

266

Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

David, Annabelle

2008-01-01

267

Contextual vocabulary acquisition: from algorithm to curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing algorithms for computational contextual vocabulary acquisition (CVA; computing a meaning for an unknown word from context) and applying the computational CVA system to build an educational curriculum for enhancing students' abilities to use CVA strategies in their reading. The knowledge gained from case studies of students using our CVA techniques feeds back into further development of our

William J. Rapaport; Michael W. Kibby

2003-01-01

268

Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…

Huong, Le Pham Hoai

2006-01-01

269

Overcoming Vocabulary Limitations in Twitter Microblogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One major difficulty in performing ad-hoc search on microblogs such as Twitter is the limited vocabulary of each document due their short length. In this paper, two approaches to addressing this issue are presented. The rst is query expansion through pseu...

J. Callan R. Yeniterzi Y. Kim

2012-01-01

270

Teaching Vocabulary to Adolescents To Improve Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that providing vocabulary instruction is one of the most significant ways in which teachers can improve students' reading and listening comprehension. Describes a 16-week intervention in which the comprehension of middle and high school students reading below grade level was improved significantly by instruction that developed their…

Curtis, Mary E.; Longo, Ann Marie

2001-01-01

271

Metaphor and vocabulary teaching in ESP economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metaphors provide insight into particular ways of thinking—both in general terms and in relation to the development of semi-technical registers. In this paper, a case is made for basing vocabulary teaching to ESP economics students on lexis that reflects important underlying metaphors of the subject. These are identified with reference to high frequency lexis in The Economist magazine (as compared

Jonathan Charteris-Black

2000-01-01

272

The Cognitive Vocabulary Approach to Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|English teachers face myriad demands every day that include not only helping students read literature in interesting and engaging ways but also attending to the needs of students challenged by the demands of more complex and sophisticated texts. Vocabulary learning is at the heart of this struggle for many students, especially for English…

Harmon, Janis M.; Buckelew-Martin, Elizabeth; Wood, Karen D.

2010-01-01

273

Lesson Plan #3: Comprehension and Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students can learn a number of words in any given day from television, parents, through reading, and through classroom activities. The activity in this lesson plan focuses on students expanding their written vocabulary to make writing passages more vivid and pleasurable to read. The lesson provides an opportunity for individual and group work,…

Christopher, Tonja'

274

Evidence for Catch-up in Cognition and Receptive Vocabulary Among Adolescents Born Very Preterm  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Very preterm adolescents display persistent deficits in neuropsychological functions. OBJECTIVE: To compare cognitive and language outcomes at 16 years and cognitive and receptive vocabulary trajectories throughout school years between very preterm and term children and to determine child and family factors associated with better developmental trajectories. DESIGN AND METHODS: At 8, 12, and 16 years, 322 very preterm children with birth weights of 1250 g or less and 41 term children had cognitive and language testing. Hierarchical growth-curve modeling was used to delineate the differences in cognitive and receptive vocabulary development between participants. Cluster analyses allowed for the characterization of very preterm children with different patterns of cognitive and receptive vocabulary development. RESULTS: At 16 years, very preterm adolescents had deficits in general cognition and higher-order language skills (phonological awareness and phonemic decoding) compared with term peers. Although the between-group difference in cognitive scores remained stable from 8 to 16 years, very preterm children demonstrated catch-up gains in receptive vocabulary during the same period. Moreover, subgroups of very preterm children displayed developmental trajectories in cognition similar to term children (55% on the vocabulary and 46% on the block-design subtests). These children had lower rates of neurosensory impairment and mothers with higher education and were from an ethnic nonminority. CONCLUSIONS: Significant catch-up in receptive vocabulary is observed by the age of 16 years among very preterm children compared to term peers. The absence of neurosensory impairment and residing in a favorable socioeconomic milieu are associated with the most optimal developmental trajectories.

Vohr, Betty R.; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen C.; Ment, Laura R.

2011-01-01

275

Clinical data exchange standards and vocabularies for messages.  

PubMed

Motivation for the creation of electronic data interchange (message) standards is discussed. The ISO Open Systems Interface model is described. Clinical information models, message syntax and structure, and the need for a standardized coded vocabulary are explained. The HIPAA legislation and subsequent HHS transaction recommendations are reviewed. The history and mission statements of six of the most popular message development organizations (MDOs) are summarized, and the data exchange standards developed by these organizations are listed. The organizations described include Health Level Seven (HL7), American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E31, Digital Image Communication in Medicine (DICOM), European Committee for Standardization (Comité Européen de Normalisation), Technical Committee for Health Informatics (CEN/TC 251), the National Council for Prescription Drug Programs (NCPDP), and Accredited Standards Committee X12 Insurance Subcommittee (X12N). The locations of Internet web sites for the six organizations are provided as resources for further information. PMID:9929183

Huff, S M

1998-01-01

276

Incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary through brief multi-modal exposure.  

PubMed

First language acquisition requires relatively little effort compared to foreign language acquisition and happens more naturally through informal learning. Informal exposure can also benefit foreign language learning, although evidence for this has been limited to speech perception and production. An important question is whether informal exposure to spoken foreign language also leads to vocabulary learning through the creation of form-meaning links. Here we tested the impact of exposure to foreign language words presented with pictures in an incidental learning phase on subsequent explicit foreign language learning. In the explicit learning phase, we asked adults to learn translation equivalents of foreign language words, some of which had appeared in the incidental learning phase. Results revealed rapid learning of the foreign language words in the incidental learning phase showing that informal exposure to multi-modal foreign language leads to foreign language vocabulary acquisition. The creation of form-meaning links during the incidental learning phase is discussed. PMID:23579363

Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

2013-04-08

277

Development of a Controlled Vocabulary for Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent emergence of a number of Environmental Observing systems calls the for the need of a nationwide geoscience cyberinfrastructure. One of the problems that need to be overcome when building a nationwide CI is the vexing problem of disparate and incompatible metadata descriptions that exist due to the use of different standards (if at all) and also the use of different vocabularies to describe the same thing or multiple use of a single word to describe different things leading to interoperability problems. To avoid syntactic interoperability problems many data clearinghouses (UK's Gigateway, Canada's GeoConnections, Australian Spatial Data Directory, US NSDI etc.) are migrating to ISO 19115 metadata standard. While the adoption of a standard is a first step towards solving the syntactic interoperability problem to some extent semantic difference remain because the ISO 19115 does not provide any controlled vocabulary for scientific terminology. In this study our aim is to develop a thesaurus for hydraulic science (as it is a central subject of all environmental observing systems) and engineering keywords that consists of several thousand entries which will help solving homonym, synonym problems as well as allowing discovery of more specific terms when a broader term was searched for. Development methods allow multi-lingual controlled vocabulary as in ISO standard since the relations (classification, narrower term, broader term, synonym etc.) between the terms in the thesaurus are independent of the language used. Human readable vocabulary may be attached to concepts as labels with a "language" identifier such that an entry of e.g. n0231 returns "rain" in English while "pluie" in French.

Beran, B.; Piasecki, M.; Choi, Y.

2005-12-01

278

Personalized Intelligent English Vocabulary Learning System Based on Item Response Theory and Learning Memory Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning English involves memorization and practice of a large number of vocabularies and grammatical structures. It is well-known that English learning should pay attention to vocabulary learning, and even more the vocabulary learning is a key issue for English learning because vocabularies are basic elements in an English sentence. This study proposes a personalized intelligent English vocabulary learning system based

Chih-Ming Chen; Ching-Ju Chung; Ming-Chuan Chen

2006-01-01

279

Continuing Education Services. How Public Libraries Can Expand Educational Horizons for All Americans. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet, prepared as background information for the White House Conference, describes recent developments in providing learners' advisory services to adults beyond traditional school and college age. In particular, it focuses on the Woodbridge, New J...

E. N. Layne

1979-01-01

280

Personnel Reactions to Incentives, Naval Conditions and Experiences (PRINCE): Demographic and Background Information, Expectations, Attitudes, Values and Motivations of New Recruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a longitudinal study of the reactions of enlisted personnel incentives, Naval conditions and experiences, information on backgrounds, expectations, attitudes, values and motivations were obtained at entry into the Navy from 6,795 recruits in Ca...

A. Katz

1971-01-01

281

Functional annotation of the Arabidopsis genome using controlled vocabularies.  

PubMed

Controlled vocabularies are increasingly used by databases to describe genes and gene products because they facilitate identification of similar genes within an organism or among different organisms. One of The Arabidopsis Information Resource's goals is to associate all Arabidopsis genes with terms developed by the Gene Ontology Consortium that describe the molecular function, biological process, and subcellular location of a gene product. We have also developed terms describing Arabidopsis anatomy and developmental stages and use these to annotate published gene expression data. As of March 2004, we used computational and manual annotation methods to make 85,666 annotations representing 26,624 unique loci. We focus on associating genes to controlled vocabulary terms based on experimental data from the literature and use The Arabidopsis Information Resource-developed PubSearch software to facilitate this process. Each annotation is tagged with a combination of evidence codes, evidence descriptions, and references that provide a robust means to assess data quality. Annotation of all Arabidopsis genes will allow quantitative comparisons between sets of genes derived from sources such as microarray experiments. The Arabidopsis annotation data will also facilitate annotation of newly sequenced plant genomes by using sequence similarity to transfer annotations to homologous genes. In addition, complete and up-to-date annotations will make unknown genes easy to identify and target for experimentation. Here, we describe the process of Arabidopsis functional annotation using a variety of data sources and illustrate several ways in which this information can be accessed and used to infer knowledge about Arabidopsis and other plant species. PMID:15173566

Berardini, Tanya Z; Mundodi, Suparna; Reiser, Leonore; Huala, Eva; Garcia-Hernandez, Margarita; Zhang, Peifen; Mueller, Lukas A; Yoon, Jungwoon; Doyle, Aisling; Lander, Gabriel; Moseyko, Nick; Yoo, Danny; Xu, Iris; Zoeckler, Brandon; Montoya, Mary; Miller, Neil; Weems, Dan; Rhee, Seung Y

2004-06-01

282

Effectiveness of a vocabulary data file, encyclopaedia, and Internet homepages in a conversation?support system for people with moderate?to?severe aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In order to facilitate conversation for people with moderate?to?severe aphasia, a conversation?support system has been developed. This system consists of three electronic resources: a vocabulary data file, an encyclopaedia, and homepages on the Internet. The vocabulary data file we created contains approximately 50,000 words, mostly consisting of various proper names, which are classified into 10 categories. These words function

Kiyoshi Yasuda; Tatsuya Nemoto; Keisuke Takenaka; Mami Mitachi; Kazuhiro Kuwabara

2007-01-01

283

Development and Initial Validation of the Miranda Vocabulary Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miranda vocabulary forms the essential foundation for Miranda comprehension and subsequent decisions to exercise or waive\\u000a Miranda rights. The purpose of the current study is the development of the Miranda Vocabulary Scale (MVS), designed to evaluate\\u000a key vocabulary words found in Miranda warnings and waivers across American jurisdictions. A preliminary list of MVS words\\u000a was refined by expert ratings and

Richard Rogers; Lisa L. Hazelwood; Kenneth W. Sewell; Hayley L. Blackwood; Jill E. Rogstad; Kimberly S. Harrison

2009-01-01

284

Science Sampler: Using direct instruction to teach content vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The magnitude of vocabulary students need to know in the middle school science curriculum is vast and can be daunting. As educators, it is our job to efficiently and effectively teach students so that they are not only able to apply the new vocabulary to that year's curriculum, but to store it in their memory for future use in high school and college. This article describes a direct instruction approach to teaching vocabulary that provides students with the ability to interact with the vocabulary verbally, visually, spatially, and intrapersonally.

Dougherty, Laura A.; Leno, Lisa C.

2007-09-01

285

A study of students' beliefs about vocabulary knowledge and acquisition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the vocabulary of a discipline is important for students, especially in the sciences (Gee, 2003). Therefore, the extant literature has emphasized the need for more research on vocabulary knowledge and acquisition (Simpson, et al., 2004). This study investigated whether or not community college students' beliefs about vocabulary knowledge and acquisition changed as a result of a one-semester enrollment in a vocabulary-rich biology course. The rationale for the study, a review of the existing research underlying the study, the methodology of the study, and the results and conclusions of the study will be discussed.

Francis, Michelle Andersen

286

Delayed versus immediate feedback in children's and adults' vocabulary learning.  

PubMed

We investigated whether the superior memory performance sometimes seen with delayed rather than immediate feedback was attributable to the shorter retention interval (or lag to test) from the last presentation of the correct information in the delayed condition. Whether lag to test was controlled or not, delayed feedback produced better final test performance than did immediate feedback, which in turn produced better performance than did no feedback at all, when we tested Grade 6 children learning school-relevant vocabulary. With college students learning GRE-level words, however, delayed feedback produced better performance than did immediate feedback (and both were better than no feedback) when lag to test was uncontrolled, but there was no difference between the delayed and immediate feedback conditions when the lag to test was controlled. PMID:19933453

Metcalfe, Janet; Kornell, Nate; Finn, Bridgid

2009-12-01

287

A mathematics vocabulary test and some results of an examination of university freshmen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a mathematics vocabulary test are reported. University freshmen lack the necessary vocabulary for reading mathematics texts, but mathematics training in the university leads to marked improvement in the vocabulary test score. \\

A. S. Edwards

1936-01-01

288

Vocabulary Knowledge Is a Critical Determinant of the Difference in Reading Comprehension Growth between First and Second Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: This study examines the role of decoding and vocabulary skills as longitudinal predictors of reading comprehension in young first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. Methods: Two-group latent growth models were used to assess differences in growth and predictions of growth between the 198 L1 and 90 L2 language learners. Results:…

Lervag, Arne; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

2010-01-01

289

Experiences with nutrition-related information during antenatal care of pregnant women of different ethnic backgrounds residing in the area of Oslo, Norway.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: to explore experiences with nutrition-related information during routine antenatal care among women of different ethnical backgrounds. DESIGN: individual interviews with seventeen participants were conducted twice during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis were inspired by an interpretative phenomenological approach. SETTING: participants were purposively recruited at eight Mother and Child Health Centres in the area of Oslo, Norway, where they received antenatal care. PARTICIPANTS: participants had either immigrant backgrounds from African and Asian countries (n=12) or were ethnic Norwegian (n=5). Participants were pregnant with their first child and had a pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index above 25kg/m(2). FINDINGS: participants experienced that they were provided with little nutrition-related information in antenatal care. The information was perceived as presented in very general terms and focused on food safety. Weight management and the long-term prevention of diet-related chronic diseases had hardly been discussed. Participants with immigrant backgrounds appeared to be confused about information given by the midwife which was incongruent with their original food culture. The participants were actively seeking for nutrition-related information and had to navigate between various sources of information. CONCLUSIONS: the midwife is considered a trustworthy source of nutrition-related information. Therefore, antenatal care may have considerable potential to promote a healthy diet to pregnant women. Findings suggest that nutrition communication in antenatal care should be more tailored towards women's dietary habits and cultural background, nutritional knowledge as well as level of nutrition literacy. PMID:23481338

M Garnweidner, Lisa; Sverre Pettersen, Kjell; Mosdøl, Annhild

2013-03-01

290

Clinical vocabulary as a boundary object in multidisciplinary care management of multiple chemical sensitivity, a complex and chronic condition  

PubMed Central

Background: Research has shown that accurate and timely communication between multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of complex and chronic health conditions is often challenging. The domain knowledge for these conditions is heterogeneous, with poorly categorized, unstructured, and inconsistent clinical vocabulary. The potential of boundary object as a technique to bridge communication gaps is explored in this study. Methods: A standardized and controlled clinical vocabulary was developed as a boundary object in the domain of a complex and chronic health condition, namely, multiple chemical sensitivity, to improve communication among multidisciplinary clinicians. A convenience sample of 100 patients with a diagnosis of multiple chemical sensitivity, nine multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of patients with multiple chemical sensitivity, and 36 clinicians in the community participated in the study. Results: Eighty-two percent of the multidisciplinary and inconsistent vocabulary was standardized using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine – Clinical Terms (SNOMED® CT as a reference terminology. Over 80% of the multidisciplinary clinicians agreed on the overall usefulness of having a controlled vocabulary as a boundary object. Over 65% of clinicians in the community agreed on the overall usefulness of the vocabulary. Conclusion: The results from this study are promising and will be further evaluated in the domain of another complex chronic condition, ie, chronic pain. The study was conducted as a preliminary analysis for developing a boundary object in a heterogeneous domain of knowledge.

Sampalli, Tara; Shepherd, Michael; Duffy, Jack

2011-01-01

291

Groundwork for a Better Vocabulary. Second Edition. Instructor's Edition. Townsend Press Vocabulary Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This instructor's edition of a vocabulary textbook for college students, who read at the fifth to eighth grade level, features 25 chapters and teaches 250 basic words. The first and third chapters in each unit contain word-part practices. The second and fourth chapters in each unit contain synonym-antonym practices. The book's last chapter in…

Smith, R. Kent; Johnson, Beth; Mohr, Carole

292

Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a “Y” junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re-entry survey, and routine surveys around the crater lip did not identify alpha contamination. Background information includes several radiological surveys conducted after these two tests. The MULLET area has been surveyed frequently. The early surveys indicate the area as both contaminated and containing buried radioactive material. A survey conducted in 1970 found the radiological/chemical piping partially intact, including the “Y” junction, and shows two runs of intact piping running past the U2am crater lip. The survey focused on the piping system itself and detected alpha contamination from 4 counts per minute (cpm) to 900,000 cpm. The highest value was at a pipe flange between a dirt pile and a dirt berm within the current site fence line. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. A 1972 survey was essentially a repeat of the 1970 survey; however, it does not show the “Y” junction nor does it show piping extending past the U2am crater lip. It also shows a new fence line separating the radiological/chemical piping from the U2am crater area with all piping within the fence. Alpha contamination was detected on pipe flanges during the survey, but alpha contamination was not detected on the dirt pile or the dirt berm. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. Additional surveys were conducted in 1986, 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996. One of the surveys focused on determining the extent of soil contamination around GZ. An alpha contamination plume extending approximately 200 feet south of GZ was detected in a swath approximately 100 feet wide. The maximum measurement was 15,000 cpm alpha. All surveys show the piping within the fence line. Recent surveys (2007 and 2008) were performed around the current fence line by the demarcation group. No removable contamination was identified during these surveys. In late 2008, a visual inspection of the site was conducted by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Restoration group. All piping is within the fence line. Photos taken during this site visit are attached.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2012-06-26

293

Theoretical and methodological implications of language experience and vocabulary skill: priming of strongly and weakly associated words.  

PubMed

The effect of second language experience and vocabulary ability was investigated in a semantic priming experiment with weakly related English word pairs (e.g., city-grass). Participants made lexical decisions to targets preceded by unrelated or weakly related primes or to nonword targets preceded by words. Reliable priming was found for monolingual participants; participants who had acquired a second language showed either marginal or nonreliable effects. A similar pattern of results was found with the analysis of vocabulary ability. Only participants with the greater vocabulary ability showed a priming effect. Although previous research has shown that participants with a broad range of linguistic backgrounds demonstrate the typical semantic priming effect (e.g., green-grass) with strongly associated word pairs, weaker relationships seem to require an extensive contextual history for retrieval. PMID:15177799

Devitto, Zana; Burgess, Curt

2004-07-01

294

The Effects of Topic Interest on the Vocabulary Retention in Third Grade Students with and without Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the effects of topic interest on the vocabulary learning and retention in third grade students with and without learning disabilities. All students learned 12 unfamiliar vocabulary words in three different vocabulary learning conditions: High-interest topic vocabulary, low-interest topic vocabulary, and vocabulary words…

Endo, Yasuko Amy

2010-01-01

295

Transformation of Traditional Vocabulary Exercises into Collaborative Writing Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the reading course, especially the so-called intensive reading course or integrative English reading course, there are some vocabulary exercises which intend to consolidate the active vocabulary emerging in the reading passages. Mostly, these exercises are in the form of blank-filling or rewriting sentences with the words given. The problem…

Zheng, Jian-feng

2010-01-01

296

Dramaturging Non-Realism: Creating a New Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the experiences of a professional and academic dramaturg as she learns how to respond to non-realist plays. Proposes that non-realism is not simply the absence of realism but is a form in itself. Presents a vocabulary for non-realist texts. Notes that to create this vocabulary the features of its style should be defined. Discusses the…

Haring-Smith, Tori

2003-01-01

297

Improving Vocabulary Skills through Assistive Technology: Rick's Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study examines the use of two assistive technologies, the Franklin Language Master 6000b and Microsoft PowerPoint 2003, as visual support systems to aid in the vocabulary acquisition skills of a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention used children's literature and best practices in teaching vocabulary skills in…

Lindsey-Glenn, Pam F.; Gentry, James E.

2008-01-01

298

Motivate Students to Engage in Word Study Using Vocabulary Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary instruction across the content areas aids reading comprehension, making it time well spent in the classroom. Although students with learning disabilities (LD) need many practice opportunities to learn new words, engaging them in vocabulary instruction may prove challenging. Due to their past difficulties in acquiring reading skills,…

Wells, Jenny C.; Narkon, Drue E.

2011-01-01

299

The Vocabulary of Complaints: Nursing, Professionalism and Job Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of research has fully documented the contradictions and problems of nursing with special reference to the job context of nursing activities in bureaucratic hospital organisations. In this discussion, the notion of a'vocabulary of motives' is developed as an explanatory framework for the analysis of nursing complaints about their job context. These vocabularies are illustrated by qualitative data

Bryan S. Turner

1986-01-01

300

Pictures and Words: Spanish and English Vocabulary in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study evaluated the relation between Spanish and English vocabulary. Whereas previously reported correlations have revealed strong differences among types of vocabulary measures used and the ages of the students tested, no prior study had used a multilevel model to control for classroom-level differences. The current study used…

Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Francis, David J.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles

2009-01-01

301

Does Translation Contribute to Learners' Free Active Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into four "male…

Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

2012-01-01

302

Phone deactivation pruning in large vocabulary continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduces a new pruning strategy for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition based on direct estimates of local posterior phone probabilities. This approach is well suited to hybrid connectionist\\/hidden Markov model systems. Experiments on the Wall Street Journal task using a 20000 word vocabulary and a trigram language model have demonstrated that phone deactivation pruning can increase the speed of recognition-time

Steve Renals

1996-01-01

303

Fragmentation and Consolidation: Recent Articles on Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary can no longer be said to be "a Cinderella topic", at least so far as its representation in other journals is concerned. Research articles on vocabulary learning and teaching now occur frequently and have been particularly well represented in recent issues of the North American research journal "Language Learning". While studies of…

Broady, Elspeth

2008-01-01

304

Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

2013-01-01

305

Impacts of Vocabulary Acquisition Techniques Instruction on Students' Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objectives of this study were to determine how the selected vocabulary acquisition techniques affected the vocabulary ability of 35 students who took EN 111 and investigate their attitudes towards the techniques instruction. The research study was one-group pretest and post-test design. The instruments employed were in-class exercises…

Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

2011-01-01

306

Vocabulary Enrichment Program for the Fifth and Sixth Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes a program for improving student vocabulary skills. The targeted population was fifth and sixth grade students in two growing middle class communities located north of a large midwestern city. The problem of low vocabulary skills was documented through observation of student reading and writings, teacher surveys, classroom…

Knezovich, Linda; Tierney, Vera; Wright, Maureen

307

THE EFFECTS OF VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT ON TEXT COMPREHENSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported in this paper adopts three strategies- knowledge and use of context clues, doing structural analysis and making associations- to help ESL learners improve their vocabulary knowledge and hence their text comprehension. Forty-six secondary school ESL students participated in the study. The treatment took the form of explicit strategy instruction to acquire word meaning of selected vocabulary items

Wong Bee Eng; Mardziah Hayati Abdullah

308

A Context-Based Strategy for Teaching Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students in Deanna L. Nelson's high school classroom study vocabulary gradually over a period of time. Students begin by collecting words from readings and listing them on a designated whiteboard. They prepare practice quizzes to exchange with peers and engage in frequent vocabulary discussions that emphasize recognition of context clues and…

Nelson, Deanna L.

2008-01-01

309

Got a Context Clue? Vocabulary Development in Middle School  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to determine whether incorporating student-created context clue sentences into an already extensive vocabulary curriculum would yield a higher vocabulary acquisition for my special education students. I began this project by modeling good context clue sentences. Through the use of cooperative learning groups, weekly practice, and continuous feedback, students were able to make personal connections

Jill Hotchkiss

310

Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

2011-01-01

311

Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Young English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Method: Twenty-two…

Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

2010-01-01

312

Improving Vocabulary Acquisition By Designing A Storytelling Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the review of many literatures, it is considered that there are still prevailing obstacles for second language learners due to insufficient vocabulary. Fortunately, there is a way to increase onepsilas vocabulary by means of extensive reading realizing stories. The research tries to utilize robot as a medium to design a pressure-free and intriguing learning system. It is a learning

Chun-cheng Wu; Chih-wei Chang; Baw-jhiune Liu; Gwo-dong Chen

2008-01-01

313

Creating a Schoolwide Vocabulary Initiative in an Urban High School  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to improve student achievement at an urban high school, teachers and administrators developed a 5-part, schoolwide vocabulary plan. Over 4 years, teachers provided students with increased opportunities to read, read to their students, developed content-specific vocabulary instruction, taught students academic words, and focused on 5 words each week with a common prefix, suffix, or root. Over the

Douglas Fisher

2007-01-01

314

Interactive Frames for Vocabulary Growth and Word Consciousness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Limited vocabulary knowledge has been cited as a key factor in the literacy achievement gap, particularly for students with learning disabilities, students of color, and English-language learners. Recent authorities have recommended multipronged approaches to assist vocabulary growth in classrooms. In addition, authorities have called for…

Winters, Rod

2009-01-01

315

Using Knowledge Networks to Develop Preschoolers' Content Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research shows that children accrue vocabulary knowledge by understanding relationships between new words and their connected concepts. This article describes three research-based principles that preschool teachers can use to design shared book reading lessons that accelerate content vocabulary knowledge by helping young children to talk about…

Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda

2012-01-01

316

To Push or Not to Push: A Vocabulary Research Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experiment, 122 university students in 4 intact classes learned 10 new vocabulary words via three different methods representing strong theoretical perspectives on second language vocabulary acquisition; extensive reading (Input- Hypothesis), activity-based (Task-based learning), and writing words in original sentences (Pushed Output Theory and Depth of Processing Theory). Results indicate that regardless of the language level of the learner,

Charles Browne

317

Beyond raw frequency: Incidental vocabulary acquisition in extensive reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second language vocabulary can be learned incidentally while the learner is engaged in extensive reading or reading for meaning, inferring the meaning of unknown words (Huckin & Coady, 1999; Hulstijn, 1992; Krashen, 1993; Pigada & Schmitt, 2006). 12 Korean learners of English read authentic literary texts and were tested on their knowledge of vocabulary before reading (pretest), immediately after reading

Soo-Ok Kweon; Hae-Ri Kim

2008-01-01

318

Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et…

Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

2012-01-01

319

Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

Gao, Xuesong

2012-01-01

320

Neural Correlates of High Performance in Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning vocabulary in a foreign language is a laborious task which people perform with varying levels of success. Here, we investigated the neural underpinning of high performance on this task. In a within-subjects paradigm, participants learned 92 vocabulary items under two multimodal conditions: one condition paired novel words with iconic…

Macedonia, Manuela; Muller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D.

2010-01-01

321

Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition and Learning Strategies in ICALL Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research described in this paper investigates the role of Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS) in ICALL environments. Although VLS taxonomies do exist, they have been developed for traditional classroom-type learning, and tend to be incomplete in terms of strategies or factors arguably important for vocabulary learning. Based on existing taxonomies, a VLS taxonomy for an ICALL environment will be developed

Thomas M. Segler; Helen Pain; Antonella Sorace

2002-01-01

322

Action video retrieval based on atomic action vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an efficient action retrieval system that is based on a novel action representation and an effective video matching method. We represent actions with a hierarchical encoding scheme that at low-level measures local body parts motions, which then evolves into encoding of instantaneous global body motions and finally high-level description of actions through atomic action vocabulary. Atomic action vocabulary

Sang-hack Jung; Yanlin Guo; Harpreet S. Sawhney; Rankesh Kumar

2008-01-01

323

Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

Gao, Xuesong

2012-01-01

324

Books, Not Direct Instruction, Are the Key to Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When a child has an extensive knowledge of vocabulary, it is most likely from extensive reading, regardless of whether the reading is from comic books, magazines, or a recommended reading literature list. Teachers who are always trying to find the best strategies for teaching literacy skills such as reading comprehension, vocabulary development,…

Shin, Fay

2004-01-01

325

Japanese Vocabulary Acquisition by Learners in Three Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an investigation of the development of vocabulary knowledge during study abroad (SA), intensive domestic immersion (IM) and academic-year formal classroom (AY) learning. Its focus was the growth of vocabulary knowledge in Japanese--a language where little SA research has been conducted to date. Unlike most studies addressing…

Dewey, Dan P.

2008-01-01

326

Neural Correlates of High Performance in Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning vocabulary in a foreign language is a laborious task which people perform with varying levels of success. Here, we investigated the neural underpinning of high performance on this task. In a within-subjects paradigm, participants learned 92 vocabulary items under two multimodal conditions: one condition paired novel words with iconic…

Macedonia, Manuela; Muller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D.

2010-01-01

327

Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

2013-01-01

328

Indexing Learning Objects: Vocabularies and Empirical Investigation of Consistency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In addition to the LOM standard and instructional design specifications, as well as domain specific indexing vocabularies, a structured indexing vocabulary for the more elementary learning objects is advisable in order to support retrieval tasks of developers. Furthermore, because semantic indexing is seen as a difficult task, three issues…

Kabel, Suzanne; De Hoog, Robert; Wielinga, Bob; Anjewierden, Anjo

2004-01-01

329

Cognitive Correlates of Vocabulary Growth in English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study modeled vocabulary trajectories in 91 English language learners (ELLs) with Punjabi, Tamil, or Portuguese home languages, and 50 English monolinguals (EL1) from Grades 1 to 6. The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory and vocabulary were examined. ELLs underperformed…

Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther

2011-01-01

330

The English Vocabulary?Technology Connection: A Third World Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which computers assist high school students in learning English language vocabulary. The experience describes an experimental investigation conducted in a Teacher?Training Practising Secondary School in Cameroon on the use of computer?assisted software to teach English vocabulary. Specifically, the major thrust of this investigation was to compare the effects of

William W Ekane; Doris Maiken

1997-01-01

331

Vocabulary Strategies that Work: Do This-Not that!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Update your vocabulary practices to meet the Common Core and improve students' word knowledge! This new, clearly-structured guide shows you how. It's packed with engaging, research-based, classroom-ready strategies for teaching vocabulary. Topics include: (1) Selecting meaningful words for direct instruction; (2) Strategies for engaging students…

Wilfong, Lori

2013-01-01

332

Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. The Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection of essays on second language vocabulary learning includes: "Historical Trends in Second Language Vocabulary Instruction" (Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman); "The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading: Words You Don't Know, Words You Think You Know, and Words You Can't Guess" (Batia Laufer); "Orthographic Knowledge in L2 Lexical Processing:…

Coady, James, Ed.; Huckin, Thomas, Ed.

333

Expanding Academic Vocabulary with an Interactive On-Line Database  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|University students used a set of existing and purpose-built on-line tools for vocabulary learning in an experimental ESL course. The resources included concordance, dictionary, cloze-builder, hypertext, and a database with interactive self-quizzing feature (all freely available at www.lextutor.ca). The vocabulary targeted for learning consisted…

Horst, Marlise; Cobb, Tom; Nicolae, Ioana

2005-01-01

334

A Prereading Strategy: Using the Vocabulary, Language, Prediction Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students use the Vocabulary, Language, Prediction (VLP) approach to understand new vocabulary prior to reading. This approach provides a means of preteaching by using oral language activities and vocabulary words as a basis for predicting what might happen in a nonfiction reading selection. The VLP approach also aids in the structural analysis and morphology of words. Using identified vocabulary, students record synonyms, antonyms, categorization, dictionary usage, semantic analysis, part of speech, phonics analysis, structural analysis, and rhyming words. Once students complete the word study, they make predictions based on teacher-created questions related to the content. After reading the selection, students modify their predictions based on their reading and complete a crossword puzzle based on the vocabulary and word study. The VLP approach can be used in all content areas.

Adair, Valerie A.

2012-01-01

335

Receptive Vocabulary, Expressive Vocabulary, and Speech Production of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys…

Roberts, Joanne; Price, Johanna; Barnes, Elizabeth; Nelson, Lauren; Burchinal, Margaret; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Edwards, Anne; Malkin, Cheryl; Anderson, Kathleen; Misenheimer, Jan; Hooper, Stephen R.

2007-01-01

336

Relationships of General Vocabulary, Science Vocabulary, and Student Questioning with Science Comprehension in Students with Varying Levels of English Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the influence of general vocabulary knowledge, science vocabulary knowledge, and text based questioning on the science reading comprehension of three types of students who varied in their English language proficiency. Specifically, grade 5 English-Only speakers, English Language Learners in the United States, and students…

Taboada, Ana

2012-01-01

337

A Matter of Vocabulary II: Low-Income African American Children's Performance on the Expressive Vocabulary Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Expressive Vocabulary Test" (EVT) has recently been found culturally fair for an economically mixed sample of African American children, and others have argued that it is fairer for such participants than the "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III" (PPVT-III). In this study, the authors sought to replicate these findings with an exclusively…

McCabe, Allyssa; Champion, Tempii B.

2010-01-01

338

Receptive Vocabulary, Expressive Vocabulary, and Speech Production of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys…

Roberts, Joanne; Price, Johanna; Barnes, Elizabeth; Nelson, Lauren; Burchinal, Margaret; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Edwards, Anne; Malkin, Cheryl; Anderson, Kathleen; Misenheimer, Jan; Hooper, Stephen R.

2007-01-01

339

The Gene Ontology (GO) project: structured vocabularies for molecular biology and their application to genome and expression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists wishing to utilize genomic data have quickly come to realize the benefit of standardizing descriptions of experimental procedures and results for computer-driven information retrieval systems. The focus of the Gene Ontology project is three-fold. First, the project goal is to compile the Gene Ontologies; structured vocabularies describing domains of molecular biology. Second, the project supports the use of these

J A Blake; M A Harris

2002-01-01

340

The Gene Ontology (GO) project: structured vocabularies for molecular biology and their application to genome and expression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists wishing to utilize genomic data have quickly come to realize the benefit of standardizing descriptions of experimental procedures and results for computer-driven information retrieval systems. The focus of the Gene Ontology project is three-fold. First, the project goal is to compile the Gene Ontologies: structured vocabularies describing domains of molecular biology. Second, the project supports the use of these

J A Blake; M A Harris

2008-01-01

341

Combining Contextual and Morphemic Cues Is Beneficial during Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: Semantic Transparency in Novel Compound Word Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In two studies, we investigated how skilled readers use contextual and morphemic information in the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition during reading. In Experiment 1, we monitored skilled readers' eye movements while they silently read sentence pairs containing novel and known English compound words that were either semantically…

Brusnighan, Stephen M.; Folk, Jocelyn R.

2012-01-01

342

Hurricane Backgrounder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides basic information on hurricanes. topics include the definition of "hurricane", where they are likely to form, and their potential for damage, including high winds, heavy rainfall, flooding, tornadoes, and microbursts. There is also an illustration showing the Saffir-Simpson scale for classifying hurricane intensity, information on naming hurricanes, and a set of links to additional information.

343

Background Study and Proposals for Development of Information Provision in Science and Technology in Ethiopia. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provision of information for research and development in science and technology in Ethiopia was studied by 50 participants in a seminar on evaluation and analysis of a national information policy and plan. Policy makers and planners, users, producers and suppliers of information, information specialists, and representatives of Unesco (United…

Schwarz, Stephan; Winkel, Annette

344

Background Use of Sensitive Information to Aid in Analysis of Non-sensitive Data on Threats and Vulnerabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the 9-11 commission’s recommendations on a different way of organizing intelligence activities of the United States\\u000a was to unify the effort in information sharing across the Intelligence Community. Challenges include the need to deal with\\u000a information that is geographically distributed and held in compartmented repositories having restricted access. A demonstrated\\u000a ‘need to know’ is required before the data

Richard A. Smith

2005-01-01

345

You don't have to believe everything you read: background knowledge permits fast and efficient validation of information.  

PubMed

In social cognition, knowledge-based validation of information is usually regarded as relying on strategic and resource-demanding processes. Research on language comprehension, in contrast, suggests that validation processes are involved in the construction of a referential representation of the communicated information. This view implies that individuals can use their knowledge to validate incoming information in a routine and efficient manner. Consistent with this idea, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that individuals are able to reject false assertions efficiently when they have validity-relevant beliefs. Validation processes were carried out routinely even when individuals were put under additional cognitive load during comprehension. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the rejection of false information occurs automatically and interferes with affirmative responses in a nonsemantic task (epistemic Stroop effect). Experiment 4 also revealed complementary interference effects of true information with negative responses in a nonsemantic task. These results suggest the existence of fast and efficient validation processes that protect mental representations from being contaminated by false and inaccurate information. PMID:19254102

Richter, Tobias; Schroeder, Sascha; Wöhrmann, Britta

2009-03-01

346

Narrative and Vocabulary Development of Bilingual Children From Kindergarten to First Grade: Developmental Changes and Associations Among English and Spanish Skills  

PubMed Central

Purpose Research has identified English oral language proficiency as being critical for bilingual students’ literacy development. This study examines developmental patterns and associations among oral vocabulary and narrative skills in a longitudinal sample of 24 Spanish/English bilingual children from low socioeconomic backgrounds so as to further our understanding of the development of oral proficiency. Method English and Spanish data were gathered using standardized vocabulary tests and narrative elicitation tasks provided to kindergartners and first graders. Narratives were coded for length using two measures of productivity and for quality at two levels: story score and language score. Descriptive, correlation, multivariate, and regression analyses were conducted. Results Significant gains from kindergarten to first grade were found for all English oral language measures. Despite showing improvements in English vocabulary, the majority of children continued to score below the monolingual mean in first grade. For English narrative productivity, total number of different words (TDW) proved to be a sensitive developmental measure in contrast to total number of words (TNW). In Spanish, significant gains were noted only for narrative story score. Kindergarten Spanish story scores predicted first-grade English narrative quality even when controlling for the effects of English vocabulary and English narrative productivity. First-grade Spanish narrative quality was best predicted by Spanish vocabulary. Implications The need for early assessment and monitoring of expressive vocabulary and oral narrative skills, and the potential contributions of Spanish story organization skills to English narrative performance in bilingual children from low socioeconomic families, are highlighted.

Uccelli, Paola; Paez, Mariela M.

2010-01-01

347

Online study of frequency list vocabulary with the WordChamp website  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intentional study of vocabulary is an effective way for learners to increase their vocabulary in the target language. Word frequency lists help learners determine the most useful words to study. In order to systematically study vocabulary, learners may first take a test to determine their vocabulary knowledge, then drill the appropriate words. However, to date, classroom teachers and researchers

John Spiri

348

Documenting the Vocabulary of Astronomy Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning astronomy can be a life-long process, with the seeds of knowledge planted in K-12 classes blossoming in elective college courses to create adults who actively acquire astronomy content. One of the goals of many astronomy 101 courses is to prepare students to be intelligent consumers of mainstream astronomy content, including magazine articles, popular books, and online news. To meet this goal, astronomy educators need to understand what content is being presented in the media and what level vocabulary is being used. The most simplistic way to address this problem is to examine the topics covered and vocabulary used in mainstream astronomy blogs and news feeds. In this study we looked at a selection of prominent blogs and news feeds and we present a statistical study of the frequency different scientific terms are used and topics are addressed. To make this study possible, software to read in RSS feeds was created. This software had to meet the following design specifications: runs in a reasonable amount of time, removes all XML and HTML code from text, sees words with different capitalizations as the same word, ignores end of sentence or phrase punctuation without ignoring hyphens, and has an editable list of "common English words.” This code will be available after the conference at http://www.starstryder.com. Results of this study find that many of the primary topics of Astronomy 101 classes, such as the HR Diagram, are rarely mentioned in blogs and online news, while often de-emphasized topics, such as extra solar planets, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics, show up regularly.

Miller, Scott; Parrish, M.; Gay, P. L.

2008-05-01

349

June 29, 2012: Background Materials  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Drug Administration. -. June 29, 2012: Background Materials. -. June 29, 2012: Background Information Memo. -. -. -. Page Last ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/riskcommunicationadvisorycommittee

350

Background Knowledge and the Magazine Reading Students Choose  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Can students read difficult but self-selected texts--and if so, how? In this article we describe what we learned about middle school students' use of background knowledge and specific vocabulary from interviews and surveys in our longitudinal study of magazine reading habits. Then we discuss the implications of these findings for structuring…

Gabriel, Rachael; Allington, Richard; Billen, Monica

2012-01-01

351

Searching biomedical databases on complementary medicine: the use of controlled vocabulary among authors, indexers and investigators  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal retrieval of a literature search in biomedicine depends on the appropriate use of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), descriptors and keywords among authors and indexers. We hypothesized that authors, investigators and indexers in four biomedical databases are not consistent in their use of terminology in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Methods Based on a research question addressing the validity of spinal palpation for the diagnosis of neuromuscular dysfunction, we developed four search concepts with their respective controlled vocabulary and key terms. We calculated the frequency of MeSH, descriptors, and keywords used by authors in titles and abstracts in comparison to standard practices in semantic and analytic indexing in MEDLINE, MANTIS, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Results Multiple searches resulted in the final selection of 38 relevant studies that were indexed at least in one of the four selected databases. Of the four search concepts, validity showed the greatest inconsistency in terminology among authors, indexers and investigators. The use of spinal terms showed the greatest consistency. Of the 22 neuromuscular dysfunction terms provided by the investigators, 11 were not contained in the controlled vocabulary and six were never used by authors or indexers. Most authors did not seem familiar with the controlled vocabulary for validity in the area of neuromuscular dysfunction. Recently, standard glossaries have been developed to assist in the research development of manual medicine. Conclusions Searching biomedical databases for CAM is challenging due to inconsistent use of controlled vocabulary and indexing procedures in different databases. A standard terminology should be used by investigators in conducting their search strategies and authors when writing titles, abstracts and submitting keywords for publications.

Murphy, Linda S; Reinsch, Sibylle; Najm, Wadie I; Dickerson, Vivian M; Seffinger, Michael A; Adams, Alan; Mishra, Shiraz I

2003-01-01

352

A concept model for the automatic maintenance of controlled medical vocabularies.  

PubMed

A controlled medical vocabulary is a fundamental requirement in a range of medical informatics applications. Large vocabularies development and maintenance is labor intensive and costly. Maintainers of medical vocabularies need appropriate tools to do their work correctly. In this paper, we describe our concept model for a controlled medical vocabulary. We present how this model can check vocabulary consistency. We propose a set of tools in a distributed environment, which permits edition, visualization and maintenance of medical terminologies. PMID:10384529

Rodriguez, J; Maojo, V; Crespo, J; Fernandez, I

1998-01-01

353

Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year.

Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

1980-10-01

354

On the Determination of Causal Ordering between Vocabulary and Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Points to limitations of procedures used by Kim Yap in probing the causal ordering between vocabulary and comprehension skills of primary grade pupils (see EJ 206 255); cautions researchers of reading behavior not to apply Yap's procedures indiscriminately. (HOD)|

Wolfle, Lee M.; McGee, Lea M.

1979-01-01

355

Vocabulary in Action: Strategies for Turning Students into Wordsmiths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school teacher Amy R. Hardwick-Ivey loves teaching vocabulary. She describes numerous activities that increase students' understanding of the nuances of language and their confidence in using language well.

Hardwick-Ivey, Amy R.

2008-01-01

356

Trait and Process Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge and Verbal Ability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study sought to investigate the construct validity of vocabulary tests and the nature of verbal ability by integrating findings and theories of cognitive psychology with those of differential psychology. The study included three kinds of measurements...

B. Marshalek

1981-01-01

357

Acquiring Vocabulary through a Context-Based Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a method for enhancing Vocabulary and reading comprehension among English-as-a-Foreign-Language students. The approach involves teaching students to derive meaning through the help of context clues. (Author/VWL)|

Ying, Yu Shu

2001-01-01

358

Keyword Method of Vocabulary Acquisition: An Experimental Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment assessed the effectiveness of a mnemotechnic (memory technique), the keyword technique, for learning foreign language vocabulary. Participants were 60 Army enlisted personnel, 20 from each of the following ranges of general technical (GT) ap...

D. Griffith

1980-01-01

359

Vocabulary in Action: Strategies for Turning Students into Wordsmiths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|High school teacher Amy R. Hardwick-Ivey loves teaching vocabulary. She describes numerous activities that increase students' understanding of the nuances of language and their confidence in using language well.|

Hardwick-Ivey, Amy R.

2008-01-01

360

Lexical access to large vocabularies for speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-vocabulary isolated-word recognition system based on the hypothesize-and-test paradigm is described. Word preselection is achieved by segmenting and classifying the input signal in terms of broad phonetic classes. A lattice of phonetic segments is generated and organized as a graph. Word hypothesization is obtained by matching this graph against the models of all vocabulary words, where a word model

L. Fissore; P. Laface; G. Micca; R. Pieraccini

1989-01-01

361

Learning words by hand: Gesture's role in predicting vocabulary development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children vary widely in how quickly their vocabularies grow. Can looking at early gesture use in children and parents help us predict this variability? We videotaped 53 English-speaking parent-child dyads in their homes during their daily activities for 90-minutes every four months between child age 14 and 34 months. At 42 months, children were given the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

Meredith L. Rowe; ?eyda Özçal??kan; Susan Goldin-Meadow

2008-01-01

362

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry-background information for proposed air emission standards. Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, and semi-chemical mills. Interim final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being proposed for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. The document provides technical background information and analyses used in the development of the proposed pulp and paper NESHAP. It covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills. Effluent guideline limitations for pulp and paper mills are being developed concurrently under the Clean Water Act. Technical information used for the development of effluent guideline limitations is in separate documents.

Not Available

1993-10-01

363

Linking vocabulary to imagery: Improving science knowledge through multimedia design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative study looked at the vocabulary development of four urban sixth-grade students as they used laser disk and computer technologies to view images and then connect those images to textual definitions through multimedia design. Focusing on three science content areas (the water cycle, the rock cycle, and the web of life), students worked in pairs to create their own multimedia stacks that focused on the prescribed vocabulary. Using a combination of text, images, and audio, students demonstrated their understanding of content vocabulary words and how these words are interconnects within a science topic. Further, the study examined the impact that linking images to vocabulary and textual definitions has on helping students memorize definitions of the science content words. It was found that the use of imagery had a positive affect on the students' ability to identify textual definitions and vocabulary words, though it did not have a great impact on their later recall of word/definition connections. In addition, by designing their own multimedia artifacts, students were able to connect the vocabulary and images within a specific content area and explain their function within a broader science concept. The results of this study were inconclusive as to the impact this activity had on the students' ability to transfer their knowledge to correctly answering questions similar to the ones they see on their state proficiency exam.

Adler, Tracy R.

364

Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

1985-06-01

365

The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to the marine environmental sciences domain since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for • metadata mark-up with verifiable content • populating dynamic drop down lists • semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata • so-called smart search • and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium Web Processing Services in projects including: the NERC Data Grid; SeaDataNet; Geo-Seas; and the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model and following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes in this standard. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". The latest version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: • the removal of the potential for multiple Uniform Resource Names for the same concept to ensure consistent identification of concepts • the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content • the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS • the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base • a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier • and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS Version 2 of the NVS underpins the semantic layer for the Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR) project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. Here we present the results of upgrading the NVS from version 1 to 2 and show applications which have been built on top of the NVS using its Application Programming Interface, including a demonstration version of a SPARQL interface.

Leadbetter, A.; Lowry, R.; Clements, O.

2012-04-01

366

Taiwan: Background Notes Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Concise background information on Taiwan is provided. The publication begins with a profile of Taiwan, discussing the people, geography, political establishment, and economy. A map of the country is provided. The bulk of the publication then provides more detailed information on Taiwan's people, geography, history, administration, political…

Reams, Joanne Reppert

367

Semantic mediation of vocabularies for ocean observing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collective terminology used in a community of interest identifies the important concepts used by that community. These concepts are related to the research activities of the community and therefore to the types of data that the community creates and uses. Such data may be obtained through direct measurement, through laboratory analysis, or through the numerical or physical modeling conducted by community members. The terminology associated with the data, collectively referred to as a vocabulary, often develops within subgroups of a larger community. When these subgroups are brought together, the disjointed nature of the vocabularies must be addressed for the data to be consolidated into a single, consistent data resource. This consolidation represents a critical challenge for the construction of an ocean observing system. The work presented here describes a semantic mediation framework, which is used to relate multiple oceanographic vocabularies, thereby allowing data consolidation. The framework is described in terms of capabilities required to manage the diverse vocabularies from the organizations that support an ocean observing system. The framework implementation then illustrates the required semantic mediation between the oceanographic vocabularies of the smaller communities, allowing an ocean observing system to appear as a coherent single system, producing coherent data resources from the originally disjoint systems.

Graybeal, John; Isenor, Anthony W.; Rueda, Carlos

2012-03-01

368

FDA Errata to Background information  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 1 Page 3. Original: In subjects with mild (creatinine clearance 50 to < 80 mL/min), moderate (creatinine clearance 30 to < 50 mL/min) or severe renal ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

369

Background Information: Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... noted that it is unaware of the basis upon which manufacturers may have ... There is no food additive regulation that permits the addition of caffeine, at ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

370

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR THE ONCOLOGIC ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Panitumumab in Subjects with Colorectal Cancer" which will provide a ... pharmacokinetic data, in both the Japanese and non-Asian population that ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

371

Receptive vocabulary in boys with autism spectrum disorder: cross-sectional developmental trajectories.  

PubMed

In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4-11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2-11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for boys with ASD relative to age and nonverbal cognition. Relative to expressive vocabulary, assessed with the Expressive Vocabulary Test, receptive vocabulary increased at a lower rate for boys with ASD. Vocabulary trajectories in ASD are distinguished from typical development; however, nonverbal cognition largely accounts for the patterns observed. PMID:23588510

Kover, Sara T; McDuffie, Andrea S; Hagerman, Randi J; Abbeduto, Leonard

2013-11-01

372

Number-concept acquisition and general vocabulary development.  

PubMed

How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et al., 2003). This result calls into question arguments that (a) the number-concept creation process is scaffolded mainly by visuo-spatial development and (b) that language only becomes integrated after the concepts are created (D. Ansari et al., 2003). Instead, this may suggest that having a larger nominal vocabulary helps children learn number words. Experiment 3 shows that the differences with previous results are likely due to changes in how the data were analyzed. PMID:22803603

Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W

2012-07-16

373

Vocabulary Acquisition From Teacher Explanation and Repeated Listening to Stories: Do They Overcome the Matthew Effect?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the effect of listening to stories on children's vocabulary growth. Forty-seven children listened to 2 stories read to them in a small-group setting on 3 occasions, each 1 week apart. Target vocabulary items and items assessing generalization to nontarget words were selected, and pre- and posttest multiple-choice vocabulary measures were designed to measure vocabulary gains. In addition,

Julie F. Penno; Ian A. G. Wilkinson; Dennis W. Moore

2002-01-01

374

Effects of Teachers' Reading-Aloud Styles on Vocabulary Acquisition and Comprehension of Students in the Early Elementary Grades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of just reading, performance reading, and interactional reading-aloud styles on learning were assessed for 117 1st graders and 129 3rd graders. Preservice teachers, trained and guided by scripted procedures, read 2 informational storybooks to students using 1 of the styles. Multivariate analyses of variance and univariate tests showed that reading-aloud styles produced statistically significant effects on vocabulary acquisition and

Edna Greene Brabham; Carol Lynch-Brown

2002-01-01

375

The Role of Home Literacy and Language Environment on Bilinguals' English and Spanish Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the monolingual population, research has shown that vocabulary knowledge is closely related to reading achievement. However, the role of vocabulary has not been studied as extensively in the bilingual population. It is important to look at vocabulary to better understand reading achievement in the bilingual population in the United States.…

Duursma, Elisabeth; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Szuber, Anna; Proctor, Patrick; Snow, Catherine; August, Diane; Calderon, Margarita

2007-01-01

376

Using Lex30 to measure the L2 productive vocabulary of spanish primary learners of EFL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lex30 is an experimental test of L2 productive vocabulary (Meara and Fitzpatrick, 2000), that elicits a rich vocabulary output from a free word associ- ation task. Since its development, it has been mainly used to measure the pro- ductive vocabulary of undergraduate learners of EFL. In this paper, we will pres- ent the results of a study that has been

Rosa Jiménez Catalá; Soraya Moreno Espinosa

377

MIR: A Computer Based Approach to the Acquisition of Russian Vocabulary in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a method is described for the automatic ordering of texts based on the richness of their vocabularies. It further involves the specification of a basic vocabulary and of a gradual enlargement of this basic vocabulary linked to the study of the texts in the given order. (Author/RM)

Sagvall, Anna-Lena; And Others

1976-01-01

378

Successful Learning of Frequent Vocabulary through CALL also Benefits Reading Comprehension and Speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of direct vocabulary learning using Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on vocabulary knowledge, reading comprehension, and speed of word recognition. It found that students who used Tutorial CALL to learn highly frequent vocabulary did learn a significantly larger number of words than those in a control group. They decreased their reaction time for frequent word

Anjel Tozcu; James Coady

2004-01-01

379

A New Twist on Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities in Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An essential element of science instruction is content literacy. In order to improve literacy specific to science, vocabulary must be addressed. As Jitendra et al. (2004) pointed out, "because learning vocabulary during independent reading is very inefficient for students with reading difficulties, vocabulary and word learning skills must be…

Grillo, Kelly J.; Dieker, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

380

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading[R]: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate- to high-poverty elementary schools. Forty-four schools participated over a period spanning 2 consecutive school years. At baseline, 1,057 teachers and 16,471 students…

Apthorp, Helen; Randel, Bruce; Cherasaro, Trudy; Clark, Tedra; McKeown, Margaret; Beck, Isabel

2012-01-01

381

Research on Vocabulary Instruction in the Content Areas: Implications for Struggling Readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of current knowledge about vocabulary teaching and learning—understandings that influence learning across different disciplines. Research on the teaching and learning of vocabulary in particular subject matter areas, including mathematics, social studies, and science, is discussed. Based upon the instructional implications evident in this body of work, this article also offers suggestions for providing effective vocabulary

Janis M. Harmon; Wanda B. Hedrick; Karen D. Wood

2005-01-01

382

A New Twist on Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities in Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An essential element of science instruction is content literacy. In order to improve literacy specific to science, vocabulary must be addressed. As Jitendra et al. (2004) pointed out, "because learning vocabulary during independent reading is very inefficient for students with reading difficulties, vocabulary and word learning skills must be…

Grillo, Kelly J.; Dieker, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

383

Direct Teaching of Vocabulary after Reading: Is It Worth the Effort?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of direct teaching of new vocabulary items in reading passages. The study compared vocabulary learning under a reading only condition (incidental learning) to learning that is aided by direct communication of word meanings (explicit learning). Three levels of vocabulary knowledge (form recall,…

Sonbul, Suhad; Schmitt, Norbert

2010-01-01

384

The effect of dimension and vocabulary age on rapid picture naming in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation involved measures of the reaction times of normally developing children who were asked to name a series of centrally presented picture stimuli of varying vocabulary age and dimension. Results of the ANOVA on reaction times indicated a significant main effect of vocabulary level and an interaction of Dimension×Vocabulary level for the normally developing children. Post-hoc tests showed significant

Marianna M Walker; Irene Barrow; Michael P Rastatter

2002-01-01

385

eVoc Strategies: 10 Ways to Use Technology to Build Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary knowledge is key to comprehension and expression. For students in the intermediate grades, the need for breadth and depth of vocabulary accelerates as they encounter more challenging academic texts in print and on the Internet. Drawing on research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning, this article presents…

Dalton, Bridget; Grisham, Dana L.

2011-01-01

386

So Many Words, So Little Time: Helping College ESL Learners Acquire Vocabulary-Building Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several generative vocabulary-building strategies that teachers of college developmental reading classes can use to help English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students become independent learners of the enormous amount of unfamiliar vocabulary they encounter in their academic courses. Discusses vocabulary selection strategies, personal word…

Johnson, Denise; Steele, Virginia

1996-01-01

387

Inquiring into Familiar Objects: An Inquiry-Based Approach to Introduce Scientific Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning science vocabulary is an often tedious but important component of many curricula. Frequently, students are expected to learn science vocabulary indirectly, but this method can hinder the success of lower-performing students (Carlisle, Fleming, and Gudbrandsen 2000). We have developed an inquiry-based vocabulary activity wherein students explore how new words apply to familiar objects, piquing their interest in the words’

Caitlin Hicks Pries; Julie Hughes

2012-01-01

388

Inquiring into Familiar Objects: An Inquiry-Based Approach to Introduce Scientific Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning science vocabulary is an often tedious but important component of many curricula. Frequently, students are expected to learn science vocabulary indirectly, but this method can hinder the success of lower-performing students (Carlisle, Fleming, and Gudbrandsen 2000). We have developed an inquiry-based vocabulary activity wherein students…

Hicks Pries, Caitlin; Hughes, Julie

2012-01-01

389

Predicting Expressive Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. Method: This study…

Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

2010-01-01

390

An Interactive Vocabulary Learning System Based on Word Frequency Lists and Ebbinghaus' Curve of Forgetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an interactive English vocabulary learning system that is geared to individual student's vocabulary learning objectives and vocabulary ability. The system uses a word's rank in the word frequency list as its absolute difficulty level - a higher rank in the list means it is a more common word and therefore should be learned first. The system lowers

Liren Zeng; Ling Lin

2011-01-01

391

Bridging the Gap between Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Size through Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that extensive reading promotes the incidental learning of L1 and L2 receptive vocabulary; however, little is known about its effectiveness on productive gains in vocabulary knowledge. This paper investigates the extent to which extensive reading combined with writing tasks promotes productive vocabulary growth of Japanese…

Yamamoto, Yuka

2011-01-01

392

eVoc Strategies: 10 Ways to Use Technology to Build Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is key to comprehension and expression. For students in the intermediate grades, the need for breadth and depth of vocabulary accelerates as they encounter more challenging academic texts in print and on the Internet. Drawing on research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning, this article presents…

Dalton, Bridget; Grisham, Dana L.

2011-01-01

393

An empirical study on a computer-based corpus approach to English vocabulary teaching and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effectiveness of a computer-based corpus approach to English vocabulary teaching and learning. The empirical study in this paper illustrates that corpus does benefit English vocabulary teaching and learning but there are some problems of its application. Pedagogical implications are then provided to enhance the effective integration of corpus and English vocabulary teaching and learning: 1) teachers

Song Yunxia; Yang Min; Sun Zhuo

2009-01-01

394

The Lexical Richness of L2 Written Productions and the Validity of Vocabulary Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the validity of second language vocabulary tests, and whether or not test scores accurately reflect the quality of language behavior in real-life situations. It attempts to prove the validity of vocabulary testing by comparing test scores to indices of vocabulary richness in second language production. The student subjects…

Arnaud, Pierre J. L.

395

Linking Research and Practice: Effective Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary in the ESL Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary plays a pivotal role in the ESL classroom. Whereas a considerable amount of research has examined effective ESL vocabulary teaching and learning, missing are studies that provide examples of how to put various research findings into practice: that is, apply them to real texts including target vocabulary items. In order to close the gap…

Nam, Jihyun

2010-01-01

396

Knowing a Lot for One's Age: Vocabulary Skill and Not Age Is Associated with Anticipatory Incremental Sentence Interpretation in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults.…

Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Fernald, Anne

2012-01-01

397

The Relations of Early Television Viewing to School Readiness and Vocabulary of Children from Low-Income Families: The Early Window Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Collected time-use diaries of television viewing from two cohorts of children (ages 2-5 and 4-7) from low-income families and gave annual tests of reading, math, receptive vocabulary, and school readiness. Found that viewing of child-audience informative programs between ages 2 and 3 predicted higher academic performance. Frequent viewers of…

Wright, John C.; Auston, Aletha C.; Murphy, Kimberlee C.; St. Peters, Michelle; Pinon, Ronda Scantlin; Kotler, Jennifer

2001-01-01

398

Redundancy Effect on Retention of Vocabulary Words Using Multimedia Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to examine the effect of the redundancy principle in a multimedia presentation constructed for foreign language vocabulary learning on undergraduate students' retention. The underlying hypothesis of this study is that when the students are exposed to the material in multiple ways through animation, concurrent narration,…

Samur, Yavuz

2012-01-01

399

Vocabulary and Working Memory in Children Fit with Hearing Aids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Method: Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward…

Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.

2012-01-01

400

Stanwix House Vocabulary Study: Plurals. Investigative Report Number 7227.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research analyzed: 1) the treatment of plurals in the Functional Basic Word List for Special Pupils (Stanwix House List), and 2) plural recognition by educable mentally handicapped (EMH) students. Review of the Stanwix House List revealed that plurals were treated as discrete vocabulary items. Using a small sample of EMH subjects, the researchers…

Wood, Penelope; Bond, Jack H.

401

Building English Language Learners' Academic Vocabulary: Strategies and Tips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's Three Tier Model (2002), when it comes to language instruction the distinction between academic vocabulary words and content specific words has a significant bearing on the language success of English language learners (ELLs). In this article, the author describes strategies that give teachers and parents…

Sibold, Claire

2011-01-01

402

Technology To Enhance Vocabulary Acquisition: Metacognitive, Multisensory and Motivational.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a method to help high school students with learning disabilities increase their vocabulary in preparation for college, including preparation for college entrance examinations such as the Scholastic Assessment Tests (SATs). The approach focuses on the use of elaborative techniques in which students actively generate meanings and…

Rothschild, Lois H.

403

Vocabulary and Working Memory in Children Fit with Hearing Aids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Method: Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward…

Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.

2012-01-01

404

Measuring the Utility of a Basic French Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using frequency, range, availability, and coverage as objectively weighted indices of utility in the development of a basic French vocabulary list, the authors describe the technical procedure used in this study and list the resultant first 153 words according to the four indices and the utility rating. Weighting factors for each index, based on…

Savard, Jean-Guy; Richards, Jack C.

405

Moving from an Obsolete Lingo to a Vocabulary of Respect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the postcolonial era, vocabulary must be developed that communicates a belief in equality through word choices that promote respect. Citizens of the global community have the right to name themselves, define their histories, and live according to their cultures. A chart of obsolete, inaccurate, or dehumanizing terms and preferred terminology…

Anglesey, Zoe

1997-01-01

406

Crossing the Vocabulary Bridge: Differentiated Strategies for Diverse Secondary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her new book, nationally known professional development consultant and literacy expert Socorro Herrera is joined by two colleagues to provide a framework for academic vocabulary and language instruction in today's diverse classrooms. The authors present a set of strategies and tools that work effectively across all content to support enhanced…

Herrera, Socorro G.; Kavimandan, Shabina K.; Holmes, Melissa A.

2011-01-01

407

Linking vocabulary to imagery: Improving science knowledge through multimedia design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study looked at the vocabulary development of four urban sixth-grade students as they used laser disk and computer technologies to view images and then connect those images to textual definitions through multimedia design. Focusing on three science content areas (the water cycle, the rock cycle, and the web of life), students worked in pairs to create their own

Tracy R. Adler

2000-01-01

408

Interactive Electronic Storybooks for Kindergartners to Promote Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goals of this study were to examine (a) whether extratextual vocabulary instructions embedded in electronic storybooks facilitated word learning over reading alone and (b) whether instructional formats that required children to invest more effort were more effective than formats that required less effort. A computer-based "assistant" was…

Smeets, Daisy J. H.; Bus, Adriana G.

2012-01-01

409

Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

2010-01-01

410

Semantic Prosody and ESL/EFL Vocabulary Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is evidence that semantic prosody, a novel linguistic theme, should attract much attention in ESL/EFL (English as a second/foreign language) vocabulary learning and teaching. Research suggests that inappropriate word choice arising from ignorance of semantic prosody is common among ESL/EFL learners (Wei, 2006; Xiao & McEnery, 2006). This…

Zhang, Weimin

2009-01-01

411

Improving Retrieval Effectiveness by Reranking Documents Based on Controlled Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a common availability of classification terms in on- line text collections and digital libraries, such as manually assigned key- words or key-phrases from a controlled vocabulary in scientific collec- tions. Our goal is to explore the use of additional classification informa- tion for improving retrieval eectiveness. Earlier research explored the eect of adding classification terms to user queries,

Jaap Kamps

2004-01-01

412

How Well Does Teacher Talk Support Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Opportunities for incidental vocabulary acquisition were explored in a 121,000-word corpus of teacher talk addressed to advanced adult learners of English as a second language (ESL) in a communicatively-oriented conversation class. In contrast to previous studies that relied on short excerpts, the corpus contained all of the teacher speech the…

Horst, Marlise

2010-01-01

413

Large vocabulary speech recognition with multispan statistical language models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multispan language modeling refers to the integration of various constraints, both local and global, present in the language. It was recently proposed to capture global constraints through the use of latent semantic analysis, while taking local constraints into account via the usual n-gram approach. This has led to several families of data-driven, multispan language models for large vocabulary speech recognition.

Jerome R. Bellegarda

2000-01-01

414

Concordance-Based Glosses for Academic Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compares the effectiveness of online textual glosses enhanced with modified corpus-extracted sentences presented in concordance lines and textual glosses enhanced with dictionary definitions drawn from an online learner's dictionary for academic vocabulary learning at higher proficiency levels. Particularly, the study aimed to…

Poole, Robert

2012-01-01

415

Evaluating L2 Readers' Vocabulary Strategies and Dictionary Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of the relevant literature concerning second language dictionary use while reading suggests that selective dictionary use may lead to improved comprehension and efficient vocabulary development. This study aims to examine the dictionary use of Japanese university students to determine just how selective they are when reading nonfiction…

Prichard, Caleb

2008-01-01

416

Contextual Vocabulary Acquisition: A Computational Theory and Educational Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a research project that develops and applies algorithms for computational contextual vocabulary ac- quisition (CVA): learning the meaning of unknown words from context. We try to unify a disparate literature on the topic of CVA from psychology, first- and second- language acquisition, and reading science, in order to help develop these algorithms: We use the knowledge gained from

William J. RAPAPORT; Michael W. KIBBY

2002-01-01

417

Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther

2013-01-01

418

Concrete Features of Vocabulary Development from Puberty through Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using the counting features in previous mean length of utterance (MLU) studies, a study of the active vocabularies of adolescents looked at seven concrete features of the words 104 seventh grade and 100 eleventh grade subjects gave in response to 10 pictures. Each subject wrote five words for each of the pictures, which were analyzed for number…

Williamson, Leon E.

419

Temporally varying model parameters for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many forms of time varying acoustic models have been applied to the area of speech recognition. However, there has been little success in applying these models to Large Vocabulary Contin- uous Speech Recognition (LVCSR). Recently, fMPE was intro- duced as a discriminative feature space estimation scheme for the HMM-based LVCSR. This method estimates a projection matrix from a high dimensional

K. C. Sim; M. J. F. Gales

2005-01-01

420

Beyond Raw Frequency: Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition in Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Second language vocabulary can be learned incidentally while the learner is engaged in extensive reading or reading for meaning, inferring the meaning of unknown words (Huckin & Coady, 1999; Hulstijn, 1992; Krashen, 1993; Pigada & Schmitt, 2006). 12 Korean learners of English read authentic literary texts and were tested on their knowledge of…

Kweon, Soo-Ok; Kim, Hae-Ri

2008-01-01

421

Mindful of Words: Spelling and Vocabulary Explorations 4-8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides tools to enhance upper-level spelling and vocabulary instruction, and features more than 120 reproducible sorting activities and games. It offers suggestions for helping students build mastery of vowel patterns, syllable structure, syllable stress, consonant and vowel alternations, compound words, prefixes, suffixes, and word…

Ganske, Kathy

2008-01-01

422

In Search of the Keyword Method/Vocabulary Comprehension Link.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has indicated that the keyword method of vocabulary learning facilitates students' performance on comprehension-demanding tasks as well as test of definition recall. When conditions and undergraduate subjects within conditions were equated with respect to their initial levels of definition recall, the comprehension advantage of keyword…

Levin, Joel R.; And Others

1985-01-01

423

Vocabulary used by sexual offenders: meaning and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how some sexual violence offenders use culturally acquired vocabularies to describe episodes of rape. The paper is based on an analysis of 12 accounts obtained from death-row inmates in Kenya who had been convicted of violent crimes and sexual violence. The accounts were elicited while conducting a larger study to explore the individual motivations, and social and

Samuel Muchoki

2011-01-01

424

How Can Teachers Increase Classroom Use of Academic Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose for this action research study was to answer the question: "How can we enhance students' active engagement with academic vocabulary in social studies classes?" In this article, the authors share the strategies they developed through their research that proved most effective in engaging middle school students with active academic…

Larson, Lisa; Dixon, Temoca; Townsend, Dianna

2013-01-01

425

The Use of Graphic Organizers in Vocabulary Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was performed to determine whether graphic organizers or traditional methods were a more effective way of instructing and assessing vocabulary development. The traditional methods included instructing with the use of context clues and/or dictionary use, and assessing with the use of matching, cloze passages, and/or fill-ins. A group of…

Smith, Jessica J.

426

Reexamining the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to reexamine the effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phones. Students (N=78) from two intact classes of sophomores at a Chinese university were assigned to two groups: the SMS group (the experimental group) and the paper group (the control group). Then, they were administered a pretest to identify the level…

Zhang, Haisen; Song, Wei; Burston, Jack

2011-01-01

427

The Effects of Vocabulary Learning on Collocation and Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the effects of receptive and productive vocabulary tasks on learning collocation and meaning. Japanese English as a foreign language students learned target words in three glossed sentences and in a cloze task. To determine the effects of the treatments, four tests were used to measure receptive and productive knowledge of…

Webb, Stuart; Kagimoto, Eve

2009-01-01

428

Tracking the Changes: Vocabulary Acquisition in the Study Abroad Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Empirical evidence suggests that the study abroad experience accelerates growth in global vocabulary knowledge. The exact nature of this growth is rarely reported, however, and there is little documented evidence to indicate whether it is linear or uneven, whether the speed of growth is constant or changing, or whether the study abroad context…

Fitzpatrick, Tess

2012-01-01

429

Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

2013-01-01

430

Redundancy Effect on Retention of Vocabulary Words Using Multimedia Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effect of the redundancy principle in a multimedia presentation constructed for foreign language vocabulary learning on undergraduate students' retention. The underlying hypothesis of this study is that when the students are exposed to the material in multiple ways through animation, concurrent narration,…

Samur, Yavuz

2012-01-01

431

Terminologie des appareils electromenagers (Vocabulary for Electric Appliances).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This glossary of common French words and expressions used in reference to major electric appliances is designed for consumers, producers, and advertisers. Emphasis is placed on current rather than technical French-Canadian vocabulary. The terms are classified into five sections according to type of appliance: (1) electric range, (2) refrigerator,…

Dupuis, Henriette, Comp.; Lalut, Jeanne, Comp.

432

Five Experiments on EFL Vocabulary Learning: A Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five experiments were carried out to gain insight into foreign language learning as it takes place in the classroom environment, and to create optimal learning conditions for beginning Swedish-speaking learners of English as a Foreign Language. The experiments examined receptive and productive comprehension of English vocabulary in…

Palmberg, Rolf

433

A Model of L2 Vocabulary Learning and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary is an essential component of language. It is central to reading ability, writing ability and listening ability, and the most important aspect of second-language (L2) knowledge for academic achievement. The aim of this paper is to investigate quantitatively some of the factors that make some L2 words more difficult to learn and retain…

Willis, Martin; Ohashi, Yoshie

2012-01-01

434

Optimizing the learning of a second-language vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed and evaluated 4 optimization strategies for the learning of a large German-English vocabulary using 120 undergraduates. The 1st strategy involved presenting items in a random order and served as a benchmark against which the others could be evaluated. The 2nd strategy permitted S to determine on each trial of the experiment which item was to be presented, thus placing

Richard C. Atkinson

1972-01-01

435

Multilingual large vocabulary speech recognition: the European SQALE project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Sqaleproject in which the ARPA large vocabulary evaluation paradigm was adapted to meet the needs of European multilingual speech recognition development. It involved establishing a framework for sharing training and test materials, defining common protocols for training and testing systems, developing systems, running an evaluation and analysing the results. The specifically multilingual issues addressed included the

S. J. Young; M. Adda-Dekker; X. Aubert; C. Dugast; J. L. Gauvain; D. J. Kershaw; L. Lamel; D. A. Leeuwen; D. Pye; A. J. Robinson; H. J. M. Steeneken; P. C. Woodland

1997-01-01

436

ACTION PSYCHOLOGY AS APPLIED TO FOREIGN LANGUAGE VOCABULARY ACQUISITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In teaching vocabulary the most productive principles from the psychology of learning and memory are often ignored. This paper discusses the relevant educational implications of action psychology. Two topics from action psychology as elaborated by Vygotsky are discussed in detail: 1) the relationship between activity and memory and 2) the conditions for the personal integration of knowledge ? the cognitive

1995-01-01

437

Vocabulary acquisition from extensive reading: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have shown that second language learners acquire vocabulary through reading, but only relatively small amounts. However, most of these studies used only short texts, measured only the acquisition of meaning, and did not credit partial learning of words. This case study of a learner of French explores whether an extensive reading program can enhance lexical knowledge.

Maria Pigada; Norbert Schmitt

438

Subject Access Vocabularies in a Multi-Type Library Consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madison High School Library joined the South Dakota Library Network (SDLN), a multi-type library consortium with a shared online catalog in 1998. This study compares subject access in this small high school library both before and after the retrospective conversion. Vocabulary mapping between the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and the Sears List of Subject Headings is discussed.

Sandra K. Roe

2002-01-01

439

Discriminative training for large vocabulary telephone-based name recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes progress on a commercial application of the MECS recognition system to the task of recognizing Japanese family names spoken by customers into the answering machines of a large marketing\\/human resource company. The task is thus speaker-independent, open vocabulary, and is characterized by large variation in caller speaking styles, telephone types and acoustic environments. Our results show that

E. McDermott; Alain Biem; Seiichi Tenpaku; S. Katagiri

2000-01-01

440

Large-vocabulary continuous speech recognition: advances and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past decade (1990-2000) has witnessed substantial advances in speech recognition technology, which when combined with the increase in computational power and storage capacity has resulted in a variety of commercial products already or soon to be on the market. The authors review the state of the art in core technology, large vocabulary continuous speech recognition, with a view toward

JEAN-LUC GAUVAIN; LORI LAMEL

2000-01-01

441

Contextual Marketing: The Language\\/Vocabulary of Marketing in SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is part of ongoing descriptions of Contextual Marketing in SMEs. To date two previous papers have addressed a variety of key factors that contribute to Contextual Marketing. Our first paper, (Carson et al 2002*), addressed the overriding theme of Contextual Marketing and considered issues such as commonalities, triggers, variances, situation specific and language\\/vocabulary. Our second paper, (Copley et

Michael Enright; Paul Copley; Jonathan Deacon; David Carson; Andrew McAuley

442

English Vocabulary for Chinese Learners: Words in Your Ear.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes "Words in Your Ear," a vocabulary learning program for tertiary Chinese students who are learners of English at the University of Hong Kong, noting the University's 3-year partnership agreement with IBM to provide notebook computers to first-year students and provide new collaborative research opportunities for faculty.…

Hill, Monica

1998-01-01

443

Nursing Assistant: Handbook to Accompany VESL Vocabulary Cards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is one of four self-contained components of a larger handbook designed to assist secondary and postsecondary instructors and support staff in meeting the needs of limited-English-proficiency (LEP) students in vocational training programs. Together with an accompanying set of vocational English as a second language (VESL) vocabulary

Shay, Gail; Lenhart, Debra

444

Automotive Mechanics: Handbook to Accompany VESL Vocabulary Cards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is one of four self-contained components of a larger handbook designed to assist secondary and postsecondary instructors and support staff in meeting the needs of limited-English-proficiency (LEP) students in vocational training programs. Together with an accompanying set of vocational English as a second language (VESL) vocabulary

Shay, Gail; Lenhart, Debra

445

Food Service: Handbook to Accompany VESL Vocabulary Cards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is one of four self-contained components of a larger handbook designed to assist secondary and postsecondary instructors and support staff in meeting the needs of limited-English-proficiency (LEP) students in vocational training programs. Together with an accompanying set of vocational English as a second language (VESL) vocabulary

Taylor, Nancy; Lenhart, Debra

446

Infant Word Segmentation and Childhood Vocabulary Development: A Longitudinal Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Infants begin to segment novel words from speech by 7.5 months, demonstrating an ability to track, encode and retrieve words in the context of larger units. Although it is presumed that word recognition at this stage is a prerequisite to constructing a vocabulary, the continuity between these stages of development has not yet been empirically…

Singh, Leher; Reznick, J. Steven; Xuehua, Liang

2012-01-01

447

Crossing the Vocabulary Bridge: Differentiated Strategies for Diverse Secondary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In her new book, nationally known professional development consultant and literacy expert Socorro Herrera is joined by two colleagues to provide a framework for academic vocabulary and language instruction in today's diverse classrooms. The authors present a set of strategies and tools that work effectively across all content to support enhanced…

Herrera, Socorro G.; Kavimandan, Shabina K.; Holmes, Melissa A.

2011-01-01

448

Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|References to the term "incidental vocabulary learning" have become very commonplace not only in second language (L2) acquisition research, but also in empirical research into second and foreign language pedagogy, very often in contrast to "intentional language learning". The former term is associated with more natural language learning, that is,…

Bruton, Anthony; Lopez, Miguel Garcia; Mesa, Raquel Esquiliche

2011-01-01

449

Is Explicit Vocabulary Focus the Reading Teacher's Job?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports findings from a case study of the amount of explicit vocabulary focus (EVF) that occurred in a week of classes for one group of upper intermediate students in an intensive English program (IEP). To assess EVF, instruction from a total of 25 hours of classes was analyzed to see if the number of EVF events was more connected with…

Folse, Keith

2010-01-01

450

Research-Based Vocabulary Instruction for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A major reading-achievement gap exists between English language learners and English-only students. In order for ELLs to experience school success, they must achieve English language proficiency. This article presents why vocabulary acquisition plays the most vital role in ELLs' learning of the English language. Factors include the severity and…

Chung, Stephanie F.

2012-01-01

451

Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

2013-01-01

452

Mindful of Words: Spelling and Vocabulary Explorations 4-8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides tools to enhance upper-level spelling and vocabulary instruction, and features more than 120 reproducible sorting activities and games. It offers suggestions for helping students build mastery of vowel patterns, syllable structure, syllable stress, consonant and vowel alternations, compound words, prefixes, suffixes, and word…

Ganske, Kathy

2008-01-01

453

Extent and Use of Indigenous Vocabulary in Guatemalan Spanish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the actual content and use of Indian vocabulary in standard Guatemalan Spanish, as opposed to the numerous entries found in antiquated dictionaries. Over 600 Indian words were extracted from contemporary Guatemalan literature and Lisandro Sandoval's "Semantica guatemalense." Interviews were arranged with middle and upper class…

Scavnicky, Gary Eugene A.

454

Vocabulary Materials and Study Strategies at Advanced Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study of the effect of different vocabulary study materials and strategies used by upper-intermediate English as a foreign language students in higher education. Students were assigned a selection of 163 words from the Academic Word List and were provided with different types of study materials. They…

Pauwels, Paul

2012-01-01

455

Speaking My Mind: Why I No Longer Teach Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It's one of those assumptions of the English teaching game that students must learn and store up vocabulary as a precondition of tackling literature or history or any of those fields that feature big words. How, some ask, could a child read a challenging passage if he or she didn't understand those key, usually multisyllabic, words often…

Heverly, Jerry

2011-01-01

456

Infant Word Segmentation and Childhood Vocabulary Development: A Longitudinal Analysis  

PubMed Central

Infants begin to segment novel words from speech by 7.5 months, demonstrating an ability to track, encode and retrieve words in the context of larger units. Although it is presumed that word recognition at this stage is a prerequisite to constructing a vocabulary, the continuity between these stages of development has not yet been empirically demonstrated. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether infant word segmentation skills are indeed related to later lexical development. Two word segmentation tasks, varying in complexity, were administered in infancy and related to childhood outcome measures. Outcome measures consisted of age-normed productive vocabulary percentiles and a measure of cognitive development. Results demonstrated a strong degree of association between infant word segmentation abilities at 7 months and productive vocabulary size at 24 months. In addition, outcome groups, as defined by median vocabulary size and growth trajectories at 24 months, showed distinct word segmentation abilities as infants. These findings provide the first prospective evidence supporting the predictive validity of infant word segmentation tasks and suggest that they are indeed associated with mature word knowledge.

Singh, Leher; Reznick, J. Steven; Xuehua, Liang

2012-01-01

457

Can Toddlers Learn Vocabulary from Television? An Experimental Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was inspired by the rise in television targeting toddlers and preverbal infants (e.g., Teletubbies, Baby Mozart). Overall, we investigated if very young children who are in the early stages of language acquisition can learn vocabulary quickly (fast map) from television programs. Using a fast mapping paradigm, this study examined a group (n = 48) of toddlers (15–24 months)

Marina Krcmar; Bernard Grela; Kirsten Lin

2007-01-01

458

Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther

2013-01-01

459

Solving Math Problems. Windows on Literacy: Language, Literacy & Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is part of the "Windows on Literacy: Language, Literacy & Vocabulary" program and shows students ways to solve problems, including drawing a picture and using a calculator. The suggested grade range is K-3; the guided reading level is N-P; the basal results level is Grade 2-Grade 3; and the Windows on Literacy Stage is Fluent Plus…

Roberts, Jason

2006-01-01

460

Measuring the Utility of a Basic French Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using frequency, range, availability, and coverage as objectively weighted indices of utility in the development of a basic French vocabulary list, the authors describe the technical procedure used in this study and list the resultant first 153 words according to the four indices and the utility rating. Weighting factors for each index, based on…

Savard, Jean-Guy; Richards, Jack C.

461

Extent and Use of Indigenous Vocabulary in Guatemalan Spanish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the actual content and use of Indian vocabulary in standard Guatemalan Spanish, as opposed to the numerous entries found in antiquated dictionaries. Over 600 Indian words were extracted from contemporary Guatemalan literature and Lisandro Sandoval's "Semantica guatemalense." Interviews were arranged with middle and upper class…

Scavnicky, Gary Eugene A.

462

China: Background Notes Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

Reams, Joanne Reppert

463

Foregrounding the Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

Robbins, Bruce

1998-01-01

464

The Effects of Vocabulary Instruction on the Fluency and Comprehension of Fifth-Grade Nonnative English Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A single-subject design of the effects of teaching Tier Two vocabulary on the vocabulary knowledge, comprehension, fluency, and prosody of fifth-grade nonnative English speakers was conducted. Results suggested that vocabulary instruction improved vocabulary knowledge, but further research and study is needed to determine ways to improve fluency,…

Lia, Michelle P.

2010-01-01

465

Acquiring reading and vocabulary in Dutch and English: the effect of concurrent instruction.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of concurrent instruction in Dutch and English on reading acquisition in both languages, 23 pupils were selected from a school with bilingual education, and 23 from a school with education in Dutch only. The pupils had a Dutch majority language background and were comparable with regard to social-economic status (SES). Reading and vocabulary were measured twice within an interval of 1 year in Grade 2 and 3. The bilingual group performed better on most English and some of the Dutch tests. Controlling for general variables and related skills, instruction in English contributed significantly to the prediction of L2 vocabulary and orthographic awareness at the second measurement. As expected, word reading fluency was easier to acquire in Dutch with its relatively transparent orthography in comparison to English with its deep orthography, but the skills intercorrelated highly. With regard to cross-linguistic transfer, orthographic knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch were positively influenced by bilingual instruction, but there was no indication of generalization to orthographic awareness or knowledge of a language in which no instruction had been given (German). The results of the present study support the assumption that concurrent instruction in Dutch and English has positive effects on the acquisition of L2 English and L1 Dutch. PMID:20174440

van der Leij, Aryan; Bekebrede, Judith; Kotterink, Mieke

2009-10-13

466

How Does Second Language Vocabulary Grow over Time? A Multi-Methodological Study of Incremental Vocabulary Knowledge Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the longitudinal development of L2 vocabulary by 17 individual adult L2 learners in an English as a second language (ESL) instructed context over one academic year, combining a longitudinal case study design with two cross-sectional comparisons in order to enhance (a) detailed documentation addressing the idiosyncrasy of…

Huang, Hung-Tzu

2010-01-01

467

Joint visual vocabulary for animal classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for visual object cate- gorization based on encoding the joint textural informa- tion in objects and the surrounding background, and re- quiring no segmentation during recognition. The frame- work can be used together with various learning tech- niques and model representations. Here we use this framework with simple probabilistic models and more complex representations obtained

Heydar Maboudi Afkham; Alireza Tavakoli Targhi; Jan-olof Eklundh; Andrzej Pronobis

2008-01-01

468

Controlled vocabularies and semantics in systems biology  

PubMed Central

The use of computational modeling to describe and analyze biological systems is at the heart of systems biology. Model structures, simulation descriptions and numerical results can be encoded in structured formats, but there is an increasing need to provide an additional semantic layer. Semantic information adds meaning to components of structured descriptions to help identify and interpret them unambiguously. Ontologies are one of the tools frequently used for this purpose. We describe here three ontologies created specifically to address the needs of the systems biology community. The Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) provides semantic information about the model components. The Kinetic Simulation Algorithm Ontology (KiSAO) supplies information about existing algorithms available for the simulation of systems biology models, their characterization and interrelationships. The Terminology for the Description of Dynamics (TEDDY) categorizes dynamical features of the simulation results and general systems behavior. The provision of semantic information extends a model's longevity and facilitates its reuse. It provides useful insight into the biology of modeled processes, and may be used to make informed decisions on subsequent simulation experiments.

Courtot, Melanie; Juty, Nick; Knupfer, Christian; Waltemath, Dagmar; Zhukova, Anna; Drager, Andreas; Dumontier, Michel; Finney, Andrew; Golebiewski, Martin; Hastings, Janna; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah; Kell, Douglas B; Kerrien, Samuel; Lawson, James; Lister, Allyson; Lu, James; Machne, Rainer; Mendes, Pedro; Pocock, Matthew; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Villeger, Alice; Wilkinson, Darren J; Wimalaratne, Sarala; Laibe, Camille; Hucka, Michael; Le Novere, Nicolas

2011-01-01

469

Teaching Spelling of Social Studies Content Vocabulary Prior to Using the Vocabulary in Inclusive Learning Environments: An Examination of Constant Time Delay, Observational Learning, and Instructive Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of using a 5 s constant time delay (CTD) procedure to teach the written spelling of social studies vocabulary words taken from the general education social studies content to students with mild disabilities. Subjects were 3 elementary students with mild disabilities. Instruction was delivered in a small group setting. Vocabulary words were different for each

Anne H. Ross; Kay B. Stevens

2003-01-01

470

Vocabulary Input from School Textbooks as a Potential Contributor to the Small Vocabulary Uptake Gained by English as a Foreign Language Learners in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research repeatedly reports very little vocabulary uptake by English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in public schools in Saudi Arabia. Factors such as the teaching methodology employed and learner motivation have been suggested to explain this but a further explanation, the vocabulary input these learners receive, remains uninvestigated. An…

Alsaif, Abdullah; Milton, James

2012-01-01

471

Modeling a description logic vocabulary for cancer research.  

PubMed

The National Cancer Institute has developed the NCI Thesaurus, a biomedical vocabulary for cancer research, covering terminology across a wide range of cancer research domains. A major design goal of the NCI Thesaurus is to facilitate translational research. We describe: the features of Ontylog, a description logic used to build NCI Thesaurus; our methodology for enhancing the terminology through collaboration between ontologists and domain experts, and for addressing certain real world challenges arising in modeling the Thesaurus; and finally, we describe the conversion of NCI Thesaurus from Ontylog into Web Ontology Language Lite. Ontylog has proven well suited for constructing big biomedical vocabularies. We have capitalized on the Ontylog constructs Kind and Role in the collaboration process described in this paper to facilitate communication between ontologists and domain experts. The artifacts and processes developed by NCI for collaboration may be useful in other biomedical terminology development efforts. PMID:15797001

Hartel, Frank W; de Coronado, Sherri; Dionne, Robert; Fragoso, Gilberto; Golbeck, Jennifer

2005-04-01

472

ENGLISH INFLUENCES IN ROMANIAN BUSINESS VOCABULARY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our language reflects directly and ceaseless all changes that take place in a community, at the economical level, political, administrative, technical or informational. For this reason, our language creates new words with its own resources: derivation, composition, lexical family and borrowing. Usually, a language borrows from that foreign language that produces the innovation in a specific domain. If in the

Petrisor Militaru

2008-01-01

473

Improving the Vocabulary of Children with Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a Language Wizard/Player with Baldi, a computer-animated tutor, for teaching new vocabulary items to children with a hearing loss. Eight students with hearing loss, between the ages of 6 and 10, were tested and trained for about 20-30 minutes a day, 2 days a week for about 10 weeks on three…

Massaro, Dominic W.; Light, Joanna

2004-01-01

474

Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition in English and French  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report efforts at LIMSI in speaker inde- pendent large vocabulary speech recognition in French and in English. The recognizer makes use of continuous den- sity HMM (CDHMM) with Gaussian mixture for acoustic modeling and n-gram statistics estimated on text material f or language modeling. Acoustic modeling uses cepstrum-based features, context-dependent phone models (intra and inter- word),

J. L. Gauvain; L. F. Lamel; G. Adda; M. Adda-Decker

1999-01-01

475

Teaching English Vocabulary from Latin Roots in the ESL classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following material has been developed for classroom use with an advanced (400+ TOEFL) ESL class. The material is based on five Latin roots, nineteen prefixes, and several suffixes, resulting in seventy-seven derivatives. The primary goal of this project is not to teach these specific seventy-seven vocabulary items but to provide the student, through his work with these seventy-seven words,

Barbara Ashley Goldhor

1976-01-01

476

A One Pass Decoder Design For Large Vocabulary Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve reasonable accuracy in large vocabulary speech recognition systems, it is important to use detailed acoustic models together with good long span language models. For example, in the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) task both cross-word triphones and a trigram language model are necessary to achieve state-of-the-art performance. However, when using these models, the size of a pre-compiled recognition network

J. J. Odell; V. Valtchev; Philip C. Woodland; S. J. Young

1994-01-01

477

Helping Children Learn Vocabulary during Computer Assisted Oral Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses an indispensable skill using a unique method to teach a critical component: helping children learn to read by using computer-assisted oral reading to help children learn vocabulary. We build on Project LISTEN's Reading Tutor, a computer program that adapts automatic speech recognition to listen to children read aloud, and helps them learn to read (http:\\/\\/www.cs.cmu.edu\\/~listen). To learn

Gregory Aist

2000-01-01

478

Improving the Vocabulary of Children with Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a Language Wizard/Player with Baldi, a computer-animated tutor, for teaching new vocabulary items to children with a hearing loss. Eight students with hearing loss, between the ages of 6 and 10, were tested and trained for about 20-30 minutes a day, 2 days a week for about 10 weeks on three…

Massaro, Dominic W.; Light, Joanna

2004-01-01

479

Practical large-vocabulary speech recognition in a multilingual environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the use of a commercial large-vocabulary speech recognition system by a team of mainstream users in the course of their everyday work. In particular, it describes use by translators working in four languages in a multilingual environment at the European Commission. The paper begins by describing some of the differences between the point-of-view of a

Melvyn J. Hunt

1997-01-01

480

Small-vocabulary speech recognition for resource-scarce languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a technique for attaining high-accuracy, small-vocabulary speech recognition capability in resource-scarce languages that requires minimal audio data collection and no speech technology expertise. We start with an off-the-shelf commercial speech recognizer that has been trained extensively on a resource-rich language such as English. We then derive phonemic representations for any desired word in any target language, by a

Fang Qiao; Jahanzeb Sherwani; Roni Rosenfeld

2010-01-01

481

Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition Using Deep Tensor Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we proposed and developed the context-dependent deep neural network hidden Markov models (CD-DNN-HMMs) for large vocabulary speech recognition and achieved highly promising recognition results including over one third fewer word errors than the discriminatively trained, conventional HMM-based systems on the 300hr Switchboard benchmark task. In this paper, we extend DNNs to deep tensor neural networks (DTNNs) in which one

Dong Yu; Li Deng; Frank Seide

2012-01-01

482

The effect of vocabulary knowledge on novel word identification.  

PubMed

The study investigated the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and novel word reading. Fourth-grade students were assessed on standardized measures of word identification, decoding, and receptive vocabulary, as well as on an experimental word identification measure using words that students in the fourth grade are unlikely to have seen before in print. In the experimental measure, pairs of words were matched on printed frequency and orthographic pattern (with a variety of spelling patterns represented), but differed in terms of the frequency of expected oral exposure for children (i.e., higher vs. lower). Results showed that students' receptive vocabulary knowledge was significantly related to performance on both the standardized and experimental measures of word identification, even after accounting for the substantial amount of variance explained by decoding ability. Students performed better reading the words with higher expected oral frequencies on the experimental task than on those items with lower expected oral frequencies. The results point to the benefits, albeit modest, of oral word familiarity for reading words when they are first encountered in print and suggest that this top-down effect is not limited to exception words, as has been suggested, but has a wider scope. PMID:23456304

Mitchell, Alison M; Brady, Susan A

2013-03-01

483

Inquiry experiences and the development of science vocabulary and concepts with English language learners (ELLs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this project was to analyze the change in use of academic science vocabulary and conceptual understanding of erosion by the ELLs participating in the Math, Science and Language (MSL) camp conducted in 2008. The researcher examined archival data in the form of student journals collected during the MSL camp of 2008. Current assessments are not developed to assess both vocabulary development and conceptual understanding. The researcher developed a new assessment tool named JASTO that allowed assessment of both vocabulary and conceptual understanding parallel to one another. JASTO was used to analyze the science journals of the MSL camp of 2008. Data indicate an increase in conceptual understanding of the erosion topic. Some students expressed their understanding using everyday vocabulary and others using academic vocabulary. The type of vocabulary usage was dependent on the English language proficiency of the student.

Oliver, Tammy Deneene

484

Shyness and Vocabulary: The Roles of Executive Functioning and Home Environmental Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Although shyness has often been found to be negatively related to vocabulary, few studies have examined the processes that produce or modify this relation. The present study examined executive functioning skills and home environmental stimulation as potential mediating and moderating mechanisms. A sample of 3.5-year-old children (N=254) were administered executive functioning tasks and a vocabulary test during a laboratory visit. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing child shyness and home environmental stimulation. Our primary hypothesis was that executive functioning mediates the association between shyness and vocabulary, and home environmental stimulation moderates the relation between executive functioning and vocabulary. Alternative hypotheses were also tested. Results indicated that children with better executive functioning skills developed stronger vocabularies when reared in more, versus less, stimulating environments. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of the role of shyness, executive functioning, and home environmental stimulation in early vocabulary development.

Nayena Blankson, A.; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

2010-01-01

485

Improving the Acquisition of Novel Vocabulary Through the Use of Imagery Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of imagery interventions on the vocabulary acquisition abilities of\\u000a second grade students. A total of 15 students were randomly assigned to three different intervention conditions: Word Only,\\u000a which involves the simple verbal presentation of a vocabulary word; Dual Coding, in which a picture was paired with the vocabulary\\u000a word, and

Marisa T. CohenHelen; Helen L. Johnson

2011-01-01

486

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading®: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate- to high-poverty elementary schools. Forty-four schools participated over a period spanning 2 consecutive school years. At baseline, 1,057 teachers and 16,471 students from kindergarten, first, third, and fourth grade participated. The schools were randomly assigned to

Helen Apthorp; Bruce Randel; Trudy Cherasaro; Tedra Clark; Margaret McKeown; Isabel Beck

2012-01-01

487

Personalised context-aware ubiquitous learning system for supporting effective English vocabulary learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English sentences. Therefore, numerous studies have attempted to increase the efficiency and performance of learning English vocabulary. ‘The

Chih-Ming Chen; Yi-Lun Li

2010-01-01

488

Using Computerized Bilingual Dictionaries To help Maximize English Vocabulary Learning at Japanese Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares various computerized bilingual dictionaries for their relative effectiveness in helping Japanese college students at several language proficiency levels to access new English target vocabulary. (Author/VWL)|

Loucky, John Paul

2003-01-01

489

A proposal for incorporating health level seven (HL7) vocabulary in the UMLS Metathesaurus.  

PubMed Central

The HL7 Vocabulary Technical Committee (TC) was organized to select and maintain the vocabulary used in HL7 messages. The goal is to make implementations of the Version 3 HL7 Standard more plug-and-play compatible. In order to make the vocabulary readily accessible to the public, HL7 is collaborating with the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) to include HL7 vocabulary in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. This article describes a proposal for how HL7 data elements and coded values can be represented accurately in the relational tables of the UMLS Metathesaurus.

Huff, S. M.; Bidgood, W. D.; Cimino, J. J.; Hammond, W. E.

1998-01-01

490

Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment. PMID:22436100

Tillotson, Alan Keith

2008-01-01

491

Cosmic microwave background polarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is our richest source of cosmological information; the standard cosmological model was largely established thanks to study of the temperature anisotropies. By the end of the decade, the Planck satellite will close this important chapter and move us deeper into the new frontier of polarization measurements. Numerous ground-based and balloon-borne experiments are already forging into this new territory. Besides providing new and independent information on the primordial density perturbations and cosmological parameters, polarization measurements offer the potential to detect primordial gravity waves, constrain dark energy and measure the neutrino mass scale. A vigorous experimental program is underway worldwide and heading towards a new satellite mission dedicated to CMB polarization.

Bartlett, James G.

2006-05-01

492

Knowing a lot for one's age: Vocabulary skill and not age is associated with anticipatory incremental sentence interpretation in children and adults.  

PubMed

Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults. We explore this question by comparing the degree to which an upcoming sentential theme is anticipated by combining information from a prior agent and action. 48 children, aged of 3 to 10, and 48 college-aged adults' eye-movements were recorded as they heard a sentence (e.g., The pirate hides the treasure) in which the object referred to one of four images that included an agent-related, action-related and unrelated distractor image. Pictures were rotated so that, across all versions of the study, each picture appeared in all conditions, yielding a completely balanced within-subjects design. Adults and children quickly made use of combinatory information available at the action to generate anticipatory looks to the target object. Speed of anticipatory fixations did not vary with age. When controlling for age, individuals with higher vocabularies were faster to look to the target than those with lower vocabulary scores. Together, these results support and extend current views of incremental processing in which adults and children make use of linguistic information to continuously update their mental representation of ongoing language. PMID:22632758

Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L; Fernald, Anne

2012-05-23

493

The Effect of Type of Written Exercise on L2 Vocabulary Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used a within-subjects design to examine the effect of the type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. Using input for the meaning and usage of the new words from a specially prepared minidictionary, university intensive English program students (n = 154) practiced target vocabulary in three types of written exercises…

Folse, Keith S.

2006-01-01

494

The Effect of Type of Written Exercise on L2 Vocabulary Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study used a within-subjects design to examine the effect of the type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. Using input for the meaning and usage of the new words from a specially prepared minidictionary, university intensive English program students (n = 154) practiced target vocabulary in three types of written exercises…

Folse, Keith S.

2006-01-01

495

Effects of Training Young Black Children in Vocabulary vs. Sentence Construction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment compared the effects of training young black children in vocabulary versus sentence construction to see which type of training would result in greater transfer to other areas of language performance. A total of 144 black children in preschool and kindergarten were randomly assigned to vocabulary training, sentence training, or…

Ammon, Paul R.; Ammon, Mary Sue

496

Relation of children's interests in comic strips to the vocabulary of these comics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some 256 public school children listed the comic strips which they liked best and checked the frequency with which they read them. From 57 comics a representative group of 16 were selected for analysis of vocabulary. Rank correlations were found between the popularity of a strip and its type of vocabulary as determined by use of the Gates and Thorndike

G. E. Hill

1943-01-01

497

Expressive Vocabulary in Language Learners from Two Ecological Settings in Three Language Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared multiple characteristics of girls' and boys' vocabulary in 6 different linguistic communities--1 urban and 1 rural setting in each of 3 countries. Two hundred fifty-two mothers in Argentina, Italy, and the United States completed vocabulary checklists for their 20-month-old children. Individual variability was substantial…

Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.

2005-01-01

498

The Effects of Semantic and Thematic Clustering on the Learning of Second Language Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the effects upon the academic progress of English-as-a-Second-Language students' learning of vocabulary of semantic and thematic clustering. Results present a wide range of evidence suggesting that semantic clustering does serve as a hindrance while thematic clustering facilitates L2 vocabulary development. (21 references) (Author/CK)|

Tinkham, Thomas

1997-01-01

499

Examining Continuity of Early Expressive Vocabulary Development: The Generation R Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors investigated continuity and discontinuity of vocabulary skills in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Method: Mothers of 3,759 children completed the Dutch version of the MacArthur Short Form Vocabulary Checklist (Zink & Lejaegere, 2003) at 18 months and a Dutch translation of the Language Development Survey…

Henrichs, Jens; Rescorla, Leslie; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Schmidt, Henk G.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2011-01-01

500

Examining Continuity of Early Expressive Vocabulary Development: The Generation R Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The authors investigated continuity and discontinuity of vocabulary skills in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Method: Mothers of 3,759 children completed the Dutch version of the MacArthur Short Form Vocabulary Checklist (Zink & Lejaegere, 2003) at 18 months and a Dutch translation of the Language Development Survey…

Henrichs, Jens; Rescorla, Leslie; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Schmidt, Henk G.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2011-01-01