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1

Vocabulary Mining for Information Retrieval: Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains vocabulary mining in information retrieval and describes a framework for vocabulary mining that allows the use of rough set-based approximations even when documents and queries are described using weighted, or fuzzy, representations. Examines coordination between multiple vocabulary views and applies the framework to the Unified Medical…

Srinivasan, Padmini; Ruiz, Miguel E.; Kraft, Donald H.; Chen, Jianhua

2001-01-01

2

Mars Background Information General Information  

E-print Network

Mars Background Information General Information Here are some quick facts about Mars in comparison with Earth: Mars Earth Atmosphere 95% CO2, 5% N2, Ar & trace gasses 0.007 atm pressure 78% N2, 21% O2, 1 successful fly-by Mariner 9 11/71 - 10/72 Orbit of Mars Viking 1&2 6/76 - 1987 Orbiter and First lander

Dennis, Robert G.

3

Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

Cimino, James J.

1995-01-01

4

From Potential to Reality: Content-Rich Vocabulary and Informational Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content vocabulary is essential for children's comprehension of informational text. Teachers will need to support children in developing the technical or specialized words they need for informational text and in linking these words to key concepts in content area instruction. This article describes the vocabulary instruction that was observed…

Wright, Tanya S.

2014-01-01

5

Linguistic Information in the Vocabulary of Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the procedures employed in compiling and coding a basic set of vocabulary words and related linguistic data intended for use in elementary communication skills instruction. Ten thousand words were selected from eight studies of words used by children at various grade levels, one through six. Each word was assigned a grade…

Cronnell, Bruce; Rhode, Mary

6

Indexical Information, Encoding Difficulty, and Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has demonstrated that second language (L2) vocabulary learning improves when target words are presented in acoustically varied compared with acoustically consistent formats. The present study investigated the extent to which this benefit of acoustic variability is a consequence of difficult encoding demands (cognitive effort hypothesis)…

Sommers, Mitchell S.; Barcroft, Joe

2011-01-01

7

Integration of acoustic information in a large vocabulary word recognizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new way of using vector quantization for improving recognition performance for a 60,000 word vocabulary speaker-trained isolated word recognizer using a phonemic Markov model approach to speech recognition. We show that we can effectively increase the codebook size by dividing the feature vector into two vectors of lower dimensionality, and then quantizing and training each vector

V. N. Gupta; M. Lennig; P. Mermelstein

1987-01-01

8

Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in the…

Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

2012-01-01

9

LARGE-VOCABULARY CHINESE TEXT/SPEECH INFORMATION RETRIEVAL USING MANDARIN SPEECH QUERIES  

E-print Network

LARGE-VOCABULARY CHINESE TEXT/SPEECH INFORMATION RETRIEVAL USING MANDARIN SPEECH QUERIES Bo-ren Bai. This paper deals with the problem of Chinese text and Mandarin speech information retrieval with Mandarin extensively studied in recent years [1-2]. This paper deals with the problem of Chinese text and Mandarin

Wang, Hsin-Min

10

Vocabulary Control in Indexing the Literature of Librarianship and Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems in indexing library and information science literature occur because of the speed of introduction of new terms, the nature of class headings, and the uncertain terminology of the field. Vocabulary control requires control over the concepts selected (the depth of indexing), the form of expression of concepts and the syndetic apparatus of…

Hines, Theodore C.

11

A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research presents an algorithmic approach to ad- dressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biol- ogy domain as an example. We first present a literature review of cognitive stud!es related to the vcrcabulaw prob- lem and vocabulary-based search aids (thesauri) and then discuss technques for building robust and domain-spe- cific thesauri to

Hsinchun Chen; Tobun D. Ng; Joanne Martinez; Bruce R. Schatz

1997-01-01

12

Let the Music Play!--A Short-Term but No Long-Term Detrimental Effect of Vocal Background Music with Familiar Language Lyrics on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the background. The vocabulary to learn varied in concreteness…

de Groot, Annette M. B.; Smedinga, Hilde E.

2014-01-01

13

NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

1991-01-01

14

Teaching Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

Lessard-Clouston, M.

2013-01-01

15

Learning with sublexical information from emerging reading vocabularies in exceptionally early and normal reading development.  

PubMed

Predictions from theories of the processes of word reading acquisition have rarely been tested against evidence from exceptionally early readers. The theories of Ehri, Share, and Byrne, and an alternative, Knowledge Sources theory, were so tested. The former three theories postulate that full development of context-free letter sounds and awareness of phonemes are required for normal acquisition, while the claim of the alternative is that with or without such, children can use sublexical information from their emerging reading vocabularies to acquire word reading. Results from two independent samples of children aged 3-5, and 5 years, with mean word reading levels of 7 and 9 years respectively, showed underdevelopment of their context-free letter sounds and phoneme awareness, relative to their word reading levels and normal comparison samples. Despite such underdevelopment, these exceptional readers engaged in a form of phonological recoding that enabled pseudoword reading, at the level of older-age normal controls matched on word reading level. Moreover, in the 5-year-old sample further experiments showed that, relative to normal controls, they had a bias toward use of sublexical information from their reading vocabularies for phonological recoding of heterophonic pseudowords with irregular consistent spelling, and were superior in accessing word meanings independently of phonology, although only if the readers were without exposure to explicit phonics. The three theories were less satisfactory than the alternative theory in accounting for the learning of the exceptionally early readers. PMID:25498743

Thompson, G Brian; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Wilson, Kathryn J; McKay, Michael F; Margrain, Valerie G

2015-03-01

16

A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

1997-01-01

17

Visualizing Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

18

EVS (Enterprise Vocabulary Services) — CBIIT: Welcome to the NCI Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Thesaurus and NCI Metathesaurus provide standard vocabularies for biomedical research. The content of the NCI Thesaurus is available for download in tab-delimited flat file format, Web Ontology Language (OWL) format and in LexGrid XML format. LexEVS is the terminology server used at NCI to support programmatic and web browser access to the vocabularies; it is also available for download and use by third parties.

19

Background Information 1. What are stem cells?  

E-print Network

Background Information 1. What are stem cells? 2. What might stem cell research achieve? 3. Why we need to continue research using embryonic stem cells? 4. Time taken for discoveries 5. Examples of stem cell therapies in clinical trials 6. Patentability of human embryonic stem cell therapies 7. Creation

Rambaut, Andrew

20

Vocabulary Instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the web site Doing What Works, this section describes research-based practices to promote vocabulary development in middle and high school. It includes a multimedia overview of the importance of providing explicit vocabulary instruction, video clips, links to research, and other resources. Content area teachers and strategies for use in content areas like science are specifically addressed in the recommendations.

2008-01-01

21

Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

1994-10-01

22

Profiling Vocabulary Acquisition in Irish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations into early vocabulary development, including the timing of the acquisition of nouns, verbs and closed-class words, have produced conflicting results, both within and across languages. Studying vocabulary development in Irish can contribute to this area, as it has potentially informative features such as a VSO word order, and…

O'Toole, Ciara; Fletcher, Paul

2012-01-01

23

Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary

Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

2013-01-01

24

Managing Multiple Information Sources through Ontologies: Relationship between Vocabulary Heterogeneity and Loss of Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The ability to deal with a huge number ofindependent and heterogeneous repositories is the mostcritical problem in Global Information Systems. One approachto enable efficient query processing is by utilizingsemantic descriptions (organized as ontologies) of suchrepositories whenever available.In this context semantic relationships among ontologiescan be used by Query Processors. Three kind ofrelationships are considered: synonyms, hyponyms andhypernyms. Using synonyms the

Eduardo Mena; Vipul Kashyap; Arantza Illarramendi; Amit P. Sheth

1996-01-01

25

The Relationship between Vocabulary and Writing Quality in Three Genres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocabulary in writing across three genres. Fifth graders (N = 105) wrote three compositions: story, persuasive, and informative. Each composition revolved around the topic of outer space to control for background knowledge. Written compositions were scored for holistic writing quality and…

Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Wilson, Joshua

2013-01-01

26

Vocabulary at the Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

2009-01-01

27

Relations between Vocabulary Development and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Relative Importance of Short-Term Memory for Serial Order and Item Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many studies have shown an association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development, the precise nature of this association is not yet clear. The current study reexamined this relation in 4- to 6-year-olds by designing verbal STM tasks that maximized memory for either item or serial order information. Although…

Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Greffe, Christelle; Van der Linden, Martial

2006-01-01

28

DSpace and customized controlled vocabularies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The open source platform of DSpace could be defined as a repository application used to provide access to digital resources. DSpace is installed and used by more than 1000 organizations worldwide. A predefined taxonomy of keyword, called the Controlled Vocabulary, can be used for describing and accessing the information items stored in the repository. In this paper, we describe how the users can create, and customize their own vocabularies. Various heterogeneous items, such as research papers, videos, articles and educational material of the repository, can be indexed in order to provide advanced search functionality using new controlled vocabularies.

Skourlas, C.; Tsolakidis, A.; Kakoulidis, P.; Giannakopoulos, G.

2015-02-01

29

Background Information Framework for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This framework will define the purpose and scope of NAEP's system of collecting background information, including background questionnaires and other sources of non-cognitive data. It will establish criteria for reporting background information as part of the National Assessment. The approach it suggests provides for asking various groups of…

National Assessment Governing Board, Washington, DC.

30

Evaluation of Controlled Vocabulary Resources for Development of a Consumer Entry Vocabulary for Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Digital information technology can facilitate informed decision making by individuals regarding their personal health care. The digital divide separates those who do and those who do not have access to or otherwise make use of digital information. To close the digital divide, health care communications research must address a fundamental issue, the consumer vocabulary problem: consumers of health care, at least those who are laypersons, are not always familiar with the professional vocabulary and concepts used by providers of health care and by providers of health care information, and, conversely, health care and health care information providers are not always familiar with the vocabulary and concepts used by consumers. One way to address this problem is to develop a consumer entry vocabulary for health care communications. Objectives To evaluate the potential of controlled vocabulary resources for supporting the development of consumer entry vocabulary for diabetes. Methods We used folk medical terms from the Dictionary of American Regional English project to create exended versions of 3 controlled vocabulary resources: the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus, the Eurodicautom of the European Commission's Translation Service, and the European Commission Glossary of popular and technical medical terms. We extracted consumer terms from consumer-authored materials, and physician terms from physician-authored materials. We used our extended versions of the vocabulary resources to link diabetes-related terms used by health care consumers to synonymous, nearly-synonymous, or closely-related terms used by family physicians. We also examined whether retrieval of diabetes-related World Wide Web information sites maintained by nonprofit health care professional organizations, academic organizations, or governmental organizations can be improved by substituting a physician term for its related consumer term in the query. Results The Dictionary of American Regional English extension of the Metathesaurus provided coverage, either direct or indirect, of approximately 23% of the natural language consumer-term-physician-term pairs. The Dictionary of American Regional English extension of the Eurodicautom provided coverage for 16% of the term pairs. Both the Metathesaurus and the Eurodicautom indirectly related more terms than they directly related. A high percentage of covered term pairs, with more indirectly covered pairs than directly covered pairs, might be one way to make the most out of expensive controlled vocabulary resources. We compared retrieval of diabetes-related Web information sites using the physician terms to retrieval using related consumer terms We based the comparison on retrieval of sites maintained by non-profit healthcare professional organizations, academic organizations, or governmental organizations. The number of such sites in the first 20 results from a search was increased by substituting a physician term for its related consumer term in the query. This suggests that the Dictionary of American Regional English extensions of the Metathesaurus and Eurodicautom may be used to provide useful links from natural language consumer terms to natural language physician terms. Conclusions The Dictionary of American Regional English extensions of the Metathesaurus and Eurodicautom should be investigated further for support of consumer entry vocabulary for diabetes. PMID:11720966

Monga, Harpreet K; Sievert, MaryEllen C; Hall, Joan Houston; Longo, Daniel R

2001-01-01

31

Breast Cancer Family Registries Background Information  

Cancer.gov

More information on the available data and biospecimens from the Colon CFR, as well as the methods used to recruit participants and collect these materials, can be found in the descriptive manuscript cited below.

32

Background information on the SSC project  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning.

Warren, J.

1991-10-01

33

45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS...CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation...

2010-10-01

34

A decentralized approach for establishing a shared communication vocabulary  

E-print Network

facilitates in publishing and making decisions about the the communication vocabulary. For example, the FIPA ontology agent [1] publishes information about ontologies and thereby facilitates communicationA decentralized approach for establishing a shared communication vocabulary Jurriaan van Diggelen

Dignum, Frank

35

Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

Schulte, Roger R.

1987-01-01

36

45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...standards for representing electronic health information...purpose of representing electronic health information...170.299) and US Extension to SNOMED CT® March...were received within an electronic transaction from a laboratory...40, a universal code system for identifying...

2014-10-01

37

45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards for representing electronic health information...purpose of representing electronic health information...170.299) and US Extension to SNOMED CT® March...were received within an electronic transaction from a laboratory...40, a universal code system for identifying...

2013-10-01

38

45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standards for representing electronic health information...purpose of representing electronic health information...170.299) and US Extension to SNOMED CT® March...were received within an electronic transaction from a laboratory...40, a universal code system for identifying...

2012-10-01

39

Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in  

E-print Network

Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in the Interior Cedar is to share information with other forest professionals on biodiversity management in Interior Cedar Hemlock of the Integrated Land Management Bureau (ILMB) that this paper will provide useful information; however, ILMB would

Coxson, Darwyn

40

A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may be more easily mapped to the OGC Observations & Measurements model for cross-domain applications.

Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

2014-05-01

41

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information  

E-print Network

Smog Check II Evaluation Part I: Background Information . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepared by Joel. Introduction_______________________________________________ 1 1.1. Goals of the IMRC's Smog Check Evaluation for the IMRC Smog Check Evaluation _________________ 2 3. Evaluation Process

Denver, University of

42

Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their collaborators using SISSvoc3, including: * geologic timescale (multiple versions) * soils classification * definitions from OGC standards * geosciml vocabularies * mining commodities * hyperspectral scalars Several other agencies in Australia have adopted SISSvoc3 for their vocabularies. SISSvoc3 differs from other SKOS-based vocabulary-access APIs such as GEMET [3] and NVS [4] in that (a) the service is decoupled from the content store, (b) the service URI is independent of the content URIs This means that a SISSvoc3 interface can be deployed over any SKOS vocabulary which is available at a SPARQL endpoint. As an example, a SISSvoc3 query and presentation interface has been deployed over the NERC vocabulary service hosted by the BODC, providing a search interface which is not available natively. We use vocabulary services to populate menus in user interfaces, to support data validation, and to configure data conversion routines. Related services built on LDA have also been used as a generic registry interface, and extended for serving gazetteer information. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The CSIRO SISSvoc3 implementation is built using the Epimorphics ELDA platform http://code.google.com/p/elda/. We thank Jacqui Githaiga and Terry Rankine for their contributions to SISSvoc design and implementation. REFERENCES 1. SISSvoc3 Specification https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/Siss/SISSvoc30Specification 2. Linked Data API http://code.google.com/p/linked-data-api/wiki/Specification 3. GEMET https://svn.eionet.europa.eu/projects/Zope/wiki/GEMETWebServiceAPI 4. NVS 2.0 http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/

Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

2013-04-01

43

Language Experiences and Vocabulary Development in Dominican and Mexican Infants across the First 2 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during interviews…

Song, Lulu; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

2012-01-01

44

What Is Academic Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

2010-01-01

45

Facilitating the development of controlled vocabularies for metabolomics technologies with text mining  

PubMed Central

Background Many bioinformatics applications rely on controlled vocabularies or ontologies to consistently interpret and seamlessly integrate information scattered across public resources. Experimental data sets from metabolomics studies need to be integrated with one another, but also with data produced by other types of omics studies in the spirit of systems biology, hence the pressing need for vocabularies and ontologies in metabolomics. However, it is time-consuming and non trivial to construct these resources manually. Results We describe a methodology for rapid development of controlled vocabularies, a study originally motivated by the needs for vocabularies describing metabolomics technologies. We present case studies involving two controlled vocabularies (for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography) whose development is currently underway as part of the Metabolomics Standards Initiative. The initial vocabularies were compiled manually, providing a total of 243 and 152 terms. A total of 5,699 and 2,612 new terms were acquired automatically from the literature. The analysis of the results showed that full-text articles (especially the Materials and Methods sections) are the major source of technology-specific terms as opposed to paper abstracts. Conclusions We suggest a text mining method for efficient corpus-based term acquisition as a way of rapidly expanding a set of controlled vocabularies with the terms used in the scientific literature. We adopted an integrative approach, combining relatively generic software and data resources for time- and cost-effective development of a text mining tool for expansion of controlled vocabularies across various domains, as a practical alternative to both manual term collection and tailor-made named entity recognition methods. PMID:18460187

Spasi?, Irena; Schober, Daniel; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Kell, Douglas B; Paton, Norman W

2008-01-01

46

UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information  

E-print Network

1 UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information: Re-employment compensation position. Re-employment compensation is a federal-state partnership based upon federal law but it is administered at the state level. Re-employment compensation is a temporary, partial wage replacement

Wu, Shin-Tson

47

Cell Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to cells, organelles, and the plasma membrane. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Jennifer Doherty

48

Genetics Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing genetics vocabulary. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Jennifer Doherty

49

Acquisition of background and technical information and class trip planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instructors who are very familiar with a study area, as well as those who are not, find the field trip information acquisition and planning process speeded and made more effective by organizing it in stages. The stage follow a deductive progression: from the associated context region, to the study area, to the specific sample window sites, and from generalized background information on the study region to specific technical data on the environmental and human use systems to be interpreted at each site. On the class trip and in the follow up laboratory, the learning/interpretive process are at first deductive in applying previously learned information and skills to analysis of the study site, then inductive in reading and interpreting the landscape, imagery, and maps of the site, correlating them with information of other samples sites and building valid generalizations about the larger study area, its context region, and other (similar and/or contrasting) regions.

Mackinnon, R. M.; Wake, W. H.

1981-01-01

50

Teaching Vocabulary Awareness with "Observing Stars"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading strategy guide in a series of guides that utilizes articles from the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) program. These strategy guides provide teachers of middle school students with a reading strategy (in this case, Teaching Vocabulary Awareness) and supplemental resources, background information on that strategy, connections to standards, classroom implementation techniques, tips for utilizing this strategy with students with dyslexia, and a two-page reading based on a particular space science concept. The reading incorporated into this strategy guide, "Observing Stars," describes the process scientists use to observe and collect evidence about the life cycle of a star. Students will encounter the following challenging terms in this article: remnants, nebula, nebulae, supernova, and neutron star. This strategy guide is also mapped to the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts Literacy in Science & Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8.

51

VISUAL VOCABULARY IN BRANDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual vocabulary or visual language is a set of symbols used to describe a system or a process; it refers to all graphical representations that supplement a brand image, a logo, and build a brand identity that is bound to remain invariable even when the sign undergoes fundamental changes. The article is a presentation of the concept of visual vocabulary\\/language

Adriana Vintean; Ovidiu Matiu

2011-01-01

52

Content Area Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2014-01-01

53

Math Vocabulary Bingo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"This lesson provides students an opportunity to assess their understanding of mathematical vocabulary as they relate to key concepts from the five content areas. Through the use of a familiar game format, Bingo, students will identify numbers 0-75 that correspond to mathematical descriptions from math vocabulary clue cards" from NCTM's Illuminations).

NCTM

2010-06-03

54

Wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing industry - background information for proposed standards  

SciTech Connect

A Standard of Performance for the control of emissions from wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing facilities is being proposed under authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. This standard would apply to new, modified, or reconstructed wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing lines that utilize the rotary spin forming process and that commence construction on or after the date of proposal of the regulation. This document contains background information and environmental and economic impact assessments of the regulatory alternatives considered in developing the proposed standard. 79 references, 280 tables.

Not Available

1983-12-01

55

Background  

E-print Network

This summary was completed upon request to provide information for the Town of Ancram for land use planning and decision-making. It identifies major natural features, as well as significant ecosystems and valuable stream, forest, wetland, and other habitats with important biological resources based on information available to the NYSDEC. It should not be considered a complete biological inventory because it is based only on existing information gleaned from various complementary, but not comprehensive, sources. In the case of Ancram, a large amount of information is available. However, there are areas for which we had no information, particularly in the western part of town. Additional general information about habitats can be found in the Wildlife and Habitat Conservation Framework developed by the Hudson River Estuary Program (Penhollow et al. 2006). If you have any questions about this summary, or want to know if it needs to be updated, please contact Karen Strong, Biodiversity Outreach Coordinator. NYSDEC’s Hudson River Estuary Program protects and improves the historic and scenic Hudson River watershed for all its residents. The program was created in 1987 and extends from the Troy dam to the Verrazano Narrows. Its core mission is to: • Ensure clean water; • Protect and restore fish and wildlife habitats;

Joe Martens

2011-01-01

56

Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services: Speak Out. Conference Background Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as background material for the 1978 Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services, this document provides information in six areas of concern for Ohio libraries: (1) library and information services--library users, library collections, special user needs; (2) public awareness--definition, current status, suggestions for…

Ohio State Library, Columbus.

57

Background  

E-print Network

Efficiency of the EMDR procedure is based on a presumption of neuropsychological changes in therapeutic process.The aim of the investigation is to scann and give evidence of electroactivity changes, during the process of EMDR procedure and after finishing it. Materials and methods We have recorded a continual polygraph EEG, before, during and after EMDR therapy, in patient with combat-related PTSD. Results Before the treatment, EEG recorded basic activity of low voltage (attenuation) of 20 ?V, frequency of beta range (17-26 Hz), bioccipital, with no pathologic activity. Patient had prominent vegetative symptoms (anxiety, heart rate 100/min). Background activity immediately

Grozdanko Grbesa; Maja Simonovic; Dorjanka Jankovic

58

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Simultaneous Confidence Intervals with more  

E-print Network

Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence Intervals Illustrations Women's Health Initiative Outline Bounds Illustrations Women's Health Initiative #12;Background Informal Problem Statement QC Confidence

Stark, Philip B.

59

Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students  

PubMed Central

Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates to other aspects of academic achievement. This study used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to examine the vocabulary knowledge of DHH and hearing postsecondary students as well as their awareness (predictions) of that knowledge. Relationships between vocabulary knowledge and print exposure, communication backgrounds, and reading and verbal abilities also were examined. Consistent with studies of children, hearing college students demonstrated significantly larger vocabularies than DHH students both with and without cochlear implants. DHH students were more likely to overestimate their vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary scores were positively related to reading and verbal abilities but negatively related to sign language abilities. Among DHH students they also were positively related to measures of spoken language ability. Results are discussed in terms of related cognitive abilities, language fluency, and academic achievement of DHH students and implications for postsecondary education. PMID:25558473

Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

2014-01-01

60

Playing Games: Vocabulary Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding ways to keep students active and engaged in the classroom is not easy. Introducing a game like Vocabulary Survival in which students are allowed to compete while also learning moral concepts can create a fun and successful learning environment.

Sara Dea

61

Geospatial Revolution: GIS Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive based on Penn State Public Broadcasting’s Geospatial Revolution project, learn vocabulary that has developed with the growth of GIS, watch relevant videos and check your understanding of those words using the embedded assessment.

WPSU

2010-10-12

62

Background  

E-print Network

Background: Although the outcomes of caustic ingestion differ between children and adults, it is unclear whether such outcomes differ among adults as a function of their age. This retrospective study was performed to ascertain whether the clinical outcomes of caustic ingestion differ significantly between elderly and non-elderly adults. Methods: Medical records of patients hospitalized for caustic ingestion between June 1999 and July 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. Three hundred eighty nine patients between the ages of 17 and 107 years were divided into two groups: non-elderly (ingestion, substance ingested, systemic and gastrointestinal complications, psychological and systemic comorbidities, severity of mucosal injury, and time to expiration. Results: The incidence of psychological comorbidities was higher for the non-elderly group. By contrast, the incidence of systemic comorbidities, the grade of severity of mucosal damage, and the incidence of systemic complications were higher for the elderly group. The percentages of ICU admissions and deaths in the ICU were higher and the cumulative survival rate was lower for the elderly group. Elderly subjects, those with systemic complications had the greatest mortality risk due to caustic ingestion. Conclusions: Caustic ingestion by subjects ?65 years of age is associated with poorer clinical outcomes as compared to subjects < 65 years of age; elderly subjects with systemic complications have the poorest clinical outcomes. The severity of gastrointestinal tract injury appears to have no impact on the survival of elderly subjects.

Jui-min Chang; Nai-jen Liu; Betty Chien-jung Pai; Yun-hen Liu; Ming-hung Tsai; Ching-song Lee; Yin-yi Chu; Chih-chuan Lin; Cheng-tang Chiu; Hao-tsai Cheng

63

Math Vocabulary Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These math vocabulary cards are available as both an iOS app and as a web app. Each card features three sections: a math term, a representative example or model, and a concise definition. The user can choose which of the three they want to be visible and which they would like students to identify. The teacher can choose which vocabulary terms the students will view based on grade, math topic, and even specific word selection from the given list.

Clarity Innovations

2014-01-01

64

Use of Metadata Vocabularies in Data Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a prototype system for devising and using a metadata vocabulary for data retrieval, based on a project at the United States Department of Agriculture. A unified information-access system called REEIS (Research, Education, Economics, Extension Information System) is being designed to provide a knowledge base of programs, projects, and…

Cortez, Edwin M.

1999-01-01

65

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

66

Service Learning: Flooding Students with Vocabulary through Read Alouds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.

Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith

2014-01-01

67

Using a Generative Vocabulary Matrix in the Learning Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As teachers organize classroom schedules to meet curricular demands and time constraints, they strive to seek ways to motivate and sustain student engagement in quality vocabulary instruction, enjoyable learning experiences, and interesting informational books. This article addresses these concerns and describes a vocabulary acquisition strategy…

Larson, Sue C.

2014-01-01

68

Learning and maintaining new vocabulary in persons with aphasia: Two controlled case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Novel word learning of persons with aphasia is little studied, even though a better understanding of learning processes would inform development of effective treatment strategies. Recent evidence suggests some remaining verbal learning capacity in persons with aphasia. Long-term maintenance of newly learned active vocabulary has not been reported previously in persons with aphasia.Aims: To explore learning and long-term maintenance

Leena Tuomiranta; Petra Grönholm-Nyman; Francine Kohen; Pirkko Rautakoski; Matti Laine; Nadine Martin

2011-01-01

69

Social validation of vocabulary selection: ensuring stakeholder relevance.  

PubMed

The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse. PMID:23641830

Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson

2013-06-01

70

The Future Teachers' Frequency Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the compilation of the Future Teachers' Frequency Vocabulary, based on 236 written compositions by students at a teacher training college in Belgrade. Results were compared with the Child Frequency Vocabulary compiled in 1983, based on children's compositions. (LET)

Knaflic, Vladislava

1992-01-01

71

Teaching Vocabulary to ESL Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the ways in which vocabulary is taught and in particular what important learning points ESL students should know in order to understand new vocabulary words. It also discusses various ideas of how teachers could teach vocabulary. It highlights the importance of a theory that states there are 3 key stages that students progress…

McBain, Robert

2011-01-01

72

New Directions in Vocabulary Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been great strides made in research on vocabulary in the last 30 years. However, there has been relatively little progress in the development of new vocabulary tests. This may be due in some degree to the impressive contributions made by tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (Nation, 1983; Schmitt et al., 2001) and the Word…

Webb, Stuart A.; Sasao, Yosuke

2013-01-01

73

Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

2013-12-01

74

Notes on an Environmental Pollution Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocabulary covering the field of environmental pollution was compiled by the staff of the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution. The view of the approach is to include an outline-classification all physical, life, and social science aspects of environmental pollution, trying to achieve a balance in the representation of each…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

75

Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

Lu, M.

2008-01-01

76

Instant Mapping of American Regional Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it is published in four or five years, the "Dictionary of American Regional English" (DARE) will be the official dictionary of the American Dialect Society. This dictionary will contain information concerning vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammatical forms which are restricted regionally or socially in American speech. One distinctive…

Hirshberg, Jeffrey

77

Supporting Math Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing appropriate language support is important for all students and essential to the success of English Language Learners (ELLs), struggling readers, and students with learning disabilities. In a mathematics classroom, the support includes the ongoing development of everyday vocabulary--such as names of fruit and actions such as skipping--and…

Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.; Livers, Stefanie

2009-01-01

78

"Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

Voorhees, Roxy

79

The Electric Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

Sheils, James

2012-01-01

80

Vocabulary for Healthcare Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School, this teacher's guide presents a course in health care vocabulary for secretaries, medical records personnel, laboratory assistants, shipping personnel, and patient relations personnel in health care facilities. The course, which should require 10-14 hours of instruction, contains…

Falagrady, Teresa

81

Facilitating Next Generation Science Collaboration: Respecting and Mediating Vocabularies with Information Model Driven Semantics in Ecosystems Assessments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Earth and space science, there is steady evolution away from isolated and single purpose data 'systems' toward systems of systems, data ecosystems, or data frameworks that provide access to highly heterogeneous data repositories. As a result, common informatics approaches are being sought for the development and implementation of newer architectures. One clear need is a repeatable method for modeling, implementing and evolving the information architectures. A newly funded U.S. initiative is developing and deploying integrated ecosystem assessment (IEA) capability for marine ecosystems using an information science and semantic technologies. The intention is to advance the capacity of an IEA to provide the foundation for synthesis and quantitative analysis of natural and socio-economic ecosystem information to support ecosystem-based management. The initiative is creating capacity to assess the impacts of changing climate on two large marine ecosystems: the northeast U.S. and the California Current. These assessments will be essential parts of the science-based decision-support tools used to develop adaptive management measures. Enhanced collaboration is required to achieve these goals: interaction and information sharing within and among diverse data providers, analysis tool developers and user groups that constitute the broader coastal and marine ecosystem science application community. This presentation outlines new component design approaches and sets of information model and semantic encodings for mediation.

Fox, P.; Maffei, A.

2012-04-01

82

The Graphic Information Research Unit: Background and Recent Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses projects of the Graphic Information Research Unit at the Royal College of Art (England), which relates to the legibility of scientific and technical information. Summarizes the Unit's survey of problems in providing adequate guiding in libraries and museums, and reports two studies of Computer Output Microfilm library catalogues. (GT)

Reynolds, Linda

1979-01-01

83

Children with Developmental Language Impairment Have Vocabulary Deficits Characterized by Limited Breadth and Depth  

PubMed Central

Background Deficient vocabulary is a frequently reported symptom of developmental language impairment but the nature of the deficit and its developmental course are not well documented. Aims We aimed to describe the nature of the deficit in terms of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge and to determine whether the nature and the extent of the deficit change over the school years. Methods A total of 25,681 oral definitions produced by 177 children with developmental language impairment (LI) and 325 grade-mates with normally developing language (ND) in grades 2, 4, 8, and 10 were taken from an existing longitudinal database. We analyzed these for breadth by counting the number of words defined correctly and for depth by determining the amount of information in each correct definition. Via a linear mixed model, we determined whether breadth and depth varied with language diagnosis independent of nonverbal IQ, mothers’ education level, race, gender, income and (for depth only) word. Results Children with LI scored significantly lower than children with ND on breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in all grades. The extent of the deficit did not vary significantly across grades. Language diagnosis was an independent predictor of breadth and depth and as strong a predictor as maternal education. For the LI group, growth in depth relative to breadth was slower than for the ND group. Conclusions Compared to their grade-mates, children with LI have fewer words in their vocabularies and they have shallower knowledge of the words that are in their vocabularies. This deficit persists over developmental time. PMID:23650887

McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob; Bahnsen, Alison; Duff, Dawna

2012-01-01

84

Building Digital Collections: Technical Information and Background Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced on May 9, this newly updated site from the Library of Congress National Digital Library Program (NDLP) documents "technical activities relating to the procedures and practices employed by the NDLP, and its precursor American Memory Program, over the past decade." Of use to anyone involved in digital library projects, the highlight of the site is probably the Building Digital Collections section, which links to the technical documents (included with most American Memory Collections) describing how the collection was digitized and what technology was used. The site also contains descriptions of technical practices, workflow production, and a selection of background papers.

85

Information from Text: Overview of Background and Opportunities  

E-print Network

now. . . 4 #12;Exploiting Weak Structure: Text Mining 5 #12;PageRankTM 1. Underlies Google 2. How does it work? 3. Lession #1: There are clever ways to extract information automatically from weakly of the web by using its vast link structure as an indicator of an individual page's value. In essence, Google

Kimbrough, Steven Orla

86

Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

Rosenblatt, D.H.

1996-11-01

87

Teaching Science Vocabulary with "The Shape of a Moon's Orbit"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading strategy guide in a series of guides that utilizes articles from the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) program. These strategy guides provide teachers of middle school students with a reading strategy (in this case, Teaching Science Vocabulary) and supplemental resources, background information on that strategy, connections to standards, classroom implementation techniques, tips for utilizing this strategy with students with dyslexia, and a two-page reading based on a particular space science concept. The reading incorporated into this strategy guide, "The Shape of a Moon's Orbit," describes the orbital path, or trajectory, of Dione, one of Saturn's many moons. Through description and diagrammatic models, the article demonstrates how Dione orbits Saturn in a wavy path, rather than in a perfectly circular pattern, as a result of the gravitational pull of the Sun. This strategy guide is also mapped to the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts Literacy in Science & Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8.

2014-06-13

88

Cultural survey of network vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network is a platform of society and life in today. People use more and more network vocabularies with the relation of network and people's life becoming closer and closer. Whether young or old, as long as people going online, they will not be unfamiliar with the network vocabulary. One will be thought be timeout if he doesn't know the network

Zhijiang Yang

2011-01-01

89

Designing Vocabulary Instruction in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language skills are becoming an increasingly important feature of performance in mathematics classrooms. This new focus on language highlights the need to identify math vocabulary words and to apply research-based principles for vocabulary instruction in mathematics lessons. This article offers one way to analyze state high-stakes math tests to…

Pierce, Margaret E.; Fontaine, L. Melena

2009-01-01

90

Vocabulary Development Using Visual Displays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kindergarten teachers use a variety of strategies that focus on vocabulary development. A common and effective practice to introduce new vocabulary to kindergarteners is reading storybooks to children, what is commonly known as "read-alouds" (Bus, van Ijzendoorn, & Pelligrini, 1995; Christ & Wang, 2010; Newton, Padak &…

McKenzie, Ellen

2014-01-01

91

Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…

Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

2009-01-01

92

Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nat

93

INCORPORATING EXPERT TERMINOLOGY AND DISEASE RISK FACTORS INTO CONSUMER HEALTH VOCABULARIES  

PubMed Central

It is well-known that the general health information seeking lay-person, regardless of his/her education, cultural background, and economic status, is not as familiar with—or comfortable using—the technical terms commonly used by healthcare professionals. One of the primary reasons for this is due to the differences in perspectives and understanding of the vocabulary used by patients and providers even when referring to the same health concept. To bridge this “knowledge gap,” consumer health vocabularies are presented as a solution. In this study, we introduce the Mayo Consumer Health Vocabulary (MCV)—a taxonomy of approximately 5,000 consumer health terms and concepts—and develop text-mining techniques to expand its coverage by integrating disease concepts (from UMLS) as well as non-genetic (from deCODEme) and genetic (from GeneWiki+ and PharmGKB) risk factors to diseases. These steps led to adding at least one synonym for 97% of MCV concepts with an average of 43 consumer friendly terms per concept. We were also able to associate risk factors to 38 common diseases, as well as establish 5,361 Disease:Gene pairings. The expanded MCV provides a robust resource for facilitating online health information searching and retrieval as well as building consumer-oriented healthcare applications. PMID:23424146

Seedor, Michael; Peterson, Kevin J.; Nelsen, Laurie A.; Cocos, Cristian; McCormick, Jennifer B.; Chute, Christopher G.; Pathak, Jyotishman

2013-01-01

94

Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very nearly the speed of light. Optical studies of a December 1997 burst (GRB 971214) indicated a distance for it of nearly 12 billion light-years. With distances known, astronomers could calculate the amount of energy released during the explosion. The answers were astounding. GRB 970508, in a mere 15 seconds, released nearly ten times more energy than our Sun will release in its entire, 10-billion-year lifetime. GRB 971214, for one or two seconds, outshone the entire rest of the universe. These energies ruled out many of the numerous theories for the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts that had arisen over the previous three decades. Many answers about the origins of Gamma Ray Bursts and the physics of the fireballs will come from radio telescopes. The VLA, with its combination of sensitivity and resolving power, "has a unique role to play in deciphering GRB fireball physics," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. First, radio astronomers can see the GRB fireball far longer than it is visible at other wavelengths. A Gamma Ray Burst is visible in the gamma rays for typically seconds or minutes, in X-rays for days, and in visible light for weeks, based on the past year's experience. "With radio telescopes, we can see the fireballs for months, gaining new information every day," said Greg Taylor, also of NRAO in Socorro. "Also, at other wavelengths, they see the emission only as it is rapidly getting weaker. At radio wavelengths, we can study the emission as it rises in strength, peaks, then slowly decays." In addition, radio observations can measure the size of the fireball. "Only radio telescopes can measure the size, and we can do it in three different ways," Frail said. These techniques involve studying the scintillation, or "twinkling" of the radio emission; absorption characteristics of the emission; and, for bright, energetic afterglows, direct measurements of sizes can be made through the great resolving power of continent-wide radio telescope arrays such as t

95

Factors that Influence Vocabulary Development in Two-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This research explored the relative impact of demographic, cognitive, behavioural, and psycholinguistic factors on vocabulary development in two-year-old children. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two children (24-30 months) were tested on expressive and receptive vocabulary, cognitive development, word learning and working memory…

Stokes, Stephanie F.; Klee, Thomas

2009-01-01

96

Children with Developmental Language Impairment Have Vocabulary Deficits Characterized by Limited Breadth and Depth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deficient vocabulary is a frequently reported symptom of developmental language impairment, but the nature of the deficit and its developmental course are not well documented. Aims: To describe the nature of the deficit in terms of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge and to determine whether the nature and the extent of the…

McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob; Bahnsen, Alison; Duff, Dawna

2013-01-01

97

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

98

A Vocabulary Flood: Making Words "Sticky" with Computer-Response Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's literature is a primary source for introducing young children to new words at home and at school, and children's early vocabulary knowledge is a key component of oral language, which is essential for comprehension. This column is focused on children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who frequently find themselves in a vocabulary

Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary S.; Ryan, Tammy

2007-01-01

99

Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

2014-05-01

100

Teaching Vocabulary through Code-Mixing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined code-mixing, a little-known technique used in teaching vocabulary. Found that using code-mixing to introduce new vocabulary can be an efficient and effective method. Discusses procedures and cognitive processes involved in vocabulary learning and explains the use of code mixing to introduce vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

Celik, Mehmet

2003-01-01

101

For ELLs: Vocabulary beyond the Definitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, a classroom teacher discusses ambiguities in mathematics vocabulary and strategies for ELL students in building understanding. The authors note that mathematics vocabulary may be more difficult to learn than other academic vocabulary for several reasons: (1) definitions are filled with technical vocabulary, symbols, and diagrams;…

Roberts, Nancy S.; Truxaw, Mary P.

2013-01-01

102

Mapping Opthalmic Terms to a Standardized Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes work by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) to expand the standardized vocabulary, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), to accommodate a definitive ophthalmic standardized vocabulary. Mapped a practice-based clinical ophthalmic vocabulary to SNOMED and other vocabularies in the Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical…

Patrick, Timothy B.; Reid, John C.; Sievert, MaryEllen; Popescu, Mihail; Gigantelli, James W.; Shelton, Mark E.; Schiffman, Jade S.

2000-01-01

103

Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 14 essays on reading and vocabulary learning in second language acquisition. Chapters include: "Research on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: Putting It in Context" (James Coady); "Implications for L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Instruction From L1 Vocabulary Research" (Fredricka Stoller and William Grabe); "Patterns and Perils of…

Huckin, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

104

Molecular Biology Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to molecular biology, including DNA and RNA structure and function, transcription and translation. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Jennifer Doherty

105

Smart subtitles for vocabulary learning  

E-print Network

Language learners often use subtitled videos to help them learn. However, standard subtitles are geared more towards comprehension than vocabulary learning, as translations are nonliteral and are provided only for phrases, ...

Kovacs, Geza

106

A virtual vocabulary speech recognizer  

E-print Network

A system for the automatic recognition of human speech is described. A commercially available speech recognizer sees its recognition vocabulary increased through the use of virtual memory management techniques. central to ...

Pathe, Peter D

1983-01-01

107

Effective Academic Vocabulary Instruction in the Urban Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In urban middle schools, educators find it challenging to meet the literacy needs of the many struggling readers in their classrooms, including language-minority (LM) learners and students from low-income backgrounds. One strategy for improving these students' reading comprehension is to teach essential academic vocabulary in a meaningful,…

Kelley, Joan G.; Lesaux, Nonie K.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Faller, S. Elisabeth

2010-01-01

108

Mathematical Vocabulary: Fixers of Knowledge or Points of Exploration?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the idea that in mathematics education it is important to wean pupils off the use of informal everyday language and to privilege the use of formal technical vocabulary. I will first make some observations on the use of formal and informal language in the Dimensions transcript. The main focus of the next part of the discussion…

Leung, Constant

2005-01-01

109

Cloze Procedures and Long-Term Vocabulary Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the kinds of vocabulary items retained by a group of native German speakers in the context of an English language proficiency examination. Its main purpose is to indicate the kind of information that can be gathered using cloze procedures, with the aim to integrate this information into further learning strategies for the…

James, Charles J.

110

Progress Report on the Development of a Laser/Maser Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a laser/maser vocabulary follows the pattern established earlier in two similar projects--(1) Development of a Multi-Coordinate Vocabulary--Chemical Physics, and (2) Development of a Multi-Coordinate Index--Plasma Physics. A set of lists of terms judged to be important to a user of information was developed by a specialist in…

Lerner, Rita G.

111

25 Years of Controlled Vocabularies in Oceanographic Data Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 1980s data managers in IOC realised that data exchange required a common terminology for concepts such as parameters, instruments and platforms. They rose to the challenge by developing a set of 7 controlled vocabularies that were published in print as part of the GF3 standard in 1987. Unfortunately, because this was based on print, the vocabularies couldn't be maintained and were little used. However, in the 1990s the pan-European SeaSearch project developed them into a usable digital vocabulary library. Whilst this was a significant step forward, vocabulary content governance was delegated to individuals, technical governance procedures were far from watertight and the terms had no definitions. Consequently, usage problems, especially local copy evolution and term misunderstandings persisted. When SeaDataNet started in 2006 there was a determination to use technology to solve these problems. Now, list server content governance harnesses domain expertise, relational database technology provides robust, scalable, versioned storage and the NERC DataGrid SOAP and pseudo-RESTful Web Service APIs serve lists and mappings. The SeaDataNet vocabulary technology currently addresses two use cases: semantic cross-walking and metadata field content verification. Basic metadata cross-walks do not transfer fields populated from different vocabularies, thereby losing information, because machine-accessible translations are unavailable. In SeaDataNet we have assembled mappings between lists of interest, particularly parameter vocabularies, into an RDF triple store. The resulting ontology is served as RDF documents through API method calls and term URLs. Metadata content verification is implemented by embedding URNs into documents defined by Schematron- extended schemas that are automatically built by a service monitoring the vocabulary server for content changes. These schemas allow generic XML editors, such as Oxygen, to validate document semantic content against the latest vocabulary version. The NERC DataGrid/SeaDataNet Vocabulary Server is fully operational delivering over 100 lists containing over 120,000 terms linked by nearly 80,000 mappings. It is receiving approximately 400 catalogue requests and 3000 list accesses per month accompanied by over 200,000 hits from robots mining the semantic content.

Lowry, R. K.

2008-12-01

112

A moving ship detection based on edge information of single image and background subtraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship detection based on video is important in the application of surveillance and marine safety, the detection results of tradition methods, such as background subtraction, have much noise because of background noise such as ocean wave. In this paper we present a simple but efficient method for ship detection, It is based on the edge information of single image and movement information of multi images. Firstly, detect those movement pixels used the background subtraction to the video image, and the distance transformation is operation on the difference images; Secondly, we detect the edge of video image used Canny detector , and morphological operation on the edge image, lastly, eliminate the movement pixels if their distance transformation value is bigger than the threshold. The experimental results demonstrate that is efficient to eliminate the background noise and detect the real target.

Shi, Tingyan; Yang, Lichun; Liu, Zhicheng

2013-10-01

113

The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention  

E-print Network

appreciation for all your support and advice. I am also truly grateful to Dr. Charles Greenwood for his support, insights, and guidance on my dissertation. His questions and comments always inspired me to strengthen my research skills. I also would like... socioeconomic backgrounds (Farkas & Beron, 2004). Hart and Risley (1995) reported that by the age of three, children from professional families knew a thousand more words than their peers’ from low income backgrounds. In addition, vocabulary is cumulatively...

Kong, Na Young

2013-05-31

114

Controlled vocabularies and ontologies in proteomics: overview, principles and practice.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the use of controlled vocabularies (CVs) and ontologies especially in the area of proteomics, primarily related to the work of the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI). It describes the relevant proteomics standard formats and the ontologies used within them. Software and tools for working with these ontology files are also discussed. The article also examines the "mapping files" used to ensure correct controlled vocabulary terms that are placed within PSI standards and the fulfillment of the MIAPE (Minimum Information about a Proteomics Experiment) requirements. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan. PMID:23429179

Mayer, Gerhard; Jones, Andrew R; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Deutsch, Eric W; Orchard, Sandra; Montecchi-Palazzi, Luisa; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Oveillero, David; Julian, Randall; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Eisenacher, Martin

2014-01-01

115

Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

1982-03-01

116

The Effects of Color and Background Information in Motion Visuals on Children's Memory and Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether color and background information in motion visuals have different effects on memory and comprehension of students in various grade levels. A three-by-three factorial pretest-posttest design was used, comparing levels of visual complexity and grade levels. The instructional content was a 12-minute computer animation…

Chen, Lin Ching

117

Assessing Vocabulary Learning in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is widespread agreement with in the field of early childhood education that vocabulary is important to literacy achievement and that reading aloud can support vocabulary growth. However, there are unexplored and significant problems with the ways we assess young children's vocabulary learning from read-alouds. This paper critically…

Hoffman, Jessica L.; Teale, William H.; Paciga, Kathleen A.

2014-01-01

118

Some Vocabulary Activities Worth Teaching About.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 activities presented in this pamphlet are intended to help make vocabulary study a stimulating experience for both teacher and student. The activities are as follows: (1) a commercially prepared list of suggestions for vocabulary development, (2) an exercise designed to relate vocabulary study to every day reading, (3) a variation of the…

Brand, Helena S.

1982-01-01

119

Teaching Vocabulary in the Literature Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates concept-related vocabulary instruction, in which students link individual words with larger literature concepts. Outlines four steps to creating a concept-related vocabulary lesson. Offers examples of how concept-related vocabulary lessons can be conducted while reading, before reading, and after reading. Outlines web, weave, and…

Barton, James

2001-01-01

120

Open Vocabulary ASR for Audiovisual Document Indexation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an investigation of an open vocabulary recognizer that allows new words to be introduce in the recognition vocabulary, without the need to retrain or adapt the language model. This method uses special word classes, whose ngram probabilities are estimated during the training process by discounting a mass of probability from the out of vocabulary words. A

Alexandre Allauzen; Jean-Luc Gauvain

2005-01-01

121

The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2012-01-01

122

Teaching Vocabulary Expeditiously: Three Keys to Improving Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating vocabulary games and activities more often into the structure of the day, Thomas B. Smith establishes a word-rich environment for high school students to experiment with unfamiliar words in varying, playful contexts. Smith asserts that giving frequent opportunities for hearing, speaking, and writing in the typical context of the day is…

Smith, Thomas B.

2008-01-01

123

The Internet Vocabulary Test for Children: preliminary development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - Currently, the only mechanisms to determine children's use of the Internet are interviews and questionnaires. To increase the validity of theory and research and ensure that practitioners and policy-makers are guided by accurate information, an improved method of determining children's patterns of Internet use is required. The purpose of this study is to present the Internet Vocabulary Test

Genevieve Marie Johnson

2007-01-01

124

Fresnel -A Browser-Independent Presentation Vocabulary for RDF  

E-print Network

Fresnel - A Browser-Independent Presentation Vocabulary for RDF Christian Bizer1 , Ryan Lee2.pietriga@inria.fr Abstract. Semantic Web browsers and other tools aimed at displaying RDF data to end users are all concerned representation paradigm: specifying (i) what information contained in RDF models should be pre- sented (content

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

125

Intensity in Vocabulary Instruction and Effects on Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has shown that vocabulary instruction can enhance the comprehension of passages when instruction includes definitional and contextual information, provides multiple instructional encounters with the words, and requires learners to engage actively in processing of word meanings (M. F. Graves, 1986; S. A. Stahl & M. M. Fairbanks,…

Baumann, James F.

2009-01-01

126

Teaching New Words to Children with Poor Existing Vocabulary Knowledge: A Controlled Evaluation of the Definition and Context Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children who have poor vocabulary knowledge are at risk of wider language weaknesses and reading comprehension difficulties, which will impact upon their educational achievement. The central question addressed in this paper is how best to teach new vocabulary items to these children. Aims: To investigate the effects of two different…

Nash, Hannah; Snowling, Margaret

2006-01-01

127

Knowledge of Words, Knowledge about Words: Dimensions of Vocabulary in First and Second Language Learners in Sixth Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite acknowledging the complex nature of vocabulary knowledge, researchers have rarely investigated the dimensionality of this construct empirically. This study was designed to test a multi-dimensional model of English vocabulary knowledge for sixth-grade students from linguistically diverse backgrounds (n = 584). Participants included language…

Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2012-01-01

128

Development of the Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) Vocabulary  

PubMed Central

The LOINC (Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes) vocabulary is a set of more than 10,000 names and codes developed for use as observation identifiers in standardized messages exchanged between clinical computer systems. The goal of the study was to create universal names and codes for clinical observations that could be used by all clinical information systems. The LOINC names are structured to facilitate rapid matching, either automated or manual, between local vocabularies and the universal LOINC codes. If LOINC codes are used in clinical messages, each system participating in data exchange needs to match its local vocabulary to the standard vocabulary only once. This will reduce both the time and cost of implementing standardized interfaces. The history of the development of the LOINC vocabulary and the methodology used in its creation are described. PMID:9609498

Huff, Stanley M.; Rocha, Roberto A.; McDonald, Clement J.; De Moor, Georges J. E.; Fiers, Tom; Bidgood, W. Dean; Forrey, Arden W.; Francis, William G.; Tracy, Wayne R.; Leavelle, Dennis; Stalling, Frank; Griffin, Brian; Maloney, Pat; Leland, Diane; Charles, Linda; Hutchins, Kathy; Baenziger, John

1998-01-01

129

A New Academic Vocabulary List  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…

Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

2014-01-01

130

LARGE-VOCABULARY RECOGNITION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABBOT is the hybrid connectionist-hidden Markov model large- vocabulary speech recognition system developed at Cambridge Uni- versity. In this system, a recurrent network maps each acoustic vector to an estimate of the posterior probabilities of the phone classes. The maximum likelihood word string is then extracted using Markov models. As in traditional hidden Markov models, the Markov pro- cess is

M. M. Hochberg; G. D. Cook; S. J. Renals; A. J. Robinson; R. S. Schechtman

131

Vocabulary acquisition and reading ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical acquisition ability for aurally taught words was studied in fourthgrade children. Reading ability, intelligence, and working memory were evaluated as predictor factors in vocabulary learning. Reading ability was found to predict facility at learning the novel phonological sequences, while intelligence was the only factor which accounted for performance level for the semantic content of the words. The working memory

Linda Aguiar; Susan Brady

1991-01-01

132

Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

2013-10-01

133

Discriminating direction of motion trajectories from angular speed and background information  

PubMed Central

The effects of a background scene on the perception of the trajectory of an approaching object and its relation to changes in angular speed and angular size were examined in 5 experiments. Observers judged the direction (upward or downward) of two sequentially presented motion trajectories simulating a sphere traveling towards the observer at a constant 3D speed from a fixed distance. In Experiments 1 – 4 we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and the presence of a scene background, with changes in angular size based either on the trajectories being discriminated or on an intermediate trajectory. In Experiment 5 we examined the effects of changes in angular speed and scene background with angular size either constant or consistent with an intermediate 3D trajectory. Overall, we found that: (1) observers were able to judge the direction of object motion trajectories from angular speed changes; (2) observers were more accurate with a 3D scene background as compared to a uniform background, suggesting that scene information is important for recovering object motion trajectories; and (3) observers were more accurate in judging motion trajectories based on angular speed when the angular size function was consistent with motion in depth than when the angular size was constant. PMID:23824599

Bian, Zheng; Braunstein, Myron L.; Andersen, George J.

2013-01-01

134

Re-use of standard ontologies in a water quality vocabulary (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations provide the key constraints on environmental and earth science investigations. Where an investigation uses data sourced from multiple providers, data fusion depends on the observation classifications being comparable. Standard models for observation metadata are available (ISO 19156) which provide slots for key classifiers, in particular, the observed property and observation procedure. While universal use of common vocabularies might be desirable in achieving interoperability, this is unlikely in practice. However, semantic web vocabularies provide the means for asserting proximity and other relationships between items in different vocabularies, thus enabling mediation as an interoperability solution. Here we report on the development of a vocabulary for water quality observations in which recording relationships with existing vocabularies was a core strategy. The vocabulary is required to enable combination of a number of groundwater, surface water and marine water quality datasets on an ongoing basis. Our vocabulary model is based on the principle that observations generally report values of specific parameters which are defined by combining a number of facets. We start from Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Data Types (QUDT), which is an OWL ontology developed by NASA and TopQuadrant. We extend this with two additional classes, for Observed Property and Identified Object, and two linking properties, which enable us to create an observed property vocabulary for water quality applications. This ontology is comparable with models for observed properties developed as part of OGC's Observations and Measurements v1.0 standard, the INSPIRE Generic Conceptual Model, and may also be compared with the W3C SSN Ontology, which is based on the DOLCE Ultralite upper-ontology. Water quality observations commonly report concentrations of chemicals, both natural and contaminant, so we tie many of the Identified Objects to items from Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI). ChEBI is an OWL-based dictionary of over 70 000 molecular entities, based on existing scientific work and linked through to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Nomenclature. Within the model the relevant classes, including those from QUDT, are declared to be subclasses of SKOS Concept, so the resulting vocabularies may be directly mapped to other SKOS-based vocabularies, such as from the NERC Vocabulary Service or the Marine Metadata Initiative, using SKOS predicates. Where the external vocabularies are not published with persistent URIs, such as CUAHSI, the mapping may be recorded more informally using annotations, or use proxy URIs for the external vocabulary. The resulting SKOS vocabularies demonstrate a separation of governance of key definitions such as units and quantities and chemical entities, ensuring reuse where possible and extending and adding detail where necessary.

Cox, S. J.; Simons, B.; Yu, J.

2013-12-01

135

Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers' vocabulary size  

PubMed Central

What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development. PMID:25762957

Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

2015-01-01

136

Multisensory Strategies for Science Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Seeing, touching, smelling, hearing, and learning! The authors observed that their English Language Learner (ELL) students achieved a deeper understanding of the properties of matter, as well as enhanced vocabulary development, when they were guided through inquiry-based, multisensory explorations that repeatedly exposed them to words and definitions in context. In this article, they describe their experiences using a multisensory approach with a group of third-grade students who are classified as ELL.

Julie Jackson

2008-12-01

137

Distinguishing vegetation from soil background information. [by gray mapping of Landsat MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In aircraft and satellite multispectral scanner data, soil background signals are superimposed on or intermingled with information about vegetation. A procedure which accounts for soil background would, therefore, make a considerable contribution to an operational use of Landsat and other spectral data for monitoring the productivity of range, forest, and crop lands. A description is presented of an investigation which was conducted to obtain information for the development of such a procedure. The investigation included a study of the soil reflectance that supplies the background signal of vegetated surfaces. Landsat data as recorded on computer compatible tapes were used in the study. The results of the investigation are discussed, taking into account a study reported by Kauth and Thomas (1976). Attention is given to the determination of Kauth's plane of soils, sun angle effects, vegetation index modeling, and the evaluation of vegetation indexes. Graphs are presented which show the results obtained with a gray mapping technique. The technique makes it possible to display plant, soil, water, and cloud conditions for any Landsat overpass.

Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.

1977-01-01

138

NASA thesaurus: Astronomy vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A terminology of descriptors used by the NASA Scientific and Technical information effort to index documents in the area of astronomy is presented. The terms are listed in hierarchical format derived from the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus Volume 1 -- Hierarchical Listing. Over 1600 terms are included. In addition to astronomy, space sciences covered include astrophysics, cosmology, lunar flight and exploration, meteors and meteorites, celestial mechanics, planetary flight and exploration, and planetary science.

1988-01-01

139

A Neural Mechanism for Background Information-Gated Learning Based on Axonal-Dendritic Overlaps  

PubMed Central

Experiencing certain events triggers the acquisition of new memories. Although necessary, however, actual experience is not sufficient for memory formation. One-trial learning is also gated by knowledge of appropriate background information to make sense of the experienced occurrence. Strong neurobiological evidence suggests that long-term memory storage involves formation of new synapses. On the short time scale, this form of structural plasticity requires that the axon of the pre-synaptic neuron be physically proximal to the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron. We surmise that such “axonal-dendritic overlap” (ADO) constitutes the neural correlate of background information-gated (BIG) learning. The hypothesis is based on a fundamental neuroanatomical constraint: an axon must pass close to the dendrites that are near other neurons it contacts. The topographic organization of the mammalian cortex ensures that nearby neurons encode related information. Using neural network simulations, we demonstrate that ADO is a suitable mechanism for BIG learning. We model knowledge as associations between terms, concepts or indivisible units of thought via directed graphs. The simplest instantiation encodes each concept by single neurons. Results are then generalized to cell assemblies. The proposed mechanism results in learning real associations better than spurious co-occurrences, providing definitive cognitive advantages. PMID:25767887

Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

2015-01-01

140

A neural mechanism for background information-gated learning based on axonal-dendritic overlaps.  

PubMed

Experiencing certain events triggers the acquisition of new memories. Although necessary, however, actual experience is not sufficient for memory formation. One-trial learning is also gated by knowledge of appropriate background information to make sense of the experienced occurrence. Strong neurobiological evidence suggests that long-term memory storage involves formation of new synapses. On the short time scale, this form of structural plasticity requires that the axon of the pre-synaptic neuron be physically proximal to the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron. We surmise that such "axonal-dendritic overlap" (ADO) constitutes the neural correlate of background information-gated (BIG) learning. The hypothesis is based on a fundamental neuroanatomical constraint: an axon must pass close to the dendrites that are near other neurons it contacts. The topographic organization of the mammalian cortex ensures that nearby neurons encode related information. Using neural network simulations, we demonstrate that ADO is a suitable mechanism for BIG learning. We model knowledge as associations between terms, concepts or indivisible units of thought via directed graphs. The simplest instantiation encodes each concept by single neurons. Results are then generalized to cell assemblies. The proposed mechanism results in learning real associations better than spurious co-occurrences, providing definitive cognitive advantages. PMID:25767887

Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A

2015-03-01

141

Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to mitosis, meiosis and fertilization. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Jennifer Doherty

142

Background frequency, information content, and the scoring matrix in sequence alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequence alignment tools for protein/DNA sequences have been widely used to find homologous biosequences over the past few decades. In these automated procedures, the target similarity between the two sequences compared is largely determined by the scoring matrix used. Theoretically, each matrix element of the scoring matrix is a log-odd ratio, i.e., the logarithm of the target frequency over the background frequency. In real alignment applications, however, the theoretical criterion is often overlooked. In this talk, we will present a sensible solution to forcibly maintain the theoretical criterion. We will also discuss the information content of the scoring matrix.

Yu, Yi-Kuo; Altschul, Stephen

2003-03-01

143

Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

2014-12-01

144

Innovative Writing Instruction: Reducing Vocabulary to Increase Vocabulary--Student-Centered Vocabulary Instruction for Writing that Makes a Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people, particularly teachers and students, associate vocabulary instruction with long lists of ambiguous words, copying the definitions from the dictionary by rote, completing accompanying analogies, or matching the words with their meanings and taking a quiz at the end of the week. This approach to vocabulary instruction is typical to many…

Faulkner, Julie

2010-01-01

145

The NIFSTD and BIRNLex Vocabularies: Building Comprehensive Ontologies for Neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing\\u000a and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled\\u000a vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology\\u000a for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse

William J. Bug; Giorgio A. Ascoli; Jeffrey S. Grethe; Amarnath Gupta; Christine Fennema-Notestine; Angela R. Laird; Stephen D. Larson; Daniel Rubin; Gordon M. Shepherd; Jessica A. Turner; Maryann E. Martone

2008-01-01

146

Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary

Sparks, Sarah D.

2013-01-01

147

Incidental Acquisition of Vocabulary by Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the impact of reading on vocabulary development with adult ESL students at the National Institute of Technology (Trichirappalli, India). The researcher analyzes the performance of the students who devoted their time to reading, and the students who learned consciously the meaning of words to develop their vocabulary knowledge.…

Ponniah, R. Joseph

2011-01-01

148

Building Academic Vocabulary Student Notebook, Revised Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We've changed our BAV (Building Academic Vocabulary) student materials to a sturdy bound notebook to give you a lower price and a more durable format. Instead of using loose-leaf pages, teachers can now give each student this colorful notebook that follows the 6-step method for teaching academic vocabulary. There is space for more terms, and…

Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra

2008-01-01

149

Vocabulary Support for Independent Online Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequent reading practice is one of the best ways to develop vocabulary and improve reading comprehension. "Extensive reading" (reading large amounts of text without worrying too much about details or looking up all vocabulary) and "intensive reading" (closely examining meaning and structures to be sure you figure out all the details) are both…

LeLoup, Jean W.; Ponterio, Robert

2005-01-01

150

Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary

Feezell, Greg

2012-01-01

151

Promoting Vocabulary Development in Your Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After reviewing the literature, this paper seeks to show the importance and significance of direct vocabulary instruction on students' critical literacy skills; specifically, reading comprehension. Although some may suggest that the greatest amount of vocabulary growth occurs through incidental word learning in wide reading, research indicates…

Long, Nicole Amber

152

Redirective Labels and Early Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents' object labels can be distinguished by whether the child is already attending to the object (follow-in) or not (lead-in). Lead-in labels have been found to be associated with low vocabulary. The current study examines whether the relation between lead-in labels and child vocabulary is influenced by whether the child's attention is…

Shimpi, Priya Mariana; Huttenlocher, Janellen

2007-01-01

153

Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

2007-01-01

154

Vocabulary Practices in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a correlational study of the relationship between teachers' vocabulary instruction practices and pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children's vocabulary. We observed sixteen teachers during three 90-minute language arts blocks, and we assessed the performance of their 244 children on knowledge of target words and…

Silverman, Rebecca; Crandell, Jennifer DiBara

2010-01-01

155

Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

2012-01-01

156

Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

Howell, Gina

2012-01-01

157

Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word…

Ozturk, Meral

2015-01-01

158

English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

2009-01-01

159

A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

Labrie, Gilles

2000-01-01

160

A Framework for Developing EFL Reading Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective second language vocabulary acquisition is particularly important for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners who frequently acquire impoverished lexicons despite years of formal study. This paper comprehensively reviews and critiques second language (L2) reading vocabulary research and proposes that EFL teachers and administrators…

Hunt, Alan; Beglar, David

2005-01-01

161

Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

Schmitt, Norbert

2008-01-01

162

Promoting Vocabulary Learning for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge, which is key to the reading comprehension of English learners (ELs), must be a focus for every teacher in today's increasingly diverse schools, including those in the mainstream classroom. This article strives to increase awareness of the five characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction as well as demonstrate how such…

Wessels, Stephanie

2011-01-01

163

Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information  

PubMed Central

Background Although described in several reports, imported malaria in Europe has not been surveyed nationwide with overall coverage of patients and individually rechecked background information. Plasmodium falciparum infections have been reported despite regularly taken appropriate chemoprophylaxis, yet the reliability of such questionnaire-based retrospective data has been questioned. This was the starting-point for conducting a prospective nationwide survey of imported malaria where compliance data was double-checked. Methods Data was collected on all cases of imported malaria confirmed and recorded by the reference laboratory of Finland (population 5.4 million) from 2003 to 2011, and these were compared with those reported to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR). Background information was gathered by detailed questionnaires sent to the clinicians upon diagnosis; missing data were enquired by telephone of clinician or patient. Special attention was paid to compliance with chemoprophylaxis: self-reported use of anti-malarials was rechecked for all cases of P. falciparum. Results A total of 265 malaria cases (average annual incidence rate 0.5/100,000 population) had been recorded by the reference laboratory, all of them also reported to NIDR: 54% were born in malaria-endemic countries; 86% were currently living in non-endemic regions. Malaria was mainly (81%) contracted in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasmodium falciparum proved to be the most common species (72%). Immigrants constituted the largest group of travellers (44%). Pre-travel advice was received by 20% of those born in endemic regions and 81% of those from non-endemic regions. Of those with P. falciparum, 4% reported regular use of appropriate chemoprophylaxis (mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with chloroquine-resistant and atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with mefloquine-resistant P. falciparum); after individual rechecking, however, it was found that none of them had been fully compliant. Conclusions Information on compliance with chemoprophylactic regimen cannot be relied on, and it should be rechecked if malaria is suspected. The results of the present study suggest that mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil and doxycycline are effective as chemoprophylaxis against P. falciparum malaria, when taken conscientiously. PMID:23497115

2013-01-01

164

American Holidays: Exploring Traditions, Customs and Backgrounds. Vocabureader Workbook 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The workbook is an English vocabulary development text focusing on words associated with traditions, customs, and background of holidays celebrated in the United States, and in some cases also in Canada and elsewhere. The special vocabulary is presented in seventeen readings, written in repetitive style so the student can learn the definitions of…

Klebanow, Barbara; Fischer, Sara

165

Background risk information to assist in risk management decision making. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the need for remedial activities at hazardous waste sites requires quantification of risks of adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem resulting from the presence of chemical and radioactive substances at these sites. The health risks from exposure to these substances are in addition to risks encountered because of the virtually unavoidable exposure to naturally occurring chemicals and radioactive materials that are present in air, water, soil, building materials, and food products. To provide a frame of reference for interpreting risks quantified for hazardous waste sites, it is useful to identify the relative magnitude of risks of both a voluntary and involuntary nature that are ubiquitous throughout east Tennessee. In addition to discussing risks from the ubiquitous presence of background carcinogens in the east Tennessee environment, this report also presents risks resulting from common, everyday activities. Such information should, not be used to discount or trivialize risks from hazardous waste contamination, but rather, to create a sensitivity to general risk issues, thus providing a context for better interpretation of risk information.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; White, R.K.; Miller, D.B.

1992-10-01

166

Risk Factors for Children's Receptive Vocabulary Development from Four to Eight Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children  

PubMed Central

Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4–8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4–8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes increase over time. PMID:24039856

Taylor, Catherine L.; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

167

Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.  

PubMed

Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes increase over time. PMID:24039856

Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

2013-01-01

168

A Bilingual Vocabulary Size Test of English for Vietnamese Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and validation of a Vietnamese bilingual version of the Vocabulary Size Test--a test which measures written receptive vocabulary size. The test can be used to measure the English vocabulary size of Vietnamese learners of English. A learner's total vocabulary size is calculated by multiplying their test result…

Nguyen, Le Thi Cam; Nation, Paul

2011-01-01

169

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information  

SciTech Connect

Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

Wang, Gen-sheng; /Case Western Reserve U.

2005-01-01

170

Comparing the Precision of Information Retrieval of MeSH-Controlled Vocabulary Search Method and a Visual Method in the Medline Medical Database  

PubMed Central

Background: Medline is one of the most important databases in the biomedical field. One of the most important hosts for Medline is Elton B. Stephens CO. (EBSCO), which has presented different search methods that can be used based on the needs of the users. Visual search and MeSH-controlled search methods are among the most common methods. The goal of this research was to compare the precision of the retrieved sources in the EBSCO Medline base using MeSH-controlled and visual search methods. Methods: This research was a semi-empirical study. By holding training workshops, 70 students of higher education in different educational departments of Kashan University of Medical Sciences were taught MeSH-Controlled and visual search methods in 2012. Then, the precision of 300 searches made by these students was calculated based on Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision formulas and analyzed in SPSS software using the independent sample T Test, and three precisions obtained with the three precision formulas were studied for the two search methods. Results: The mean precision of the visual method was greater than that of the MeSH-Controlled search for all three types of precision, i.e. Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision, and their mean precisions were significantly different (P <0.001). Sixty-five percent of the researchers indicated that, although the visual method was better than the controlled method, the control of keywords in the controlled method resulted in finding more proper keywords for the searches. Fifty-three percent of the participants in the research also mentioned that the use of the combination of the two methods produced better results. Conclusion: For users, it is more appropriate to use a natural, language-based method, such as the visual method, in the EBSCO Medline host than to use the controlled method, which requires users to use special keywords. The potential reason for their preference was that the visual method allowed them more freedom of action.

Hariri, Nadjla; Ravandi, Somayyeh Nadi

2014-01-01

171

Coping with out-of-vocabulary words: Open versus huge vocabulary asr  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates methods for coping with out-of-vocabulary words in a large vocabulary speech recognition task, namely the automatic transcription of Italian broadcast news. Two alternative ways for augmenting a 64 K(thousand)-word recognition vocabulary and language model are compared: introducing extra words with their phonetic transcription up to 1.2 M (million) words, or extending the language model with so-called graphones,

Matteo Gerosa; Marcello Federico

2009-01-01

172

Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information  

SciTech Connect

This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

Blaser, Richard

1980-11-01

173

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1988-01-01

174

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1982-01-01

175

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1985-01-01

176

Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

2014-05-01

177

The Relationship between Text Comprehension and Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: A Matter of Topic Familiarity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this article describes second language (L2) vocabulary learning outcomes associated with adult L2 reading comprehension processes, thus connecting L2 learning with the complex cognitive and linguistic processing involved in reading. The study aimed to determine whether background knowledge moderated the relationship between…

Pulido, Diana

2007-01-01

178

Supporting Young Children's Vocabulary Growth: The Challenges, the Benefits, and Evidence-Based Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complexity of words makes vocabulary development a multi-faceted process that presents challenges to early childhood educators, offers benefits to young learners, and must be supported through evidence-based strategies. All students, regardless of socio-economic status or background, need to make significant gains in receptive and expressive…

Jalongo, Mary Renck; Sobolak, Michelle J.

2011-01-01

179

An Investigation of the Relationships between Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary Development with Culturally Diverse Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a semantic mapping technique for vocabulary instruction, a study explored how children of diverse groups bring different cultural backgrounds and prior knowledge to tasks involved in learning new words. The study was conducted in three sixth-grade classrooms--one containing rural Native American (especially Menominee) children, another…

Karbon, Jacqueline C.

180

Academic Vocabulary, Writing and English for Academic Purposes: Perspectives from Second Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on vocabulary and writing at university level from the perspectives of 14 English as an additional language students studying at a New Zealand university. The students individually carried out an integrated reading and writing task and then participated in an interview which focused on their language learning background and…

Coxhead, Averil

2012-01-01

181

76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Department of Justice (DOJ) FBI Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS...and Program Analyst, FBI, Criminal Justice Information Services Division...Number: 1110-0043. Sponsor: Criminal Justice Information Services...

2011-11-08

182

A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

2014-01-01

183

The Effects of English/Language Arts Academic Vocabulary Alignment on Elementary Student Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to provide professional development in vocabulary instructional practices and analyze the impact on student achievement. This quasi-experimental study utilized the PLC to curriculum map English/Language Arts state academic vocabulary words in K-4 into each of the four nine-weeks. The first through fourth grade…

Elkins, Stacey Michelle

2012-01-01

184

Online Vocabulary Games as a Tool for Teaching and Learning English Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary learning is often perceived as boring by learners, especially for those who grew up in the digital age. This paper reports a study of the usefulness of online games in vocabulary learning for some undergraduate students. Three teachers and 100 engineering students participated in a quasi-experimental study for approximately nine weeks.…

Yip, Florence W. M.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.

2006-01-01

185

Scientific results from the cosmic background explorer (COBE). [Information on cosmic radiation  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 [+-] 0.06 K, with no deviation from a black-body spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant cosmic microwave background anisotropy, consistent with a scale-invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservation upper limits to the cosmic infrared background. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the cosmic infrared background limits. 104 refs., 1 tab.

Bennett, C.L.; Boggess, N.W.; Cheng, E.S.; Hauser, M.G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J.C.; Moseley, S.H. Jr.; Shafer, R.A.; Silverberg, R.F. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Murdock, T.L. (General Research Corp., Danvers, MA (United States)); Smoot, G.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Weiss, R. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge (United States)); Wright, E.L. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

1993-06-01

186

Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers' literacy, vocabulary, and math skills.  

PubMed

This study investigated predictive relations between preschoolers' (N=310) behavioral regulation and emergent literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Behavioral regulation was assessed using a direct measure called the Head-to-Toes Task, which taps inhibitory control, attention, and working memory, and requires children to perform the opposite of what is instructed verbally. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was utilized because children were nested in 54 classrooms at 2 geographical sites. Results revealed that behavioral regulation significantly and positively predicted fall and spring emergent literacy, vocabulary, and math skills on the Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement (all ps<.05). Moreover, growth in behavioral regulation predicted growth in emergent literacy, vocabulary, and math skills over the prekindergarten year (all ps<.05), after controlling for site, child gender, and other background variables. Discussion focuses on the role of behavioral regulation in early academic achievement and preparedness for kindergarten. PMID:17605527

McClelland, Megan M; Cameron, Claire E; Connor, Carol McDonald; Farris, Carrie L; Jewkes, Abigail M; Morrison, Frederick J

2007-07-01

187

2003 --Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT-BACKGROUND COLOR  

E-print Network

2003 -- Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems 2149 THE EFFECT OF WEB PAGE TEXT guidelines posed by "web gurus". Introduction Web Design Guidelines and Font-Background Color Combinations black on white. "Web gurus" are quick to make definitive statements about design and readable text

Missouri-Rolla, University of

188

76 FR 67182 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...felony convictions, and parties prohibited from receiving federal contracts. (2) Drug tests are for the presence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and phencyclidine (PCP). Contractors shall maintain records of all background...

2011-10-31

189

Toward a Model of Motivated Vocabulary Learning: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents a structural model that integrates vocabulary knowledge and motivation with six latent variables: the initial appraisal of vocabulary learning experience, self-regulating capacity of vocabulary learning, strategic vocabulary learning involvement, mastery of vocabulary learning tactics, vocabulary knowledge, and postappraisal of…

Tseng, Wen-Ta; Schmitt, Norbert

2008-01-01

190

Systematisierungsuebungen zum englischen Wortschatz (Systematizing Exercises on the English Vocabulary)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary grouped according to subject matter is well-adapted to developing speaking competence. Even in the use of blackboard pictures for teaching vocabulary, systematic aspects should be observed. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

Festag, Ewald

1975-01-01

191

Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

Carrier, Sarah J.

2013-03-01

192

A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

Prevost, Jill K.

193

Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the IdentifiedObject individuals are linked to the ChEBI ontology for definitions of chemical substances.. Second, to allow compatibility with SKOS-based tools and to ensure the vocabulary does not violate the meta-modelling constraints of the OWL-DL profile, the relevant classes in QUDT are declared to be subclasses of SKOS Concept and a shadow SKOS view of ChEBI was generated (as ChEBI models all elements and substances as OWL classes). The provenance of each SKOS concept shadowing an OWL class is recorded using the PROV-O ontology. Some aspects of these processing steps can be automated through SPARQL queries, while other aspects must be done manually. For maintenance and provenance purposes, the complete vocabulary and ontologies are persisted in around 20 separate RDF files (in addition to the QUDT and ChEBI sources), each of which constitutes a separate RDF graph and reflects the various aspects of above steps. The vocabularies are published in multiple ways: - For download as files from the ontology URI - At a SPARQL endpoint - Through a URI-based SKOS API (SISSvoc) - Through search UIs built on top of the SPARQL endpoint or SISSvoc service

Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

2013-12-01

194

The Effects of Background Information and Syntactic Cues in Reading French Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared two groups of intermediate/advanced L2 French learners on a reading comprehension test when presented with or without background knowledge of the text. This study also compared intermediate and intermediate/advanced L2 French learners' reading comprehension when presented with increasing syntactic complexity. The results of…

Garrott, Carl L.

2009-01-01

195

How to Make Maps from Cosmic Microwave Background Data without Losing Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments can measure cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy---in principle. To achieve this in practice when faced with such gigantic data sets, elaborate data analysis methods are needed to make it computationally feasible. An important step in the data pipeline is to make a map, which typically reduces the size of the data

Max Tegmark

1997-01-01

196

The research of rural logistics distribution information under the background of new rural construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural informatization is the national economy and the important aspects of the information society, is an inevitable trend in the development of agriculture and the content of the agricultural modernization.The production and circulation of agricultural products is restricted greatly by the ineffective information and logistics.This paper introduces the meaning of the construction of the new countryside informationization and analyzes the

Haiqiong Zhou; WangQing

2011-01-01

197

The effects of spontaneous activity, background noise, and the stimulus ensemble on information transfer in neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information theory is playing an increasingly important role in the analysis of neural data as it can precisely quantify the reliability of stimulus-response functions. Estimating the mutual information between a neural spike train and a time varying stimulus is, however, not trivial in practice and requires assumptions about the specific computations being performed by the neuron under study. Consequently, estimates

Maurice J. Chacron; André Longtin; Leonard Maler

2003-01-01

198

Background for Builders--Related Science and Trade Information for the Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primarily intended for instructors but also useful to students, this guide provides a set of lessons (interlaced with humorous phrases and cartoons) for teaching fundamental information for the building trades. Each lesson contains objectives, related information, and a review or summary. Unit I is a brief, humorous message to the student on the…

Lucas, Joseph

199

Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

2013-01-01

200

Reliability Assessment for Two Versions of Vocabulary Levels Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a reliability study of two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test at the 5000 word level. This study was motivated by a finding from an ongoing longitudinal study of vocabulary acquisition that Version A and Version B of Vocabulary Levels Test at the 5000 word level were not parallel. In order to investigate this issue,…

Xing, Peiling; Fulcher, Glenn

2007-01-01

201

Teaching Vocabulary through Poetry in an EFL Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study has been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using poetry to teach vocabulary in a foreign language classroom. It aims to find answers to two research questions (1) "Do the learners enhance more extensive vocabulary knowledge by means of poetry-based vocabulary teaching activities than the traditional coursebook activities?"…

Ozen, Baki; Mohammadzadeh, Behbood

2012-01-01

202

Focus on the Forms: Recognition Practice in Chinese Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…

Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying

2013-01-01

203

Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

Carrier, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

204

Using PDA for Undergraduate Student Incidental Vocabulary Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been…

Song, Yanjie; Fox, Robert

2008-01-01

205

The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…

Kong, Na Young

2013-01-01

206

Construction of marine vocabularies in the Marine Metadata Interoperability Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data producers often overlook existing metadata descriptors and controlled vocabularies for describing their data, opting instead to create custom descriptors and vocabularies. One of the objectives of the Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project is to reduce this vocabulary proliferation. The work is accomplished as community collaborations, which are supported via the content management framework of the MMI Web site. Services,

L. Bermudez; J. Graybeal; Anthony W. Isenor; Roy Lowry; D. Wright

2005-01-01

207

Academic Vocabulary and Middle School English Learners: An Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this experimental intervention study was to determine if evidence-based instructional strategies for general vocabulary words are effective with middle school English learner (EL) students and academic vocabulary words. Participants showed significantly more growth in their knowledge of academic vocabulary during the treatment…

Townsend, Dianna; Collins, Penny

2009-01-01

208

ELL Preschoolers' English Vocabulary Acquisition from Storybook Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effects of rich explanation, baseline vocabulary, and home reading practices on English language learning (ELL) preschoolers' sophisticated vocabulary learning from storybook reading. Eighty typically developing preschoolers were pretested in L1 (Portuguese) and L2 (English) receptive vocabulary and were assigned to…

Collins, Molly F.

2010-01-01

209

Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates…

Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

2014-01-01

210

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

211

COMMON TEXTILE VOCABULARIES AND DOCUMENTS A Conceptual Foundation of a Globally Interoperable Textile e-Marketplace  

E-print Network

COMMON TEXTILE VOCABULARIES AND DOCUMENTS A Conceptual Foundation of a Globally Interoperable Textile e-Marketplace Jingzhi Guo and Zhuo Hu Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Macau, Av. Padre Tomás, Pereira, S.J., Taipa, Macau jzguo@umac.mo, ma66571@umac.mo Keywords: Textile

Guo, Jingzhi

212

An Operational System for Subject Switching between Controlled Vocabularies: A Computational Linguistics Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a new automated process that pioneers full-scale operational use of subject switching by the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Facility. The subject switching process routinely translates machine-readable subject terms from one controlled vocabulary into the…

Silvester, June P.; And Others

213

Building Vocabulary to Build Literacy: Creating a World of Words in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Words and their meanings are the building blocks of literacy development. They are the key to children's comprehension of stories and information books. Just about any fun experience, from learning center activities to a field trip to sharing picture books, offers many opportunities to build children's vocabulary. In this article, the author…

Neuman, Susan B.

2006-01-01

214

A Comparison of Undergraduate Students' English Vocabulary Learning: Using Mobile Phones and Flash Cards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowing a foreign language has become crucial to reach information. Learning vocabulary is the fundamental step to learn a foreign language. New devices are invented everyday to fulfill the needs of citizens of the twenty-first century. Increased use of mobile phones has made them popular for not only communication, but also entertainment and…

Basoglu, Emrah Baki; Akdemir, Omur

2010-01-01

215

77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...there are barriers in our recruitment and selection processes, DOI must track the demographic...at various stages of the recruitment process. Response is optional...information is used for evaluating recruitment only, and plays no...

2012-04-12

216

Enhancing Teacher Read Alouds with Small-Group Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Low Vocabulary in First-Grade Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of small-group instruction on the vocabulary and comprehension of first-grade students identified with low language and low vocabulary skills. Overall, 102 first-grade students scoring below the 50th percentile on relational vocabulary were blocked by classroom, matched according to…

Fien, Hank; Santoro, Lana; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Chard, David J.; Williams, Susanna; Haria, Priti

2011-01-01

217

The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

2014-01-01

218

S'COOL Lesson Plan 57: Vocabulary Art Using Art as a Vocabulary Strategy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this lesson plan students focus on a predetermined vocabulary list, then use the words, definitions, or familiar context to draw (either by hand or on the computer) a picture that depicts that word. Detailed Procedure and Materials, Vocabulary linked to an on-line glossary, and Teacher Notes are provided. This activity is related to the Students' Cloud Observations Online (S’COOL) project.

2009-01-01

219

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development  

PubMed Central

Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge, but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and reading continued for word recognition and decoding through grade 4, but genetic and environmental correlations between vocabulary and reading comprehension approached unity by grade 4, when vocabulary and word recognition accounted for all of the genetic and shared environment influences on reading comprehension. PMID:21132077

Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

2010-01-01

220

Matching controlled vocabulary words Natalia Grabar  

E-print Network

is that lemmatization brings a statistically significant improvement and that stemming additionally improves the results, but in a non-statistically significant way. 3 Material used The queries studied are those received by.g., the MeSH): is the vocabulary of user queries comparable with that of the index terms? The two

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

221

Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

2010-01-01

222

Russian Emotion Vocabulary in American Learners' Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the uses of emotion vocabulary in narratives elicited from monolingual speakers of Russian and English and advanced American learners of Russian. Monolingual speakers differed significantly in the distribution of emotion terms across morphosyntactic categories: English speakers favored an adjectival pattern of emotion…

Pavlenko, Aneta; Driagina, Viktoria

2007-01-01

223

Adaptive Training for Large Vocabulary Continuous  

E-print Network

Adaptive Training for Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Kai Yu Hughes Hall College for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy #12;ii Summary In recent years, there has been a trend towards training is to train hidden Markov models (HMMs) on the whole data set as if all data comes from a single acoustic

Hain, Thomas

224

Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

2014-01-01

225

Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

2015-01-01

226

Interactive Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word walls are designed to serve as visual scaffolds and are a common classroom tool used to support reading and language arts instruction. To support vocabulary development in science and support students who are ELLs, Husty and Jackson (2008) created interactive word walls that resemble semantic maps (Masters, Mori, and Mori 1993). Semantic maps…

Jackson, Julie; Tripp, Sherry; Cox, Kimberly

2011-01-01

227

Should Vocabulary Instruction Be Integrated or Isolated?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares integrated and isolated form-focused instruction for vocabulary development in an English as a second language (ESL) reading lesson. Two classes of ESL learners (N = 20) from a university preparation academic English course were involved in the study. Each class did two reading treatments in which they read an article and…

File, Kieran Andrew; Adams, Rebecca

2010-01-01

228

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Thesaurus -- Volume 2, Access Vocabulary -- contains an alphabetical listing of all Thesaurus terms (postable and nonpostable) and permutations of all multiword and pseudo-multiword terms. Also included are Other Words (non-Thesaurus terms) consisting of abbreviations, chemical symbols, etc. The permutations and Other Words provide 'access' to the appropriate postable entries in the Thesaurus.

1976-01-01

229

The Controlled Vocabulary--A Reexamination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The controlled vocabulary method of reading instruction (popular in the 1950's and 60's in the Dick and Jane basic reading series) had many inherent and numerous strong points. As with all beginning reading instruction methods, including the Big Book, heterogeneous reading group, holism, phonics, library book, and constructivist methods,…

Ediger, Marlow

230

The Importance of Vocabulary for Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major component of literacy is "vocabulary," or the words employed by a language or in a field of knowledge. Understanding novel words and concepts is important for young students as they are confronted with a great deal of new terminology in the passages they read, especially in content areas such as science. Science is a discipline that relies…

Cohen, Marisa T.

2012-01-01

231

Enhancing Basal Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To enhance the basal vocabulary instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties, lessons provided in typical curricular materials can be supplemented with instructional elements derived from research. This article addresses how teachers can add 15 minutes of higher order instructional activities to daily reading lessons to…

Lenfest, Ashleigh; Reed, Deborah K.

2015-01-01

232

[A Packet of Information on the Background of the AFT-NEA Merger Break.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains informational materials about the breakdown in merger talks between the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and the National Education Association (NEA). Included in the packet are (a) the AFT statement on the breakup of unity talks; (b) transcripts of two news conferences by David Selden, president of the AFT, on the…

American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

233

Radiation and mixed-waste incineration. Background information document. Volume 1. Technology. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report provides a broad look at technology issues surrounding the incineration of radioactive and mixed wastes. It is intended to high light major considerations and to provide direction that would enable the reader who must deal in depth with incineration to focus on and seek specific information on concerns appropriate to a particular situation. It is not a comprehensive

Nawar

1991-01-01

234

Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

Sutter, S. L.

1982-05-01

235

Planning serials cancellations and cooperative collection development in the health sciences: methodology and background information.  

PubMed

In an era of steady-state budgets many research and academic libraries must cancel a significant number of current serials to maintain acquisitions of monographs. Thus paper reviews several techniques that have been used or that are of potential use in a rational selection of titles for cancellation. The context of the proposed methodology involves a network of libraries rather than an individual library. The methodology was tested with specific health sciences serial titles held by University of California libraries and resource libraries in NLM Region XI. As a test for the proposed methodology, background data were collected on 600 current foreign language serial titles included in SERLINE and held by at least one of the libraries in the networks of interest. Price, major secondary service coverage with productivity/impact factors, extent of holdings, and average number of recorded circulations per year in several of the libraries were recorded for each title. With the use of several different rules, estimates were made of the subscription savings that might be realized. It seems feasible to extend the same methodology to other groups of serial titles. PMID:1191822

Bourne, C P

1975-10-01

236

[State and development of background information for the evaluation of Czech cancer screening programmes].  

PubMed

Czech cancer screening programmes feature a comprehensive multimodal information system which covers all the levels of assessment needed - population-based monitoring (Czech National Cancer Registry), monitoring of results in the diagnostic databases of centres, as well as the quantification of coverage and outputs of primary care according to the administrative data of health care payers. A system of personalised invitations to cancer screening programmes was launched in 2014, based on a stand-alone component of the information system which makes it possible to identify eligible clients in health care payers databases. The system was fully standardised and uniformly implemented in all health insurance companies; its functionalities also involve both continuous and retrospective assessment of the results of personalised invitation. The legislative framework in force will have to be applied and implemented for a more comprehensive and integrated employment of all involved data sources, i.e. cancer registries, screening registries, and administrative data. The system must be able to analyse de-identified individual records on clients participation in screening programmes, and thus to ensure an adequate analysis of performance indicators in compliance with international recommendations. PMID:25494889

Dušek, L; Májek, O; Klimeš, D; Bláha, M; Brabec, P; Gregor, J

2014-01-01

237

Possibilities and implications of using the ICF and other vocabulary standards in electronic health records  

PubMed Central

There is now widespread recognition of the powerful potential of electronic health record (EHR) systems to improve the healthcare delivery system. The benefits of EHRs grow even larger when the health data within their purview are seamlessly shared, aggregated, and processed across different providers, settings, and institutions. Yet, the plethora of idiosyncratic conventions for identifying the same clinical content in different information systems is a fundamental barrier to fully leveraging the potential of EHRs. Only by adopting vocabulary standards that provide the lingua franca across these local dialects can computers efficiently move, aggregate, and use health data for decision support, outcomes management, quality reporting, research, and many other purposes. In this regard, the ICF is an important standard for physiotherapists because it provides a framework and standard language for describing health and health-related states. However, physiotherapists and other healthcare professionals capture a wide range of data such as patient histories, clinical findings, tests and measurements, procedures, etc. for which other vocabulary standards such as LOINC and SNOMED CT are crucial for interoperable communication between different electronic systems. In this paper we describe how the ICF and other internationally accepted vocabulary standards could advance physiotherapy practice and research by enabling data sharing and reuse by EHRs. We highlight how these different vocabulary standards fit together within a comprehensive record system, and how EHRs can make use of them, with a particular focus on enhancing decision-making. By incorporating the ICF and other internationally accepted vocabulary standards into our clinical information systems, physiotherapists will be able to leverage the potent capabilities of EHRs and contribute our unique clinical perspective to other healthcare providers within the emerging electronic health information infrastructure. PMID:23897840

Vreeman, Daniel J.; Richoz, Christophe

2013-01-01

238

Use of standard vocabulary services in validation of water resources data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ontology repositories are increasingly being exposed through vocabulary and concept services. Primarily this is in support of resource discovery. Thesaurus functionality and even more sophisticated reasoning offers the possibility of overcoming the limitations of simple text-matching and tagging which is the basis of most search. However, controlled vocabularies have other important roles in distributed systems: in particular in constraining content validity. A national water information system established by the Australian Bureau of Meterorology ('the Bureau') has deployed a system for ingestion of data from multiple providers. This uses a http interface onto separately maintained vocabulary services as part of the quality assurance chain. With over 200 data providers potentially transferring data to the Bureau, a standard XML-based Water Data Transfer Format (WDTF) was developed for receipt of data into an integrated national water information system. The WDTF schema was built upon standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The structure and syntax specified by a W3C XML Schema is complemented by additional constraints described using Schematron. These implement important content requirements and business rules including: • Restricted cardinality: where optional elements and attributes inherited from the base standards become mandatory in the application, or repeatable elements or attributes are limited to one or omitted. For example, the sampledFeature element from O&M is optional but is mandatory for a samplingPoint element in WDTF. • Vocabulary checking: WDTF data use seventeen vocabularies or code lists derived from Regulations under the Commonwealth Water Act 2007. Examples of codelists are the Australian Water Regulations list, observed property vocabulary, and units of measures. • Contextual constraints: in many places, the permissible value is dependent on the value of another field. For example, within observations the unit of measure must be commensurate with the observed property type Validation of data submitted in WDTF uses a two-pass approach. First, syntax and structural validation is performed by standard XML Schema validation tools. Second, validation of contextual constraints and code list checking is performed using a hybrid method combining context-sensitive rule-based validation (allowing the rules to be expressed within a given context) and semantic vocabulary services. Schematron allows rules to incorporate assertions of XPath expressions to access and constrain element content, therefore enabling contextual constraints. Schematron is also used to perform element cardinality checking. The vocabularies or code lists are formalized in SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System), an RDF-based language. SKOS provides mechanisms to define concepts, associate them with (multi-lingual) labels or terms, and record thesaurus-like relationships between them. The vocabularies are managed in a RDF database or semantic triple store. Querying is implemented as a semantic vocabulary service, with an http-based API that allows queries to be issued from rules written in Schematron. WDTF has required development and deployment of some ontologies whose scope is much more general than this application, in particular covering 'observed properties' and 'units of measure', which also have to be related to each other and consistent with the dimensional analysis. Separation of the two validation passes reflects the separate governance and stability of the structural and content rules, and allows an organisation's business rules to be moved out of the XML schema definition and the XML schema to be reused by other businesses with their own specific rules. With the general approach proven, harmonization opportunities with more generic services are being explored, such as the GEMET API for SKOS, developed by the European Environment Agency. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the AUSCOPE team for their development and support provided of the vocabulary services.

Yu, Jonathan; Cox, Simon; Ratcliffe, David

2010-05-01

239

Beyond Static Assessment of Children's Receptive Vocabulary: The Dynamic Assessment of Word Learning (DAWL)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children's low scores on vocabulary tests are often erroneously interpreted as reflecting poor cognitive and/or language skills. It may be necessary to incorporate the measurement of word-learning ability in estimating children's lexical abilities. Aims: To explore the reliability and validity of the Dynamic Assessment of…

Camilleri, Bernard; Botting, Nicola

2013-01-01

240

Vocabulary Knowledge Is a Critical Determinant of the Difference in Reading Comprehension Growth between First and Second Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examines the role of decoding and vocabulary skills as longitudinal predictors of reading comprehension in young first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. Methods: Two-group latent growth models were used to assess differences in growth and predictions of growth between the 198 L1 and 90 L2 language learners. Results: L1…

Lervag, Arne; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

2010-01-01

241

[Anglicisms in the German medical vocabulary].  

PubMed

In view of an ever-increasing infiltration of the German medical vocabulary by Britishisms and Americanisms, a linguistic attempt was made to categorize this phraseology as follows: more or less incorporated terminology, "internationalized" terms, identical translations, unnecessary use of English expressions instead of German synonyms, borrowing from the English with an alteration of the original meaning, and German neologisms on the basis of English vocabular material. Specimens from all these categories are enumerated. PMID:4024069

Schleyer, F

1985-01-01

242

Development of a Controlled Vocabulary for Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent emergence of a number of Environmental Observing systems calls the for the need of a nationwide geoscience cyberinfrastructure. One of the problems that need to be overcome when building a nationwide CI is the vexing problem of disparate and incompatible metadata descriptions that exist due to the use of different standards (if at all) and also the use of different vocabularies to describe the same thing or multiple use of a single word to describe different things leading to interoperability problems. To avoid syntactic interoperability problems many data clearinghouses (UK's Gigateway, Canada's GeoConnections, Australian Spatial Data Directory, US NSDI etc.) are migrating to ISO 19115 metadata standard. While the adoption of a standard is a first step towards solving the syntactic interoperability problem to some extent semantic difference remain because the ISO 19115 does not provide any controlled vocabulary for scientific terminology. In this study our aim is to develop a thesaurus for hydraulic science (as it is a central subject of all environmental observing systems) and engineering keywords that consists of several thousand entries which will help solving homonym, synonym problems as well as allowing discovery of more specific terms when a broader term was searched for. Development methods allow multi-lingual controlled vocabulary as in ISO standard since the relations (classification, narrower term, broader term, synonym etc.) between the terms in the thesaurus are independent of the language used. Human readable vocabulary may be attached to concepts as labels with a "language" identifier such that an entry of e.g. n0231 returns "rain" in English while "pluie" in French.

Beran, B.; Piasecki, M.; Choi, Y.

2005-12-01

243

Effects of Interactive versus Simultaneous Display of Multimedia Glosses on L2 Reading Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of visual and verbal multimedia information on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of learners of English with lower proficiency levels. In the interactive display condition, learners were allowed to select the type of multimedia information whereas the…

Türk, Emine; Erçetin, Gülcan

2014-01-01

244

Surveys for presence of Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa): background information and field methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) is the most aquatic of the native frogs in the Pacific Northwest. The common name derives from the pattern of black, ragged-edged spots set against a brown or red ground color on the dorsum of adult frogs. Oregon spotted frogs are generally associated with wetland complexes that have several aquatic habitat types and sizeable coverage of emergent vegetation. Like other ranid frogs native to the Northwest, Oregon spotted frogs breed in spring, larvae transform in summer of their breeding year, and adults tend to be relatively short lived (3-5 yrs). Each life stage (egg, tadpole, juvenile and adult) has characteristics that present challenges for detection. Breeding can be explosive and completed within 1-2 weeks. Egg masses are laid in aggregations, often in a few locations in large areas of potential habitat. Egg masses can develop, hatch, and disintegrate in <2 weeks during warm weather. Tadpoles can be difficult to identify, have low survival, and spend most of their 3-4 months hidden in vegetation or flocculant substrates. Juveniles and adults are often difficult to capture and can spend summers away from breeding areas. Moreover, a substantial portion of extant populations are of limited size (<100 breeding adults), and field densities of all life stages are often low. An understanding of the biology of the species and use of multiple visits are thus important for assessing presence of Oregon spotted frogs. This report is meant to be a resource for USDA Region 6 Forest Service (FS) and OR/WA Bureau of Land Management (BLM) personnel tasked with surveying for the presence of Oregon spotted frogs. Our objective was to summarize information to improve the efficiency of field surveys and increase chances of detection if frogs are present. We include overviews of historical and extant ranges of Oregon spotted frog. We briefly summarize what is known of Oregon spotted frog habitat associations and review aspects of behavior and ecology that are likely to affect detectability in the field. We summarize characteristics that can help differentiate Oregon spotted frog life stages from other northwestern ranid frogs encountered during surveys. Appendices include examples of data collection formats and a protocol for disinfecting field gear.

Pearl, Christopher A.; Clayton, David; Turner, Lauri

2010-01-01

245

IV. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring language (vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding).  

PubMed

Mastery of language skills is an important predictor of daily functioning and health. Vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding are relatively quick and easy to measure and correlate highly with overall cognitive functioning, as well as with success in school and work. New measures of vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding (in both English and Spanish) were developed for the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB). In the Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test (TPVT), participants hear a spoken word while viewing four pictures, and then must choose the picture that best represents the word. This approach tests receptive vocabulary knowledge without the need to read or write, removing the literacy load for children who are developing literacy and for adults who struggle with reading and writing. In the Toolbox Oral Reading Recognition Test (TORRT), participants see a letter or word onscreen and must pronounce or identify it. The examiner determines whether it was pronounced correctly by comparing the response to the pronunciation guide on a separate computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of language during childhood and the relation of language and brain function. We also review the development of the TPVT and TORRT, including information about the item calibration process and results from a validation study. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the measures are discussed. PMID:23952202

Gershon, Richard C; Slotkin, Jerry; Manly, Jennifer J; Blitz, David L; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Schnipke, Deborah; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gleason, Jean Berko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Weintraub, Sandra

2013-08-01

246

Managing Medical Vocabulary Updates in a Clinical Data Warehouse: An RxNorm Case Study  

PubMed Central

Use of terminology standards facilitates aggregating data from multiple sources for information retrieval, exchange and analysis. However, medical vocabularies are continuously updated and incorporating those changes consistently into clinical data warehouses requires rigorous methodology. To integrate pharmacy data from two hospital pharmacy information systems the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) project mapped medication orders to RxNorm content using the RxNorm drug model. In order to keep the data relevant and up-to-date, we developed a strategy for updating to RxNorm, while preserving the original meaning and mapping of the legacy data. This case study discusses managing the vocabulary update by following the RxNorm content maintenance strategy and supplementing it with operations to retain access to its drug model information. PMID:21347024

Podchiyska, Tanya; Hernandez, Penni; Ferris, Todd; Weber, Susan; Lowe, Henry J.

2010-01-01

247

Prediction and selection of vocabulary for two leisure activities.  

PubMed

People who use augmentative or alternative communication (AAC) need access to a relevant, socially valid vocabulary if they are to communicate successfully in a variety of contexts. Many people with complex communication needs who utilize some form of high technology or low technology AAC rely on others to predict and select vocabulary for them. In this study the ability of one speech pathologist, nine leisure support workers, and six people with cerebral palsy to accurately predict context-specific vocabulary was explored. Participants predicted vocabulary for two leisure activities - sailing session and Internet café - using the blank page method of vocabulary selection to identify the vocabulary items they considered important for each activity. This predicted vocabulary was then compared with the actual vocabulary used in each of the activities. A total of 187 (68%) of the words predicted for the sailing session were used during recorded conversations, with 88 words (32%) not appearing in the recorded samples. During the visit to the Internet café only 104 (47%) of the words predicted occurred in the recorded samples, with 117 words (53%) not occurring at all. These results support the need to socially validate any vocabulary in order to ensure that it is relevant and useful for the person using the AAC system. PMID:17852052

Dark, Leigha; Balandin, Susan

2007-01-01

248

Idea Bank: Literature Circle Roles for Science Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study of science is often vocabulary intensive. An analysis of high school chemistry, biology, physics, and Earth science textbooks showed that approximately 1,000 to 3,000 novel science terms are contained in each (Groves 1995). Given the shear magnitude of terms, science vocabulary is problematic for many science teachers and learners. To provide students with meaningful experiences with science vocabulary, the authors group students into literature circles. This article describes how they have modified traditional literature circle roles to help students learn science vocabulary.

Linda Kucan

2007-07-01

249

Background Information for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

2001-01-01

250

Mononucleosis Background Information  

E-print Network

the respiratory system, the liver, and the lymphatic system. It is most often caused by the Epstein-Barr virus to a cold, tonsillitis or digestive disturbances. Blood tests are usually delayed until the second week

Suzuki, Masatsugu

251

Background Information about PLCO  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large population-based randomized trial evaluating screening programs for these cancers. The primary goal of this long-term trial of the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and on secondary endpoints.

252

Background Error Covariance Estimation Using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory.SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume

2014-01-01

253

Closing the Vocabulary Gap?: A Review of Research on Early Childhood Vocabulary Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our qualitative literature review of 31 published studies found that (a) three major approaches are used in early childhood classrooms to support children's vocabulary learning--exposing children to advanced words, providing direct word-meaning instruction, and employing mixed-method interventions; (b) these practices support children's learning…

Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

2011-01-01

254

Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: Direct Tests and Text-Derived Simulations of Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determining word meanings that ought to be taught or introduced is important for educators. A sequence for vocabulary growth can be inferred from many sources, including testing children's knowledge of word meanings at various ages, predicting from print frequency, or adult-recalled Age of Acquisition. A new approach, Word Maturity, is based…

Biemiller, Andrew; Rosenstein, Mark; Sparks, Randall; Landauer, Thomas K.; Foltz, Peter W.

2014-01-01

255

Analyses of Receptive and Productive Korean EFL Vocabulary: Computer-Based Vocabulary Learning Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research study investigated the effects of 8 versions of a computer-based vocabulary learning program on receptive and productive knowledge levels of college students. The participants were 106 male and 103 female Korean EFL students from Kyungsung University and Kwandong University in Korea. Students who participated in versions of…

Kim, Scott Sungki

2013-01-01

256

Grabbed Early by Vocabulary: Nation's Ongoing Contributions to Vocabulary and Reading in a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"I was grabbed early [by vocabulary] and never let go. That's why it's difficult to explain why I enjoy working in this area. I just love doing it," said Paul Nation (in Coxhead, 2005, p. 46). How many people get grabbed by an area of research, teaching, and learning that continues to engage interest and cause excitement after 30 years? In this…

Coxhead, Averil

2010-01-01

257

The Effects of Topic Interest on the Vocabulary Retention in Third Grade Students with and without Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of topic interest on the vocabulary learning and retention in third grade students with and without learning disabilities. All students learned 12 unfamiliar vocabulary words in three different vocabulary learning conditions: High-interest topic vocabulary, low-interest topic vocabulary, and vocabulary words without…

Endo, Yasuko Amy

2010-01-01

258

Translation and Bilingual Practice for German Vocabulary Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a critical examination of the current practices and beliefs about vocabulary teaching and learning in typical communicative-approach German classrooms. While research on vocabulary acquisition is scarce, frequency dictionaries reveal that current practice is based heavily on the use of concrete, referential lexemes that may be…

Augustyn, Prisca

2013-01-01

259

What Is Most Important to Know about Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes use of Perfetti's Lexical Quality Hypothesis as a perspective for thinking about vocabulary instruction in terms of semantics (meaning), phonology (pronunciation), orthography (spelling), morphology (meaningful word parts), and syntax (how words function in sentences). Examples are presented of how these aspects of vocabulary

Kucan, Linda

2012-01-01

260

LARGE VOCABULARY DECODING AND CONFIDENCE ESTIMATION USING WORD POSTERIOR PROBABILITIES  

E-print Network

LARGE VOCABULARY DECODING AND CONFIDENCE ESTIMATION USING WORD POSTERIOR PROBABILITIES G. Evermann Email: {ge204,pcw}@eng.cam.ac.uk ABSTRACT This paper investigates the estimation of word posterior probabilities based on word lattices and presents applica- tions of these posteriors in a large vocabulary

Hain, Thomas

261

Redefining Vocabulary: The New Learning Strategy for Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although vocabulary development is an important part of the social studies curriculum, vocabulary activities are often inadequate, leaving students with cursory knowledge of terms. Worse still is the fact that many of the most critical words demarcating the field are not included in those activities. Therefore, a transformation from viewing…

Alexander-Shea, Aimee

2011-01-01

262

Investigating Methods of Kindergarten Vocabulary Instruction: Which Methods Work Best?  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOR OUTSTANDING STUDENT RESEARCH AWARD WINNER Early vocabulary knowledge provides an important foundation for children's reading development (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2000; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Thus, the many children who enter school with limited vocabulary knowledge may be at risk for experiencing later difficulty in reading. In order to provide support for the

Rebecca Deffes Silverman

263

Occupational Preparation Vocabulary Module. Instructor Manual. Student Manual. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module contains a student manual and an instructor's manual for study of vocabulary for vocational education aimed at students with special needs. The student manual consists of quizzes that consist of matching and multiple-choice items that can be used to review the vocabulary of the unit as presented on a videotaped lesson. Answers to the…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

264

Using Objects To Teach Vocabulary Words with Multiple Meanings. Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared outcomes of traditional direct instruction and pictorial worksheets with that of a hands-on approach using objects, word cards, and definition cards to teach vocabulary words with multiple meanings to public school third graders. Found that the hands-on students made significantly greater vocabulary progress than direct instruction…

Rule, Audrey C.; Barrera, Manuel T., III

2003-01-01

265

Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition from Reading an Authentic Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of studies have demonstrated that second/foreign language learners can acquire vocabulary from reading. This study was designed to examine whether advanced EFL learners can acquire vocabulary incidentally from reading an authentic text. Eighteen first year English major students read and listened to the first eight chapters of Pride and…

Daskalovska, Nina

2014-01-01

266

Impacts of Vocabulary Acquisition Techniques Instruction on Students' Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study were to determine how the selected vocabulary acquisition techniques affected the vocabulary ability of 35 students who took EN 111 and investigate their attitudes towards the techniques instruction. The research study was one-group pretest and post-test design. The instruments employed were in-class exercises…

Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

2011-01-01

267

VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

KRIPPNER, STANLEY

268

The Role of Experience in Learning Science Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparing traditional to experiential instruction, a study investigated whether teaching content area vocabulary using hands-on experiences and teacher/student interaction would result in greater vocabulary knowledge and better comprehension of a related text than conventional dictionary work. Subjects, 45 fourth grade students from a chapter 1…

Lloyd, Carol V.; Contreras, Norma J.

269

Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

2013-01-01

270

Enjoying Vocabulary Learning in Junior High: The Keyword Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The keyword method is a mnemonic device limited to teaching vocabulary items. It involves association of a bizarre image with the meaning of the word and can take on the attractive qualities of a game. Results indicate that motivation and interest are stimulated and vocabulary skills improved. (AMH)

Singer, Gail

1977-01-01

271

Transformation of Traditional Vocabulary Exercises into Collaborative Writing Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the reading course, especially the so-called intensive reading course or integrative English reading course, there are some vocabulary exercises which intend to consolidate the active vocabulary emerging in the reading passages. Mostly, these exercises are in the form of blank-filling or rewriting sentences with the words given. The problem…

Zheng, Jian-feng

2010-01-01

272

A Study: The Relationship of Personality Type to Vocabulary Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the hypothesis that aspects of one's personality are associated with expansion of his or her vocabulary, a study focused on thirteen students of various ages who constituted a vocabulary development class. Students were taught techniques for discovering meaning through context or extracting meaning through word structure. Considerable time…

Covner, Thelma Crockin

273

Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

2011-01-01

274

Preventing a Vocabulary Lag: What Lessons Are Learned From Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses why early and sustained vocabulary development is important for listening and reading comprehension development and presents findings from 8 studies implemented with children of mostly low socioeconomic status in settings from day care to first grade. Program interventions were based on learning new vocabulary developed out of storybook read-alouds and not with word-reading approaches. Practitioners and researchers

Richard Sinatra; Vicky Zygouris-Coe; Sheryl B. Dasinger

2012-01-01

275

The PRO-VOC Method: Combining Pronunciation and Vocabulary Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a new method for the combined teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary to learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). While there is commonly strong emphasis on the teaching of vocabulary, pronunciation teaching is frequently neglected in the EFL classroom. The proposed method aims to address such imbalance which may…

Nicolaidis, Katerina; Mattheoudakis, Marina

2012-01-01

276

Mathematics Vocabulary and Its Effect on Student Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research project describes a program for improving student comprehension of mathematical vocabulary. The targeted population consisted of two classes of fifth grade students from two elementary schools located in the suburbs of a large metropolitan area in Illinois. The problem of poor mathematical vocabulary was documented through…

Blessman, Jennifer; Myszczak, Beverly

277

Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et…

Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

2012-01-01

278

Vocabulary Development during Read-Alouds: Examining the Instructional Sequence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading aloud to children is a recommended practice in early childhood and primary-grade classrooms that is purported to enhance vocabulary growth. General guidelines can be found in the literature, but practitioners often rely on conventional wisdom and their own instincts to embed vocabulary instruction into their read-alouds. This paper…

Kindle, Karen J.

2010-01-01

279

Does Translation Contribute to Learners' Free Active Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into four "male…

Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

2012-01-01

280

The Role of Writing Pedagogy in Vocabulary Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve and activate the vocabulary of EFL learners, an alternative to common advice in trying to use them in speech can be invited. As two quite different methodologies in writing pedagogy are process and product writing, it is of concern to find which holds more promise for the vocabulary improvement. Product writing pedagogy encompasses…

Mirhassani, Seyyed Akbar; Samar, Reza Ghafar; Fattahipoor, Majid

2006-01-01

281

Reflections on Vocabulary Size of Chinese University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College English teaching in China aims at developing students' communicative competence, in which vocabulary size plays an important role. According to Basic Requirements in the College English Syllabus (1999), Chinese university students' vocabulary size should be 4,200 words. From investigation and a study of the research literature, the author…

Hui, Du

2004-01-01

282

The Keyword Method of Vocabulary Acquisition: An Experimental Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The keyword method of vocabulary acquisition is a two-step mnemonic technique for learning vocabulary terms. The first step, the acoustic link, generates a keyword based on the sound of the foreign word. The second step, the imagery link, ties the keyword to the meaning of the item to be learned, via an interactive visual image or other…

Griffith, Douglas

283

Fragmentation and Consolidation: Recent Articles on Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary can no longer be said to be "a Cinderella topic", at least so far as its representation in other journals is concerned. Research articles on vocabulary learning and teaching now occur frequently and have been particularly well represented in recent issues of the North American research journal "Language Learning". While studies of…

Broady, Elspeth

2008-01-01

284

French Vocabulary in "Encore Tricolore": Do Pupils Have a Chance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

British learners acquire very little vocabulary in their foreign languages, compared to pupils elsewhere in Europe, particularly learners of English as a foreign language. Could the materials used for teaching help explain this difference? An analysis of the vocabulary loading of a textbook for French as a foreign language commonly used in…

Tschichold, Cornelia

2012-01-01

285

The Effect of Vocabulary on Introductory Microbiology Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…

Richter, Emily

2011-01-01

286

Improving Vocabulary Skills through Assistive Technology: Rick's Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examines the use of two assistive technologies, the Franklin Language Master 6000b and Microsoft PowerPoint 2003, as visual support systems to aid in the vocabulary acquisition skills of a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention used children's literature and best practices in teaching vocabulary skills in…

Lindsey-Glenn, Pam F.; Gentry, James E.

2008-01-01

287

A Context-Based Strategy for Teaching Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in Deanna L. Nelson's high school classroom study vocabulary gradually over a period of time. Students begin by collecting words from readings and listing them on a designated whiteboard. They prepare practice quizzes to exchange with peers and engage in frequent vocabulary discussions that emphasize recognition of context clues and other…

Nelson, Deanna L.

2008-01-01

288

Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738…

Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

2010-01-01

289

ESL Preschoolers' English Vocabulary Acquisition from Storybook Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents a study which focused on some of the gaps in current knowledge about vocabulary acquisition from storybook reading. First, the study examined the effects of storybook reading on the vocabulary acquisition of 4- and 5-year-olds. Second, the study not only employed repeated readings of stories but also employed…

Collins, Molly Fuller

2005-01-01

290

Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2011-01-01

291

Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

Gao, Xuesong

2012-01-01

292

Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Young English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Method: Twenty-two…

Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

2010-01-01

293

Pictures and Words: Spanish and English Vocabulary in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study evaluated the relation between Spanish and English vocabulary. Whereas previously reported correlations have revealed strong differences among types of vocabulary measures used and the ages of the students tested, no prior study had used a multilevel model to control for classroom-level differences. The current study used…

Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Francis, David J.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles

2009-01-01

294

Cognitive Correlates of Vocabulary Growth in English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study modeled vocabulary trajectories in 91 English language learners (ELLs) with Punjabi, Tamil, or Portuguese home languages, and 50 English monolinguals (EL1) from Grades 1 to 6. The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory and vocabulary were examined. ELLs underperformed…

Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther

2011-01-01

295

Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different grades. The results showed significant progress on…

Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; Vermeer, Anne

2011-01-01

296

Direct and Extended Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten: Investigating Transfer Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an 18-week program of direct and extended vocabulary instruction with kindergarten students on both proximal measures of target word knowledge and transfer measures of generalized language and literacy. A second purpose was to examine whether treatment effects would be moderated by initial receptive vocabulary knowledge measured at pretest. In

Michael D. Coyne; D. Betsy McCoach; Susan Loftus; Richard Zipoli Jr; Maureen Ruby; Yvel C. Crevecoeur; Sharon Kapp

2010-01-01

297

Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge.  

PubMed

25 engineering students in India, who were highly motivated to improve their English, filled out a questionnaire about their reading habits in English and took a demanding vocabulary test based on words taken from preparation books for the Graduate Records Examination. The correlation between reading habits and vocabulary was substantial (r = .78). PMID:24611248

Pratheeba, N; Krashen, S

2013-10-01

298

A Prereading Strategy: Using the Vocabulary, Language, Prediction Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students use the Vocabulary, Language, Prediction (VLP) approach to understand new vocabulary prior to reading. This approach provides a means of preteaching by using oral language activities and vocabulary words as a basis for predicting what might happen in a nonfiction reading selection. The VLP approach also aids in the structural analysis and morphology of words. Using identified vocabulary, students record synonyms, antonyms, categorization, dictionary usage, semantic analysis, part of speech, phonics analysis, structural analysis, and rhyming words. Once students complete the word study, they make predictions based on teacher-created questions related to the content. After reading the selection, students modify their predictions based on their reading and complete a crossword puzzle based on the vocabulary and word study. The VLP approach can be used in all content areas.

Valerie A. Adair

2012-01-01

299

Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

Kugelmass, Rachel

300

Art Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes five articles that examine the application of information technology to cultural activities throughout the world. Highlights include the development of information standards for the description of art objects; standards for the computerized exchange of museum information; the Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN); vocabulary

Busch, Joseph A.; And Others

1992-01-01

301

Controlled Vocabularies, Mini Ontologies and Interoperability (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interoperability has been an elusive goal, but in recent years advances have been made using controlled vocabularies, mini-ontologies and a lot of collaboration. This has led to increased interoperability between disciplines in the U.S. and between international projects. We discuss the successful pattern followed by SPASE, IVOA and IPDA to achieve this new level of international interoperability. A key aspect of the pattern is open standards and open participation with interoperability achieved with shared services, public APIs, standard formats and open access to data. Many of these standards are expressed as controlled vocabularies and mini ontologies. To illustrate the pattern we look at SPASE related efforts and participation of North America's Heliophysics Data Environment and CDPP; Europe's Cluster Active Archive, IMPEx, EuroPlanet, ESPAS and HELIO; and Japan's magnetospheric missions. Each participating project has its own life cycle and successful standards development must always take this into account. A major challenge for sustained collaboration and interoperability is the limited lifespan of many of the participating projects. Innovative approaches and new tools and frameworks are often developed as competitively selected, limited term projects, but for sustainable interoperability successful approaches need to become part of a long term infrastructure. This is being encouraged and achieved in many domains and we are entering a golden age of interoperability.

King, T. A.; Walker, R. J.; Roberts, D.; Thieman, J.; Ritschel, B.; Cecconi, B.; Genot, V. N.

2013-12-01

302

Document Retrieval Experiments Using Indexing Vocabularies of Varying Size. II. Hashing, Truncation, Digram and Trigram Encoding of Index Terms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of fixed-length character strings for controlling the size of indexing vocabularies in information retrieval systems. An evaluation of digram and trigram encoding, using the Cranfield document test collection, is presented and the results are compared with the hashing and the right-hand truncation of the terms. (Author)

Willett, Peter

1979-01-01

303

Supporting vocabulary growth of high school students: An analysis of the potential of a mobile learning device and gaming app  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the educational benefits of using an app on a mobile device (i.e. iPod Touch) to aid in the process of high school students' learning. The emphasis of this study explored the possibilities of learning vocabulary using a mobile device in an informal environment. Mobile devices embrace and encourage ubiquitous learning through their

Jennifer Redd

2011-01-01

304

Combining Contextual and Morphemic Cues Is Beneficial during Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: Semantic Transparency in Novel Compound Word Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two studies, we investigated how skilled readers use contextual and morphemic information in the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition during reading. In Experiment 1, we monitored skilled readers' eye movements while they silently read sentence pairs containing novel and known English compound words that were either semantically…

Brusnighan, Stephen M.; Folk, Jocelyn R.

2012-01-01

305

Is Vocabulary a Strong Variable Predicting Reading Comprehension and Does the Prediction Degree of Vocabulary Vary According to Text Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore whether there was a significant correlation between vocabulary and reading comprehension in terms of text types as well as whether the vocabulary was a predictor of reading comprehension in terms of text types. In this regard, the correlational research design was used to explain specific research…

Yildirim, Kasim; Yildiz, Mustafa; Ates, Seyit

2011-01-01

306

Receptive Vocabulary, Expressive Vocabulary, and Speech Production of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys…

Roberts, Joanne; Price, Johanna; Barnes, Elizabeth; Nelson, Lauren; Burchinal, Margaret; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Edwards, Anne; Malkin, Cheryl; Anderson, Kathleen; Misenheimer, Jan; Hooper, Stephen R.

2007-01-01

307

The Exploring Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition and Common Main Gaps in the Current Studies of Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary can be a key factor for success, central to a language, and paramount to a language learner. In such situation, the lexicon may be the most important component for learners (Grass and Selinker, 1994), and mastering of vocabulary is an essential component of second/foreign language teaching and learning that has been repeatedly…

Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

2012-01-01

308

Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Typically Developing Language and Low Language Skills: Comparing Embedded and Explicit Vocabulary Instructional Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who enter kindergarten with low oral language skills are at great risk for reading problems, especially in the areas of vocabulary and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional vocabulary methods of storybook reading with children who exhibit typically developing language skills and…

Capellini, Cara S.

2010-01-01

309

Growing Capacity with the Vocabulary of English Language Arts Programs: Vocabulary Megaclusters. Reading Research Report. #11.02  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The typical approach to teaching vocabulary in English/Language Arts programs has been to focus on six to eight words per text. Even though these words may add meaning to a particular story, the target words are often rare and their generalizability is limited. The Vocabulary Megaclusters provides a framework for selecting and teaching words…

Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

2011-01-01

310

Writing with Others' Words: Native and Non-Native University Students' Use of Information from a Background Reading Text in Academic Compositions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the use of background information by native and non-native English-speaking university students in explaining, summarizing, paraphrasing, quoting, and copying information from a reading text. Thirty students in composition courses (10 native speakers and 20 non-native speakers, 10 each from a remedial and a standard class) wrote…

Campbell, Cherry

311

An harmonised vocabulary for communicating and interchanging Biofilms experimental results.  

PubMed

Biofilm studies are at the crossroads of Biology, Chemistry, Medicine, Material Science and Engineering, among other fields. Data harmonisation in Biofilms is therefore crucial to allow for researchers to collaborate, interchange, understand, and replicate studies at an inter-laboratory and inter-domain scale. The international Minimum Information About a Biofilms Experiment initiative has prepared a set of guidelines for documenting biofilms experiments and data, namely the minimum information checklist. This paper goes a step forward and describes a new ontology for the broad description of biofilm experiments and data. In such an interdisciplinary context we chose to rely on a common integration framework provided by a foundational ontology that facilitates the addition and extension of various sub-domain modules, and the consistent integration of terminology extracted from several existing ontologies, e.g. EXPO and ChEBI. The community is participating actively in the production of this resource, and it is already used by public biofilms-centred databases, such as BiofOmics, and bioinformatics tools, such as the Biofilms Experiment Workbench. This practical validation serves the purpose of disseminating the controlled vocabulary among researchers and identifying current limitations, glitches, and inconsistencies. Information branches will be added, extended or refactored according to user feedback and group discussions. PMID:25339083

Sousa, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Azevedo, Nuno F; Lourenço, Anália

2014-01-01

312

Object-oriented controlled-vocabulary translator using TRANSOFT + HyperPAD.  

PubMed Central

Automated coding of surgical pathology reports is demonstrated. This public-domain translation software operates on surgical pathology files, extracting diagnoses and assigning codes in a controlled medical vocabulary, such as SNOMED. Context-sensitive translation algorithms are employed, and syntactically correct diagnostic items are produced that are matched with controlled vocabulary. English-language surgical pathology reports, accessioned over one year at the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, were translated. With an interface to a larger hospital information system, all natural language pathology reports are automatically rendered as topography and morphology codes. This translator frees the pathologist from the time-intensive task of personally coding each report, and may be used to flag certain diagnostic categories that require specific quality assurance actions. PMID:1807773

Moore, G. W.; Berman, J. J.

1991-01-01

313

The Challenge of Validation: Assessing the Performance of a Test of Productive Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the performance of a vocabulary test designed to measure second language productive vocabulary knowledge.The test, Lex30, uses a word association task to elicit vocabulary, and uses word frequency data to measure the vocabulary produced. Here we report firstly on the reliability of the test as measured by a test-retest study, a…

Fitzpatrick, Tess; Clenton, Jon

2010-01-01

314

The Effect of Enhanced Storybook Interaction on Signing Deaf Children's Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The link between vocabulary and later literacy is well documented in the research base. One way children gain vocabulary is through incidental learning. Deaf or hard-of-hearing children (D/HH) often struggle with incidental learning and require vocabulary intervention to increase their lexicon. An effective vocabulary intervention is storybook…

Trussell, Jessica W.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

2014-01-01

315

Enhancing Long-Term Retention of New Vocabulary Using Visual Images.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A practicum used a new learning tool to enhance long-term retention of new vocabulary. Sixteen seventh-graders in Language Arts, who had a long-term retention mean score of approximately 40% of newly learned vocabulary, increased their long-term retention of new vocabulary by 25% (a new mean of 65% of new vocabulary). Additional objectives…

Igelsrud, Karen

316

The Role of Vocabulary Size in Predicting Performance on TOEFL Reading Item Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine a) whether vocabulary knowledge, captured in the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), is related to the performance on the five types of reading comprehension items tested in TOEFL, i.e., Guessing Vocabulary, Main Idea, Inference, Reference, and Stated Detail; and b) whether EFL learners with different levels of vocabulary

Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Akbarian, Is'haaq

2012-01-01

317

An ODIP effort to map R2R ocean data terms to international vocabularies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneity of terminology used in describing data creates a barrier to the efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a US program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving the interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access international ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed locally or are specific to the US. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international vocabularies, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: R2R science party names to ORCID person identifiers, UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, and R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO). Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships only, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. The majority of ports were successfully mapped. Differences in the character sets (i.e. whether diacritic marks were used) caused automated matching to fail occasionally, but the number of ports was small enough that these could be manually reviewed. Both organizations and device models have initial mappings, and R2R will propose new terms to the EDMO and SeaVoX Device vocabularies to complete coverage. Mapping to ORCID identifiers was abandoned (though R2R will still hold and expose them when supplied by the data provider). Most ORCID entries do not contain insufficient metadata to confirm potential mappings: the match of a family and given name was considered inconclusive without further support. ORCID also does not assign identifiers posthumously, which is occasionally necessary for historical data in R2R.

Ferreira, Renata; Stocks, Karen; Arko, Robert

2014-05-01

318

Mnemonic instruction of eighth-grade science vocabulary: A focus on retention, and specific vs. general transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There were three goals to this study: (a) to teach eighth-grade students how to use a mnemonic to improve their knowledge of science vocabulary; (b) to investigate retention on an immediate, 2-day, and 2-week retention test among students who use of the method of loci, pegword, keyword mnemonics or free study to study eighth-grade science vocabulary; and (c) to understand whether students could transfer use of a mnemonic under both specific and general transfer conditions. One-hundred and eight eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (e.g., method of loci, pegword, keyword, or free study). Over a 2-week period, students learned their assigned mnemonic device, were tested on immediate, 2-day, and 2-week delay retention of science vocabulary examples and definitions, and were tested on their ability to transfer their mnemonic under a specific transfer condition (study metal alloy uses) and a general transfer condition (study Revolutionary War battle events). The results of this study indicate that students who used the keyword mnemonic to study both science vocabulary examples and definitions outperformed students who used the method of loci and free study methods to study this information. Results also demonstrate that students can use the pegword mnemonic to study science vocabulary definitions. Results also indicate that students who used the keyword and pegword mnemonics retained science vocabulary examples and definitions over time. Additionally, results suggest that students using the keyword mnemonic could transfer the use of a mnemonic under specific transfer and general transfer conditions. The results of this study provide evidence to researchers and teachers that the keyword and pegword mnemonics may help improve eighth-grade students' science knowledge.

Richmond, Aaron S.

319

Documenting the Vocabulary of Astronomy Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning astronomy can be a life-long process, with the seeds of knowledge planted in K-12 classes blossoming in elective college courses to create adults who actively acquire astronomy content. One of the goals of many astronomy 101 courses is to prepare students to be intelligent consumers of mainstream astronomy content, including magazine articles, popular books, and online news. To meet this goal, astronomy educators need to understand what content is being presented in the media and what level vocabulary is being used. The most simplistic way to address this problem is to examine the topics covered and vocabulary used in mainstream astronomy blogs and news feeds. In this study we looked at a selection of prominent blogs and news feeds and we present a statistical study of the frequency different scientific terms are used and topics are addressed. To make this study possible, software to read in RSS feeds was created. This software had to meet the following design specifications: runs in a reasonable amount of time, removes all XML and HTML code from text, sees words with different capitalizations as the same word, ignores end of sentence or phrase punctuation without ignoring hyphens, and has an editable list of "common English words.” This code will be available after the conference at http://www.starstryder.com. Results of this study find that many of the primary topics of Astronomy 101 classes, such as the HR Diagram, are rarely mentioned in blogs and online news, while often de-emphasized topics, such as extra solar planets, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics, show up regularly.

Miller, Scott; Parrish, M.; Gay, P. L.

2008-05-01

320

Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

1981-01-01

321

Modelling out-of-vocabulary words for robust speech recognition  

E-print Network

This thesis concerns the problem of unknown or out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words in continuous speech recognition. Most of today's state-of-the-art speech recognition systems can recognize only words that belong to some ...

Bazzi, Issam

2002-01-01

322

The RWTH Large Vocabulary Arabic Handwriting Recognition System  

E-print Network

The RWTH Large Vocabulary Arabic Handwriting Recognition System Mahdi Hamdani1, Patrick Doetsch1 Arabic handwriting recognition. The recognizer is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) with state (CMLLR) feature adaptation. The RWTH Arabic handwriting recognition system gave competitive results

Ney, Hermann

323

SECONDARY CLASSROOM VOCABULARY: DATA FROM TYPICALLY DEVELOPING STUDENTS  

E-print Network

SECONDARY CLASSROOM VOCABULARY: DATA FROM TYPICALLY DEVELOPING STUDENTS BY SARAH MCKIM THOMAS Submitted to the graduate degree program in Speech-Language Hearing and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment...-SLP Date Defended: 4/4/12 ii The Thesis Committee for SARAH MCKIM THOMAS certifies that this is the approved version of the following thesis: SECONDARY CLASSROOM VOCABULARY: DATA FROM TYPICALLY DEVELOPING STUDENTS...

McKim Thomas, Sarah Summer

2012-05-31

324

Unlocking the Mystery of Mathematics: Give Vocabulary Instruction a Chance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math teacher Bizzie Cors realized that her students needed to “construct meaning for all vocabulary terms and connect to prior knowledge as well as to new concepts and algorithms.” This led her to create a new process to teach vocabulary development. Described in this article is what she calls the “sticky-note chain” process; its final product is a graphic organizer complete with sticky notes, connections, and problems created by the students themselves.

Bizzie Cors

2008-01-01

325

Open-Vocabulary Spoken Utterance Retrieval using Confusion Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach to open-vocabulary spoken utterance retrieval using confusion networks. If out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words are present in queries and the corpus, word-based indexing will not be sufficient. For this problem, we apply phone confusion networks and combine them with word confusion networks. With this approach, we can generate a more compact index table that enables robust

Takaaki Hori; I. Lee Hetherington; Timothy J. Hazen; James R. Glass

2007-01-01

326

Combining open vocabulary recognition and word confusion networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A limitation of most speech recognizers is that they only rec- ognize words from a fixed vocabulary. In this paper, we ex- plore a technique for addressing this deficiency using auto- matically derived units made up of letters and phones. We show how these units can be used for letter-to-phone conver- sion and open-vocabulary recognition. We further show how these

Keith Vertanen

2008-01-01

327

Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a 'Y' junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re-entry survey, and routine surveys around the crater lip did not identify alpha contamination. Background information includes several radiological surveys conducted after these two tests. The MULLET area has been surveyed frequently. The early surveys indicate the area as both contaminated and containing buried radioactive material. A survey conducted in 1970 found the radiological/chemical piping partially intact, including the 'Y' junction, and shows two runs of intact piping running past the U2am crater lip. The survey focused on the piping system itself and detected alpha contamination from 4 counts per minute (cpm) to 900,000 cpm. The highest value was at a pipe flange between a dirt pile and a dirt berm within the current site fence line. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. A 1972 survey was essentially a repeat of the 1970 survey; however, it does not show the 'Y' junction nor does it show piping extending past the U2am crater lip. It also shows a new fence line separating the radiological/chemical piping from the U2am crater area with all piping within the fence. Alpha contamination was detected on pipe flanges during the survey, but alpha contamination was not detected on the dirt pile or the dirt berm. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. Additional surveys were conducted in 1986, 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996. One of the surveys focused on determining the extent of soil contamination around GZ. An alpha contamination plume extending approximately 200 feet south of GZ was detected in a swath approximately 100 feet wide. The maximum measurement was 15,000 cpm alpha. All surveys show the piping within the fence line. Recent surveys (2007 and 2008) were performed around the current fence line by the demarcation group. No removable contamination was identified during these surveys. In late 2008, a visual inspection of the site was conducted by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Restoration group. All piping is within the fence line. Photos taken during this site visit are attached.

none,

2012-06-26

328

Maintaining Scientific Community Vocabularies in Drupal through Consumption of Linked Open Data and Web Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Summer of 2011, a one-year pilot project was funded by the National Science Foundation to build a pre-cruise planning application using the Drupal content management system (CMS). This application will be used to assist the individual operators of research vessels in the UNOLS fleet. A large portion of the operator's pre-cruise process revolves around a questionnaire presented to the principal investigator(PI) that is used to gather information about the nature of their upcoming cruise. The Drupal-based application will be delivered as a distribution for use by any operator of a UNOLS vessel to construct customized questionnaires and provide an interface for the PI to complete this questionnaire at their leisure. A major goal of the project is to develop an application that will require as little programming maintenance as possible after the initial development effort. One of the strategies employed is the reuse of existing controlled vocabularies and linked open data wherever possible for fields of the questionnaire - most notably to populate the concepts of Country, Organization, Port, and Ship. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program manages controlled vocabularies for these concepts and currently exposes these concepts as linked open data. Furthermore, R2R has identified the authoritative source for pertinent oceanographic community vocabularies as ICES for Ship, UNOLS for Port, IANA for Organization, ISO for Country, ISO for Language, SeaDataNet for Device, FIPS for State, and IHO for Sea Area as described at http://www.rvdata.us/voc. The scope of the terms provided by these sources matches the scope of the operator's needs for these concepts, and so the application is being designed to automatically consume served information about these vocabulary terms to populate and update Drupal taxonomies for use in the questionnaire. Where newer terms are required for a PI to complete a questionnaire (before they appear in the vocabularies), the Drupal-based application employs features that provide extensibility to the Drupal taxonomies while striving for lower development and maintenance costs through the use of existing Drupal modules such as web_taxonomy, autocomplete field widgets and custom modules for consuming and managing data at SPARQL endpoints.

Shepherd, A.; Arko, R. A.; Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.

2012-12-01

329

The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to the marine environmental sciences domain since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for • metadata mark-up with verifiable content • populating dynamic drop down lists • semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata • so-called smart search • and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium Web Processing Services in projects including: the NERC Data Grid; SeaDataNet; Geo-Seas; and the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model and following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes in this standard. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". The latest version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: • the removal of the potential for multiple Uniform Resource Names for the same concept to ensure consistent identification of concepts • the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content • the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS • the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base • a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier • and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS Version 2 of the NVS underpins the semantic layer for the Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR) project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. Here we present the results of upgrading the NVS from version 1 to 2 and show applications which have been built on top of the NVS using its Application Programming Interface, including a demonstration version of a SPARQL interface.

Leadbetter, A.; Lowry, R.; Clements, O.

2012-04-01

330

Child Care Providers' Use of HIV/AIDS Information Resources: Links to Professional Background Variables and Feelings about Caring for an HIV-Infected Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined child caregivers' use of various HIV/AIDS information resources in relation to professional background and attitudes. Found that providers' education level, child care experience, and the age group for which they were responsible correlated with use of newspaper/magazine articles, pamphlets, and educational workshops. Use of…

Coleman, Mick; Toledo, Carlos; Wallinga, Charlotte

2002-01-01

331

The vocabularies we use derive from anthropology (kinship, social roles), sociology (social networks, norms), graph theory (graphs, net-  

E-print Network

Glossary The vocabularies we use derive from anthropology (kinship, social roles), sociology in the Glossary Ethnographic and Sociological Vocabulary: Behavior Constraint (on behavior) Preference Emergent Ethnographic and Sociological Vocabulary: Behavior. An observed regularity in a person's actions or patte

White, Douglas R.

332

Commissioned by the NHMRC as background information for the SRDC’s Illicit Drug Research Program. Prepared by  

E-print Network

this summary of research undertaken in the past ten years into illicit drug use in Australia. This information was used at a workshop in Sydney in November 1998 where key stakeholders were brought together by the SRDC to assist in the design of a research agenda around illicit drug use. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this document is correct as at the time of printing, but the Commonwealth accepts no liability for any loss or damage resulting directly or indirectly from reliance on this information or from subsequent changes to the currency of the information. i CONTENTS

Julie H; Wayne Hall; Scott Rutter; Kate Dolan

1998-01-01

333

Background Information for Think Tank on Planning, Governance and System Building Early Care and Education--NYC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides some background on early childhood planning and system building around the country. Since mid-December, the author has been studying these efforts for Child Care, Inc. (CCI) interviewing national experts and reading widely. This outline provides insights and lesson learned from those inquiries. The goal at this meeting will…

Boressoff, Todd

2008-01-01

334

"Micro-syntax, macro-syntax, foregrounding and backgrounding in discourse: When indexicals target discursively subsidiary information"*  

E-print Network

1 "Micro-syntax, macro-syntax, foregrounding and backgrounding in discourse: When indexicals target.'s (forthcoming) distinction between "micro-syntax" and "macro-syntax", as well as the orthogonal dichotomy in terms of "macro-syntax". The overall aim is to characterise the limits of discourse-anaphoric reference

Boyer, Edmond

335

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, VOL. 11, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2007 537 Variable Background Active Contour Model for  

E-print Network

(US). I. INTRODUCTION THYROID nodules are solid or cystic lumps formed in the thyroid gland, and can Variable Background Active Contour Model for Computer-Aided Delineation of Nodules in Thyroid Ultrasound-aided approach for nodule delineation in thyroid ultrasound (US) images. The devel- oped algorithm is based

Athens, University of

336

Background Study and Proposals for Development of Information Provision in Science and Technology in Ethiopia. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provision of information for research and development in science and technology in Ethiopia was studied by 50 participants in a seminar on evaluation and analysis of a national information policy and plan. Policy makers and planners, users, producers and suppliers of information, information specialists, and representatives of Unesco (United…

Schwarz, Stephan; Winkel, Annette

337

The Effect of Background Knowledge on Young Children's Comprehension of Explicit and Implicit Information. Technical Report No. 116.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate the applicability of schema-theoretic notions to young children's comprehension of textually explicit and inferrable information, slightly above-average second grade readers with strong and weak schemata for knowledge about spiders read a passage about spiders and answered wh-questions tapping both explicitly stated information and…

Pearson, P. David; And Others

338

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical listing. Volume 2: Access vocabulary. Volume 3: Definitions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are over 17,500 postable terms and some 4,000 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary and Volume 3 - Definitions.

1994-01-01

339

Vocabulary of aerospace safety terms pertaining to cryogenic safety, fires, explosions, and structure failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This vocabulary listing characterizes the contents of over 10,000 documents of the NASA Aerospace Safety Research and Data Institute's (ASRDI) safety engineering collection. The ASRDI collection is now one of the series accessible on the NASA RECON data base. There are approximately 6,300 postable terms that describe literature in the areas of cryogenic fluid safety, specifically hydrogen, oxygen, liquified natural gas; fire and explosion technology; and the mechanics of structural failure. To facilitate the proper selection of information nonpostable, related and array terms have been included in this listing.

Pelouch, J. J., Jr.; Mandel, G.; Ordin, P. M.

1976-01-01

340

Effects of multimedia vocabulary instruction on adolescents with learning disabilities.  

PubMed

The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. PMID:23649222

Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills

2015-01-01

341

Coherent Image Layout using an Adaptive Visual Vocabulary  

SciTech Connect

When querying a huge image database containing millions of images, the result of the query may still contain many thousands of images that need to be presented to the user. We consider the problem of arranging such a large set of images into a visually coherent layout, one that places similar images next to each other. Image similarity is determined using a bag-of-features model, and the layout is constructed from a hierarchical clustering of the image set by mapping an in-order traversal of the hierarchy tree into a space-filling curve. This layout method provides strong locality guarantees so we are able to quantitatively evaluate performance using standard image retrieval benchmarks. Performance of the bag-of-features method is best when the vocabulary is learned on the image set being clustered. Because learning a large, discriminative vocabulary is a computationally demanding task, we present a novel method for efficiently adapting a generic visual vocabulary to a particular dataset. We evaluate our clustering and vocabulary adaptation methods on a variety of image datasets and show that adapting a generic vocabulary to a particular set of images improves performance on both hierarchical clustering and image retrieval tasks.

Dillard, Scott E.; Henry, Michael J.; Bohn, Shawn J.; Gosink, Luke J.

2013-03-06

342

Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories  

PubMed Central

In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4–11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2–11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for boys with ASD relative to age and nonverbal cognition. Relative to expressive vocabulary, assessed with the Expressive Vocabulary Test, receptive vocabulary increased at a lower rate for boys with ASD. Vocabulary trajectories in ASD are distinguished from typical development; however, nonverbal cognition largely accounts for the patterns observed. PMID:23588510

McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

2013-01-01

343

Pulp, paper, and paperboard industry-background information for proposed air emission standards. Manufacturing processes at kraft, sulfite, soda, and semi-chemical mills. Interim final report  

SciTech Connect

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are being proposed for the pulp and paper industry under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. The document provides technical background information and analyses used in the development of the proposed pulp and paper NESHAP. It covers air emission controls for wood pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills. Effluent guideline limitations for pulp and paper mills are being developed concurrently under the Clean Water Act. Technical information used for the development of effluent guideline limitations is in separate documents.

Not Available

1993-10-01

344

Computer-Assisted Update of a Consumer Health Vocabulary Through Mining of Social Network Data  

PubMed Central

Background Consumer health vocabularies (CHVs) have been developed to aid consumer health informatics applications. This purpose is best served if the vocabulary evolves with consumers’ language. Objective Our objective was to create a computer assisted update (CAU) system that works with live corpora to identify new candidate terms for inclusion in the open access and collaborative (OAC) CHV. Methods The CAU system consisted of three main parts: a Web crawler and an HTML parser, a candidate term filter that utilizes natural language processing tools including term recognition methods, and a human review interface. In evaluation, the CAU system was applied to the health-related social network website PatientsLikeMe.com. The system’s utility was assessed by comparing the candidate term list it generated to a list of valid terms hand extracted from the text of the crawled webpages. Results The CAU system identified 88,994 unique terms 1- to 7-grams (“n-grams” are n consecutive words within a sentence) in 300 crawled PatientsLikeMe.com webpages. The manual review of the crawled webpages identified 651 valid terms not yet included in the OAC CHV or the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, a collection of vocabularies amalgamated to form an ontology of medical terms, (ie, 1 valid term per 136.7 candidate n-grams). The term filter selected 774 candidate terms, of which 237 were valid terms, that is, 1 valid term among every 3 or 4 candidates reviewed. Conclusion The CAU system is effective for generating a list of candidate terms for human review during CHV development. PMID:21586386

2011-01-01

345

E-Book as Facilitator of Vocabulary Acquisition: Support of Adults, Dynamic Dictionary and Static Dictionary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the effects of three facilitators: adults' support, dynamic visual vocabulary support and static visual vocabulary support on vocabulary acquisition in the context of e-book reading. Participants were 144 Israeli Hebrew-speaking preschoolers (aged 4-6) from middle SES neighborhoods. The entire sample read the e-book without a…

Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Atishkin, Shifra; Turgeman, Merav

2014-01-01

346

Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young…

Kover, Sara T.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

2014-01-01

347

Improving Vocabulary Skills of Kindergarten Students through a Multi-Tier Instructional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing need for the inclusion of direct, explicit vocabulary instruction in the early elementary grades. Young children are entering school with a wide range of early literacy experiences, including vocabulary knowledge. Those students who are limited in their vocabulary knowledge are at a greater risk for later language and reading…

Cuticelli, Mari; Coyne, Michael D.; Ware, Sharon M.; Oldham, Ashley; Loftus Rattan, Susan

2015-01-01

348

Bridging the Gap between Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Size through Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that extensive reading promotes the incidental learning of L1 and L2 receptive vocabulary; however, little is known about its effectiveness on productive gains in vocabulary knowledge. This paper investigates the extent to which extensive reading combined with writing tasks promotes productive vocabulary growth of Japanese…

Yamamoto, Yuka

2011-01-01

349

Vocabulary Comprehension of Evaluation Form: Its Influence on Student Rating of Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of vocabulary comprehension on underprepared freshman student responses and their rating of faculty teaching performances at Delaware State University. Learning Skills Center students have weak vocabulary comprehension that might hinder their ability to accurately rate instructors. A vocabulary quiz was given to…

Dujari, Anuradha

350

On Multi-Dimensional Vocabulary Teaching Mode for College English Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the major approaches in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) vocabulary teaching from historical perspective and puts forward multi-dimensional vocabulary teaching mode for college English. The author stresses that multi-dimensional approaches of communicative vocabulary teaching, lexical phrase teaching method, the grammar…

Zhou, Li-na

2010-01-01

351

Does the Freedom of Reader Choice Affect Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effect of freedom of reader choice on the incidental acquisition of vocabulary was investigated in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading classes. Despite advocating free extensive reading as a means of obtaining a native-like L2 vocabulary,existing studies investigating the incidental acquisition of vocabulary have not…

Reynolds, Barry Lee; Bai, Yi Ling

2013-01-01

352

MIR: A Computer Based Approach to the Acquisition of Russian Vocabulary in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a method is described for the automatic ordering of texts based on the richness of their vocabularies. It further involves the specification of a basic vocabulary and of a gradual enlargement of this basic vocabulary linked to the study of the texts in the given order. (Author/RM)

Sagvall, Anna-Lena; And Others

1976-01-01

353

Context-dependent phonetic Markov models for large vocabulary speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

One approach to large vocabulary speech recognition, is to build phonetic Markov models, and to concatenate them to obtain word models. In previous work, we already designed a recognizer based on 40 phonetic Markov machines, which accepts a 10,000 words vocabulary ([3]), and recently 200,000 words vocabulary ([5]). Since there is one machine per phoneme, these models obviously do not

A.-M. Derouault

1987-01-01

354

Nine Things Every Teacher Should Know about Words and Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge contributes to comprehension, fluency, and student achievement. The goal of vocabulary instruction should be to build students' independent word-learning strategies. This article provides research and theory in support of nine key ideas about words and vocabulary instruction. These ideas are important for middle and secondary…

Bromley, Karen

2007-01-01

355

Exploring the Influence of Vocabulary Instruction on Students’ Understanding of Mathematical Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this action research study of my classroom of 8th grade mathematics, I investigated the influence of vocabulary instruction on students’ understanding of the mathematics concepts. I discovered that knowing the meaning of the vocabulary did play a major role in the students’ understanding of the daily lessons and the ability to take tests. Understanding the vocabulary and the concepts

Micki McConnell

2008-01-01

356

The Role of Home Literacy and Language Environment on Bilinguals' English and Spanish Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the monolingual population, research has shown that vocabulary knowledge is closely related to reading achievement. However, the role of vocabulary has not been studied as extensively in the bilingual population. It is important to look at vocabulary to better understand reading achievement in the bilingual population in the United States.…

Duursma, Elisabeth; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Szuber, Anna; Proctor, Patrick; Snow, Catherine; August, Diane; Calderon, Margarita

2007-01-01

357

Shyness and Chinese and English Vocabulary Skills in Hong Kong Kindergartners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study examined relations between parent-rated shyness and children's vocabulary skills in 54 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners who learned English as a foreign language at school. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary were assessed both in Chinese and in English. Parent-rated shyness was uniquely associated with…

Tong, Xiuli; Ting, Ka-Tsun; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2011-01-01

358

I Need Directions! Where am I in the Universe? Vocabulary Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an introductory lesson in vocabulary for a unit of study on space. It is designed to assist students with understanding the vocabulary in an engaging game while students and teacher can easily track student thinking and understanding of these vocabulary terms specific to the space content and standards.

Maribel Magdaleno

2012-07-18

359

English Language Learners and English-Only Learners' Response to Direct Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined data from an 18-week kindergarten vocabulary intervention study to determine whether treatment outcomes had differential effects that favored English language learners (ELLs) or English-only learners (EOLs) and whether the relationship between initial English general receptive vocabulary knowledge and response to vocabulary

Crevecoeur, Yvel C.; Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy

2014-01-01

360

Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

Uchikoshi, Yuuko

2014-01-01

361

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading[R]: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate- to high-poverty elementary schools. Forty-four schools participated over a period spanning 2 consecutive school years. At baseline, 1,057 teachers and 16,471 students…

Apthorp, Helen; Randel, Bruce; Cherasaro, Trudy; Clark, Tedra; McKeown, Margaret; Beck, Isabel

2012-01-01

362

Does Discussion Make a Difference in Vocabulary Learning from Expository Text Read Alouds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of discussion on vocabulary learning from expository text read alouds. This study used a pre-/post within-subjects design to investigate whether discussion contributed to improved vocabulary knowledge from expository text read alouds and whether the placement of discussion makes a difference in vocabulary

Zelinke, Sarah Beall

2011-01-01

363

The Effects of Intensive Vocabulary Instruction on a Specific Writing Task. A Plan B Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effects of preteaching vocabulary on students' performance of a writing task targeted to the use of those words. Subjects were 50 fourth grade and 55 sixth grade students. Materials included a pretest narrative writing assignment, a 10-word vocabulary pretest and posttest, a vocabulary instructional booklet with teacher's…

Duin, Ann Hill

364

Influence of Three Teaching Strategies on Korean EFL Students' Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the effectiveness of three different learning strategies on Korean EFL students' vocabulary comprehension and retention: context, semantic mapping, and word lists. 116 college freshmen were placed into one of the three treatments of vocabulary instruction. Subjects were tested on varying levels of vocabulary knowledge using…

Chin, Cheongsook

2009-01-01

365

Inquiring into Familiar Objects: An Inquiry-Based Approach to Introduce Scientific Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning science vocabulary is an often tedious but important component of many curricula. Frequently, students are expected to learn science vocabulary indirectly, but this method can hinder the success of lower-performing students (Carlisle, Fleming, and Gudbrandsen 2000). We have developed an inquiry-based vocabulary activity wherein students…

Hicks Pries, Caitlin; Hughes, Julie

2012-01-01

366

Proximal Effects of Robust Vocabulary Instruction in Primary and Intermediate Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational practices are needed to promote strong vocabulary growth so that vocabulary can be both the cause and result of successful reading. Vocabulary interventions need to begin early and continue for a sustained period of time (Beck & McKeown, 2007a; Biemiller, 2003; Foorman, Seals, Anthony & Pollard-Durodola, 2003). According to theoretical…

Apthorp, Helen; McKeown, Margaret; Igel, Charles; Clemons, Trudy; Randel, Bruce; Clark, Tedra

2011-01-01

367

Knowing a Lot for One's Age: Vocabulary Skill and Not Age Is Associated with Anticipatory Incremental Sentence Interpretation in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults.…

Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Fernald, Anne

2012-01-01

368

Hurricane Backgrounder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference provides basic information on hurricanes. topics include the definition of hurricane , where they are likely to form, and their potential for damage, including high winds, heavy rainfall, flooding, tornadoes, and microbursts. There is also an illustration showing the Saffir-Simpson scale for classifying hurricane intensity, information on naming hurricanes, and a set of links to additional information.

2007-12-12

369

Radiological assessment of residences in the Oak Ridge area. Volume 1. Background information for ORNL environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of exposure rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within residences in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville area are presented. The objective of this investigation was to determine the radiation component acquired by Oak Ridge National Laboratory employee personnel dosimeter-security badges during residential badge storage and to develop a model to predict the radiation exposure rate in Oak Ridge/Knoxville-area homes. The exposure rates varied according to building material used and geographic location. Exposure rates were higher in the fall and lower in the spring; stone residences had a higher average dose equivalent rate than residences made of wood. An average yearly exposure rate was determined to be 78 millirems per year for the Oak Ridge-area homes. This value can be compared to the natural background radiation dose equivalent rate in the United States of 80 to 200 millirems per year.

Tsakeres, F.S.; Shank, K.E.; Chaudhry, M.Y.; Ahmad, S.; DiZillo-Benoit, P.M.; Oakes, T.W.

1980-10-01

370

The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to marine environmental sciences since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for - metadata mark-up with verifiable content - populating dynamic drop down lists - semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata - so-called smart search - and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Services in the NERC Data Grid and the European Commission SeaDataNet, Geo-Seas, and European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) projects. The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". Following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes. This version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: - the removal of the potential for multiple identifiers for the same concept to ensure consistent addressing of concepts - the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content - the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS - the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base - a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier - and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS Version 2 of the NVS (NVS2.0) underpins the semantic layer for the Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR) project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. Within NETMAR, NVS2.0 has been used for: - semantic validation of inputs to chained OGC Web Processing Services - smart discovery of data and services - integration of data from distributed nodes of the International Coastal Atlas Network Since its deployment, NVS2.0 has been adopted within the European SeaDataNet community's software products which has significantly increased the usage of the NVS2.0 Application Programming Interace (API), as illustrated in Table 1. Here we present the results of upgrading the NVS to version 2 and show applications which have been built on top of the NVS2.0 API, including a SPARQL endpoint and a hierarchical catalogue of oceanographic hardware.Table 1. NVS2.0 API usage by month from 467 unique IP addressest;

Leadbetter, A. M.; Lowry, R. K.

2012-12-01

371

A Small Scale Experimental Study: Using Animations to Learn Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempts to investigate whether a difference exists between learning vocabulary via animation and via traditional paper-based method. This small scale study was conducted at Karadeniz Technical University in academic year 2009-2010. Two pre-intermediate classes were randomly selected as the experimental group (n = 17), and control group…

Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Dag Akbas, Raside; Ozturk, Zeynep

2011-01-01

372

Vocabulary Size Research at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The English Language Institute (now the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies) at Victoria University of Wellington has a long history of corpus-based vocabulary research, especially after the arrival of the second director of the institute, H. V. George, and the appointment of Helen Barnard, whom George knew in India. George's…

Nation, Paul; Coxhead, Averil

2014-01-01

373

Evaluating L2 Readers' Vocabulary Strategies and Dictionary Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the relevant literature concerning second language dictionary use while reading suggests that selective dictionary use may lead to improved comprehension and efficient vocabulary development. This study aims to examine the dictionary use of Japanese university students to determine just how selective they are when reading nonfiction…

Prichard, Caleb

2008-01-01

374

Concordance-Based Glosses for Academic Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the effectiveness of online textual glosses enhanced with modified corpus-extracted sentences presented in concordance lines and textual glosses enhanced with dictionary definitions drawn from an online learner's dictionary for academic vocabulary learning at higher proficiency levels. Particularly, the study aimed to determine…

Poole, Robert

2012-01-01

375

Patterns for Success: Workplace Vocabulary (P9). Workforce 2000 Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum package on workplace vocabulary is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet,…

Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

376

Tutorial M3: Building an Open Vocabulary ASR System  

E-print Network

http://www.gutenberg.org/ offers free to use eBooks in various languages drawback: mostly "old" texts is publicly available and free Hahn, Rybach: Open Vocabulary 4 Interspeech 27/08/2011 #12;Used Software RASR V://www.voxforge.org/ offers free GPL speech audio in various languages accompanying transcriptions lexica for recognition

Ney, Hermann

377

The Effectiveness of Multimedia Programmes in Children's Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present experiment investigated the effect of three different presentation modes in children's vocabulary learning with a self-guided multimedia programmes. Participants were 135 third and fourth grade children who read a short English language story presented by a computer programme. For 12 key (previously unknown) words in the story,…

Acha, Joana

2009-01-01

378

Learning Words for Life: Promoting Vocabulary in Dual Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development plays a critical role in young dual language learners' success in school. As teachers become aware of how they use language in the classroom, systematically teach specific words in a variety of ways, and learn about dual language learners' level of English acquisition and sociocultural experiences, they can help…

Gillanders, Cristina; Castro, Dina C.; Franco, Ximena

2014-01-01

379

Large vocabulary off-line handwriting recognition: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable progress has been made in hand- writing recognition technology over the last few years. Thus far, handwriting recognition systems have been limited to small and medium vocabulary applications, since most of them often rely on a lexicon during the recognition process. The capability of dealing with large lexicons, however, opens up many more applications. This article will discuss the

Alessandro L. Koerich; Robert Sabourin; Ching Y. Suen

2003-01-01

380

Enhancing ESL Vocabulary Development through the Use of Mobile Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applications, or apps, that are available for both smart phones and tablets can be an effective tool for promoting vocabulary development among adult learners in English as a second language programs. An app is a software program for a mobile phone or computer operating system. Examples of such apps are provided along with practical…

Nisbet, Deanna; Austin, Dayna

2013-01-01

381

Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition from Oral and Written Dialogue Journals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hypothesis-generating study of advanced university English-as-a-Foreign-Language learners' incidental vocabulary acquisition from oral and written dialogue journals over a semester. Teacher and student entries were analyzed and transcribed using WordCruncher (1993). Analyses compare characteristics of the input to the learners in the…

Brown, Cheryl; Sagers, Sherri L.; LaPorte, Carrie

1999-01-01

382

Crossing the Vocabulary Bridge: Differentiated Strategies for Diverse Secondary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her new book, nationally known professional development consultant and literacy expert Socorro Herrera is joined by two colleagues to provide a framework for academic vocabulary and language instruction in today's diverse classrooms. The authors present a set of strategies and tools that work effectively across all content to support enhanced…

Herrera, Socorro G.; Kavimandan, Shabina K.; Holmes, Melissa A.

2011-01-01

383

Semantic Prosody and ESL/EFL Vocabulary Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence that semantic prosody, a novel linguistic theme, should attract much attention in ESL/EFL (English as a second/foreign language) vocabulary learning and teaching. Research suggests that inappropriate word choice arising from ignorance of semantic prosody is common among ESL/EFL learners (Wei, 2006; Xiao & McEnery, 2006). This…

Zhang, Weimin

2009-01-01

384

Reexamining the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to reexamine the effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phones. Students (N=78) from two intact classes of sophomores at a Chinese university were assigned to two groups: the SMS group (the experimental group) and the paper group (the control group). Then, they were administered a pretest to identify the level…

Zhang, Haisen; Song, Wei; Burston, Jack

2011-01-01

385

The Cross-linguistic Assessment of Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines a task that can be applied in a uniform fashion across different languages to compare levels of vocabulary development in foreign-language learning. Results indicate that the lexical decision task can be a useful tool for the assessment and cross-linguistic comparison of lexical development in foreign-language learning. (37 references)…

Kempe, Vera; MacWhinney, Brian

1996-01-01

386

RECENT IMPROVEMENTS TO THE ABBOT LARGE VOCABULARY CSR SYSTEM  

E-print Network

. J. Robinson y , and G. D. Cook y y Cambridge University Engineering Department, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, England z Department of Computer Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 4DP, England ABSTRACT ABBOT is the hybrid connectionist­hidden Markov model (HMM) large­vocabulary continuous speech

Edinburgh, University of

387

Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

2012-01-01

388

Second Language Vocabulary Learning and Teaching: Still a Hot Topic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many reasons second language vocabulary learning and teaching continues to be a topic of interest for learners, instructors, and researchers. This article describes the implementation of personal glossaries in a community program offering English as second language classes to Latina/o Spanish speaking adults. Field notes, interviews, and…

Larrotta, Clarena

2011-01-01

389

Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Japanese Life Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates vocabulary learning strategy (VLS) preferences of lower and higher proficiency Japanese university science students studying English as a foreign language. The study was conducted over a 9-week period as the participants received supplemental explicit VLS instruction on six strategies. The 38 participants (14 males and 24…

Little, Andrea; Kobayashi, Kaoru

2015-01-01

390

Personality Type, Tolerance of Ambiguity, and Vocabulary Retention in CALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study (n=181 college students) examined effects of lexical ambiguity in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) on beginning second-language learners, focusing on whether personality type affects retention of second-language vocabulary independent of translation issues and in an ambiguous CALL context. Findings support the need for beginning…

Grace, Caroline

1998-01-01

391

The Interactions of Vocabulary, Phonemic Awareness, Decoding, and Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used data from a large, national sample to examine the interaction of various literacy measures among young children with disabilities. Using structural equation modeling, they examined the relationships among measures of phonemic awareness, decoding, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Child and family factors, including sex,…

Carlson, Elaine; Jenkins, Frank; Li, Tiandong; Brownell, Mary

2013-01-01

392

Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

2010-01-01

393

Deliberate Learning and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates outcomes of deliberate learning on vocabulary acquisition in a second language (L2). Acquisition of 48 pseudowords was measured using the lexical decision task with visually presented stimuli. The experiments drew on form priming, masked repetition priming, and automatic semantic priming procedures. Data analyses revealed a…

Elgort, Irina

2011-01-01

394

DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-COORDINATE VOCABULARY, CHEMICAL PHYSICS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A METHOD (SCHEME) FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A VOCABULARY IN THE FIELD OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS FROM PRIMARY JOURNAL ARTICLES. ALL TERMS APPEARING IN A RECENT JOURNAL (VOL. 39, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS) JUDGED TO BE IMPORTANT WERE DIVIDED INTO THREE CATEGORIES--(1) PROPERTIES, PROCESSES, PHENOMENA, (2) OBJECTS, INCLUDING SYSTEMS AND…

LERNER, RITA G.

395

Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

2013-01-01

396

A Basic Vocabulary of Federal Social Program Applications and Forms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the application forms for Social Security, Supplemental Security Income, public assistance, food stamps, Medicaid, and Medicare was conducted to examine the frequently occurring unfamiliar, specialized vocabulary words. It was found that 76 such words occurred at least ten times in the documents studied. A large number of other…

Afflerbach, Peter P.; And Others

397

Tracking the Changes: Vocabulary Acquisition in the Study Abroad Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical evidence suggests that the study abroad experience accelerates growth in global vocabulary knowledge. The exact nature of this growth is rarely reported, however, and there is little documented evidence to indicate whether it is linear or uneven, whether the speed of growth is constant or changing, or whether the study abroad context…

Fitzpatrick, Tess

2012-01-01

398

Vocabulary Development during Read-Alouds: Primary Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading aloud is a common practice in primary classrooms and is viewed as an important vehicle for vocabulary development. Research indicates that interactive read-aloud styles and adult mediation of word learning are effective in enhancing word learning, but less is known about the actual practices of primary teachers. Read-alouds are complex…

Kindle, Karen J.

2009-01-01

399

Getting Into Words: Vocabulary Instruction that Strengthens Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For children with poor vocabulary development, reading is intimidating rather than exciting. That is why elementary and middle school teachers need this activity-filled guidebook--to improve students' independent word learning skills and strengthen their comprehension so they will tackle their schoolwork with confidence. Teachers will start by…

Lubliner, Shira

2005-01-01

400

Building Vocabulary: Dictionary Consultation and the ESL Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two activities (the use of a newspaper and consultation with a dictionary) that English-as-a-second language (ESL) college students can use to independently learn new vocabulary. Finds that dictionary work was laborious but necessary, and that ESL students need to be taught prudent use of the dictionary. (SR)

Gonzalez, Orsini

1999-01-01

401

A decentralized approach for establishing a shared communication vocabulary  

E-print Network

and thereby facilitates communication by mediating between heterogeneous agents. Also, the Ontolingua serverA decentralized approach for establishing a shared communication vocabulary Jurriaan van Diggelen. In this paper, we address the issue of communication between agents with heterogeneous ontologies. Our approach

Diggelen, Jurriaan van

402

Measuring the Utility of a Basic French Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using frequency, range, availability, and coverage as objectively weighted indices of utility in the development of a basic French vocabulary list, the authors describe the technical procedure used in this study and list the resultant first 153 words according to the four indices and the utility rating. Weighting factors for each index, based on…

Savard, Jean-Guy; Richards, Jack C.

403

Vocabulary and Working Memory in Children Fit with Hearing Aids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Method: Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward…

Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.

2012-01-01

404

The Vocabulary of the Language of Business and Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the vocabulary of business and economics involved morphological and semantic analysis of a sample of the lexis. The investigation began with the assumption that this lexis is not a rigid system of clearly-defined terms. Morphologically, a high degree of variety in productive types of compounding was found, exceeding by far the…

Roos, Eckhard

405

Imagery and Verbal Coding Approaches in Chinese Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study consists of two instructional experiments. Within the framework of dual coding theory, the study compares the learning effects of two instructional encoding methods used in Chinese vocabulary instruction among students learning beginning Chinese as a foreign language. One method uses verbal encoding only, and the other method uses…

Shen, Helen H.

2010-01-01

406

Effects of Multimedia Vocabulary Instruction on Adolescents with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were…

Kennedy, Michael J.; Deshler, Donald D.; Lloyd, John Wills

2015-01-01

407

Redundancy Effect on Retention of Vocabulary Words Using Multimedia Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effect of the redundancy principle in a multimedia presentation constructed for foreign language vocabulary learning on undergraduate students' retention. The underlying hypothesis of this study is that when the students are exposed to the material in multiple ways through animation, concurrent narration,…

Samur, Yavuz

2012-01-01

408

The Effect of Literature on Vocabulary and Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted with disadvantaged second-graders to test the value of oral reading of literature for increasing reading achievement, presenting books as a source of pleasure, and strengthening vocabulary by offering wider language models than the disadvantaged child's milieu provides. Teachers in the experimental group read, orally, a story…

Cohen, Dorothy H.

1968-01-01

409

Interactive Electronic Storybooks for Kindergartners to Promote Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of this study were to examine (a) whether extratextual vocabulary instructions embedded in electronic storybooks facilitated word learning over reading alone and (b) whether instructional formats that required children to invest more effort were more effective than formats that required less effort. A computer-based "assistant" was added…

Smeets, Daisy J. H.; Bus, Adriana G.

2012-01-01

410

The problem of business ethics: Oxymoron or inadequate vocabulary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently critics have faulted American business schools for failing to impart to their students an understanding of ethics and its role in business. In this paper, we agree and attribute this situation, at least in part, to the need for a vocabulary of ethics and a failure to communicate Adam Smith's moral orientation to capitalism. So long as business schools

Jon M. Shepard; Richard E. Wokutch

1991-01-01

411

How Large a Vocabulary Is Needed for Reading and Listening?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article has two goals: to report on the trialling of fourteen 1,000 word-family lists made from the British National Corpus, and to use these lists to see what vocabulary size is needed for unassisted comprehension of written and spoken English. The trialling showed that the lists were properly sequenced and there were no glaring omissions…

Nation, I. S. P.

2006-01-01

412

The Effect of Viewing Subtitled Videos on Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second language development could be achieved through various teaching or learning processes; however, employing multimedia has recently intruded the process in easing or complicating manners. This study has focused on the effectiveness of English subtitles on the EFL learner's vocabulary learning. The participants were 92 Iranian degree…

Harji, Madhubala Bava; Woods, Peter Charles; Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal

2010-01-01

413

Gamified Vocabulary: Online Resources and Enriched Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the ways "gamification" can play a role in adolescents' development of vocabulary. Gamification involves the application of game-design thinking and play elements to non-game activities, such as routine homework or classroom lessons. Drawing upon data from in-school and after-school settings, the authors…

Abrams, Sandra Schamroth; Walsh, Sara

2014-01-01

414

Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English receptive vocabulary scores from 797 monolingual and 808 bilingual participants between the ages of 17 and 89 years old were aggregated from 20 studies to compare standard scores across language groups. The distribution of scores was unimodal for both groups but the mean score was significantly different, with monolinguals obtaining higher…

Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

2012-01-01

415

Learning English Vocabulary Collaboratively in a Technology-Supported Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was intended to investigate whether computer-assisted collaborative learning is comparable with computer-free and individual learning; in particular, it examined each of their effects on learning English vocabulary, followed by an analysis of their behavior patterns. In a junior high school in northern Taiwan, a normal classroom was…

Lin, Chih-Cheng; Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Tseng, Sheng-ping; Chan, Hsin-jung

2014-01-01

416

Effect of Screen Size on Multimedia Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of three different screen sizes (small, medium and large) and two types of multimedia instruction (text only and text with pictorial annotation) on vocabulary learning. One hundred thirty-five Korean middle school students learning English as a foreign language were randomly distributed…

Kim, Daesang; Kim, Dong-Joong

2012-01-01

417

Vocabulary Discourse: Developing Meaning through "VoiceThread" Publication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigated how third-grade students from low-income families talked about target vocabulary words when asked to create a "VoiceThread" publication. "VoiceThread" is a web-based publication tool that allows students to post pictures and attach voice-recordings to each picture. There were three student…

Blomberg, Grace Marie

2013-01-01

418

Direct and Extended Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten: Investigating Transfer Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an 18-week program of direct and extended vocabulary instruction with kindergarten students on both proximal measures of target word knowledge and transfer measures of generalized language and literacy. A second purpose was to examine whether treatment effects would be moderated by…

Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Loftus, Susan; Zipoli, Richard, Jr.; Ruby, Maureen; Crevecoeur, Yvel C.; Kapp, Sharon

2010-01-01

419

Is Explicit Vocabulary Focus the Reading Teacher's Job?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports findings from a case study of the amount of explicit vocabulary focus (EVF) that occurred in a week of classes for one group of upper intermediate students in an intensive English program (IEP). To assess EVF, instruction from a total of 25 hours of classes was analyzed to see if the number of EVF events was more connected with…

Folse, Keith

2010-01-01

420

Moving from an Obsolete Lingo to a Vocabulary of Respect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the postcolonial era, vocabulary must be developed that communicates a belief in equality through word choices that promote respect. Citizens of the global community have the right to name themselves, define their histories, and live according to their cultures. A chart of obsolete, inaccurate, or dehumanizing terms and preferred terminology is…

Anglesey, Zoe

1997-01-01

421

A Differentiated Vocabulary Unit for John Knowles's "A Separate Peace"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shannon E. Coulter and Susan L. Groenke recognize that student differences in interests, learning styles, and readiness for certain knowledge necessitate individualized processes for effectively learning vocabulary. They offer strategies and word games that help students make meaningful connections and improve comprehension. They also give advice…

Coulter, Shannon E.; Groenke, Susan L.

2008-01-01

422

Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilinguals from 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method: Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to…

Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa

2013-01-01

423

Word Lists to Simplify Vocabulary of Technical Information. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes eight word lists developed for use as part of the computer readability editing system (CRES), which was developed to serve as an author's aid in improving the ease of comprehending Navy technical manuals and training materials. The system has features which flag uncommon and misspelled words and long sentences, suggest simple…

Kincaid, J. Peter; And Others

424

The effect of enhanced storybook interaction on signing deaf children's vocabulary.  

PubMed

The link between vocabulary and later literacy is well documented in the research base. One way children gain vocabulary is through incidental learning. Deaf or hard-of-hearing children (D/HH) often struggle with incidental learning and require vocabulary intervention to increase their lexicon. An effective vocabulary intervention is storybook reading. When dialogic methods are added to storybook reading, the gains are greater than with traditional storybook reading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an enhanced storybook reading intervention, which included scripted questions and picture prompts, on the vocabulary of young signing D/HH children. We utilized a multiple baseline across content probe design. We discovered a functional relation between the storybook intervention and picture vocabulary identification for several participants. This outcome offers insight into appropriate interventions to increase vocabulary for signing D/HH children. PMID:24344161

Trussell, Jessica W; Easterbrooks, Susan R

2014-07-01

425

Productive Vocabulary among Three Groups of Bilingual American Children: Comparison and Prediction  

PubMed Central

The importance of input factors for bilingual children’s vocabulary development was investigated. Forty-seven Argentine, 42 South Korean, 51 European American, 29 Latino immigrant, 26 Japanese immigrant, and 35 Korean immigrant mothers completed checklists of their 20-month-old children’s productive vocabularies. Bilingual children’s vocabulary sizes in each language separately were consistently smaller than their monolingual peers but only Latino bilingual children had smaller total vocabularies than monolingual children. Bilingual children’s vocabulary sizes were similar to each other. Maternal acculturation predicted the amount of input in each language, which then predicted children’s vocabulary size in each language. Maternal acculturation also predicted children’s English-language vocabulary size directly. PMID:25620820

Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.

2015-01-01

426

Speech synthesis in background noise: effects of message formulation and visual information on the intelligibility of American English DECTalk.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current research was to investigate the intelligibility of synthesized speech in noise, when listeners are able to watch an individual using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) formulate messages on-line and when they are listening to a speaker without any visual information. A total of 80 participants were randomly assigned to four groups, with 20 participants in each group. Each group listened to sentences delivered using a different message formulation strategy: prestored; audibly formulated (messages are formulated on-line and the listener is able to hear the formulation as the message is being encoded); audibly formulated with no repeat (the full sentence at the end is not repeated); and quietly formulated (the message is formulated on-line, but the listener is not able to hear the system feedback throughout the formulation). The speaker for this study was a 35-year-old woman with cerebral palsy who used a VOCA with DECTalk (Beautiful Betty, American English) to communicate. Half of the sentences were presented in an auditory-only condition and half were presented in an auditory-visual condition. The dependent variable was intelligibility, as measured by the percentage of words correctly transcribed by each listener. The overall intelligibility of the sentences in the Audibly Formulated with No Repeat group was statistically significantly lower than in each of the other message formulation type groups. Visual information did not have an effect on intelligibility for this speaker. Clinical implications, limitations, and directions for future research and development are discussed. PMID:17487630

Drager, Kathryn D R; Anderson, Jessie L; Debarros, Julie; Hayes, Elizabeth; Liebman, Jamie; Panek, Elizabeth

2007-06-01

427

How Does Second Language Vocabulary Grow over Time? A Multi-Methodological Study of Incremental Vocabulary Knowledge Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the longitudinal development of L2 vocabulary by 17 individual adult L2 learners in an English as a second language (ESL) instructed context over one academic year, combining a longitudinal case study design with two cross-sectional comparisons in order to enhance (a) detailed documentation addressing the idiosyncrasy of L2…

Huang, Hung-Tzu

2010-01-01

428

Mixed-Method Research on Learning Vocabulary through Technology Reveals Vocabulary Growth in Second-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mixed-method embedded research design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of the integration of technology for second-grade students' vocabulary development and learning. Two second-grade classes with a total of 40 students (21 boys and 19 girls) were randomly selected to participate in this study for the course of a semester. One…

Huang, SuHua

2015-01-01

429

Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

1985-06-01

430

Civilization of the Goths, based upon their vocabulary  

E-print Network

, andawair- thi « Preis, aleina = Elbe, pund « Pfund, rasta » Meile und mitan Ä messen. Das Familienleben war organisiert wie es heutzutage unter Völkern von einer höheren Zivilization ist. Wir finden n&hmlich ein umständliches Geschlechts- registe... THEIR VOCABULARY. Submitted to the Germanic Department of the University of Kansas, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts. Lawrence, May 15th., 1911. Jacob E« Boethius. 1. INHALTSVERZEIOHNIS t A, Einleitung. B. Inhalts...

Boethius, Jacob E.

1911-05-15

431

Recent improvements to the ABBOT large vocabulary CSR system  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABBOT is the hybrid connectionist-hidden Markov model (HMM) large-vocabulary continuous speech recognition (CSR) system developed at Cambridge University. This system uses a recurrent network to estimate the acoustic observation probabilities within an HMM framework. A major advantage of this approach is that good performance is achieved using context-independent acoustic models and requiring many fewer parameters than comparable HMM systems. This

M. M. Hochberg; S. J. Renals; A. J. Robinson; G. D. Cook

1995-01-01

432

Implementing vocabulary strategies to help English language learners in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This action research project was designed to incorporate two vocabulary strategies in the 'classroom to increase student learning for English language learners in science. Introduction of key words prior to starting a new chapter and incorporating pictures into glossaries are the two strategies used during the project. Teacher generated chapter pre-assessments, post-assessments, and summative assessments results were used to determine the impact of the strategies on English language learners.

Ton, Nancy

433

Increasing Toddlers' Vocabularies Through Picture-Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the effectiveness of three methods of teaching object names to young children. These methods were (1) informal play, in which an adult named and described those objects with which a child played; (2) picture reading, in which an adult named and described objects depicted in photographs; and (3) a combination of the first and…

Evans, Joyce

434

Inquiry experiences and the development of science vocabulary and concepts with English language learners (ELLs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this project was to analyze the change in use of academic science vocabulary and conceptual understanding of erosion by the ELLs participating in the Math, Science and Language (MSL) camp conducted in 2008. The researcher examined archival data in the form of student journals collected during the MSL camp of 2008. Current assessments are not developed to assess both vocabulary development and conceptual understanding. The researcher developed a new assessment tool named JASTO that allowed assessment of both vocabulary and conceptual understanding parallel to one another. JASTO was used to analyze the science journals of the MSL camp of 2008. Data indicate an increase in conceptual understanding of the erosion topic. Some students expressed their understanding using everyday vocabulary and others using academic vocabulary. The type of vocabulary usage was dependent on the English language proficiency of the student.

Oliver, Tammy Deneene

435

Concrete and relational vocabulary: comparison between Williams and Smith-Magenis syndromes.  

PubMed

We compared the performance of two clinical groups, Williams syndrome (WS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), in terms of concrete and relational vocabulary. We analyzed (a) whether the WS group had an advantage in concrete vocabulary when compared to the SMS group, as good concrete vocabulary knowledge is considered a hallmark of WS; (b) if spatial processing difficulties in WS would be reflected specifically in their knowledge of relational spatial vocabulary; (c) if a specific vocabulary profile could be outlined for SMS. Our results show similar performances on receptive concrete and relational vocabulary in both groups. However, and as anticipated, performance on relational space concepts was significantly lower in the WS group. PMID:25194511

Garayzábal Heinze, Elena; Osório, Ana; Lens, María; Sampaio, Adriana

2014-12-01

436

Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information  

MedlinePLUS

... plant, but many compounds may be responsible for valerian's relaxing effect. Are botanical dietary supplements safe? Many ... before their full effects are achieved. For example, valerian may be effective as a sleep aid after ...

437

Background Error Covariance Estimation using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation into the GEOS-5 Coupled Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory. SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele M.; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume; Koster, Randal D. (Editor)

2014-01-01

438

Personalised context-aware ubiquitous learning system for supporting effective English vocabulary learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English sentences. Therefore, numerous studies have attempted to increase the efficiency and performance of learning English vocabulary. ‘The

Chih-Ming Chen; Yi-Lun Li

2010-01-01

439

Children's vocabulary growth in English and Spanish across early development and associations with school readiness skills.  

PubMed

In line with evidence that variation in children's vocabulary size facilitates learning, we asked whether growth in Mexican and Dominican children's expressive vocabularies in English and/or Spanish would predict later cognitive skills. Children and mothers were video-recorded sharing wordless books at 2, 3, 4, and 5 years, and children were assessed on language, literacy, and math skills at 5 years. Growth in children's English and Spanish vocabularies, based on transcriptions of booksharing interactions, predicted specific cognitive skills and was associated with changes to mothers' language use across time. Mothers' years in the United States predicted children's English vocabulary growth. PMID:24571927

Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Song, Lulu; Luo, Rufan; Kuchirko, Yana; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Raufman, Julia

2014-01-01

440

Using Computerized Bilingual Dictionaries To help Maximize English Vocabulary Learning at Japanese Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares various computerized bilingual dictionaries for their relative effectiveness in helping Japanese college students at several language proficiency levels to access new English target vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

Loucky, John Paul

2003-01-01

441

Continuity and change in the home literacy environment as predictors of growth in vocabulary and reading.  

PubMed

One hundred and ten English-speaking children schooled in French were followed from kindergarten to Grade 2 (Mage : T1 = 5;6, T2 = 6;4, T3 = 6;11, T4 = 7;11). The findings provided strong support for the Home Literacy Model (Sénéchal & LeFevre, ) because in this sample the home language was independent of the language of instruction. The informal literacy environment at home predicted growth in English receptive vocabulary from kindergarten to Grade 1, whereas parent reports of the formal literacy environment in kindergarten predicted growth in children's English early literacy between kindergarten and Grade 1 and growth in English word reading during Grade 1. Furthermore, 76% of parents adjusted their formal literacy practices according to the reading performance of their child, in support of the presence of a responsive home literacy curriculum among middle-class parents. PMID:24467656

Sénéchal, Monique; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

2014-01-01

442

The Role of Background Knowledge in Text Comprehension for Children Learning English as an Additional Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience difficulties with reading comprehension relative to their monolingual peers. While low levels of vocabulary appear to be one factor underlying these difficulties, other factors such as a relative lack of appropriate background knowledge may also contribute. Sixteen children…

Burgoyne, Kelly; Whiteley, Helen E.; Hutchinson, Jane M.

2013-01-01

443

Family Reading Behavior and Early Literacy Skills in Preschool Children From Low-Income Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the family reading behavior of 233 preschool children from low-income backgrounds who were attending Head Start. Parents completed a survey of their family reading behavior, including Child Reading, Parent Reading Interest, and Parent–Child Reading Interaction, and provided demographic data on their educational level, parent and child age, and family size. Children's receptive vocabulary, story and print concepts,

Stacey Storch Bracken; Janet E. Fischel

2008-01-01

444

No Association of the BDNF Val66met Polymorphism with Implicit Associative Vocabulary and Motor Learning  

PubMed Central

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to play a major role in plasticity, neurogenesis and learning in the adult brain. The BDNF gene contains a common val66met polymorphism associated with decreased activity-dependent excretion of BDNF and a potential influence on behaviour, more specifically, on motor learning. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the BDNF val66met polymorphism on short-term implicit associative learning and whether its influence is cognitive domain-specific (motor vs. language). A sample of 38 young healthy participants was genotyped, screened for background and neuropsychological differences, and tested with two associative implicit learning paradigms in two different cognitive domains, i.e., motor and vocabulary learning. Subjects performed the serial reaction time task (SRTT) to determine implicit motor learning and a recently established associative vocabulary learning task (AVL) for implicit learning of action and object words. To determine the influence of the BDNF polymorphism on domain-specific implicit learning, behavioural improvements in the two tasks were compared between val/val (n?=?22) and met carriers (val/met: n?=?15 and met/met: n?=?1). There was no evidence for an impact of the BDNF val66met polymorphism on the behavioural outcome in implicit short-term learning paradigms in young healthy subjects. Whether this polymorphism plays a relevant role in long-term training paradigms or in subjects with impaired neuronal plasticity or reduced learning capacity, such as aged individuals, demented patients or patients with brain lesions, has to be determined in future studies. PMID:23152767

Freundlieb, Nils; Philipp, Stephan; Schneider, Susanne A.; Brüggemann, Norbert; Klein, Christine; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

2012-01-01

445

Vocabulary acquisition in aphasia: Modality can matter.  

PubMed

The present case study investigated modality-specific aspects of novel word acquisition in aphasia. It was prompted by recent aphasia case studies indicating great interindividual variability in the ability to learn and maintain novel words in aphasia. Moreover, two previous case studies revealed a striking effect of input modality by showing effective word learning and re-learning via visual input only (Kohen, Sola, Tuomiranta, Laine, & Martin, 2012; Tuomiranta et al., 2014). The present participant TS with chronic nonfluent aphasia and post-semantic anomia was administered novel word-referent learning tasks. In the first experiment, the learning phase included simultaneous phonological and orthographic input, while the follow-up was probed separately for spoken and written responses. In the second experiment, we studied the effect of four different input and output modality combinations on her ability to learn to name the novel items. In the first experiment, TS's spoken naming performance during the learning phase was just within the range of healthy controls. Maintenance declined and remained outside that range during the whole 6-month follow-up. However, TS maintained the learned words better in written than in spoken naming throughout the follow-up, and in written naming, her maintenance stayed within the control's range up to 8 weeks post-training. The second experiment indicated that the best learning outcome was achieved with orthographic input. Orthographic input combined with orthographic output resulted in fast and accurate learning of the novel words. Interestingly, TS's test profile was opposite to her learning profile, as she repeated better than she read aloud in the linguistic background assessment. The results from the present case highlight the importance of multiple learning channels for word acquisition in individuals with aphasia. Probing the functionality of different input and output channels for learning may also prove valuable in tailoring effective treatment for persons with aphasia. PMID:25419049

Tuomiranta, Leena; Grönroos, Ann-Mari; Martin, Nadine; Laine, Matti

2014-11-01

446

Improving Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Development in At-Risk Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program was designed and implemented to improve student vocabulary and comprehension. The target population consisted of 59 students in grades 1, 2, and 3 in a low-income area of a large city in central Illinois. The problems of lack of prior knowledge, poor vocabulary, and insufficient comprehension were documented through data collected from…

Brooks, Michelle; Hamann, Louise; Vetter, Mary

447

Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD…

Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

2013-01-01

448

Early Action and Gesture "Vocabulary" and Its Relation with Word Comprehension and Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 492 Italian infants (8-18 months) were collected with the parental questionnaire MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories to describe early actions and gestures (A-G) "vocabulary" and its relation with spoken vocabulary in both comprehension and production. A-G were more strongly correlated with word comprehension than word…

Caselli, Maria Cristina; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Stefanini, Silvia; Volterra, Virginia

2012-01-01

449

Middle School Students Increase Their Vocabulary Knowledge Using Learning Style Preferences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study compared students’ individual learning style preferences on vocabulary achievement in grade seven of communication arts classes by investigating those factors that contribute to intermediate school students' vocabulary achievement. The results of this study throw into question the educational benefit that has been promoted in previous learning style research.

Vivian Nespoli Koppleman

2002-01-01

450

Developmental Relations between Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Change Score Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, M[subscript age] = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and…

Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

2015-01-01

451

Morphological Development Levels of Science Content Vocabulary: Implications for Science-Based Texts in Elementary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The science vocabulary from a science curriculum standards document (Ministry of Education Ontario, 2007) was classified by morphological developmental level and compared to the grade level topics of the curriculum (grades 1 to 8). Descriptive statistical analyses highlight the complex nature of science vocabulary and the incompatibilities between…

Fazio, Xavier; Gallagher, Tiffany L.

2014-01-01

452

VOCABULARY LEARNING IN CHILDREN FROM 8 TO 30 MONTHS OF AGE: A COMPARISON OF PARENTAL REPORTS  

E-print Network

VOCABULARY LEARNING IN CHILDREN FROM 8 TO 30 MONTHS OF AGE: A COMPARISON OF PARENTAL REPORTS;VOCABULARY LEARNING IN CHILDREN FROM 8 TO 30 MONTHS OF AGE: A COMPARISON OF PARENTAL REPORT AND LABORATORY) for children 12 to 30 months of age, a period of dramatic language growth. Analyses revealed that a parental

453

Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary

Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

2013-01-01

454

Sign Language Vocabulary Development Practices and Internet Use Among Educational Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sign language interpreters working in schools often face isolation in terms of their sign language vocabulary development opportunities. The purposes of this study were to determine the key demographic characteristics of educational interpreters in British Columbia, to identify the resources they use to learn new vocabulary, and to shed light on…

Storey, Brian C.; Jamieson, Janet R.

2004-01-01

455

Validity of a parent vocabulary checklist for young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants.  

PubMed

The primary objective of the current investigation was to examine the concurrent and predictive validity of a parent vocabulary checklist with young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants. This study implemented a longitudinal approach. Nineteen families participated when children were 15-16 months of age, and then again at 30-32 months of age. The Spanish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Communicativas, INV) and spontaneous language samples collected during naturalistic play were used to examine the relationship between observed and reported vocabulary. Vocabulary reported through the INV-II and vocabulary observed at 30-32 months were significantly correlated, suggesting that the INV-II captures a valid representation of vocabulary at this age. Comparatively, vocabulary reported on the INV-I, was not correlated with observed vocabulary at 15-16 months of age or reported or observed vocabulary at 30-32 months of age. These results suggest that the INV-I, when used with 14-16-month-olds, demonstrates limited concurrent and predictive validity. Implications for the clinical use of the INV-I and INV-II are presented. PMID:20840027

Guiberson, Mark

2008-01-01

456

An Alternative Oral Proficiency and Expressive Vocabulary Assessment of Kindergarten English Language Learners  

E-print Network

AN ALTERNATIVE ORAL PROFICIENCY AND EXPRESSIVE VOCABULARY ASSESSMENT OF KINDERGARTEN ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS A Dissertation by MIRANDA FERNANDE WALICHOWSKI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2009 Major Subject: Educational Psychology AN ALTERNATIVE ORAL PROFICIENCY AND EXPRESSIVE VOCABULARY ASSESSMENT...

Walichowski, Miranda Fernande

2011-02-22

457

Fine Brush and Freehand: The Vocabulary-Learning Art of Two Successful Chinese EFL Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the English vocabulary learning strategies of two successful language learners in the "input-poor" environment of the Chinese classroom, where the majority of language learning comes from intensive reading of English texts. Results show that, contrary to popular ideas about vocabulary learning in the West, Chinese learners succeed…

Gu, Peter Yongqi

2003-01-01

458

Specifications of Content for Vocabulary Instruction in Alternative Language: Figurative, Affective, and Confusing Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development includes learning to recognize, comprehend, and produce alternative ways of communicating a word, an image, or a concept. Instruction in such language alternatives can increase the effectiveness of students' communication skills, making their vocabulary usage more appropriate, precise, descriptive, and interesting.…

Humes, Ann; Cronnell, Bruce

459

Second Language Learners' Vocabulary Expansion Is Associated with Improved Second Language Vowel Intelligibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper tests the predictions of the vocabulary-tuning model of second language (L2) rephonologization in the domain of L2 segmental production. This model proposes a facilitating effect of adults' L2 vocabulary expansion on L2 perception and production and suggests that early improvements in L2 segmental production may be positively associated…

Bundgaard-Nielsen, Rikke L.; Best, Catherine T.; Kroos, Christian; Tyler, Michael D.

2012-01-01

460

Vocabulary Instruction in K-3 Low-Income Classrooms during a Reading Reform Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the vocabulary teaching of primary-grade teachers (K-3) in low-income schools. A total of 337 observations were conducted during language arts blocks over a three-year period. A coding scheme was developed to analyze teachers' vocabulary instruction. Results indicated that teachers spent less than 5%…

Nelson, Kristin L.; Dole, Janice A.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.

2015-01-01

461

A Summary of the Vocabulary Research with Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is essential for communicating, reading, thinking, and learning. In comparison to typical hearing peers, students who are deaf or hard of hearing demonstrate vocabulary knowledge that is quantitatively reduced. The authors review and summarize research studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1967 and 2008 focusing on…

Luckner, John L.; Cooke, Christine

2010-01-01

462

Promoting an Interest in Language To Stimulate College Students' Vocabulary Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes using the book "The Professor and the Madman" (which tells the story of how the "Oxford English Dictionary" came into being) in a college or developmental reading class. Notes it motivates students to take greater interest in language and work on expanding their vocabularies, thus promoting vocabulary development and close attention to…

Wellington, Kathy

1999-01-01

463

Estimating Guessing Effects on the Vocabulary Levels Test for Differing Degrees of Word Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) are often viewed as a preferable estimator of vocabulary knowledge when compared to yes/no checklists, because self-reporting tests introduce the possibility of students overreporting or underreporting scores. However, multiple-choice tests have their own unique disadvantages. It has…

Stewart, Jeffrey; White, David A.

2011-01-01

464

Modeling Reading Vocabulary Learning in Deaf Children in Bilingual Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acquisition of reading vocabulary is one of the major challenges for deaf children in bilingual education programs. Deaf children have to acquire a written lexicon that can effectively be used in reading. In this paper, we present a developmental model that describes reading vocabulary acquisition of deaf children in bilingual education…

Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Ormel, Ellen; Verhoeven, Ludo

2008-01-01

465

Breadth and Depth Specialized Vocabulary Learning in Theology among Native and Non-Native English Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a case study on native and non-native English-speaker (NES and NNES) students' knowledge and learning of specialized vocabulary over one academic term in a graduate school of theology. After outlining the collection of baseline data on theological vocabulary and the development of a Test of Theological Language (TTL), the…

Lessard-Clouston, Michael

2006-01-01

466

Hearing Experience and Receptive Vocabulary Development in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated receptive vocabulary delay in deaf children with cochlear implants. Participants were 23 children with profound hearing loss, ages 6-14 years, who received a cochlear implant between ages 1.4 and 6 years. Duration of cochlear implant use ranged from 3.7 to 11.8 years. "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition"…

Fagan, Mary K.; Pisoni, David B.

2010-01-01

467

Effect of Focused Vocabulary Instruction on 7th Graders' Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports an investigation on the effects of directed vocabulary and whole class instruction on improving students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Fifty-eight seventh grade students participated in the study, and a pre-test/post-test experimental design was employed. The results did not indicate any statistically…

Horn, Mary; Feng, Jianhua

2012-01-01

468

Improving Learners' Vocabulary through Strategy Training and Recycling the Target Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether an approach combining creating strategy awareness and recycling words will result in better vocabulary learning (delayed recall) of selected words than teaching vocabulary following the course book alone, for intermediate level English language learners. Two English language classes, a total of 51…

Akin, Ayse; Seferoglu, Golge

2004-01-01

469

The Relationship between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer…

Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Pae, Hye K.

2014-01-01

470

Large Vocabulary SOUL Neural Network Language Models Hai-Son Le1,2  

E-print Network

Large Vocabulary SOUL Neural Network Language Models Hai-Son Le1,2 , Ilya Oparin2 , Abdel Messaoudi models (SOUL NNLM) for automatic speech recognition. As SOUL NNLMs allow estimating probabilities for all by a recognition vocabulary of about 300k entries. A new training scheme is proposed for SOUL NNLMs that is based

Yvon, François

471

The Effect of Type of Written Exercise on L2 Vocabulary Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used a within-subjects design to examine the effect of the type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. Using input for the meaning and usage of the new words from a specially prepared minidictionary, university intensive English program students (n = 154) practiced target vocabulary in three types of written exercises…

Folse, Keith S.

2006-01-01

472

Exploring Long-Term Productive Vocabulary Development in an EFL Context: The Role of Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reports on a longitudinal multiple-case study that probed into four advanced university-level Chinese EFL learners' situated vocabulary learning experiences and explored the role of L2 motivation in their productive vocabulary development. In the study, Lexical Frequency Profile analysis and semi-structured interviews were conducted with…

Zheng, Yongyan

2012-01-01

473

Hedge Trimming and the Resurrection of the Controlled Vocabulary in Online Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the changing role of controlled vocabulary in the postcoordinate online search, particularly its current role in the formulation of online search strategies. Effects of controlled vocabulary searching on precision and recall and examples of concept "hedges" from the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors" are discussed. Nine references are…

Sievert, MaryEllen; Boyce, Bert R.

1983-01-01

474

A Comparative Study on Second Language Vocabulary Development: Study Abroad vs Classroom Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper aims to achieve a better understanding of the process of vocabulary acquisition by examining the development of lexical knowledge in both classroom and study abroad contexts. Taking Ife, Vives Boix, and Meara's (2000) study as a starting point, this study attempts to determine whether development in both levels of vocabulary

Jimenez-Jimenez, Antonio F.

2010-01-01

475

Aspects of Validity of a Test of Productive Vocabulary: Lex30  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates aspects of validity of an alternative measure of productive vocabulary. Lex30, developed by Meara and Fitzpatrick, is a word association task that claims to give an indication of productive vocabulary knowledge. Previous studies of Lex30 have assessed test-retest reliability, performance against native speaker norms,…

Walters, JoDee

2012-01-01

476

Generating Vocabulary Knowledge for At-Risk Middle School Readers: Contrasting Program Effects and Growth Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested whether urban middle-school students from mostly low-income homes had improved academic vocabulary when they participated in a freely available vocabulary program, Word Generation (WG). To understand how this program may support students at risk for long-term reading difficulty, we examined treatment interactions with baseline…

Lawrence, Joshua F.; Rolland, Rebecca Givens; Branum-Martin, Lee; Snow, Catherine E.

2014-01-01

477

A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

2012-01-01

478

Improving the Acquisition of Novel Vocabulary through the Use of Imagery Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of imagery interventions on the vocabulary acquisition abilities of second grade students. A total of 15 students were randomly assigned to three different intervention conditions: Word Only, which involves the simple verbal presentation of a vocabulary word; Dual Coding, in which a picture…

Cohen, Marisa T.; Johnson, Helen L.

2011-01-01

479

Building a Strong Vocabulary: A Twelve-Week Plan for Students. 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second edition presents 12 strategies (focusing on one strategy a week) for students to increase vocabulary and boost communication skills, suggesting that these techniques can easily double the average person's vocabulary. After an introduction, the book presents the following 12 techniques: (1) Expand on What You Know: Synonyms, Antonyms,…

Smith, Carl B.

480

Increasing Young Low-Income Children's Oral Vocabulary Repertoires through Rich and Focused Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on 2 studies with kindergarten and first-grade children from a low-achieving elementary school that provided vocabulary instruction by the students' regular classroom teacher of sophisticated words (advanced vocabulary words) from children's trade books that are typically read aloud. Study 1 compared the number of…

Beck, Isabel L.; McKeown, Margaret G.

2007-01-01

481

Sustainability of Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary after Implicit versus Explicit Instruction in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the sustained effects of explicit versus implicit instruction on the breadth and depth of children's vocabularies, while taking their general vocabulary and verbal short-term memory into account. Two experimental groups with 12 and 15 kindergarten children respectively learned two sets of 17 words counterbalanced to be taught…

Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

2014-01-01

482

Adapting a Vocabulary Notebook Strategy to the Needs of Community College English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary, both the number of words and the knowledge about each word, are important in the comprehension of academic text in post-secondary education, and adult English language learners often have vocabularies of low quantity (number of words) and quality (knowledge about words). Research points to the effectiveness of teaching independent…

Taveggia, Diane Elizabeth

2013-01-01

483

Scoring Yes-No Vocabulary Tests: Reaction Time vs. Nonword Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…

Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert

2012-01-01

484

Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

Hummel, Kirsten M.

2010-01-01

485

Making the "Very" Most of Classroom Read-Alouds to Promote Comprehension and Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating comprehension and vocabulary instruction in read-alouds can help teachers make the very most of class time. The curriculum described illustrates how read-alouds, when implemented with strategic purpose, can boost learners' vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Specifically, the author presents guidelines for: (1) selecting…

Santoro, Lana Edwards; Chard, David J.; Howard, Lisa; Baker, Scott K.

2008-01-01

486

Read Alouds Enhanced with Tier 2 Instruction: Closing the Vocabulary and Comprehension Gap in First Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of tier 2 instruction on the comprehension and vocabulary of first grade students identified with low language and vocabulary skills. Specifically, the authors conducted a pilot study within the context of federally funded efficacy research to examine whether students participating in…

Baker, Scott; Fien, Hank; Park, Yonghan; Haria, Priti; Santoro, Lana; Chard, David; Otterstedt, Janet; Williams, Susanna

2010-01-01

487

Computer-Assisted Instruction in Latin and in English Vocabulary Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer assisted instruction in Latin and in English vocabulary development, which is used at the University of Illinois-Urbana, is described. The computer portion of the beginning Latin course consists of 40 lessons which provide drill and practice in vocabulary, morphology, and syntax. The program can be used either as a classroom supplement or…

Scanlan, Richard

1981-01-01

488

A Review of Multimedia Glosses and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in CALL Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the literature of multimedia glosses in computer assisted language learning (CALL) and their effects on L2 vocabulary acquisition during the past seventeen years. Several studies have touched on this area to examine the potential of multimedia in a CALL environment in aiding L2 vocabulary acquisition. In this review, the…

Mohsen, Mohammed Ali; Balakumar, M.

2011-01-01

489

Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method: Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS; Samuelsson et al., 2005). The ILTS includes 1,045…

Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

2013-01-01

490

An RDF Vocabulary for the Representation and Exploration of Expressions with an Illustration  

E-print Network

An RDF Vocabulary for the Representation and Exploration of Expressions with an Illustration for a large part of human knowledge. It is therefore desirable to allow for their representation in RDF and for their exploration through semantic search. We propose an RDF vocabulary that fulfills three ob- jectives. The first

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

491

The Effects of Audiovisual Support on EFL Learners' Productive Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study concerned multiple exposures to English before writing and aimed to explore the possibility of an increase in free active vocabulary with a focus on latent productive vocabulary beyond the first 2,000 most frequent words. The researcher incorporated online video into her college freshman composition class and examined its effects on…

Hsu, Wenhua

2014-01-01

492

Pre-Learning Low-Frequency Vocabulary in Second Language Television Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the potential of pre-learning frequently occurring low-frequency vocabulary as a means to increase comprehension of television and incidental vocabulary learning through watching television. Eight television programmes, each representing different television genres, were analysed using the RANGE program to determine the 10…

Webb, Stuart

2010-01-01

493

Vocabulary Improvement Program for English Language Learners and Their Classmates. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Vocabulary Improvement Program for English Language Learners and Their Classmates" ("VIP") is a vocabulary development curriculum for English language learners and native English speakers (grades 4-6). The 15-week program includes 30-45 minute whole class and small group activities, which aim to increase students' understanding of target…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

494

Preservice Elementary Teachers Increase Descriptive Science Vocabulary by Making Descriptive Adjective Object Boxes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive vocabulary is needed for communication and mental processing of science observations. Elementary preservice teachers in a science methods class at a mid-sized public college in central New York State increased their descriptive vocabularies through a course assignment of making a descriptive adjective object box. This teaching material…

Rule, Audrey C.; Crisafulli, Sherry; DeCare, Heather; DeLeo, Tonya; Eastman, Keri; Farrell, Liz; Geblein, Jennifer; Gioia, Chelsea; Joyce, Ashley; Killian, Kali; Knoop, Kelly; LaRocca, Alison; Meyer, Katie; Miller, Julianne; Roth, Vicki; Throo, Julie; Van Arsdale, Jim; Walker, Malissa

2007-01-01

495

Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…

Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

2014-01-01

496

A Descriptive Study on the Use of Materials in Vocabulary Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is important because it is highly correlated with content area learning. Strategies for vocabulary instruction recommend using new words in multiple contexts as key to learning. To date, the term "multiple contexts" emphasizes written contexts, not three-dimensional concrete material contexts. This article describes the…

Holmes, Kerry; Holmes, Stacy V.; Watts, Karley

2012-01-01

497

Contrasting Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge on Temporal and Parietal Brain Structure across Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using behavioral, structural, and functional imaging techniques, we demonstrate contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure in 47 healthy volunteers who ranged in age from 7 to 73 years. In the left posterior supramarginal gyrus, vocabulary knowledge was positively correlated with gray matter density in…

Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Filippi, Roberto; Harth, Helen; Price, Cathy J.

2010-01-01

498

Exploring the Impact of Television Watching on Vocabulary Skills in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rising incidence of television consumption in children, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of such habits on vocabulary skills in young children. Very little research has targeted a key cognitive skill--vocabulary--during the toddler years, which represent a critical developmental period. We recruited toddlers,…

Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Williams, Skyler; Jones, Britney; Cochrane, Fiona

2014-01-01

499

"It Takes a Village" to Support the Vocabulary Development of Children with Multiple Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly…

Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C.; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

2014-01-01

500

Using Eye Tracking to Understand the Responses of Learners to Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of morphological instruction in an eye-tracking English vocabulary recognition task. Sixty-eight freshmen enrolled in an English course and received either traditional or morphological instruction for learning English vocabulary. The experimental part of the study was conducted over two-hour class periods for…

Liu, Pei-Lin

2014-01-01