Science.gov

Sample records for background information vocabulary

  1. Vocabulary Uptake from Informal Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, James

    2008-01-01

    It is common to encourage foreign-language learners to use their language outside the classroom and to read books and papers, listen to songs and watch films in the foreign language. One of the benefits which are thought to accrue from these activities is that learners can build good vocabularies. It has even been argued that casual exposure to…

  2. Use of controlled vocabularies to improve biomedical information retrieval tasks.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Vishnyakova, Dina; Ruch, Patrick; Lovis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The high heterogeneity of biomedical vocabulary is a major obstacle for information retrieval in large biomedical collections. Therefore, using biomedical controlled vocabularies is crucial for managing these contents. We investigate the impact of query expansion based on controlled vocabularies to improve the effectiveness of two search engines. Our strategy relies on the enrichment of users' queries with additional terms, directly derived from such vocabularies applied to infectious diseases and chemical patents. We observed that query expansion based on pathogen names resulted in improvements of the top-precision of our first search engine, while the normalization of diseases degraded the top-precision. The expansion of chemical entities, which was performed on the second search engine, positively affected the mean average precision. We have shown that query expansion of some types of biomedical entities has a great potential to improve search effectiveness; therefore a fine-tuning of query expansion strategies could help improving the performances of search engines. PMID:23920842

  3. Effects of Stimulus Characteristics and Background Music on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning and Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Annette M. B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of three stimulus variables and background music on paired-associate learning of foreign language (FL) vocabulary. The stimulus variables were the frequency and concreteness of the native language (L1) words and the (phonotactical) typicality of the FL words. Sixty-four L1-FL pairs were presented for learning six…

  4. Italian: Area Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet has been assembled in order to provide students of Italian with a compact source of cultural information on their target area. Chapters include discussion of: (1) introduction to Italian; (2) origins of the Italian population; (3) geography; (4) history including the Roman Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the "Risorgimento," and…

  5. The Use of Vocabulary Files for Online Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Burket, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the text retrieval system, EUREKA, and its techniques for helping the unsophisticated user through the search for and understanding of information based on the vocabulary file concept. Methods for easy construction and maintenance of a suitable data base organization through the EURUP system are described. (RAA)

  6. Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimino, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

  7. From Potential to Reality: Content-Rich Vocabulary and Informational Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tanya S.

    2014-01-01

    Content vocabulary is essential for children's comprehension of informational text. Teachers will need to support children in developing the technical or specialized words they need for informational text and in linking these words to key concepts in content area instruction. This article describes the vocabulary instruction that was observed

  8. From Potential to Reality: Content-Rich Vocabulary and Informational Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tanya S.

    2014-01-01

    Content vocabulary is essential for children's comprehension of informational text. Teachers will need to support children in developing the technical or specialized words they need for informational text and in linking these words to key concepts in content area instruction. This article describes the vocabulary instruction that was observed…

  9. Coordinating Council. Tenth Meeting: Information retrieval: The role of controlled vocabularies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The theme of this NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program Coordinating Council meeting was the role of controlled vocabularies (thesauri) in information retrieval. Included are summaries of the presentations and the accompanying visuals. Dr. Raya Fidel addressed 'Retrieval: Free Text, Full Text, and Controlled Vocabularies.' Dr. Bella Hass Weinberg spoke on 'Controlled Vocabularies and Thesaurus Standards.' The presentations were followed by a panel discussion with participation from NASA, the National Library of Medicine, the Defense Technical Information Center, and the Department of Energy; this discussion, however, is not summarized in any detail in this document.

  10. Silhouette and background information analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Michelle N.; O'Connor, John D.

    2007-04-01

    Thermal target identification testing was conducted to explore some of the potential differences in the perception of ID cues in conventional gray shade images, and those same target images when rendered as various types of silhouette, including one with no background. Such experiments may give insight into the human target identification and discrimination tasks relevant to emerging laser-based imaging technology. For example, laser range gating is known to produce silhouetted grey shade targets with a single grey shade background like the ones included here. Well-understood thermal imagery of a well-understood target set was chosen as a convenient and relevant baseline image set for initial exploration. Experiments were formed to compare human vehicle ID performance when viewing full gray-shade imagery versus viewing various combinations of silhouette images. Experiments were performed using 1) Original gray-shade imagery, 2) Silhouette (uniform target) with no background (i.e. background consisting of uniform grey shade, 3) silhouette (target) with (original grey shade) background, and 4) Original target with no background. An eight target set was presented at three different aspects. Notional viewing ranges were simulated by applying two levels of Gaussian blur and two down sampling rates to the complete experimental target set. Observer results indicate higher target identification scores for the "target with no background" and "silhouette with no background" imagery than for the original gray shade imagery. However, ID results were lower for "silhouette with background" imagery than for the original imagery.

  11. Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in the

  12. Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in the…

  13. Vocabulary Control in Indexing the Literature of Librarianship and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Theodore C.

    Problems in indexing library and information science literature occur because of the speed of introduction of new terms, the nature of class headings, and the uncertain terminology of the field. Vocabulary control requires control over the concepts selected (the depth of indexing), the form of expression of concepts and the syndetic apparatus of…

  14. Let the Music Play!--A Short-Term but No Long-Term Detrimental Effect of Vocal Background Music with Familiar Language Lyrics on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Annette M. B.; Smedinga, Hilde E.

    2014-01-01

    Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the background. The vocabulary to learn varied in concreteness…

  15. Employment and Training Legislation-1968; Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    This volume supplied background information for employment and training legislation for the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare of the United States Senate for 1968. It includes: (1) excerpts from reports and recommendations of national committees and commissions on civil disorders, rural poverty, technology and automation, food and fiber, and…

  16. Italian Basic Course: Area Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplement to the Basic Course in Italian developed by the Defense Language Institute provides area background information on a variety of topics. They include: (1) housing and servants, (2) dining and a glossary of gastronomic terminology, (3) driving in Italy, and (4) relations with the police. The appendix contains material on: the Italian…

  17. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  18. Rote Memorization of Vocabulary and Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Weidong; Dai, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rote memorization of vocabulary has long been a common way for Chinese students to learn lexical items. Cultural, educational background and traditional teaching practice in China are identified to be the factors that contribute to many students' heavy reliance on memorization as their sole approach to vocabulary learning. In addition to rote…

  19. Nonfossil fuel fired industrial boilers: background information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    This document provides background information about air emissions and controlling these emissions for the nonfossil fuel fired boiler (NFFB) source category. This source category includes boilers firing wood, bagasse (sugar cane residue), municipal type solid waste, and refuse derived fuels. This document identifies the industries which use NFFBs and the numbers of new NFFBs expected to be built in 1982 through 1990. The uncontrolled emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides are quantified and factors affecting these emissions are discussed. State and Federal regulations which apply to the NFFB source category are summarized. Control technologies to reduce these emissions are identified and emission test data are presented. Factors which affect the performance of emission control technologies are also discussed. Finally, environmental, energy and cost impacts of applying these control technologies to nonfossil fuel fired boilers are presented and discussed. This information was developed in support of a potential new source performance standard for nonfossil fuel fired boilers.

  20. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  1. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined

  2. NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

  3. Teaching Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  4. Background information on the SSC project

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning.

  5. Vocabulary Plus: Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkin, Rhoda

    2010-01-01

    "Vocabulary Plus" is an interactive strategy which links vocabulary development with content area learning for English learners. This strategy uses interactive read-alouds of thematically- connected informational text matched to the grade-appropriate state standards and content of core subjects. When using "Vocabulary Plus",…

  6. Background Information Framework for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, Washington, DC.

    This framework will define the purpose and scope of NAEP's system of collecting background information, including background questionnaires and other sources of non-cognitive data. It will establish criteria for reporting background information as part of the National Assessment. The approach it suggests provides for asking various groups of…

  7. Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

  8. Visualizing Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

  9. Contemporary Classroom Vocabulary Assessment for Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Katherine A. Dougherty; Bravo, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of teaching disciplinary vocabulary effectively is the paucity of available, classroom-friendly vocabulary assessments that can be used to gauge students' vocabulary growth and to inform vocabulary instruction. This article describes the intricacies of word knowledge that make assessment difficult. Three continua…

  10. Vocabularies in the VO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

    2009-09-01

    There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

  11. The role of verbal and pictorial information in multimodal incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J. B.; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to investigate the allocation of attention to multimodal stimuli during an incidental learning situation, as well as its impact on subsequent explicit learning. Participants were exposed to foreign language (FL) auditory words on their own, in conjunction with written native language (NL) translations, or with both written NL translations and pictures. Incidental acquisition of FL words was assessed the following day through an explicit learning task where participants learned to recognize translation equivalents, as well as one week later through recall and translation recognition tests. Results showed higher accuracy scores in the explicit learning task for FL words presented with meaning during incidental learning, whether written meaning or both written meaning and picture, than for FL words presented auditorily only. However, participants recalled significantly more FL words after a week delay if they had been presented with a picture during incidental learning. In addition, the time spent looking at the pictures during incidental learning significantly predicted recognition and recall scores one week later. Overall, results demonstrated the impact of exposure to multimodal stimuli on subsequent explicit learning, as well as the important role that pictorial information can play in incidental vocabulary acquisition. PMID:25383918

  12. The role of verbal and pictorial information in multimodal incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to investigate the allocation of attention to multimodal stimuli during an incidental learning situation, as well as its impact on subsequent explicit learning. Participants were exposed to foreign language (FL) auditory words on their own, in conjunction with written native language (NL) translations, or with both written NL translations and pictures. Incidental acquisition of FL words was assessed the following day through an explicit learning task where participants learned to recognize translation equivalents, as well as one week later through recall and translation recognition tests. Results showed higher accuracy scores in the explicit learning task for FL words presented with meaning during incidental learning, whether written meaning or both written meaning and picture, than for FL words presented auditorily only. However, participants recalled significantly more FL words after a week delay if they had been presented with a picture during incidental learning. In addition, the time spent looking at the pictures during incidental learning significantly predicted recognition and recall scores one week later. Overall, results demonstrated the impact of exposure to multimodal stimuli on subsequent explicit learning, as well as the important role that pictorial information can play in incidental vocabulary acquisition. PMID:25383918

  13. Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary

  14. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meredith L; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES], parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n = 62) and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low-SES backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness and may help identify children at risk for starting behind. PMID:22235920

  15. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words—some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (SES, parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n=62), and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness, and may help identify children at risk for starting behind. PMID:22235920

  16. Use of Ontology for Field Geological Data in Geological Sheet Maps at 1:50,000: "Outcrop Information Vocabulary" Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Y.; Fusejima, Y.; Takarada, S.; Iwaya, T.; Igawa, T.; Masaka, Y. A.

    2010-12-01

    Geological Survey of Japan has published series of geological map at 1:50,000. The study attempts to acquire, distribute, and utilize the outcrop information as digital information. We aim at construction of an open system which is available in a various position, and then establishment of standard technology for the realization of the system. The purpose of this paper is to consider and carry out manufacture of “Outcrop Information Vocabulary(OIV)” as the first stage of the study. Since outcrop information is basic primary information, the semantic web technology is employed to associate with various other systems on the Web; for instance, OIV is designed with use of ontology and described by Web Ontology Language(OWL). The OIV includes 14 classes including “FieldObservation” class to describe field observation. Moreover, we create test system which field researchers use to test the effectiveness of OIV. The result lead to the conclusion that files created by use of OIV are easy of mutual alteration and association function with other XML-base format, therefore, OIV has high affinity with existing technology. ULM Class Diagram for "Outcop Informaion Vocabulary"

  17. Student Performance Standards and Testing Programs: Background Information for Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Joel A.; Rice, Elizabeth V.

    This report provides Minnesota legislators with background information on establishing state educational standards and periodic testing to measure student progress. Scientific management, the accountability movement, and the basic education movement were educational trends of the 1970's providing pressure on states to set standards to improve…

  18. The Effects of Background Information on Standarized Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Joan T.; Wepner, Shelley B.

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of exposure to the topics included on the comprehension subtest of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (ND), Form F, on college freshmen's performance on the test. In addition, the study investigated whether those students with background information would indicate their awareness of this knowledge on a…

  19. Managing Vocabulary Mapping Services

    PubMed Central

    Che, Chengjian; Monson, Kent; Poon, Kasey B.; Shakib, Shaun C.; Lau, Lee Min

    2005-01-01

    The efficient management and maintenance of large-scale and high-quality vocabulary mapping is an operational challenge. The 3M Health Information Systems (HIS) Healthcare Data Dictionary (HDD) group developed an information management system to provide controlled mapping services, resulting in improved efficiency and quality maintenance. PMID:16779203

  20. Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary…

  1. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies: Effects on Vocabulary Recognition and Comprehension at the First Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peitz, Patricia; Vena, Patricia

    A study examined teaching methods for vocabulary at the first grade level. The study compared teaching vocabulary in context and teaching vocabulary in isolation. Subjects were 32 culturally diverse first-grade students from varying socio-economic backgrounds. The sample consisted of 14 boys and 18 girls, heterogeneously grouped. Two teacher-made…

  2. Acquisition of background and technical information and class trip planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackinnon, R. M.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Instructors who are very familiar with a study area, as well as those who are not, find the field trip information acquisition and planning process speeded and made more effective by organizing it in stages. The stage follow a deductive progression: from the associated context region, to the study area, to the specific sample window sites, and from generalized background information on the study region to specific technical data on the environmental and human use systems to be interpreted at each site. On the class trip and in the follow up laboratory, the learning/interpretive process are at first deductive in applying previously learned information and skills to analysis of the study site, then inductive in reading and interpreting the landscape, imagery, and maps of the site, correlating them with information of other samples sites and building valid generalizations about the larger study area, its context region, and other (similar and/or contrasting) regions.

  3. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Writing Quality in Three Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Wilson, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocabulary in writing across three genres. Fifth graders (N = 105) wrote three compositions: story, persuasive, and informative. Each composition revolved around the topic of outer space to control for background knowledge. Written compositions were scored for holistic writing quality and

  4. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Writing Quality in Three Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Wilson, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocabulary in writing across three genres. Fifth graders (N = 105) wrote three compositions: story, persuasive, and informative. Each composition revolved around the topic of outer space to control for background knowledge. Written compositions were scored for holistic writing quality and…

  5. Language experiences and vocabulary development in Dominican and Mexican infants across the first 2 years.

    PubMed

    Song, Lulu; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

    2012-07-01

    We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during interviews at infants' birth. Infants' language experiences were measured at ages 14 months and 2 years through mothers' reports of mothers' and fathers' engagement in English and Spanish literacy activities with infants and mothers' English and Spanish utterances during videotaped mother-infant interactions. Infants' vocabulary development at 14 months and 2 years was examined using standardized vocabulary checklists in English and Spanish. Both parental language context and infants' language experiences predicted infants' vocabularies in each language at both ages. Furthermore, language experiences mediated associations between parental language context and infants' vocabularies. However, the specific mediation mechanisms varied by language. PMID:22142187

  6. A metadata vocabulary for self- and third-party labeling of health web-sites: Health Information Disclosure, Description and Evaluation Language (HIDDEL).

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, G.; Köhler, C.; Yihune, G.; Lampe, K.; Cross, P.; Brickley, D.

    2001-01-01

    We describe HIDDEL (Health Information Disclosure, Description and Evaluation Language), formerly known as medPICS (platform for Internet content selection in medicine), a metadata vocabulary designed to enhance transparency, trust and quality of health information on the web. The vocabulary may be used (1) by webmasters to self-describe their contents and policies; (2) by infomediaries (e.g. Healthfinder, NHS Direct/NeLH), e.g. third party evaluators, rating or portal services, to annotate other websites; (3) and by users, to describe their preferences. As an XML application it conforms to the W3C's RDF Specification. The metadata vocabulary is primarily intended to enable descriptions of whole health websites or health information providers. The vocabulary is designed to provide a computer-readable electronic "label" of a health website, telling users who is behind the website, how the website is sponsored, what the con-tent, aim and target audience is, how the information was compiled, what risks the service bears, or what people say about the resource. Client-software can "read" this label automatically, compare it to the user s own set of preferences and needs, and alert and advise users. PMID:11825174

  7. Resolution of activated background information in text comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruiming; Mo, Lei; He, Xianyou; Smythe, Ian; Wang, Suiping

    2010-08-01

    The present experiments explored the resolution of activated background information in text comprehension. In Experiment 1, participants read passages that contained an elaboration section that was either consistent or qualified (inconsistent but then corrected to be consistent) with respect to the subsequently presented target sentence (see O'Brien et al., 1998). However, the experiment used two target sentences, and several filler sentences were inserted between the first and second target sentence. The results showed that the reading times for the first target sentence in the qualified elaboration version were significantly longer than those in the consistent elaboration version. These were consistent with O'Brien's study, and further indicated that the basic process captured by the memory-based view appears to generalize to the Chinese reader better than does the here-and-now view. More importantly, the results showed that the reading times for the second target sentence in the qualified elaboration version were as long as those in the consistent elaboration version. These further indicated that the activation of background information not only maintained the coherence of the text, but also allowed for the relevant information to be updated, resulting in a unified information set. When the information was reactivated during ongoing reading, it would be in the form of unified information. In Experiment 2, the first target sentence in each passage from Experiment 1 was converted to a filler sentence, and the second target sentence became the target sentence. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the reading times for the target sentence in the qualified elaboration version were significantly longer than those for the consistent elaboration version. These indicated that the delay between the target sentences and the elaboration section was not responsible for the lack of differences in Experiment 1, and confirmed the conclusion of Experiment 1. PMID:22044009

  8. Vocabulary at the Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

    2009-01-01

    In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

  9. Karuk Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    A vocabulary list provides commonly-used words in the language of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California. Illustrations, handlettered Karuk terms, and English equivalents comprise entries for each of the 156 terms; space is also provided to practice writing each Karuk word. Topics covered include numbers, parts of the body, animals and…

  10. Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services: Speak Out. Conference Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Library, Columbus.

    Developed as background material for the 1978 Ohio White House Conference on Library and Information Services, this document provides information in six areas of concern for Ohio libraries: (1) library and information services--library users, library collections, special user needs; (2) public awareness--definition, current status, suggestions for…

  11. DSpace and customized controlled vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skourlas, C.; Tsolakidis, A.; Kakoulidis, P.; Giannakopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    The open source platform of DSpace could be defined as a repository application used to provide access to digital resources. DSpace is installed and used by more than 1000 organizations worldwide. A predefined taxonomy of keyword, called the Controlled Vocabulary, can be used for describing and accessing the information items stored in the repository. In this paper, we describe how the users can create, and customize their own vocabularies. Various heterogeneous items, such as research papers, videos, articles and educational material of the repository, can be indexed in order to provide advanced search functionality using new controlled vocabularies.

  12. 45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... representing electronic health information: (a) Problems—(1) Standard. The code set specified at 45 CFR 162... (incorporated by reference in § 170.299). (b) Procedures—(1) Standard. The code set specified at 45 CFR 162.1002(a)(2). (2) Standard. The code set specified at 45 CFR 162.1002(a)(5). (3) Standard. The code...

  13. The Rediscovery of Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meara, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four recent books of current research in vocabulary acquisition: "Exploring the Second Language Mental Lexicon," (D. Singleton); "Assessing Vocabulary," (J. Read); "Vocabulary in Language Teaching" (N. Schmitt); "Learning Vocabulary in Another Language" (L.S.P. Nation). (Author/VWL)

  14. Designing an Introspective, Multipurpose, Controlled Medical Vocabulary

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.; Hripcsak, George; Johnson, Stephen B.; Clayton, Paul D.

    1989-01-01

    The medical vocabulary used in clinical information systems must be more than a simple list of terms. We argue that such a vocabulary must have synonymy, domain completeness and multiple classifications, providing consistent views and explicit relationships, while remaining unambiguous and non-redundant. We examine the abilities of existing controlled vocabularies (ICD9-CM, SNOMED, MeSH, CMIT, CPT4, COSTAR, HELP, DXPLAIN, and UMLS) to meet these goals and propose an enhanced vocabulary structure based on a directed, acyclic semantic net. This structure provides a representation which permits introspection by the vocabulary maintenance system responsible for providing a terminology which meets our seven requirements. The vocabulary, which we refer to as the Medical Entities Dictionary, will serve a variety of applications.

  15. Accessibility and Integrity of Networked Information Collections. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford A.

    This paper considers questions related to the integrity and accessibility of new electronic information resources. It begins with a review of recent developments in networked information resources and the tools to identify, navigate, and use such resources. An overview is then given of the issues involved in access and integrity questions. Links…

  16. The Future of Indexing and Retrieval Vocabularies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    The role of formal, controlled vocabularies for indexing and retrieval is contrasted with the use of natural language for these activities. The following credo is advanced for large central information processors as appropriate to the 1970's (1) Highly structured controlled vocabularies are obsolete for indexing and retrieval; (2) The natural…

  17. A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may be more easily mapped to the OGC Observations & Measurements model for cross-domain applications.

  18. Thermalization of mutual information in hyperscaling violating backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhayi, M. Reza

    2016-03-01

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in [1] to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description of entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We show that during the thermalization process, the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior of mutual information (e.g., at the pre-local-equilibration regime). It is shown that the scaling violating parameter can be employed to define an effective dimension.

  19. Nursing research: historical background and teaching information strategies.

    PubMed Central

    Sarkis, J M; Conners, V L

    1986-01-01

    The expansion of research-based literature is one of the foremost goals of the nursing profession. Linked to this goal are the utilization and further development of nursing libraries. This paper discusses some historical factors that have influenced nursing literature. It presents a model for teaching graduate nursing students the relationship between research and library information skills. PMID:3518840

  20. Cross Cultural Strategies: Background Information For Teachers of Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Yukon Indians, Whitehorse (Yukon). Curriculum Development Program.

    This booklet was designed as a source of information for teachers seeking a deeper understanding of Native American children and who want to take advantage of opportunities offered by a cross-cultural classroom. The first section is a collection of 13 articles from a wide variety of sources on various aspects of cross-cultural education. Each…

  1. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  2. Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their collaborators using SISSvoc3, including: * geologic timescale (multiple versions) * soils classification * definitions from OGC standards * geosciml vocabularies * mining commodities * hyperspectral scalars Several other agencies in Australia have adopted SISSvoc3 for their vocabularies. SISSvoc3 differs from other SKOS-based vocabulary-access APIs such as GEMET [3] and NVS [4] in that (a) the service is decoupled from the content store, (b) the service URI is independent of the content URIs This means that a SISSvoc3 interface can be deployed over any SKOS vocabulary which is available at a SPARQL endpoint. As an example, a SISSvoc3 query and presentation interface has been deployed over the NERC vocabulary service hosted by the BODC, providing a search interface which is not available natively. We use vocabulary services to populate menus in user interfaces, to support data validation, and to configure data conversion routines. Related services built on LDA have also been used as a generic registry interface, and extended for serving gazetteer information. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The CSIRO SISSvoc3 implementation is built using the Epimorphics ELDA platform http://code.google.com/p/elda/. We thank Jacqui Githaiga and Terry Rankine for their contributions to SISSvoc design and implementation. REFERENCES 1. SISSvoc3 Specification https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/Siss/SISSvoc30Specification 2. Linked Data API http://code.google.com/p/linked-data-api/wiki/Specification 3. GEMET https://svn.eionet.europa.eu/projects/Zope/wiki/GEMETWebServiceAPI 4. NVS 2.0 http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/

  3. Language Experiences and Vocabulary Development in Dominican and Mexican Infants across the First 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Lulu; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

    2012-01-01

    We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during interviews…

  4. Language Experiences and Vocabulary Development in Dominican and Mexican Infants across the First 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Lulu; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

    2012-01-01

    We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during interviews

  5. Social Studies Vocabulary Mnemonics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Marion; Robinson, Maureen

    1992-01-01

    Suggests mnemonic tricks to help elementary students learn social studies vocabulary. Argues that traditional vocabulary teaching methods using list, definition, and oral and written use provides only a momentary link with the vocabulary. Lists 20 words with definitions and strategies for remembering both words and definitions. (DK)

  6. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic

  7. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  8. A Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Vocabulary Approach for Young Latino Dual Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Méndez, Lucia I.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Castro, Dina C.; Kainz, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the role of the language of vocabulary instruction in promoting English vocabulary in preschool Latino dual language learners (DLLs). The authors compared the effectiveness of delivering a single evidence-informed vocabulary approach using English as the language of vocabulary instruction (English culturally responsive…

  9. A Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Vocabulary Approach for Young Latino Dual Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mndez, Lucia I.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Castro, Dina C.; Kainz, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the role of the language of vocabulary instruction in promoting English vocabulary in preschool Latino dual language learners (DLLs). The authors compared the effectiveness of delivering a single evidence-informed vocabulary approach using English as the language of vocabulary instruction (English culturally responsive

  10. Background Information on the Very Long Baseline Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A continent-wide radio telescope system offering the greatest resolving power of any astronomical instrument operational today Overview: The National Science Foundation's VLBA is a system of ten identical radio-telescope antennas controlled from a common headquarters and working together as a single instrument. The radio signals received by each individual antenna contribute part of the information used to produce images of celestial objects with hundreds of times more detail than Hubble Space Telescope images. Scientific Areas: The VLBA can contribute to any astronomical research area where quality, high-resolution radio images will advance knowledge of the field. In its first five years of full operation, the VLBA has produced dramatic new information in these areas: * Stars: With the VLBA, astronomers have tracked gas motions in the atmosphere of a star other than the Sun for the first time; made the first maps of the magnetic field of a star other than the Sun; and studied the violent dances of double-star pairs in which one of the pair is a superdense neutron star or a black hole. * Protostars, star formation, and protoplanetary disks: The VLBA has provided scientists with some of the best views yet of very young stars and the complex regions in which they are born. VLBA images have shown outflows of gas from young stars and disks of material orbiting these new stars - material that later may form planetary systems. * Supernovae and Supernova Remnants: The VLBA has directly measured the expansion of a shell of exploded debris from the supernova SN 1993J, in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years from Earth. This has allowed scientists to learn new details about the explosion itself and its surroundings as well as calculate the distance to the supernova by using the VLBA data in conjunction with information from optical telescopes. VLBA images have shown regions of shocked gas in supernova remnants. * The Milky Way: Radio waves from extragalactic objects, such as quasars, are affected by variations in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. By measuring these effects with the VLBA, scientists are gaining valuable information about this tenuous component of our own Galaxy. Similar studies can tell about the distribution of hydrogen gas in our Galaxy. The great resolving power of the VLBA will allow astronomers to directly measure the distance to the Milky Way's center, some 30,000 light-years away, and has detected the tiny apparent shift in its position caused by our Solar System's motion around that center. The Solar System takes more than 200 million years to complete an orbit of the Galaxy's center, but the VLBA can detect that motion in less than a month! * Other Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei: The sharp radio "vision" of the VLBA has allowed scientists to study other galaxies in unprecedented detail. Numerous VLBA studies have focused on active galactic nuclei - the "monsters" at the hearts of many galaxies thought to harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. The black hole is thought to be surrounded by a rotating disk of material being sucked into it, and jets of subatomic particles accelerated to nearly the speed of light by the gravitational energy of the black hole. VLBA studies have given strong support to this "standard model" of an active galactic nucleus, showing the accretion disk in several such systems, and even measuring motions in one such disk. VLBA observations also have provided strong evidence that the material in the jets may be a mixture of matter and antimatter. * Cosmology: The VLBA's resolving power has allowed the farthest direct distance measurements yet made, of galaxies up to 23 million light- years away. Farther still, the VLBA is being used to study gravitational lenses in attempts to use such lens systems to accurately measure extremely great distances, and thus to refine estimates of the size and age of the universe. VLBA observations also are being used to detect possible structure in extremely distant objects, to learn about the nature of the universe when it was but a fraction of its current age. Operations: The VLBA is operated from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's (NRAO) Array Operations Center (AOC) in Socorro, New Mexico. The staff of the AOC also supports the Very Large Array, a system of 27 antennas 50 miles west of Socorro. The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation, and its instruments, including the VLBA, are available to the scientific community on a peer-reviewed basis. Scientists whose observing proposals are successful can obtain extensive assistance from NRAO astronomers and technical staff in preparing for their observations and in processing their data after the observations. Through this process, numerous graduate students now are using the VLBA for their dissertation research. History: Construction of the VLBA began in 1986, and the last observing station was completed in 1993. Astronomical observations with the partially-completed system began in 1987. All 10 VLBA stations were used for observing the first time in May of 1993. The official opening of the VLBA was held in Socorro, NM, on August 20, 1993. The total cost of constructing the VLBA was $85 million. Stations: The VLBA has stations at: St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands; Hancock, New Hampshire; North Liberty, Iowa; Fort Davis, Texas; Los Alamos, New Mexico; Pie Town, New Mexico; Kitt Peak, Arizona; Owens Valley, California; Brewster, Washington; and Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Technical Data: The VLBA's 240-ton dish antennas are 25 meters (82 feet) in diameter. They are equipped with receivers capable of detecting signals at frequencies ranging from 300 MegaHertz to 86 GigaHertz in non-continuous bands. During observations, data is collected at each station and recorded on magnetic tape. Each 18,000-foot reel of this tape holds 750 GBytes of data. Following observation, the tapes are shipped to Socorro. In Socorro, the VLBA Correlator, a special-purpose digital machine that combines the signals from all antennas, can perform 750 billion mathematical operations per second. The VLBA can produce images with a resolution of less than a thousandth of a second of arc. Such resolution is the equivalent of being able to stand in New York and read a newspaper in Los Angeles. The VLBA routinely works with other radio telescopes elsewhere in the world and in space.

  11. Facilitating the development of controlled vocabularies for metabolomics technologies with text mining

    PubMed Central

    Spasi?, Irena; Schober, Daniel; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Kell, Douglas B; Paton, Norman W

    2008-01-01

    Background Many bioinformatics applications rely on controlled vocabularies or ontologies to consistently interpret and seamlessly integrate information scattered across public resources. Experimental data sets from metabolomics studies need to be integrated with one another, but also with data produced by other types of omics studies in the spirit of systems biology, hence the pressing need for vocabularies and ontologies in metabolomics. However, it is time-consuming and non trivial to construct these resources manually. Results We describe a methodology for rapid development of controlled vocabularies, a study originally motivated by the needs for vocabularies describing metabolomics technologies. We present case studies involving two controlled vocabularies (for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography) whose development is currently underway as part of the Metabolomics Standards Initiative. The initial vocabularies were compiled manually, providing a total of 243 and 152 terms. A total of 5,699 and 2,612 new terms were acquired automatically from the literature. The analysis of the results showed that full-text articles (especially the Materials and Methods sections) are the major source of technology-specific terms as opposed to paper abstracts. Conclusions We suggest a text mining method for efficient corpus-based term acquisition as a way of rapidly expanding a set of controlled vocabularies with the terms used in the scientific literature. We adopted an integrative approach, combining relatively generic software and data resources for time- and cost-effective development of a text mining tool for expansion of controlled vocabularies across various domains, as a practical alternative to both manual term collection and tailor-made named entity recognition methods. PMID:18460187

  12. Three Principles of Effective Vocabulary Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses three principles that characterize effective vocabulary instruction (contextual and definitional information, active processing, and multiple exposures) and describes how these principles can be used to modify and improve existing methods of teaching word meanings. (HOD)

  13. Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known uncertainties and in details, which would allow assessing most important characteristics of environment and the biosphere (e.g., Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget) within preliminary specified level of uncertainty. The basic spatial resolution is 1km with possibilities to use finer resolution for regions of rapid changes or intensive ecological, atmospheric, hydrological etc. processes. Experiences of development of a prototype of the ILIS for Russia illustrated advantages of such an approach: a substantial gain in resources and time under organization of multidisciplinary integrated studies; availability of a solid background for development of clusters of integrated models that include meteorological, environmental, climatic, ecological, economic, social and other dimensions; open access to accumulated data, information and knowledge etc. Yet, there are significant difficulties in ILIS developments: a need of a system which would be open for changes and improvements; availability of long-period mechanisms for maintaining the system; possible contradictions with national information policies etc.

  14. Theme: Focus on Vocabulary Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    The eight articles in this journal issue focus on vocabulary skills. The topics covered are semantic feature analysis, the use of highway survival terms in a vocabulary list, making vocabulary interesting to secondary students, word lists, the use of newspapers in creating vocabulary lists, six strategies underlying effective vocabulary programs,…

  15. Vocabulary: Five Common Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy; Bromley, Karen; Rasinski, Tim; Newton, Evangeline

    2012-01-01

    When young readers encounter texts that contain too many unfamiliar words, their comprehension suffers. Reading becomes slow, laborious, and frustrating, impeding their learning. That's why vocabulary knowledge is a key element in reading comprehension. To comprehend fully and learn well, all students need regular vocabulary exploration.…

  16. Second Language Vocabulary Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart Alexander; Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

    2012-01-01

    The vocabulary knowledge of 166 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners in Taiwan was measured annually over a five year period using a bilingual version of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) (Nation, 1983, 1990; Schmitt, Schmitt, and Clapham, 2001). The five years of data collection involved English language instruction in high school and…

  17. Invited Commentary: Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ron; Schmitt, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    While formal research into the effect various technologies have on vocabulary acquisition is still in its infancy, it is clear that--intentionally or incidentally--students have used various electronic media to learn new words for some time now. Moreover, although it is still far from clear exactly how one acquires vocabulary in a second language…

  18. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  19. Are Vocabulary Subscores Justified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Gerald S.; Drahozal, Edward C.

    Although vocabulary tests have not been well suited to subdivisions that yield scores for different attributes, they have often been used in this manner. The question of whether such subscores can be justified from a measurement standpoint was studied. Items of a vocabulary test were classifed into three categories; the words were presented in…

  20. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need

  1. Cohort Discovery Query Optimization via Computable Controlled Vocabulary Versioning.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Todd A; Podchiyska, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Self-service cohort discovery tools strive to provide intuitive interfaces to large Clinical Data Warehouses that contain extensive historic information. In those tools, controlled vocabulary (e.g., ICD-9-CM, CPT) coded clinical information is often the main search criteria used because of its ubiquity in billing processes. These tools generally require a researcher to pick specific terms from the controlled vocabulary. However, controlled vocabularies evolve over time as medical knowledge changes and can even be replaced with new versions (e.g., ICD-9 to ICD-10). These tools generally only display the current version of the controlled vocabulary. Researchers should not be expected to understand the underlying controlled vocabulary versioning issues. We propose a computable controlled vocabulary versioning system that allows cohort discovery tools to automatically expand queries to account for terminology changes. PMID:26262383

  2. An Investigation of Two Ways of Presenting Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papathanasiou, Evagelia

    2009-01-01

    The use of semantic links or networks in L2 vocabulary acquisition has been a popular subject for numerous studies. On one hand, there is a strong theoretical background stating that presenting words in related fashion facilitates the learning of L2 vocabulary. On the other hand, research evidence indicates that semantically related vocabulary…

  3. Teaching Vocabulary through Games--A Sanguine Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anil, Beena

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary is predominant in improving one's communicative skill. Language is more powerful when it is being used perfectly. Teachers should consider the background of learners and aid them to learn and develop their vocabulary in many interesting ways especially through games. This paper deals with a productive and a logical study, done on a set…

  4. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  5. Do Infant Vocabulary Skills Predict School-Age Language and Literacy Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Fiona J.; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background: Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for…

  6. Medical and Transmission Vector Vocabulary Alignment with Schema.org

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, William P.; Chappell, Alan R.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2015-04-21

    Available biomedical ontologies and knowledge bases currently lack formal and standards-based interconnections between disease, disease vector, and drug treatment vocabularies. The PNNL Medical Linked Dataset (PNNL-MLD) addresses this gap. This paper describes the PNNL-MLD, which provides a unified vocabulary and dataset of drug, disease, side effect, and vector transmission background information. Currently, the PNNL-MLD combines and curates data from the following research projects: DrugBank, DailyMed, Diseasome, DisGeNet, Wikipedia Infobox, Sider, and PharmGKB. The main outcomes of this effort are a dataset aligned to Schema.org, including a parsing framework, and extensible hooks ready for integration with selected medical ontologies. The PNNL-MLD enables researchers more quickly and easily to query distinct datasets. Future extensions to the PNNL-MLD will include Traditional Chinese Medicine, broader interlinks across genetic structures, a larger thesaurus of synonyms and hypernyms, explicit coding of diseases and drugs across research systems, and incorporating vector-borne transmission vocabularies.

  7. Fundamental Vocabulary Selection Based on Word Familiarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Kaname; Kanasugi, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeaki

    This paper proposes a new method for selecting fundamental vocabulary. We are presently constructing the Fundamental Vocabulary Knowledge-base of Japanese that contains integrated information on syntax, semantics and pragmatics, for the purposes of advanced natural language processing. This database mainly consists of a lexicon and a treebank: Lexeed (a Japanese Semantic Lexicon) and the Hinoki Treebank. Fundamental vocabulary selection is the first step in the construction of Lexeed. The vocabulary should include sufficient words to describe general concepts for self-expandability, and should not be prohibitively large to construct and maintain. There are two conventional methods for selecting fundamental vocabulary. The first is intuition-based selection by experts. This is the traditional method for making dictionaries. A weak point of this method is that the selection strongly depends on personal intuition. The second is corpus-based selection. This method is superior in objectivity to intuition-based selection, however, it is difficult to compile a sufficiently balanced corpora. We propose a psychologically-motivated selection method that adopts word familiarity as the selection criterion. Word familiarity is a rating that represents the familiarity of a word as a real number ranging from 1 (least familiar) to 7 (most familiar). We determined the word familiarity ratings statistically based on psychological experiments over 32 subjects. We selected about 30,000 words as the fundamental vocabulary, based on a minimum word familiarity threshold of 5. We also evaluated the vocabulary by comparing its word coverage with conventional intuition-based and corpus-based selection over dictionary definition sentences and novels, and demonstrated the superior coverage of our lexicon. Based on this, we conclude that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods for fundamental vocabulary selection.

  8. Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students

    PubMed Central

    Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates to other aspects of academic achievement. This study used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to examine the vocabulary knowledge of DHH and hearing postsecondary students as well as their awareness (predictions) of that knowledge. Relationships between vocabulary knowledge and print exposure, communication backgrounds, and reading and verbal abilities also were examined. Consistent with studies of children, hearing college students demonstrated significantly larger vocabularies than DHH students both with and without cochlear implants. DHH students were more likely to overestimate their vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary scores were positively related to reading and verbal abilities but negatively related to sign language abilities. Among DHH students they also were positively related to measures of spoken language ability. Results are discussed in terms of related cognitive abilities, language fluency, and academic achievement of DHH students and implications for postsecondary education. PMID:25558473

  9. Background information for programs to improve the energy efficiency of Northwest residential rental property

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1986-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Office of Conservation, Bonneville Power Administration. The report will be used by the Office as background information to support future analysis and implementation of electricity conservation programs for owners of residential rental housing in the Northwest. The principal objective of the study was to review market research information relating to attitudes and actions of Northwest rental housing owners and, to a lesser extent, tenants toward energy conservation and energy-efficiency improvements. Available market research data on these subjects were found to be quite limited. The most useful data were two surveys of Seattle rental housing owners conducted in late 1984 for Seattle City Light. Several other surveys provided supplemental market research information in selected areas. In addition to market research information, the report also includes background information on rental housing characteristics in the Northwest.

  10. Using a Generative Vocabulary Matrix in the Learning Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    As teachers organize classroom schedules to meet curricular demands and time constraints, they strive to seek ways to motivate and sustain student engagement in quality vocabulary instruction, enjoyable learning experiences, and interesting informational books. This article addresses these concerns and describes a vocabulary acquisition strategy…

  11. Service Learning: Flooding Students with Vocabulary through Read Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.

  12. Vocabulary Instruction and the Nature of Word Meanings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven A.

    An extensive literature review led to the formation of a framework for vocabulary instruction that can be used to analyze the relationship between knowledge of word meanings and comprehension and to suggest more effective means of vocabulary instruction. The framework posits two types of information students hold about words--definitional and…

  13. Use of Metadata Vocabularies in Data Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin M.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a prototype system for devising and using a metadata vocabulary for data retrieval, based on a project at the United States Department of Agriculture. A unified information-access system called REEIS (Research, Education, Economics, Extension Information System) is being designed to provide a knowledge base of programs, projects, and…

  14. Inorganic arsenic emissions from high-arsenic primary copper smelters - background information for proposed standards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    Standards of performance to control emissions of inorganic arsenic from new and existing primary copper smelters processing feed materials containing an annual average of 0.7 percent or greater arsenic are being proposed under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. This document provides information on the background and authority, regulatory alternatives considered, and environmental and economic impacts of the regulatory alternatives.

  15. Inorganic arsenic emissions from low-arsenic primary copper smelters - background information for proposed standards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    Standards of performance to control emissions of inorganic arsenic from new and existing primary copper smelters processing feed materials containing an annual average of less than 0.7 percent arsenic are being proposed under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. This document provides information on the background and authority, regulatory alternatives considered, and environmental and economic impacts of the regulatory alternatives.

  16. Background Information on Staffing in Forty States to Serve Federally Funded Teacher Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Janice M.

    As one component of a larger effort to document state services to federally funded teacher centers, the National Teacher Center Resource Center collected background information on teacher center staffing at the state level during fiscal year 1980-81. This report, focusing primarily on the state teacher center coordinator, describes the…

  17. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  18. E-Mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazari, Behzad; Ninknejad, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via email by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners' writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of…

  19. The effects of spontaneous activity, background noise, and the stimulus ensemble on information transfer in neurons.

    PubMed

    Chacron, Maurice J; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2003-11-01

    Information theory is playing an increasingly important role in the analysis of neural data as it can precisely quantify the reliability of stimulus-response functions. Estimating the mutual information between a neural spike train and a time varying stimulus is, however, not trivial in practice and requires assumptions about the specific computations being performed by the neuron under study. Consequently, estimates of the mutual information depend on these assumptions and their validity must be ascertained in the particular physiological context in which experiments are carried out. Here we compare results obtained using different information measures that make different assumptions about the neural code (i.e. the way information is being encoded and decoded) and the stimulus ensemble (i.e. the set of stimuli that the animal can encounter in nature). Our comparisons are carried out in the context of spontaneously active neurons. However, some of our results are also applicable to neurons that are not spontaneously active. We first show conditions under which a single stimulus provides a good sample of the entire stimulus ensemble. Furthermore, we use a recently introduced information measure that is based on the spontaneous activity of the neuron rather than on the stimulus ensemble. This measure is compared to the Shannon information and it is shown that the two differ only by a constant. This constant is shown to represent the information that the neuron's spontaneous activity transmits about the fact that no stimulus is present in the animal's environment. As a consequence, the mutual information measure based on spontaneous activity is easily applied to stimuli that mimic those seen in nature, as it does not require a priori knowledge of the stimulus ensemble. Finally, we consider the effect of noise in the animal's environment on information transmission about sensory stimuli. Our results show that, as expected, such 'background' noise will increase the trial-to-trial variability of the neural response to repeated presentations of a stimulus. However, the same background noise can also increase the variability of the spike train and hence can lead to increased information transfer in the presence of background noise. Our study emphasizes how different assumptions can lead to different predictions for the information transmission of a neuron. Assumptions about the computations being performed by the system under study as well as the stimulus ensemble and background noise should therefore be carefully considered when applying information theory. PMID:14653504

  20. Facilitating Next Generation Science Collaboration: Respecting and Mediating Vocabularies with Information Model Driven Semantics in Ecosystems Assessments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.; Maffei, A.

    2012-04-01

    In Earth and space science, there is steady evolution away from isolated and single purpose data 'systems' toward systems of systems, data ecosystems, or data frameworks that provide access to highly heterogeneous data repositories. As a result, common informatics approaches are being sought for the development and implementation of newer architectures. One clear need is a repeatable method for modeling, implementing and evolving the information architectures. A newly funded U.S. initiative is developing and deploying integrated ecosystem assessment (IEA) capability for marine ecosystems using an information science and semantic technologies. The intention is to advance the capacity of an IEA to provide the foundation for synthesis and quantitative analysis of natural and socio-economic ecosystem information to support ecosystem-based management. The initiative is creating capacity to assess the impacts of changing climate on two large marine ecosystems: the northeast U.S. and the California Current. These assessments will be essential parts of the science-based decision-support tools used to develop adaptive management measures. Enhanced collaboration is required to achieve these goals: interaction and information sharing within and among diverse data providers, analysis tool developers and user groups that constitute the broader coastal and marine ecosystem science application community. This presentation outlines new component design approaches and sets of information model and semantic encodings for mediation.

  1. The Effect of Keeping Vocabulary Notebooks on Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, JoDee; Bozkurt, Neval

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary notebooks are frequently advocated as a way for students to take control of their vocabulary learning (Fowle, 2002), with the added benefit of improvements in vocabulary learning (Schmitt and Schmitt, 1995; Laufer and Nation, 1999). The study described in this article attempts to lend empirical support to these claims, by investigating…

  2. Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, J. B.

    1983-08-01

    Background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations is reported. An environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program was developed. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakdown conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. An environmental impact statement on magnetic fusion will be based with this reference as a principle.

  3. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  4. Technical Vocabulary in Specialised Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Describes two studies of technical vocabulary, one using an anatomy text and the other an applied linguistics text. Technical vocabulary was found by rating words in the texts on a four-step scale. Found that technical vocabulary made up a very substantial proportion of both the different words and the running words in texts. (Author/VWL)

  5. New Directions in Vocabulary Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart A.; Sasao, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    There have been great strides made in research on vocabulary in the last 30 years. However, there has been relatively little progress in the development of new vocabulary tests. This may be due in some degree to the impressive contributions made by tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (Nation, 1983; Schmitt et al., 2001) and the Word…

  6. Teaching Vocabulary across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bintz, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Learning vocabulary is an important instructional aim for teachers in all content areas in middle grades schools. Recent research, however, indicates that vocabulary instruction may be problematic because many teachers are not "confident about best practice in vocabulary instruction and at times don't know where to begin to form an instructional…

  7. Teaching Vocabulary to ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the ways in which vocabulary is taught and in particular what important learning points ESL students should know in order to understand new vocabulary words. It also discusses various ideas of how teachers could teach vocabulary. It highlights the importance of a theory that states there are 3 key stages that students progress…

  8. Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school

  9. Notes on an Environmental Pollution Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    This vocabulary covering the field of environmental pollution was compiled by the staff of the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution. The view of the approach is to include an outline-classification all physical, life, and social science aspects of environmental pollution, trying to achieve a balance in the representation of each…

  10. Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

  11. Sign-Supported English: Is It Effective at Teaching Vocabulary to Young Children with English as an Additional Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloë R.; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. Aims: To evaluate…

  12. The Electric Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

  13. The Electric Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article

  14. Research into Practice: Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, I. S. P.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a personal view of the application of research on vocabulary to teaching and how there are three different types or categories of relationship between that research and the teaching to which it is applied: first, where the research is not applied or not applied well, second, where it is reasonably well applied, and third, where it…

  15. Teaching Vocabulary in Colour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnoinska, Anna

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's use of color to make classroom instruction more interesting. Techniques included using colored paper for handouts, conducting an experiment to see whether the use of colors could enhance students' memory power, and using colored flashcards to teach vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  16. Emotion Vocabulary in Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Pavlenko, Aneta

    2002-01-01

    Examines five factors that may impact the use of second language emotion vocabulary. Considers the impact of language proficiency, gender, and extroversion on the use of emotion words in the advanced French interlanguage of 29 native Dutch speakers, and examines influence of sociocultural competence, gender, and type of linguistic material on use…

  17. "Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Roxy

    Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

  18. To Teach a Word Well: A Framework for Vocabulary Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven A.

    1985-01-01

    A framework developed to describe effective vocabulary instruction suggests that teaching methods can be described by the types of information they provide and the types of processing they require. (FL)

  19. Possible Sentences: Predicting Word Meanings to Teach Content Area Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven A.; Kapinus, Barbara A.

    1991-01-01

    Shares the results of two studies on the Possible Sentences strategy which indicate that the strategy can be as effective, if not more so, than semantic mapping in teaching vocabulary and fostering recall information. (MG)

  20. A neural mechanism for background information-gated learning based on axonal-dendritic overlaps.

    PubMed

    Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2015-03-01

    Experiencing certain events triggers the acquisition of new memories. Although necessary, however, actual experience is not sufficient for memory formation. One-trial learning is also gated by knowledge of appropriate background information to make sense of the experienced occurrence. Strong neurobiological evidence suggests that long-term memory storage involves formation of new synapses. On the short time scale, this form of structural plasticity requires that the axon of the pre-synaptic neuron be physically proximal to the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron. We surmise that such "axonal-dendritic overlap" (ADO) constitutes the neural correlate of background information-gated (BIG) learning. The hypothesis is based on a fundamental neuroanatomical constraint: an axon must pass close to the dendrites that are near other neurons it contacts. The topographic organization of the mammalian cortex ensures that nearby neurons encode related information. Using neural network simulations, we demonstrate that ADO is a suitable mechanism for BIG learning. We model knowledge as associations between terms, concepts or indivisible units of thought via directed graphs. The simplest instantiation encodes each concept by single neurons. Results are then generalized to cell assemblies. The proposed mechanism results in learning real associations better than spurious co-occurrences, providing definitive cognitive advantages. PMID:25767887

  1. A Neural Mechanism for Background Information-Gated Learning Based on Axonal-Dendritic Overlaps

    PubMed Central

    Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing certain events triggers the acquisition of new memories. Although necessary, however, actual experience is not sufficient for memory formation. One-trial learning is also gated by knowledge of appropriate background information to make sense of the experienced occurrence. Strong neurobiological evidence suggests that long-term memory storage involves formation of new synapses. On the short time scale, this form of structural plasticity requires that the axon of the pre-synaptic neuron be physically proximal to the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron. We surmise that such “axonal-dendritic overlap” (ADO) constitutes the neural correlate of background information-gated (BIG) learning. The hypothesis is based on a fundamental neuroanatomical constraint: an axon must pass close to the dendrites that are near other neurons it contacts. The topographic organization of the mammalian cortex ensures that nearby neurons encode related information. Using neural network simulations, we demonstrate that ADO is a suitable mechanism for BIG learning. We model knowledge as associations between terms, concepts or indivisible units of thought via directed graphs. The simplest instantiation encodes each concept by single neurons. Results are then generalized to cell assemblies. The proposed mechanism results in learning real associations better than spurious co-occurrences, providing definitive cognitive advantages. PMID:25767887

  2. Standard controlled vocabulary for climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moine, Marie-Pierre; Pascoe, Charlotte; Guilyardi, Eric; Ford, Rupert

    2010-05-01

    The scope of climate modeling has grown tremendously in the last 10 years, resulting in a large variety of climate models, increasing complexity with more physical or chemical components and huge volumes of data sets (simulation outputs). While significant efforts to standardise the associated metadata (i.e. data describing data and models) have already been made in recent projects (e.g. CF standard names for CMIP3), detailed standards documentation of the models and experiments that created this data is still lacking. The EU METAFOR Project (http://metaforclimate.eu) is specifically addressing this issue by creating new metadata schemas in cooperation with existing standards in Earth System Modeling (Curator, GridSpec, CF convention, NumSim, etc.). Descriptions of climate simulations, of the data they produce, and of the numerical models used to perform these simulations are all within the scope of METAFOR and these descriptions are assembled in a common information model (the CIM). Of particular note is the metadata for numerical models that is found in the CIM. This paper presents the controlled vocabulary (CV) that has been collected by METAFOR to describe (in a common manner) the components of the numerical models developed by the different modeling centres. This vocabulary is used in the model part of the web-based questionnaire that METAFOR has developed in support of the upcoming IPCC exercise (the CMIP5 questionnaire). The methods to (1) establish standards for this vocabulary via interactions with climate scientists, (2) utilise the vocabulary in the web-based questionnaire and (3) process the vocabulary for ingestion in the Earth System Grid (ESG) portal, are described. Governance aspects of this new controlled vocabulary are also addressed.

  3. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  4. Imported malaria in Finland 2003-2011: prospective nationwide data with rechecked background information

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although described in several reports, imported malaria in Europe has not been surveyed nationwide with overall coverage of patients and individually rechecked background information. Plasmodium falciparum infections have been reported despite regularly taken appropriate chemoprophylaxis, yet the reliability of such questionnaire-based retrospective data has been questioned. This was the starting-point for conducting a prospective nationwide survey of imported malaria where compliance data was double-checked. Methods Data was collected on all cases of imported malaria confirmed and recorded by the reference laboratory of Finland (population 5.4 million) from 2003 to 2011, and these were compared with those reported to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR). Background information was gathered by detailed questionnaires sent to the clinicians upon diagnosis; missing data were enquired by telephone of clinician or patient. Special attention was paid to compliance with chemoprophylaxis: self-reported use of anti-malarials was rechecked for all cases of P. falciparum. Results A total of 265 malaria cases (average annual incidence rate 0.5/100,000 population) had been recorded by the reference laboratory, all of them also reported to NIDR: 54% were born in malaria-endemic countries; 86% were currently living in non-endemic regions. Malaria was mainly (81%) contracted in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasmodium falciparum proved to be the most common species (72%). Immigrants constituted the largest group of travellers (44%). Pre-travel advice was received by 20% of those born in endemic regions and 81% of those from non-endemic regions. Of those with P. falciparum, 4% reported regular use of appropriate chemoprophylaxis (mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with chloroquine-resistant and atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline for regions with mefloquine-resistant P. falciparum); after individual rechecking, however, it was found that none of them had been fully compliant. Conclusions Information on compliance with chemoprophylactic regimen cannot be relied on, and it should be rechecked if malaria is suspected. The results of the present study suggest that mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil and doxycycline are effective as chemoprophylaxis against P. falciparum malaria, when taken conscientiously. PMID:23497115

  5. Conceptually Based Vocabulary Intervention: Second Graders' Development of Vocabulary Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimling, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students took…

  6. Improving Vocabulary of English Language Learners through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Meghan; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a professional development project. The purpose of the project was to provide professional development to teachers in vocabulary instructional strategies and to examine vocabulary acquisition of English language learners. The participants were 8 second grade ELL students and 6 second grade teachers. The eight second grade…

  7. Vocabulary Visits: Virtual Field Trips for Content Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.; Obrochta, Connie

    2005-01-01

    A significant body of research suggests that wide differences in concept and vocabulary knowledge exacerbate the achievement gap among students, especially in schools with large numbers of children of poverty. Educators sometimes attribute this difference to the Matthew effect: the sad reality that having a well-developed vocabulary allows a…

  8. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gen-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

  9. Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,

  10. Vocabulary Development Using Visual Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Kindergarten teachers use a variety of strategies that focus on vocabulary development. A common and effective practice to introduce new vocabulary to kindergarteners is reading storybooks to children, what is commonly known as "read-alouds" (Bus, van Ijzendoorn, & Pelligrini, 1995; Christ & Wang, 2010; Newton, Padak &…

  11. The State of Vocabulary Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

  12. The Vocabulary Book: Learning & Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive plan for vocabulary instruction from kindergarten through high school--a plan broad enough for students with small or exceptional vocabularies, and every child in between. Written by one of the top experts in the field, this book offers a research-based program with plenty of classroom examples and strategies…

  13. Strategies to Enhance Vocabulary Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Tiffany

    Vocabulary knowledge provides a source of prior knowledge and word meaning that can be used to enhance reading comprehension. It is important that teachers be aware and knowledgeable of the many strategies available to enhance vocabulary growth, and also how to teach these strategies to students. These strategies can range from the use of context…

  14. Making Connections in Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarf, Reima

    2006-01-01

    Vocabulary teaching and learning constitute a major problem for EFL instructors and students. The pretest showed that freshman students at COLT have difficulty in pronouncing, recognizing the meaning of, using and spelling English words. In their first semester, freshman students are required to take a vocabulary course that consists of 50 lessons…

  15. Vocabulary Development: A Continuing Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapinus, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    The strong relationship between knowledge of vocabulary and reading achievement leads to the conclusion that knowing the meaning of words in a passage enables the reader to answer questions about the passage. The goal of vocabulary instruction is the acquisition of the concepts represented by words as well as the ability to recognize and analyze…

  16. Mastering the Vocabulary of Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischler, Helene

    Developed for use by students in an introductory accounting course, these learning modules deal with mastering the vocabulary of accounting. Focus of the modules is on vocabulary appearing in the first six chapters of the text, "Accounting Principles" by Niswonger and Fess. Covered in the individual modules are the following topics: discovering…

  17. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Methods Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Results Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Conclusions Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level – a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of ‘late talkers’ resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to be improved when considering family history of language/literacy difficulties alongside infant vocabulary levels. PMID:25557322

  18. Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and

  19. A Word Map for Middle School: A Tool for Effective Vocabulary Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates how students who use background knowledge, context, morphology, and dictionaries learn words more effectively. Adapts a vocabulary web consisting of eight identical bubbles to provide students with a word map, intertwining most of the elements to clarify word meaning described by J. M. Harmon as essential to vocabulary instruction.…

  20. Factors that Influence Vocabulary Development in Two-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Klee, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background: This research explored the relative impact of demographic, cognitive, behavioural, and psycholinguistic factors on vocabulary development in two-year-old children. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two children (24-30 months) were tested on expressive and receptive vocabulary, cognitive development, word learning and working memory

  1. Children with Developmental Language Impairment Have Vocabulary Deficits Characterized by Limited Breadth and Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob; Bahnsen, Alison; Duff, Dawna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Deficient vocabulary is a frequently reported symptom of developmental language impairment, but the nature of the deficit and its developmental course are not well documented. Aims: To describe the nature of the deficit in terms of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge and to determine whether the nature and the extent of the…

  2. Expressive Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Intellectual Disability: Speech or Manual Signs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the degree to which children with intellectual disability (ID) depend on manual signs during their expressive vocabulary acquisition, in relation to child and social-environmental characteristics. Method: Expressive vocabulary acquisition in speech and manual signs was monitored over a 2-year period…

  3. Factors that Influence Vocabulary Development in Two-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Klee, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background: This research explored the relative impact of demographic, cognitive, behavioural, and psycholinguistic factors on vocabulary development in two-year-old children. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two children (24-30 months) were tested on expressive and receptive vocabulary, cognitive development, word learning and working memory…

  4. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  5. Background updating and shadow detection based on spatial, color, and texture information of detected objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Ahmed Mahmoud; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2012-05-01

    Background model updating is a vital process for any background subtraction technique. This paper presents an updating mechanism that can be applied efficiently to any background subtraction technique. This updating mechanism exploits the color and spatial features to characterize each detected object. Spatial and color features are used to classify each detected object as a moving background object, a ghost, or a real moving object. The starting position of each detected object is the cue for updating background images. In addition, this paper presents a hybrid scheme to detect and remove cast shadows based on texture and color features. The robustness of the proposed method and its effectiveness in overcoming challenging problems such as gradual and sudden illumination changes, ghost appearance, non-stationary background objects, the stability of moving objects most of the time, and cast shadows are verified quantitatively and qualitatively.

  6. FL Vocabulary Learning of Undergraduate English Majors in Western China: Perspective, Strategy Use and Vocabulary Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baicheng

    2009-01-01

    The present study, by use of questionnaire and vocabulary tests, has investigated the foreign language vocabulary learning situation of 481 undergraduates in terms of their perspective of vocabulary learning, strategy use and vocabulary size. Based on the questionnaire investigation and vocabulary level tests, the characteristics of the subjects'…

  7. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Arabic Vocabulary Size among Pre-University Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baharudin, Harun; Ismail, Zawawi

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size are among the main factors that help determine how students learn second language vocabulary. The present study was an attempt to exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and Arabic vocabulary size of 742 pre-university in "Religious High School" (SMKA) and…

  8. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  9. For ELLs: Vocabulary beyond the Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nancy S.; Truxaw, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a classroom teacher discusses ambiguities in mathematics vocabulary and strategies for ELL students in building understanding. The authors note that mathematics vocabulary may be more difficult to learn than other academic vocabulary for several reasons: (1) definitions are filled with technical vocabulary, symbols, and diagrams;…

  10. Mapping Opthalmic Terms to a Standardized Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Timothy B.; Reid, John C.; Sievert, MaryEllen; Popescu, Mihail; Gigantelli, James W.; Shelton, Mark E.; Schiffman, Jade S.

    2000-01-01

    Describes work by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) to expand the standardized vocabulary, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), to accommodate a definitive ophthalmic standardized vocabulary. Mapped a practice-based clinical ophthalmic vocabulary to SNOMED and other vocabularies in the Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical…

  11. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  12. Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckin, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 14 essays on reading and vocabulary learning in second language acquisition. Chapters include: "Research on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: Putting It in Context" (James Coady); "Implications for L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Instruction From L1 Vocabulary Research" (Fredricka Stoller and William Grabe); "Patterns and Perils of…

  13. 77 FR 21992 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: Applicant Background Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Secretary, Department of the Interior (DOI) announces the proposed extension of a public information....doi.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information on this renewed.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract DOI is below parity with the Relevant Civilian Labor Force...

  14. Effective Academic Vocabulary Instruction in the Urban Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Joan G.; Lesaux, Nonie K.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Faller, S. Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    In urban middle schools, educators find it challenging to meet the literacy needs of the many struggling readers in their classrooms, including language-minority (LM) learners and students from low-income backgrounds. One strategy for improving these students' reading comprehension is to teach essential academic vocabulary in a meaningful,…

  15. 77 FR 41999 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection: OMB Control Number 1091-0001, Applicant Background...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... collection of information was published on April 12, 2012 (77 FR 21992). One comment was received. This... Civil Rights, Office of the Secretary, Department of the Interior (DOI) has submitted to OMB for renewal..._Anderson@ios.doi.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information on...

  16. 76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ...) Brochure ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice (DOJ) FBI... Sherry L. Kuneff, Management and Program Analyst, FBI, Criminal Justice Information Services Division... Information Services (CJIS) Division of the FBI, Department of Justice (DOJ). (4) Affected Public who will...

  17. MALL in the Wild: Learners' Designs for Scaffolding Vocabulary Learning Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Joshua; Luckin, Rosemary; Winters, Niall

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to inform the design of mobile apps for vocabulary learning. Learning vocabulary involves developing, connecting, and sustaining various types of knowledge and skills. Learners do not typically acquire these all at once, but rather over the course of distinct episodes of activity. Yet, little is known about learning experience…

  18. Vocabulary Intervention for Kindergarten Students: Comparing Extended Instruction to Embedded Instruction and Incidental Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Kapp, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the two studies reported in this article was to evaluate the effectiveness of extended vocabulary instruction during storybook reading with kindergarten students within a small-group intervention setting. Extended vocabulary instruction is characterized by explicit teaching that includes both contextual and definitional information,…

  19. Progress Report on the Development of a Laser/Maser Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Rita G.

    The development of a laser/maser vocabulary follows the pattern established earlier in two similar projects--(1) Development of a Multi-Coordinate Vocabulary--Chemical Physics, and (2) Development of a Multi-Coordinate Index--Plasma Physics. A set of lists of terms judged to be important to a user of information was developed by a specialist in…

  20. Translating Vocabulary Research to Social Studies Instruction: Before, during, and after Text-Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairrell, Angela; Simmons, Deborah; Swanson, Elizabeth; Edmonds, Meaghan; Vaughn, Sharon; Rupley, William H.

    2011-01-01

    In the upper elementary grades, content-area text gains increasing importance as a primary source of reading and information. This article focuses on the specialized vocabulary demands of social studies texts and presents a framework of teaching and learning strategies based on vocabulary research. Strategies are introduced before, during, and

  1. Integrated Vocabulary Instruction: Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners in Grades K?5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.; Fisher, Peter J.; Watts-Taffe, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this document is to provide the information that teachers and other colleagues in the school need to implement an integrated and comprehensive approach to vocabulary instruction. By integrated, it is meant that vocabulary is a core consideration in all grades across the school and in all content areas across the school day. By…

  2. Helping ELLs Meet Standards in English Language Arts and Science: An Intervention Focused on Academic Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Barr, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards require students to understand and produce academic language that appears in informational text. Vocabulary is a critical domain of academic language, but English language learners (ELLs) come to the English Language Arts classroom with more limited English vocabulary than…

  3. Translating Vocabulary Research to Social Studies Instruction: Before, during, and after Text-Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairrell, Angela; Simmons, Deborah; Swanson, Elizabeth; Edmonds, Meaghan; Vaughn, Sharon; Rupley, William H.

    2011-01-01

    In the upper elementary grades, content-area text gains increasing importance as a primary source of reading and information. This article focuses on the specialized vocabulary demands of social studies texts and presents a framework of teaching and learning strategies based on vocabulary research. Strategies are introduced before, during, and…

  4. Bibliography of Vocabulary Frequency and Wordset Analysis Studies. Version 2.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia J., Comp.

    This bibliography provides citations to studies of word/letter frequencies and vocabulary applications based on issues of word frequency. While the original intent was to gather information pertinent to developing communication board vocabularies for argumentative communication systems, these resources should be useful for a variety of word…

  5. Toward vocabulary control for chief complaint.

    PubMed

    Haas, Stephanie W; Travers, Debbie; Tintinalli, Judith E; Pollock, Daniel; Waller, Anna; Barthell, Edward; Burt, Catharine; Chapman, Wendy; Coonan, Kevin; Kamens, Donald; McClay, James

    2008-05-01

    The chief complaint (CC) is the data element that documents the patient's reason for visiting the emergency department (ED). The need for a CC vocabulary has been acknowledged at national meetings and in multiple publications, but to our knowledge no groups have specifically focused on the requirements and development plans for a CC vocabulary. The national consensus meeting "Towards Vocabulary Control for Chief Complaint" was convened to identify the potential uses for ED CC and to develop the framework for CC vocabulary control. The 10-point consensus recommendations for action were 1) begin to develop a controlled vocabulary for CC, 2) obtain funding, 3) establish an infrastructure, 4) work with standards organizations, 5) address CC vocabulary characteristics for all user communities, 6) create a collection of CC for research, 7) identify the best candidate vocabulary for ED CCs, 8) conduct vocabulary validation studies, 9) establish beta test sites, and 10) plan publicity and marketing for the vocabulary. PMID:18439204

  6. Making background work visible: opportunities to address patient information needs in the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Logan; Mishra, Sonali R.; Pollack, Ari; Aaronson, Barry; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing use of patient-facing technologies such as patient portals to address information needs for outpatients, we understand little about how patients manage information and use information technologies in an inpatient context. Based on hospital observations and responses to an online questionnaire from previously hospitalized patients and caregivers, we describe information workspace that patients have available to them in the hospital and the information items that patients and caregivers rate as important and difficult to access or manage while hospitalized. We found that patients and caregivers desired information—such as the plan of care and the schedule of activities—that is difficult to access as needed in a hospital setting. Within this study, we describe the various tools and approaches that patients and caregivers use to help monitor their care as well as illuminate gaps in information needs not typically captured by traditional patient portals. PMID:26958295

  7. 77 FR 31017 - Office of Facilities Management and Program Services; Information Collection; Background...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., presented in the Federal Register publication of February 17, 2009, 74 FR 7439. GSA is proceeding with the... Investigations for Child Care Workers AGENCY: Office of Facilities Management and Program Services, Public... collection of personal data for background investigations for child care workers accessing GSA owned...

  8. The Effects of Background Information and Syntactic Cues in Reading French Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, Carl L.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared two groups of intermediate/advanced L2 French learners on a reading comprehension test when presented with or without background knowledge of the text. This study also compared intermediate and intermediate/advanced L2 French learners' reading comprehension when presented with increasing syntactic complexity. The results of…

  9. 25 Years of Controlled Vocabularies in Oceanographic Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    In the 1980s data managers in IOC realised that data exchange required a common terminology for concepts such as parameters, instruments and platforms. They rose to the challenge by developing a set of 7 controlled vocabularies that were published in print as part of the GF3 standard in 1987. Unfortunately, because this was based on print, the vocabularies couldn't be maintained and were little used. However, in the 1990s the pan-European SeaSearch project developed them into a usable digital vocabulary library. Whilst this was a significant step forward, vocabulary content governance was delegated to individuals, technical governance procedures were far from watertight and the terms had no definitions. Consequently, usage problems, especially local copy evolution and term misunderstandings persisted. When SeaDataNet started in 2006 there was a determination to use technology to solve these problems. Now, list server content governance harnesses domain expertise, relational database technology provides robust, scalable, versioned storage and the NERC DataGrid SOAP and pseudo-RESTful Web Service APIs serve lists and mappings. The SeaDataNet vocabulary technology currently addresses two use cases: semantic cross-walking and metadata field content verification. Basic metadata cross-walks do not transfer fields populated from different vocabularies, thereby losing information, because machine-accessible translations are unavailable. In SeaDataNet we have assembled mappings between lists of interest, particularly parameter vocabularies, into an RDF triple store. The resulting ontology is served as RDF documents through API method calls and term URLs. Metadata content verification is implemented by embedding URNs into documents defined by Schematron- extended schemas that are automatically built by a service monitoring the vocabulary server for content changes. These schemas allow generic XML editors, such as Oxygen, to validate document semantic content against the latest vocabulary version. The NERC DataGrid/SeaDataNet Vocabulary Server is fully operational delivering over 100 lists containing over 120,000 terms linked by nearly 80,000 mappings. It is receiving approximately 400 catalogue requests and 3000 list accesses per month accompanied by over 200,000 hits from robots mining the semantic content.

  10. Background for Builders--Related Science and Trade Information for the Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Joseph

    Primarily intended for instructors but also useful to students, this guide provides a set of lessons (interlaced with humorous phrases and cartoons) for teaching fundamental information for the building trades. Each lesson contains objectives, related information, and a review or summary. Unit I is a brief, humorous message to the student on the…

  11. The Effects of Individualized, Online Vocabulary Instruction on Picture Vocabulary Scores: An Efficacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Charles N.; Davison, Mark L.; Graves, Michael F.; Sales, Gregory C.; Seipel, Ben; Sekhran-Sharma, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is of fundamental importance to reading comprehension, and many students lack the vocabulary knowledge necessary to facilitate learning to read. A study was conducted to determine the effects of an individualized, online vocabulary program on picture vocabulary test scores. Elementary summer school students (N = 43), entering…

  12. The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge. One hundred and fifty first-year university students in China took the Vocabulary Levels Test, a meaning recall task, and the Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge Test. The first two tests were used to elicit two types of vocabulary…

  13. Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardakçi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge have been studied from many different perspectives, but the related literature lacks serious studies dealing with their effects on vocabulary profiles of EFL learners. In this paper, with an aim to fill this gap, the relative effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge on L2 vocabulary profiles…

  14. Teaching Vocabulary in Storybooks: Embedding Explicit Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction is a critical component of early language and literacy programs. Vocabulary skills in the early elementary school years are strong predictors of later reading achievement and there is a correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Children who have limited vocabulary in kindergarten are at high risk of…

  15. Financial Information Source, Knowledge, and Practices of College Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimura, Yoko; Koonce, Joan; Plunkett, Scott W.; Pleskus, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data, we examined the financial information sources, financial knowledge, and financial practices of young adults, many of whom are first generation college students, ethnic minorities, and immigrants or children of immigrants. Participants (n = 1,249) were undergraduate students at a large regional comprehensive university.…

  16. Are racial differences in patient-physician cancer communication and information explained by background, predisposing, and enabling factors?

    PubMed Central

    Manfredi, Clara; Kaiser, Karen; Matthews, Alicia K.; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that African Americans tend to have poorer and less informative patient-physician communication than Whites. We analyzed survey data from 248 African American and 244 White cancer patients to examine whether this disadvantage could be explained by race variability on several other variables commonly reported to affect communication. These variables were organized into background, enabling, and predisposing factors, based on the Precede-Proceed Model. Multivariate regressions were used to test whether race differences on communication and information variables persisted after successively controlling for background, enabling and predisposing factors. African American patients had higher interpersonal communication barriers than Whites, but this difference did not persist after controlling for background factors. African Americans also had higher unmet information needs and were less likely to receive the name of a cancer expert. These differences persisted controlling for all other factors. Future research should focus on the informational disadvantages of African American patients and how such disadvantages may affect cancer treatment decisions. PMID:20432108

  17. American Holidays: Exploring Traditions, Customs and Backgrounds. Vocabureader Workbook 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebanow, Barbara; Fischer, Sara

    The workbook is an English vocabulary development text focusing on words associated with traditions, customs, and background of holidays celebrated in the United States, and in some cases also in Canada and elsewhere. The special vocabulary is presented in seventeen readings, written in repetitive style so the student can learn the definitions of…

  18. Controlled vocabularies and ontologies in proteomics: overview, principles and practice.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Gerhard; Jones, Andrew R; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Deutsch, Eric W; Orchard, Sandra; Montecchi-Palazzi, Luisa; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Oveillero, David; Julian, Randall; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Eisenacher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of controlled vocabularies (CVs) and ontologies especially in the area of proteomics, primarily related to the work of the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI). It describes the relevant proteomics standard formats and the ontologies used within them. Software and tools for working with these ontology files are also discussed. The article also examines the "mapping files" used to ensure correct controlled vocabulary terms that are placed within PSI standards and the fulfillment of the MIAPE (Minimum Information about a Proteomics Experiment) requirements. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan. PMID:23429179

  19. Enhanced community structure detection in complex networks with partial background information.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework. PMID:24247657

  20. Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S. L.

    1982-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

  1. Improving Online Reading and Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucky, John Paul

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find ways to improve online reading and vocabulary learning. Various new types of online reading comprehension and vocabulary development programs and tests were compared in this study to consider how useful they may be for guiding individual or classroom L2 vocabulary instruction. It explored how these programs seek…

  2. Some Vocabulary Activities Worth Teaching About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Helena S.

    1982-01-01

    The 12 activities presented in this pamphlet are intended to help make vocabulary study a stimulating experience for both teacher and student. The activities are as follows: (1) a commercially prepared list of suggestions for vocabulary development, (2) an exercise designed to relate vocabulary study to every day reading, (3) a variation of the…

  3. Enhancing Vocabulary Development in Multiple Classroom Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Janis M.; Staton, Denise G.

    1999-01-01

    Describes ways teachers can enhance students' vocabulary development through multiple contexts available in typical middle school classroom settings. Addresses questions about vocabulary learning and offers suggestions for enhancing vocabulary with narrative and expository texts that involve multiple classroom contexts. Considers the Vocab-o-gram…

  4. A Core Vocabulary for Tamil. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpin, David W.

    This vocabulary list is directed towards the Tamil instructor and the advanced student. Its primary goal is to bring some order to the teaching of vocabulary in the first two years of Tamil instruction. A secondary goal is to help the student through the vocabulary maze of Tamil diglossia. Three main criteria were employed in selecting words for…

  5. Computer Assisted Vocabulary Learning: Design and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Qing; Kelly, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and evaluation of the computer-assisted vocabulary learning (CAVL) software WUFUN. It draws on the current research findings of vocabulary acquisition and CALL, aiming to help Chinese university students to improve their learning of English vocabulary, particularly that with which they experience most difficulty.…

  6. Vocabulary Teaching Based on Semantic-Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangru, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary is an indispensable part of language and it is of vital importance for second language learners. Wilkins (1972) points out: "without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed." Vocabulary teaching has experienced several stages characterized by grammatical-translation method, audio-lingual…

  7. Vocabulary Levels and Size of Malaysian Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Bhar, Sareen Kaur; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is a fundamental requirement of language acquisition, and its competence enables independent reading and effective language acquisition. Effective language use requires adequate level of vocabulary knowledge; therefore, efforts must be made to identify students' vocabulary base for greater efficiency and competency in the language.…

  8. Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

  9. Assessing Vocabulary Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica L.; Teale, William H.; Paciga, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread agreement with in the field of early childhood education that vocabulary is important to literacy achievement and that reading aloud can support vocabulary growth. However, there are unexplored and significant problems with the ways we assess young children's vocabulary learning from read-alouds. This paper critically…

  10. Teaching Vocabulary in the Literature Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, James

    2001-01-01

    Advocates concept-related vocabulary instruction, in which students link individual words with larger literature concepts. Outlines four steps to creating a concept-related vocabulary lesson. Offers examples of how concept-related vocabulary lessons can be conducted while reading, before reading, and after reading. Outlines web, weave, and…

  11. The Acquisition of Second Language Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Barbara F. H.

    Most advanced second language (L2) learners find continued vocabulary growth to be one of the most difficult areas in second language learning, and vocabulary acquisition has not received little attention by researchers. As a result, no unified theory of L2 vocabulary acquisition exists, although the literature contains ample advice on how to…

  12. Lexical Phrases, Functions and Vocabulary Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nattinger, James R.

    The position this paper assumes views vocabulary not as single words but as phrases, sentences, and sometimes entire segments of discourse that act as single words. This view of vocabulary would be helpful in: (1) bringing the vocabulary aspect of instruction in English as a second language (ESL) closer to current research in language performance,…

  13. Vocabulary Expansion in Modern Standard Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Louise

    1997-01-01

    Examines the discrepancy between spoken and written vocabularies in modern standard Chinese (MSC) textbooks that contributes to slow vocabulary development, and outlines a teaching technique to extend students' vocabulary using the ideographic nature of MSC characters rather than phonetic learning to increase efficient use of vocabulary…

  14. Assessing Vocabulary Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica L.; Teale, William H.; Paciga, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread agreement with in the field of early childhood education that vocabulary is important to literacy achievement and that reading aloud can support vocabulary growth. However, there are unexplored and significant problems with the ways we assess young children's vocabulary learning from read-alouds. This paper critically

  15. Automatic Identification of Nutritious Contexts for Learning Vocabulary Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostow, Jack; Gates, Donna; Ellison, Ross; Goutam, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to literacy development and academic success. Previous research has shown learning the meaning of a word requires encountering it in diverse informative contexts. In this work, we try to identify "nutritious" contexts for a word--contexts that help students build a rich mental representation of the word's…

  16. Pre-Service Teacher Cognition and Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macalister, John

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge and beliefs that teachers hold are an important determiner of what happens in the classroom. Ideally teacher cognition should be informed by research and theory about effective language learning. This paper examines the beliefs related to vocabulary teaching held by a cohort of 60 Malaysian pre-service teachers engaged in a…

  17. Evaluation of Controlled Vocabularies by Inter-Indexer Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monreal, Concha Soler; Gil-Leiva, Isidoro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Several controlled vocabularies are used for indexing three journal articles to check if better or equal consistency rates are achieved with a list of descriptors than with a standard thesaurus and augmented thesaurus. Method: A terminology set for library and information Science was used to build a list of descriptors with…

  18. Intensity in Vocabulary Instruction and Effects on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has shown that vocabulary instruction can enhance the comprehension of passages when instruction includes definitional and contextual information, provides multiple instructional encounters with the words, and requires learners to engage actively in processing of word meanings (M. F. Graves, 1986; S. A. Stahl & M. M. Fairbanks,…

  19. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briceño, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  20. The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

  1. Teaching Vocabulary Expeditiously: Three Keys to Improving Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    Integrating vocabulary games and activities more often into the structure of the day, Thomas B. Smith establishes a word-rich environment for high school students to experiment with unfamiliar words in varying, playful contexts. Smith asserts that giving frequent opportunities for hearing, speaking, and writing in the typical context of the day is…

  2. [State and development of background information for the evaluation of Czech cancer screening programmes].

    PubMed

    Dušek, L; Májek, O; Klimeš, D; Bláha, M; Brabec, P; Gregor, J

    2014-01-01

    Czech cancer screening programmes feature a comprehensive multimodal information system which covers all the levels of assessment needed - population-based monitoring (Czech National Cancer Registry), monitoring of results in the diagnostic databases of centres, as well as the quantification of coverage and outputs of primary care according to the administrative data of health care payers. A system of personalised invitations to cancer screening programmes was launched in 2014, based on a stand-alone component of the information system which makes it possible to identify eligible clients in health care payers databases. The system was fully standardised and uniformly implemented in all health insurance companies; its functionalities also involve both continuous and retrospective assessment of the results of personalised invitation. The legislative framework in force will have to be applied and implemented for a more comprehensive and integrated employment of all involved data sources, i.e. cancer registries, screening registries, and administrative data. The system must be able to analyse de-identified individual records on clients participation in screening programmes, and thus to ensure an adequate analysis of performance indicators in compliance with international recommendations. PMID:25494889

  3. Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2006-05-01

    Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

  4. Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kover, Sara T.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young children with ASD, applying the Extended Statistical Learning theory of vocabulary delay in late talkers (Stokes, Kern, & dos Santos, 2012) to toddlers with ASD. Method Parents reported the words produced by toddlers with ASD (n=57; ages 2137 months) or toddlers without ASD (n=41; ages 2226 months) on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. The average phonological neighborhood density, word frequency, and word length of each toddlers lexicon was calculated. These lexical characteristics served as predictors of vocabulary size. Results Findings differed for toddlers with and without ASD and according to subsamples. Vocabulary size was predicted by word length for toddlers with ASD and by phonological neighborhood density for toddlers without ASD. Conclusions Distinct relationships between lexical characteristics and vocabulary size were observed for toddlers with and without ASD. Experimental studies on distributional cues to vocabulary acquisition are needed to inform what is known about mechanisms of learning in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24687027

  5. Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

    2013-10-01

    Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

  6. Cognitive Processes of Vocabulary Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbay, Anita; Mirensky, Debi

    This study investigates the cognitive processes used by nonnative students of English as a second language (ESL) in recognizing vocabulary items. Four specific questions are addressed: (1) To what extent does context aid in evoking educated guesses? (2) To what degree can contextual clues mislead intelligent guessing? (3) Do foreign language…

  7. A New Academic Vocabulary List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide

  8. Improving Reading Comprehension through Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Andy; Cressman, Kelley Shea; Pfanz, Tomi

    An action research project described an implementation of vocabulary strategies designed to increase reading comprehension. The targeted population consisted of inner city elementary students located in central Illinois. Research shows that some children from low-income environments have below average reading abilities. Analysis of probable cause…

  9. Teaching Vocabulary by Oral Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heltai, Pal

    1989-01-01

    Examines the conditions under which oral translation from a first language to a second language can be used as an exercise to build vocabulary. Depending upon the teaching situation, oral translation can be made both interesting and useful while being compatible with communicative approaches to language teaching. (Author/CB)

  10. Multisensory Strategies for Science Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husty, Sandra; Jackson, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Seeing, touching, smelling, hearing, and learning! The authors observed that their English Language Learner (ELL) students achieved a deeper understanding of the properties of matter, as well as enhanced vocabulary development, when they were guided through inquiry-based, multisensory explorations that repeatedly exposed them to words and…

  11. A Vocabulary for Numerical Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton Paul

    This glossary presents a standardized nomenclature for numerical control. It defines and describes some 286 technical words, terms, abbreviations, and acronyms which form a specialized vocabulary. The aim of this glossary is to provide a means for arriving at some common understanding of terminology for numerical control technology. Numerous…

  12. A New Academic Vocabulary List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…

  13. Significance of background optical properties, time-resolved information and optode arrangement in diffuse optical imaging of term neonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiskala, J.; Hiltunen, P.; Nissil, I.

    2009-02-01

    The significance of accurate knowledge of background optical properties and time-resolved information in reconstructing images of hemodynamic changes in the neonatal brain from diffuse optical imaging data was studied using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. A segmented anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) image and literature-derived optical properties for each tissue type were used to create a voxel-based anatomical model. Small absorbing perturbations were introduced into the anatomical model to simulate localized hemodynamic responses related to brain activation. Perturbation MC (pMC) was used as the primary method of image reconstruction. For comparison, reconstructions were also performed using the finite element method (FEM) to solve the diffusion approximation (DA) to the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The effect of optode layout was investigated using three different grids. Of the factors studied, the density of the optode grid was found to have the greatest effect on image quality. The use of time-resolved information significantly improved the spatial accuracy with all optode grids. Adequate knowledge and modeling of the optical properties of the background was found to significantly improve the spatial accuracy of the reconstructed images and make the recovery of contrast of absorption changes more consistent over simplified modeling. Localization accuracy of small perturbations was found to be 2-3 mm with accurate a priori knowledge of the background optical properties, when a grid with high optode density (>1 optode cm-2) was used.

  14. How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish-English bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

    2010-01-01

    Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26; 2;6 yrs). Between-language associations were weak: vocabulary size in Spanish was uncorrelated with vocabulary in English, and children’s facility in online comprehension in Spanish was unrelated to their facility in English. Instead, efficiency of online processing in one language was significantly related to vocabulary size in that language, after controlling for processing speed and vocabulary size in the other language. These links between efficiency of lexical access and vocabulary knowledge in bilinguals parallel those previously reported for Spanish and English monolinguals, suggesting that children’s ability to abstract information from the input in building a working lexicon relates fundamentally to mechanisms underlying the construction of language. PMID:19726000

  15. Re-use of standard ontologies in a water quality vocabulary (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Simons, B.; Yu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Observations provide the key constraints on environmental and earth science investigations. Where an investigation uses data sourced from multiple providers, data fusion depends on the observation classifications being comparable. Standard models for observation metadata are available (ISO 19156) which provide slots for key classifiers, in particular, the observed property and observation procedure. While universal use of common vocabularies might be desirable in achieving interoperability, this is unlikely in practice. However, semantic web vocabularies provide the means for asserting proximity and other relationships between items in different vocabularies, thus enabling mediation as an interoperability solution. Here we report on the development of a vocabulary for water quality observations in which recording relationships with existing vocabularies was a core strategy. The vocabulary is required to enable combination of a number of groundwater, surface water and marine water quality datasets on an ongoing basis. Our vocabulary model is based on the principle that observations generally report values of specific parameters which are defined by combining a number of facets. We start from Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Data Types (QUDT), which is an OWL ontology developed by NASA and TopQuadrant. We extend this with two additional classes, for Observed Property and Identified Object, and two linking properties, which enable us to create an observed property vocabulary for water quality applications. This ontology is comparable with models for observed properties developed as part of OGC's Observations and Measurements v1.0 standard, the INSPIRE Generic Conceptual Model, and may also be compared with the W3C SSN Ontology, which is based on the DOLCE Ultralite upper-ontology. Water quality observations commonly report concentrations of chemicals, both natural and contaminant, so we tie many of the Identified Objects to items from Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI). ChEBI is an OWL-based dictionary of over 70 000 molecular entities, based on existing scientific work and linked through to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Nomenclature. Within the model the relevant classes, including those from QUDT, are declared to be subclasses of SKOS Concept, so the resulting vocabularies may be directly mapped to other SKOS-based vocabularies, such as from the NERC Vocabulary Service or the Marine Metadata Initiative, using SKOS predicates. Where the external vocabularies are not published with persistent URIs, such as CUAHSI, the mapping may be recorded more informally using annotations, or use proxy URIs for the external vocabulary. The resulting SKOS vocabularies demonstrate a separation of governance of key definitions such as units and quantities and chemical entities, ensuring reuse where possible and extending and adding detail where necessary.

  16. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers' vocabulary size

    PubMed Central

    Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development. PMID:25762957

  17. An assessment of cancer clinical trials vocabulary and IT infrastructure in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Gwaltney, K; Chute, C; Hageman, D; Kibbe, W; McCormick, K; Reeves, D; Wright, L

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-three cancer research centers in the U.S. were assessed to determine data standards, vocabularies, and information infrastructure used in support of clinical trials. Eighteen of the 23 responded. Major findings were related to: 1) clinical trials infrastructure information, 2) current systems environment, 3) technical details, and 4) vocabulary and data standards. The size of the facility correlated with the quality, features and functionality of the clinical trials system (CTS). One facility had as many as 22 separate CTS. There were only 2 sites that had integrated clinical information systems (CIS) with CTS. The responses included the major vocabularies and data standards used in CTS. The majority used some automation but many also reported manual data entry. CTS had more manual entry than CIS because of regulatory reporting requirements. The assessment identified opportunities for guidance in defining vocabularies and standards for cancer clinical trial systems in the US. PMID:11825185

  18. Background Information for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring and widely used element that can cause health and ecological problems when released to the environment through human activities. Though a national and even international issue, the health and environmental impacts of mercury are best understood when studied at the local level. "Mercury: An Educator's Toolkit"…

  19. In-frame and inter-frame information based infrared moving small target detection under complex cloud backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Minjie; Gu, Guohua; Cao, Ercong; Hu, Xiaobo; Qian, Weixian; Ren, Kan

    2016-05-01

    Infrared moving small target detection under complex cloud backgrounds is one of the key techniques of infrared search and track (IRST) systems. This paper proposes a novel method based on in-frame inter-frame information to detect infrared moving small targets accurately. For a single frame, in the spatial domain, a directional max-median filter is developed to make a pre-processing and a background suppression filtering template is utilized on the denoised image to highlight target. Then, targets in cloud regions and non-cloud regions are extracted by different thresholds according to a cloud discrimination method so that a spatial domain map (SDM) is acquired. In the frequency domain, we design an α-DoB band-pass filter to conduct coarse saliency detection and make an amplitude transformation with smoothing processing which is the so-called elaborate saliency detection. Furthermore, a frequency domain map (FDM) is acquired by an adaptive binary segmentation method. Lastly, candidate targets in single frame are extracted by a discrimination based on intensity and spatial distance criteria. For consecutive frames, a false alarm suppression is conducted on account of differences of motion features between moving target and false alarms to improve detection accuracy again. Large numbers of experiments demonstrate that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness for infrared moving small target detection under complex cloud backgrounds.

  20. Assessing the Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategy Use and Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the correlation between direct and indirect vocabulary learning strategies along with the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, a sample of 145 low proficiency students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) completed a questionnaire concerning vocabulary learning strategy use.…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  2. A Corpus Analysis of Vocabulary Coverage and Vocabulary Learning Opportunities within a Children's Story Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Extensive reading for second language learners have been widely documented over the past few decades. However, few studies, if any, have used a corpus analysis approach to analyze the vocabulary coverage within a single-author story series, its repetition of vocabulary, and the incidental and intentional vocabulary learning opportunities therein.…

  3. NASA thesaurus: Astronomy vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A terminology of descriptors used by the NASA Scientific and Technical information effort to index documents in the area of astronomy is presented. The terms are listed in hierarchical format derived from the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus Volume 1 -- Hierarchical Listing. Over 1600 terms are included. In addition to astronomy, space sciences covered include astrophysics, cosmology, lunar flight and exploration, meteors and meteorites, celestial mechanics, planetary flight and exploration, and planetary science.

  4. Background Error Covariance Estimation Using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory.SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

  5. Comparing the Precision of Information Retrieval of MeSH-Controlled Vocabulary Search Method and a Visual Method in the Medline Medical Database

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Nadjla; Ravandi, Somayyeh Nadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medline is one of the most important databases in the biomedical field. One of the most important hosts for Medline is Elton B. Stephens CO. (EBSCO), which has presented different search methods that can be used based on the needs of the users. Visual search and MeSH-controlled search methods are among the most common methods. The goal of this research was to compare the precision of the retrieved sources in the EBSCO Medline base using MeSH-controlled and visual search methods. Methods: This research was a semi-empirical study. By holding training workshops, 70 students of higher education in different educational departments of Kashan University of Medical Sciences were taught MeSH-Controlled and visual search methods in 2012. Then, the precision of 300 searches made by these students was calculated based on Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision formulas and analyzed in SPSS software using the independent sample T Test, and three precisions obtained with the three precision formulas were studied for the two search methods. Results: The mean precision of the visual method was greater than that of the MeSH-Controlled search for all three types of precision, i.e. Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision, and their mean precisions were significantly different (P <0.001). Sixty-five percent of the researchers indicated that, although the visual method was better than the controlled method, the control of keywords in the controlled method resulted in finding more proper keywords for the searches. Fifty-three percent of the participants in the research also mentioned that the use of the combination of the two methods produced better results. Conclusion: For users, it is more appropriate to use a natural, language-based method, such as the visual method, in the EBSCO Medline host than to use the controlled method, which requires users to use special keywords. The potential reason for their preference was that the visual method allowed them more freedom of action. PMID:25763155

  6. Characterizing Health Information for Different Target Audiences.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yueping; Hou, Zhen; Hou, Li; Li, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Different groups of audiences in health care: health professionals and health consumers, each have different information needs. Health monographs targeting different audiences are created by leveraging readers' background knowledge. The NCI's Physician Data Query (PDQ®) Cancer Information Summaries provide parallel cancer information and education resources with different target audiences. In this paper, we used targeted audience-specific cancer information PDQs to measure characteristic differences on the element level between audiences. In addition, we compared vocabulary coverage. Results show a significant difference between the professional and patient version of cancer monographs in both content organization and vocabulary. This study provides a new view to assess targeted audience-specific health information, and helps editors to improve the quality and readability of health information. PMID:26262408

  7. Defusing the childhood vocabulary explosion.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Bob

    2007-08-01

    During the second year of life, the rate at which children acquire new words accelerates dramatically. This has led the field of language acquisition to posit specialized mechanisms that leverage the few words learned in the initial slow phase for faster vocabulary growth later. Simulations and mathematical analysis demonstrate that specialized cognitive changes are unnecessary. The acceleration in lexical acquisition is a necessary by-product of learning if (i) multiple words are learned in parallel and (ii) words are distributed such that there are few words that can be acquired quickly and many difficult ones. PMID:17673655

  8. Building Academic Vocabulary Student Notebook, Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra

    2008-01-01

    We've changed our BAV (Building Academic Vocabulary) student materials to a sturdy bound notebook to give you a lower price and a more durable format. Instead of using loose-leaf pages, teachers can now give each student this colorful notebook that follows the 6-step method for teaching academic vocabulary. There is space for more terms, and…

  9. Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

  10. Identifying and Assessing Vocabulary Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane Rae

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses second language vocabulary learning strategies and includes an analysis and classification of possible strategies and the report of a study conducted among second language learners in Japan. Research on vocabulary learning strategies is synthesized into two lists of strategies: 14 methods for initial learning of a new word's…

  11. Implementing an Online Vocabulary Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Although vocabulary acquisition research has shed much light on practical methods for increasing lexical knowledge (Nation, 1994), many foreign language teachers hesitate to implement focused vocabulary-training programs in their classrooms. The reasons most often cited for this hesitation are associated with the difficult tasks of creating,…

  12. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  13. Individualized Vocabulary Instruction on the Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozer, Norm

    The Individualized Vocabulary Instruction (IVI) program is a self-contained, individualized computer program that has been used to provide vocabulary instruction to disabled students at California's Los Angeles Pierce College (LAPC) since 1987. The IVI program is divided into two main word groups, called modules, with each module containing 1,125…

  14. Is Form-Focused Vocabulary Instruction Worthwhile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Beniko; Krashen, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Hearing stories can result in considerable incidental vocabulary development, for both first and second language acquisition (e.g. Elley 1992; Robbins and Ehri 1994; Senechal, LeFevre, Hudson and Lawson 1996). It has also been claimed, however, that direct instruction is more effective than incidental vocabulary acquisition and that combining both…

  15. Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

  16. A Hybrid Method for Determining Technical Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwary, Deny Arnos

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of technical vocabulary has become increasingly important over the last few decades along with the advances in various subject disciplines. ESP teachers and book authors need to know what words are considered technical vocabulary when creating ESP learning materials. LSP lexicographers need to know how to determine technical vocabulary…

  17. Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…

  18. Dissecting Item Misfit on Vocabulary Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, Richard C.

    The Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, which produces vocabulary instructional materials for test takers, is in the process of determining the difficulty values of nontechnical words in the English language. To this end, the Foundation writes test items for vocabulary words and tests them in schools. The items are then calibrated using the…

  19. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word…

  20. Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Digital Flashcards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…

  1. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  2. Vocabulary Instruction in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Michael F.

    2007-01-01

    Michael Graves points out that it is only in the last 40 years that a rich base of theory and research about teaching and learning vocabulary has come into being. Grounding his article in this research, he lists some of the factors testifying to the importance of vocabulary and discusses what may be the most crucial fact about the task of teaching…

  3. Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydorenko, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio) on (a) the learning of written and aural word forms, (b) overall vocabulary gains, (c) attention to input, and (d) vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian

  4. English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

  5. Promoting Vocabulary Learning for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessels, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge, which is key to the reading comprehension of English learners (ELs), must be a focus for every teacher in today's increasingly diverse schools, including those in the mainstream classroom. This article strives to increase awareness of the five characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction as well as demonstrate how such…

  6. Vocabulary Support for Independent Online Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLoup, Jean W.; Ponterio, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Frequent reading practice is one of the best ways to develop vocabulary and improve reading comprehension. "Extensive reading" (reading large amounts of text without worrying too much about details or looking up all vocabulary) and "intensive reading" (closely examining meaning and structures to be sure you figure out all the details) are both

  7. A Framework for Developing EFL Reading Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Alan; Beglar, David

    2005-01-01

    Effective second language vocabulary acquisition is particularly important for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners who frequently acquire impoverished lexicons despite years of formal study. This paper comprehensively reviews and critiques second language (L2) reading vocabulary research and proposes that EFL teachers and administrators…

  8. Teaching Vocabulary Recognition Strategies in ESP Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ray

    1985-01-01

    Justifies the teaching of vocabulary recognition strategies from vocabulary development exercises and reviews five such strategies. These strategies are: (1) inferring from context, (2) identifying lexical familiarization, (3) unchaining nominal compounds, (4) synonym search, and (5) word analysis. (Author/SED)

  9. Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games

  10. A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

  11. Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydorenko, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio) on (a) the learning of written and aural word forms, (b) overall vocabulary gains, (c) attention to input, and (d) vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian…

  12. Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

  13. Vocabulary Support for Independent Online Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLoup, Jean W.; Ponterio, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Frequent reading practice is one of the best ways to develop vocabulary and improve reading comprehension. "Extensive reading" (reading large amounts of text without worrying too much about details or looking up all vocabulary) and "intensive reading" (closely examining meaning and structures to be sure you figure out all the details) are both…

  14. Vocabulary Difficulty, Prior Knowledge, and Text Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven A.; Jacobson, Michael G.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the relative importance of vocabulary difficulty and prior knowledge on comprehension of narrative passages. Finds that knowledge-based preinstruction can significantly improve comprehension of a text dealing with an unfamiliar topic, but cannot compensate for difficult text vocabulary. (RS)

  15. Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge in German Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary-Sundquist, Colleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on second language vocabulary acquisition has shown that learning to use a new word is not a simple matter of making a form-meaning connection. Knowing a word instead requires mastery of as many as nine different aspects of vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 2001). The current study uses data from five beginning-level textbooks of…

  16. Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to

  17. Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming

  18. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  19. Vocabulary: The Key to Teaching English Language Learners to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The greatest challenge inhibiting the ability of English-language learners (ELLs) to read at the appropriate grade level is perhaps a lack of sufficient vocabulary development. While extensive reading is beneficial, these students must acquire the necessary vocabulary in order to read extensively. Both vocabulary breadth and vocabulary depth are…

  20. A Bilingual Vocabulary Size Test of English for Vietnamese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Le Thi Cam; Nation, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a Vietnamese bilingual version of the Vocabulary Size Test--a test which measures written receptive vocabulary size. The test can be used to measure the English vocabulary size of Vietnamese learners of English. A learner's total vocabulary size is calculated by multiplying their test result…

  1. Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge Using a Temporal Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanabe, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study addressed the role of speed as a factor in tests of second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge, presupposing that speed of performance is important in actual language use. Research questions were: (a) Do learners with a larger vocabulary size answer faster on an L2 vocabulary breadth test than smaller vocabulary sized learners?;…

  2. Vocabulary Is Important for Some, but Not All Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for…

  3. Controlled Vocabularies and Ontologies for Oceanographic Data: The R2R Eventlogger Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Raymond, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Research vessels coordinated by the United States University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (US-UNOLS) collect data which is considered an important oceanographic resource. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project aims to improve access to this data and diminish the barriers to use. One aspect of the R2R project has been to develop a shipboard scientific event logging system, Eventlogger, that incorporates best practice guidelines, controlled vocabularies, a cruise metadata schema, and a scientific event log. This will facilitate the eventual ingestion of datasets into oceanographic data repositories for subsequent integration and synthesis by investigators. One important aspect of this system is the careful use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies. Existing ontologies, where available, will be used and others will be developed. The use of internationally-informed, consensus-driven controlled vocabularies will make datasets more interoperable, and discoverable. The R2R Eventlogger project is led by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), and the management of the controlled vocabularies and mapping of these vocabularies to authoritative community vocabularies are led by the Data Librarian in the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library. The first target vocabulary is oceanographic instruments. Management of this vocabulary has thus far consisted of reconciling local community terms with the more widely used SeaDataNet Device Vocabulary terms. Rather than adopt existing terms, often the local terms are mapped by data managers in the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to the existing terms as they are given by investigators and often provide important information and meaning. New terms (often custom, or modified instruments) are submitted for review to the SeaDataNet community listserv for discussion and eventual incorporation into the Device Vocabulary. These vocabularies and their mappings are an important part of the Eventlogger system. Before a research cruise investigators configure the instruments they intend to use for science activities. The instruments available for selection are pulled directly from the instrument vocabulary. The promotion and use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies will pave the way for linked data. By mapping local terms to agreed upon authoritative terms links are created, whereby related datasets can be discovered, and utilized. The Library is a natural home for the management of standards. Librarians have an established history of working with controlled vocabularies and metadata and libraries serve as centers for information discovery. Eventlogger is currently being tested across the UNOLS fleet. A large submission of suggested instrument terms to the SeaDataNet community listserv is in progress. References: Maffei, Andrew R., Cynthia L. Chandler, Janet Fredericks, Nan Galbraith, Laura Stolp. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A Controlled Vocabulary and Ontology Development Effort for Oceanographic Research Cruise Event Logging. EGU2011-12341. Poster presented at the 2011 EGU Meeting.

  4. Future Information Services at the Texas A&M University Library: Background and Recommendations (Report of an Ad Hoc Committee).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Colleen; And Others

    The Ad Hoc Committee on Future Information Services explored possible future directions for information services at Texas A&M University Library and developed a plan to guide the library into the next decade in terms of automated access to information. In exploring future directions for automated information services, the committee members…

  5. Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-26

    Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a 'Y' junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re-entry survey, and routine surveys around the crater lip did not identify alpha contamination. Background information includes several radiological surveys conducted after these two tests. The MULLET area has been surveyed frequently. The early surveys indicate the area as both contaminated and containing buried radioactive material. A survey conducted in 1970 found the radiological/chemical piping partially intact, including the 'Y' junction, and shows two runs of intact piping running past the U2am crater lip. The survey focused on the piping system itself and detected alpha contamination from 4 counts per minute (cpm) to 900,000 cpm. The highest value was at a pipe flange between a dirt pile and a dirt berm within the current site fence line. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. A 1972 survey was essentially a repeat of the 1970 survey; however, it does not show the 'Y' junction nor does it show piping extending past the U2am crater lip. It also shows a new fence line separating the radiological/chemical piping from the U2am crater area with all piping within the fence. Alpha contamination was detected on pipe flanges during the survey, but alpha contamination was not detected on the dirt pile or the dirt berm. All readings were direct, and no smears were taken. Additional surveys were conducted in 1986, 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996. One of the surveys focused on determining the extent of soil contamination around GZ. An alpha contamination plume extending approximately 200 feet south of GZ was detected in a swath approximately 100 feet wide. The maximum measurement was 15,000 cpm alpha. All surveys show the piping within the fence line. Recent surveys (2007 and 2008) were performed around the current fence line by the demarcation group. No removable contamination was identified during these surveys. In late 2008, a visual inspection of the site was conducted by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Restoration group. All piping is within the fence line. Photos taken during this site visit are attached.

  6. Impacting Oral Language in Kindergarten through Sophisticated Vocabulary and the Kinesthetic Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopf, Sigrid D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes the details of a study that explored what possible effects might occur in the area of oral language skills when kindergarten-age children from low socioeconomic backgrounds are exposed to sophisticated vocabulary and are engaged actively through dramatization and movement with a school's existing literacy curriculum. A…

  7. The Relationship between Text Comprehension and Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: A Matter of Topic Familiarity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulido, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The study reported in this article describes second language (L2) vocabulary learning outcomes associated with adult L2 reading comprehension processes, thus connecting L2 learning with the complex cognitive and linguistic processing involved in reading. The study aimed to determine whether background knowledge moderated the relationship between…

  8. The Role of Home Literacy Environment in Toddlerhood in Development of Vocabulary and Decoding Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sojung; Im, Haesung; Kwon, Kyong-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little empirical research examines the process in which home literacy environment (HLE) in toddlerhood is associated with preschoolers' vocabulary and decoding skills using a large-scale dataset. Objective: The purposes of the current study were to (a) examine the differential effect of HLE in toddlerhood on preschoolers' vocabulary…

  9. The Effects of Verbal Labels and Vocabulary Skill on Memory and Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effectiveness of the verbal labels procedure (D. A. Brown & M. E. Pipe, 2003) to improve preschool children's responses to direct open-ended and misleading questions. Additionally, children's vocabulary skill was considered. Eighty-seven preschool children from diverse backgrounds were interviewed about a unique…

  10. Supporting Young Children's Vocabulary Growth: The Challenges, the Benefits, and Evidence-Based Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck; Sobolak, Michelle J.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of words makes vocabulary development a multi-faceted process that presents challenges to early childhood educators, offers benefits to young learners, and must be supported through evidence-based strategies. All students, regardless of socio-economic status or background, need to make significant gains in receptive and expressive…

  11. The Relationship between Text Comprehension and Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: A Matter of Topic Familiarity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulido, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The study reported in this article describes second language (L2) vocabulary learning outcomes associated with adult L2 reading comprehension processes, thus connecting L2 learning with the complex cognitive and linguistic processing involved in reading. The study aimed to determine whether background knowledge moderated the relationship between

  12. A Vocabulary Flood: Making Words "Sticky" with Computer-Response Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary S.; Ryan, Tammy

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature is a primary source for introducing young children to new words at home and at school, and children's early vocabulary knowledge is a key component of oral language, which is essential for comprehension. This column is focused on children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who frequently find themselves in a vocabulary…

  13. Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

  14. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  15. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  16. NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

  17. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera

    PubMed Central

    Rituerto, Alejandro; Andreasson, Henrik; Murillo, Ana C.; Lilienthal, Achim; Guerrero, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW) or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1) tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2) geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set. PMID:27070607

  18. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera.

    PubMed

    Rituerto, Alejandro; Andreasson, Henrik; Murillo, Ana C; Lilienthal, Achim; Guerrero, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW) or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1) tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2) geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set. PMID:27070607

  19. Exposing SAMOS Data and Vocabularies within the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dockery, Nkemdirim; Elya, Jocelyn; Smith, Shawn

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), we at the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) will present the development process for the exposure of quality-controlled data and core vocabularies managed by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative using Semantic Web technologies. Participants in the SAMOS initiative collect continuous navigational (position, course, heading, speed), meteorological (winds, pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity) parameters while at sea. One-minute interval observations are packaged and transmitted back to COAPS via daily emails, where they undergo standardized formatting and quality control. The authors will present methods used to expose these daily datasets. The Semantic Web, a vision of the World Wide Web Consortium, focuses on extending the principles of the web from connecting documents to connecting data. The creation of a web of Linked Data that can be used across different applications in a machine-readable way is the ultimate goal. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard language and format used in the Semantic Web. RDF pages may be queried using the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). The authors will showcase the development of RDF resources that map SAMOS vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies such as those found in the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server. Each individual SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described in an RDF resource page. These RDF resources will define each SAMOS vocabulary term and provide a link to the mapped vocabulary term (or multiple terms) served externally. Along with enhanced retrieval by parameter, time, and location, we will be able to add additional parameters with the confidence that they follow an international standard. The production of RDF resources that link daily SAMOS data to descriptors such as parameters, time and location information, quality assurance reports, and cruise tracks will also be described. The data is housed on a Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) data server, so these RDF resources will enable enhanced retrieval by any of the linked descriptors. We will showcase our collaboration with the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program to develop SPARQL endpoints that distribute SAMOS content. R2R packages and transmits data on a per cruise basis, so an immediate result of the SAMOS exposure will be the narrowing of the gap between expedition type data (e.g. R2R cruises) and SAMOS observatory type data. The authors will present the development of RDF resources that will collectively expose shipboard data, vocabularies, and quality assurance reports in an overall structure which will serve as the basis for a COAPS SPARQL endpoint, enabling easier programmatic access to SAMOS data.

  20. Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

  1. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimy, Ramin; Shams, Kiana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary test score. To achieve this aim, fifty Intermediate level students from Kish English Institute were randomly selected from among fifteen classes after administering the Oxford Placement Test (OPT). Then, an intermediate level…

  2. The Effects of Techniques of Vocabulary Portfolio on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Baftani, Fahimeh Nasiri

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different techniques of vocabulary portfolio including word map, word wizard, concept wheel, visual thesaurus, and word rose on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production, a sample of 75 female EFL learners of Kish Day Language Institute in Karaj, Iran were selected. They were in five groups and each group received

  3. ESL Learners' Vocabulary Use in Writing and the Effects of Explicit Vocabulary Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Siok H.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated vocabulary use in the writing of 65 secondary school multi-grade and multi first language intermediate English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners at a Greater Vancouver public secondary school. Proposes systematic vocabulary instruction based on teacher-directed interaction and negotiation and psycholinguistic principles of word…

  4. The Effects of English/Language Arts Academic Vocabulary Alignment on Elementary Student Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Stacey Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide professional development in vocabulary instructional practices and analyze the impact on student achievement. This quasi-experimental study utilized the PLC to curriculum map English/Language Arts state academic vocabulary words in K-4 into each of the four nine-weeks. The first through fourth grade…

  5. Online Vocabulary Games as a Tool for Teaching and Learning English Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Florence W. M.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is often perceived as boring by learners, especially for those who grew up in the digital age. This paper reports a study of the usefulness of online games in vocabulary learning for some undergraduate students. Three teachers and 100 engineering students participated in a quasi-experimental study for approximately nine weeks.…

  6. A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

  7. The Effect of Using Vocabulary Flash Card on Iranian Pre-University Students' Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komachali, Maryam Eslahcar; Khodareza, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of using vocabulary flash card on Iranian pre-university students' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study comprised 50 female learners. They were randomly assigned into two homogeneous groups each consisting of 25 learners. The control group received the traditional treatment…

  8. What's in a Word? Using Content Vocabulary to "Generate" Growth in General Academic Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanigan, Kevin; Templeton, Shane; Hayes, Latisha

    2012-01-01

    The role of vocabulary knowledge in supporting students' comprehension and understanding of their content-area reading is critical. This article explores how content-area teachers can help students become aware of, understand, and apply generative knowledge about English words to grow and develop their vocabularies. Generative vocabulary…

  9. Vocabulary Theatre: A Peer-Teaching Approach for Academic Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Elizabeth; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods counterbalanced study compared the gain score means of two different approaches to vocabulary acquisition--Vocabulary Theater (VT) and Teacher Directed Instruction (TDI) for 8th grade students from three schools in New York. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of a peer teaching approach on students' vocabulary…

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size of ELT Students at EMU in Northern Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani; Pourshahian, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    This research study aimed at exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of 125 undergraduate English Language Teaching students at Eastern Mediterranean University. This research study was a correlational survey study of descriptive nature. The major findings of this study were as follows. First, the…

  11. Primary Grade Understanding Vocabulary as Measured by Orally Administered Basic Word Vocabulary Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Maria L.

    The Basic Word Vocabulary Test (BWVT) was extended downward by administering it orally to 96 pupils selected randomly from grades one through four. Estimates of aural understanding vocabulary at each grade were obtained and were found to be much lower than results from previous studies, due to the strict criteria of the BWVT. Correlations with the…

  12. A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and

  13. EFL Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention: Reading plus Vocabulary Enhancement Activities and Narrow Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Hui-Tzu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effectiveness of reading plus vocabulary-enhancement activities (RV) and narrow reading (NR)--repeated reading thematically related articles--on vocabulary acquisition and retention among English as a foreign language (EFL) secondary school students. Twenty-five third-year male…

  14. The Effects of Techniques of Vocabulary Portfolio on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Baftani, Fahimeh Nasiri

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different techniques of vocabulary portfolio including word map, word wizard, concept wheel, visual thesaurus, and word rose on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production, a sample of 75 female EFL learners of Kish Day Language Institute in Karaj, Iran were selected. They were in five groups and each group received…

  15. Background Information for Think Tank on Planning, Governance and System Building Early Care and Education--NYC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boressoff, Todd

    2008-01-01

    This document provides some background on early childhood planning and system building around the country. Since mid-December, the author has been studying these efforts for Child Care, Inc. (CCI) interviewing national experts and reading widely. This outline provides insights and lesson learned from those inquiries. The goal at this meeting will…

  16. Child Care Providers' Use of HIV/AIDS Information Resources: Links to Professional Background Variables and Feelings about Caring for an HIV-Infected Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mick; Toledo, Carlos; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Examined child caregivers' use of various HIV/AIDS information resources in relation to professional background and attitudes. Found that providers' education level, child care experience, and the age group for which they were responsible correlated with use of newspaper/magazine articles, pamphlets, and educational workshops. Use of…

  17. Continuing Education Services. How Public Libraries Can Expand Educational Horizons for All Americans. A Background Paper for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, Elizabeth N.

    This booklet, prepared as background information for the White House Conference, describes recent developments in providing learners' advisory services to adults beyond traditional school and college age. In particular, it focuses on the Woodbridge, New Jersey, Public Library, one of nine participating libraries in an Adult Independent Learner…

  18. Linked Vocabulary API for the Earth Sciences Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.; Fu, L.; West, P.; Ma, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Linked Vocabulary API is a specification for publishing RESTful APIs of vocabularies represented in the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) as Linked Data on the web. This work began as part of the Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Vocabularies (CMSPV) project in response to the need for a standard manner for agencies to publish and consume hierarchical vocabularies on the web. The RESTful architecture of the API provides a simple mechanism for consumption of full vocabularies, single vocabulary terms, related terms, and searches on terms. The Linked Data nature of the API promotes interoperability by exposing vocabulary resources as resolvable URIs that may be referenced from other vocabularies or sources of Linked Data and by allowing the published vocabulary to contain references as links to terms from other vocabularies. The Linked Vocabulary API is formally defined in a Linked Data API specification and may be deployed using standard implementations of the Linked Data API such as the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA). Recent presentations of work done with the Linked Vocabulary API as part of the CMSPV project have resulted in the API receiving growing interest from the broader scientific community. In this contribution we present the Linked Vocabulary API design and deployment process.

  19. Toward a Model of Motivated Vocabulary Learning: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wen-Ta; Schmitt, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a structural model that integrates vocabulary knowledge and motivation with six latent variables: the initial appraisal of vocabulary learning experience, self-regulating capacity of vocabulary learning, strategic vocabulary learning involvement, mastery of vocabulary learning tactics, vocabulary knowledge, and postappraisal of…

  20. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-03-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

  1. Early language processing efficiency predicts later receptive vocabulary outcomes in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Marchman, Virginia A; Adams, Katherine A; Loi, Elizabeth C; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M

    2016-01-01

    As rates of prematurity continue to rise, identifying which preterm children are at increased risk for learning disabilities is a public health imperative. Identifying continuities between early and later skills in this vulnerable population can also illuminate fundamental neuropsychological processes that support learning in all children. At 18 months adjusted age, we used socioeconomic status (SES), medical variables, parent-reported vocabulary, scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (third edition) language composite, and children's lexical processing speed in the looking-while-listening (LWL) task as predictor variables in a sample of 30 preterm children. Receptive vocabulary as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (fourth edition) at 36 months was the outcome. Receptive vocabulary was correlated with SES, but uncorrelated with degree of prematurity or a composite of medical risk. Importantly, lexical processing speed was the strongest predictor of receptive vocabulary (r = -.81), accounting for 30% unique variance. Individual differences in lexical processing efficiency may be able to serve as a marker for information processing skills that are critical for language learning. PMID:26031342

  2. A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevost, Jill K.

    In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

  3. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the IdentifiedObject individuals are linked to the ChEBI ontology for definitions of chemical substances.. Second, to allow compatibility with SKOS-based tools and to ensure the vocabulary does not violate the meta-modelling constraints of the OWL-DL profile, the relevant classes in QUDT are declared to be subclasses of SKOS Concept and a shadow SKOS view of ChEBI was generated (as ChEBI models all elements and substances as OWL classes). The provenance of each SKOS concept shadowing an OWL class is recorded using the PROV-O ontology. Some aspects of these processing steps can be automated through SPARQL queries, while other aspects must be done manually. For maintenance and provenance purposes, the complete vocabulary and ontologies are persisted in around 20 separate RDF files (in addition to the QUDT and ChEBI sources), each of which constitutes a separate RDF graph and reflects the various aspects of above steps. The vocabularies are published in multiple ways: - For download as files from the ontology URI - At a SPARQL endpoint - Through a URI-based SKOS API (SISSvoc) - Through search UIs built on top of the SPARQL endpoint or SISSvoc service

  4. Does input influence uptake? Links between maternal talk, processing speed and vocabulary size in Spanish-learning children

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Nereyda; Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that variation in caregivers' speech is associated with language outcomes, yet little is known about the learning principles that mediate these effects. This longitudinal study (n = 27) explores whether Spanish-learning children's early experiences with language predict efficiency in real-time comprehension and vocabulary learning. Measures of mothers' speech at 18 months were examined in relation to children's speech processing efficiency and reported vocabulary at 18 and 24 months. Children of mothers who provided more input at 18 months knew more words and were faster in word recognition at 24 months. Moreover, multiple regression analyses indicated that the influences of caregiver speech on speed of word recognition and vocabulary were largely overlapping. This study provides the first evidence that input shapes children's lexical processing efficiency and that vocabulary growth and increasing facility in spoken word comprehension work together to support the uptake of the information that rich input affords the young language learner. PMID:19046145

  5. A Rasch model prototype for assessing vocabulary learning resulting from different instructional methods: a preschool example.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cynthia B; Lang, William Steve

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of using Rasch modeling to analyze data on vocabulary knowledge of preschoolers who participated in repeated read-aloud events and hands-on science activities with their classroom teachers. A Rasch prototype for literacy research was developed and applied to the preschool data. Thirty-one target words were selected for analysis from three children's informational picture books on light and color. After different instructional activities, each child received scores on individual target words measured with a total of six assessments, including free response vocabulary tests and expressive and receptive picture vocabulary tests. Rasch modeling was used to assess the learning difficulty of target words in different instructional settings. Suggestions are made for applying Rasch modeling to classroom studies of instructional interventions. PMID:19299886

  6. Low-SES children's eyewitness memory: the effects of verbal labels and vocabulary skills.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yoojin; Kulkofsky, Sarah; Debaran, Francisco; Wang, Qi; Hart, Sybil L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the verbal labels procedure and vocabulary skills on low-socioeconomic status (SES) preschool children's eyewitness memory. Children (N = 176) aged 3-5 years witnessed a conflict event and were then questioned about it in either a standard or a verbal labels interview. Findings revealed that children with higher rather than lower vocabulary skills produced more complete and accurate memories. Children who were given the verbal labels interview recalled more information, which included both correct and incorrect details. Overall, the verbal labels procedure did not improve children's performance on direct questions, but children with low vocabulary skills answered direct questions more accurately if they were given the verbal labels interview than when they were not. Implications of the findings for memory performance of low-SES children are discussed. PMID:25393768

  7. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

  8. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn

  9. Academic Vocabulary and Middle School English Learners: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna; Collins, Penny

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this experimental intervention study was to determine if evidence-based instructional strategies for general vocabulary words are effective with middle school English learner (EL) students and academic vocabulary words. Participants showed significantly more growth in their knowledge of academic vocabulary during the treatment…

  10. Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates…

  11. Enhancing Access to Situational Vocabulary by Leveraging Geographic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rupal; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Users of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aids could benefit from novel methods for accelerating access to contextually relevant vocabulary. This paper describes our initial efforts toward improving access to situational vocabulary through the use of geographic context to predict vocabulary. A corpus of spoken data produced by one…

  12. Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

  13. The Creation and Validation of a Listening Vocabulary Levels Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Stuart; Kramer, Brandon; Beglar, David

    2015-01-01

    An important gap in the field of second language vocabulary assessment concerns the lack of validated tests measuring aural vocabulary knowledge. The primary purpose of this study is to introduce and provide preliminary validity evidence for the Listening Vocabulary Levels Test (LVLT), which has been designed as a diagnostic tool to measure…

  14. In Search of Introductory Psychology's Classic Core Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Mitchell, Montserrat C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether there was a common vocabulary present within introductory psychology textbooks during the 1950s and if a classic core vocabulary exists. Reports that no common core existed in the textbooks during the 1950s, but there is a set of 100 classic vocabulary terms. (CMK)

  15. Focus on the Forms: Recognition Practice in Chinese Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…

  16. Memory Strategy Instruction, Contextual Learning and ESP Vocabulary Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atay, Derin; Ozbulgan, Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades there has been an increasing interest in vocabulary learning strategies given that they are found to facilitate second/foreign language vocabulary learning and recall. As many learners do not develop sufficient mastery of the strategy repertoire, explicit instruction on vocabulary learning strategies may help them to become…

  17. ELL Preschoolers' English Vocabulary Acquisition from Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Molly F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of rich explanation, baseline vocabulary, and home reading practices on English language learning (ELL) preschoolers' sophisticated vocabulary learning from storybook reading. Eighty typically developing preschoolers were pretested in L1 (Portuguese) and L2 (English) receptive vocabulary and were assigned to…

  18. The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Na Young

    2013-01-01

    Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…

  19. The Effects of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth on English Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, that is, breadth of vocabulary (the number of words known) and depth of vocabulary (the richness of word knowledge), and their effects on different aspects of English reading in Chinese high school students learning English as a second language. Two hundred and…

  20. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

  1. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Eunice; Chung, Edsoulla; Li, Eddy; Yeung, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an e-learning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and…

  2. Teaching Vocabulary through Poetry in an EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozen, Baki; Mohammadzadeh, Behbood

    2012-01-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using poetry to teach vocabulary in a foreign language classroom. It aims to find answers to two research questions (1) "Do the learners enhance more extensive vocabulary knowledge by means of poetry-based vocabulary teaching activities than the traditional coursebook activities?"…

  3. What's This New Emphasis on Vocabulary All about?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Many teachers, especially novice teachers, believe that teaching vocabulary is among their easier duties, but Shanklin makes a convincing argument that high-quality vocabulary teaching requires thoughtful preparation. Here she offers several sound techniques for engaging students with vocabulary in meaningful ways.

  4. The Impact of Attrition on Vocabulary Knowledge among Saudi Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alharthi, Thamer

    2014-01-01

    This two-year longitudinal study tracks the extent of vocabulary attrition among Arabic-speaking English graduate teachers. Data were collected through pre-post tests of receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. The results showed drastic attrition in vocabulary knowledge soon after the end of formal instruction followed by slight gain,…

  5. Basic Vocabulary I. Language Arts Mini-Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampeter-Strasburg School District, PA.

    This language arts minicourse guide for Lampeter-Strasburg (Pennsylvania) High School contains a topical outline for a basic vocabulary development course. The guide includes a list of eleven course objectives; an outline of the content and concepts to be studied in the basic vocabulary course; a description of the vocabulary, definitions of the…

  6. Measuring and Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Basic Skills Reading Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snouffer, Nancy Kendall; And Others

    A vocabulary improvement project, comprised of three components, was initiated at Del Mar College (DMC) in Corpus Christi, Texas, in spring 1991. Component 1 consisted of a baseline study of vocabulary knowledge among students in two levels of remedial reading classes. The test instrument measured content-specific vocabulary in English/literature,…

  7. A THREE-PRONGED ATTACK ON VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KARLIN, ROBERT

    STATUS STUDIES OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VOCABULARY SIZE AND THE EXTENT OF READING SUPPORT THE BELIEF THAT MORE AVID READERS HAVE RICHER VOCABULARIES. HOWEVER, STUDIES OF DIRECT EFFORTS TO INCREASE VOCABULARY THROUGH WIDE READING ALONE HAVE NOT YIELDED SATISFACTORY RESULTS. HENCE, WIDE READING COMBINED WITH DIRECT AND INDIRECT APPROACHES IS…

  8. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and

  9. Using PDA for Undergraduate Student Incidental Vocabulary Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yanjie; Fox, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been…

  10. Effects of Online Academic Lectures on ESL Listening Comprehension, Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition, and Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidt, Esther; Hegelheimer, Volker

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates how authentic web-delivered video can inform ESL online instruction and enhance the incidental acquisition of vocabulary and listening comprehension. A total of 24 adult learners of English as a Second Language enrolled in a listening comprehension class at a major Midwestern university participated in the study. The…

  11. The Nation's Report Card: 2013 NAEP Focus on Vocabulary. NCES 2015-016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    As part of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading, students are asked to demonstrate their understanding of words as used in literary and informational texts. This focus on students' understanding of word meaning highlights the importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension. This report provides an overview of…

  12. Do Language Proficiency and Lecture Comprehension Matter? OpenCourseWare Lectures for Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih; Yang, Hui-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Open source lectures not only provide knowledge-seekers with convenient ways to obtain knowledge and information, they also serve as potential language learning resources that provide extensive language input and repeated exposure to vocabulary within specific topics or disciplines. This current study aims to examine the relationship between…

  13. An Operational System for Subject Switching between Controlled Vocabularies: A Computational Linguistics Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvester, June P.; And Others

    This report describes a new automated process that pioneers full-scale operational use of subject switching by the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Facility. The subject switching process routinely translates machine-readable subject terms from one controlled vocabulary into the…

  14. A Comparison of Undergraduate Students' English Vocabulary Learning: Using Mobile Phones and Flash Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basoglu, Emrah Baki; Akdemir, Omur

    2010-01-01

    Knowing a foreign language has become crucial to reach information. Learning vocabulary is the fundamental step to learn a foreign language. New devices are invented everyday to fulfill the needs of citizens of the twenty-first century. Increased use of mobile phones has made them popular for not only communication, but also entertainment and…

  15. Effects of Feedback Timing on Second Language Vocabulary Learning: Does Delaying Feedback Increase Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Feedback, or information given to learners regarding their performance, is found to facilitate second language (L2) learning. Research also suggests that the timing of feedback (whether it is provided immediately or after a delay) may affect learning. The purpose of the present study was to identify the optimal feedback timing for L2 vocabulary

  16. Enhancing Teacher Read Alouds with Small-Group Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Low Vocabulary in First-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, Hank; Santoro, Lana; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Chard, David J.; Williams, Susanna; Haria, Priti

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of small-group instruction on the vocabulary and comprehension of first-grade students identified with low language and low vocabulary skills. Overall, 102 first-grade students scoring below the 50th percentile on relational vocabulary were blocked by classroom, matched according to…

  17. Fostering the Development of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension though Contextually-Based Multiple Meaning Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Stage, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of contextually-based multiple meaning (i.e., words with multiple meanings) vocabulary instruction on the vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension of students. Third and 5th grade students received either contextually-based multiple meaning vocabulary instruction embedded in the…

  18. The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

  19. The Effect of Teaching Vocabulary through Semantic Mapping on EFL Learners' Awareness of the Affective Dimensions of Deep Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilforoushan, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of teaching vocabulary through semantic mapping on the awareness of two affective dimensions, evaluation and potency dimensions of deep vocabulary knowledge as well as the general vocabulary knowledge of EFL students. Sixty intermediate EFL female adult learners participated in this study; they were chosen among 90…

  20. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  1. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  2. Homophily of Vocabulary Usage: Beneficial Effects of Vocabulary Similarity on Online Health Communities Participation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Albert; Hartzler, Andrea L.; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W.; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Online health communities provide popular platforms for individuals to exchange psychosocial support and form ties. Although regular active participation (i.e., posting to interact with other members) in online health communities can provide important benefits, sustained active participation remains challenging for these communities. Leveraging previous literature on homophily (i.e., “love of those who are like themselves”), we examined the relationship between vocabulary similarity (i.e., homophily of word usage) of thread posts and members’ future interaction in online health communities. We quantitatively measured vocabulary similarity by calculating, in a vector space model, cosine similarity between the original post and the first reply in 20,499 threads. Our findings across five online health communities suggest that vocabulary similarity is a significant predictor of members’ future interaction in online health communities. These findings carry practical implications for facilitating and sustaining online community participation through beneficial effects of homophily in the vocabulary of essential peer support. PMID:26958240

  3. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge, but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and reading continued for word recognition and decoding through grade 4, but genetic and environmental correlations between vocabulary and reading comprehension approached unity by grade 4, when vocabulary and word recognition accounted for all of the genetic and shared environment influences on reading comprehension. PMID:21132077

  4. Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

  5. Student Engagement in Learning Vocabulary with CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring that students are "engaged" in learning is a key concern for instructors across many fields. With regards to vocabulary in language learning, teachers should provide students with tasks which promote high levels of motivation and resultant engagement. The recent trend of online systems which have dynamic, collaborative, and even…

  6. Russian Emotion Vocabulary in American Learners' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta; Driagina, Viktoria

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the uses of emotion vocabulary in narratives elicited from monolingual speakers of Russian and English and advanced American learners of Russian. Monolingual speakers differed significantly in the distribution of emotion terms across morphosyntactic categories: English speakers favored an adjectival pattern of emotion

  7. The Cognitive Vocabulary Approach to Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Janis M.; Buckelew-Martin, Elizabeth; Wood, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    English teachers face myriad demands every day that include not only helping students read literature in interesting and engaging ways but also attending to the needs of students challenged by the demands of more complex and sophisticated texts. Vocabulary learning is at the heart of this struggle for many students, especially for English language…

  8. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus -- Volume 2, Access Vocabulary -- contains an alphabetical listing of all Thesaurus terms (postable and nonpostable) and permutations of all multiword and pseudo-multiword terms. Also included are Other Words (non-Thesaurus terms) consisting of abbreviations, chemical symbols, etc. The permutations and Other Words provide 'access' to the appropriate postable entries in the Thesaurus.

  9. Improving Vocabulary Acquisition with Multisensory Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alesio, Rosemary; Scalia, Maureen T.; Zabel, Renee M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to improve student vocabulary acquisition through a multisensory, direct instructional approach. The study involved three teachers and a target population of 73 students in second and seventh grade classrooms. The intervention was implemented from September through December of 2006 and analyzed in…

  10. Spoken Language Results: Vocabulary, Syntax, and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Ann; Moog, Jean

    1994-01-01

    The acquisition of English vocabulary and syntax was compared over three years for three matched groups of profoundly hearing impaired students using either cochlear implants, tactile aids, or hearing aids. All children received auditory-oral instruction. The cochlear implant group exhibited faster acquisition of all language and communication…

  11. Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

  12. Metaphor and Vocabulary Teaching in ESP Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charteris-Black, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    A case is made for basing vocabulary teaching to English for special purposes economics students on lexis that reflects important underlying metaphors of the subject. These are identified with reference to high frequency lexis in "The Economist" magazine, and an explanation is offered of their metaphorical basis. (Author/VWL)

  13. Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

    2010-01-01

    The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

  14. Preservice Teachers' Development of Children's Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilienthal, Linda K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine preservice elementary teachers' knowledge of vocabulary instruction and their success in implementing it in their partner teachers' classrooms. Study participants were three preservice elementary teachers student teaching during the first of two student teaching blocks. One preservice teacher taught…

  15. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…

  16. Unknown Vocabulary Density and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsueh-Chao, Marcella Hu; Nation, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines what percentage of coverage of text is needed for unassisted reading for pleasure, where learners are able to read without the interruption of looking up words. Looks at the effect of three densities of unknown vocabulary on two measures of reading comprehension, a multiple-choice test and a cued written recall test. (Author/VWL)

  17. Word Walk: Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blarney, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Storybook reading offers an ideal context for teaching young children new words. Text Talk is one method designed for teaching elementary students new words after reading. However, using the Text Talk vocabulary procedures with young children, the authors observed several challenges both for teachers' implementation and children's learning.…

  18. Enhancing Basal Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenfest, Ashleigh; Reed, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the basal vocabulary instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties, lessons provided in typical curricular materials can be supplemented with instructional elements derived from research. This article addresses how teachers can add 15 minutes of higher order instructional activities to daily reading lessons to…

  19. Entry Vocabulary, Intermediaries, and Retrieval Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael

    2001-01-01

    When systems of ordering, such as classifications and thesauri, are used, two mappings are involved: objects (documents) in the collection and searchers' queries. Four means to achieve this are: relative indexes; syndetic structures; entry vocabulary indexes; and human intermediaries. These forms can supplement and augment each other. The…

  20. How Do Raters Judge Spoken Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how raters come to their decisions when judging spoken vocabulary. Segmental rating was introduced to quantify raters' decision-making process. It is hoped that this simulated study brings fresh insight to future methodological considerations with spoken data. Twenty trainee raters assessed five Chinese…

  1. Effectiveness of Structural Method of Teaching Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behlol, Malik; Dad, Hukam

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the effectiveness of structural method of teaching vocabulary in English subject at secondary level. The population of the study was the students of secondary classes studying in Federal Government schools of Islamabad District. Purposive and random sampling techniques were applied to select the school, teachers…

  2. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  3. Interactive Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Tripp, Sherry; Cox, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Word walls are designed to serve as visual scaffolds and are a common classroom tool used to support reading and language arts instruction. To support vocabulary development in science and support students who are ELLs, Husty and Jackson (2008) created interactive word walls that resemble semantic maps (Masters, Mori, and Mori 1993). Semantic maps…

  4. Contribution to Vocabulary Learning via Mobiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khazaie, Saeed; Ketabi, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    As mobile connectedness continues to sweep across the landscape, the value of deploying mobile technology at the service of learning and teaching seems to be both self-evident and unavoidable. To this end, this study employed multimedia to develop three types of vocabulary learning materials. Due to the importance of short-term memory in the realm…

  5. Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feezell, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary…

  6. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  7. Selecting Academic Vocabulary Words Worth Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna; Kiernan, Darl

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching tip is to share a new tool for identifying high-utility academic words from instructional texts. The Word and Phrase Tool, when paired with teacher knowledge about students and objectives, can help teachers promote the academic vocabulary development of their students.

  8. The Importance of Vocabulary for Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marisa T.

    2012-01-01

    A major component of literacy is "vocabulary," or the words employed by a language or in a field of knowledge. Understanding novel words and concepts is important for young students as they are confronted with a great deal of new terminology in the passages they read, especially in content areas such as science. Science is a discipline that relies…

  9. The Political Vocabulary of Hong Kong English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Phil

    1994-01-01

    A study analyzed patterns of usage of political vocabulary in Hong Kong English as found in newspaper reports of a leading Hong Kong English-medium newspaper and two other English-medium newspapers. Data were drawn from a computerized corpus and a clippings file. The report begins with an overview of the theoretical basis of the study of ideology…

  10. A Computer-Adaptive Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Maria Teresa Lopez-Mezquita

    2009-01-01

    Lexical competence is considered to be an essential step in the development and consolidation of a student's linguistic ability, and thus the reliable assessment of such competence turns out to be a fundamental aspect in this process. The design and construction of vocabulary tests has become an area of special interest, as it may provide teachers…

  11. The Controlled Vocabulary--A Reexamination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The controlled vocabulary method of reading instruction (popular in the 1950's and 60's in the Dick and Jane basic reading series) had many inherent and numerous strong points. As with all beginning reading instruction methods, including the Big Book, heterogeneous reading group, holism, phonics, library book, and constructivist methods,…

  12. Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2013-01-01

    Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary…

  13. Development of a change model for a controlled medical vocabulary.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, D. E.; Shahar, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Managing change in controlled medical vocabularies is labor intensive and costly, but change is inevitable if vocabularies are to be kept up to date. The changes that are appropriate for a controlled medical vocabulary depend on the data stored for that vocabulary, and those data in turn depend on the needs of users. The set of change operations is the change model; the data stored about concepts comprise the concept model. Because the change model depends directly on the concept model, a discussion of the former necessitates a discussion of the latter. In this paper, we first present a set of tasks that we believe controlled medical vocabularies should handle. Next, we describe our concept model for a controlled medical vocabulary. Then, we review the literature on changes in existing vocabulary systems. Finally, we present our change model. We call our system, which incorporates the concept model and change model, the General Online Dictionary of Medicine (GOLDMINE). PMID:9357697

  14. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  15. Clinical data exchange standards and vocabularies for messages.

    PubMed

    Huff, S M

    1998-01-01

    Motivation for the creation of electronic data interchange (message) standards is discussed. The ISO Open Systems Interface model is described. Clinical information models, message syntax and structure, and the need for a standardized coded vocabulary are explained. The HIPAA legislation and subsequent HHS transaction recommendations are reviewed. The history and mission statements of six of the most popular message development organizations (MDOs) are summarized, and the data exchange standards developed by these organizations are listed. The organizations described include Health Level Seven (HL7), American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E31, Digital Image Communication in Medicine (DICOM), European Committee for Standardization (Comité Européen de Normalisation), Technical Committee for Health Informatics (CEN/TC 251), the National Council for Prescription Drug Programs (NCPDP), and Accredited Standards Committee X12 Insurance Subcommittee (X12N). The locations of Internet web sites for the six organizations are provided as resources for further information. PMID:9929183

  16. Background Knowledge and the Magazine Reading Students Choose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Rachael; Allington, Richard; Billen, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Can students read difficult but self-selected texts--and if so, how? In this article we describe what we learned about middle school students' use of background knowledge and specific vocabulary from interviews and surveys in our longitudinal study of magazine reading habits. Then we discuss the implications of these findings for structuring…

  17. [Are German information materials on colorectal cancer screening understandable or do they fail? Rating of health information by users with different educational backgrounds].

    PubMed

    Seidel, G; Münch, I; Dreier, M; Borutta, B; Walter, U; Dierks, M-L

    2014-03-01

    Evidence-based patient information is an essential part of decision making in health issues. A qualitative study was conducted to examine whether consumers consider the health information on colorectal cancer screening in Germany helpful in supporting their decision making. In this study, eight texts from different German authors about colorectal cancer screening were evaluated with a criteria-based selection. The texts were tested for understandability, structure, design, and effect on readers. Thirteen semi-structured focus groups were formed including 59 higher-educated and 15 lower-educated testers, 46 % of them being male with a mean age of 62.9 years. The transcripts were analyzed by content-analytic assessment. The testers provided detailed comments on the content and design of the texts. They revealed inaccuracies and suggested improvements of the texts. The testers differed from each other in terms of the intensity of their participation in the discussions and comprehension of the material. The reception of the flyers and brochures varied according to the educational level of the testers. Lower-educated testers often skipped passages of texts about risks as well as passages containing numbers and graphics. The texts had different effects on the testers, regardless of the level of education. If adverse effects were presented, some testers became scared while others were reassured because they felt informed. Most of the testers appreciated a call for participation as a central message of the text. Sometimes, if there was no clear appeal to attend the screening, the testers even asked for it. The recently introduced political strategy of promoting an informed choice is applied to an unprepared population who was used to getting a clear yes-or-no recommendation. Thus, at first, the population has to learn how to make an informed choice. This topic must be addressed and taken into account in the process of developing health information. Since this is not always the case, we conclude that current materials are limited in their contribution toward the decision of attending CRC screening. PMID:24562713

  18. Possibilities and Implications of Using the ICF and Other Vocabulary Standards in Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Richoz, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    There is now widespread recognition of the powerful potential of electronic health record (EHR) systems to improve the health-care delivery system. The benefits of EHRs grow even larger when the health data within their purview are seamlessly shared, aggregated and processed across different providers, settings and institutions. Yet, the plethora of idiosyncratic conventions for identifying the same clinical content in different information systems is a fundamental barrier to fully leveraging the potential of EHRs. Only by adopting vocabulary standards that provide the lingua franca across these local dialects can computers efficiently move, aggregate and use health data for decision support, outcomes management, quality reporting, research and many other purposes. In this regard, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) is an important standard for physiotherapists because it provides a framework and standard language for describing health and health-related states. However, physiotherapists and other health-care professionals capture a wide range of data such as patient histories, clinical findings, tests and measurements, procedures, and so on, for which other vocabulary standards such as Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes and Systematized Nomenclature Of Medicine Clinical Terms are crucial for interoperable communication between different electronic systems. In this paper, we describe how the ICF and other internationally accepted vocabulary standards could advance physiotherapy practise and research by enabling data sharing and reuse by EHRs. We highlight how these different vocabulary standards fit together within a comprehensive record system, and how EHRs can make use of them, with a particular focus on enhancing decision-making. By incorporating the ICF and other internationally accepted vocabulary standards into our clinical information systems, physiotherapists will be able to leverage the potent capabilities of EHRs and contribute our unique clinical perspective to other health-care providers within the emerging electronic health information infrastructure. PMID:23897840

  19. Use of standard vocabulary services in validation of water resources data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonathan; Cox, Simon; Ratcliffe, David

    2010-05-01

    Ontology repositories are increasingly being exposed through vocabulary and concept services. Primarily this is in support of resource discovery. Thesaurus functionality and even more sophisticated reasoning offers the possibility of overcoming the limitations of simple text-matching and tagging which is the basis of most search. However, controlled vocabularies have other important roles in distributed systems: in particular in constraining content validity. A national water information system established by the Australian Bureau of Meterorology ('the Bureau') has deployed a system for ingestion of data from multiple providers. This uses a http interface onto separately maintained vocabulary services as part of the quality assurance chain. With over 200 data providers potentially transferring data to the Bureau, a standard XML-based Water Data Transfer Format (WDTF) was developed for receipt of data into an integrated national water information system. The WDTF schema was built upon standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The structure and syntax specified by a W3C XML Schema is complemented by additional constraints described using Schematron. These implement important content requirements and business rules including: • Restricted cardinality: where optional elements and attributes inherited from the base standards become mandatory in the application, or repeatable elements or attributes are limited to one or omitted. For example, the sampledFeature element from O&M is optional but is mandatory for a samplingPoint element in WDTF. • Vocabulary checking: WDTF data use seventeen vocabularies or code lists derived from Regulations under the Commonwealth Water Act 2007. Examples of codelists are the Australian Water Regulations list, observed property vocabulary, and units of measures. • Contextual constraints: in many places, the permissible value is dependent on the value of another field. For example, within observations the unit of measure must be commensurate with the observed property type Validation of data submitted in WDTF uses a two-pass approach. First, syntax and structural validation is performed by standard XML Schema validation tools. Second, validation of contextual constraints and code list checking is performed using a hybrid method combining context-sensitive rule-based validation (allowing the rules to be expressed within a given context) and semantic vocabulary services. Schematron allows rules to incorporate assertions of XPath expressions to access and constrain element content, therefore enabling contextual constraints. Schematron is also used to perform element cardinality checking. The vocabularies or code lists are formalized in SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System), an RDF-based language. SKOS provides mechanisms to define concepts, associate them with (multi-lingual) labels or terms, and record thesaurus-like relationships between them. The vocabularies are managed in a RDF database or semantic triple store. Querying is implemented as a semantic vocabulary service, with an http-based API that allows queries to be issued from rules written in Schematron. WDTF has required development and deployment of some ontologies whose scope is much more general than this application, in particular covering 'observed properties' and 'units of measure', which also have to be related to each other and consistent with the dimensional analysis. Separation of the two validation passes reflects the separate governance and stability of the structural and content rules, and allows an organisation's business rules to be moved out of the XML schema definition and the XML schema to be reused by other businesses with their own specific rules. With the general approach proven, harmonization opportunities with more generic services are being explored, such as the GEMET API for SKOS, developed by the European Environment Agency. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the AUSCOPE team for their development and support provided of the vocabulary services.

  20. Beyond Static Assessment of Children's Receptive Vocabulary: The Dynamic Assessment of Word Learning (DAWL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Bernard; Botting, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's low scores on vocabulary tests are often erroneously interpreted as reflecting poor cognitive and/or language skills. It may be necessary to incorporate the measurement of word-learning ability in estimating children's lexical abilities. Aims: To explore the reliability and validity of the Dynamic Assessment of…

  1. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  2. Background Checks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    In this era when many Americans seem resigned to greater encroachments on their personal privacy due to the growth and ubiquity of electronic databases with information about almost every aspect of their lives, a recent statement from the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) seems timely. The statement highlighted the issue of…

  3. Effects of Interactive versus Simultaneous Display of Multimedia Glosses on L2 Reading Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trk, Emine; Eretin, Glcan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of visual and verbal multimedia information on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of learners of English with lower proficiency levels. In the interactive display condition, learners were allowed to select the type of multimedia information whereas the

  4. Effects of Interactive versus Simultaneous Display of Multimedia Glosses on L2 Reading Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türk, Emine; Erçetin, Gülcan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of visual and verbal multimedia information on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of learners of English with lower proficiency levels. In the interactive display condition, learners were allowed to select the type of multimedia information whereas the…

  5. Taiwan: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on Taiwan is provided. The publication begins with a profile of Taiwan, discussing the people, geography, political establishment, and economy. A map of the country is provided. The bulk of the publication then provides more detailed information on Taiwan's people, geography, history, administration, political…

  6. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is a botanical? A botanical is a plant or plant part valued for its medicinal or therapeutic properties, ... up of the genus and species of the plant. Under this system the botanical black cohosh is ...

  7. Development of a Controlled Vocabulary for Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beran, B.; Piasecki, M.; Choi, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The recent emergence of a number of Environmental Observing systems calls the for the need of a nationwide geoscience cyberinfrastructure. One of the problems that need to be overcome when building a nationwide CI is the vexing problem of disparate and incompatible metadata descriptions that exist due to the use of different standards (if at all) and also the use of different vocabularies to describe the same thing or multiple use of a single word to describe different things leading to interoperability problems. To avoid syntactic interoperability problems many data clearinghouses (UK's Gigateway, Canada's GeoConnections, Australian Spatial Data Directory, US NSDI etc.) are migrating to ISO 19115 metadata standard. While the adoption of a standard is a first step towards solving the syntactic interoperability problem to some extent semantic difference remain because the ISO 19115 does not provide any controlled vocabulary for scientific terminology. In this study our aim is to develop a thesaurus for hydraulic science (as it is a central subject of all environmental observing systems) and engineering keywords that consists of several thousand entries which will help solving homonym, synonym problems as well as allowing discovery of more specific terms when a broader term was searched for. Development methods allow multi-lingual controlled vocabulary as in ISO standard since the relations (classification, narrower term, broader term, synonym etc.) between the terms in the thesaurus are independent of the language used. Human readable vocabulary may be attached to concepts as labels with a "language" identifier such that an entry of e.g. n0231 returns "rain" in English while "pluie" in French.

  8. [Anglicisms in the German medical vocabulary].

    PubMed

    Schleyer, F

    1985-01-01

    In view of an ever-increasing infiltration of the German medical vocabulary by Britishisms and Americanisms, a linguistic attempt was made to categorize this phraseology as follows: more or less incorporated terminology, "internationalized" terms, identical translations, unnecessary use of English expressions instead of German synonyms, borrowing from the English with an alteration of the original meaning, and German neologisms on the basis of English vocabular material. Specimens from all these categories are enumerated. PMID:4024069

  9. IV. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring language (vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding).

    PubMed

    Gershon, Richard C; Slotkin, Jerry; Manly, Jennifer J; Blitz, David L; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Schnipke, Deborah; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gleason, Jean Berko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Weintraub, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    Mastery of language skills is an important predictor of daily functioning and health. Vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding are relatively quick and easy to measure and correlate highly with overall cognitive functioning, as well as with success in school and work. New measures of vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding (in both English and Spanish) were developed for the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB). In the Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test (TPVT), participants hear a spoken word while viewing four pictures, and then must choose the picture that best represents the word. This approach tests receptive vocabulary knowledge without the need to read or write, removing the literacy load for children who are developing literacy and for adults who struggle with reading and writing. In the Toolbox Oral Reading Recognition Test (TORRT), participants see a letter or word onscreen and must pronounce or identify it. The examiner determines whether it was pronounced correctly by comparing the response to the pronunciation guide on a separate computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of language during childhood and the relation of language and brain function. We also review the development of the TPVT and TORRT, including information about the item calibration process and results from a validation study. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the measures are discussed. PMID:23952202

  10. Vocabulary, Concept, Evidence, and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alessandro, John; Sorenson, Tim; Homoelle, Bradley; Hodun, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Reading is critical for scientific thinking. It is a foundation for many of the skills in which scientists and engineers must be proficient, such as conducting research, developing informed conjectures, and engaging in reasoned argument (NRC 2012). Yet, students frequently find science reading difficult, time-consuming, and frustrating. Strategies…

  11. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G; Ward, Richard C; Wright, Michael C; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNM detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. The approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information

  12. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G; Ward, Richard C; Wright, Michael C; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNMmore » detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. The approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information« less

  13. Delayed versus immediate feedback in children's and adults' vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Janet; Kornell, Nate; Finn, Bridgid

    2009-12-01

    We investigated whether the superior memory performance sometimes seen with delayed rather than immediate feedback was attributable to the shorter retention interval (or lag to test) from the last presentation of the correct information in the delayed condition. Whether lag to test was controlled or not, delayed feedback produced better final test performance than did immediate feedback, which in turn produced better performance than did no feedback at all, when we tested Grade 6 children learning school-relevant vocabulary. With college students learning GRE-level words, however, delayed feedback produced better performance than did immediate feedback (and both were better than no feedback) when lag to test was uncontrolled, but there was no difference between the delayed and immediate feedback conditions when the lag to test was controlled. PMID:19933453

  14. The role of primary caregiver vocabulary knowledge in the development of bilingual children’s vocabulary skills

    PubMed Central

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The current study examined the impact of environmental factors (SES, the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children’s vocabulary skills. Method We measured vocabulary skills of 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5 and 7 who spoke Spanish as their native language and English as their second language. Data related to language environment in the home, specifically the percent of language exposure to each language and SES, were obtained from primary caregiver interviews. Primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge was measured directly using expressive and receptive vocabulary assessments in both languages. Results Multiple regression analyses indicated that primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge, the child’s percent exposure to each language, and SES were robust predictors of children’s English, but not Spanish, vocabulary skills. Conclusions These findings indicate that in the early school age, primary caregiver vocabulary skills have a stronger impact on bilingual children’s second-language than native-language vocabulary. PMID:24824882

  15. The Effects of Topic Interest on the Vocabulary Retention in Third Grade Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Yasuko Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of topic interest on the vocabulary learning and retention in third grade students with and without learning disabilities. All students learned 12 unfamiliar vocabulary words in three different vocabulary learning conditions: High-interest topic vocabulary, low-interest topic vocabulary, and vocabulary words without…

  16. The Effects of Topic Interest on the Vocabulary Retention in Third Grade Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Yasuko Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of topic interest on the vocabulary learning and retention in third grade students with and without learning disabilities. All students learned 12 unfamiliar vocabulary words in three different vocabulary learning conditions: High-interest topic vocabulary, low-interest topic vocabulary, and vocabulary words without

  17. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and resource maps of the Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of Karluk quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detterman, Robert L.; Case, J.E.; Church, S.E.; Frisken, J.G.; Wilson, F.H.; Yount, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of Karluk quadrangles (1:250,000) are a part of the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. This circular, in conjunction with a companion folio of MF-series maps, two I-series geologic maps, and three bulletins, represents the results of integrated field and laboratory studies on the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, paleontology, geochronology, and mineral resources of the quadrangles. These studies were undertaken to provide a modern assessment of the mineral and energy resources of the quadrangles. Each map contains descriptive text, explanatory material, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references. This circular provides background information for the mineral resource assessment map (MF-1539-1) and integrates the component M F- and I-series maps. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references relevant to the geology and resources of the quadrangles.

  18. Background Error Covariance Estimation using Information from a Single Model Trajectory with Application to Ocean Data Assimilation into the GEOS-5 Coupled Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Rienecker, Michele M.; Kovach, Robin M.; Vernieres, Guillaume; Koster, Randal D. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    An attractive property of ensemble data assimilation methods is that they provide flow dependent background error covariance estimates which can be used to update fields of observed variables as well as fields of unobserved model variables. Two methods to estimate background error covariances are introduced which share the above property with ensemble data assimilation methods but do not involve the integration of multiple model trajectories. Instead, all the necessary covariance information is obtained from a single model integration. The Space Adaptive Forecast error Estimation (SAFE) algorithm estimates error covariances from the spatial distribution of model variables within a single state vector. The Flow Adaptive error Statistics from a Time series (FAST) method constructs an ensemble sampled from a moving window along a model trajectory. SAFE and FAST are applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into version 4.1 of the Modular Ocean Model (MOM4.1) coupled to the GEOS-5 atmospheric model and to the CICE sea ice model. The results are validated against unassimilated Argo salinity data. They show that SAFE and FAST are competitive with the ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to produce its ocean analysis. Because of their reduced cost, SAFE and FAST hold promise for high-resolution data assimilation applications.

  19. Grabbed Early by Vocabulary: Nation's Ongoing Contributions to Vocabulary and Reading in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxhead, Averil

    2010-01-01

    "I was grabbed early [by vocabulary] and never let go. That's why it's difficult to explain why I enjoy working in this area. I just love doing it," said Paul Nation (in Coxhead, 2005, p. 46). How many people get grabbed by an area of research, teaching, and learning that continues to engage interest and cause excitement after 30 years? In this…

  20. Closing the Vocabulary Gap?: A Review of Research on Early Childhood Vocabulary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2011-01-01

    Our qualitative literature review of 31 published studies found that (a) three major approaches are used in early childhood classrooms to support children's vocabulary learning--exposing children to advanced words, providing direct word-meaning instruction, and employing mixed-method interventions; (b) these practices support children's learning…

  1. On Measuring Vocabulary Difficulty. An Analysis of Item Variables in Learning Russian-English Vocabulary Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Theodore S.

    1969-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that the degree of pronunciation difficulty of Russian words is a more important factor than function (form class) properties of English response items in facilitating or retarding learning of Russian-English vocabulary pairs. (FWB)

  2. Analyses of Receptive and Productive Korean EFL Vocabulary: Computer-Based Vocabulary Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Scott Sungki

    2013-01-01

    The present research study investigated the effects of 8 versions of a computer-based vocabulary learning program on receptive and productive knowledge levels of college students. The participants were 106 male and 103 female Korean EFL students from Kyungsung University and Kwandong University in Korea. Students who participated in versions of…

  3. Building Vocabulary for Language Learning: Approach for ESL Learners to Study New Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alharbi, Adel M.

    2015-01-01

    This project investigated Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLSs) English Language Learners used; and strategies they thought were effective to them in terms of language proficiency. Using an online survey, 121 participants responded to statements regarding their usage of VLSs. Participants have been divided into two groups: (1) learners with low…

  4. Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: Direct Tests and Text-Derived Simulations of Vocabulary Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Andrew; Rosenstein, Mark; Sparks, Randall; Landauer, Thomas K.; Foltz, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Determining word meanings that ought to be taught or introduced is important for educators. A sequence for vocabulary growth can be inferred from many sources, including testing children's knowledge of word meanings at various ages, predicting from print frequency, or adult-recalled Age of Acquisition. A new approach, Word Maturity, is based…

  5. Hispanic Families' Perspectives on Using a Bilingual Vocabulary Kit to Enhance Their Prekindergarten Children's Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Query, Rebecca Robinson; Ceglowski, Deborah; Clark, Patricia; Li, Yongmei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Hispanic families' perspectives on using a prepared kit to enhance their preschoolers' vocabulary development at home. Families enrolled in a public prekindergarten program were provided with a bilingual (English/Spanish) home literacy kit that included ways in which to engage their children in activities…

  6. Is Vocabulary Growth Influenced by the Relations among Words in a Language Learner's Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailor, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored the applicability of the preferential attachment principle to account for vocabulary growth. According to this principle, network growth can be described by a process in which existing nodes recruit new nodes with a probability that is an increasing function of their connectivity within the existing network.…

  7. Procedural Vocabulary: Lexical Signalling of Conceptual Relations in Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marco, Maria Jose Luzon

    1999-01-01

    Explores the function of items of procedural vocabulary as signals of conceptual relations in scientific discourse. Procedural vocabulary consists of lexical items that do not belong to any particular schema. Develops a taxonomy of procedural items in terms of the contextual relations they create between content-bearing words, classifying the…

  8. Books, Not Direct Instruction, Are the Key to Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Fay

    2004-01-01

    When a child has an extensive knowledge of vocabulary, it is most likely from extensive reading, regardless of whether the reading is from comic books, magazines, or a recommended reading literature list. Teachers who are always trying to find the best strategies for teaching literacy skills such as reading comprehension, vocabulary development,…

  9. Vocabulary Teaching: A Way To Improve Learners' Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vianna, Jane Mello

    A classroom research project in English-as-a-Second-Language vocabulary development, conducted in an English language school in Brazil, is described. The study had two major aims: to help students build a large lexicon for future use, and to encourage students to be responsible for their own learning by teaching strategies for learning vocabulary.…

  10. Successful Techniques of Vocabulary. ERIC Topical Bibliography and Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B., Ed.

    Each teacher has a style of teaching that provides the most effective way to help students grasp the desired learning concepts. One point teachers agree on is that teaching vocabulary to children needs to be an active process that engages students in entertaining activities and helps them build a bridge between already known vocabulary and the new…

  11. Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents

  12. The Role of Writing Pedagogy in Vocabulary Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirhassani, Seyyed Akbar; Samar, Reza Ghafar; Fattahipoor, Majid

    2006-01-01

    To improve and activate the vocabulary of EFL learners, an alternative to common advice in trying to use them in speech can be invited. As two quite different methodologies in writing pedagogy are process and product writing, it is of concern to find which holds more promise for the vocabulary improvement. Product writing pedagogy encompasses…

  13. Learning Vocabulary from Television: Does Onscreen Print Have a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linebarger, Deborah L.; Moses, Annie; Garrity Liebeskind, Kara; McMenamin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition associated with watching high-quality educational television has been documented in a number of studies. One lingering question is whether adding strategically placed onscreen print to a program can enhance vocabulary acquisition beyond those effects attributable to viewing educational content alone. The present study was…

  14. What Classroom Observations Reveal about Oral Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tanya S.

    2012-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that children's early vocabulary development is essential to their long-term reading comprehension. Findings from experimental studies have indicated that vocabulary knowledge influences the development of conceptual knowledge and comprehension, suggesting a causal relationship among these fundamental language…

  15. Teaching and Learning Morphology: A Reflection on Generative Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Students' knowledge of morphology can play a critical role in vocabulary development, and by extension, reading comprehension and writing. This reflection describes the nature of this knowledge and how it may be developed through the examination of generative vocabulary knowledge and the role of the spelling system in developing this knowledge. In…

  16. Comparative Usefulness of Online and Traditional Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    Acquiring vocabulary in L2 is rather a difficult and demanding process and most of the language learners wish to know which vocabulary learning method and/or activity is more beneficial or even the best one; however, the responses to this question vary and there is no clear-cut answer though there are some various suggestions and conclusions drawn…

  17. Strategies and Performance in Intentional L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to identify strategies used during intentional vocabulary learning and to assess the relationship between strategy use and vocabulary learning performance. English-speaking students of Spanish studied new Spanish words while viewing word-picture pairs. The participants then completed posttests and answered questions about…

  18. The PRO-VOC Method: Combining Pronunciation and Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaidis, Katerina; Mattheoudakis, Marina

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the combined teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary to learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). While there is commonly strong emphasis on the teaching of vocabulary, pronunciation teaching is frequently neglected in the EFL classroom. The proposed method aims to address such imbalance which may

  19. Integrating Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction into EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction was integrated into an EFL curriculum to investigate its effects on learners' vocabulary acquisition. A total of 180 EFL learners enrolled in the freshmen English program at a university in Taiwan participated in the study. The participants were guided to explore and practice…

  20. Vocabulary Development during Read-Alouds: Examining the Instructional Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindle, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    Reading aloud to children is a recommended practice in early childhood and primary-grade classrooms that is purported to enhance vocabulary growth. General guidelines can be found in the literature, but practitioners often rely on conventional wisdom and their own instincts to embed vocabulary instruction into their read-alouds. This paper…

  1. Can Retrieval Opportunities Increase Vocabulary Learning during Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Because reading for meaning only can lead to low rates of second language (L2) vocabulary learning and because previous research has demonstrated the benefits of word retrieval opportunities for intentional L2 vocabulary learning (Barcroft, 2007; McNamara & Healy, 1995a, Experiment 2; Royer, 1973), the present study assessed the effect of…

  2. The Effects of English Vocabulary Mastery on Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockhold, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines socioeconomic status (SES), English language proficiency (ELP), vocabulary proficiency (VP), and math proficiency (MP) of students to determine if SES, as determined by the Free and Reduced Lunch Program (FRL), as well as English language proficiency (ELP) and vocabulary proficiency (VP), as measured by CELLA scale scores and

  3. Redefining Vocabulary: The New Learning Strategy for Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Shea, Aimee

    2011-01-01

    Although vocabulary development is an important part of the social studies curriculum, vocabulary activities are often inadequate, leaving students with cursory knowledge of terms. Worse still is the fact that many of the most critical words demarcating the field are not included in those activities. Therefore, a transformation from viewing…

  4. Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

  5. Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. The Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, James, Ed.; Huckin, Thomas, Ed.

    A collection of essays on second language vocabulary learning includes: "Historical Trends in Second Language Vocabulary Instruction" (Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman); "The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading: Words You Don't Know, Words You Think You Know, and Words You Can't Guess" (Batia Laufer); "Orthographic Knowledge in L2 Lexical Processing: A…

  6. Recent Research on Measuring Receptive and Productive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thu Hoang

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with research in measuring receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge in second language (L2) learning, including English as a second language (ESL) learning and English as a foreign language (EFL) learning. The paper will begin with a brief introduction to the role of vocabulary in language learning, and then an…

  7. Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

  8. Rationale for Systematic Vocabulary Development: Antidote for State Mandates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Anthony V.; Manzo, Ula C.; Thomas, Matthew M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors assert that vocabulary development is one of the most important things teachers can promote for students--cognitively, culturally, socially, and in preparation for standardized tests. A broad-based review of the literature reveals solid reasons for using systematic vocabulary instruction, which is especially helpful with youngsters…

  9. Learning Vocabulary from Television: Does Onscreen Print Have a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linebarger, Deborah L.; Moses, Annie; Garrity Liebeskind, Kara; McMenamin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition associated with watching high-quality educational television has been documented in a number of studies. One lingering question is whether adding strategically placed onscreen print to a program can enhance vocabulary acquisition beyond those effects attributable to viewing educational content alone. The present study was

  10. French Vocabulary in "Encore Tricolore": Do Pupils Have a Chance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschichold, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    British learners acquire very little vocabulary in their foreign languages, compared to pupils elsewhere in Europe, particularly learners of English as a foreign language. Could the materials used for teaching help explain this difference? An analysis of the vocabulary loading of a textbook for French as a foreign language commonly used in…

  11. Impacts of Vocabulary Acquisition Techniques Instruction on Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine how the selected vocabulary acquisition techniques affected the vocabulary ability of 35 students who took EN 111 and investigate their attitudes towards the techniques instruction. The research study was one-group pretest and post-test design. The instruments employed were in-class exercises…

  12. Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et…

  13. Vocabulary Explanations in CLIL Classrooms: A Conversation Analysis Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a conversation analysis methodology to examine how lexical Focus on Form is interactionally accomplished in teachers' vocabulary explanations in secondary Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms. Recent conversation-analytic work has focused on the interactional organisation of vocabulary explanations in…

  14. Preventing a Vocabulary Lag: What Lessons Are Learned from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Richard; Zygouris-Coe, Vicky; Dasinger, Sheryl B.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses why early and sustained vocabulary development is important for listening and reading comprehension development and presents findings from 8 studies implemented with children of mostly low socioeconomic status in settings from day care to first grade. Program interventions were based on learning new vocabulary developed out…

  15. Transformation of Traditional Vocabulary Exercises into Collaborative Writing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Jian-feng

    2010-01-01

    In the reading course, especially the so-called intensive reading course or integrative English reading course, there are some vocabulary exercises which intend to consolidate the active vocabulary emerging in the reading passages. Mostly, these exercises are in the form of blank-filling or rewriting sentences with the words given. The problem…

  16. Pictures and Words: Spanish and English Vocabulary in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Francis, David J.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the relation between Spanish and English vocabulary. Whereas previously reported correlations have revealed strong differences among types of vocabulary measures used and the ages of the students tested, no prior study had used a multilevel model to control for classroom-level differences. The current study used…

  17. Effect of Strategy Training on Vocabulary in EFL Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostovar-Namaghi, Seyd Ali; Rajaee, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Sixty Iranian high school EFL learners between 14 and 16 males participated in this study were randomly divided into two groups; experimental, and control. As the study aimed to know whether vocabulary strategy training effects on vocabulary learning of Iranian students, at first the control and experimental group were given a writing per-test…

  18. Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition from Reading an Authentic Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daskalovska, Nina

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that second/foreign language learners can acquire vocabulary from reading. This study was designed to examine whether advanced EFL learners can acquire vocabulary incidentally from reading an authentic text. Eighteen first year English major students read and listened to the first eight chapters of Pride and…

  19. Cognitive Correlates of Vocabulary Growth in English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther

    2011-01-01

    This study modeled vocabulary trajectories in 91 English language learners (ELLs) with Punjabi, Tamil, or Portuguese home languages, and 50 English monolinguals (EL1) from Grades 1 to 6. The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory and vocabulary were examined. ELLs underperformed…

  20. Improving Vocabulary Skills through Assistive Technology: Rick's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey-Glenn, Pam F.; Gentry, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This case study examines the use of two assistive technologies, the Franklin Language Master 6000b and Microsoft PowerPoint 2003, as visual support systems to aid in the vocabulary acquisition skills of a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention used children's literature and best practices in teaching vocabulary skills in…

  1. Vocabulary Acquisition in L2: Does CALL Really Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averianova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Language competence in various communicative activities in L2 largely depends on the learners' size of vocabulary. The target vocabulary of adult L2 learners should be between 2,000 high frequency words (a critical threshold) and 10,000 word families (for comprehension of university texts). For a TOEIC test, the threshold is estimated to be…

  2. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  3. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise

    2015-01-01

    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary…

  4. Translation and Bilingual Practice for German Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustyn, Prisca

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical examination of the current practices and beliefs about vocabulary teaching and learning in typical communicative-approach German classrooms. While research on vocabulary acquisition is scarce, frequency dictionaries reveal that current practice is based heavily on the use of concrete, referential lexemes that may be…

  5. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  6. Promoting L2 Vocabulary Learning through Narrow Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Krashen (2004) has advocated that narrow reading, i.e., reading a series of texts addressing one specific topic, is an effective method to grow vocabulary. While narrow reading has been championed to have many advantages for L2 vocabulary learning, there remains a relative dearth of empirical studies that test the impact of narrow reading on L2…

  7. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria; Flynn, Lindsay J.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a U.S. History teacher to directly teach word meanings using the "robust vocabulary instruction" (RVI) approach, because research supports this method as a way to improve vocabulary knowledge for a range of students, including adolescents reading below grade level (i.e., struggling readers) and…

  8. Video Games Promote Saudi Children's English Vocabulary Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Video Games and their role on promoting Saudi Kids' English vocabulary retention. The study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English vocabulary test due to using Video Games…

  9. Vocabulary Strategies that Work: Do This-Not that!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfong, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Update your vocabulary practices to meet the Common Core and improve students' word knowledge! This new, clearly-structured guide shows you how. It's packed with engaging, research-based, classroom-ready strategies for teaching vocabulary. Topics include: (1) Selecting meaningful words for direct instruction; (2) Strategies for engaging students…

  10. The PRO-VOC Method: Combining Pronunciation and Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaidis, Katerina; Mattheoudakis, Marina

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the combined teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary to learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). While there is commonly strong emphasis on the teaching of vocabulary, pronunciation teaching is frequently neglected in the EFL classroom. The proposed method aims to address such imbalance which may…

  11. Metacognitive Strategy Training and Vocabulary Learning of Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Na

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to tap the relationship between metacognitive strategy training and vocabulary learning of college students through a five week training program. It aims to answer the following question: Can metacognitive strategy training facilitate vocabulary learning of Chinese college students? Both questionnaire and tests were used in the…

  12. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria; Flynn, Lindsay J.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a U.S. History teacher to directly teach word meanings using the "robust vocabulary instruction" (RVI) approach, because research supports this method as a way to improve vocabulary knowledge for a range of students, including adolescents reading below grade level (i.e., struggling readers) and

  13. Can Retrieval Opportunities Increase Vocabulary Learning during Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Because reading for meaning only can lead to low rates of second language (L2) vocabulary learning and because previous research has demonstrated the benefits of word retrieval opportunities for intentional L2 vocabulary learning (Barcroft, 2007; McNamara & Healy, 1995a, Experiment 2; Royer, 1973), the present study assessed the effect of

  14. Using Explicit Instruction to Promote Vocabulary Learning for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, D. Bruce; Mraz, Maryann; Nichols, William D.; Rickelman, Robert J.; Wood, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Research supports the need for active vocabulary learning across grade levels and subject areas to help increase readers' comprehension of diverse texts that they encounter. Given the increasing emphasis on decoding and reading comprehension, the relative importance of vocabulary instruction has been diminished in recent years. The authors argue…

  15. A Framework for Explicit Vocabulary Instruction with English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.

    2015-01-01

    Academic vocabulary development is critical to the success of all learners--particularly English language learners (ELLs). This article presents a framework for integrating explicit academic vocabulary instruction for ELLs into middle school classrooms. The framework embodies five research-based principles and serves as a vehicle for structuring…

  16. High School Chinese: Second Year Text, Vocabulary, and Character Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This second year volume of a 3-year course in Chinese includes a textbook, vocabulary, and character lists. A student workbook has also been designed (see FL 002 777 ). The text provided dialogues and practice in vocabulary, translation, questions, writing, and language patterns. Ideas for homework are also included. The book is divided into…

  17. High School Chinese: First Year Text, Vocabulary, and Character Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This first volume of a 3-year course in Chinese includes a textbook, vocabulary, and character lists. A workbook has been designed for the text (see FL 002 773). Each lesson is divided into sections involving such learning devices as pronunciation drills, pantomime, questions and answers, pattern practice, stories vocabulary, dictation, dialogues,…

  18. Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Young English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Method: Twenty-two…

  19. Japanese Vocabulary Acquisition by Learners in Three Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Dan P.

    2008-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the development of vocabulary knowledge during study abroad (SA), intensive domestic immersion (IM) and academic-year formal classroom (AY) learning. Its focus was the growth of vocabulary knowledge in Japanese--a language where little SA research has been conducted to date. Unlike most studies addressing…

  20. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  1. Using Knowledge Networks to Develop Preschoolers' Content Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that children accrue vocabulary knowledge by understanding relationships between new words and their connected concepts. This article describes three research-based principles that preschool teachers can use to design shared book reading lessons that accelerate content vocabulary knowledge by helping young children to talk about…

  2. The Effects of English Vocabulary Mastery on Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockhold, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines socioeconomic status (SES), English language proficiency (ELP), vocabulary proficiency (VP), and math proficiency (MP) of students to determine if SES, as determined by the Free and Reduced Lunch Program (FRL), as well as English language proficiency (ELP) and vocabulary proficiency (VP), as measured by CELLA scale scores and…

  3. Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

  4. Is Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Feasible to EFL Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    For learning English as a foreign language, the efficiency of the approach of incidental vocabulary acquisition depends on the word frequency and text coverage. However, the statistics of English corpus reveals that English is a language that has a large vocabulary size but a low word frequency as well as text coverage, which is obviously not in…

  5. Effectiveness of E-TLM in Learning Vocabulary in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The study enlightens the effectiveness of e-TLM in Learning Vocabulary in English at standard VI. Objectives of the study: 1. To find out the problems of conventional TLM in learning vocabulary in English. 2. To find out the significant difference in achievement mean score between the pre test of control group and the post test of control group.…

  6. Does Translation Contribute to Learners' Free Active Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into four "male…

  7. Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

  8. Measuring Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Development and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguay, Annie; Kenyon, Dorry; Haynes, Erin; August, Diane; Yanosky, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to measure teachers' knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction, the Teacher Knowledge of Vocabulary Survey (TKVS). This type of knowledge has become increasingly important as all classroom teachers are expected to help students meet language and literacy standards that include…

  9. How To Teach 1000 Vocabulary Words Using the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaworski, JoAnn; Ibrahim, Nabil

    2001-01-01

    Describes a vocabulary project in which developmental college students created and distributed word lists to the class, and provided and administered quizzes for their word lists. Finds that students who participated in the 1000-word project scored significantly higher on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test than students who studied vocabulary using…

  10. Neural Correlates of High Performance in Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedonia, Manuela; Muller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Learning vocabulary in a foreign language is a laborious task which people perform with varying levels of success. Here, we investigated the neural underpinning of high performance on this task. In a within-subjects paradigm, participants learned 92 vocabulary items under two multimodal conditions: one condition paired novel words with iconic…

  11. What Is Most Important to Know about Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucan, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article makes use of Perfetti's Lexical Quality Hypothesis as a perspective for thinking about vocabulary instruction in terms of semantics (meaning), phonology (pronunciation), orthography (spelling), morphology (meaningful word parts), and syntax (how words function in sentences). Examples are presented of how these aspects of vocabulary

  12. Differences in Vocabulary Input-Output in Psychodiagnosis of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Abate, Luciano

    This paper supports the hypothesis that picture vocabulary tests should not be used as interchangeable measures of intelligence for complex, lengthy intelligence tests (WISC and Stanford-Binet). In picture vocabulary tests assessing receptive functions (input), the child recognizes a word by pointing to or stating the number standing for an…

  13. VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRIPPNER, STANLEY

    A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

  14. The Role of Experience in Learning Science Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Carol V.; Contreras, Norma J.

    Comparing traditional to experiential instruction, a study investigated whether teaching content area vocabulary using hands-on experiences and teacher/student interaction would result in greater vocabulary knowledge and better comprehension of a related text than conventional dictionary work. Subjects, 45 fourth grade students from a chapter 1

  15. The Effect of Vocabulary on Introductory Microbiology Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…

  16. Learning Meaning Vocabulary through Listening: A Sixth-Grade Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven A.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of less able readers' learning vocabulary from listening. Subjects, 43 sixth-grade students in two classes in an urban public school, were read one of two selections from seventh-grade literature anthologies. Two days later, the subjects completed orally or in writing a multiple-choice vocabulary test containing words…

  17. Vocabulary and Readability: How Knowing Word Meanings Affects Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Steven A.

    2003-01-01

    This article explores the relationships between vocabulary knowledge and text readability. It discusses how procedures used by readability formulas to assess the vocabulary factor can over- or underestimate text difficulty by counting syllables rather than assessing what the reader knows about the words in a text. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  18. Partial Word Knowledge and Vocabulary Growth during Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Stahl, Steven A.; McFalls, Elisabeth L.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates development of vocabulary knowledge in fourth graders as a function of story reading for partially known and unknown words. Finds vocabulary growth was small but even for both partially known and unknown words; however, the characteristics of the words being learned themselves (particularly, part of speech and concreteness) were more…

  19. Use of Audio Modification in Science Vocabulary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiguzel, Tufan

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the utilization of audio modification in vocabulary assessment in school subject areas, specifically in elementary science, and to present a web-based key vocabulary assessment tool for the elementary school level. Audio-recorded readings were used to replace independent student readings as the task…

  20. Reading for Pleasure and Progress in Vocabulary and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Alice; Brown, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines inequalities in attainment in vocabulary and mathematics at age 16 for a nationally representative cohort of people born in Britain in 1970 (the 1970 British Cohort Study). Our analytical sample is n = 3,583 cohort members who completed vocabulary and mathematics tests at age 16. We explore whether inequalities as a result of…

  1. Expanding Academic Vocabulary with an Interactive On-Line Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Marlise; Cobb, Tom; Nicolae, Ioana

    2005-01-01

    University students used a set of existing and purpose-built on-line tools for vocabulary learning in an experimental ESL course. The resources included concordance, dictionary, cloze-builder, hypertext, and a database with interactive self-quizzing feature (all freely available at www.lextutor.ca). The vocabulary targeted for learning consisted…

  2. Vocabulary Learning through Extensive Reading: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senoo, Yasuko; Yonemoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The role and importance of reading in second language vocabulary learning have been discussed by many researchers because of the richness and variety of vocabulary in written texts compared to oral discourse (Horst, 2005; Nation, 2001). However, despite the recent increase of studies in this field, there are very few studies focusing on…

  3. Evaluation Study of "Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!" Spring 2006 Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNabb, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: A pilot study of the "Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!" program was conducted by Learning Gauger, Inc., for National Geographic School Publishing, in spring 2006. The program evaluation examined the classroom adoption approaches used by participating teachers and the subsequent impact of the "Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!" (LLV)

  4. Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugelmass, Rachel

    This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

  5. Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2008 School Year. National Goals for Schooling in the 21st Century. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to collect student background information as required by Education Ministers. The purpose is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the "National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." It involves the collection of information on…

  6. Data Implementation Manual for Enrolments for the 2007 School Year. National Goals for Schooling. Collection of Information on Student Background Characteristics. For Use by Schools, School Systems and Testing Agents. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This manual provides information to assist schools and school systems to collect student background information as required by Education Ministers. The purpose is to enable nationally comparable reporting of students' outcomes against the National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century. It involves the collection of information on…

  7. Preschoolers' Acquisition of Scientific Vocabulary through Repeated Read-Aloud Events, Retellings, and Hands-on Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia B.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored 3- and 4-year-old children's development of scientific vocabulary from participation in repeated interactive read-aloud events and retellings of three informational picture books about light and color, followed by hands-on science activities. Thirty-two children attending a YWCA preschool were matched by age and general…

  8. Combining Contextual and Morphemic Cues Is Beneficial during Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: Semantic Transparency in Novel Compound Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusnighan, Stephen M.; Folk, Jocelyn R.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how skilled readers use contextual and morphemic information in the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition during reading. In Experiment 1, we monitored skilled readers' eye movements while they silently read sentence pairs containing novel and known English compound words that were either semantically

  9. Individual Differences in the Inference of Word Meanings From Context: The Influence of Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Kate; Oakhill, Jane; Lemmon, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Two studies investigated the ability to use contextual information in stories to infer the meanings of novel vocabulary by 9-10-year-olds with good and poor reading comprehension. Across studies, children with poor reading comprehension were impaired when the processing demands of the task were greatest. In Study 2, working memory capacity was…

  10. Combining Contextual and Morphemic Cues Is Beneficial during Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: Semantic Transparency in Novel Compound Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusnighan, Stephen M.; Folk, Jocelyn R.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how skilled readers use contextual and morphemic information in the process of incidental vocabulary acquisition during reading. In Experiment 1, we monitored skilled readers' eye movements while they silently read sentence pairs containing novel and known English compound words that were either semantically…

  11. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  12. Is Vocabulary a Strong Variable Predicting Reading Comprehension and Does the Prediction Degree of Vocabulary Vary According to Text Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Kasim; Yildiz, Mustafa; Ates, Seyit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether there was a significant correlation between vocabulary and reading comprehension in terms of text types as well as whether the vocabulary was a predictor of reading comprehension in terms of text types. In this regard, the correlational research design was used to explain specific research…

  13. Relationships of General Vocabulary, Science Vocabulary, and Student Questioning with Science Comprehension in Students with Varying Levels of English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taboada, Ana

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of general vocabulary knowledge, science vocabulary knowledge, and text based questioning on the science reading comprehension of three types of students who varied in their English language proficiency. Specifically, grade 5 English-Only speakers, English Language Learners in the United States, and students…

  14. Realising Personalised Vocabulary Learning in the Hong Kong Context via a Personalised Curriculum Featuring "Student-Selected Vocabulary"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Mui Lan; Ma, Qing

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a personalised instructional strategy, "student-selected vocabulary," to facilitate secondary school students' vocabulary building. It then reports how this personalised instructional strategy was implemented and evaluated through a teacher-led intervention study of 57 low-achieving Hong Kong secondary school…

  15. Growing Capacity with the Vocabulary of English Language Arts Programs: Vocabulary Megaclusters. Reading Research Report. #11.02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

    2011-01-01

    The typical approach to teaching vocabulary in English/Language Arts programs has been to focus on six to eight words per text. Even though these words may add meaning to a particular story, the target words are often rare and their generalizability is limited. The Vocabulary Megaclusters provides a framework for selecting and teaching words…

  16. Accelerating Vocabulary Development and Reading Comprehension in Grades 3-4-5 through an Inductive Vocabulary Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitale, Michael R.; Romance, Nancy R.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of research has pointed to the interdependent linkage among vocabulary knowledge, reading comprehension, and level of literacy. With this point in mind, the present study addressed the question of whether student vocabulary acquisition could be accelerated by using a multi-part, semantic word-family-oriented learning strategy to…

  17. Controlled Vocabularies, Mini Ontologies and Interoperability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. A.; Walker, R. J.; Roberts, D.; Thieman, J.; Ritschel, B.; Cecconi, B.; Genot, V. N.

    2013-12-01

    Interoperability has been an elusive goal, but in recent years advances have been made using controlled vocabularies, mini-ontologies and a lot of collaboration. This has led to increased interoperability between disciplines in the U.S. and between international projects. We discuss the successful pattern followed by SPASE, IVOA and IPDA to achieve this new level of international interoperability. A key aspect of the pattern is open standards and open participation with interoperability achieved with shared services, public APIs, standard formats and open access to data. Many of these standards are expressed as controlled vocabularies and mini ontologies. To illustrate the pattern we look at SPASE related efforts and participation of North America's Heliophysics Data Environment and CDPP; Europe's Cluster Active Archive, IMPEx, EuroPlanet, ESPAS and HELIO; and Japan's magnetospheric missions. Each participating project has its own life cycle and successful standards development must always take this into account. A major challenge for sustained collaboration and interoperability is the limited lifespan of many of the participating projects. Innovative approaches and new tools and frameworks are often developed as competitively selected, limited term projects, but for sustainable interoperability successful approaches need to become part of a long term infrastructure. This is being encouraged and achieved in many domains and we are entering a golden age of interoperability.

  18. Evaluation of Vocabularies for Electronic Laboratory Reporting to Public Health Agencies

    PubMed Central

    White, Mark D.; Kolar, Linda M.; Steindel, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    Clinical laboratories and clinicians transmit certain laboratory test results to public health agencies as required by state or local law. Most of these surveillance data are currently received by conventional mail or facsimile transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and Association of Public Health Laboratories are preparing to implement surveillance systems that will use existing laboratory information systems to transmit electronic laboratory results to appropriate public health agencies. The authors anticipate that this will improve the reporting efficiency for these laboratories, reduce manual data entry, and greatly increase the timeliness and utility of the data. The vocabulary and messaging standards used should encourage participation in these new electronic reporting systems by minimizing the cost and inconvenience to laboratories while providing for accurate and complete communication of needed data. This article describes public health data requirements and the influence of vocabulary and messaging standards on implementation. PMID:10332652

  19. The Type of Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by ESL Students in University Putra Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asgari, Azadeh; Mustapha, Ghazali Bin

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges that learners will face during the process of second language learning is learning vocabulary. Vocabulary has been recognized as crucial to language use in which insufficient vocabulary knowledge of the learners led to difficulties in second language learning. Thus, in the case of learning the vocabulary in…

  20. Comparative Analysis of Fixed-Vocabulary Communication Techniques: Trace Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, G. C.; Kelso, D. P.

    Vocabulary systems for individuals using communication aids can be broken down into two major types: coverage vocabularies and acceleration vocabularies. Acceleration vocabularies or word sets assume the individual is able to spell and words are chosen which speed up the rate of communication. Acceleration techniques may include sets of most