Science.gov

Sample records for background reduction strategy

  1. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  2. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: “What is a heat island?” “What are its impacts?" "What ar...

  3. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-01

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with 130Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier's. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 102 -103 in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  4. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    SciTech Connect

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François

    2015-08-17

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal {sup 210}Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  5. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Ali Dastgheibi; Loaiza, Pia; Piquemal, Fabrice; Giomataris, Ioannis; Gray, David; Gros, Michel; Magnier, Patrick; Navick, Xavier-François; Savvidis, Ilias

    2015-08-01

    The Spherical gaseous detector (or Spherical Proportional Counter, SPC) is a novel type of detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. The detector allows 100 % detection efficiency. SEDINE is a low background version of SPC installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e) looking for rare events at very low energy threshold, below 100 eV. This work presents the details on the chemical cleaning to reduce internal 210Pb surface contamination on the copper vessel and the external radon reduction achieved via circulation of pure air inside anti-radon tent. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases (Ar, N, Ne, etc) which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.

  6. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-17

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with {sup 130}Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier’s. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 10{sup 2} -10{sup 3} in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  7. Drag reduction strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. Christopher

    1994-01-01

    previously a description was given of an active control scheme using wall transpiration that leads to a 15% reduction in surface skin friction beneath a turbulent boundary layer, according to direct numerical simulation. In this research brief further details of that scheme and its variants are given together with some suggestions as to how sensor/actuator arrays could be configured to reduce surface drag. The research which is summarized here was performed during the first half of 1994. This research is motivated by the need to understand better how the dynamics of near-wall turbulent flow can be modified so that skin friction is reduced. The reduction of turbulent skin friction is highly desirable in many engineering applications. Experiments and direct numerical simulations have led to an increased understanding of the cycle of turbulence production and transport in the boundary layer and raised awareness of the possibility of disrupting the process with a subsequent reduction in turbulent skin friction. The implementation of active feedback control in a computational setting is a viable approach for the investigation of the modifications to the flow physics that can be achieved. Bewley et al. and Hill describe how ideas from optimal control theory are employed to give 'sub-optimal' drag reduction schemes. The objectives of the work reported here is to investigate in greater detail the assumptions implicit within such schemes and their limitations. It is also our objective to describe how an array of sensors and actuators could be arranged and interconnected to form a 'smart' surface which has low skin friction.

  8. Preferences for Rape Reduction Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krulewitz, Judith E.; Kahn, Arnold S.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 53 female and 36 male college students to examine attitudes on the perceived effectiveness of four rape reduction strategies. Generally aggressive strategies and those placing the locus of responsibility for change upon women were considered most effective. Sex role attitudes were more predictive than subject sex differences. (JAC)

  9. Background Reduction For Germanium Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, H.; Cebrian, S.; Morales, J.; Villar, J. A.

    2007-03-28

    The new generation experiments to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge (Q{beta}{beta}=2039keV) using enriched germanium detectors, need to reach a background level of {approx}10-3 c keV-1 kg-1 y-1 in the Region of Interest (RoI: 2-2.1 MeV) that would have, for 70 kg of germanium enriched to 86% in 76Ge, 3 keV of FWHM and 5 years of measuring time, a sensitivity on the effective neutrino mass of {<=} 40 meV. To reduce the background level close to the value needed, we have to combine several techniques. Three of the most important points to study are: segmentation and granularity of the crystal and spatial resolution of the detector directly correlated with an offline Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA). Preliminary studies about these strategies for background reduction were developed during last months, obtaining some promising results.

  10. Robust Derivation of Risk Reduction Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Port, Daniel; Feather, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Effective risk reduction strategies can be derived mechanically given sufficient characterization of the risks present in the system and the effectiveness of available risk reduction techniques. In this paper, we address an important question: can we reliably expect mechanically derived risk reduction strategies to be better than fixed or hand-selected risk reduction strategies, given that the quantitative assessment of risks and risk reduction techniques upon which mechanical derivation is based is difficult and likely to be inaccurate? We consider this question relative to two methods for deriving effective risk reduction strategies: the strategic method defined by Kazman, Port et al [Port et al, 2005], and the Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) tool [Feather & Cornford, 2003]. We performed a number of sensitivity experiments to evaluate how inaccurate knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques affect the performance of the strategies computed by the Strategic Method compared to a variety of alternative strategies. The experimental results indicate that strategies computed by the Strategic Method were significantly more effective than the alternative risk reduction strategies, even when knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques was very inaccurate. The robustness of the Strategic Method suggests that its use should be considered in a wide range of projects.

  11. Quantitative assessment and reduction of long-term autoradiographic background

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, R.K.; Famous, L.; Krishnan, R.; Olson, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography can measure distribution patterns in an animal exposed to radiolabeled compounds. A comparison of autoradiographs of rat brain containing low levels of 14C showed that a highly variable background signal had been produced. This resulted in several overexposed autoradiographs which could not be quantitatively compared. The background, believed to be produced by light emanating from the phosphor coating in the X-ray cassette, was a major impediment because it hindered correct analysis of the specimen. this article details our experiments demonstrating the sources of variance contributing to background and offers methods for its reduction. We found that placement of black polyethylene plastic between the slides and phosphor in the X-ray film cassette minimized autoradiographic background and effectively eliminated the effects caused by inherently different levels of radioactivity in the glass slides.

  12. Integrating social capacity into risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneiderbauer, S.; Pedoth, L.; Zebisch, M.

    2012-04-01

    The reduction of risk to impacts from external stresses and shocks is an important task in communities worldwide at all government levels and independent of the development status. The importance of building social capacity as part of risk reduction strategies is increasingly recognized. However, there is space for improvement to incorporate related activities into a holistic risk governance approach. Starting point for such enhancements is to promote and improve assessments of what is called 'sensitivity' or 'adaptive capacity' in the climate change community and what is named 'vulnerability' or 'resilience' in the hazard risk community. Challenging issues that need to be tackled in this context are the integration of concepts and method as well as the fusion of data. Against this background we introduce a method to assess regional adaptive capacity to climate change focusing on mountain areas accounting for sector specific problems. By considering three levels of specificity as base for the selection of most appropriate indicators the study results have the potential to support decision making regarding most appropriate adaptation actions. Advantages and shortcomings of certain aspects of adaptive capacity assessment in general and of the proposed method in particular are presented.

  13. GRIS background reduction results using isotopically enriched Ge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, S. D.; Bartlett, L. M.; Gehrels, N.; Leventhal, M.; Teegarden, B. J.; Tueller, J.; Belyaev, S.; Lebedev, V.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) was flown twice from Alice Springs, Australia, in the spring of 1992 for a total of 32 hr at float altitude. One of the seven Ge detectors was isotopically enriched (greater than 97% Ge-70). This was the first time an enriched-Ge detector was used for astrophysical observations. Because of its thick anticoincidence shield, the GRIS instrument background is dominated by internal beta-decay in the energy range of 200-1000 keV. Half of the contribution in this beta-decay 'hump' is due to neutron-activated Ge-74. In this energy range, GRIS observed a factor of 2 reduction in the background in the enriched detector, as predicted. In future instruments (e.g., INTEGRAL), with thicker anticoincidence shields and smaller apertures, the background reduction will be even larger. Three strong instrumental background lines (54, 67, and 139 keV) are also eliminated. The elimination of the first two is particularly important for cylotron line observations.

  14. Background analysis and reduction for the ECHo experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    ECHo-lk is a new experiment which is designed to investigate the electron neutrino mass from the calorimetric measurement of the electron capture spectrum of 163Ho. In this presentation, we give an overview of our recent activities in the background analysis and reduction. Low background measurements of the radiopurity of the implanted Holmium in the ECHo detectors have been used to constrain the maximum activity of 166mHo in the sample to be less than ~ 0.4 mBq. On top of this, the background spectrum introduced by coimplanted 166Ho in the absorber of the ECHo detectors has been obtained with a GEANT4 simulation showing that if the projected reduction of coimplanted 166mHo to 163Ho of 10-10 can be achieved, the background contribution of 166mHo is negligible. Additional GEANT4 based Monte-Carlo simulations of test contaminations have been conducted. Simulations have been completed for internal 210Pb contamination in the absorber and 55Fe contaminations on the surface of the absorber.

  15. Background Defect Density Reduction Using Automated Defect Inspection And Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirauch, Steven C.

    1988-01-01

    Yield maintenance and improvement is a major area of concern in any integrated circuit manufacturing operation. A major aspect of this concern is controlling and reducing defect density. Obviously, large defect excursions must be immediately addressed in order to maintain yield levels. However, to enhance yields, the subtle defect mechanisms must be reduced or eliminated as well. In-line process control inspections are effective for detecting large variations in the defect density on a real time basis. Examples of in-line inspection strategies include after develop or after etch inspections. They are usually effective for detecting when a particular process segment has gone out of control. However, when a process is running normally, there exists a background defect density that is generally not resolved by in-line process control inspections. The inspection strategies that are frequently used to monitor the background defect density are offline inspections. Offline inspections are used to identify the magnitude and characteristics of the background defect density. These inspections sample larger areas of product wafers than the in-line inspections to allow identification of the defect generating mechanisms that normally occur in the process. They are used to construct a database over a period of time so that trends may be studied. This information enables engineering efforts to be focused on the mechanisms that have the greatest impact on device yield. Once trouble spots in the process are identified, the data base supplies the information needed to isolate and solve them. The key aspect to the entire program is to utilize a reliable data gathering mechanism coupled with a flexible information processing system. This paper describes one method of reducing the background defect density using automated wafer inspection and analysis. The tools used in this evaluation were the KLA 2020 Wafer Inspector, KLA Utility Terminal (KLAUT), and a new software package developed

  16. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  17. Real-Time Active Cosmic Neutron Background Reduction Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Neutron counting using large arrays of pressurized 3He proportional counters from an aerial system or in a maritime environment suffers from the background counts from the primary cosmic neutrons and secondary neutrons caused by cosmic ray-induced mechanisms like spallation and charge-exchange reaction. This paper reports the work performed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Andrews (RSL-A) and results obtained when using two different methods to reduce the cosmic neutron background in real time. Both methods used shielding materials with a high concentration (up to 30% by weight) of neutron-absorbing materials, such as natural boron, to remove the low-energy neutron flux from the cosmic background as the first step of the background reduction process. Our first method was to design, prototype, and test an up-looking plastic scintillator (BC-400, manufactured by Saint Gobain Corporation) to tag the cosmic neutrons and then create a logic pulse of a fixed time duration (~120 μs) to block the data taken by the neutron counter (pressurized 3He tubes running in a proportional counter mode). The second method examined the time correlation between the arrival of two successive neutron signals to the counting array and calculated the excess of variance (Feynman variance Y2F)1 in the neutron count distribution from Poisson distribution. The dilution of this variance from cosmic background values ideally would signal the presence of man-made neutrons.2 The first method has been technically successful in tagging the neutrons in the cosmic-ray flux and preventing them from being counted in the 3He tube array by electronic veto—field measurement work shows the efficiency of the electronic veto counter to be about 87%. The second method has successfully derived an empirical relationship between the percentile non-cosmic component in a neutron flux and the Y2F of the measured neutron count distribution. By using shielding materials alone, approximately 55% of the neutron flux

  18. Real-time active cosmic neutron background reduction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Neutron counting using large arrays of pressurized 3He proportional counters from an aerial system or in a maritime environment suffers from the background counts from the primary cosmic neutrons and secondary neutrons caused by cosmic ray‒induced mechanisms like spallation and charge-exchange reaction. This paper reports the work performed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Andrews (RSL-A) and results obtained when using two different methods to reduce the cosmic neutron background in real time. Both methods used shielding materials with a high concentration (up to 30% by weight) of neutron-absorbing materials, such as natural boron, to remove the lowenergy neutron flux from the cosmic background as the first step of the background reduction process. Our first method was to design, prototype, and test an up-looking plastic scintillator (BC-400, manufactured by Saint Gobain Corporation) to tag the cosmic neutrons and then create a logic pulse of a fixed time duration (~120 μs) to block the data taken by the neutron counter (pressurized 3He tubes running in a proportional counter mode). The second method examined the time correlation between the arrival of two successive neutron signals to the counting array and calculated the excess of variance (Feynman variance Y2F)1 in the neutron count distribution from Poisson distribution. The dilution of this variance from cosmic background values ideally would signal the presence of manmade neutrons.2 The first method has been technically successful in tagging the neutrons in the cosmic-ray flux and preventing them from being counted in the 3He tube array by electronic veto—field measurement work shows the efficiency of the electronic veto counter to be about 87%. The second method has successfully derived an empirical relationship between the percentile non-cosmic component in a neutron flux and the Y2F of the measured neutron count distribution. By using shielding materials alone, approximately 55% of the neutron flux

  19. Single and Multiple Microphone Noise Reduction Strategies in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Behnam; Hu, Yi; Friedland, David R.

    2012-01-01

    To restore hearing sensation, cochlear implants deliver electrical pulses to the auditory nerve by relying on sophisticated signal processing algorithms that convert acoustic inputs to electrical stimuli. Although individuals fitted with cochlear implants perform well in quiet, in the presence of background noise, the speech intelligibility of cochlear implant listeners is more susceptible to background noise than that of normal hearing listeners. Traditionally, to increase performance in noise, single-microphone noise reduction strategies have been used. More recently, a number of approaches have suggested that speech intelligibility in noise can be improved further by making use of two or more microphones, instead. Processing strategies based on multiple microphones can better exploit the spatial diversity of speech and noise because such strategies rely mostly on spatial information about the relative position of competing sound sources. In this article, we identify and elucidate the most significant theoretical aspects that underpin single- and multi-microphone noise reduction strategies for cochlear implants. More analytically, we focus on strategies of both types that have been shown to be promising for use in current-generation implant devices. We present data from past and more recent studies, and furthermore we outline the direction that future research in the area of noise reduction for cochlear implants could follow. PMID:22923425

  20. NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center’s constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant reduction is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling cycle. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. Although this particular project was able to maximize the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling because of its geographic location, similar strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the United States.

  1. Reduction of background clutter in structured lighting systems

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.; Giles, Michael K.; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Jr., Patrick A.; Novick, David K.; Wilson, Christopher W.

    2010-06-22

    Methods for segmenting the reflected light of an illumination source having a characteristic wavelength from background illumination (i.e. clutter) in structured lighting systems can comprise pulsing the light source used to illuminate a scene, pulsing the light source synchronously with the opening of a shutter in an imaging device, estimating the contribution of background clutter by interpolation of images of the scene collected at multiple spectral bands not including the characteristic wavelength and subtracting the estimated background contribution from an image of the scene comprising the wavelength of the light source and, placing a polarizing filter between the imaging device and the scene, where the illumination source can be polarized in the same orientation as the polarizing filter. Apparatus for segmenting the light of an illumination source from background illumination can comprise an illuminator, an image receiver for receiving images of multiple spectral bands, a processor for calculations and interpolations, and a polarizing filter.

  2. Alkali element background reduction in laser ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, C. W., Jr.; Norris, C. A.

    2014-11-01

    Alkali backgrounds in laser ablation ICP-MS analyses can be enhanced by electron-induced ionization of alkali contamination on the skimmer cone, reducing effective detection limits for these elements. Traditionally, this problem is addressed by isolating analyses of high alkali materials onto a designated cone set, or by operating the ICP-MS in a "soft extraction" mode, which reduces the energy of electrons repelled into the potentially contaminated sampling cone by the extraction field. Here we present a novel approach, where we replace the traditional alkali glass tuning standards with synthetic low-alkali glass reference materials. Using this vitreous tuning solution, we find that this approach reduces the amount of alkali contamination produced, halving backgrounds for the heavy alkali elements without any change to analytical procedures. Using segregated cones is still the most effective method for reducing lithium backgrounds, but since the procedures are complimentary both can easily be applied to the routine operations of an analytical lab.

  3. Alkali element background reduction in laser ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, C. W., Jr.; Norris, C. A.

    2015-03-01

    Alkali backgrounds in laser ablation ICP-MS analyses can be enhanced by electron-induced ionisation of alkali contamination on the skimmer cone, reducing effective detection limits for these elements. Traditionally, this problem is addressed by isolating analyses of high-alkali materials onto a designated cone set, or by operating the ICP-MS in a "soft extraction" mode, which reduces the energy of electrons repelled into the potentially contaminated sampling cone by the extraction field. Here we present a novel approach, where we replace the traditional alkali glass tuning standards with synthetic low-alkali glass reference materials. Using this vitreous tuning solution, we find that this approach reduces the amount of alkali contamination produced, halving backgrounds for the heavy alkali elements without any change to analytical procedures. Using segregated cones is still the most effective method for reducing lithium backgrounds, but since the procedures are complimentary, both can easily be applied to the routine operations of an analytical lab.

  4. Reduction of thermal emission background in high temperature microheaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Philip R.; Mah, Merlin L.; Olson, Kyle D.; Taylor, Lucas N.; Talghader, Joseph J.

    2016-05-01

    High temperature microheaters have been designed and constructed to reduce the background thermal emission radiation produced by the heater. Such heaters allow one to probe luminescence with very low numbers of photons where the background emission would overwhelm the desired signal. Two methods to reduce background emission are described: one with low emission materials and the other with interference coating design. The first uses platforms composed of material that is transparent to mid-infrared light and therefore of low emissivity. Heating elements are embedded in the periphery of the heater. The transparent platform is composed of aluminum oxide, which is largely transparent for wavelengths less than about 8 μm. In the luminescent microscopy used to test the heater, an optical aperture blocks emission from the heating coils while passing light from the heated objects on the transparent center of the microheater. The amount of infrared light transmitted through the aperture was reduced by 90% as the aperture was moved from the highly emissive heater coils at 450 °C to the largely transparent center at the same temperature. The second method uses microheaters with integrated multilayer interference structures designed to limit background emission in the spectral range of the low-light luminescence object being measured. These heaters were composed of aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide, and platinum and were operated over a large range of temperatures, from 50 °C to 600 °C. At 600 °C, they showed a background photon emission only 1/800 that of a comparison heater without the multilayer interference structure. In this structure, the radiation background was sufficiently reduced to easily monitor weak thermoluminescent emission from CaSO4:Ce,Tb microparticles.

  5. NASA's Orbital Space Plane Risk Reduction Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while applying appropriate lessons learned.

  6. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), already sold in USA and in some European Countries, are low-nitrosamine cigarettes, low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (e.g., the Swedish Snus), cigarette-like products, and medicinal nicotine products. Even e-cigarette delivers nicotine. With the exception of snus and medicinal nicotine, studies on the health effects of PREPs have not been carried out, although some PREPs are already sold and promoted as products that effectively reduce health risks. Thus, a second disaster similar to that occurred for light cigarettes could happen in the next years. Only medicinal nicotine and snus could be valid candidates to become PREPs, even if they pose some significant health risks. The World Health Organization, following a precautionary approach, has recently published a list of 9 carcinogens or toxicants recommended for mandated lowering (the tobacco-specific nitrosamines NNN and NNK, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, benzo[a]pyrene, 1-3 butadiene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde), and 9 carcinogens or toxicants for monitoring in usual cigarettes (not PREPs), underlining that tobacco companies cannot use this reduction strategy as a promotional message, as it occurred for light cigarettes in the 70s and 80s. The present status quo, in which cigarettes are freely available, medicinal nicotine, being a drug, is available under a regulated market, and Snus is prohibited, actually denies smokers the right to choose safer nicotine products. The solution suggested by the UK Royal College of Physicians is to balance the nicotine market, framing tobacco products and medicinal nicotine in the same regulation system; establishing a nicotine and tobacco regulatory authority;making medicinal nicotine more available; evaluating the feasibility of the introduction in the English market of Swedish Snus. California Government remarks that the nicotine maintenance is not a valid strategy, because it could induce smokers not to try to quit

  7. Background reduction in 236U/238U measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buompane, Raffaele; De Cesare, Mario; De Cesare, Nicola; Di Leva, Antonino; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Fifield, L. Keith; Fröhlich, Michaela; Gialanella, Lucio; Marzaioli, Fabio; Sabbarese, Carlo; Terrasi, Filippo; Tims, Stephen; Wallner, Anton

    2015-10-01

    The measurements of actinide isotopic ratios, in particular 236U/238U, in environmental samples requires high sensitivity. In particular, special effort must be devoted to the suppression of interfering nuclides, such as 235,238U, when measuring 236U. At the AMS facility of CIRCE, isotopic ratios down to ∼10-10 are currently measured using a gas E - ΔE detector. In order to push this limit lower towards natural levels, a time-of-flight system is used, featuring a micro-channel plate start detector and a Si stop detector. As the mass resolution of the latter is limited by the layout, an attempt to reduce the abundant isotope interference by other means has been undertaken. In this study, we report preliminary results on the characterization of the presence of molecular interferences when using UO-, UC- and UC2- as injected molecular ions. In particular the possibility to stabilize the current yield from carbide cathodes has been investigated: it was found that the best cathode preparation procedure is obtained pressing U salts baked at 800 °C mixed with graphite and Al powder. Moreover, the 238U background in 236U measurements is strongly reduced injecting UC- ions, as verified using a time-of-flight detection system. On the other hand, 235U interference is larger with respect to UO- injection, but this increase is smaller than expected on the basis of abundances of 13C and 17O in UC and UC2 molecules on one side and UO, on the other.

  8. Concerning evaluation of eco-geochemical background in remediation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    The geochemical concept of biosphere developed by V.I. Vernadsky states the geological role of the living organisms in the course of their active chemical interaction with the inert matter (Vernadsky, 1926, 1960). Basing on this theory it is reasonable to suggest that coevolution of living organisms and their environment led to development of the dynamically stable biogeocenoses precisely adequate to their geochemical environment. Soil cover was treated by V.I. Vernadsky as a balanced bio-inert matter resulting from this interaction. Appearance of human mind and then a civilization led to global expansion of human beings, first able to survive in unfavorable geochemical conditions and then starting chemical transformation of the environment to satisfy the growing demands of mankind in food and energy. The residence in unfavorable environment and local contamination was followed by appearance of endemic diseases of plants, animals and man. Therefore zonal, regional and local chemical composition of the soil cover formed in natural conditions may be used for estimation of the optimum geochemical background, most adequate for the corresponding zonal biogeocenoses and species. Moreover, the natural geochemical background and technogenic fields have unequal spatial structure and this facilitates their identification that may be relatively easy realized in remediation strategy. On the assumption of the foregoing, the adequate methodical approach to remediation of technogenically affected areas should account of the interaction of the existing natural and the newly formed technogenic geochemical fields and include the following steps: 1) the study and mapping of geochemical structure of the natural geochemical background basing on soil maps; 2) the study of contaminants and mapping spatial distribution of technogenic releases; 3) construction of risk maps for the target risk groups with due regard to natural ecological threshold concentration in context of risk degree for

  9. Voluntary heart rate reduction following yoga using different strategies

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra, BR; Telles, S; Manjunath, NK; Deepak, KK; Naveen, KV; Subramanya, P

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: One month of yoga training has been shown to reduce the pulse rate voluntarily without using external cues. Hence, the present study was designed to understand the strategies used by yoga practitioners and autonomic changes associated with voluntary heart rate reduction. Materials and Methods: Fifty volunteers (group mean age ± S.D., 25.4 ± 4.8 years; 25 males) were assessed in two trials on separate days. Each trial was for 12 minutes, with a ‘pre’ state and ‘during’ state of 6 minutes each. For both trials the ‘pre’ state was relaxation with eyes closed. In the ‘during’ state of Trial I, subjects were asked to voluntarily reduce their heart rate using a strategy of their choice. From their responses to specific questions it was determined that 22 out of 50 persons used breath regulation as a strategy. Hence, in the ‘during’ state of Trial II, subjects were asked to voluntarily reduce their heart rate by breath regulation. Results: In the first trial, the heart rate was reduced by an average of 19.6 beats per minute and in the second trial (with breath regulation exclusively) an average decrease of 22.2 beats per minute was achieved. Conclusions: Hence, the strategy used did not markedly alter the outcome. PMID:23440267

  10. Campath, calcineurin inhibitor reduction and chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) study: background, rationale, and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for patients with end-stage renal failure, but uncertainty remains about the best immunosuppression strategy. Long-term graft survival has not improved substantially, and one possible explanation is calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity. CNI exposure could be minimized by using more potent induction therapy or alternative maintenance therapy to remove CNIs completely. However, the safety and efficacy of such strategies are unknown. Methods/Design The Campath, Calcineurin inhibitor reduction and Chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) Study is a multicentre, open-label, randomized controlled trial with 852 participants which is addressing two important questions in kidney transplantation. The first question is whether a Campath (alemtuzumab)-based induction therapy strategy is superior to basiliximab-based therapy, and the second is whether, from 6 months after transplantation, a sirolimus-based maintenance therapy strategy is superior to tacrolimus-based therapy. Recruitment is complete, and follow-up will continue for around 5 years post-transplant. The primary endpoint for the induction therapy comparison is biopsy-proven acute rejection by 6 months, and the primary endpoint for the maintenance therapy comparison is change in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline to 2 years after transplantation. The study is sponsored by the University of Oxford and endorsed by the British Transplantation Society, and 18 centers for adult kidney transplant are participating. Discussion Late graft failure is a major issue for kidney-transplant recipients. If our hypothesis that minimizing CNI exposure with Campath-based induction therapy and/or an elective conversion to sirolimus-based maintenance therapy can improve long-term graft function and survival is correct, then patients should experience better graft function for longer. A positive outcome could change clinical practice in kidney transplantation. Trial

  11. Developing a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan; Batjargal, Jamayan; Chimedsuren, Ochir; Tsogzolmaa, Bayandorj; Anderson, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The increase in prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension has contributed to an incremental rise in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Mongolia over recent decades, such that they now account for 80% of all deaths in the country. Salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce the burden of NCDs. Methods In 2011, the Ministry of Health (MOH) instigated the development of a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia. As part of a 2-week national consultation and training program on salt reduction, it established an inter-sectoral working party and organized a series of bilateral meetings and visits to factories. Actions arising included a baseline survey of population salt consumption patterns and the implementation of a series of pilot salt reduction initiatives. Results The results of the baseline assessment revealed that average daily intake of salt, based on 24 hour urine samples from a representative national sample (n=1,027), was 11.06±5.99 g in 2011, more than double the World Health Organization (WHO) five grams recommendation. Moreover, while most participants knew that salt was bad for health, few were taking efforts to reduce intake, and many were consuming highly salty meals and tea; salt in tea alone was estimated to contribute 30% of daily salt intake. A pilot Pinch Salt intervention to reduce salt consumption of factory workers was undertaken in Ulaanbaatar (UB) city between 2012 and 2013, and was associated with a reduction of 2.8 g of salt intake. Ongoing food industry initiatives have led to significant reductions in salt levels in bread, and companies producing processed meat have indicated a willingness to reduce salt. Relevant stakeholders have also supported the campaign by participating in annual World Salt Awareness Week events. The activities to date have demonstrated the potential for action and there is now a need scale these up to a national level to ensure that Mongolia is in a strong

  12. Comprehensive Shuttle Foam Debris Reduction Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmes, Edmund B.

    2007-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) was clear in its assessment of the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 3, 2003. Foam liberated from the External Tank (ET) impacting the brittle wing leading edge (WLE) of the orbiter causing the vehicle to disintegrate upon re-entry. Naturally, the CAB pointed out numerous issues affecting this exact outcome in hopes of correcting systems of systems failures any one of which might have altered the outcome. However, Discovery s recent return to flight (RTF) illustrates the primacy of erosion of foam and the risk of future undesirable outcomes. It is obvious that the original RTF focused approach to this problem was not equal to a comprehensive foam debris reduction activity consistent with the high national value of the Space Shuttle assets. The root cause is really very simple when looking at the spray-on foam insulation for the entire ET as part of the structure (e.g., actual stresses > materials allowable) rather than as some sort of sizehime limited ablator. This step is paramount to accepting the CAB recommendation of eliminating debris or in meeting any level of requirements due to the fundamental processes ensuring structural materials maintain their integrity. Significant effort has been expended to identify root cause of the foam debris In-Flight Anomaly (FA) of STS-114. Absent verifiable location specific data pre-launch (T-0) and in-flight, only a most probable cause can be identified. Indeed, the literature researched corroborates NASNTM-2004-2 13238 disturbing description of ill defined materials characterization, variable supplier constituents and foam processing irregularities. Also, foam is sensitive to age and the exposed environment making baseline comparisons difficult without event driven data. Conventional engineering processes account for such naturally occurring variability by always maintaining positive margins. Success in a negative margin range is not consistently achieved

  13. Sodium-Reduction Strategies for Meals Prepared for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Losby, Jan L.; Patel, Deesha; Schuldt, June; Hunt, Glynnis S.; Stracuzzi, Jeanne C.; Johnston, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned from implementing sodium-reduction strategies in programs that provide meals to older adults in 2 New York counties, with one county replicating the approaches of the other. The implemented sodium-reduction strategies were product substitutions, recipe modifications, and cooking from scratch. Both counties were able to achieve modest sodium reductions in prepared meals. Lessons learned to implement sodium reduction strategies include the following: (1) identifying partners with shared experience and common goals; (2) engaging experts; (3) understanding the complexity of the meals system for older adults; (4) conducting sodium nutrient analysis; (5) making gradual and voluntary reductions to sodium content; and (6) working toward sustainable sodium reduction. PMID:24322812

  14. Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Aircraft Flight Distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Li, Jinhua; Ng, Hok Kwan

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on the flight range of aircraft as contrail reduction strategies have different impacts on aircraft depending on how they plan to fly. In general, aircraft with longer flight distances cruise at the altitudes where contrails are more likely to form. The concept of the contrail frequency index is used to quantify contrail impacts. The strategy for reducing the persistent contrail formation is to minimize the contrail frequency index by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. A user-defined factor is used to trade off between contrail reduction and extra CO2 emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction and extra CO2 emissions. Results show that contrail reduction strategies using various tradeo factors behave differently from short-range flights to long-range ights. Analysis shows that short-distance flights (less than 500 miles) are the most frequent flights but contribute least to contrail reduction. Therefore these aircraft have the lowest priority when applying contrail reduction strategies. Medium-distance flights (500 to 1000 miles) have a higher priority if the goal is to achieve maximum contrail reduction in total; long-distance flights (1000 to 1500 miles) have a higher priority if the goal is to achieve maximum contrail reduction per flight. The characteristics of transcontinental flights (greater than 1500 miles) vary with different weather days so the priority of applying contrail reduction strategies to the group needs to be evaluated based on the locations of the contrail areas during any given day. For the days tested, medium-distance ights contribute up to 42.6% of the reduction among the groups during a day. The contrail frequency index per 1,000 miles for medium-distance, long-distance, and transcontinental flights can be reduced by an average of 75%. The results provide a starting point for developing operational policies to reduce the impact of

  15. Selective catalyst reduction light-off strategy

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-10-18

    An emissions control system includes a temperature determination module and an emissions control module. The temperature determination module determines a first temperature of a heater element of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) assembly in an exhaust system and determines a second temperature of a catalyst of the DPF assembly. The emissions control module selectively activates the heater element, selectively initiates a predefined combustion process in an engine based upon the first temperature, and selectively starts a reductant injection process based upon the second temperature.

  16. Ultrasensitive detection of uranyl by graphene oxide-based background reduction and RCDzyme-based enzyme strand recycling signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Hui; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Cao, Jin-Xiu; Chen, Si-Han; Tang, Xian; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Yu-Feng; Huang, Yan-Qin

    2015-10-15

    We proposed a novel strategy which combines graphene oxide-based background reduction with RCDzyme-based enzyme strand recycling amplification for ultrahigh sensitive detection of uranyl. The RCDzyme is designed to contain a guanine (G)-rich sequence that replaces the partial sequence in an uranyl-specific DNAzyme. This multifunctional probe can act as the target recognition element, DNAzyme and the primer of signal amplification. The presence of UO2(2+) can induce the cleavage of the substrate strands in RCDzyme. Then, each released enzyme strand can hybridize with another substrate strands to trigger many cycles of the cleavage by binding uranyl, leading to the formation of more G-quadruplexes by split guanine-rich oligonucleotide fragments. The resulting G-quadruplexes could bind to N-methyl-mesoporphyrin IX (NMM), causing an amplified detection signal for the target uranyl. Next, graphene oxide-based background reduction strategy was further employed for adsorbing free ssDNA and NMM, thereby providing a proximalis zero-background signal. The combination of RCDzyme signal amplification and proximalis zero-background signal remarkably improves the sensitivity of this method, achieving a dynamic range of two orders of magnitude and giving a detection limit down to 86 pM, which is much lower than those of related literature reports. These achievements might be helpful in the design of highly sensitive analytical platform for wide applications in environmental and biomedical fields. PMID:26000462

  17. A reductive coupling strategy towards ripostatin A.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Kristin D; Jamison, Timothy F

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic studies on the antibiotic natural product ripostatin A have been carried out with the aim to construct the C9-C10 bond by a nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of an enyne and an epoxide, followed by rearrangement of the resulting dienylcyclopropane intermediate to afford the skipped 1,4,7-triene. A cyclopropyl enyne fragment corresponding to C1-C9 has been synthesized in high yield and demonstrated to be a competent substrate for the nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling with a model epoxide. Several synthetic approaches toward the C10-C26 epoxide have been pursued. The C13 stereocenter can be set by allylation and reductive decyanation of a cyanohydrin acetonide. A mild, fluoride-promoted decarboxylation enables construction of the C15-C16 bond by an aldol reaction. The product of this transformation is of the correct oxidation state and potentially three steps removed from the targeted epoxide fragment. PMID:23946853

  18. A reductive coupling strategy towards ripostatin A

    PubMed Central

    Schleicher, Kristin D

    2013-01-01

    Summary Synthetic studies on the antibiotic natural product ripostatin A have been carried out with the aim to construct the C9−C10 bond by a nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of an enyne and an epoxide, followed by rearrangement of the resulting dienylcyclopropane intermediate to afford the skipped 1,4,7-triene. A cyclopropyl enyne fragment corresponding to C1−C9 has been synthesized in high yield and demonstrated to be a competent substrate for the nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling with a model epoxide. Several synthetic approaches toward the C10−C26 epoxide have been pursued. The C13 stereocenter can be set by allylation and reductive decyanation of a cyanohydrin acetonide. A mild, fluoride-promoted decarboxylation enables construction of the C15−C16 bond by an aldol reaction. The product of this transformation is of the correct oxidation state and potentially three steps removed from the targeted epoxide fragment. PMID:23946853

  19. Machining strategies exploring reduction in energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, Abdullah Al

    The main aim of this thesis is to explore machining strategies, analyzing energy consumption using Design of Experiments (DOE) at the material removal rate (MRR), compare to cutting geometrical trajectories according to CNC parameters such as spindle RPM, feed rate, depth of cut per pass and total depth of cut. Spindle RPM, depth of cut per pass, and feed rate are selected as the main three factors and each factor has two levels: low-level (-) and high-level (+). These experiments have been performed at an end-milling machine by using a concept of a constant volume of material removal processes in the circular and linear geometrical slots in pine wood blocks. Standard energy logger equipment has used to measure energy consumption during end-milling operation. Different statistical analysis, such as ANOVA, regression line, and cause & effect diagram have used to show different energy consumption results in the material removal process. At the end the of data analysis, it is found that a significant amount of electricity demand is associated with machining pre-cutting & post-cutting stage and this significant amount of electricity demand is defined as peripheral energy. This peripheral energy is not involved in the actual performance of material removal process in the end-milling process. In the [Figure 11] end-milling process has been involved with pine wood blocks at constant volume of material removal (2.8 cubic inch) process. Results can be varied using of hard material removal process, such as steel & aluminum metals.

  20. Reduction of the Background Magnetic Field Inhibits Ability of Drosophila melanogaster to Survive Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Portelli, Lucas; Madapatha, Dinu; Martino, Carlos; Hernandez, Mark; Barnes, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The effects of exposure to an environment where the background magnetic field has been reduced were studied on wild-type Drosophila melanogaster by measuring its ability to survive a single exposure to ionizing radiation during its larval stage. The experimental design presented shows a timeframe, ionizing radiation dose and background magnetic field parameters that will cause a significant and reproducible reduction of survival on this insect model. These results suggest that background magnetic fields may play a fundamental role in the recovery or harm of a biological system that is exposed to single doses of ionizing radiation. PMID:22532126

  1. Poverty Reduction in Zambia: A Conceptual Analysis of the Zambian Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imboela, Bruce Lubinda

    2005-01-01

    Poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) present a recipient country's program of intent for the utilization of World Bank loans and grants to alleviate debt under the bank's programs of action for poverty reduction in highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs). This article argues that structural transformation is a prerequisite for poverty…

  2. Pixel detectors in double beta decay experiments, a new approach for background reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, J. M.; Čermák, P.; Štekl, I.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Brudanin, V. B.; Fiederle, M.; Fauler, A.; Loaiza, P.

    2013-08-01

    Double beta decay (ββ) experiments are challenging frontiers in contemporary physics. These experiments have the potential to investigate more about neutrinos (eg. nature and mass). The main challenge for these experiments is the reduction of background. The group at IEAP, CTU in Prague is investigating a new approach using pixel detectors Timepix. Pixel detector offer background reduction capabilities with its ability to identify the particle interaction (from the 2D signature it generates). However, use of pixel detectors has some challenges such as the presence of readout electronics near the sensing medium and heat dissipation. Different aspects of pixel setup (identification of radio-impurities, selection of radio-pure materials) and proposed experimental setup are presented. Also, results of preliminary background measurements (performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories) using the prototype setups are presented.

  3. Downsizing in Higher Education: Institutional Budget Reduction Priorities and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickman, Marcia M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of academic administrators and student affairs administrators as related to budget reduction priorities and successful downsizing strategies at institutions of higher education. Results lead to the conclusion that, as a social and psychological process, "downsizing" represents a relatively complex, multidimensional…

  4. Reducing Fatal Opioid Overdose: Prevention, Treatment and Harm Reduction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Kathryn F.; Vaca, Federico E.; D’Onofrio, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The opioid overdose epidemic is a major threat to the public’s health, resulting in the development and implementation of a variety of strategies to reduce fatal overdose [1-3]. Many strategies are focused on primary prevention and increased access to effective treatment, although the past decade has seen an exponential increase in harm reduction initiatives. To maximize identification of opportunities for intervention, initiatives focusing on prevention, access to effective treatment, and harm reduction are examined independently, although considerable overlap exists. Particular attention is given to harm reduction approaches, as increased public and political will have facilitated widespread implementation of several initiatives, including increased distribution of naloxone and policy changes designed to increase bystander assistance during a witnessed overdose [4-7]. PMID:26339206

  5. Label-free fluorescence strategy for sensitive detection of adenosine triphosphate using a loop DNA probe with low background noise.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunshui; Cai, Zhixiong; Wang, Yiru; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James; Chen, Xi

    2014-07-15

    A simple, rapid, label-free, and ultrasensitive fluorescence strategy for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection was developed using a loop DNA probe with low background noise. In this strategy, a loop DNA probe, which is the substrate for both ligation and digestion enzyme reaction, was designed. SYBR green I (SG I), a double-stranded specific dye, was applied for the readout fluorescence signal. Exonuclease I (Exo I) and exonuclease III (Exo III), sequence-independent nucleases, were selected to digest the loop DNA probe in order to minimize the background fluorescence signal. As a result, in the absence of ATP, the loop DNA was completely digested by Exo I and Exo III, leading to low background fluorescence owing to the weak electrostatic interaction between SG I and mononucleotides. On the other hand, ATP induced the ligation of the nicking site, and the sealed loop DNA resisted the digestion of Exo I and ExoIII, resulting in a remarkable increase of fluorescence response. Upon background noise reduction, the sensitivity of the ATP determination was improved significantly, and the detection limitation was found to be 1.2 pM, which is much lower than that in almost all the previously reported methods. This strategy has promise for wide application in the determination of ATP. PMID:24983417

  6. Prospects for a nicotine-reduction strategy in the cigarette endgame: Alternative tobacco harm reduction scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2015-06-01

    Some major national and international tobacco control organisations favour mandating a reduction in nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addictive levels as a tobacco control tool. Reducing nicotine content, it is argued, will make tobacco smoking less attractive. The 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration's regulation of cigarettes appears to have the power to reduce nicotine to non-addictive levels provided it is not taken to zero. A consideration of the U.S. context, however, raises doubts about (a) whether this will ever be practicable and (b), if practicable, how long it will take to implement. Current versions of the nicotine-reducing strategy propose the systematic, incentivised use of less harmful nicotine/tobacco products as elements of the mandatory cigarette nicotine-reduction strategy. Time will tell if and when mandatory nicotine reduction in tobacco cigarettes will occur and what impact it might have on smoking prevalence. The question posed here is "Why wait?" Resources used in implementing reduction in nicotine content have an opportunity cost. In the meantime, nicotine-maintaining harm reduction strategies can have nearer term effects on tobacco use as an individual and a public health issue. PMID:25795345

  7. Applicability of salt reduction strategies in pizza crust.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Eva; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2016-02-01

    In an effort to reduce population-wide sodium intake from processed foods, due to major health concerns, several different strategies for sodium reduction in pizza crust without any topping were evaluated by sensory analyses. It was possible to reduce sodium by 10% in one single step or to replace 30% of NaCl by KCl without a noticeable loss of salty taste. The late addition of coarse-grained NaCl (crystal size: 0.4-1.4 mm) to pizza dough led to an enhancement of saltiness through taste contrast and an accelerated sodium delivery measured in the mouth and in a model mastication simulator. Likewise, the application of an aqueous salt solution to one side of the pizza crust led to an enhancement of saltiness perception through faster sodium availability, leading to a greater contrast in sodium concentration. Each of these two strategies allowed a sodium reduction of up to 25% while maintaining taste quality. PMID:26304455

  8. Voting strategy for artifact reduction in digital breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Tao; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.

    2006-07-15

    Artifacts are observed in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) reconstructions due to the small number of projections and the narrow angular range that are typically employed in tomosynthesis imaging. In this work, we investigate the reconstruction artifacts that are caused by high-attenuation features in breast and develop several artifact reduction methods based on a 'voting strategy'. The voting strategy identifies the projection(s) that would introduce artifacts to a voxel and rejects the projection(s) when reconstructing the voxel. Four approaches to the voting strategy were compared, including projection segmentation, maximum contribution deduction, one-step classification, and iterative classification. The projection segmentation method, based on segmentation of high-attenuation features from the projections, effectively reduces artifacts caused by metal and large calcifications that can be reliably detected and segmented from projections. The other three methods are based on the observation that contributions from artifact-inducing projections have higher value than those from normal projections. These methods attempt to identify the projection(s) that would cause artifacts by comparing contributions from different projections. Among the three methods, the iterative classification method provides the best artifact reduction; however, it can generate many false positive classifications that degrade the image quality. The maximum contribution deduction method and one-step classification method both reduce artifacts well from small calcifications, although the performance of artifact reduction is slightly better with the one-step classification. The combination of one-step classification and projection segmentation removes artifacts from both large and small calcifications.

  9. A Background Noise Reduction Technique Using Adaptive Noise Cancellation for Microphone Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Fuller, Christopher R.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Brooks, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Background noise in wind tunnel environments poses a challenge to acoustic measurements due to possible low or negative Signal to Noise Ratios (SNRs) present in the testing environment. This paper overviews the application of time domain Adaptive Noise Cancellation (ANC) to microphone array signals with an intended application of background noise reduction in wind tunnels. An experiment was conducted to simulate background noise from a wind tunnel circuit measured by an out-of-flow microphone array in the tunnel test section. A reference microphone was used to acquire a background noise signal which interfered with the desired primary noise source signal at the array. The technique s efficacy was investigated using frequency spectra from the array microphones, array beamforming of the point source region, and subsequent deconvolution using the Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS) algorithm. Comparisons were made with the conventional techniques for improving SNR of spectral and Cross-Spectral Matrix subtraction. The method was seen to recover the primary signal level in SNRs as low as -29 dB and outperform the conventional methods. A second processing approach using the center array microphone as the noise reference was investigated for more general applicability of the ANC technique. It outperformed the conventional methods at the -29 dB SNR but yielded less accurate results when coherence over the array dropped. This approach could possibly improve conventional testing methodology but must be investigated further under more realistic testing conditions.

  10. Simulation of background reduction and Compton suppression in a low-background HPGe spectrometer at a surface laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Shun-Li; Cai, Xiao; Wu, Zhen-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Fang, Jian; Sun, Xi-Lei; Sun, Li-Jun; Liu, Ying-Biao; Gao, Long; Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Hang; Zhou, Li; Lü, Jun-Guang; Hu, Tao

    2015-08-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are well suited to analyse the radioactivity of samples. In order to reduce the environmental background for an ultra-low background HPGe spectrometer, low-activity lead and oxygen free copper are installed outside the probe to shield from gamma radiation, with an outer plastic scintillator to veto cosmic rays, and an anti-Compton detector to improve the peak-to-Compton ratio. Using Geant4 tools and taking into account a detailed description of the detector, we optimize the sizes of these detectors to reach the design requirements. A set of experimental data from an existing HPGe spectrometer was used to compare with the simulation. For the future low-background HPGe detector simulation, considering different thicknesses of BGO crystals and anti-coincidence efficiency, the simulation results show that the optimal BGO thickness is 5.5 cm, and the peak-to-Compton ratio of 40K is raised to 1000 when the anti-coincidence efficiency is 0.85. In the background simulation, 15 cm oxygen-free copper plus 10 cm lead can reduce the environmental gamma rays to 0.0024 cps/100 cm3 Ge (50 keV-2.8 MeV), which is about 10-5 of the environmental background.

  11. Strategies for implementation of harm reduction in treatment settings.

    PubMed

    Denning, P

    2001-01-01

    Harm reduction is a set of strategies that we all use everyday to protect us from the harms of living in a complex world. Central to the principles of harm reduction is the need to respect the client's autonomy and develop a relationship of mutual collaboration with the goal of reducing drug- and alcohol-related harm. Additional principles stress the need to develop a hierarchy of client needs, a list that includes all other services, with the importance for each set by the client. Harm reduction implementation includes a range of interventions including abstinence. Some interventions are controversial, including needle exchange, but most are traditional health promotion activities such as videos, health fairs, and drug education. Essential to implementing harm reduction is a recognition that, even for those who wish to become abstinent, this goal is difficult to achieve and maintain. We must acknowledge this and stop the practice of imposing punitive sanctions on clients who use drugs while in treatment. Exclusion or expulsion from treatment settings does nothing to reduce drug use and greatly increases the harm to the client. In conclusion, just as we need to respect diversity among our clients, staff must find a way to respect each others' ideas and concerns as we develop new ways to implement harm reduction in our work. PMID:11332997

  12. Are there dangers in biologic dose reduction strategies?

    PubMed

    Chan, Christopher K Y; Holroyd, Christopher R; Mason, Alice; Zarroug, Jalaa; Edwards, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Biologic dose reduction strategies, for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, have been assessed in multiple studies to assess outcomes compared to ongoing maintenance dosing. Whilst cessation in established disease usually leads to disease flare, dose tapering approaches for those achieving low disease activity often appear to be successful in the short term. However, tapering can be associated with a higher risk of losing disease control and rates of recapture of disease control using the original biologic dose vary between studies. Over relatively short periods of follow-up, a number of studies have shown no statistical difference in radiographic progression in patients tapering or discontinuing biologics. However, a Cochrane review found that radiographic and functional outcomes may be worse after TNF inhibitor discontinuation, and over long-term disease follow-up flares have been associated with radiographic progression and worse patient reported outcomes. To date, no studies of biological therapy dose reduction have specifically investigated the risk of increased immunogenicity or the effects on cardiovascular risk and other co-morbidities, although these remain important potential risks. In addition, whether there are greater dangers in certain dose reduction approaches such as a reduction in dose at the same frequency or a spacing of doses is not established. PMID:26970488

  13. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Yunus, Faisal; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation. PMID:25518881

  14. [Stressor and stress reduction strategies for computer software engineers].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Takashi

    2002-07-01

    First, in this article we discuss 10 significant occupational stressors for computer software engineers, based on the review of the scientific literature on their stress and mental health. The stressors include 1) quantitative work overload, 2) time pressure, 3) qualitative work load, 4) speed and diffusion of technological innovation, and technological divergence, 5) low discretional power, 6) underdeveloped career pattern, 7) low earnings/reward from jobs, 8) difficulties in managing a project team for software development and establishing support system, 9) difficulties in customer relations, and 10) personality characteristics. In addition, we delineate their working and organizational conditions that cause such occupational stressors in order to find strategies to reduce those stressors in their workplaces. Finally, we suggest three stressor and stress reduction strategies for software engineers. PMID:12229224

  15. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Yunus, Faisal; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation. PMID:25518881

  16. Development of pollution reduction strategies for Mexico City: Estimating cost and ozone reduction effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Hardie, R.W.; Barrera-Roldan, A.

    1993-12-31

    This reports on the collection and preparation of data (costs and air quality improvement) for the strategic evaluation portion of the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI). Reports written for the Mexico City government by various international organizations were used to identify proposed options along with estimates of cost and emission reductions. Information from appropriate options identified by SCAQMD for Southem California were also used in the analysis. A linear optimization method was used to select a group of options or a strategy to be evaluated by decision analysis. However, the reduction of ozone levels is not a linear function of the reduction of hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} emissions. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was required for ozone. An equation for a plane on an isopleth calculated with a trajectory model was obtained using two endpoints that bracket the expected total ozone precursor reductions plus the starting concentrations for hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}. The relationship between ozone levels and the hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} concentrations was assumed to lie on this plane. This relationship was used in the linear optimization program to select the options comprising a strategy.

  17. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  18. Hospital downsizing and workforce reduction strategies: some inner workings.

    PubMed

    Weil, Thomas P

    2003-02-01

    Downsizing, manpower reductions, re-engineering, and resizing are used extensively in the United States to reduce cost and to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of various functions and processes. Published studies report that these managerial strategies result in a minimal impact on access to services, quality of care, and the ability to reduce costs. But, these approaches certainly alienate employees. These findings are usually explained by the significant difficulties experienced in eliminating nursing and other similar direct patient care-oriented positions and in terminating white-collar employees. Possibly an equally plausible reason why hospitals and physician practices react so poorly to these management strategies is their cost structure-high fixed (85%) and low variable (15%)-and that simply generating greater volume does not necessarily achieve economies of scale. More workable alternatives for health executives to effectuate cost reductions consist of simplifying prepayment, decreasing the overall availability and centralizing tertiary services at academic health centres, and closing superfluous hospitals and other health facilities. America's pluralistic values and these proposals having serious political repercussions for health executives and elected officials often present serious barriers in their implementation. PMID:12626023

  19. Simulation results of Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) for background reduction in INTEGRAL Spectrometer (SPI) germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slassi-Sennou, S. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Feffer, P. T.; Lin, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) for background reduction will be used in the INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) imaging spectrometer (SPI) to improve the sensitivity from 200 keV to 2 MeV. The observation of significant astrophysical gamma ray lines in this energy range is expected, where the dominant component of the background is the beta(sup -) decay in the Ge detectors due to the activation of Ge nuclei by cosmic rays. The sensitivity of the SPI will be improved by rejecting beta(sup -) decay events while retaining photon events. The PSD technique will distinguish between single and multiple site events. Simulation results of PSD for INTEGRAL-type Ge detectors using a numerical model for pulse shape generation are presented. The model was shown to agree with the experimental results for a narrow inner bore closed end cylindrical detector. Using PSD, a sensitivity improvement factor of the order of 2.4 at 0.8 MeV is expected.

  20. Simple automatic strategy for background drift correction in chromatographic data analysis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hai-Yan; Li, He-Dong; Yu, Yong-Jie; Wang, Bing; Lu, Peng; Cui, Hua-Peng; Liu, Ping-Ping; She, Yuan-Bin

    2016-06-01

    Chromatographic background drift correction, which influences peak detection and time shift alignment results, is a critical stage in chromatographic data analysis. In this study, an automatic background drift correction methodology was developed. Local minimum values in a chromatogram were initially detected and organized as a new baseline vector. Iterative optimization was then employed to recognize outliers, which belong to the chromatographic peaks, in this vector, and update the outliers in the baseline until convergence. The optimized baseline vector was finally expanded into the original chromatogram, and linear interpolation was employed to estimate background drift in the chromatogram. The principle underlying the proposed method was confirmed using a complex gas chromatographic dataset. Finally, the proposed approach was applied to eliminate background drift in liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight samples used in the metabolic study of Escherichia coli samples. The proposed method was comparable with three classical techniques: morphological weighted penalized least squares, moving window minimum value strategy and background drift correction by orthogonal subspace projection. The proposed method allows almost automatic implementation of background drift correction, which is convenient for practical use. PMID:27139215

  1. Hearing screening program impact on noise reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Voaklander, D C; Franklin, R C; Challinor, K; Depczynski, J; Fragar, L J

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the New South Wales Rural Hearing Conservation Program on the implementation of personal hearing protection (PHP) and noise management strategies among farmers who had participated in this program in New South Wales, Australia. A follow-up survey of a random sample of people screened through the New South Wales Rural Hearing Conservation Program was linked to their baseline data. The use of PHP at baseline was compared to use at follow-up in four specific scenarios: use with non-cabbed tractors, with chainsaws, with firearms, and in workshops. For non-cabbed tractors, the net gain in PHP use was 13.3%; the net gain was 20.8% for chainsaws, 6.7% for firearms, and 21.3% for workshops. Older farmers and those with a family history of hearing loss were less likely to maintain or improve PHP use. Those with severe hearing loss, males, and participants reporting hearing problems in situations where background noise was present were more likely to maintain or improve PHP use. Forty-one percent of farmers had initiated other strategies to reduce noise exposure beyond the use of PHP, which included engineering, maintenance, and noise avoidance solutions. The early (hopefully) identification of hearing deficit in farmers and farm workers can help promote behavior change and help reinforce a farm culture that supports hearing conservation. The continuation and expansion of hearing screening programs such as these should be encouraged as basic public health strategy in farming communities. PMID:19496341

  2. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

    2006-01-01

    consumers in distinguishing real health threats from spurious health claims. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction, and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers. PMID:17184539

  3. ASTARTE: Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M. A.; Yalciner, A. C.; Canals, M.

    2014-12-01

    enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning and forecast, governance and resilience. This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3)

  4. Background Noise Reduction Using Adaptive Noise Cancellation Determined by the Cross-Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Fuller, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Background noise due to flow in wind tunnels contaminates desired data by decreasing the Signal-to-Noise Ratio. The use of Adaptive Noise Cancellation to remove background noise at measurement microphones is compromised when the reference sensor measures both background and desired noise. The technique proposed modifies the classical processing configuration based on the cross-correlation between the reference and primary microphone. Background noise attenuation is achieved using a cross-correlation sample width that encompasses only the background noise and a matched delay for the adaptive processing. A present limitation of the method is that a minimum time delay between the background noise and desired signal must exist in order for the correlated parts of the desired signal to be separated from the background noise in the crosscorrelation. A simulation yields primary signal recovery which can be predicted from the coherence of the background noise between the channels. Results are compared with two existing methods.

  5. Variation in Second Language Learners' Strategies among Non-Native English Speakers from Three Language/Culture Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebsworth, Miriam Eisenstein; Tang, Frank Lixing; Razavi, Nikta; Aiello, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the effects of cultural and linguistic background, L2 proficiency, and gender on language learning strategies for 263 college-level learners from Chinese, Russian, and Latino backgrounds. Data based on the SILL (Oxford, 2001) revealed that Russian students used significantly more strategies than the Chinese students in three…

  6. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  7. Background reduction system of {sup 4}He({sup 12}C,{sup 16}O)gamma at KUTL

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, M.; Sagara, K.; Teranishi, T.; Fujita, K.; Iwabuchi, R.; Gotoh, T.; Nakano, K.; Oba, N.

    2010-06-01

    The C-alpha reaction is one of the most important reactions in astrophysics. At Kyushu University Tandem accelerator Laboratory (KUTL), a high detective efficiency measurement has been made by adopting inverse kinematics: {sup 12}C beam is injected on windowless {sup 4}He gas target. In this experiment, a powerful background reduction system is necessary. We describe the effectiveness of the background system consisting of recoil mass separator, a long time chopper, and new movable slits.

  8. Coupling of background reduction with rolling circle amplification for highly sensitive protein detection via terminal protection of small molecule-linked DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Jiang, Bingying; Xie, Jiaqing; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2013-10-01

    In this work, by coupling background current reduction with rolling circle amplification (RCA), we describe the development of an ultrasensitive electrochemical sensing method for protein detection based on a small molecule-linked DNA terminal protection strategy. Our detection platform employs a typical streptavidin (STV)-biotin interaction system. Biotin-linked single-stranded DNA (SH-ssDNA-biotin) is self-assembled on a gold electrode to capture the target protein, STV. The binding of STV with the biotin small molecule recognition element protects the SH-ssDNA-biotin against hydrolysis by exonuclease I (Exo I), while the unbound SH-ssDNA-biotin is effectively hydrolyzed and removed from the electrode surface. The bound STV further interacts with long, RCA-amplified biotin DNAs to facilitate the adsorption of numerous electroactive reporters, hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride (RuHex) via electrostatic interactions, which results in significantly amplified signals for the quantitative determination of STV. Moreover, the removal of the unbound SH-ssDNA-biotin probes from the sensing electrode obviates the accumulation of RuHex and leads to a highly minimized background current. The simultaneous RCA signal amplification and background current reduction is expected to significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio and to achieve ultrahigh sensitivity. The results reveal that the developed strategy provides a low detection limit of 0.4 pM with high selectivity. PMID:23907287

  9. Landslide risk reduction strategies: an inventory for the Global South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; Vranken, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Mertens, Kewan; Jacobs, Liesbet; Poesen, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Landslides constitute a serious problem globally. Moreover, landslide impact remains underestimated especially in the Global South. It is precisely there where the largest impact is experienced. An overview of measures taken to reduce risk of landslides in the Global South is however still lacking. Because in many countries of the Global South disaster risk reduction (DRR) is at an emerging stage, it is crucial to monitor the ongoing efforts (e.g. discussions on the Post-2015 Framework for DRR). The first objective of this study is to make an inventory of techniques and strategies that are applied to reduce risk from landslides in tropical countries. The second objective is to investigate what are the main bottlenecks for implementation of DRR strategies. In order to achieve these objectives, a review of both scientific and grey literature was conducted, supplemented with expert knowledge. The compilation of recommended and implemented DRR measures from landslide-prone tropical countries is based on an adapted classification proposed by the SafeLand project. According to Vaciago (2013), landslide risk can be reduced by either reducing the hazard, the vulnerability, the number or value of elements at risk or by sharing the residual risk. In addition, these measures can be combined with education and/or awareness raising and are influenced by governance structures and cultural beliefs. Global landslide datasets have been used to identify landslide-prone countries, augmented with region-specific datasets. Countries located in the tropics were selected in order to include landslide-prone countries with a different Human Development Index (HDI) but with a similar climate. Preliminary results support the statement made by Anderson (2013) that although the importance of shifting from post-disaster emergency actions to pre-disaster mitigation is acknowledged, in practice this paradigm shift seems rather limited. It is expected that this is especially the case in countries

  10. An innovative, multidisciplinary strategy to improve retention of nursing students from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Igbo, Immaculata N; Straker, Kathleen C; Landson, Margie J; Symes, Lene; Bernard, Lillian F; Hughes, Lisa A; Carroll, Theresa L

    2011-01-01

    Nursing students from disadvantaged backgrounds must overcome many barriers in order to succeed. This article will focus on how a multidisciplinary team helped 76 percent of these high-risk students persist in their nursing programs by addressing some of these barriers. Three baccalaureate nursing schools in the Texas Medical Center embarked on a three-year retention program designed to enhance the success of students identified by federal criteria as being at risk. Multidisciplinary teams led various activities, including a study skills component, which included preparing for lectures, taking notes, critical thinking, and test-taking strategies. Also addressed were written and oral communication skills, medical terminology, critical thinking, career coaching, and socialization activities. Collaboration among faculty and students at the three schools was key to the success of the program. PMID:22235693

  11. Objective Measures of Listening Effort: Effects of Background Noise and Noise Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarampalis, Anastasios; Kalluri, Sridhar; Edwards, Brent; Hafter, Ervin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This work is aimed at addressing a seeming contradiction related to the use of noise-reduction (NR) algorithms in hearing aids. The problem is that although some listeners claim a subjective improvement from NR, it has not been shown to improve speech intelligibility, often even making it worse. Method: To address this, the hypothesis…

  12. Instrumental background in balloon-borne gamma-ray spectrometers and techniques for its reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental background in balloon-borne gamma-ray spectrometers is presented. The calculations are based on newly available interaction cross sections and new analytic techniques, and are the most detailed and accurate published to date. Results compare well with measurements made in the 20 keV to 10 MeV energy range by the Goddard Low Energy Gamma-ray Spectrometer (LEGS). The principal components of the continuum background in spectrometers with GE detectors and thick active shields are: (1) elastic neutron scattering of atmospheric neutrons on the Ge nuclei; (2) aperture flux of atmospheric and cosmic gamma rays; (3) beta decays of unstable nuclides produced by nuclear interactions of atmospheric protons and neutrons with Ge nuclei; and (4) shield leakage of atmospheric gamma rays. The improved understanding of these components leads to several recommended techniques for reducing the background.

  13. Background gradient reduction of an infrared scene projector mounted on a flight motion simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Bowden, Mark H.; Ballard, Gary

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) recently developed an infrared projector mounted on a flight motion simulator (FMS) that is used for hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing. The initial application of this system within a HWIL environment required variations in the projected background radiance level to be very low. This paper describes the investigation into the causes of the variations in background radiance levels and the steps employed to reduce the background variance to an acceptable level. Test data collected before and after the corrective techniques are provided. The procedures discussed provide insight into the types of practical problems encountered when integrating infrared scene projector technologies into actual test facilities.

  14. Measurement and reduction of low-level radon background in the KATRIN experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fränkle, F. M.

    2013-08-08

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a next generation, model independent, large scale experiment to determine the mass of the electron anti-neutrino by investigating the kinematics of tritium beta decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2}. The measurement setup consists of a high luminosity windowless gaseous molecular tritium source (WGTS), a differential and cryogenic pumped electron transport and tritium retention section, a tandem spectrometer section (pre-spectrometer and main spectrometer) for energy analysis, followed by a detector system for counting transmitted beta decay electrons. Measurements performed at the KATRIN pre-spectrometer test setup showed that the decay of radon (Rn) atoms in the volume of the KATRIN spectrometers is a major background source. Rn atoms from low-level radon emanation of materials inside the vacuum region of the KATRIN spectrometers are able to penetrate deep into the magnetic flux tube so that the alpha decay of Rn contributes to the background. Of particular importance are electrons emitted in processes accompanying the Rn alpha decay, such as shake-off, internal conversion of excited levels in the Rn daughter atoms and Auger electrons. Lowenergy electrons (< 100 eV) directly contribute to the background in the signal region. High-energy electrons can be stored magnetically inside the volume of the spectrometer and are able to create thousands of secondary electrons via subsequent ionization processes with residual gas molecules. In order to reduce the Rn induced background different active and passive counter measures were developed and tested. This proceeding will give an overview on Rn sources within the KATRIN spectrometer, describes how Rn decays inside the spectrometer produce background events at the detector and presents different counter measures to reduce the Rn induced background.

  15. Why They Stay - Retention Strategies for Students from Diverse Backgrounds in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haacker, R.

    2014-12-01

    The geosciences have had a chronic problem of underrepresentation of students from diverse ethnic, cultural, and socio-economic backgrounds. While many programs and efforts focus on the recruitment of minorities, a strategic approach to increase retention is equally important for a student's success. Students from diverse backgrounds often face isolation in majority schools, and lack role models and guidance as they navigate through the academic system. Research has shown that continuous and individualized support can greatly strengthen a student's performance and chance of staying in the field. Successful strategies include a strong mentoring system, early involvement in research, cohort building, and creating a welcoming campus climate. At the SOARS Center for Undergraduate Research, we have found that offering students research topics that allow them to give back to society increases engagement and retention significantly. All interventions need to be applied early, often and on a continuous basis in a student's college experience. A long-term mentor assigned to the student beyond a class or a summer research experience can provide follow-up and champion the student's progress. This presentation will share successful approaches of retaining diverse students in the geosciences and discuss how we can support each other in the community to provide such resources.

  16. Observational Strategies of Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature and Polarization Interferometry Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Gyung; Ng, Kin-Wang; Park, Changbom; Liu, Guo-Chin; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2003-05-01

    We have simulated the interferometric observation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations. We have constructed data pipelines from the time-ordered raw visibility samples to the CMB power spectra that utilize the methods of data compression, maximum likelihood analysis, and optimal subspace filtering. They are customized for three observational strategies: the single pointing, the mosaicking, and the drift-scanning. For each strategy, derived are the optimal strategy parameters that yield band power estimates with minimum uncertainty. The results are general and can be applied to any close-packed array on a single platform such as the CBI and the forthcoming AMiBA experiments. We have also studied the effect of rotation of the array platform on the band power correlation by simulating the CBI single-pointing observation. It is found that the band power anticorrelations can be reduced by rotating the platform and thus densely sampling the visibility plane. This enables us to increase the resolution of the power spectrum in the l-space down to the limit of the sampling theorem (Δl=226~π/θ), which is narrower by a factor of about sqrt(2) than the resolution limit (Δl~300) used in the recent CBI single-pointing observation. The validity of this idea is demonstrated for a two-element interferometer that samples visibilities uniformly in the uv-annulus. From the fact that the visibilities are the Fourier modes of the CMB field convolved with the beam, a fast unbiased estimator (FUE) of the CMB power spectra is developed and tested. It is shown that the FUE gives results very close to those from the quadratic estimator method without requiring large computer resources even though uncertainties in the results increase.

  17. Estimation and reduction of risk to hearing: the background and a case study.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, R W

    1971-06-01

    For noise exposure varying in both level and duration, current noise criteria are inadequate but, by adapting methods presently available, an equivalent continuous level can be calculated from which the risk to hearing can be assessed. The predicted effects on hearing compare favourably with measured values. These methods are used to predict an 'acceptable' noise limit for the variable noise environment on the agricultural tractor. Methods of noise reduction for the tractor are outlined along with other approaches to hearing preservation. PMID:15676691

  18. Reduction of radioactive backgrounds in electroformed copper for ultra-sensitive radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, E. W.; Aalseth, C. E.; Farmer, O. T.; Hossbach, T. W.; Liezers, M.; Miley, H. S.; Overman, N. R.; Reeves, J. H.

    2014-11-01

    Ultra-pure construction materials are required for the next generation of neutrino physics, dark matter and environmental science applications. These materials are also important for use in high-purity germanium spectrometers used in screening materials for radiopurity. The next-generation science applications require materials with radiopurity levels at or below 1 μBq/kg 232Th and 238U. Yet radiometric analysis lacks sensitivity below ~10 μBq/kg for the U and Th decay chains. This limits both the selection of clean materials and the validation of purification processes. Copper is an important high-purity material for low-background experiments due to the ease with which it can be purified by electrochemical methods. Electroplating for purification into near-final shapes, known as electroforming, is one such method. Continued refinement of the copper electroforming process is underway, for the first time guided by an ICP-MS based assay method that can measure 232Th and 238U near the desired purity levels. An assay of electroformed copper at a μBq/kg level has been achieved and is described. The implications of electroformed copper at or better than this purity on next-generation low-background experiments are discussed.

  19. Reduction of Radioactive Backgrounds in Electroformed Copper for Ultra-Sensitive Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Liezers, Martin; Miley, Harry S.; Overman, Nicole R.; Reeves, James H.

    2014-07-07

    Abstract Ultra-pure construction materials are required for the next generation of neutrino physics, dark matter and environmental science applications. These new efforts require materials with purity levels at or below 1 uBq/kg 232Th and 238U. Yet radiometric analysis lacks sensitivity below ~10 uBq/kg for the U and Th decay chains. This limits both the selection of clean materials and the validation of purification processes. Copper is an important high-purity material for low-background experiments due to the ease with which it can be purified by electrochemical methods. Electroplating for purification into near-final shapes, known as electroforming, is one such method. Continued refinement of the copper electroforming process is underway, for the first time guided by an ICP-MS based assay method that can measure 232Th and 238U near the desired purity levels. An assay of electroformed copper at 10 uBq/kg for 232Th has been achieved and is described. The implications of electroformed copper at or better than this purity on next-generation low-background experiments are discussed.

  20. Quenching methods for background reduction in luminescence-based probe-target binding assays

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Hong; Goodwin, Peter M; Keller, Richard A.; Nolan, Rhiannon L.

    2007-04-10

    Background luminescence is reduced from a solution containing unbound luminescent probes, each having a first molecule that attaches to a target molecule and having an attached luminescent moiety, and luminescent probe/target adducts. Quenching capture reagent molecules are formed that are capable of forming an adduct with the unbound luminescent probes and having an attached quencher material effective to quench luminescence of the luminescent moiety. The quencher material of the capture reagent molecules is added to a solution of the luminescent probe/target adducts and binds in a proximity to the luminescent moiety of the unbound luminescent probes to quench luminescence from the luminescent moiety when the luminescent moiety is exposed to exciting illumination. The quencher capture reagent does not bind to probe molecules that are bound to target molecules and the probe/target adduct emission is not quenched.

  1. Spatially selective photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence and application to background reduction for biomolecule detection assays

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhery, Vikram; Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Pokhriyal, Anusha; Polans, James; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    By combining photonic crystal label-free biosensor imaging with photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence, it is possible to selectively enhance the fluorescence emission from regions of the PC surface based upon the density of immobilized capture molecules. A label-free image of the capture molecules enables determination of optimal coupling conditions of the laser used for fluorescence imaging of the photonic crystal surface on a pixel-by-pixel basis, allowing maximization of fluorescence enhancement factor from regions incorporating a biomolecule capture spot and minimization of background autofluorescence from areas between capture spots. This capability significantly improves the contrast of enhanced fluorescent images, and when applied to an antibody protein microarray, provides a substantial advantage over conventional fluorescence microscopy. Using the new approach, we demonstrate detection limits as low as 0.97 pg/ml for a representative protein biomarker in buffer. PMID:22109210

  2. Anger Between Intimates: An Experimental Study of Aggression Reduction Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz, Don; And Others

    The effects of counter-aggression strategies on married couples resulting from use of the Taylor interactive paradigm were investigated. Married persons (N=52) competed in a complex reaction time task and set durations of 100 decibel punitive noise for either their spouse or an opposite-sex stranger. During pretrials (aggression escalation), males…

  3. Algorithm development for automated outlier detection and background noise reduction during NIR spectroscopic data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abookasis, David; Workman, Jerome J.

    2011-09-01

    This study describes a hybrid processing algorithm for use during calibration/validation of near-infrared spectroscopic signals based on a spectra cross-correlation and filtering process, combined with a partial-least square regression (PLS) analysis. In the first step of the algorithm, exceptional signals (outliers) are detected and remove based on spectra correlation criteria we have developed. Then, signal filtering based on direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC) was applied, before being used in the PLS model, to filter out background variance. After outlier screening and DOSC treatment, a PLS calibration model matrix is formed. Once this matrix has been built, it is used to predict the concentration of the unknown samples. Common statistics such as standard error of cross-validation, mean relative error, coefficient of determination, etc. were computed to assess the fitting ability of the algorithm Algorithm performance was tested on several hundred blood samples prepared at different hematocrit and glucose levels using blood materials from thirteen healthy human volunteers. During measurements, these samples were subjected to variations in temperature, flow rate, and sample pathlength. Experimental results highlight the potential, applicability, and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in terms of low error of prediction, high sensitivity and specificity, and low false negative (Type II error) samples.

  4. Modifying a sealed tube zinc reduction method for preparation of AMS graphite targets: Reducing background and attaining high precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Trumbore, Susan E.; Zheng, Shuhui; Southon, John R.; McDuffee, Kelsey E.; Luttgen, Madelyn; Liu, Julia C.

    2007-06-01

    The sealed tube zinc reduction method for converting CO2 to graphite for AMS 14C measurements was originally developed for rapid production of graphite in biomedical tracer experiments. The method was usually thought to have low precision and a high background. We have modified the zinc reduction method originally outlined in Vogel [J.S. Vogel, Radiocarbon 34 (3) (1992) 344] by carefully controlling the amounts of reagents (zinc, titanium hydride and Co or Fe catalyst) and now routinely obtain a precision of 2-3‰ and a relatively low background of ∼50,000 14C years when analyzing for 14C at the Keck Carbon Cycle AMS facility at UC Irvine. Fractionation of carbon isotopes does occur during graphitization and depends on the graphitization yield, which can be affected by the amounts of reagents used and other conditions. The δ13C of our zinc-reduced graphite is usually lighter by 2-3‰ than the CO2 from which it is made, but this is corrected for in our system by simultaneous measurement of 13C/12C along with 14C/12C by the spectrometer. This method is suitable for 14C enriched samples, as well as natural abundance 14C samples, especially those with modern 14C contents. With improved precision and background, we believe that many disciplines can benefit from this technique because of its low cost and rapid production of graphite.

  5. Existential risks: exploring a robust risk reduction strategy.

    PubMed

    Jebari, Karim

    2015-06-01

    A small but growing number of studies have aimed to understand, assess and reduce existential risks, or risks that threaten the continued existence of mankind. However, most attention has been focused on known and tangible risks. This paper proposes a heuristic for reducing the risk of black swan extinction events. These events are, as the name suggests, stochastic and unforeseen when they happen. Decision theory based on a fixed model of possible outcomes cannot properly deal with this kind of event. Neither can probabilistic risk analysis. This paper will argue that the approach that is referred to as engineering safety could be applied to reducing the risk from black swan extinction events. It will also propose a conceptual sketch of how such a strategy may be implemented: isolated, self-sufficient, and continuously manned underground refuges. Some characteristics of such refuges are also described, in particular the psychosocial aspects. Furthermore, it is argued that this implementation of the engineering safety strategy safety barriers would be effective and plausible and could reduce the risk of an extinction event in a wide range of possible (known and unknown) scenarios. Considering the staggering opportunity cost of an existential catastrophe, such strategies ought to be explored more vigorously. PMID:24891130

  6. Development of a Questionnaire to Assess University Students' Intentions to Use Behavioral Alcohol-Reduction Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, Erin E.; Hoffmann, Erica; Rosenberg, Harold; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kraus, Shane W.; Bannon, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new self-report questionnaire designed to assess college students' intentions to employ 31 specific alcohol-reduction strategies. Method: Students attending a large public university were recruited to complete alcohol-reduction, drinking history, and personality questionnaires online.…

  7. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake. PMID:25782426

  8. Wake Management Strategies for Reduction of Turbomachinery Fan Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of our work was to evaluate and test several wake management schemes for the reduction of turbomachinery fan noise. Throughout the course of this work we relied on several tools. These include 1) Two-dimensional steady boundary-layer and wake analyses using MISES (a thin-shear layer Navier-Stokes code), 2) Two-dimensional unsteady wake-stator interaction simulations using UNSFLO, 3) Three-dimensional, steady Navier-Stokes rotor simulations using NEWT, 4) Internal blade passage design using quasi-one-dimensional passage flow models developed at MIT, 5) Acoustic modeling using LINSUB, 6) Acoustic modeling using VO72, 7) Experiments in a low-speed cascade wind-tunnel, and 8) ADP fan rig tests in the MIT Blowdown Compressor.

  9. Bioastronautics Roadmap: A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap is the framework used to identify and assess the risks to crews exposed to the hazardous environments of space. It guides the implementation of research strategies to prevent or reduce those risks. Although the BCPR identifies steps that must be taken to reduce the risks to health and performance that are associated with human space flight, the BCPR is not a "critical path" analysis in the strict engineering sense. The BCPR will evolve to accommodate new information and technology development and will enable NASA to conduct a formal critical path analysis in the future. As a management tool, the BCPR provides information for making informed decisions about research priorities and resource allocation. The outcome-driven nature of the BCPR makes it amenable for assessing the focus, progress and success of the Bioastronautics research and technology program. The BCPR is also a tool for communicating program priorities and progress to the research community and NASA management.

  10. Adolescent substance use and unplanned pregnancy: strategies for risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Connery, Hilary S.; Albright, Brittany B.; Rodolico, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Substance use among adolescents increases the risk of unplanned pregnancies, which then increases the risk of fetal exposure to addictive, teratogenic substances. Specific interventions are necessary to target pregnancy planning and contraception among reproductive age substance users. Screening for substance use using the CRAFFT is recommended in all health care settings treating adolescent patients. Screening for tobacco and nicotine use is also recommended along with provision of smoking cessation interventions. Using motivational interviewing style and strategies is recommended to engage adolescents in discussions related to reducing substance use, risky sexual behavior, and probability of unplanned pregnancy or late-detection pregnancy. Earlier interventions that strengthen autonomy and resourcefulness in recognizing and caring for an unplanned conception is a form of advanced directive that may well reduce fetal exposure to tobacco, alcohol, and drugs and simultaneously empower girls and women in self-care. PMID:24845484

  11. Selective insulation with poly(tetrafluoroethylene) of substrate electrodes for electrochemical background reduction in scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Joaquin; Alpuche-Aviles, Mario A; Bard, Allen J

    2008-03-01

    We describe a wet process for the fabrication of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE)-covered electrodes in which arrays of holes ( approximately 200 microm) are formed. The PTFE coating provides electrical insulation of most of the electrode surface with selected regions exposed for electrochemical experiments. The arrays of microholes can be controllably patterned and filled with precursor solutions using a piezoelectric dispenser. A micrometer spot of electrocatalyst is produced after reduction of the precursor. The application is tested for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in the tip generation-substrate collection (TG-SC) studies of electrocatalysts. The method is shown to reduce the substrate background currents that are included in the electrochemical signal read from the local perturbation induced with the SECM tip to the substrate in the TG-SC mode of SECM. This background current reduction is consistent with the decrease in the exposed area of the electrode. The general methodology for the fabrication of the substrate electrodes and two proof-of-concept applications in the TG-SC SECM modality are described. PMID:18251520

  12. Maternal mortality in India: current status and strategies for reduction.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A; Swain, S; Seth, A

    1991-12-01

    The causes (medical, reproductive factors, health care delivery system, and socioeconomic factors) of maternal mortality in India and strategies for reducing maternal mortality are presented. Maternal mortality rates (MMR) are very high in Asia and Africa compared with Northern Europe's 4/100,000 live births. An Indian hospital study found the MMR to be 4.21/1000 live births. 50-98% of maternal deaths are caused by direct obstetric causes (hemorrhage, infection, and hypertensive disorders, ruptured uterus, hepatitis, and anemia). 50% of maternal deaths due to sepsis are related to illegal induced abortion. MMR in India has not declined significantly in the past 15 years. Age, primi and grande multiparity, unplanned pregnancy, and related illegal abortion are the reproductive causes. In 1985 WHO reported that 63-80% of maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes and 88-98% of all maternal deaths could probably have been prevented with proper handling. In India, coordination between levels in the delivery system and fragmentation of care account for the poor quality of maternal health care. Mass illiteracy is another cause. Effective strategies for reducing the MMR are 1) to place a high priority on maternal and child health (MCH) services and integrate vertical programs (e.g., family planning) related to MCH; 2) to give attention to care during labor and delivery, which is the most critical period for complications; 3) to provide community-based delivery huts which can provide a clean and safe delivery place close to home, and maternity waiting rooms in hospitals for high risk mothers; 4) to improve the quality of MCH care at the rural community level (proper history taking, palpation, blood pressure and fetal heart screening, risk factor screening, and referral); 5) to improve quality of care at the primary health care level (emergency care and proper referral); 6) to include in the postpartum program MCH and family planning services; 7) to examine the

  13. Strategies for the reduction of Legionella in biological treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, R; Utecht, K-U; Exner, M; Verstraete, W; Rosenwinkel, K-H

    2016-01-01

    A community-wide outbreak of Legionnaire's disease occurred in Warstein, Germany, in August 2013. The epidemic strain, Legionella pneumophila Serogruppe 1, was isolated from an industrial wastewater stream entering the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Wartein, the WWTP itself, the river Wäster and air/water samples from an industrial cooling system 3 km downstream of the WWTP. The present study investigated the effect of physical-chemical disinfection methods on the reduction of the concentration of Legionella in the biological treatment and in the treated effluent entering the river Wäster. Additionally, to gain insight into the factors that promote the growth of Legionella in biological systems, growth experiments were made with different substrates and temperatures. The dosage rates of silver micro-particles, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide and ozone and pH stress to the activated sludge were not able to decrease the number of culturable Legionella spp. in the effluent. Nevertheless, the UV treatment of secondary treated effluent reduced Legionella spp. on average by 1.6-3.4 log units. Laboratory-scale experiments and full-scale measurements suggested that the aerobic treatment of warm wastewater (30-35 °C) rich in organic nitrogen (protein) is a possible source of Legionella infection. PMID:27533856

  14. Advanced Variance Reduction Strategies for Optimizing Mesh Tallies in MAVRIC

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Douglas E.; Blakeman, Edward D; Wagner, John C

    2007-01-01

    More often than in the past, Monte Carlo methods are being used to compute fluxes or doses over large areas using mesh tallies (a set of region tallies defined on a mesh that overlays the geometry). For problems that demand that the uncertainty in each mesh cell be less than some set maximum, computation time is controlled by the cell with the largest uncertainty. This issue becomes quite troublesome in deep-penetration problems, and advanced variance reduction techniques are required to obtain reasonable uncertainties over large areas. The CADIS (Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling) methodology has been shown to very efficiently optimize the calculation of a response (flux or dose) for a single point or a small region using weight windows and a biased source based on the adjoint of that response. This has been incorporated into codes such as ADVANTG (based on MCNP) and the new sequence MAVRIC, which will be available in the next release of SCALE. In an effort to compute lower uncertainties everywhere in the problem, Larsen's group has also developed several methods to help distribute particles more evenly, based on forward estimates of flux. This paper focuses on the use of a forward estimate to weight the placement of the source in the adjoint calculation used by CADIS, which we refer to as a forward-weighted CADIS (FW-CADIS).

  15. Strategies for emission reduction from thermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Prisyazhniuk, Vitaly A

    2006-07-01

    Major polluters of man's environment are thermal power stations (TPS) and power plants, which discharge into the atmosphere the basic product of carbon fuel combustion, CO2, which results in a build-up of the greenhouse effect and global warm-up of our planet's climate. This paper is intended to show that the way to attain environmental safety of the TPS and to abide by the decisions of the Kyoto Protocol lies in raising the efficiency of the heat power stations and reducing their fuel consumption by using nonconventional thermal cycles. Certain equations have been derived to define the quantitative interrelationship between the growth of efficiency of the TPS, decrease in fuel consumption and reduction of discharge of dust, fuel combustion gases, and heat into the environment. New ideas and new technological approaches that result in raising the efficiency of the TPS are briefly covered: magneto-hydrodynamic resonance, the Kalina cycle, and utilizing the ambient heat by using, as the working medium, low-boiling substances. PMID:16338058

  16. Telling the Technology Story: PR Strategies for School Leaders. Backgrounder Brief. CoSN Essential Leadership Skills Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for School Networking (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This Backgrounder Brief is an executive summary of "Telling the Technology Story: PR Strategies for School Leaders," a component of the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) Essential Leadership Skills Series. Public relations is a critical component of a district's successful technology implementation--and it involves communicating on an…

  17. Investigating the Contributions of Background Knowledge and Reading Comprehension Strategies to L2 Reading Comprehension: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Levi

    2011-01-01

    While a number of studies have investigated the influence of background knowledge and reading comprehension strategies on comprehension, no L2 research exists examining and comparing the unique contributions of these two variables examined together. Therefore, the purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the combined and individual…

  18. Strategies for Model Reduction: Comparing Different Optimal Bases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crommelin, D. T.; Majda, A. J.

    2004-09-01

    Several different ways of constructing optimal bases for efficient dynamical modeling are compared: empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), optimal persistence patterns (OPPs), and principal interaction patterns (PIPs). Past studies on fluid-dynamical topics have pointed out that EOF-based models can have difficulties reproducing behavior dominated by irregular transitions between different dynamical states. This issue is addressed in a geophysical context, by assessing the ability of these strategies for efficient dynamical modeling to reproduce the chaotic regime transitions in a simple atmosphere model. The atmosphere model is the well-known Charney DeVore model, a six-dimensional truncation of the equations describing barotropic flow over topography in a β-plane channel geometry. This model is able to generate regime transitions for well-chosen parameter settings. The models based on PIPs are found to be superior to the EOF- and OPP-based models, in spite of some undesirable sensitivities inherent to the PIP method.


  19. Infant mortality in rural India: a strategy for reduction.

    PubMed

    Pratinidhi, A K; Shrotri, A N; Shah, U; Chavan, H H

    1987-08-01

    A risk-approach-strategy project sponsored by WHO was undertaken in 22 villages of Surur, Pune, by BJ Medical College. All births in the study population of 47,000 were followed, comparing the 3 cohorts born between January 1981 to December 1983. Female village health guides were trained in screening for 11 maternal risk factors, infant risk factors, infant monitoring, and basic health support such as maternal nutrition, rest, breastfeeding and home cleaning, heating, humidifying and infant isolation. There were 123, 97 and 87 infant deaths in the 1981, 1982, and 1983 cohorts, giving infant mortality rats of 91.2, 72.3 and 67.3 respectively. The proportion of neonatal deaths remained at 61 to 62.1% over the period. The most common risk factors seen were illness, low birth weight and growth retardation, often associated with illness. Incidence of low birth weight and prolonged labor both decreased significantly over the duration of the program. Mortality was high among infants with feeding problems and prematurity. 40% of deaths were due to infections, 28% to low birth weight and prematurity, and 9% to birth asphyxia. The lower infant mortality rate achieved here is comparable to urban levels reported in India. These results show that primary health workers are capable of referring and managing risks, and risk management could be applied on a larger scale. PMID:3443502

  20. A Novel Reduction Strategy of Clarithromycin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tadjrobehkar, Omid; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a major therapeutic problem in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori clarithromycin resistant mutants have been evolved during antibiotic therapy, this is mainly due to 23s rRNA point mutations. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated anti-mutational features of four traditionally Iranian medicinal plants on three local isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: In this study clarithromycin resistance was used as a mutation indicator. Frequencies of such mutations in the presence and absence of plant extracts were evaluated. Mutation incidence was evaluated by Luria Delbruck fluctuation assay. Results: The mean mutation frequency in H. pylori isolates was 27 × 10-9 which decreased at the presence of Mirtus communis, Teucrium polium, Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris of plant extract, this amount was 97.4%, 95.2%, 63.7% and 19.6% respectively. Moreover, A-to-G transition at 2143 position (A2143G) was detected by PCR-sequencing as major point mutation causing clarithromycin resistant mutants. Conclusions: The efficacy of these plant extracts in prohibiting resistance showed considerable results. This finding should be considered to use plant extracts with antibiotics to develop more effective eradication regimens. PMID:25741431

  1. Crossing a Multicultural Divide: Teaching Business Strategy to Students from Culturally Mixed Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Steve; Thom, Viv

    2005-01-01

    This narrative describes how, in response to poor results, a teaching team revamped a postgraduate business strategy module in a U.K. university. The changes mainly involved clarification of some of the staff's key expectations and teaching and learning methods, taking account of the powerful pressures on international students in the United…

  2. Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use. Energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examined how the combination of multiple strategies could achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions and petroleum use on the order of 80%. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal was to help inform domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments, with an emphasis on underexplored opportunities. TEF findings reveal three strategies with the potential to displace most transportation-related petroleum use and GHG emissions: 1) Stabilizing energy use in the transportation sector through efficiency and demand-side approaches. 2) Using additional advanced biofuels. 3) Expanding electric drivetrain technologies.

  3. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Warm Weather

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, M. A.; Chaney, L.; Rugh, J. P.

    2015-04-30

    Passenger compartment climate control is one of the largest auxiliary loads on a vehicle. Like conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) require climate control to maintain occupant comfort and safety, but cabin heating and air conditioning have a negative impact on driving range for all electric vehicles. Range reduction caused by climate control and other factors is a barrier to widespread adoption of EVs. Reducing the thermal loads on the climate control system will extend driving range, thereby reducing consumer range anxiety and increasing the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have investigated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward EVs. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing was conducted on two 2012 Ford Focus Electric vehicles to evaluate thermal management strategies for warm weather, including solar load reduction and cabin pre-ventilation. An advanced thermal test manikin was used to assess a zonal approach to climate control. In addition, vehicle thermal analysis was used to support testing by exploring thermal load reduction strategies, evaluating occupant thermal comfort, and calculating EV range impacts. Through stationary cooling tests and vehicle simulations, a zonal cooling configuration demonstrated range improvement of 6%-15%, depending on the drive cycle. A combined cooling configuration that incorporated thermal load reduction and zonal cooling strategies showed up to 33% improvement in EV range.

  4. Effective Strategies for Academic Success among African American Male Student Athletes from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marisha R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify contributing factors for academic success among African American male student athletes from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Life narrative analysis was used in this qualitative study. The researcher conducted in-depth individual interviews with 7 African American males who attended college on athletic…

  5. Optimal strategies for gravitational wave stochastic background searches in pulsar timing data

    SciTech Connect

    Anholm, Melissa; Creighton, Jolien D. E.; Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Ballmer, Stefan

    2009-04-15

    A low frequency stochastic background of gravitational waves may be detected by pulsar timing experiments in the next 5 to 10 yr. Using methods developed to analyze interferometric gravitational wave data, in this paper we lay out the optimal techniques to detect a background of gravitational waves using a pulsar timing array. We show that for pulsar distances and gravitational wave frequencies typical of pulsar timing experiments, neglecting the effect of the metric perturbation at the pulsar does not result in a significant deviation from optimality. We discuss methods for setting upper limits using the optimal statistic, show how to construct skymaps using the pulsar timing array, and consider several issues associated with realistic analysis of pulsar timing data.

  6. Investigation of peak load reduction strategies in residential buildings in cooling dominated climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atallah, Fady

    This investigation of peak load reduction strategies in residential buildings contributes to the global international efforts in reducing energy consumption and is related directly to energy efficiency in residential and commercial buildings. Work reported here involves computer aided building energy simulation of energy efficient and non-energy efficient residential homes coupled with empirical energy consumption data gathered from monitoring an array of energy efficient residential homes. The latter have been implemented for peak load reduction strategies. In addition non-energy efficient residential homes have been monitored to compare performance to the energy efficient homes. This study demonstrates the crucial importance of energy efficiency and peak load reduction strategies in sustaining the energy needs of the southwest US region using Las Vegas for the actual setting. It provides the largest energy consumption data set examined, specifically peak consumption, from energy efficient and non-energy efficient homes at this location. The study demonstrates the peak load reduction benefits of a variety of strategies, namely roof-integrated PV panels, energy efficient building envelope, and substation battery storage. The study focuses on the month of August 2011 and shows how the load reduction can reach 75% at peak times during that month using the computer aided energy simulation. Moreover, the study compares the recorded electrical consumption data from the collection of energy efficient and non-energy efficient residential homes and proves the simulation results in reaching the 75% reduction in electrical consumption at peak times. The study also tries to marry the gathered electrical consumption data of the energy efficient and non-energy efficient homes with the computer simulation model. This is done to reach an actual representative model which behaves similarly to the average of the group of energy and non-energy efficient homes. The benefit of the

  7. Modeling nitrate-nitrogen load reduction strategies for the des moines river, iowa using SWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    The Des Moines River that drains a watershed of 16,175 km2 in portions of Iowa and Minnesota is impaired for nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) due to concentrations that exceed regulatory limits for public water supplies. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to model streamflow and nitrate loads and evaluate a suite of basin-wide changes and targeting configurations to potentially reduce nitrate loads in the river. The SWAT model comprised 173 subbasins and 2,516 hydrologic response units and included point and nonpoint nitrogen sources. The model was calibrated for an 11-year period and three basin-wide and four targeting strategies were evaluated. Results indicated that nonpoint sources accounted for 95% of the total nitrate export. Reduction in fertilizer applications from 170 to 50 kg/ha achieved the 38% reduction in nitrate loads, exceeding the 34% reduction required. In terms of targeting, the most efficient load reductions occurred when fertilizer applications were reduced in subbasins nearest the watershed outlet. The greatest load reduction for the area of land treated was associated with reducing loads from 55 subbasins with the highest nitrate loads, achieving a 14% reduction in nitrate loads achieved by reducing applications on 30% of the land area. SWAT model results provide much needed guidance on how to begin implementing load reduction strategies most efficiently in the Des Moines River watershed. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Readout strategies for directional dark matter detection beyond the neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hare, Ciaran A. J.; Green, Anne M.; Billard, Julien; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Strigari, Louis E.

    2015-09-01

    The search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) by direct detection faces an encroaching background due to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. As the sensitivity of these experiments improves, the question of how to best distinguish a dark matter signal from neutrinos will become increasingly important. A proposed method of overcoming this so-called "neutrino floor" is to utilize the directional signature that both neutrino- and dark-matter-induced recoils possess. We show that directional experiments can indeed probe WIMP-nucleon cross sections below the neutrino floor with little loss in sensitivity due to the neutrino background. In particular we find at low WIMP masses (around 6 GeV) the discovery limits for directional detectors penetrate below the nondirectional limit by several orders of magnitude. For high WIMP masses (around 100 GeV), the nondirectional limit is overcome by a factor of a few. Furthermore we show that even for directional detectors which can only measure one- or two-dimensional projections of the three-dimensional recoil track, the discovery potential is only reduced by a factor of 3 at most. We also demonstrate that while the experimental limitations of directional detectors, such as sense recognition and finite angular resolution, have a detrimental effect on the discovery limits, it is still possible to overcome the ultimate neutrino background faced by nondirectional detectors.

  9. Development of a vaccine strategy against human and bovine schistosomiasis. Background and update.

    PubMed

    Capron, A; Riveau, G; Grzych, J M; Boulanger, D; Capron, M; Pierce, R

    1994-01-01

    Two specific characteristics of schistosome infection are of primordial importance to the development of a vaccine: schistosomes do not multiply within the tissues of their definitive hosts (unlike protozoan parasites) and a partial non-sterilizing immunity can have a marked effect on the incidence of pathology and on disease transmission. Since viable eggs are the cause of disease pathology, a reduction in worm fecundity whether or not accompanied by a reduction in parasite burden is a sufficient goal for vaccine induced immunity. We originally showed that IgE antibodies played in experimental models a pivotal role for the development of protective immunity. These laboratory findings have now been confirmed in human populations. Following the molecular cloning and expression of a 28 kDa protein of Schistosoma mansoni and its identification as a glutathione-S-transferase, immunization experiments have been undertaken in several animal species (rats, mice, baboons). Together with a significant reduction in parasite burden, vaccination with Sm28 GST was recently shown to reduce significantly parasite fecundity and egg viability leading to a decrease in liver pathology. Whereas IgE antibodies were shown to be correlated with protection against infection, IgA antibodies have been identified as one of the factors affecting egg laying and viability. In human populations, a close association was found between IgA antibody production to Sm28 GST and the decrease of egg output. The use of appropriate monoclonal antibody probes made it possible to demonstrate that the inhibition of parasite fecundity following immunization was related to the inhibition of enzymatic activity of the molecule.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7825228

  10. Internet-based information resource and discussion platform on GHG reduction strategies in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-28

    The website (www.ccasia.teri.res.in) provides a consolidated Internet based information source and platform for discussions on climate change issues in Asia. The effort has been successful in reaching the target audience and in stimulating awareness about the crucial debate on GHG (greenhouse gas) reduction strategies in Asia.

  11. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: An Analysis of a Hegemonic Link between Education and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabini, Aina; Jacovkis, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to analyse the connections between education and poverty established by the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), a central policy tool for the articulation of the Post Washington Consensus. Second, it intends to study how the PRSPs have been consolidated and expanded through different…

  12. The fight against stigma: an overview of stigma-reduction strategies and interventions.

    PubMed

    Heijnders, Miriam; Van Der Meij, Suzanne

    2006-08-01

    In many health conditions, people are severely affected by health-related stigma and discrimination. A literature review was conducted to identify stigma-reduction strategies and interventions in the field of HIV/AIDS, mental illness, leprosy, TB and epilepsy. The review identified several levels at which interventions and strategies are being implemented. These are the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational/institutional, community and governmental/structural level. Although a lot of work has been carried out on stigma and stigma reduction, far less work has been done on assessing the effectiveness of stigma-reduction strategies. The effective strategies identified mainly concentrated on the individual and the community level. In order to reduce health-related stigma and discrimination significantly, single-level and single-target group approaches are not enough. What is required is a patient-centred approach, which starts with interventions targeting the intrapersonal level, to empower affected persons to assist in the development and implementation of stigma-reduction programmes at other levels. PMID:17130071

  13. College and University Waste Reduction and Recycled Product Procurement Activities, Barriers, and Assistance Strategies: Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    In response to an official request for information and evaluation of solid waste production and management at California's public colleges and universities, this study examined existing conditions and barriers to solid waste reduction and recycled product procurement, and suggested assistance strategies. The examination found that these…

  14. Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Environmental and Operational Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Li, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on environmental and operational costs. A linear climate model was first used to convert climate effects of carbon dioxide emissions and aircraft contrails to changes in Absolute Global Temperature Potential, a metric that measures the mean surface temperature change due to aircraft emissions and persistent contrail formations. The concept of social cost of carbon and the carbon auction price from recent California's cap-and-trade system were then used to relate the carbon dioxide emissions and contrail formations to an environmental cost index. The strategy for contrail reduction is based on minimizing contrail formations by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. The strategy uses a user-defined factor to trade off between contrail reduction and additional fuel burn and carbon dioxide emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction but also more fuel burn and carbon emissions. The strategy is considered favorable when the net environmental cost benefit exceeds the operational cost. The results show how the net environmental benefit varies with different decision-making time-horizon and different carbon cost. The cost models provide a guidance to select the trade-off factor that will result in the most net environmental benefit.

  15. Low-cost risk reduction strategy for small workplaces: how can we spread good practices?

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in health risk reduction approaches are examined based on inter-country networking experiences. A noteworthy progress is the wider application of low-cost improvements to risk reduction particularly in small enterprises and agriculture in both industrially developing and developed countries. This is helped by the readiness of managers and workers to implement these improvements despite many constraints. Typical improvements include mobile racks, simple workstation changes, screening hazards, better welfare facilities and teamwork arrangements. In view of the complex circumstances of work-related health risks, it is important to know whether a low-cost strategy can advance risk reduction practices effectively and what support measures are necessary. It is confirmed that the strategy can overcome related constraints through its advantages. Main advantages lie in (a) the facilitation of improved practices in multiple technical areas, (b) the strengthening of realistic stepwise risk reduction, and (c) the enhanced multiplier effects through training of local trainers. Action-oriented risk assessment tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, can encourage risk-reducing measures adjusted to each local situation. It is suggested to spread the low-cost risk reduction strategy for improving small workplaces in diversified settings with the support of these locally tailored tools. PMID:17017363

  16. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-03-01

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'', to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective to investigate the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City. This paper summarizes our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance and annual C02 reduction of HIR strategies in the three initial cities. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer most savings potential: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by old or new construction and with a gas furnace or an electric heat pump. We defined prototypical building characteristics for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.IE model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on building [direct effect], (3) combined strategies I and 2 [direct effect], (4) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (5) combined strategies 1, 2 and 4 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show, that in Baton Rouge, potential annual energy savings of $15M could be realized by rate-payers from

  17. Per-pack price reductions available from different cigarette purchasing strategies: United States, 2009–2010☆

    PubMed Central

    Pesko, Michael F.; Xu, Xin; Tynan, Michael A.; Gerzoff, Robert B.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Following cigarette excise tax increases, smokers may use cigarette price minimization strategies to continue their usual cigarette consumption rather than reducing consumption or quitting. This reduces the public health benefits of the tax increase. This paper estimates the price reductions for a wide-range of strategies, compensating for overlapping strategies. Method We performed regression analysis on the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey (N = 13,394) to explore price reductions that smokers in the United States obtained from purchasing cigarettes. We examined five cigarette price minimization strategies: 1) purchasing discount brand cigarettes, 2) using price promotions, 3) purchasing cartons, 4) purchasing on Indian reservations, and 5) purchasing online. Price reductions from these strategies were estimated jointly to compensate for overlapping strategies. Results Each strategy provided price reductions between 26 and 99 cents per pack. Combined price reductions were possible. Additionally, price promotions were used with regular brands to obtain larger price reductions than when price promotions were used with generic brands. Conclusion Smokers can realize large price reductions from price minimization strategies, and there are many strategies available. Policymakers and public health officials should be aware of the extent that these strategies can reduce cigarette prices. PMID:24594102

  18. Background field removal technique using regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying kernel sizes.

    PubMed

    Kan, Hirohito; Kasai, Harumasa; Arai, Nobuyuki; Kunitomo, Hiroshi; Hirose, Yasujiro; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-09-01

    An effective background field removal technique is desired for more accurate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) prior to dipole inversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying spherical kernel sizes (REV-SHARP) method using a three-dimensional head phantom and human brain data. The proposed REV-SHARP method used the spherical mean value operation and Tikhonov regularization in the deconvolution process, with varying 2-14mm kernel sizes. The kernel sizes were gradually reduced, similar to the SHARP with varying spherical kernel (VSHARP) method. We determined the relative errors and relationships between the true local field and estimated local field in REV-SHARP, VSHARP, projection onto dipole fields (PDF), and regularization enabled SHARP (RESHARP). Human experiment was also conducted using REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. The relative errors in the numerical phantom study were 0.386, 0.448, 0.838, and 0.452 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. REV-SHARP result exhibited the highest correlation between the true local field and estimated local field. The linear regression slopes were 1.005, 1.124, 0.988, and 0.536 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP in regions of interest on the three-dimensional head phantom. In human experiments, no obvious errors due to artifacts were present in REV-SHARP. The proposed REV-SHARP is a new method combined with variable spherical kernel size and Tikhonov regularization. This technique might make it possible to be more accurate backgroud field removal and help to achive better accuracy of QSM. PMID:27114339

  19. Background choice as an anti-predator strategy: the roles of background matching and visual complexity in the habitat choice of the least killifish

    PubMed Central

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2012-01-01

    Because background matching improves concealment, prey animals have traditionally been expected to prefer parts of the habitat that match their visual appearance. However, empirical support for this is scarce. Moreover, this idea has recently been challenged by an alternative hypothesis: visual complexity of the background impedes prey detection, and hence prey could instead prefer complex parts of the habitat. We used the least killifish to test, with and without predation threat, for the importance of the visual similarity between the fish and the background, and the level of visual complexity of the background. We observed their choice between backgrounds patterned with elements based on the longitudinal black stripe of the fish. Predation risk was important under some circumstances, and induced a preference for a background of matching horizontal stripes compared with mismatching vertical stripes. Interestingly, females under predation threat showed a preference for a complex background of randomly oriented and overlapping stripes compared with matching stripes, whereas males did not discriminate between these two. Additionally, males showed a preference for matching stripes compared with complex shapes, whereas females did not discriminate between these backgrounds. We conclude that matching is important in the choice for safe habitat, but some aspects of visual complexity may override or act together with background matching. PMID:22915675

  20. A Strategy for Minimizing Background Signal in Autoinductive Signal Amplification Reactions for Point-of-Need Assays

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Adam D.; Yeung, Kimy; Lewis, Gregory G.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid point-of-need assays are used to detect abundant biomarkers. The development of in situ signal amplification reactions could extend these assays to screening and triaging of patients for trace levels of biomarkers, even in resource-limited settings. We, and others, have developed small molecule-based in situ signal amplification reactions that eventually may be useful in this context. Herein we describe a design strategy for minimizing background signal that may occur in the absence of the target analyte, thus moving this in situ signal amplification approach one step closer to practical applications. Specifically, we describe allylic ethers as privileged connectors for linking detection and propagating functionality in a small molecule signal amplification reagent. Allylic ethers minimize background reactions while still enabling controlled release of a propagating signal in order to continue the signal amplification reaction. This paper characterizes the ability of allylic ethers to provide an amplified response, and offers insight into additional design considerations that are needed before in situ small molecule-based signal amplification becomes a viable strategy for point-of-need diagnostics. PMID:26604988

  1. Synthetic protocol toward fused pyrazolone derivatives via a Michael addition and reductive ring closing strategy.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Nikita; Thomas, Joice; John, Jubi; Kusurkar, Radhika; De Borggraeve, Wim M; Dehaen, Wim

    2014-06-01

    A new class of pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3,7-dione and pyrazolo[3,4-d]azepine-3,7-dione scaffolds was synthesized via a Michael addition and reductive cyclization strategy. These fused heterocycles were accessed from simple starting materials such as nitroolefins and 3-ethoxycarbonyl(methylene)pyrazoline-5-one. The pyrazolo-fused heterocycles were obtained in good overall yields. PMID:24797239

  2. Strategies for price reduction of HIV medicines under a monopoly situation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Hasenclever, Lia; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze Government strategies for reducing prices of antiretroviral medicines for HIV in Brazil. METHODS Analysis of Ministry of Health purchases of antiretroviral medicines, from 2005 to 2013. Expenditures and costs of the treatment per year were analyzed and compared to international prices of atazanavir. Price reductions were estimated based on the terms of a voluntary license of patent rights and technology transfer in the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement for atazanavir. RESULTS Atazanavir, a patented medicine, represented a significant share of the expenditures on antiretrovirals purchased from the private sector. Prices in Brazil were higher than international references, and no evidence was found of a relationship between purchase volume and price paid by the Ministry of Health. Concerning the latest strategy to reduce prices, involving local production of the 200 mg capsule, the price reduction was greater than the estimated reduction. As for the 300 mg capsule, the amounts paid in the first two years after the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement were close to the estimated values. Prices in nominal values for both dosage forms remained virtually constant between 2011 (the signature of the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement), 2012 and 2013 (after the establishment of the Partnership). CONCLUSIONS Price reduction of medicines is complex in limited-competition environments. The use of a Partnership for Productive Development Agreement as a strategy to increase the capacity of local production and to reduce prices raises issues regarding its effectiveness in reducing prices and to overcome patent barriers. Investments in research and development that can stimulate technological accumulation should be considered by the Government to strengthen its bargaining power to negotiate medicines prices under a monopoly situation. PMID:26759969

  3. Optimization strategies for sediment reduction practices on roads in steep, forested terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, M.A.; Eschenbach, E.A.; Diaz, C.; Teasley, R.; Baker, K.

    2006-01-01

    Many forested steeplands in the western United States display a legacy of disturbances due to timber harvest, mining or wildfires, for example. Such disturbances have caused accelerated hillslope erosion, leading to increased sedimentation in fish-bearing streams. Several restoration techniques have been implemented to address these problems in mountain catchments, many of which involve the removal of abandoned roads and re-establishing drainage networks across road prisms. With limited restoration funds to be applied across large catchments, land managers are faced with deciding which areas and problems should be treated first, and by which technique, in order to design the most effective and cost-effective sediment reduction strategy. Currently most restoration is conducted on a site-specific scale according to uniform treatment policies. To create catchment-scale policies for restoration, we developed two optimization models - dynamic programming and genetic algorithms - to determine the most cost-effective treatment level for roads and stream crossings in a pilot study basin with approximately 700 road segments and crossings. These models considered the trade-offs between the cost and effectiveness of different restoration strategies to minimize the predicted erosion from all forest roads within a catchment, while meeting a specified budget constraint. The optimal sediment reduction strategies developed by these models performed much better than two strategies of uniform erosion control which are commonly applied to road erosion problems by land managers, with sediment savings increased by an additional 48 to 80 per cent. These optimization models can be used to formulate the most cost-effective restoration policy for sediment reduction on a catchment scale. Thus, cost savings can be applied to further restoration work within the catchment. Nevertheless, the models are based on erosion rates measured on past restoration sites, and need to be up-dated as

  4. Sexual risk-reduction strategies among HIV-infected men receiving ART in Kibera, Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Ragnarsson, Anders; Thorson, Anna; Dover, Paul; Carter, Jane; Ilako, Festus; Indalo, Dorcas; Ekstrom, Anna Mia

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores motivational factors and barriers to sexual behaviour change among men receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Twenty in-depth interviews were undertaken with male patients enrolled at the African Medical and Research Foundation clinic in Africa's largest urban informal settlement, Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. All participants experienced prolonged and severe illness prior to the initiation of ART. Fear of symptom relapse was the main trigger for sexual behaviour change. Partner reduction was reported as a first option for behaviour change since this decision could be made by the individual. Condom use was perceived as more difficult as it had to be negotiated with female partners. Cultural norms regarding expectations for reproduction and marriage were not supportive of sexual risk-reduction strategies. Thus, local sociocultural contexts of HIV-infected people must be incorporated into the contextual adaptation and design of ART programmes and services as they have an over-riding influence on sexual behaviour and programme effectiveness. Also, HIV-prevention interventions need to address both personal, micro- and macro-level factors of behaviour to encourage individuals to take on sexual risk-reduction strategies. In order to achieve the anticipated preventive effect of ART, these issues are important for the donor community and policy-makers, who are the major providers of ART programme support within weak health systems in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21347894

  5. Development and evaluation of the Marijuana Reduction Strategies Self-Efficacy Scale.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alan K; Osborn, Lawrence A; Leith, Jaclyn; Rosenberg, Harold; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Hawley, Anna; Bannon, Erin E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Cross, Nicole; Carhart, Victoria; Baik, Kyoung-deok

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate several psychometric properties of a questionnaire designed to assess college students' self-efficacy to employ 21 cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the amount and/or frequency with which they consume marijuana, we recruited 273 marijuana-using students to rate their confidence that they could employ each of the strategies. Examination of frequency counts for each item, principal components analysis, internal consistency reliability, and mean interitem correlation supported retaining all 21 items in a single scale. In support of criterion validity, marijuana use-reduction self-efficacy scores were significantly positively correlated with cross-situational confidence to abstain from marijuana, and significantly negatively correlated with quantity and frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problems. In addition, compared with respondents whose use of marijuana either increased or remained stable, self-efficacy was significantly higher among those who had decreased their use of marijuana over the past year. This relatively short and easily administered questionnaire could be used to identify college students who have low self-efficacy to employ specific marijuana reduction strategies and as an outcome measure to evaluate educational and skill-training interventions. PMID:24955675

  6. FAST PIXEL SPACE CONVOLUTION FOR COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND SURVEYS WITH ASYMMETRIC BEAMS AND COMPLEX SCAN STRATEGIES: FEBeCoP

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.; Rocha, G.; Gorski, K. M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Eriksen, H. K.; Ashdown, M. A. J. E-mail: graca@caltech.edu E-mail: Charles.R.Lawrence@jpl.nasa.gov E-mail: h.k.k.eriksen@astro.uio.no

    2011-03-15

    Precise measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropy can tightly constrain many cosmological models and parameters. However, accurate measurements can only be realized in practice provided all major systematic effects have been taken into account. Beam asymmetry, coupled with the scan strategy, is a major source of systematic error in scanning CMB experiments such as Planck, the focus of our current interest. We envision Monte Carlo methods to rigorously study and account for the systematic effect of beams in CMB analysis. Toward that goal, we have developed a fast pixel space convolution method that can simulate sky maps observed by a scanning instrument, taking into account real beam shapes and scan strategy. The essence is to pre-compute the 'effective beams' using a computer code, 'Fast Effective Beam Convolution in Pixel space' (FEBeCoP), that we have developed for the Planck mission. The code computes effective beams given the focal plane beam characteristics of the Planck instrument and the full history of actual satellite pointing, and performs very fast convolution of sky signals using the effective beams. In this paper, we describe the algorithm and the computational scheme that has been implemented. We also outline a few applications of the effective beams in the precision analysis of Planck data, for characterizing the CMB anisotropy and for detecting and measuring properties of point sources.

  7. Launcher Systems Development Cost: Behavior, Uncertainty, Influences, Barriers and Strategies for Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will report on the activities of the IAA Launcher Systems Economics Working Group in preparations for its Launcher Systems Development Cost Behavior Study. The Study goals include: improve launcher system and other space system parametric cost analysis accuracy; improve launcher system and other space system cost analysis credibility; and provide launcher system and technology development program managers and other decisionmakers with useful information on development cost impacts of their decisions. The Working Group plans to explore at least the following five areas in the Study: define and explain development cost behavior terms and concepts for use in the Study; identify and quantify sources of development cost and cost estimating uncertainty; identify and quantify significant influences on development cost behavior; identify common barriers to development cost understanding and reduction; and recommend practical, realistic strategies to accomplish reductions in launcher system development cost.

  8. Energy effects of heat-island reduction strategies in Toronto,Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven

    2003-08-26

    The effect of heat-island reduction (HIR) strategies on annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area is calculated, using an hourly building energy simulation model. Results show that ratepayers could realize potential annual energy savings of over $11M from the effects of HIR strategies. The residential sector accounts for over half (59%) of the total savings, offices 13% and retail stores 28%. Savings from cool roofs are about 20%, shade trees 30%, wind shielding of trees 37%, and ambient cooling by trees and reflective surfaces 12%. These results are preliminary and highly sensitive to the relative price of gas and electricity. Potential annual electricity savings are estimated at about 150GWh and potential peak-power avoidance at 250MW.

  9. Romantic relationship stages and social networking sites: uncertainty reduction strategies and perceived relational norms on facebook.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Anderegg, Courtney

    2014-11-01

    Due to their pervasiveness and unique affordances, social media play a distinct role in the development of modern romantic relationships. This study examines how a social networking site is used for information seeking about a potential or current romantic partner. In a survey, Facebook users (N=517) were presented with Facebook behaviors categorized as passive (e.g., reading a partner's profile), active (e.g., "friending" a common third party), or interactive (e.g., commenting on the partner's wall) uncertainty reduction strategies. Participants reported how normative they perceived these behaviors to be during four possible stages of relationship development (before meeting face-to-face, after meeting face-to-face, casual dating, and exclusive dating). Results indicated that as relationships progress, perceived norms for these behaviors change. Sex differences were also observed, as women perceived passive and interactive strategies as more normative than men during certain relationship stages. PMID:25314128

  10. Harm-reduction strategies weapon of choice in BC's battle with drug addiction.

    PubMed Central

    Kent, H

    1996-01-01

    British Columbia, which holds the dubious distinction of being the country's heroin capital, has introduced a number of programs in an attempt to reduce the number of drug-overdose deaths. A BC coroner who headed a provincial government task force into overdose fatalities in 1994 has recommended a number of harm-reduction strategies such as needle exchanges to reduce the negative consequences associated with illicit drug use. In addition, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia is a world leader in methadone maintenance, with 1800 patients and 250 physicians registered in the program. PMID:8804264

  11. Size Reduction in Early European Domestic Cattle Relates to Intensification of Neolithic Herding Strategies.

    PubMed

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian; Shennan, Stephen; Crema, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis of over 28,000 osteometric measurements from fossil remains dating between c. 5600 and 1500 BCE reveals a substantial reduction in body mass of 33% in Neolithic central European domestic cattle. We investigate various plausible explanations for this phenotypic adaptation, dismissing climatic change as a causal factor, and further rejecting the hypothesis that it was caused by an increase in the proportion of smaller adult females in the population. Instead we find some support for the hypothesis that the size decrease was driven by a demographic shift towards smaller newborns from sub-adult breeding as a result of intensifying meat production strategies during the Neolithic. PMID:26630287

  12. Size Reduction in Early European Domestic Cattle Relates to Intensification of Neolithic Herding Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian; Shennan, Stephen; Crema, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis of over 28,000 osteometric measurements from fossil remains dating between c. 5600 and 1500 BCE reveals a substantial reduction in body mass of 33% in Neolithic central European domestic cattle. We investigate various plausible explanations for this phenotypic adaptation, dismissing climatic change as a causal factor, and further rejecting the hypothesis that it was caused by an increase in the proportion of smaller adult females in the population. Instead we find some support for the hypothesis that the size decrease was driven by a demographic shift towards smaller newborns from sub-adult breeding as a result of intensifying meat production strategies during the Neolithic. PMID:26630287

  13. Multi-microphone adaptive noise reduction strategies for coordinated stimulation in bilateral cochlear implant devices.

    PubMed

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Loizou, Philipos C

    2010-05-01

    Bilateral cochlear implant (BI-CI) recipients achieve high word recognition scores in quiet listening conditions. Still, there is a substantial drop in speech recognition performance when there is reverberation and more than one interferers. BI-CI users utilize information from just two directional microphones placed on opposite sides of the head in a so-called independent stimulation mode. To enhance the ability of BI-CI users to communicate in noise, the use of two computationally inexpensive multi-microphone adaptive noise reduction strategies exploiting information simultaneously collected by the microphones associated with two behind-the-ear (BTE) processors (one per ear) is proposed. To this end, as many as four microphones are employed (two omni-directional and two directional) in each of the two BTE processors (one per ear). In the proposed two-microphone binaural strategies, all four microphones (two behind each ear) are being used in a coordinated stimulation mode. The hypothesis is that such strategies combine spatial information from all microphones to form a better representation of the target than that made available with only a single input. Speech intelligibility is assessed in BI-CI listeners using IEEE sentences corrupted by up to three steady speech-shaped noise sources. Results indicate that multi-microphone strategies improve speech understanding in single- and multi-noise source scenarios. PMID:21117762

  14. Comparison of individual pitch and smart rotor control strategies for load reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, C.; Leithead, W.; Jamieson, P.; Bossanyi, E.; Graham, M.

    2014-06-01

    Load reduction is increasingly seen as an essential part of controller and wind turbine design. On large multi-MW wind turbines that experience high levels of wind shear and turbulence across the rotor, individual pitch control and smart rotor control are being considered. While individual pitch control involves adjusting the pitch of each blade individually to reduce the cyclic loadings on the rotor, smart rotor control involves activating control devices distributed along the blades to alter the local aerodynamics of the blades. Here we investigate the effectiveness of using a DQ-axis control and a distributed (independent) control for both individual pitch and trailing edge flap smart rotor control. While load reductions are similar amongst the four strategies across a wide range of variables, including blade root bending moments, yaw bearing and shaft, the pitch actuator requirements vary. The smart rotor pitch actuator has reduced travel, rates, accelerations and power requirements than that of the individual pitch controlled wind turbines. This benefit alone however would be hard to justify the added design complexities of using a smart rotor, which can be seen as an alternative to upgrading the pitch actuator and bearing. In addition, it is found that the independent control strategy is apt at roles that the collective pitch usually targets, such as tower motion and speed control, and it is perhaps here, in supplementing other systems, that the future of the smart rotor lies.

  15. Strategy for the reduction of Trichloromethane residue levels in farm bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Siobhan; Gleeson, David; Jordan, Kieran; Furey, Ambrose; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; O'Brien, Bernadette

    2013-05-01

    High fat dairy products, such as butter and margarine can be contaminated during the milk production process with a residue called Trichloromethane (TCM), which results from the use of chlorine based detergent solutions. Although, TCM concentrations in Irish products are not at levels that are a public health issue, such contamination can cause marketing difficulties in countries to which Irish products are being exported. In an attempt to reduce such milk residues, a template procedure was developed, tried and tested on 43 farms (from 3 processing companies). This involved identifying farms with high TCM milk, applying corrective action in the form of advice and recommendations to reduce TCM and re-measuring milks from these farms. Trichloromethane in milk was measured by head-space gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The TCM reduction strategy proved successful in significantly reducing the levels in milk in the farms tested, e.g. TCM was reduced from 0.006 to the target of 0.002 mg/kg (P < 0.05). The strategy was then applied to farms who supplied milk to six Irish dairy processors with the objective of reducing TCM in those milks to a level of ≤ 0.002 mg/kg. Initially, milk tankers containing milks from approximately 10-15 individual farms were sampled and analysed and tankers with high TCM (>0.002 mg/kg) identified. Individual herd milks contributing to these tankers were subsequently sampled and analysed and farms supplying high TCM identified. Guidance and advice was provided to the high TCM milk suppliers and levels of TCM of these milk supplies were monitored subsequently. A significant reduction (minimum P < 0.05) in milk TCM was observed in 5 of the 6 dairy processor milks, while a numerical reduction in TCM was observed in the remaining processor milk. PMID:23473534

  16. Investigation of CO2 emission reduction strategy from in-use gasoline vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Arti; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-04-01

    On road transport emissions is kicking off in Indian cities due to high levels of urbanization and economic growth during the last decade in Indian subcontinent. In 1951, about 17% of India's population were living in urban areas that increased to 32% in 2011. Currently, India is fourth largest Green House Gas (GHG) emitter in the world, with its transport sector being the second largest contributor of CO2 emissions. For achieving prospective carbon reduction targets, substantial opportunity among in-use vehicle is necessary to quantify. Since, urban traffic flow and operating condition has significant impact on exhaust emission (Choudhary and Gokhale, 2016). This study examined the influence of vehicular operating kinetics on CO2 emission from predominant private transportation vehicles of Indian metropolitan city, Guwahati. On-board instantaneous data were used to quantify the impact of CO2 emission on different mileage passenger cars and auto-rickshaws at different times of the day. Further study investigates CO2 emission reduction strategies by using International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to improve co-benefit in private transportation by integrated effort such as gradual phase-out of inefficient vehicle and low carbon fuel. The analysis suggests that fuel type, vehicles maintenance and traffic flow management have potential for reduction of urban sector GHG emissions. Keywords: private transportation, CO2, instantaneous emission, IVE model Reference Choudhary, A., Gokhale, S. (2016). Urban real-world driving traffic emissions during interruption and congestion. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 43: 59-70.

  17. Different strategies for reducing intestinal background radioactivity associated with imaging HSV1-tk expression using established radionucleoside probes

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Alessandro; Brader, Peter; Serganova, Inna; Zanzonico, Pat; Cai, Shangde; Lipman, Neil S.; Hricak, Hedvig; Blasberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    One limitation of HSV1-tk reporter PET imaging with nucleoside analogues is the high background radioactivity in the intestine. We hypothesized that endogenous expression of thymidine kinase in bacterial flora could phosphorylate and trap such radiotracers, contributing to the high radioactivity levels in the bowel and therefore explored different strategies to increase fecal elimination of radiotracer. Methods Intestinal radioactivity was assessed by in vivo microPET imaging and ex vivo tissue sampling following intravenous injection of 18F-FEAU, 124I-FIAU or 18F-FHBG in a germ-free mouse strain. We also explored the use of an osmotic laxative agent and/or a 100% enzymatically hydrolyzed liquid diet. Results No significant differences in intestinal radioactivity were observed between germ-free and normal mice. 18F-FHBG-derived intestinal radioactivity levels were higher than those of 18F-FEAU and 124I-FIAU; the intestine-to-blood ratio was more than 20-fold higher for 18F-FHBG than for 18F-FEAU and 124I-FIAU. The combination of Peptamen and Nulytely lowered intestinal radioactivity levels and increased (2.2-fold) the HSV1-tk transduced xenograft-to-intestine ratio for 18F-FEAU. Conclusions Intestinal bacteria in germ-free mice do not contribute to the high intestinal levels of radioactivity following injection of radionucleoside analogs. The combination of Peptamen and Nulytely increased radiotracer elimination by increasing bowel motility without inducing dehydration. PMID:20128998

  18. Different strategies for reducing intestinal background radioactivity associated with imaging HSV1-tk expression using established radionucleoside probes.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Alessandro; Brader, Peter; Serganova, Inna; Zanzonico, Pat; Cai, Shangde; Lipman, Neil S; Hricak, Hedvig; Blasberg, Ronald G

    2010-02-01

    One limitation of HSV1-tk reporter positron emission tomography (PET) with nucleoside analogues is the high background radioactivity in the intestine. We hypothesized that endogenous expression of thymidine kinase in bacterial flora could phosphorylate and trap such radiotracers, contributing to the high radioactivity levels in the bowel, and therefore explored different strategies to increase fecal elimination of radiotracer. Intestinal radioactivity was assessed by in vivo microPET imaging and ex vivo tissue sampling following intravenous injection of 18F-FEAU, 124I-FIAU, or 18F-FHBG in a germ-free mouse strain. We also explored the use of an osmotic laxative agent and/or a 100% enzymatically hydrolyzed liquid diet. No significant differences in intestinal radioactivity were observed between germ-free and normal mice. 18F-FHBG-derived intestinal radioactivity levels were higher than those of 18F-FEAU and 124I-FIAU; the intestine to blood ratio was more than 20-fold higher for 18F-FHBG than for 18F-FEAU and 124I-FIAU. The combination of Peptamen and Nulytely lowered intestinal radioactivity levels and increased (2.2-fold) the HSV1-tk transduced xenograft to intestine ratio for 18F-FEAU. Intestinal bacteria in germ-free mice do not contribute to the high intestinal levels of radioactivity following injection of radionucleoside analogues. The combination of Peptamen and Nulytely increased radiotracer elimination by increasing bowel motility without inducing dehydration. PMID:20128998

  19. Reduction of Salmonella enterica serotype Poona and background microbiota on fresh-cut cantaloupe by electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Palekar, Mangesh P; Taylor, T Matthew; Maxim, Joseph E; Castillo, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    The efficacy of electron beam (e-beam) irradiation processing to reduce Salmonella enterica serotype Poona on surfaces of fresh-cut cantaloupe, and the impact of e-beam irradiation processing on the numbers of indigenous microorganisms were determined. Additionally, the D10-value for S. Poona reduction on the cut cantaloupe was also determined. Fresh-cut cantaloupe pieces, inoculated with S. Poona to 7.8 log10 CFU/g, were exposed to 0.0, 0.7, or 1.5 kGy. Surviving S. Poona, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and fungi (yeasts, molds) were periodically enumerated on appropriate media over 21 days of storage at 5 °C. Cantaloupe surface pH was measured for irradiated cantaloupe across the 21 day storage period. To determine the D10-value of S. Poona, cantaloupe discs were inoculated and exposed to increasing radiation dosages between 0 and 1.06 kGy; surviving pathogen cells were selectively enumerated. S. Poona was significantly reduced by irradiation; immediate reductions following exposure to 0.7 and 1.5 kGy were 1.1 and 3.6 log10 CFU/g, respectively. After 21 days, S. Poona numbers were between 4.0 and 5.0 log10 CFU/g less than untreated samples at zero-time. Yeasts were not reduced significantly (p ≥ 0.05) by e-beam irradiation and grew slowly but steadily during storage. Counts of LAB and molds were initially reduced with 1.5 kGy (p<0.05) but then LAB recovered grew to high numbers, whereas molds slowly declined for irradiated and control samples. Cantaloupe pH declined during storage, with the greatest decrease in untreated control cantaloupe (p<0.05). The D10-value for S. Poona was determined to be 0.211 kGy, and this difference from the reductions observed in the cut cantaloupe studies may be due to the more precise dose distribution obtained in the thin and flat cantaloupe pieces used for the D10-value experiments. The effect of e-beam irradiation at the same doses used in this study was determined in previous studies to have no negative effect in the quality of

  20. A modelling case study to evaluate control strategies for ozone reduction in Southwestern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castell, N.; Mantilla, E.; Salvador, R.; Stein, A. F.; Millán, M.

    2009-09-01

    structures of the local flows and their impact on emissions; nevertheless, these mesoscale systems are developed within the scope of a synoptic circulation, which also affects both the breeze development and the pollutant transport. In order to take the relationship between the different atmospheric scales into account, we used the CAMx photochemical model coupled with the MM5 meteorological model, both configured with a system of nested grids. The study domain covers an area of 28224 km2, with 2 km horizontal resolution and 18 vertical layers up to a height of 5 km with high resolution in the levels close to the ground. This paper assesses the impact over the hourly and 8-hourly maximum daily ozone concentrations of four reduction strategies in an area with complex terrain: (i) 25% reduction in VOC and NOx from industry and traffic, (ii) 50% reduction in NOx and VOC from the industry, (iii) 50% reduction in NOx and VOC from traffic, and (iv) 100% reduction in NOx and VOC from the petrochemical plant and the refinery. The study area has large industrial sources, such as a petroleum refinery, a petrochemical plant, several chemical complexes and co-generation power plants, among others. The study area includes the cities of Huelva (148,000 inhabitants), Seville (699,760 inhabitants) and Cadiz (127,200 inhabitants). The analyses presented in this work provide an assessment of the effectiveness of several strategies to reduce ozone pollution in different meteorological scenarios.

  1. Comparison of Reductive Ligation‐Based Detection Strategies for Nitroxyl (HNO) and S‐Nitrosothiols

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zhengrui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Phosphine‐based detection strategies for both nitroxyl (HNO) and S‐nitrosothiols (RSNO) were investigated and compared. Phosphorus NMR studies show that azaylides derived from HNO or organic RSNO efficiently participate in subsequent reductive ligation required for fluorescence generation in properly substituted substrates. S‐Azaylides derived from biological RSNO containing free amine and carboxylic acid groups primarily yield phosphine oxides suggesting these groups facilitate nonligation pathways such as hydrolysis. The fluorescence response of a phosphine‐based fluorophore toward the same RSNO confirms these differences and indicates that these probes selectively react with HNO. Flow cytometry experiments in HeLa cells reinforce the reactivity difference and offer a potential fast screening approach for endogenous HNO sources. PMID:27308231

  2. Iterative Reductive Aromatization/Ring-Closing Metathesis Strategy toward the Synthesis of Strained Aromatic Belts.

    PubMed

    Golder, Matthew R; Colwell, Curtis E; Wong, Bryan M; Zakharov, Lev N; Zhen, Jingxin; Jasti, Ramesh

    2016-05-25

    The construction of all sp(2)-hybridized molecular belts has been an ongoing challenge in the chemistry community for decades. Despite numerous attempts, these double-stranded macrocycles remain outstanding synthetic challenges. Prior approaches have relied on late-state oxidations and/or acid-catalyzed processes that have been incapable of accessing the envisaged targets. Herein, we describe the development of an iterative reductive aromatization/ring-closing metathesis approach. Successful syntheses of nanohoop targets containing benzo[k]tetraphene and dibenzo[c,m]pentaphene moieties not only provide proof of principle that aromatic belts can be derived by this new strategy but also represent some of the largest aromatic belt fragments reported to date. PMID:27133789

  3. Public Health Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use as a Harm Reduction Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, David A.; Meyer, Roger E.; Tanzer, Jason M.; Mirvish, Sidney S.; Lewin, Freddi

    2006-01-01

    Harm reduction strategies involve promoting a product that has adverse health consequences as a substitute for one that has more severe adverse health consequences. Smokeless tobacco low in nitrosamine content offers potential benefits in reducing smoking prevalence rates. Possible harm arises from the potential for such products to serve as a gateway to more harmful tobacco products, public misinterpretation of “less harmful” as “safe,” distraction from the public health goal of tobacco elimination, and ethical issues involved in advising those marketing these harmful products. We offer a research agenda to provide a stronger basis for evaluating the risks and benefits of smokeless tobacco as a means of reducing the adverse health effects of tobacco. PMID:17018821

  4. Drug use in prisons: strategies for harm reduction (ANRS-PRIDE Program).

    PubMed

    Michel, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    The existence of risky practices related to drug use inside prisons is a reality everywhere and is a major issue for the community as a whole. The level of implementation of harm reduction (HR) measures recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is very often poor and reveals inadequate concern about public health issues in the prison environment, without any respect for the principle of equivalence for prevention and health assistance with the general community. In 2009, the French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (ANRS) developed a comprehensive research program focusing on the prevention of infectious risks in prison settings. Different steps were defined and scheduled, and included i) an inventory of harm reduction (HR) measures, ii) a qualitative survey on the reality of risky practices, iii) an assessment of the social acceptability of HR measures, and iv) an intervention trial exploring the feasibility of upgrading existing HR strategies. A progressive implementation of this program has shown it is feasible, but in France, it requires tenacity, simple long-term objectives, support from a scientific authority, pedagogical interventions for all involved, as well as constant discussion with the authorities. The implementation of this program in other countries is equally simple to manage. PMID:27383342

  5. Risk-Reduction Strategies to Expand Radon Care Planning with Vulnerable Groups

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States and the leading cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Residential radon is the cause of approximately 21,000 U.S. lung cancer deaths each year. Dangerous levels of radon are just as likely to be found in low-rise apartments and townhomes as single-family homes in the same area. The preferred radon mitigation strategy can be expensive and requires structural modifications to the home. The public health nurse (PHN) needs a collection of low-cost alternatives when working with low-income families or families who rent their homes. Method A review of the literature was performed to identify evidence-based methods to reduce radon risk with vulnerable populations. Results Fourteen recommendations for radon risk reduction were categorized into four strategies. Nine additional activities for raising awareness and increasing testing were also included. Discussion The results pair the PHN with practical interventions and the underlying rationale to develop radon careplans with vulnerable families across housing types. The PHN has both the competence and the access to help families reduce their exposure to this potent carcinogen. PMID:24547763

  6. A Linear Programming Approach to the Development of Contrail Reduction Strategies Satisfying Operationally Feasible Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Peng; Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil Yi-Nan; Sun, Dengfent

    2012-01-01

    A class of strategies has been proposed to reduce contrail formation in the United States airspace. A 3D grid based on weather data and the cruising altitude level of aircraft is adjusted to avoid the persistent contrail potential area with the consideration to fuel-efficiency. In this paper, the authors introduce a contrail avoidance strategy on 3D grid by considering additional operationally feasible constraints from an air traffic controller's aspect. First, shifting too many aircraft to the same cruising level will make the miles-in-trail at this level smaller than the safety separation threshold. Furthermore, the high density of aircraft at one cruising level may exceed the workload for the traffic controller. Therefore, in our new model we restrict the number of total aircraft at each level. Second, the aircraft count variation for successive intervals cannot be too drastic since the workload to manage climbing/descending aircraft is much larger than managing cruising aircraft. The contrail reduction is formulated as an integer-programming problem and the problem is shown to have the property of total unimodularity. Solving the corresponding relaxed linear programming with the simplex method provides an optimal and integral solution to the problem. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the methodology.

  7. A dynamic model for assessing the effects of management strategies on the reduction of construction and demolition waste

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Hongping; Chini, Abdol R.; Lu Yujie; Shen Liyin

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We proposes a model for projecting C and D waste reduction of construction projects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model can simulate effects of various management strategies on waste reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model integrates all essential variables that affect C and D waste reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By using the model, best strategies could be identified before being implemented. - Abstract: During the past few decades, construction and demolition (C and D) waste has received increasing attention from construction practitioners and researchers worldwide. A plethora of research regarding C and D waste management has been published in various academic journals. However, it has been determined that existing studies with respect to C and D waste reduction are mainly carried out from a static perspective, without considering the dynamic and interdependent nature of the whole waste reduction system. This might lead to misunderstanding about the actual effect of implementing any waste reduction strategies. Therefore, this research proposes a model that can serve as a decision support tool for projecting C and D waste reduction in line with the waste management situation of a given construction project, and more importantly, as a platform for simulating effects of various management strategies on C and D waste reduction. The research is conducted using system dynamics methodology, which is a systematic approach that deals with the complexity - interrelationships and dynamics - of any social, economic and managerial system. The dynamic model integrates major variables that affect C and D waste reduction. In this paper, seven causal loop diagrams that can deepen understanding about the feedback relationships underlying C and D waste reduction system are firstly presented. Then a stock-flow diagram is formulated by using software for system dynamics modeling. Finally, a case study is used to

  8. Effects of in-plant interventions on reduction of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and background indicator microorganisms on veal calf hides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Koohmaraie, Mohammad; Luedtke, Brandon E; Wheeler, Tommy L; Bosilevac, Joseph M

    2014-05-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotypes in veal have recently been recognized as a problem. Because hides are considered to be the principal source of EHEC and hide interventions have been shown to be very efficacious in the control of EHEC in beef processing plants, various hide-directed intervention strategies have been implemented in several veal processing plants to mitigate contamination. We evaluated the effectiveness of three different hide interventions used at veal processing plants: A, a water rinse followed by a manual curry comb of the hide; B, application of 200 ppm of chlorine followed by a hot water rinse; and C, a 5-min treatment with chlorine foam followed by a rinse with 180 to 200 ppm of acidified sodium chlorite. The levels of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and E. coli, as well as the prevalence of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 EHEC, were determined on hides pre- and postintervention. Interventions A, B, and C reduced indicator organisms (P < 0.05) by 0.8 to 3.5 log CFU, 2.1 to 2.7 log CFU, and 1.0 to 1.5 log CFU, respectively. No Salmonella was detected on hides prior to intervention. E. coli O157:H7 prevalence was observed at only one plant, so comparison was not possible. Other non-O157 EHECs (O26, O103, and O111) were observed for all interventions studied. Interventions A and B reduced culture-confirmed non-O157 EHEC by 29 and 21 % , respectively, whereas intervention C did not reduce non-O157 EHEC. Our results show that the most effective veal hide intervention for reducing indicator organisms and EHECs was the application of 200 ppm of chlorine followed by hot water rinse. These data provide options that veal processors can consider in their EHEC control program. PMID:24780328

  9. Conflict management by hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) during crowding: a tension-reduction strategy.

    PubMed

    Judge, P G; Griffaton, N S; Fincke, A M

    2006-10-01

    Primates change a variety of behavioral responses during short-term exposure to crowding. Under crowded conditions, rates of aggression, submissive behavior, and affiliative behavior may increase or decrease. Different patterns of change among these three categories of response have been interpreted as various coping "strategies" for managing the increased risk of conflict under crowded conditions. Grooming is of particular interest because this behavior is known to have a calming influence on the recipient and could be used to manage conflict under tense situations. A captive group of nine hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) composed of two harems was observed under short-term crowding to determine whether this species adopts conflict-management strategies similar to those described in other primates. The aggression, submission, affiliation, and displacement activities of the six adults in the group (two males and four females) were recorded, and behaviors in their small indoor quarters was compared with baseline behaviors in the outdoor section of their enclosure, which had over 10 times more space. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare behavioral rates during crowding with baseline rates recorded immediately after crowding and during matched controls collected at the same time of day as the crowding sessions. Aggression and submission rates did not change significantly across conditions. Huddling together and proximity increased during crowding, and females increased grooming of their harem male during crowding. Displacement activities (e.g., pacing and self-grooming) increased during crowding, but scratching, an indicator of anxiety in primates, did not. The pattern of behavior exhibited by this group conforms to an active "tension-reduction" strategy in which animals successfully reduce the higher risk of aggression during crowding. PMID:16892412

  10. The Protective Behavioral Strategies Scale–20: Improved Content Validity of the Serious Harm Reduction Subscale

    PubMed Central

    Treloar, Hayley; Martens, Matthew P.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive drinking in college leads to serious harms, but students who use protective behavioral strategies (PBS) avoid negative consequences by drinking in a safer manner. This study aimed to increase the content validity of the Serious Harm Reduction subscale of the most widely used measure of PBS, the Protective Behavioral Strategies Scale (PBSS: Martens et al., 2005). An initial item pool was developed from literature on college student drinking, existing lists of drinking control strategies, and an online pilot survey of college students (N = 1832). Items were also evaluated by focus groups of experts and members of the target population. Next, 1376 students (57.9% women; Mage = 18.5 years; 86.3% White) completed questionnaires online. A subset (n = 170; 12.4%) completed a second survey 4–6 weeks later to examine test-retest reliability and criterion-related validity. The remaining students (n = 1206) were divided into equal development and validation samples. Analyses included exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the development sample, factor structure replication and gender invariance testing in the validity sample. Results of this process produced the PBSS-20, with an expanded SHR scale of 8 items. The revised SHR scale demonstrated improved internal consistency and was associated with a broader range of alcohol-related negative consequences at follow-up. Given its focus on reducing serious harms, the SHR scale is arguably the most clinically relevant PBSS factor, and those who use this measure will benefit from the expanded breadth of SHR content and improved psychometric properties of the PBSS-20. PMID:25558969

  11. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Davis, Glen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance. Methods Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Results Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and

  12. From LEO, to the Moon and then Mars: Developing a Global Strategy for Exploration Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Most nations currently involved in human spaceflight, or with such ambitions, believe that space exploration will capture the imagination of our youth resulting in future engineers and scientists, advance technologies which will improve life on earth, increase the knowledge of our solar system, and strengthen bonds and relationships across the globe. The Global Exploration Strategy, published in 2007 by 14 space agencies, eloquently makes this case and presents a vision for space exploration. It argues that in order for space exploration to be sustainable, nations must work together to address the challenges and share the burden of costs. This paper will examine Mars mission scenarios developed by NASA, ESA and other agencies and show resulting conclusions regarding key challenges, needed technologies and associated mission risks. It will discuss the importance of using the International Space Station as a platform for exploration risk reduction and how the global exploration community will develop lunar exploration elements and architectures that enable the long term goal of human missions to Mars. The International Space Station (ISS) is a critical first step both from a technology and capability demonstration point of view, but also from a partnership point of view. There is much work that can be done in low earth orbit for exploration risk reduction. As the current "outpost at the edge of the frontier", the ISS is a place where we can demonstrate certain technologies and capabilities that will substantially reduce the risk of deploying an outpost on the lunar surface and Mars mission scenarios. The ISS partnership is strong and has fulfilled mission needs. Likewise, the partnerships we build on the moon will provide a strong foundation for establishing partnerships for the human Mars missions. On the moon, we build a permanently manned outpost and deploy technologies and capabilities to allow humans to stay for long periods of time. The moon is interesting from

  13. Evaluation of co-benefits from combined climate change and air pollution reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, Joana; Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank; Rao, Shilpa

    2014-05-01

    The connection of climate change and air pollution is becoming more relevant in the process of policy making and implementation of emission control strategies because of resulting co-benefits and trade-offs. Some sectors, such as fossil fuel combustion, are sources of both pollutants (NOx and PM) as well as greenhouse gas (CO2). Additionally, the use of wood burning as biofuel to reduce climate impact may in fact deteriorate air quality. Furthermore, several air pollutants are important radiative forcers and regulating their emissions impacts on climate. It is evident that both problems need to be undertaken with a common strategy and the existence of cross-policy with co-benefits may encourage their implementation. The LIMITS FP7 project (http://www.feem-project.net/limits/index.html) was designed with the main goal of assessing strategies for reduction of GHG emissions so that the 2°C target can be achieved. The work developed focus on the evaluation of the implementation of strategies analysing several aspects of different scenarios, namely: the feasibility of low carbon scenarios in terms of available technologies and infrastructure, the required financial mechanisms, and also the co-benefits regarding energy security, economic development and air pollution. For the latter, five integrated assessment models (IAMs) provided greenhouse gases and pollutant emission values for several scenarios. These were based on air pollution scenarios defined according to stringency and implementation of future global legislation. They which were also combined with 2 climate policy scenarios (no climate policy and 2.8 W/m2 target). The former are mostly focused on non-climate policies and technical control measures for emissions of air pollutants, such as PM2.5, NOx and SO2, with their emission factors harmonized between the IAMs. With the global air quality source-receptor model TM5-FASST the impact of the resulting emissions was analysed and the co-benefits of combined

  14. Evaluation of parallel reduction strategies for fusion of sensory information from a robot team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Damian M.; Leroy, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    The advantage of using a team of robots to search or to map an area is that by navigating the robots to different parts of the area, searching or mapping can be completed more quickly. A crucial aspect of the problem is the combination, or fusion, of data from team members to generate an integrated model of the search/mapping area. In prior work we looked at the issue of removing mutual robots views from an integrated point cloud model built from laser and stereo sensors, leading to a cleaner and more accurate model. This paper addresses a further challenge: Even with mutual views removed, the stereo data from a team of robots can quickly swamp a WiFi connection. This paper proposes and evaluates a communication and fusion approach based on the parallel reduction operation, where data is combined in a series of steps of increasing subsets of the team. Eight different strategies for selecting the subsets are evaluated for bandwidth requirements using three robot missions, each carried out with teams of four Pioneer 3-AT robots. Our results indicate that selecting groups to combine based on similar pose but distant location yields the best results.

  15. Microbial metal reduction by members of the genus Shewanella: novel strategies for anaerobic respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Dichristina, Thomas; Bates, David J.; Burns, Justin L.; Dale, Jason R.; Payne, Amanda N.

    2006-01-01

    Metal-reducing members of the genus Shewanella are important components of the microbial community residing in redox-stratified freshwater and marine environments. Metal-reducing gram-negative bacteria such as Shewanella, however, are presented with a unique physiological challenge: they are required to respire anaerobically on terminal electron acceptors which are either highly insoluble (Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-oxides) and reduced to soluble end-products or highly soluble (U(VI) and Tc(VII)) and reduced to insoluble end-products. To overcome physiological problems associated with metal solubility, metal-respiring Shewanella are postulated to employ a variety of novel respiratory strategies not found in other gram-negative bacteria which respire on soluble electron acceptors such as O2, NO3 and SO4. The following chapter highlights the latest findings on the molecular mechanism of Fe(III), U(VI) and Tc(VII) reduction by Shewanella, with particular emphasis on electron transport chain physiology.

  16. Initiation process of earthquakes and its implications for seismic hazard reduction strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, H

    1996-01-01

    For the average citizen and the public, "earthquake prediction" means "short-term prediction," a prediction of a specific earthquake on a relatively short time scale. Such prediction must specify the time, place, and magnitude of the earthquake in question with sufficiently high reliability. For this type of prediction, one must rely on some short-term precursors. Examinations of strain changes just before large earthquakes suggest that consistent detection of such precursory strain changes cannot be expected. Other precursory phenomena such as foreshocks and nonseismological anomalies do not occur consistently either. Thus, reliable short-term prediction would be very difficult. Although short-term predictions with large uncertainties could be useful for some areas if their social and economic environments can tolerate false alarms, such predictions would be impractical for most modern industrialized cities. A strategy for effective seismic hazard reduction is to take full advantage of the recent technical advancements in seismology, computers, and communication. In highly industrialized communities, rapid earthquake information is critically important for emergency services agencies, utilities, communications, financial companies, and media to make quick reports and damage estimates and to determine where emergency response is most needed. Long-term forecast, or prognosis, of earthquakes is important for development of realistic building codes, retrofitting existing structures, and land-use planning, but the distinction between short-term and long-term predictions needs to be clearly communicated to the public to avoid misunderstanding. Images Fig. 8 PMID:11607657

  17. Understanding and Confronting Our Mistakes: The Epidemiology of Error in Radiology and Strategies for Error Reduction.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Michael A; Walker, Eric A; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2015-10-01

    Arriving at a medical diagnosis is a highly complex process that is extremely error prone. Missed or delayed diagnoses often lead to patient harm and missed opportunities for treatment. Since medical imaging is a major contributor to the overall diagnostic process, it is also a major potential source of diagnostic error. Although some diagnoses may be missed because of the technical or physical limitations of the imaging modality, including image resolution, intrinsic or extrinsic contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio, most missed radiologic diagnoses are attributable to image interpretation errors by radiologists. Radiologic interpretation cannot be mechanized or automated; it is a human enterprise based on complex psychophysiologic and cognitive processes and is itself subject to a wide variety of error types, including perceptual errors (those in which an important abnormality is simply not seen on the images) and cognitive errors (those in which the abnormality is visually detected but the meaning or importance of the finding is not correctly understood or appreciated). The overall prevalence of radiologists' errors in practice does not appear to have changed since it was first estimated in the 1960s. The authors review the epidemiology of errors in diagnostic radiology, including a recently proposed taxonomy of radiologists' errors, as well as research findings, in an attempt to elucidate possible underlying causes of these errors. The authors also propose strategies for error reduction in radiology. On the basis of current understanding, specific suggestions are offered as to how radiologists can improve their performance in practice. PMID:26466178

  18. Selectable markers with potential activity against insects, plus other insect-oriented strategies for mycotoxin reduction in Midwest corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of insect damage has the potential to greatly reduce the levels of mycotoxins in corn, as studies with Bt corn have shown. However, the large number of insect species involved necessitates the development of comprehensive insect control to most effectively utilize this strategy. One stra...

  19. Reverse Auction: A Potential Strategy for Reduction of Pharmacological Therapy Cost

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Sara Michelly Gonçalves; Issa, Victor Sarli; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Storer, Samantha; Gonçalves, Bianca Gigliotti; Santos, Valter Garcia; Carvas Junior, Nelson; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2015-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy is a significant economic burden. Objective We tested whether using reverse auction (RA) as compared with commercial pharmacy (CP) to purchase medicine results in lower pharmaceutical costs for heart failure (HF) and heart transplantation (HT) outpatients. Methods We compared the costs via RA versus CP in 808 HF and 147 HT patients followed from 2009 through 2011, and evaluated the influence of clinical and demographic variables on cost. Results The monthly cost per patient for HF drugs acquired via RA was $10.15 (IQ 3.51-40.22) versus $161.76 (IQ 86.05‑340.15) via CP; for HT, those costs were $393.08 (IQ 124.74-774.76) and $1,207.70 (IQ 604.48-2,499.97), respectively. Conclusion RA may reduce the cost of prescription drugs for HF and HT, potentially making HF treatment more accessible. Clinical characteristics can influence the cost and benefits of RA. RA may be a new health policy strategy to reduce costs of prescribed medications for HF and HT patients, reducing the economic burden of treatment. PMID:26200898

  20. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  1. Child poverty. Ways forward for the paediatrician: A comprehensive overview of poverty reduction strategies requiring paediatric support

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suparna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The harmful effects of child poverty are well documented. Despite this, progress in poverty reduction in Canada has been slow. A significant gap exists between what is known about eradicating poverty and its implementation. Paediatricians can play an important role in bridging this gap by understanding and advancing child poverty reduction. Establishment of a comprehensive national poverty reduction plan is essential to improving progress. The present review identifies the key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy. These elements include effective poverty screening, promoting healthy child development and readiness to learn, ensuring food and housing security, providing extended health care coverage for the uninsured and using place-based solutions and team-level interventions. Specific economic interventions are also reviewed. Addressing the social determinants of health in these ways is crucial to narrowing disparities in wealth and health so that all children in Canada reach their full potential. PMID:26038640

  2. Child poverty. Ways forward for the paediatrician: A comprehensive overview of poverty reduction strategies requiring paediatric support.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suparna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    The harmful effects of child poverty are well documented. Despite this, progress in poverty reduction in Canada has been slow. A significant gap exists between what is known about eradicating poverty and its implementation. Paediatricians can play an important role in bridging this gap by understanding and advancing child poverty reduction. Establishment of a comprehensive national poverty reduction plan is essential to improving progress. The present review identifies the key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy. These elements include effective poverty screening, promoting healthy child development and readiness to learn, ensuring food and housing security, providing extended health care coverage for the uninsured and using place-based solutions and team-level interventions. Specific economic interventions are also reviewed. Addressing the social determinants of health in these ways is crucial to narrowing disparities in wealth and health so that all children in Canada reach their full potential. PMID:26038640

  3. HARLIE 3-D Aerosol Backscatter and Wind Profile Measurements During Recent Field Experiments: Background Noise Reduction with a Fabry-Perot Etalon Filter in the HARLIE System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sangwoo; Miller, David O.; Schwemmer, Geary; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Andrus, Ionio; Egbert, Cameron; Anderson, Mark; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Background noise reduction of War signals is one of the most important factors in achieving better signal to noise ratio and precise atmospheric data from Mar measurements. Fahey Perot etalons have been used in several lidar systems as narrow band pass filters in the reduction of scattered sunlight. An slalom with spectral bandwidth, (Delta)v=0.23/cm, free spectral range, FSR=6.7/cm, and diameter, d=24mm was installed in a fiber coupled box which included a 500 pm bandwidth interference Filter. The slalom box couples the telescope and detector with 200 pm core fibers and 21 mm focal length collimators. The angular magnification is M=48. The etalon box was inserted into the Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE) system and tested during the HARGLO-2 intercomparison campaign conducted in November 2001 at Wallops Island, Virginia. This paper presents the preliminary test results of the slalom and a complete analysis will be presented at the conference.

  4. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-11-30

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings [direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building [direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements [indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over $11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of $0.084/kWh and $5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent

  5. Generating trust: Programmatic strategies to reach women who inject drugs with harm reduction services in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Zamudio-Haas, Sophia; Mahenge, Bathsheba; Saleem, Haneefa; Mbwambo, Jessie; Lambdin, Barrot H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Strong evidence supports the effectiveness of methadone-assisted therapy (MAT) to treat opioid dependence, reduce the risk of HIV transmission, and improve HIV related health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence reaches 71% in women who inject drugs (WWID) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; creating an urgent need for access to MAT. Despite the availability and potential benefits of treatment, few women have enrolled in services. This formative research sought to identify programmatic strategies to increase women’s participation in outreach and their subsequent enrollment in MAT. Methods We conducted twenty-five, in-depth interviews with patients and their providers at a MAT clinic. Open-ended interviews explored enrollment experiences, with a focus on contextual barriers and facilitators unique to women. Ethnographic observations of harm reduction education at outreach sites and the MAT clinic enriched interview data. Trust/mistrust emerged as an overarching theme cross cutting patient and provider accounts of the connective process to enroll PWID in the methadone program. We explore trust and mistrust in relationship to the interrelated themes of family loss, social isolation, vehement discrimination and motivation for treatment. Results Narratives delineated both the generation of mistrust against PWID and the generation of mistrust in PWID against outsiders and medical institutions. In order to enroll PWID in treatment, community base organizations engaged outreach strategies to overcome mistrust and connect eligible patients to care, which varied in their success at recruiting women and men. Greater discrimination against WWID pushed them into hiding, away from outreach teams that focus on outdoor areas where men who inject drugs congregate. Building trust through multiple encounters and making a personal connection facilitated entry into care for women. Only PWID were eligible for MAT, due to resource constraints and the higher

  6. New strategy toward dioxin risk reduction for local residents surrounding severe dioxin hotspots in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thi Tran, Tuyet-Hanh; Nguyen, Ngoc-Bich; Le, Vu-Anh

    2013-01-01

    Background A public health intervention program with active involvement of local related stakeholders was piloted in the Bien Hoa dioxin hotspot (2007–2009), and then expanded to the Da Nang dioxin hotspot in Vietnam (2009–2011). It aimed to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure of local residents through foods. This article presents the results of the intervention in Da Nang. Methodology To assess the results of this intervention program, pre- and post-intervention knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were implemented in 400 households, randomly selected from four wards surrounding the Da Nang Airbase in 2009 and 2011, respectively. Results After the intervention, the knowledge on the existence of dioxin in food, dioxin exposure pathways, potential high-risk foods, and preventive measures significantly increased (P<0.05). Ninety-eight percent were willing to follow advice on preventing dioxin exposure. Practices to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure also significantly improved (P<0.05). After intervention, 60.4% of households undertook exposure preventive measures, significantly higher than that of the pre-intervention survey (39.6%; χ2=40.15, P<0.001). High-risk foods had quite low rates of daily consumption (from 0 to 2.5%) and were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Conclusions This is seen as an effective intervention strategy toward reducing the risk of human exposure to dioxin at dioxin hotspots. While greater efforts are needed for remediating dioxin-polluted areas inside airbases, there is also evidence to suggest that, during the past four decades, pollution has expanded to the surrounding areas. For this reason, this model should be quickly expanded to the remaining dioxin hotspots in Vietnam to further reduce the exposure risks in other areas. PMID:23791241

  7. Theoretical assessment of optical resolution enhancement and background fluorescence reduction by three-dimensional nonlinear structured illumination microscopy using stimulated emission depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dake, Fumihiro

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (SIM) enlarges frequency cutoff laterally and axially by a factor of two, compared with conventional microscopy. However, its optical resolution is still fundamentally limited. It is necessary to introduce nonlinearity to enlarge frequency cutoff further. We propose three-dimensional nonlinear structured illumination microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion (STED) effect, which has a structured excitation pattern and a structured STED pattern, and both three-dimensional illumination patterns have the same lateral pitch and orientation. Theoretical analysis showed that nonlinearity induced by STED effect, which causes harmonics and contributes to enlarging frequency cutoff, depends on the phase difference between two structured illuminations and that the phase difference of π is the most efficient to increase nonlinearity. We also found that undesirable background fluorescence, which degenerates the contrast of structured pattern and limits the ability of SIM, can be reduced by our method. These results revealed that optical resolution improvement and background fluorescence reduction would be compatible. The feasibility study showed that our method will be realized with commercially available laser, having 3.5 times larger frequency cutoff compared with conventional microscopy.

  8. Theoretical assessment of optical resolution enhancement and background fluorescence reduction by three-dimensional nonlinear structured illumination microscopy using stimulated emission depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dake, Fumihiro

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (SIM) enlarges frequency cutoff laterally and axially by a factor of two, compared with conventional microscopy. However, its optical resolution is still fundamentally limited. It is necessary to introduce nonlinearity to enlarge frequency cutoff further. We propose three-dimensional nonlinear structured illumination microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion (STED) effect, which has a structured excitation pattern and a structured STED pattern, and both three-dimensional illumination patterns have the same lateral pitch and orientation. Theoretical analysis showed that nonlinearity induced by STED effect, which causes harmonics and contributes to enlarging frequency cutoff, depends on the phase difference between two structured illuminations and that the phase difference of π is the most efficient to increase nonlinearity. We also found that undesirable background fluorescence, which degenerates the contrast of structured pattern and limits the ability of SIM, can be reduced by our method. These results revealed that optical resolution improvement and background fluorescence reduction would be compatible. The feasibility study showed that our method will be realized with commercially available laser, having 3.5 times larger frequency cutoff compared with conventional microscopy.

  9. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict implementation of harm reduction strategies among MDMA/ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alan K; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-06-01

    This prospective study was designed to test whether the variables proposed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were associated with baseline intention to implement and subsequent use of 2 MDMA/ecstasy-specific harm reduction interventions: preloading/postloading and pill testing/pill checking. Using targeted Facebook advertisements, an international sample of 391 recreational ecstasy users were recruited to complete questionnaires assessing their ecstasy consumption history, and their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, habit strength (past strategy use), and intention to use these two strategies. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were significantly associated with baseline intention to preload/postload and pill test/pill check. Out of the 391 baseline participants, 100 completed the two-month follow-up assessment. Baseline habit strength and frequency of ecstasy consumption during the three months prior to baseline were the only significant predictors of how often participants used the preloading/postloading strategy during the follow-up. Baseline intention to pill test/pill check was the only significant predictor of how often participants used this strategy during the follow-up. These findings provide partial support for TPB variables as both correlates of baseline intention to implement and predictors of subsequent use of these two strategies. Future investigations could assess whether factors related to ecstasy consumption (e.g., subjective level of intoxication, craving, negative consequences following consumption), and environmental factors (e.g., accessibility and availability of harm reduction resources) improve the prediction of how often ecstasy users employ these and other harm reduction strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322805

  10. Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-03-15

    We have developed summary tables (sorted by heating- and cooling-degree-days) to estimate the potential of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., solar-reflective roofs, shade trees, reflective pavements, and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings. The tables provide estimates of savings for both direct effect (reducing heat gain through the building shell) and indirect effect (reducing the ambient air temperature). In this analysis, we considered three building types that offer the most savings potential : residences, offices, and retail stores. Each building type was characterized in detail by Pre-1980 (old) or 1980+ (new) construction vintage and with natural gas or electricity as heating fuel. We defined prototypical-building characteristics for each building type and simulated the effects of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model and weather data for about 240 locations in the U.S. A statistical analysis of previously completed simulations for five cities was used to estimate the indirect savings. Our simulations included the effect of (1) solar-reflective roofing material on building [direct effect], (2) placement of deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], and (3) ambient cooling achieved by urban reforestation and reflective building surfaces and pavements [indirect effect]. Upon completion of estimating the direct and indirect energy savings for all the selected locations, we integrated the results in tables arranged by heating- and cooling-degree-days. We considered 15 bins for heating-degree-days, and 11 bins for cooling-degree-days. Energy use and savings are presented per 1000 ft2 of roof area. In residences heated with gas and in climates with greater than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the annual electricity savings in Pre-1980 stock ranged from 650 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2; for 1980+ stock savings ranged 300 to 600 kWh/1000 ft2

  11. Gemitis : an integrated and participative risk reduction strategy for the sustainable development of cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masure, P.

    2003-04-01

    The GEMITIS method has been implemented since 1995 into a global and integrated Risk Reduction Strategy for improving the seismic risk-assessment effectiveness in urban areas, including the generation of crisis scenarios and mid- to long term- seismic impact assessment. GEMITIS required us to provide more precise definitions of notions in common use by natural-hazard specialists, such as elements at risk and vulnerability. Until then, only the physical and human elements had been considered, and analysis of their vulnerability referred to their fragility in the face of aggression by nature. We have completed this approach by also characterizing the social and cultural vulnerability of a city and its inhabitants, and, with a wider scope, the functional vulnerability of the "urban system". This functional vulnerability depends upon the relations between the system elements (weak links in chains, functional relays, and defense systems) and upon the city's relations with the outside world (interdependence). Though well developed in methods for evaluating industrial risk (fault-tree analysis, event-tree analysis, multiple defense barriers, etc.), this aspect had until now been ignored by the "hard-science" specialists working on natural hazards. Based on the implementation of an Urban System Exposure methodology, we were able to identify specific human, institutional, or functional vulnerability factors for each urban system, which until had been very little discussed by risk-analysis and civil-protection specialists. In addition, we have defined the new concept of "main stakes" of the urban system, ranked by order of social value (or collective utility). Obviously, vital or strategic issues must be better resistant or protected against natural hazards than issues of secondary importance. The ranking of exposed elements of a city in terms of "main stakes" provides a very useful guide for adapting vulnerability studies and for orienting preventive actions. For this

  12. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegscheider, S.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.

    2011-02-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences. The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1) identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2) bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3) can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk. Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  13. Pain-reduction strategies in hypnotic context and hypnosis: ERPs and SCRs during a secondary auditory task.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Bellusci, Anna; Gallo, Carlo; Magurano, Maria Rosaria; Chen, Andrew C N

    2004-10-01

    Pain-rating scores were obtained from 10 high, 10 medium, and 10 low hypnotizable subjects who were holding a painful cold bottle in their left hands and were exposed to pain reduction treatments while they were performing a secondary oddball task. All subjects received suggestions of dissociative imagery and focused analgesia as cognitive strategies for pain reduction. The following measures were obtained for tone targets of the auditory oddball task: (a) reaction time; (b) P300 peak amplitude of the event-related potentials; (c) skin conductance levels and skin conductance responses. Focused analgesia produced the most pain reduction in high, but not medium or low, hypnotizable subjects who showed shorter reaction times, higher central and parietal P300 peaks, and higher skin conductance responses. These findings were discussed vis-a-vis the dissociated-control model assuming that capacity demands of hypnotic suggestion are low. PMID:15590503

  14. Assessing Self-Efficacy to Reduce One's Drinking: Further Evaluation of the Alcohol Reduction Strategies-Current Confidence Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Shane W.; Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E.; Hoffmann, Erica; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bannon, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a previously published questionnaire designed to assess young drinkers’ self-efficacy to employ 31 cognitive-behavioral alcohol reduction strategies. Methods: Undergraduates (n = 353) recruited from a large Midwestern university completed the previously published Alcohol Reduction Strategies-Current Confidence questionnaire (and other measures) for a self-selected heavy drinking setting. Results: Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation suggested that all 31 items comprised a single scale. Correlations of questionnaire scores with selected aspects of drinking history and personality provided support for criterion and discriminant validity, respectively. Women reported higher current confidence to use these strategies than did men, but current confidence did not vary as a function of recent binge status. Conclusion: Given this further demonstration of its psychometric qualities, this questionnaire holds promise as a clinical tool to identify clients who lack confidence in their ability to employ cognitive-behavioral coping strategies to reduce their drinking. PMID:22278317

  15. A Deep Reduction and Partial Oxidation Strategy for Fabrication of Mesoporous Si Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jianwen; Li, Xiaona; Hou, Zhiguo; Zhang, Wanqun; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2016-02-23

    A deep reduction and partial oxidation strategy to convert low-cost SiO2 into mesoporous Si anode with the yield higher than 90% is provided. This strategy has advantage in efficient mesoporous silicon production and in situ formation of several nanometers SiO2 layer on the surface of silicon particles. Thus, the resulted silicon anode provides extremely high reversible capacity of 1772 mAh g(-1), superior cycling stability with more than 873 mAh g(-1) at 1.8 A g(-1) after 1400 cycles (corresponding to the capacity decay rate of 0.035% per cycle), and good rate capability (∼710 mAh g(-1) at 18A g(-1)). These promising results suggest that such strategy for mesoporous Si anode can be potentially commercialized for high energy Li-ion batteries. PMID:26789625

  16. Effect of Group Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Program and Conscious Yoga on Lifestyle, Coping Strategies, and Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Somayeh; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Afrookhteh, Gita; Rahmani, Soheila; Hoveida, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle and ineffective coping strategies are deemed significant variables among patients with hypertension. This study attempted to determine the status of these variables following intervention via the mindfulness-based stress-reduction program (MBSRP) in patients with hypertension. Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study sample, consisting of 30 patients referring to the Hypertension Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital in 2013, was assigned either to the intervention (recipient of the MBSRP and conscious yoga) or to the control group (recipient of yoga training). The intervention group had 8 training sessions over 8 weeks. Lifestyle and coping strategies as well as blood pressure were measured in the intervention group before intervention and then immediately thereafter and at 2 months' follow-up and were compared to those in the control group at the same time points. Result: The mean age of the patients in the intervention (40% women) and control (53% women) groups was 43.66 ± 5.14 and 43.13 ± 5.04 years, respectively. The results showed that the mean scores of lifestyle (p value < 0.05), emotion-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), problem-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001) were significantly different between the intervention and control groups after the intervention. Conclusion: Applying an intervention based on the MBSRP may further improve the lifestyle and coping strategies of patients with hypertension. PMID:26697087

  17. Japanese direct investment in the US high-technology industry: background, strategies, trends, impact, and alternative responses

    SciTech Connect

    Kavner, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Growth of foreign direct investment in the US, exceeding 1000% since 1970, has raised important issues regarding US policies toward foreign trade and domestic economic management. Japan, with its significant direct investment in America's high-technology industry, is often perceived as the most threatening of the foreign investors. This study was undertaken to determine the background, extent, and impact of Japanese direct investment in the US high-technology industry. Examination of patterns of foreign direct investment in the US since 1950 shows that Japan's participation has been governed largely by US monetary policies (e.g., revaluation of currency) and the proposed or actual imposition of protectionist measures (e.g., import quotas). Additional factors include US economic-growth potential, lenient tax laws, stable political structure, and many incentives at the state level, all of which provide an attractive environment for foreign investors. Results suggest that the problems associated with foreign direct investment in the US are far outweighed by its benefits of capital inflow and creation of new jobs. An optimum trade policy, in conjunction with the opening of Japan's trade and investment markets, would eliminate trade barriers and support a stabilization of currency.

  18. Effectiveness of Gross Model-Based Emotion Regulation Strategies Training on Anger Reduction in Drug-Dependent Individuals and its Sustainability in Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Massah, Omid; Sohrabi, Faramarz; A’azami, Yousef; Doostian, Younes; Farhoudian, Ali; Daneshmand, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Emotion plays an important role in adapting to life changes and stressful events. Difficulty regulating emotions is one of the problems drug abusers often face, and teaching these individuals to express and manage their emotions can be effective on improving their difficult circumstances. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Gross model-based emotion regulation strategies training on anger reduction in drug-dependent individuals. Patients and Methods The present study had a quasi-experimental design wherein pretest-posttest evaluations were applied using a control group. The population under study included addicts attending Marivan’s methadone maintenance therapy centers in 2012 - 2013. Convenience sampling was used to select 30 substance-dependent individuals undergoing maintenance treatment who were then randomly assigned to the experiment and control groups. The experiment group received its training in eight two-hour sessions. Data were analyzed using analysis of co-variance and paired t-test. Results There was significant reduction in anger symptoms of drug-dependent individuals after gross model based emotion regulation training (ERT) (P < 0.001). Moreover, the effectiveness of the training on anger was persistent in the follow-up period. Conclusions Symptoms of anger in drug-dependent individuals of this study were reduced by gross model-based emotion regulation strategies training. Based on the results of this study, we may conclude that the gross model based emotion regulation strategies training can be applied alongside other therapies to treat drug abusers undergoing rehabilitation. PMID:27162759

  19. Indirect carbon reduction by residential vegetation and planting strategies in Chicago, USA.

    PubMed

    Jo, H K; McPherson, E G

    2001-02-01

    Concern about climate change has evoked interest in the potential for urban vegetation to help reduce the levels of atmospheric carbon. This study applied computer simulations to try to quantify the modifying effects of existing vegetation on the indirect reduction of atmospheric carbon for two residential neighborhoods in north-west Chicago. The effects of shading, evapotranspiration, and windspeed reduction were considered and were found to have decreased carbon emissions by 3.2 to 3.9% per year for building types in study block 1 where tree cover was 33%, and -0.2 to 3.8% in block 2 where tree cover was 11%. This resulted in a total annual reduction of carbon emission averaging 158.7 (+/- 12.8) kg per residence in block 1 and 18.1 (+/- 5.4) kg per residence in block 2. Windspeed reduction greatly contributed to the decrease of carbon emission. However, shading increased annual carbon emission from the combined change in heating and cooling energy use due to many trees in the wrong locations, which increase heating energy use during the winter. The increase of carbon emission from shading is somewhat specific to Chicago, due in part to the large amount of clean, nuclear-generated cooling energy and the long heating season. In Chicago, heating energy is required for about eight months from October to May and cooling energy is used for the remaining 4 months from June to September. If fossil fuels had been the primary source for cooling energy and the heating season had been shorter, the shading effects on the reduction of carbon emission would be greater. Planting of large trees close to the west wall of buildings, dense planting on the north, and avoidance of planting on the south are recommended to maximize indirect carbon reduction by residential vegetation, in Chicago and other mid and high-latitude cities with long heating seasons. PMID:11381773

  20. Shape Optimization for Drag Reduction in Linked Bodies using Evolution Strategies and the Hybrid Wavelet Collocation - Brinkman Penalization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Gazzola, Mattia; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-11-01

    In this talk we discuss preliminary results for the use of hybrid wavelet collocation - Brinkman penalization approach for shape optimization for drag reduction in flows past linked bodies. This optimization relies on Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method along with the Brinkman penalization technique and the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). Adaptive wavelet collocation method tackles the problem of efficiently resolving a fluid flow on a dynamically adaptive computational grid, while a level set approach is used to describe the body shape and the Brinkman volume penalization allows for an easy variation of flow geometry without requiring body-fitted meshes. We perform 2D simulations of linked bodies in order to investigate whether flat geometries are optimal for drag reduction. In order to accelerate the costly cost function evaluations we exploit the inherent parallelism of ES and we extend the CMA-ES implementation to a multi-host framework. This framework allows for an easy distribution of the cost function evaluations across several parallel architectures and it is not limited to only one computing facility. The resulting optimal shapes are geometrically consistent with the shapes that have been obtained in the pioneering wind tunnel experiments for drag reduction using Evolution Strategies by Ingo Rechenberg.

  1. A CAUTIONARY TALE: RISK REDUCTION STRATEGIES AMONG URBAN AMERICAN INDIAN/ALASKA NATIVE MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Cynthia R.; Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.; Beltran, Ramona; Nelson, Kimberly M.

    2014-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered particularly high risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. In a multi-site cross-sectional survey, 174 AIAN men reported having sex with a man in the past 12 months. We describe harm reduction strategies and sexual behavior by HIV serostatus and seroconcordant partnerships. About half (51.3%) of the respondents reported no anal sex or 100% condom use and 8% were in seroconcordant monogamous partnership. Of the 65 men who reported any sero-adaptive strategy (e.g., 100% seroconcordant partnership, strategic positioning or engaging in any strategy half or most of the time), only 35 (54.7%) disclosed their serostatus to their partners and 27 (41.5%) tested for HIV in the past 3 months. Public health messages directed towards AIAN MSM should continue to encourage risk reduction practices, including condom use and sero-adaptive behaviors. However, messages should emphasize the importance of HIV testing and HIV serostatus disclosure when relying solely on sero-adaptive practices. PMID:23387949

  2. A cautionary tale: risk reduction strategies among urban American Indian/Alaska Native men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Cynthia R; Walters, Karina L; Simoni, Jane M; Beltran, Ramona; Nelson, Kimberly M

    2013-02-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered particularly high risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. In a multi-site cross-sectional survey, 174 AIAN men reported having sex with a man in the past 12 months. We describe harm reduction strategies and sexual behavior by HIV serostatus and seroconcordant partnerships. About half (51.3%) of the respondents reported no anal sex or 100% condom use and 8% were in seroconcordant monogamous partnership. Of the 65 men who reported any sero-adaptive strategy (e.g., 100% seroconcordant partnership, strategic positioning or engaging in any strategy half or most of the time), only 35 (54.7%) disclosed their serostatus to their partners and 27 (41.5%) tested for HIV in the past 3 months. Public health messages directed towards AIAN MSM should continue to encourage risk reduction practices, including condom use and sero-adaptive behaviors. However, messages should emphasize the importance of HIV testing and HIV serostatus disclosure when relying solely on sero-adaptive practices. PMID:23387949

  3. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to

  4. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  5. A strategy for residual acceleration data reduction and dissemination. [from orbiting space laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Alexander, J. I. D.

    1991-01-01

    A data reduction plan is being developed to efficiently process residual acceleration data from orbiting space laboratories. Implementation of the reduction plan will result in a useful, manageable accelerometer data base which can be readily employed by principal investigators during post-flight analysis of experimental results. The data reduction plan will also assist in the characterization of the acceleration environment of orbiters, which is important for the planning of future experimental missions. Prototype versions of the reduction plan are being tested using accelerometer data recorded during the Spacelab 3 (SL3) mission. Transient disturbances caused by shuttle and experiment operations and crew activities are being cataloged. The magnitudes of such disturbances can be as much as 0.01 g, but are rarely sustained for more than a fraction of a second and tend to vary greatly in orientation. It is found that the recorded frequency components of the SL3 disturbances do not exceed tolerance limits determined from modeling for a selected experiment set.

  6. Laboratory Assessment of Emission Reduction Strategies for the Agricultural Fumigants 1,3-Dichloropropene and Chloropicrin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increased use of the agricultural fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP), it is important that strategies to reduce emissions of these fumigant from soil to the air are assessed to protect air quality. Using an established soil column approach, the following emission re...

  7. Assessing University Students' Self-Efficacy to Employ Alcohol-Related Harm Reduction Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E.; Hoffmann, Erica; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M.; Kraus, Shane W.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bannon, Erin E.; Pavlick, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Develop and evaluate key psychometric properties of a self-report questionnaire specifically designed to assess student drinkers' self-confidence to employ a variety of strategies intended to reduce unhealthy consequences of high-risk drinking. Methods: Four hundred ninety-eight participants rated their confidence (from "not at all…

  8. Tobacco Smoke–Related Health Effects Induced by 1,3-Butadiene and Strategies for Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G.

    2013-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a smoke component selected by the World Health Organization (WHO) study group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) for mandated lowering. We examined the tobacco smoke–related health effects induced by BD and possible health impacts of risk reduction strategies. BD levels in mainstream smoke (MSS) from international and Canadian cigarettes and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were derived from scientific journals and international government reports. Dose-response analyses from toxicity studies from government reports were evaluated and the most sensitive cancer and noncancer endpoints were selected. The risks were evaluated by taking the ratio (margin of exposure, MOE) from the most sensitive toxicity endpoint and appropriate exposure estimates for BD in MSS and ETS. BD is a good choice for lowering given that MSS and ETS were at levels for cancer (leukemia) and noncancer (ovarian atrophy) risks, and the risks can be significantly lowered when lowering the BD concentrations in smoke. Several risk reduction strategies were analyzed including a maximum level of 125% of the median BD value per milligram nicotine obtained from international brands as recommended by the WHO TobReg, tobacco substitute sheets, dual and triple carbon filters, and polymer-derived carbon. The use of tobacco substitute sheet with a polymer-derived carbon filter resulted in the most significant change in risk for cancer and noncancer effects. Our results demonstrate that MOE analysis might be a practical way to assess the impact of risk reduction strategies on human health in the future. PMID:24014643

  9. Science and technology based earthquake risk reduction strategies: The Indian scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Brijesh; Verma, Mithila

    2013-08-01

    Science and Technology (S & T) interventions are considered to be very important in any effort related to earthquake risk reduction. Their three main components are: earthquake forecast, assessment of earthquake hazard, and education and awareness. In India, although the efforts towards earthquake forecast were initiated about two decades ago, systematic studies started recently with the launch of a National Program on Earthquake Precursors. The quantification of seismic hazard, which is imperative in the present scenario, started in India with the establishment of first seismic observatory in 1898 and since then a substantial progress has been made in this direction. A dedicated education and awareness program was initiated about 10 years ago to provide earthquake education and create awareness amongst the students and society at large. The paper highlights significant S & T efforts made in India towards reduction of risk due to future large earthquakes.

  10. Near-Roadway Air Pollution and Coronary Heart Disease: Burden of Disease and Potential Impact of a Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Rakesh; Lurmann, Frederick; Perez, Laura; Penfold, Bryan; Brandt, Sylvia; Wilson, John; Milet, Meredith; Künzli, Nino; McConnell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have estimated the burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality from ambient regional particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). The burden of near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) generally has not been examined, despite evidence of a causal link with CHD. Objective We investigated the CHD burden from NRAP and compared it with the PM2.5 burden in the California South Coast Air Basin for 2008 and under a compact urban growth greenhouse gas reduction scenario for 2035. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction and number of CHD events attributable to residential traffic density, proximity to a major road, elemental carbon (EC), and PM2.5 compared with the expected disease burden if the population were exposed to background levels of air pollution. Results In 2008, an estimated 1,300 CHD deaths (6.8% of the total) were attributable to traffic density, 430 deaths (2.4%) to residential proximity to a major road, and 690 (3.7%) to EC. There were 1,900 deaths (10.4%) attributable to PM2.5. Although reduced exposures in 2035 should result in smaller fractions of CHD attributable to traffic density, EC, and PM2.5, the numbers of estimated deaths attributable to each of these exposures are anticipated to increase to 2,500, 900, and 2,900, respectively, due to population aging. A similar pattern of increasing NRAP-attributable CHD hospitalizations was estimated to occur between 2008 and 2035. Conclusion These results suggest that a large burden of preventable CHD mortality is attributable to NRAP and is likely to increase even with decreasing exposure by 2035 due to vulnerability of an aging population. Greenhouse gas reduction strategies developed to mitigate climate change offer unexploited opportunities for air pollution health co-benefits. Citation Ghosh R, Lurmann F, Perez L, Penfold B, Brandt S, Wilson J, Milet M, Künzli N, McConnell R. 2016. Near-roadway air pollution and coronary heart disease: burden of disease and potential

  11. HIV-negative and HIV-discordant Gay Male Couples’ Use of HIV Risk-Reduction Strategies: Differences by Partner Type and Couples’ HIV-status

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have adopted a variety of HIV risk-reduction strategies to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). However, whether gay male couples’ use these strategies within and out of their relationships remains unknown. The present national cross-sectional study collected dyadic data from an online sample of 275 HIV-negative and 58 discordant gay male couples to assess their use of these strategies, and whether their use of these strategies had differed by partner type and couples’ HIV-status. The sample used a variety of risk-reduction strategies for UAI. Some differences and patterns by partner type and couples’ HIV status were detected about men’s use of these strategies. Findings indicate the need to bolster HIV prevention and education with gay male couples about their use of these strategies within and outside of their relationships. PMID:23247364

  12. Breastfeeding and HIV-infected women in the United States: harm reduction counseling strategies.

    PubMed

    Levison, Judy; Weber, Shannon; Cohan, Deborah

    2014-07-15

    Social and cultural forces have led some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women to question the recommendation in the United States not to breastfeed. Without an open dialogue, women may choose to breastfeed exclusively or intermittently and not disclose this to their provider. We review the evidence from global studies of the risks of breastfeeding among HIV-infected mothers and propose a harm reduction model for women considering breastfeeding. PMID:24771330

  13. A soft computing based approach using modified selection strategy for feature reduction of medical systems.

    PubMed

    Zuhtuogullari, Kursat; Allahverdi, Novruz; Arikan, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    The systems consisting high input spaces require high processing times and memory usage. Most of the attribute selection algorithms have the problems of input dimensions limits and information storage problems. These problems are eliminated by means of developed feature reduction software using new modified selection mechanism with middle region solution candidates adding. The hybrid system software is constructed for reducing the input attributes of the systems with large number of input variables. The designed software also supports the roulette wheel selection mechanism. Linear order crossover is used as the recombination operator. In the genetic algorithm based soft computing methods, locking to the local solutions is also a problem which is eliminated by using developed software. Faster and effective results are obtained in the test procedures. Twelve input variables of the urological system have been reduced to the reducts (reduced input attributes) with seven, six, and five elements. It can be seen from the obtained results that the developed software with modified selection has the advantages in the fields of memory allocation, execution time, classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity values when compared with the other reduction algorithms by using the urological test data. PMID:23573172

  14. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  15. Ascorbate efflux as a new strategy for iron reduction and transport in plants.

    PubMed

    Grillet, Louis; Ouerdane, Laurent; Flis, Paulina; Hoang, Minh Thi Thanh; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Lobinski, Ryszard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2014-01-31

    Iron (Fe) is essential for virtually all living organisms. The identification of the chemical forms of iron (the speciation) circulating in and between cells is crucial to further understand the mechanisms of iron delivery to its final targets. Here we analyzed how iron is transported to the seeds by the chemical identification of iron complexes that are delivered to embryos, followed by the biochemical characterization of the transport of these complexes by the embryo, using the pea (Pisum sativum) as a model species. We have found that iron circulates as ferric complexes with citrate and malate (Fe(III)3Cit2Mal2, Fe(III)3Cit3Mal1, Fe(III)Cit2). Because dicotyledonous plants only transport ferrous iron, we checked whether embryos were capable of reducing iron of these complexes. Indeed, embryos did express a constitutively high ferric reduction activity. Surprisingly, iron(III) reduction is not catalyzed by the expected membrane-bound ferric reductase. Instead, embryos efflux high amounts of ascorbate that chemically reduce iron(III) from citrate-malate complexes. In vitro transport experiments on isolated embryos using radiolabeled (55)Fe demonstrated that this ascorbate-mediated reduction is an obligatory step for the uptake of iron(II). Moreover, the ascorbate efflux activity was also measured in Arabidopsis embryos, suggesting that this new iron transport system may be generic to dicotyledonous plants. Finally, in embryos of the ascorbate-deficient mutants vtc2-4, vtc5-1, and vtc5-2, the reducing activity and the iron concentration were reduced significantly. Taken together, our results identified a new iron transport mechanism in plants that could play a major role to control iron loading in seeds. PMID:24347170

  16. Ascorbate Efflux as a New Strategy for Iron Reduction and Transport in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Louis; Ouerdane, Laurent; Flis, Paulina; Hoang, Minh Thi Thanh; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Lobinski, Ryszard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is essential for virtually all living organisms. The identification of the chemical forms of iron (the speciation) circulating in and between cells is crucial to further understand the mechanisms of iron delivery to its final targets. Here we analyzed how iron is transported to the seeds by the chemical identification of iron complexes that are delivered to embryos, followed by the biochemical characterization of the transport of these complexes by the embryo, using the pea (Pisum sativum) as a model species. We have found that iron circulates as ferric complexes with citrate and malate (Fe(III)3Cit2Mal2, Fe(III)3Cit3Mal1, Fe(III)Cit2). Because dicotyledonous plants only transport ferrous iron, we checked whether embryos were capable of reducing iron of these complexes. Indeed, embryos did express a constitutively high ferric reduction activity. Surprisingly, iron(III) reduction is not catalyzed by the expected membrane-bound ferric reductase. Instead, embryos efflux high amounts of ascorbate that chemically reduce iron(III) from citrate-malate complexes. In vitro transport experiments on isolated embryos using radiolabeled 55Fe demonstrated that this ascorbate-mediated reduction is an obligatory step for the uptake of iron(II). Moreover, the ascorbate efflux activity was also measured in Arabidopsis embryos, suggesting that this new iron transport system may be generic to dicotyledonous plants. Finally, in embryos of the ascorbate-deficient mutants vtc2-4, vtc5-1, and vtc5-2, the reducing activity and the iron concentration were reduced significantly. Taken together, our results identified a new iron transport mechanism in plants that could play a major role to control iron loading in seeds. PMID:24347170

  17. A Strategy to Promote the Electrocatalytic Activity of Spinels for Oxygen Reduction by Structure Reversal.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangping; Wang, Jun; Ding, Wei; Nie, Yao; Li, Li; Qi, Xueqiang; Chen, Siguo; Wei, Zidong

    2016-01-22

    The electrocatalytic performance of a spinel for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) can be significantly promoted by reversing its crystalline structure from the normal to the inverse. As the spinel structure reversed, the activation and cleavage of O-O bonds are accelerated owing to a dissimilarity effect of the distinct metal atoms co-occupying octahedral sites. The Co(II)Fe(III)Co(III)O4 spinel with the Fe and Co co-occupying inverse structure exhibits an excellent ORR activity, which even exceeds that of the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C by 42 mV in alkaline medium. PMID:26663768

  18. A facile and controllable strategy to synthesize Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles within polyelectrolyte multilayer nanoreactors upon thermal reduction.

    PubMed

    Shang, Li; Jin, Lihua; Guo, Shaojun; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-05-01

    A new synthesis strategy has been developed for the preparation of bimetallic gold-silver (Au-Ag) alloy nanoparticles by the virtue of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) nanoreactors. By controlling the assembly conditions, gold and silver ions can be effectively loaded onto the PEM composed of polyethylenimine (PEI) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) simultaneously. Upon further thermal treatment, Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles with sizes of ca. 3.8 nm formed in the PEM, which were characterized in detail by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Appearance of a single plasmon band in the visible region and lack of apparent core-shell structures in the TEM images confirm the formation of homogeneous Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles. In addition, the surface plasmon absorption band of the Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles shows linear blue-shift with increasing Ag content, which also supported the formation of alloy nanoparticles. Several key parameters of the present strategy have been investigated, which showed that pH of both the assembly solution and gold salt solution and the choice of polymers for constructing PEM, as well as the reduction approach, all played an important role in successfully synthesizing bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles. The formation mechanism of alloy nanoparticles has also been discussed based on the spectral evolution during the thermal reduction. PMID:20017511

  19. Planning for future uncertainties in electric power generation; An analysis of transitional strategies for reduction of carbon and sulfur emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Tabors, R.D.; Monroe, B.L. III . Lab. for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems)

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify strategies for the U.S. electric utility industry for reduction of both acid rain producing and global warming gasses. The research used the EPRI Electric Generation Expansion Analysis System (EGEAS) utility optimization/simulation modeling structure and the EPRI developed regional utilities. It focuses on the North East and East Central region of the U.S. Strategies identified were fuel switching -- predominantly between coal and natural gas, mandated emission limits, and a carbon tax. The overall conclusions of the study are that using less (conservation) will always benefit Carbon Emissions but may or may not benefit Acid Rain emissions by the off setting forces of improved performance of new plant as opposed to reduced overall consumption of final product. Results of the study are highly utility and regional demand specific. The study showed, however, that significant reductions in both acid rain and global warming gas production could be achieved with relatively small increases in the overall cost of production of electricity and that the current dispatch logics available to the utility control rooms were adequate to reschedule dispatch to meet these objectives.

  20. Analysis and synthesis of harmonic reduction in single-phase inverters using a parallel operation technique with different PWM strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kamel, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new technique for harmonic reduction in single-phase inverters, using sinusoidal pulse width modulation (PWM), is presented. A modified circuit based on parallel operation techniques of MOS inverter sets using interphase reactors as current balancers and making use of a specific phase shift between the modulating and carrier waveforms is investigated as a means to economically and efficiently reduce the harmonic contents in the output waveform. In this study, extensions of the natural sampling methods were considered for the PWM strategy, as this method is popular for the single bridge converters. A variety of PWM techniques were investigated analytically using computer simulation. A number of the more promising techniques were tested in the laboratory using commercial signal generators. Finally, a dedicated signal generator was designed and built which implements the best PWM strategy. Good agreement between analytical results and experimental results was observed throughout the project. Detailed analysis shows that the harmonics low than the 15th (or the 29th) are all less than one percent of the fundamental component when the frequency ratio is relatively low 9 (or 15). When the frequency ratio is increased to 45, at low output frequency, harmonics lower than 87th are canceled from the output waveform. This is done without noticeable reduction in the fundamental component. The results show the feasibility of obtaining practically sinusoidal output waveforms.

  1. Non-Reductive Strategies for U Sequestration: Natural Analogues and Practical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, K.; Bethke, C. M.; Massey, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    A number of strategies have been proposed for the in situ remediation of U contaminated zones, including bioreduction, permeable reactive barriers, and incorporation into secondary phases such as phosphates. An alternative approach is to sequester U within amorphous Si phases such as opaline silica. We have investigated the isotopic and major element composition and structure of naturally occurring U-rich opaline silica in semi-arid soil environments across the western United States. These phases constitute a large natural reservoir of sequestered U. By combining these observations with geochemical considerations, we propose a remedial strategy for sequestering U in amorphous silica. The U-rich opal occurs as laminations, veins, and coatings on clasts in soils developed on a range of parent materials. U-rich opal deposits are also found as speleothems in caves, as silica-rich spring deposits, and as cavity fillings and hydrothermal veins in volcanic tuffs. Measurements of U, Th and Pb isotopes reveal the age of the opaline silica, demonstrating the long-term stability of U sequestration in open chemical environments. The isotopic data also suggest that opaline silica will retain the majority of the initial U over millions of years. U in naturally occurring opal generally ranges between 200 to 1000 ppm. In contrast, co-existing calcite contains less than 100 ppb U. From pore water chemistry, the distribution coefficient for U incorporation into opaline silica is approximately 20, whereas the coefficient for calcite is typically between 0.2 and 1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations confirm that hexavalent U is incorporated in amorphous silica as the UO22+ ion. Coexisting Fe-oxides provide a further sink for sequestering UO22+ from the pore water. However, preliminary calculations suggest that incorporation of U into amorphous silica may be a dominant mechanism for isolating UO22+from groundwater over long time scales. Nature's mechanism for sequestering UO

  2. A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, F.

    1995-07-01

    The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

  3. Methane mitigation in cities: how new measurements and partnerships can contribute to emissions reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Lai, C. T.; Rambo, J. P.; Wiggins, E. B.; Miu, J. C. L.; Carranza, V.; Randerson, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Cities generate a large fraction of anthropogenic methane emissions that are increasing with urbanization and greater reliance on natural gas as fuel. New measurements of methane in cities suggest an as-yet unrealized potential for city-scale methane mitigation. We present high-resolution methane observations from four cities in North America to demonstrate the utility of methane surveys for identifying urban methane sources. We used portable, continuous on-road measurements to determine the spatial distribution of methane in Fairbanks, Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, and San Diego. Across cities, methane tended to be highly concentrated in space, suggesting discrete, point emission sources. Elevated methane levels were found near known emission sources, such as landfills, wastewater treatment facilities, and natural gas-fueled power plants, and revealed the location of fugitive leaks in natural gas infrastructure. The mix of sources and sizes of methane leaks varied among cities, highlighting a need for locally adaptive emissions regulation. Urban methane observations can inform anthropogenic processes in development of methane mitigation strategies. We discuss specific examples of how continuous atmospheric measurements can enhance the design of mitigation strategies in these cities, and potential contributions of these approaches to cross-sectoral efforts to reduce methane emissions at the city level.

  4. Evolution of transoral approaches, endoscopic endonasal approaches, and reduction strategies for treatment of craniovertebral junction pathology: a treatment algorithm update.

    PubMed

    Dlouhy, Brian J; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Menezes, Arnold H

    2015-04-01

    The craniovertebral junction (CVJ), or the craniocervical junction (CCJ) as it is otherwise known, houses the crossroads of the CNS and is composed of the occipital bone that surrounds the foramen magnum, the atlas vertebrae, the axis vertebrae, and their associated ligaments and musculature. The musculoskeletal organization of the CVJ is unique and complex, resulting in a wide range of congenital, developmental, and acquired pathology. The refinements of the transoral approach to the CVJ by the senior author (A.H.M.) in the late 1970s revolutionized the treatment of CVJ pathology. At the same time, a physiological approach to CVJ management was adopted at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics in 1977 based on the stability and motion dynamics of the CVJ and the site of encroachment, incorporating the transoral approach for irreducible ventral CVJ pathology. Since then, approaches and techniques to treat ventral CVJ lesions have evolved. In the last 40 years at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, multiple approaches to the CVJ have evolved and a better understanding of CVJ pathology has been established. In addition, new reduction strategies that have diminished the need to perform ventral decompressive approaches have been developed and implemented. In this era of surgical subspecialization, to properly treat complex CVJ pathology, the CVJ specialist must be trained in skull base transoral and endoscopic endonasal approaches, pediatric and adult CVJ spine surgery, and must understand and be able to treat the complex CSF dynamics present in CVJ pathology to provide the appropriate, optimal, and tailored treatment strategy for each individual patient, both child and adult. This is a comprehensive review of the history and evolution of the transoral approaches, extended transoral approaches, endoscopie assisted transoral approaches, endoscopie endonasal approaches, and CVJ reduction strategies. Incorporating these advancements, the authors update the

  5. Evaluation of FAD-associated purse seine fishery reduction strategies for bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yuhe; Chen, Xinjun; Xu, Liuxiong; Chen, Yong

    2013-07-01

    In the Indian Ocean, bigeye tuna supports one of the most important fisheries in the world. This fishery mainly consists of two components: longline and purse seine fisheries. Evidence of overfishing and stock depletion of bigeye tuna calls for an evaluation of alternative management strategies. Using an age-structured operating model, parameterized with the results derived in a recent stock assessment, we evaluated the effectiveness of applying constant fishing mortality (CF) and quasi-constant fishing mortality (QCF) strategies to reduce fishing effort of purse seining with fish aggregating devices (FADs) at different rates. Three different levels of productivity accounted for the uncertainty in our understanding of stock productivity. The study shows that the results of CF and QCF are similar. Average SSB and catch during simulation years would be higher if fishing mortality of FAD-associated purse seining was reduced rapidly. The banning or rapid reduction of purse seining with FAD resulted in a mean catch, and catch in the last simulation year, higher than that of the base case in which no change was made to the purse seine fishery. This could be caused by growth overfishing by purse seine fisheries with FADs according to the per-recruit analysis. These differences would be more obvious when stock productivity was low. Transferring efforts of FAD-associated purse seining to longline fisheries is also not feasible. Our study suggests that changes are necessary to improve the performance of the current management strategy.

  6. Tumour-adapted Reduction Mammoplasty – a New (Old) Breast Conserving Strategy: Review

    PubMed Central

    Eichbaum, M.; Dietrich, A.; Reinhard, J.; Steinwasser, R.; Eichbaum, C.

    2016-01-01

    Today over 70 % of patients treated for primary breast carcinoma in certified breast centres are managed with breast conserving surgery. The classical semicircular incision directly above the tumour, though in many cases easily carried out and associated with good cosmetic results, does have limitations. Unsatisfactory aesthetic results often occur when tumour location is unfavourable or when there is unfavourable tumour size relative to breast size. Distortion of the nipple, changes to breast shape and retraction of skin overlying surgical defects can occur. Tumour-adapted reduction mammoplasty/mastopexy or the “modified B technique” offer excellent chances of combining the oncological demands of breast surgery with satisfactory symmetrical cosmetic results. This article reviews a traditional, old operative technique that has been re-embraced in various new forms. PMID:26855438

  7. Developments in pesticide packaging and management of bulk herbicides as elements in a container reduction strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.

    1994-12-31

    Pesticide packaging plays an important role in a broader area that can be called {open_quotes}Delivery Systems.{close_quotes} Delivery Systems can include all of the physical elements that enable a technical active ingredient or combination of ingredients to move from the manufacturing plant through the channels of distribution to the pesticide applicator, who generally further dilutes the product for use on a registered target pest or crop site. This article describes developments relating to three goals in pesticide packaging. Those goals are: reduction in the number of empty containers through the use of reusable containers, formulation modifications, and other container minimization approaches; recyling of empty containers for their material or energy value; and disposal of empty containers in accordance with environmentally sound and cost effective practices.

  8. Strategies for cost-effective carbon reductions: A sensitivity analysis of alternative scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Gumerman, Etan; Koomey, Jonathan G.; Brown, Marilyn

    2001-07-11

    Analyses of alternative futures often present results for a limited set of scenarios, with little if any sensitivity analysis to identify the factors affecting the scenario results. This approach creates an artificial impression of certainty associated with the scenarios considered, and inhibits understanding of the underlying forces. This paper summarizes the economic and carbon savings sensitivity analysis completed for the Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future study (IWG, 2000). Its 19 sensitivity cases provide insight into the costs and carbon-reduction impacts of a carbon permit trading system, demand-side efficiency programs, and supply-side policies. Impacts under different natural gas and oil price trajectories are also examined. The results provide compelling evidence that policy opportunities exist to reduce carbon emissions and save society money.

  9. Synthesis of Sequence-Specific DNA-Protein Conjugates via a Reductive Amination Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wickramaratne, Susith; Mukherjee, Shivam; Villalta, Peter W.; Schärer, Orlando D.; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) are ubiquitous, structurally diverse DNA lesions formed upon exposure to bis-electrophiles, transition metals, UV light, and reactive oxygen species. Because of their super-bulky, helix distorting nature, DPCs interfere with DNA replication, transcription, and repair, potentially contributing to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. However, the biological implications of DPC lesions have not been fully elucidated due to the difficulty of generating site-specific DNA substrates representative of DPC lesions formed in vivo. In the present study, a novel approach involving post-synthetic reductive amination has been developed to prepare a range of hydrolytically stable lesions structurally mimicking the DPCs produced between the N7 position of guanine in DNA and basic lysine or arginine side chains of proteins and peptides. PMID:23885807

  10. Relevance of aerodynamic modelling for load reduction control strategies of two-bladed wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, B.; Cheng, P. W.

    2014-06-01

    A new load reduction concept is being developed for the two-bladed prototype of the Skywind 3.5MW wind turbine. Due to transport and installation advantages both offshore and in complex terrain two-bladed turbine designs are potentially more cost-effective than comparable three-bladed configurations. A disadvantage of two-bladed wind turbines is the increased fatigue loading, which is a result of asymmetrically distributed rotor forces. The innovative load reduction concept of the Skywind prototype consists of a combination of cyclic pitch control and tumbling rotor kinematics to mitigate periodic structural loading. Aerodynamic design tools must be able to model correctly the advanced dynamics of the rotor. In this paper the impact of the aerodynamic modelling approach is investigated for critical operational modes of a two-bladed wind turbine. Using a lifting line free wake vortex code (FVM) the physical limitations of the classical blade element momentum theory (BEM) can be evaluated. During regular operation vertical shear and yawed inflow are the main contributors to periodic blade load asymmetry. It is shown that the near wake interaction of the blades under such conditions is not fully captured by the correction models of BEM approach. The differing prediction of local induction causes a high fatigue load uncertainty especially for two-bladed turbines. The implementation of both cyclic pitch control and a tumbling rotor can mitigate the fatigue loading by increasing the aerodynamic and structural damping. The influence of the time and space variant vorticity distribution in the near wake is evaluated in detail for different cyclic pitch control functions and tumble dynamics respectively. It is demonstrated that dynamic inflow as well as wake blade interaction have a significant impact on the calculated blade forces and need to be accounted for by the aerodynamic modelling approach. Aeroelastic simulations are carried out using the high fidelity multi body

  11. Public health strategies to ensure reduction in suicide incidence in middle and low income nations.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of suicide has increased at an alarming rate and in the year 2012 close to 1 million people died because of suicide. Although, it is a well-acknowledged fact that suicides are completely preventable, the public health authorities have failed to halt the rising trend of the suicide because of the presence of various social and health related factors. As suicide is a complex issue, in the low and middle-income nations, the most cost-effective approach is to ensure the integration of suicide prevention program into the primary health care network. To conclude, suicide is an important public health concern which is definitively preventable. However, the need of the hour is that all the stakeholders should take collective responsibility, and work in collaboration to develop and implement a comprehensive multi-sectoral suicide prevention strategy. PMID:26752917

  12. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for fresh water. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET/Y). The management practices are: four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)); four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation); and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types; and three crops. The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is: 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD; 13 % when changing to OML; 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML; and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow is lower.

  13. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  14. Changes in phytoplankton communities along nutrient gradients in Lake Taihu: evidence for nutrient reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Ying; Bi, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyu

    2015-03-01

    An annual investigation on phytoplankton communities was conducted to reveal the effects of nutrients on phytoplankton assemblages in Lake Taihu, East China. A total of 78 phytoplankton taxa were identified. Phytoplankton biomass was higher in the northern part of the lake than in the southern part. Cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta alternated dominance in the northern area, where algal blooms often appear, and co-dominated in the southern area. In the northern part, the proportions of cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta varied significantly in total biovolume, both along the phosphorus (P) gradient, and between total nitrogen levels (≤3 mg/L and >3 mg/L TN). The proportions of cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta had no significant variations in total biovolume along P and N (nitrogen) gradients in the southern part. Correlation analysis and CCA results revealed that P was the key factor regulating phytoplankton community structure. Nitrogen was also important for the phytoplankton distribution pattern. It was concluded that nutrient structure was heterogeneous in space and shaped the distribution pattern of phytoplankton in the lake. Both exogenous P and internally sourced P release needs to be considered. N reduction should be considered simultaneously with P control to efficiently reduce eutrophication and algal blooms.

  15. Global Reduction in HIV-related Maternal Mortality: ART as a Key Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Holtz and colleagues present a synthesis of evidence from published studies over the previous decade on the collective impact of HIV-targeted interventions on maternal mortality. Amongst an assortment of interventions [that include antiretroviral therapy (ART), micronutrients (multivitamins, vitamin A and selenium), and antibiotics], only ART reduced maternal mortality among HIV-infected pregnant and post-partum mothers. These findings have fundamental and global strategic implications. They are also timely since they provide the evidence that ART reduces HIV-related maternal mortality, and by further enhancing access to ART in HIV-challenged and poor regions of the world, significant improvement in maternal morbidity and mortality indices could be attained. The paper bears good tidings and sound scientific proof that the financial investment made globally by government and non-governmental organizations and agencies to reduce the global burden of HIV/AIDS primarily by making ART more accessible to regions of the world most affected by the epidemic is beginning to show beneficial effects not only in terms of numerical reductions in the rates of new cases of HIV/AIDS among women, but also in maternal mortality levels.

  16. Metal artifact reduction strategies for improved attenuation correction in hybrid PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Abdoli, Mehrsima; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-06-15

    Metallic implants are known to generate bright and dark streaking artifacts in x-ray computed tomography (CT) images, which in turn propagate to corresponding functional positron emission tomography (PET) images during the CT-based attenuation correction procedure commonly used on hybrid clinical PET/CT scanners. Therefore, visual artifacts and overestimation and/or underestimation of the tracer uptake in regions adjacent to metallic implants are likely to occur and as such, inaccurate quantification of the tracer uptake and potential erroneous clinical interpretation of PET images is expected. Accurate quantification of PET data requires metal artifact reduction (MAR) of the CT images prior to the application of the CT-based attenuation correction procedure. In this review, the origins of metallic artifacts and their impact on clinical PET/CT imaging are discussed. Moreover, a brief overview of proposed MAR methods and their advantages and drawbacks is presented. Although most of the presented MAR methods are mainly developed for diagnostic CT imaging, their potential application in PET/CT imaging is highlighted. The challenges associated with comparative evaluation of these methods in a clinical environment in the absence of a gold standard are also discussed.

  17. Detecting small attractors of large Boolean networks by function-reduction-based strategy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiben; Shen, Liangzhong; Shang, Xuequn; Liu, Wenbin

    2016-04-01

    Boolean networks (BNs) are widely used to model gene regulatory networks and to design therapeutic intervention strategies to affect the long-term behaviour of systems. A central aim of Boolean-network analysis is to find attractors that correspond to various cellular states, such as cell types or the stage of cell differentiation. This problem is NP-hard and various algorithms have been used to tackle it with considerable success. The idea is that a singleton attractor corresponds to n consistent subsequences in the truth table. To find these subsequences, the authors gradually reduce the entire truth table of Boolean functions by extending a partial gene activity profile (GAP). Not only does this process delete inconsistent subsequences in truth tables, it also directly determines values for some nodes not extended, which means it can abandon the partial GAPs that cannot lead to an attractor as early as possible. The results of simulation show that the proposed algorithm can detect small attractors with length p = 4 in BNs of up to 200 nodes with average indegree K = 2. PMID:26997659

  18. Climate Change Adaptation and Climate Related Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies in Zimbabwe and Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubaya, C. P.; Ngepah, N.; Seyama, W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) have similar aims and mutual benefits, and there is a very strong rationale for adopting a more integrated approach to these issues rather than analysing each of them as distinct from the other. One of the gaps that have been noted in this context is the lack of evidence in systematic integration of CCA and DRR in Southern Africa. In this regard, this study builds on understanding CCA and DRR policies from the perspectives of vulnerable groups- women and smallholder farmers, and conducts institutional and policy analysis of CCA and DRR in southern Africa, with specific focus on Malawi and Zimbabwe. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were employed to collect data for this study in the two countries. The analysis is centred on the conceptualization of DRR in the context of recovery time and CCA on livelihood changes. Findings of the study show that drought is no longer viewed as a hazard as it is a perennial and chronic occurrence in selected climate hotspots, with heightened intensity in certain identified years. Households are able to quickly recover from slow onset hazards such as droughts and dry spells more than they are able to recover from sudden onset floods, implying more capacity towards CCA than DRR. Government programmes and policies are also focused more on CCA than on DRR efforts that appear not to be a priority. Findings point towards female vulnerability from perceptions and practice where males tend to dominate where they are set to benefit from external assistance. We need to strengthen government capacity in implementation of DRR programmes, which is currently limited and development initiatives must deliberately target building the resilience of women.

  19. Ash reduction strategies in corn stover facilitated by anatomical and size fractionation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Emerson, Rachel M.; Thompson, David N.; Westover, Tyler L.

    2016-04-22

    There is growing interest internationally to produce fuels from renewable biomass resources. Inorganic components of biomass feedstocks, referred to collectively as ash, damage equipment and decrease yields in thermal conversion processes, and decrease feedstock value for biochemical conversion processes. Decreasing the ash content of feedstocks improves conversion efficiency and lowers process costs. Because physiological ash is unevenly distributed in the plant, mechanical processes can be used to separate fractions of the plant based on ash content. This study focuses on the ash separation that can be achieved by separating corn stover by particle size and anatomical fraction. Baled corn stovermore » was hand-separated into anatomical fractions, ground to <19.1 mm, and size separated using six sieves ranging from 9.5 to 0.150 mm. Size fractions were analyzed for total ash content and ash composition. Particle size distributions observed for the anatomical fractions varied considerably. Cob particles were primarily 2.0 mm or greater, while most of the sheath and husk particles were 2.0 mm and smaller. Particles of leaves greater than 0.6 mm contained the greatest amount of total ash, ranging from approximately 8 to 13% dry weight of the total original material, while the fractions with particles smaller than 0.6 mm contained less than 2% of the total ash of the original material. As a result, based on the overall ash content and the elemental ash, specific anatomical and size fractions can be separated to optimize the feedstocks being delivered to biofuels conversion processes and minimize the need for more expensive ash reduction treatments.« less

  20. Clinical review: The impact of noise on patients' sleep and the effectiveness of noise reduction strategies in intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hui; Kang, Jian; Mills, Gary H

    2009-01-01

    Excessive noise is becoming a significant problem for intensive care units (ICUs). This paper first reviews the impact of noise on patients' sleep in ICUs. Five previous studies have demonstrated such impacts, whereas six other studies have shown other factors to be more important. Staff conversation and alarms are generally regarded as the most disturbing noises for patients' sleep in ICUs. Most research in this area has focused purely on noise level, but work has been very limited on the relationships between sleep quality and other acoustic parameters, including spectrum and reverberation time. Sound-absorbing treatment is a relatively effective noise reduction strategy, whereas sound masking appears to be the most effective technique for improving sleep. For future research, there should be close collaboration between medical researchers and acousticians. PMID:19344486

  1. Synthesis strategies for disulfide bond-containing polymer-based drug delivery system for reduction-responsive controlled release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Peng

    2015-09-01

    Tumor micro-environment responsive drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been developed as a potential approach to reduce the side effects of cancer chemotherapy. Glutathione (GSH) has been supposed to the most significant signal of the difference between the normal tissue and the tumor cells, besides the media pH and temperature. In recent years, the reduction-responsive DDSs have attracted more and more attention for delivery of anti-cancer drugs, based on such physiological signal. Among them, disulfide bond-containing polymers have been designed as the main tool for the purpose. The recent progress in the synthesis strategies for the disulfide bond-containing polymer-based DDS is focused in the present review.

  2. HIV testing behaviour and use of risk reduction strategies by HIV risk category among MSM in Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Bogowicz, Paul; Moore, David; Kanters, Steve; Michelow, Warren; Robert, Wayne; Hogg, Robert; Gustafson, Réka; Gilbert, Mark

    2016-03-01

    We carried out an analysis of a serobehavioural study of men who have sex with men >19 years of age in Vancouver, Canada to examine HIV testing behaviour and use of risk reduction strategies by HIV risk category, as defined by routinely gathered clinical data. We restricted our analysis to those who self-identified as HIV-negative, completed a questionnaire, and provided a dried blood spot sample. Of 842 participants, 365 (43.3%) were categorised as lower-risk, 245 (29.1%) as medium-risk and 232 (27.6%) as higher-risk. The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection was low (lower 0.8%, medium 3.3%, higher 3.9%; p = 0.032). Participants differed by risk category in terms of having had an HIV test in the previous year (lower 46.5%, medium 54.6%, higher 67.0%; p < 0.001) and in their use of serosorting (lower 23.3%, medium 48.3%, higher 43.1%; p < 0.001) and only having sex with HIV-positive men if those men had low viral loads or were taking HIV medication (lower 5.1%, medium 4.8%, higher 10.9%; p = 0.021) as risk reduction strategies. These findings speak to the need to consider segmented health promotion services for men who have sex with men with differing risk profiles. Risk stratification could be used to determine who might benefit from tailored multiple health promotion interventions, including HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:25736346

  3. Non-target time trend screening: a data reduction strategy for detecting emerging contaminants in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Plassmann, Merle M; Tengstrand, Erik; Åberg, K Magnus; Benskin, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Non-targeted mass spectrometry-based approaches for detecting novel xenobiotics in biological samples are hampered by the occurrence of naturally fluctuating endogenous substances, which are difficult to distinguish from environmental contaminants. Here, we investigate a data reduction strategy for datasets derived from a biological time series. The objective is to flag reoccurring peaks in the time series based on increasing peak intensities, thereby reducing peak lists to only those which may be associated with emerging bioaccumulative contaminants. As a result, compounds with increasing concentrations are flagged while compounds displaying random, decreasing, or steady-state time trends are removed. As an initial proof of concept, we created artificial time trends by fortifying human whole blood samples with isotopically labelled standards. Different scenarios were investigated: eight model compounds had a continuously increasing trend in the last two to nine time points, and four model compounds had a trend that reached steady state after an initial increase. Each time series was investigated at three fortification levels and one unfortified series. Following extraction, analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry, and data processing, a total of 21,700 aligned peaks were obtained. Peaks displaying an increasing trend were filtered from randomly fluctuating peaks using time trend ratios and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The first approach was successful in flagging model compounds spiked at only two to three time points, while the latter approach resulted in all model compounds ranking in the top 11 % of the peak lists. Compared to initial peak lists, a combination of both approaches reduced the size of datasets by 80-85 %. Overall, non-target time trend screening represents a promising data reduction strategy for identifying emerging bioaccumulative contaminants in biological samples. Graphical abstract

  4. Migratory constraints on yolk precursors limit yolk androgen deposition and underlie a brood reduction strategy in rockhopper penguins.

    PubMed

    Crossin, Glenn T; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Chastel, Olivier; Williams, Tony D; Eens, Marcel; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2012-12-23

    Hormonally mediated maternal effects link maternal phenotype and environmental conditions to offspring phenotype. The production of lipid-rich maternal yolk precursors may provide a mechanism by which lipophilic steroid hormones can be transported to developing yolks, thus predicting a positive correlation between yolk precursors in mothers and androgen levels in eggs. Using rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), which produce a two-egg clutch characterized by extreme egg-size dimorphism, reversed hatching asynchrony and brood-reduction, we examined correlations between circulating concentrations of the primary yolk-precursor vitellogenin (VTG) and levels of yolk androgens. Previous work in Eudyptes penguins has shown that egg-size dimorphism is the product of migratory constraints on yolk precursor production. We predicted that if yolk precursors are constrained, androgen transport to developing yolks would be similarly constrained. We reveal positive linear relationships between maternal VTG and androgens in small A-eggs but not larger B-eggs, which is consistent with a migratory constraint operating on the A-egg. Results suggest that intra-clutch variation in total yolk androgen levels depends on the production and uptake of yolk precursors. The brood reduction strategy common to Eudyptes might thus be best described as the result of a migratory constraint. PMID:22809718

  5. The coincidence counting technique for orders of magnitude background reduction in data obtained with the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Schaeffer, J. C.; Frankel, R.; Sinenian, N.; Childs, R. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Burke, M.; Roberts, S.

    2011-07-15

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been built and successfully used at OMEGA for measurements of down-scattered neutrons (DS-n), from which an areal density in both warm-capsule and cryogenic-DT implosions have been inferred. Another MRS is currently being commissioned on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for diagnosing low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium implosions and high-yield DT implosions. As CR-39 detectors are used in the MRS, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). The coincidence counting technique was developed to reduce these types of background tracks to the required level for the DS-n measurements at OMEGA and the NIF. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that the number of background tracks is reduced by a couple of orders of magnitude, which exceeds the requirement for the DS-n measurements at both facilities.

  6. The coincidence counting technique for orders of magnitude background reduction in data obtained with the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H; Manuel, M J-E; Gatu Johnson, M; Schaeffer, J C; Frankel, R; Sinenian, N; Childs, R A; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Burke, M; Roberts, S

    2011-07-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been built and successfully used at OMEGA for measurements of down-scattered neutrons (DS-n), from which an areal density in both warm-capsule and cryogenic-DT implosions have been inferred. Another MRS is currently being commissioned on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for diagnosing low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium implosions and high-yield DT implosions. As CR-39 detectors are used in the MRS, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). The coincidence counting technique was developed to reduce these types of background tracks to the required level for the DS-n measurements at OMEGA and the NIF. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that the number of background tracks is reduced by a couple of orders of magnitude, which exceeds the requirement for the DS-n measurements at both facilities. PMID:21806180

  7. An application of long-range transport models to a comparison of selected SO/sub 2/ emission-reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, W.B.; Gautney, L.L.; Koss, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare six emission-reduction strategies: by the examples: (1) strategy to reduce total atmospheric loading of sulfur; (2) a strategy to reduce wet sulfate deposition in the Adirondacks; (3) an alternative strategy to reduce wet sulfate deposition in the Adirondacks; (4) a strategy to reduce wet sulfate deposition in the southern section of the Appalachian Mountains (a region also ecologically sensitive) (5) a strategy to reduce sulfur flux to southeastern Canada; and (6) a strategy that embodies the three goals of strategies (3) - (5). The application of these strategies will be limited to SO/sub 2/ emission control in the 31 easternmost States of the U.S. The study will be presented in two parts. First, the strategies are explained in detail. Then, on the basis of modeling results, the strategies are compared. In the appendix, a description will be given of the two long-range transport models used to quantify emission-impact relationships--Model T for wet deposition, and Model F (a variation of Model T) for sulfur flux. Also, the emission levels, meteorology, and other parameters used in these models will be specified.

  8. Cost Reduction Strategies - Steam

    SciTech Connect

    2001-03-01

    Boilers play a particularly important role in integrated mills because they not only provide the steam needed for key processes but also consume by-product fuels generated in the coke ovens, blast furnace, and BOF.

  9. Laser line illumination scheme allowing the reduction of background signal and the correction of absorption heterogeneities effects for fluorescence reflectance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, Frédéric; Hervé, Lionel; Poher, Vincent; Gioux, Sylvain; Mars, Jérôme I; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    Intraoperative fluorescence imaging in reflectance geometry is an attractive imaging modality as it allows to noninvasively monitor the fluorescence targeted tumors located below the tissue surface. Some drawbacks of this technique are the background fluorescence decreasing the contrast and absorption heterogeneities leading to misinterpretations concerning fluorescence concentrations. We propose a correction technique based on a laser line scanning illumination scheme. We scan the medium with the laser line and acquire, at each position of the line, both fluorescence and excitation images. We then use the finding that there is a relationship between the excitation intensity profile and the background fluorescence one to predict the amount of signal to subtract from the fluorescence images to get a better contrast. As the light absorption information is contained both in fluorescence and excitation images, this method also permits us to correct the effects of absorption heterogeneities. This technique has been validated on simulations and experimentally. Fluorescent inclusions are observed in several configurations at depths ranging from 1 mm to 1 cm. Results obtained with this technique are compared with those obtained with a classical wide-field detection scheme for contrast enhancement and with the fluorescence by an excitation ratio approach for absorption correction. PMID:26442963

  10. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  11. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart JH

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘quite promising’, or ‘non-promising’ according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  12. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-11-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450-1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society.

  13. Application of a dynamic population-based model for evaluation of exposure reduction strategies in the baking industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijster, Tim; Warren, Nick; Heederik, Dick; Tielemans, Erik

    2009-02-01

    Recently a dynamic population model was developed that simulates a population of bakery workers longitudinally through time and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in each worker. Input for this model comes from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies which allowed estimation of exposure response relationships and disease transition probabilities This model allows us to study the development of diseases and transitions between disease states over time in relation to determinants of disease including flour dust and/or allergen exposure. Furthermore it enables more realistic modelling of the health impact of different intervention strategies at the workplace (e.g. changes in exposure may take several years to impact on ill-health and often occur as a gradual trend). A large dataset of individual full-shift exposure measurements and real-time exposure measurements were used to obtain detailed insight into the effectiveness of control measures and other determinants of exposure. Given this information a population wide reduction of the median exposure with 50% was evaluated in this paper.

  14. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450–1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society. PMID:26558350

  15. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450-1650 (o)C) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society. PMID:26558350

  16. Nutrient concentrations and fluxes in the upper catchment of the Miyun Reservoir, China, and potential nutrient reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian; Du, Pengfei; Lang, Cong

    2015-03-01

    The Miyun Reservoir is Beijing's main drinking water source. Increased nutrient levels in the reservoir have resulted in an increased risk of harmful algal blooms. One hundred ten water samples were collected at a range of spatial scales in the upper catchment of the Miyun Reservoir and were analyzed for total nitrogen (TN), nitrate (NO3 (-)-N), ammonium (NH4 (+)-N), total phosphorus (TP), and the potassium permanganate index (CODMn). Empirical equations were developed from relationships between nutrient concentrations and the main controls on nutrient, and were used to identify parts of the catchment that should be targeted with nutrient load reduction measures. Cropland was the main source of sediment for the streams, and much of the phosphorus was associated with sediment. The annual mean TP concentrations were closely correlated with both the annual mean suspended sediment concentrations and the ratio of the cropland area to the total basin area. There was a linear relationship between the annual mean TN concentration and the population density in the basins. Soil conservation may play an important role in reducing TP concentrations in the upper reaches of the Chao and Bai Rivers. It may be useful to (1) construct natural riparian buffers and vegetated buffers along croplands close to the watercourses, (2) implement management strategies to reduce nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications, and (3) construct additional wetlands to reduce nutrient loads in the study area. PMID:25673273

  17. Comparison of various decentralised structural and cavity feedback control strategies for transmitted noise reduction through a double panel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jen-Hsuan; Berkhoff, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    This paper compares various decentralised control strategies, including structural and acoustic actuator-sensor configuration designs, to reduce noise transmission through a double panel structure. The comparison is based on identical control stability indexes. The double panel structure consists of two panels with air in between and offers the advantages of low sound transmission at high frequencies, low heat transmission, and low weight. The double panel structure is widely used, such as in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nevertheless, the resonance of the cavity and the poor sound transmission loss at low frequencies limit the double panel's noise control performance. Applying active structural acoustic control to the panels or active noise control to the cavity has been discussed in many papers. In this paper, the resonances of the panels and the cavity are considered simultaneously to further reduce the transmitted noise through an existing double panel structure. A structural-acoustic coupled model is developed to investigate and compare various structural control and cavity control methods. Numerical analysis and real-time control results show that structural control should be applied to both panels. Three types of cavity control sources are presented and compared. The results indicate that the largest noise reduction is obtained with cavity control by loudspeakers modified to operate as incident pressure sources.

  18. Light output function and assembly of the time-of-flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer plastic scintillators for background reduction by double kinematic selection at EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, X. Y.; Chen, Z. J.; Zhang, X.; Hu, Z. M.; Du, T. F.; Cui, Z. Q.; Xie, X. F.; Ge, L. J.; Yuan, X.; Li, X. Q.; Zhang, G. H.; Chen, J. X.; Fan, T. S.; Gorini, G.; Nocente, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Lin, S. Y.; Wan, B. N.

    2014-11-15

    The 2.5 MeV neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time-Of-Flight Enhanced Diagnostics) has been constructed to perform advanced neutron emission spectroscopy diagnosis of deuterium plasmas on EAST. The instrument has a double-ring structure which, in combination with pulse shape digitization, allows for a dual kinematic selection in the time-of-flight/recoil proton energy (tof/E{sub p}) space, thus improving the spectrometer capability to resolve fast ion signatures in the neutron spectrum, in principle up to a factor ≈100. The identification and separation of features from the energetic ions in the neutron spectrum depends on the detailed knowledge of the instrument response function, both in terms of the light output function of the scintillators and the effect of undesired multiple neutron scatterings in the instrument. This work presents the determination of the light output function of the TOFED plastic scintillator detectors and their geometrical assembly. Results from dedicated experiments with γ-ray sources and quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams are presented. Implications on the instrument capability to perform background suppression based on double kinematic selection are discussed.

  19. Light output function and assembly of the time-of-flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer plastic scintillators for background reduction by double kinematic selection at EAST.

    PubMed

    Peng, X Y; Chen, Z J; Zhang, X; Hu, Z M; Du, T F; Cui, Z Q; Xie, X F; Ge, L J; Yuan, X; Gorini, G; Nocente, M; Tardocchi, M; Hu, L Q; Zhong, G Q; Lin, S Y; Wan, B N; Li, X Q; Zhang, G H; Chen, J X; Fan, T S

    2014-11-01

    The 2.5 MeV neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time-Of-Flight Enhanced Diagnostics) has been constructed to perform advanced neutron emission spectroscopy diagnosis of deuterium plasmas on EAST. The instrument has a double-ring structure which, in combination with pulse shape digitization, allows for a dual kinematic selection in the time-of-flight/recoil proton energy (tof/Ep) space, thus improving the spectrometer capability to resolve fast ion signatures in the neutron spectrum, in principle up to a factor ≈100. The identification and separation of features from the energetic ions in the neutron spectrum depends on the detailed knowledge of the instrument response function, both in terms of the light output function of the scintillators and the effect of undesired multiple neutron scatterings in the instrument. This work presents the determination of the light output function of the TOFED plastic scintillator detectors and their geometrical assembly. Results from dedicated experiments with γ-ray sources and quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams are presented. Implications on the instrument capability to perform background suppression based on double kinematic selection are discussed. PMID:25430291

  20. LastQuake: a comprehensive strategy for rapid engagement of earthquake eyewitnesses, massive crowdsourcing and risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, R.; Roussel, F.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Steed, R.; Frobert, L.

    2015-12-01

    LastQuake is a smartphone app, browser add-on and the most sophisticated Twitter robot (quakebot) for earthquakes currently in operation. It fulfills eyewitnesses' needs by offering information on felt earthquakes and their effects within tens of seconds of their occurrence. Associated with an active presence on Facebook, Pinterest and on websites, this proves a very efficient engagement strategy. For example, the app was installed thousands of times after the Ghorka earthquake in Nepal. Language barriers have been erased by using visual communication; for example, felt reports are collected through a set of cartoons representing different shaking levels. Within 3 weeks of the magnitude 7.8 Ghorka earthquakes, 7,000 felt reports with thousands of comments were collected related to the mainshock and tens of its aftershocks as well as 100 informative geo-located pics. The QuakeBot was essential in allowing us to be identified so well and interact with those affected. LastQuake is also a risk reduction tool since it provides rapid information. Rapid information is similar to prevention since when it does not exist, disasters can happen. When no information is available after a felt earthquake, the public block emergency lines by trying to find out the cause of the shaking, crowds form potentially leading to unpredictable crowd movement, rumors spread. In its next release LastQuake will also provide people with guidance immediately after a shaking through a number of pop-up cartoons illustrating "do/don't do" items (go to open places, do not phone emergency services except if people are injured…). LastQuake's app design is simple and intuitive and has a global audience. It benefited from a crowdfunding campaign (and the support of the Fondation MAIF) and more improvements have been planned after an online feedback campaign organized in early June with the Ghorka earthquake eyewitnesses. LastQuake is also a seismic risk reduction tools thanks to its very rapid

  1. Evaluation of Strategies for Balancing Water Use and Streamflow Reductions in the Upper Charles River Basin, Eastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleston, Jack R.

    2004-01-01

    River as it exits the basin increased by 18 percent during July through September and an excess water-supply capacity of 13.4 cubic feet per second, above and beyond average use, would be available to all towns in the basin. These study results could help water suppliers and regulators evaluate strategies for balancing ground-water development and streamflow reductions in the basin.

  2. Sustained reduction of the dengue vector population resulting from an integrated control strategy applied in two Brazilian cities.

    PubMed

    Regis, Lêda N; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Silveira, José Constantino; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Ribeiro, Cândida M Nogueira; da Silva, Juliana C Serafim; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Oliveira, Cláudia M F; Barbosa, Rosângela M R; Braga, Cynthia; Rodrigues, Marco Aurélio Benedetti; Silva, Marilú Gomes N M; Ribeiro, Paulo Justiniano; Bonat, Wagner Hugo; de Castro Medeiros, Liliam César; Carvalho, Marilia Sa; Furtado, André Freire

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents) and Santa Cruz (83,000), in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008-2009, with 96.8%-100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the program's success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program. PMID:23844059

  3. Sustained Reduction of the Dengue Vector Population Resulting from an Integrated Control Strategy Applied in Two Brazilian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Regis, Lêda N.; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Silveira, José Constantino; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Ribeiro, Cândida M. Nogueira.; da Silva, Juliana C. Serafim.; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Oliveira, Cláudia M. F.; Barbosa, Rosângela M. R.; Braga, Cynthia; Rodrigues, Marco Aurélio Benedetti; Silva, Marilú Gomes N. M.; Ribeiro Jr., Paulo Justiniano; Bonat, Wagner Hugo; de Castro Medeiros, Liliam César; Carvalho, Marilia Sa; Furtado, André Freire

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents) and Santa Cruz (83,000), in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008–2009, with 96.8%–100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the program’s success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program. PMID:23844059

  4. The economic burden of blindness in Pakistan: a socio-economic and policy imperative for poverty reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Awan, Haroon; Malik, Sadia Mariam; Khan, Niaz Ullah

    2012-01-01

    State and nonstate health programs in developing countries are often influenced by priorities that are defined in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the wake of recessionary pressures, policy makers in the health sector are often seen to divert significant budgets to some specific health programs and make only token allocations for other health problems that are important but do not fall under the traditional MDG box of health priorities. This paper illustrates the economic argument for investment in one such program: The eye health program and employs a country case study of Pakistan to demonstrate that there are significant economic gains that are being foregone by not addressing the needs of the blind in poverty reduction strategies. By applying appropriate growth and discounting factors and using the average wage rate, the paper estimates the total productivity gains that are realizable over a period of 10 years if the blind population in Pakistan is rehabilitated and their carers released to participate in the mainstream economic activity. Our findings indicate that significant productivity gains accumulated over 10 years, range from Rs. 61 billion (US$ 709 million) to Rs. 421 billion (US$ 4.9 billion) depending upon whether the entire blind population or only those affected by a specific cause are rehabilitated. The per annum productivity gains of rehabilitating the entire blind population represents 0.74% of the current gross domestic product of Pakistan, which is higher than the total public spending on health. In order to reap these benefits, the subsequent absorption of the rehabilitated blind and their carers into mainstream economic activity is as important as their effective rehabilitation. PMID:22944742

  5. Relationship Dynamics and Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies Among Heterosexual Young Adults: A Qualitative Study of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Attendees at an Urban Chicago Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Anna L; French, Audrey L; Hosek, Sybil G; Kendrick, Sabrina R; Lemos, Diana; Brothers, Jennifer; Kincaid, Stacey L; Mehta, Supriya D

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined risk-reduction alternatives to consistent condom use for HIV prevention among heterosexual young adults. We used qualitative methodology to explore risk reduction strategies and contextual factors influencing attempts to reduce risk in an urban, high morbidity sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Focus groups were conducted October-December 2014 with heterosexually identified men (n = 13) and women (n = 20) aged 18-29 seeking STI screening at an urban clinic. Groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using Atlas.ti software. Quantitative information included sociodemographics, HIV/STI testing history, and 6-month sexual behaviors. Among 33 predominantly African-American participants with a median age of 22, risk-reduction strategies included monogamy agreements, selective condom use with casual and high-risk partners, and frequent HIV/STI testing, though testing was commonly used as a post-hoc reassurance after risk exposure. Many men and women used implicit risk assessment strategies due to mistrust or difficulty communicating. Concurrency was common but rarely discussed within partnerships. Despite attempts to reduce risk, monogamy agreements were often poorly adhered to and not openly discussed. Alcohol and substance use frequently interfered with safer sexual decisions. Participants were aware of HIV/STI risk and commonly practiced risk-reduction strategies, but acknowledged faulty assumptions and poor adherence. This work provides insights into risk-reduction approaches that are already used and may be strengthened as part of effective HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:26588197

  6. SLCP co-control approach in East Asia: Tropospheric ozone reduction strategy by simultaneous reduction of NOx/NMVOC and methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Kurokawa, Jun`ichi; Sudo, Kengo; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Takemura, Toshihiko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Amann, Markus; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The emissions of NOx and CO2 in East Asia (Northeast and Southeast Asia) contribute more than 30% of the global total since 2008, and consequently the control of air pollutants and CO2 alleviating regional air pollution and global climate change is of great concern of not only in this region but also worldwide. In order to arrive at a rational view of the short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) co-control approach in East Asia, the effectiveness of the reduction of NOx/NMVOC and CH4 emissions for the reduction of tropospheric O3 has been evaluated by individual and simultaneous 50%-reduction of the emissions in Northeast Asia (NEA) using both a global chemical climate model (CHASER/SPRINTARS-MIROC), and a regional chemical transport model (WRF-CMAQ). The simultaneous reduction of NOx/NMVOC and CH4 emissions was found to reduce the regional concentration of surface O3 in NEA, and globally averaged net radiative forcing most effectively. Global mean RF and regional air quality change were also evaluated for the climate stabilization scenario ("450-ppm"), and climate stabilization with additional air pollution mitigation strengthened scenario ("450-ppm-cntr") developed in IIASA with the aid of GAINS model. In the 450 ppm-cntr scenario, emissions of NOx NMVOC, BC and OC were further reduced respectively, for East Asia from the emissions in 450 ppm. The improvement of air quality as well as the mitigation of climate change would grant to the basis of the SLCP co-control approach in East Asia.

  7. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-02-28

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in

  8. Beam induced backgrounds: CDF experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tesarek, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    We summarize the experiences of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in the presence of backgrounds originating from the counter circulating beams in the Fermilab Tevatron. These backgrounds are measured and their sources identified. Finally, we outline the strategies employed to reduce the effects of these backgrounds on the experiment.

  9. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: I. Background, experimental strategy and critique.

    PubMed

    Mauderly, Joe L

    2014-09-01

    The National Environmental Respiratory Center Program was initiated as an experiment to explore strategies for identifying the components of complex air pollution mixtures that cause health effects associated statistically with air pollution. A strategy involving multivariate analysis of a composition-concentration-response database was adopted. A novel database was created by exposing rodents daily for up to six months to one of four combustion-related mixtures and measuring respiratory, cardiovascular and general toxicological responses after one week or six months of exposure. The mixtures included multiple concentrations of diesel and gasoline engine exhaust, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal combustion emissions. After reporting the biological effects of each mixture and comparing effects among them, 47 significant effects were selected for multiple additive regression tree analysis to identify putative causal components. Although the four mixtures provided a database marginally sufficient for the analysis, the results suggested the putative causes of 19 significant effects with acceptable confidence. This article describes and critiques the Program and its strategy. The integrated results are presented in two accompanying papers, and mixture-specific results were presented in preceding papers, which are cited. The experiment demonstrated the potential utility of the general approach and identified certain cause-effect relationships for confirmatory studies. A follow-up study provided support for causation by the components implicated for one of those relationships. The advantages and disadvantages of the Program's management and funding strategies are discussed. PMID:25162718

  10. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  11. Strategies for Implementing AIDS/HIV Policy Guidelines in Developmental and Mental Health Services: A Background and Checklist for Advocates. AIDS Technical Report, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, David C.

    This technical report is part of a series on AIDS/HIV (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and is intended to help link various legal advocacy organizations providing services to persons with mental illness or developmental disabilities. Through a series of case examples, questions, background information, and…

  12. Blue Collar and Beyond: The Experiences of Non-English Speaking Background Women in the Australian Labour Force [and] Strategies for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorso, Caroline; Harrison, Graham

    The report on women with non-English-speaking backgrounds (NESB) in the Australian labor force was prepared to review the experience and needs of this population in recent years and to examine the various available sources of information. The first section reviews the standard statistical sources and their research methodologies. The second and…

  13. Identifying/Quantifying Environmental Trade-offs Inherent in GHG Reduction Strategies for Coal-Fired Power.

    PubMed

    Schivley, Greg; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Marriott, Joe; Hawkins, Troy R; Skone, Timothy J

    2015-07-01

    Improvements to coal power plant technology and the cofired combustion of biomass promise direct greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for existing coal-fired power plants. Questions remain as to what the reduction potentials are from a life cycle perspective and if it will result in unintended increases in impacts to air and water quality and human health. This study provides a unique analysis of the potential environmental impact reductions from upgrading existing subcritical pulverized coal power plants to increase their efficiency, improving environmental controls, cofiring biomass, and exporting steam for industrial use. The climate impacts are examined in both a traditional-100 year GWP-method and a time series analysis that accounts for emission and uptake timing over the life of the power plant. Compared to fleet average pulverized bed boilers (33% efficiency), we find that circulating fluidized bed boilers (39% efficiency) may provide GHG reductions of about 13% when using 100% coal and reductions of about 20-37% when cofiring with 30% biomass. Additional greenhouse gas reductions from combined heat and power are minimal if the steam coproduct displaces steam from an efficient natural gas boiler. These upgrades and cofiring biomass can also reduce other life cycle impacts, although there may be increased impacts to water quality (eutrophication) when using biomass from an intensely cultivated source. Climate change impacts are sensitive to the timing of emissions and carbon sequestration as well as the time horizon over which impacts are considered, particularly for long growth woody biomass. PMID:26001040

  14. Effectiveness of intervention strategies exclusively targeting reductions in children's sedentary time: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Altenburg, Teatske M; Kist-van Holthe, Joana; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of interventions targeting sedentary behaviour in children have emerged in recent years. Recently published reviews included sedentary behaviour and physical activity interventions. This review critically summarizes evidence on the effectiveness of intervention strategies that exclusively targeted reducing sedentary time in children and adolescents. We performed a systematic literature search in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library through November 2015. Two independent reviewers selected eligible studies, extracted relevant data and rated the methodological quality using the assessment tool for quantitative studies. We included 21 intervention studies, of which 8 studies scored moderate on methodological quality and 13 studies scored weak. Four out of eight moderate quality studies reported significant beneficial intervention effects.Although descriptions of intervention strategies were not always clearly reported, we identified encouragement of a TV turnoff week and implementing standing desks in classrooms as promising strategies. Due to a lack of high quality studies and inconsistent findings, we found no convincing evidence for the effectiveness of existing interventions targeting solely sedentary behaviour. We recommend that future studies apply mediation analyses to explore which strategies are most effective. Furthermore, to increase the effectiveness of interventions, knowledge of children's motives to engage in sedentary behavior is required, as well as their opinion on potentially effective intervention strategies. PMID:27276873

  15. High-Energy-Density Fuel Blending Strategies and Drop Dispersion for Fuel Cost Reduction and Soot Propensity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Harstad, K.

    1998-01-01

    The idea that low soot propensity of high-energy-density (HED) liquid sooting fuels and cost reduction of a multicomponent energetic fuel can be achieved by doping a less expensive, less sooting liquid fuel with HED is tested through numerical simulations.

  16. Using SMS as a Harm Reduction Strategy: An Evaluation of the RAGE (Register and Get Educated) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Belinda; Keleher, Helen; Rudd, Annette; Klein, Ruth; Locke, Beth; Roussy, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    The RAGE (Register And Get Educated) project explored the feasibility of SMS (Short Messaging Service) as a means for communicating harm reduction messages in relation to alcohol and other drugs to young people residing in the City of Knox, Victoria. Almost 700 young people aged 12-26 years registered their mobile phone numbers to receive a series…

  17. Assessment of three remediation strategies for reduction of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 in naturally contaminated soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Justification: Cattle are a known reservoir of the foodborne pathogen STEC O157. After being shed from the animal, the contaminated feces become incorporated in the soil. Objective: To evaluate three potential strategies for remediation of STEC O157 from naturally contaminated soils. Methods: T...

  18. Improving Fall Risk Factor Identification and Documentation of Risk Reduction Strategies by Rehabilitation Therapists through Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Michele J.

    2011-01-01

    This static group comparison study determined that an educational intervention was effective in increasing fall risk factor assessment, documentation of fall risk factors, and strategies devised to reduce fall risk factors by rehabilitation therapists for their older adult outpatients in clinics. Results showed that experimental group identified…

  19. The effects of a mass media HIV-risk reduction strategy on HIV-related stigma and knowledge among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; DiClemente, Ralph J; Carey, Michael P; Stanton, Bonita; Romer, Daniel; Fletcher, Faith; Farber, Naomi; Brown, Larry K; Vanable, Peter A; Salazar, Laura F; Juzang, Ivan; Fortune, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    HIV-related stigma undermines HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Multipronged risk-reduction strategies may reduce stigma among African American adolescents. To test the effectiveness of a risk-reduction strategy in addressing stigma, 1613 African American adolescents from four mid-sized cities participated in a randomized control trial. Participants received a sexual-risk reduction [Focus on Youth (FOY)] or general health curriculum [Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT)]. Two cities received a culturally-tailored media intervention. Participants completed baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month surveys to measure HIV-related stigma and knowledge. Analysis of covariance tested for stigma and knowledge differences by media city status and curriculum/media city status (PHAT media vs. PHAT non-media, FOY media vs. FOY non-media; FOY media vs. PHAT media; FOY non-media vs. PHAT non-media) at each measurement. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) determined stigma and knowledge differences over time. Media participants demonstrated greater HIV-related knowledge (p<0.10) at 6 months and lower stigma at 3 months (p<0.10). FOY media participants had lower 3-month (p<0.05) and 12-month (p<0.10) stigma scores than non-media FOY participants. FOY media and non-media participants had greater knowledge than PHAT for all intervals after baseline. FOY media had lower stigma than PHAT media after baseline for all intervals after baseline. HLM indicated greater knowledge slopes for the media group (p<0.05). FOY media participants had greater knowledge slopes (p<0.05) relative to non-media FOY participants and media PHAT participants (p<0.01). A combination of a HIV risk-reduction curriculum and culturally-tailored media demonstrated some effectiveness in reducing stigma. Future use of media in HIV-prevention should include and evaluate effects on stigma. PMID:25738952

  20. The Effects of a Mass Media HIV-Risk Reduction Strategy on HIV-Related Stigma and Knowledge Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Valois, Robert F.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Carey, Michael P.; Stanton, Bonita; Romer, Daniel; Fletcher, Faith; Farber, Naomi; Brown, Larry K.; Vanable, Peter A.; Salazar, Laura F.; Juzang, Ivan; Fortune, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Abstract HIV-related stigma undermines HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Multipronged risk-reduction strategies may reduce stigma among African American adolescents. To test the effectiveness of a risk-reduction strategy in addressing stigma, 1613 African American adolescents from four mid-sized cities participated in a randomized control trial. Participants received a sexual-risk reduction [Focus on Youth (FOY)] or general health curriculum [Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT)]. Two cities received a culturally-tailored media intervention. Participants completed baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month surveys to measure HIV-related stigma and knowledge. Analysis of covariance tested for stigma and knowledge differences by media city status and curriculum/media city status (PHAT media vs. PHAT non-media, FOY media vs. FOY non-media; FOY media vs. PHAT media; FOY non-media vs. PHAT non-media) at each measurement. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) determined stigma and knowledge differences over time. Media participants demonstrated greater HIV-related knowledge (p<0.10) at 6 months and lower stigma at 3 months (p<0.10). FOY media participants had lower 3-month (p<0.05) and 12-month (p<0.10) stigma scores than non-media FOY participants. FOY media and non-media participants had greater knowledge than PHAT for all intervals after baseline. FOY media had lower stigma than PHAT media after baseline for all intervals after baseline. HLM indicated greater knowledge slopes for the media group (p<0.05). FOY media participants had greater knowledge slopes (p<0.05) relative to non-media FOY participants and media PHAT participants (p<0.01). A combination of a HIV risk-reduction curriculum and culturally-tailored media demonstrated some effectiveness in reducing stigma. Future use of media in HIV-prevention should include and evaluate effects on stigma. PMID:25738952

  1. A repeated cross-sectional study of socio-economic inequities in dietary sodium consumption among Canadian adults: implications for national sodium reduction strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In many countries including Canada, excess consumption of dietary sodium is common, and this has adverse implications for population health. Socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption seem likely, but research is limited. Knowledge of socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption is important for informing population-level sodium reduction strategies, to ensure that they are both impactful and equitable. Methods We examined the association between socio-economic indicators (income and education) and sodium, using two outcome variables: 1) sodium consumption in mg/day, and 2) reported use of table salt, in two national surveys: the 1970/72 Nutrition Canada Survey and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2. This permitted us to explore whether there were any changes in socio-economic patterning in dietary sodium during a time period characterized by modest, information-based national sodium reduction efforts, as well as to provide baseline information against which to examine the impact (equitable or not) of future sodium reduction strategies in Canada. Results There was no evidence of a socio-economic inequity in sodium consumption (mg/day) in 2004. In fact findings pointed to a positive association in women, whereby women of higher education consumed more sodium than women of lower education in 2004. For men, income was positively associated with reported use of table salt in 1970/72, but negatively associated in 2004. Conclusions An emerging inequity in reported use of table salt among men could reflect the modest, information-based sodium reduction efforts that were implemented during the time frame considered. However, for sodium consumption in mg/day, we found no evidence of a contemporary inequity, and in fact observed the opposite effect among women. Our findings could reflect data limitations, or they could signal that sodium differs from some other nutrients in terms of its socio-economic patterning, perhaps reflecting very

  2. Challenges and Recent Developments in Hearing Aids: Part II. Feedback and Occlusion Effect Reduction Strategies, Laser Shell Manufacturing Processes, and Other Signal Processing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  3. Evaluation of Biostimulated Uranium Reduction as A Remediation Strategy for Deep Aquifers Following In-Situ Leaching And Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, C.; Akstin, K.; Fuhrmann, M.

    2013-12-01

    In situ leaching and recovery (ISR) currently is the primary method for extraction of deep roll front uranium (U) ore deposits. However, substantial levels of dissolved U in groundwater, [U], can remain after ISR extraction and long-term restorative pumping. Remediation of U contamination using in situ biostimulated microbial reduction is being evaluated for use following ISR. A key requirement for biostimulation-based remediation is the long-term stability of the sequestered U following cessation of biostimulation and the return to ambient groundwater conditions. Laboratory column experiments with sediments from an aquifer previously mined by ISR showed that 20 μM [U] influent was lowered to <0.1 μM through reduction and precipitation of U(IV) during biostimulation of the indigenous microbial population with lactate. The onset of [U] removal was concomitant with iron reduction and continued through 82 days (77 pore volumes, PV) well after the onset of sulfate reduction. XANES measurements showed that >95% of the sequestered U was U(IV). Following removal of electron donor and U(VI) from the influent, effluent [U] remained low (<0.1 μM) for over 32 days (30 PV). Upon addition of suboxic levels of dissolved oxygen (6 μM) to the influent, sequestered U was remobilized with effluent [U] increasing linearly to 0.6 μM after 35 days (33 PV) of suboxic elution. Subsequently, the rate of U remobilization increased rapidly with [U] reaching 13 μM after 87 days (82 PV), at which point about ~27% of the bioreduced U had been oxidized and remobilized. These results indicate that biostimulation is effective in lowering [U] following ISR but that maintaining reducing conditions is necessary to limit remobilization of sequestered U.

  4. Long-term Calibration Strategy for the Earth Networks CO2 and CH4 Sensor Network in Urban and Background Sites Using the Picarro CRDS Gas Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welp, L. R.; Lueker, T.; Kim, J.; Salameh, P.; Walker, S.; Keeling, R. F.; Weiss, R. F.; Sloop, C.; Callahan, W.; Bixler, D.; Long, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth Networks greenhouse-gas monitoring network initiated in 2010 has now expanded to nearly 35 stations across the United States. Building on this effort, the Megacities project funded by NIST has the goal of measuring CO2, CH4 and CO concentrations in the Los Angeles region to support quantitative emissions estimates. These efforts require precise concentration measurements that are internally consistent across the network so that small changes in concentration from one location to another are representative of emissions along the pathway. In this presentation, we examine the calibration strategy for these long-term monitoring efforts using data collected over the past few years. We will address the following issues as they apply to the Picarro G2301 CRDS CO2/CH4/H2O gas analyzer: (1) The frequency of calibration required. (2) The duration of calibration needed for the inlet system to stabilize. (3) The stability and linearity of the instrument span and options for monitoring with a high concentration tank or zero air tank in addition to an ambient concentration calibration tank. We will also outline the calibration tank overlap scheme employed to ensure a consistent long-term record of calibration.

  5. A label-free fluorescence strategy for selective detection of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide based on a dumbbell-like probe with low background noise.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuexu; Lin, Chunshui; Chen, Yiying; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2016-03-15

    In this work we developed a novel label-free fluorescence sensing approach for the detection of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) based on a dumbbell-like DNA probe designed for both ligation reaction and digestion reaction with low background noise. SYBR Green I (SG I), a double-helix dye, was chosen as the readout fluorescence signal. In the absence of NAD(+), the ligation reaction did not occur, but the probe was digested to mononucleotides after the addition of exonuclease I (Exo I) and exonuclease I (Exo III), resulting in a weak fluorescence intensity due to the weak interaction between SG I and mononucleotides. In the presence of NAD(+), the DNA probe was ligated by Escherichia coli DNA ligase, blocking the digestion by Exo I and Exo III. As a result, SG I was intercalated into the stem part of the DNA dumbbell probe and fluorescence enhancement was achieved. This method was simple in design, fast to operate, with good sensitivity and selectivity which could discriminate NAD(+) from its analogs. PMID:26454831

  6. KAZAN: Will you survive the next geodisaster? An educational game for raising awareness about geohazards and risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossoux, Sophie; Delcamp, Audray; Poppe, Sam; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    Natural disasters remain too often presented in the media as the results from extreme natural phenomena affecting helpless people. School students and stakeholders, especially in developing countries, have a limited awareness of the different components of disasters and of the complementary strategies existing to mitigate their impacts. Using the specific example of the Ngazidja Island (Comoros), we developed and tested a new board game aiming at raising awareness about geohazards (i.e. earthquake, tsunami, lava flow, volcanic ash fall). This game highlights the various and spatially-variable geohazard impacts on the exposed population, the key role played by livelihood strategies and the access to natural resources in controlling long term impacts, and the capacity of a community to act in reducing its vulnerability to natural hazards. The target public of this game are 1. secondary school students, 2. scientists and stakeholders involved to some degree in risk management activities, and 3. people exposed to these hazards. For the first group, the aim is to allow them to better interpret the disaster to which they are confronted in the media, whereas for the second group, the objective is to generate discussion about the efficiency and complementarity of contrasted risk management strategies. The objective for the last group is to help them to understand the hazard to which they are confronted in order to be better prepared. In this contribution, we will present the game board and the implemented rules. This game was tested with several groups of secondary school students in Belgium and with geologists and risk managers in Tanzania and in the Comores. On the basis of the analysis of the game strategies developed by the players, their reactions during the game and their answers to a short questionnaire, we analyse the main learning outcomes that are conveyed by this game. We compare these outcomes with key elements of the risk management, focusing on geohazards in

  7. Shelf-life Reduction as an Emerging Problem in Cooked Hams Underlines the Need for Improved Preservation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulos, Charalampos; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Cooked hams have gained an important position within the delicatessen market. Nowadays, consumers not only demand superior sensory properties but also request low levels of sodium and fat and the absence of conventional chemicals and preservatives used for the increase of the technological yield and shelf-life of the products. As a result, products that apply strict quality certificates or ''clean'' labels become increasingly important. However, such cooked hams suffer from a limited shelf-life. Besides some physicochemical effects, this is mainly due to microbial impact, despite the application of modified-atmosphere-packaging and chilling. Microbial spoilage is mostly due to the metabolic manifestation of lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta, although Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts may occur too. Several preservation strategies have been developed to prolong the shelf-life of such vulnerable cooked meat products by targeting the microbial communities, with different rates of success. Whereas high-pressure treatments do not always pose a straightforward solution, a promising strategy relates to the use of bioprotective cultures containing lactic acid bacteria. The latter consist of strains that are deliberately added to the ham to outcompete undesirable microorganisms. Spoilage problems seem, however, to be specific for each product and processing line, underlining the importance of tailor-made solutions. PMID:24915326

  8. Enantioselective organocatalytic reduction of β-trifluoromethyl nitroalkenes: an efficient strategy for the synthesis of chiral β-trifluoromethyl amines.

    PubMed

    Massolo, Elisabetta; Benaglia, Maurizio; Orlandi, Manuel; Rossi, Sergio; Celentano, Giuseppe

    2015-02-23

    An efficient organocatalytic stereoselective reduction of β-trifluoromethyl-substituted nitroalkenes, mediated by 3,5-dicarboxylic ester-dihydropyridines (Hantzsch ester type), has been successfully developed. A multifunctional thiourea-based (S)-valine derivative was found to be the catalyst of choice, promoting the reaction in up to 97% ee. The methodology has been applied to a wide variety of substrates, leading to the formation of differently substituted precursors of enantiomerically enriched β-trifluoromethyl amines. The mechanism of the reaction and the mode of action of the metal-free catalytic species were computationally investigated; on the basis of DFT transition-state (TS) analysis, a model of stereoselection was also proposed. PMID:25573847

  9. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harold, Michael; Crocker, Mark; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Luss, Dan; Choi, Jae-Soon; Dearth, Mark; McCabe, Bob; Theis, Joe

    2013-09-30

    Oxides of nitrogen in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) commonly referred to as NO{sub x}, is one of the two chemical precursors that lead to ground-level ozone, a ubiquitous air pollutant in urban areas. A major source of NO{sub x} is generated by equipment and vehicles powered by diesel engines, which have a combustion exhaust that contains NO{sub x} in the presence of excess O{sub 2}. Catalytic abatement measures that are effective for gasoline-fueled engines such as the precious metal containing three-way catalytic converter (TWC) cannot be used to treat O2-laden exhaust containing NO{sub x}. Two catalytic technologies that have emerged as effective for NO{sub x} abatement are NO{sub x} storage and reduction (NSR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). NSR is similar to TWC but requires much larger quantities of expensive precious metals and sophisticated periodic switching operation, while SCR requires an on-board source of ammonia which serves as the chemical reductant of the NO{sub x}. The fact that NSR produces ammonia as a byproduct while SCR requires ammonia to work has led to interest in combining the two together to avoid the need for the cumbersome ammonia generation system. In this project a comprehensive study was carried out of the fundamental aspects and application feasibility of combined NSR/SCR. The project team, which included university, industry, and national lab researchers, investigated the kinetics and mechanistic features of the underlying chemistry in the lean NOx trap (LNT) wherein NSR was carried out, with particular focus on identifying the operating conditions such as temperature and catalytic properties which lead to the production of ammonia in the LNT. The performance features of SCR on both model and commercial catalysts focused on the synergy between the LNT and SCR converters in terms of utilizing the upstream-generated ammonia and alternative reductants such as propylene, representing the

  10. Successful outcome of an integrated strategy for the reduction of schistosomiasis transmission in an endemically complex area.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Zhu; Qian, Ying-Jun; Yang, Kun; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hua-Ming; Liu, Jun; Chen, Mu-Hua; Huang, Xi-Bao; Xu, Yin-Long; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the major public health problems in the People's Republic of China (and elsewhere), seriously threatening health as well as social and economic development. An integrated control strategy, emphasising transmission control but also aimed at reducing greenhouse gases, was carried out in Jiangling county, Hubei province from 2007 to 2009. Three villages were chosen for a pilot study involving removal of cattle from neighbouring, snail-infested grasslands, improving sanitation and construction of units for household biogas production in addition to routine control measures. Both prevalence and intensity of infection in the snails in the neighbourhood were greatly reduced after two years of implementation, while the prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans in the three villages had been reduced by 29%, 34% and 24%, respectively. The removal of cattle and construction of biogas production units had an additional positive effect in that the annual, average emission of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were reduced by an estimated 7.8 and 80.2 tons, respectively. PMID:22639123

  11. OC-ALC hazardous waste minimization strategy: Reduction of industrial biological sludge from industrial wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) is one of five US Air Force Logistic Centers that perform depot level maintenance of aircraft. As part of the maintenance process, aircraft are cleaned, chemically depainted, repainted, and electroplated. These repair/maintenance processes generate large quantities of dilute liquid effluent which are collected and treated in the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP) prior to hazardous waste disposal. OC-ALC is committed to reducing the use of hazardous materials in the repair and maintenance of aircraft and ancillary components. A major Air Force initiative is to reduce the amount of hazardous waste discharged off-site by 25% by the end of CY96 and 50% by CY99 end. During maintenance and repair operations, organic chemicals are employed. These organics are discharged to the IWTP for biological degradation. During the biological digestion process, a biological sludge is generated. OC-ALC engineers are evaluating the applicability of a biosludge acid/heat treatment process. In the acid hydrolysis process, an acid is added to the biosludge and processed through a hot, pressurized reactor where the majority of the biosolids are broken down and solubilized. The resulting aqueous product stream is then recycled back to the traditional biotreatment process for digestion of the solubilized organics. The solid waste stream is dewatered prior to disposal. The objective of the subsequent effort is to achieve a reduction in hazardous waste generation and disposal by focusing primarily on end-of-the-pipe treatment at the IWTP. Acid hydrolysis of biosludge is proving to be a practical process for use in industrial and municipal wastewater biotreatment systems that will lower environmental and economic costs by minimizing the production and disposal of biosludge.

  12. Development and demonstration of the use of modular thermo-mechanical pulpmill simulation models to develop energy reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Rushton, J.D.; Jones, G.L. ); Leaver, E.L.; Morton, W. )

    1991-08-15

    The Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST) has received a project grant from the US DOE to develop and demonstrate the use of realtime process simulation modeling as a means of process analysis and optimization. The Project, to be conducted under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA), will target a Thermo-Mechanical Pulping (TMP) operation as the site for the commercial implementation of the technology. IPST and a sub-contractor, SACDA Inc. (SACDA), will cooperate in a two-to-three year effort to produce an on-line simulation program having both steady-state and dynamic modeling capabilities. The Project will take advantage of a current IPST and SACDA joint development effort to merge the IPST's MAPPS (Modular Analysis of Pulp and Paper Systems) program with SACD's MASSBAL program. Using the combined proprietary programs, realtime'' steady-state and dynamic TMP models will be developed and installed as part of a millwide'' information/analysis system. By utilizing the Performance Attribute (PAT) Modeling concept developed at IPST, the models will have the capability of optimizing energy usage and other process operating variables as a function of pulp quality. The primary goal of the Project is to demonstrate that on-line simulation models can provide assistance to operators and managers in day-to-day operations. By embedding simulation analysis techniques such as data reconciliation and what if,'' optimization, and look ahead'' scenarios within the program executive, timely process data and information, not otherwise available, will be provided to the operator. Such data and information can be used by the operator for process analysis, optimization and planning and/or to provide setpoints for open or closed loop advanced control strategies.

  13. Fishery induces sperm depletion and reduction in male reproductive potential for crab species under male-biased harvest strategy.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Luis Miguel; Rosas, Yenifer; Fuentes, Juan Pablo; Riveros, Marcela Paz; Chaparro, Oscar Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Sperm depletion in males can occur when polygynous species are intensively exploited under a male-biased management strategy. In fisheries involving crabs species, the effects of this type of management on the reproductive potential is far from being understood. This study tests whether male-biased management of the principal Chilean crab fishery is able to affect the potential capacity of Metacarcinus edwardsii males to transfer sperm to females. Five localities in southern Chile, recording contrasting crab fishery landing, were selected to assess the potential of sperm depletion triggered by fishery. Seasonally, male crabs from each locality were obtained. Dry weight and histological condition of vasa deferentia and the Vaso-Somatic Index (VSI) were determined in order to use them as proxies for sperm depletion and male reproductive condition. A manipulative experiment was performed in the laboratory to estimate vasa deferentia weight and VSI from just-mated males in order to obtain a reference point for the potential effects of the fishery on sperm reserves. Sperm storage capacity is significantly affected by fisheries; during the mating season vasa deferentia from localities with low fishery intensity were heavier than those from high intensity fisheries, and these differences were even more evident in large males. Histological section showed that this disparity in vasa deferentia weight was explained principally by differences in the quantity of spermatophores rather than other seminal material. VSI was always higher in males from localities with low fishery intensity. Males from localities with high fishery intensity showed little capacity to recover sperm reserves and the VSI of these males remained below the values of the just-mated males. Detriment in the capacity of males to transfer sperm is the first step to sperm limitation in an exploited population, thus detection of sperm depletion can be an alert to introduce changes in the current management of

  14. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given

  15. A Versatile Iron-Tannin-Framework Ink Coating Strategy to Fabricate Biomass-Derived Iron Carbide/Fe-N-Carbon Catalysts for Efficient Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yaoxin; Kong, Biao; Simon, George P; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, San Ping; Wang, Huanting

    2016-01-22

    The conversion of biomass into valuable carbon composites as efficient non-precious metal oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts is attractive for the development of commercially viable polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell technology. Herein, a versatile iron-tannin-framework ink coating strategy is developed to fabricate cellulose-derived Fe3 C/Fe-N-C catalysts using commercial filter paper, tissue, or cotton as a carbon source, an iron-tannin framework as an iron source, and dicyandiamide as a nitrogen source. The oxygen reduction performance of the resultant Fe3C/Fe-N-C catalysts shows a high onset potential (i.e. 0.98 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)), and large kinetic current density normalized to both geometric electrode area and mass of catalysts (6.4 mA cm(-2) and 32 mA mg(-1) at 0.80 V vs RHE) in alkaline condition. This method can even be used to prepare efficient catalysts using waste carbon sources, such as used polyurethane foam. PMID:26661901

  16. A facile strategy to fabricate plasmonic Cu modified TiO{sub 2} nano-flower films for photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2} to methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Enzhou; Qi, Lulu; Bian, Juanjuan; Chen, Yihan; Hu, Xiaoyun; Fan, Jun; Liu, Hanchen; Zhu, Changjun; Wang, Qiuping

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Photoreduction of CO{sub 2} to CH{sub 3}OH over plasmonic Cu/TiO{sub 2} film. - Highlights: • Cu nanoparticles modified TiO{sub 2} nano-flower film was prepared by a facile strategy. • Cu nanoparticles can enhance the light absorption and the Raman scattering of TiO{sub 2}. • Cu nanoparticles can effectively restrain the recombination of the charge carriers. • A synergistic mechanism is proposed for photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2} on Cu/TiO{sub 2} film. - Abstract: Cu nanoparticles (NPs) deposited TiO{sub 2} nano-flower films were fabricated using a combination of a hydrothermal method and a microwave-assisted reduction process. The investigations indicated that Cu NPs and TiO{sub 2} film both exhibit visible light harvesting properties based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Cu NPs and unique nanostructures of TiO{sub 2} film. Fluorescence quenching was observed because the recombination of charge carriers was effectively suppressed by Cu NPs deposition. The experimental results indicate that Cu/TiO{sub 2} films exhibit better activity for the photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2} due to the charge transfer property and LSPR effect of Cu NPs. The CH{sub 3}OH production rate reached 1.8 μmol cm{sup −2} h{sup −1} (energy efficiency was 0.8%) over 0.5 Cu/TiO{sub 2} film under UV and visible light irradiation, which was 6.0 times higher than that observed over pure TiO{sub 2} film. In addition, a tentative photocatalytic mechanism is proposed to understand the experimental results over the Cu modified TiO{sub 2} nano-flower films.

  17. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Naktani, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-08-01

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using 48Ca in CaF2 crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  18. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, K. E-mail: nkyohei@u-fukui.ac.jp; Iida, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; and others

    2015-08-17

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using {sup 48}Ca in CaF{sub 2} crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  19. Intra-Clutch Ratio of Yolk Progesterone Level Changes with Laying Date in Rockhopper Penguins: A Strategy to Influence Brood Reduction?

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Parenteau, Charline; Eens, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Hatching asynchrony in avian species generally leads to a size hierarchy among siblings, favouring the first-hatched chicks. Maternally deposited hormones affect the embryo and chick's physiology and behaviour. It has been observed that progesterone, a hormone present at higher levels than other steroid hormones in egg yolks, is negatively related to body mass in embryos, chicks and adults. A differential within-clutch progesterone deposition could therefore be linked to the size hierarchy between siblings and to the resulting brood reduction. We tested whether yolk progesterone levels differed between eggs according to future parental ability to feed the entire clutch in wild rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome. This species presents a unique reversed egg-size dimorphism and hatching asynchrony, with the larger second-laid egg (B-egg) hatching before the smaller first-laid egg (A-egg). Yolk progesterone levels increased only slightly with female body mass at laying. However, intra-clutch ratios were not related to female body mass. On the other hand, yolk progesterone levels increased significantly with the date of laying onset for A-eggs while they decreased for B-eggs. Early clutches therefore had proportionally more progesterone in the B-egg compared to the A-egg while late clutches had proportionally less progesterone in the B-egg. We propose that females could strategically regulate yolk progesterone deposition within clutches according to the expected food availability during chick growth, an adaptive strategy to adjust brood reduction to conditions. We also discuss these results, relating to yolk progesterone, in the broader context of other yolk steroids. PMID:22110758

  20. Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrends, Ehrhard

    2004-05-01

    Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

  1. Strategies of Managing Budget Reductions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert E.

    A tabular presentation of cost-cutting measures, this report by the school board chairman provides introductory data on York County Public Schools, Virginia, followed by the district's 1982-83 allocations and anticipated 5-year savings on a range of policies. Cost-saving personnel policies include employing part-time secondary teachers, combining…

  2. Molecular dynamics study on defect reduction strategies towards the fabrication of high performance Cd1-xZnxTe/CdS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Jose J.

    Cadmium Telluride is a material widely used in terrestrial thin film photovoltaic applications due to its nearly ideal band gap (~1.5 eV) and high absorption coefficient. Due to its low manufacturing cost, this technology has the potential to become a significant energy resource if higher energy conversion efficiencies are achieved. However, the module efficiencies (~14%) are still far from the theoretical maximum (~30%) for this material in a single junction configuration. The reason behind this low performance is attributed to the high number of defects that are present within the device materials. The physics behind the formation mechanisms of these imperfections and their effect in the electrical the operation of a device is not well understood, and the topic is a focus of a wide variety of studies. In this work we perform molecular dynamics simulations of epitaxial growth of CdTe on CdS (0001) single crystal substrates in order to exploit the powerful structure prediction capability of high fidelity modelling to capture defect formation mechanisms. In addition, advanced visualization and defect detection software tools are employed to characterize 3-D simulation data and identify, quantify, and index defects within the simulated epilayer with atomic resolution. The combination of accurate modelling and advance characterization software tools creates an analysis capability that provides defect insight beyond the limits offered achievable by means of the experimental characterization equipment in existence. The analysis capability was used to evaluate three CdTe film defect reduction strategies. These approaches were selective area growth, the incorporation of Zn alloying in a buffer layer, and a nano-structure that combined the two previously mentioned methods. The capability of the defect analysis software was expanded by adding code that enables it to detect defects inside a hexagonal lattice. Previously, the software was only able to detect defects within a

  3. Gamma background discrimination in the XENON100 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgarejo, Antonio; Xenon100 Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    Direct dark matter detection experiments rely on the ability to have an expected background close to 0 in order to be able to identify possible WIMP signals. Among the multiple strategies to achieve this goal, most of the experiments use background reduction techniques which exploit the difference between electron-like signal (most radioactive backgrounds) and neutron-like signals (neutrons and WIMPs). In this talk we will show the studies and measurements within the XENON100 experiment to distinguish signals from electrons and neutrons by comparing their light to signal ratio. A straightforward prediction of this work is the amount of events expected in the dark matter region in this experiment. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF, DOE, SNF, the Volkswagen Foundation, FCT and STCSM. We are grateful to the LNGS for hosting and supporting the XENON program.

  4. Ultra-low-dose dual-source CT coronary angiography with high pitch: diagnostic yield of a volumetric planning scan and effects on dose reduction and imaging strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, B; Huppertz, A; Lembcke, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of an ultra-low-dose dual-source CT coronary angiography (CTCA) scan with high pitch for delimiting the range of the subsequent standard CTCA scan. Methods: 30 patients with an indication for CTCA were prospectively examined using a two-scan dual-source CTCA protocol (2.0 × 64.0 × 0.6 mm; pitch, 3.4; rotation time of 280 ms; 100 kV): Scan 1 was acquired with one-fifth of the tube current suggested by the automatic exposure control software [CareDose 4D™ (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using 100 kV and 370 mAs as a reference] with the scan length from the tracheal bifurcation to the diaphragmatic border. Scan 2 was acquired with standard tube current extending with reduced scan length based on Scan 1. Nine central coronary artery segments were analysed qualitatively on both scans. Results: Scan 2 (105.1 ± 10.1 mm) was significantly shorter than Scan 1 (127.0 ± 8.7 mm). Image quality scores were significantly better for Scan 2. However, in 5 of 6 (83%) patients with stenotic coronary artery disease, a stenosis was already detected in Scan 1 and in 13 of 24 (54%) patients with non-stenotic coronary arteries, a stenosis was already excluded by Scan 1. Using Scan 2 as reference, the positive- and negative-predictive value of Scan 1 was 83% (5 of 6 patients) and 100% (13 of 13 patients), respectively. Conclusion: An ultra-low-dose CTCA planning scan enables a reliable scan length reduction of the following standard CTCA scan and allows for correct diagnosis in a substantial proportion of patients. Advances in knowledge: Further dose reductions are possible owing to a change in the individual patient's imaging strategy as a prior ultra-low-dose CTCA scan may already rule out the presence of a stenosis or may lead to a direct transferal to an invasive catheter procedure. PMID:25710210

  5. Norms and practices within marriage which shape gender roles, HIV/AIDS risk and risk reduction strategies in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Bandali, S

    2011-09-01

    Despite increasing HIV/AIDS rates among married individuals, minimal research has been conducted on how men and women respond to risk in a marriage. This paper examines strategies used by married individuals to combat HIV/AIDS risk against prevailing gender norms. Qualitative data were gathered in four villages of Cabo Delgado province, Mozambique. Group discussions were held with 160 men and women to explore gender norms, HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk determinants. From the group discussions, 29 individuals were selected for further in-depth interviews to explore relationships between gender norms and risk reduction efforts within marriages. Findings illustrate how infidelity and social limitations placed on condom use not only increase HIV/AIDS risk but also entrench gender disparities. Although power differences between genders can make it difficult to negotiate safe sex, men and women are taking measures to reduce perceived HIV/AIDS risk in their marriage. Married men are reconstructing norms and taking responsibility to protect their family from HIV/AIDS by remaining faithful. For women, responses to HIV/AIDS risk in a marriage are more closely related to their ability to generate an income. Financially dependent women tend to leave a risky marriage altogether in contrast to financially autonomous women who will negotiate condom use with their husband. Factors such as experience with a risky partner, the desire to maintain a good social standing, fear of HIV/AIDS acquisition and parental guidance and support influence men and women to reduce perceived HIV/AIDS risk, despite constraining gender norms and power imbalances in a marriage. Nuanced understandings of the ways in which men and women are already taking measures to decrease noted HIV/AIDS risk, despite gender norms that make this a challenge, should be incorporated into localised responses. PMID:21476146

  6. AMD NOX REDUCTION IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first phase of a potentially multi-phase project aimed at identifying scientific methodologies that will lead to the development of innnovative analytical tools supporting the analysis of control strategy effectiveness, namely. accountabilty. Significant reductions i...

  7. Identifying/Quantifying Environmental Trade-offs Inherent in GHG Reduction Strategies for Coal-Fired Power. Environmental Science and Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improvements to coal power plant technology and the co-fired combustion of biomass promise direct greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for existing coal-fired power plants. Questions remain as to what the reduction potentials are from a life cycle perspective and if it will result in ...

  8. Background sources at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, J. G.; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J. F.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10-6 counts/keV/cm2/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10-7 counts/keV/cm2/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  10. Cigarette Price-Minimization Strategies by U.S. Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Pesko, Michael F.; Tynan, Michael A.; Gerzoff, Robert B.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smokers may react to cigarette excise tax increases by engaging in price-minimization strategies (i.e., finding ways to reduce the cost of cigarette smoking) rather than by quitting or reducing their cigarette use, thereby reducing the public health benefits of such tax increases. Purpose To evaluate the state and national prevalence of five common cigarette price-minimization strategies and the size of price reductions obtained from these strategies. Methods Using data from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, the prevalence of five common price-minimization strategies by type of strategy and by smoker’s cigarette consumption level were estimated. The price reductions associated with these price-minimization strategies also were evaluated. Analyses took place in November 2012. Results Approximately 55.4% of U.S. adult smokers used at least one of five price-minimization strategies in the previous year, with an average reduction of $1.27 per pack (22.0%). Results varied widely by state. Conclusions Cigarette price-minimization strategies are practiced widely among current smokers, and resulting price reductions are relatively large. Policies that decrease opportunities to effectively apply cigarette price-minimization strategies would increase the public health gains of cigarette excise tax increases. PMID:23597810

  11. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  12. Backgrounds in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John C.; Long, Barbara K.

    "Backgrounds in Language," a field-tested inservice course designed for use by groups of 15 or 25 language arts teachers, provides the subject matter background teachers need to make informed decisions about what curriculum materials to use in what way, at what time, and with which students. The course is comprised of eight 2-hour sessions,…

  13. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  14. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  15. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  16. Adaptive background model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochun; Xiao, Yijun; Chai, Zhi; Wang, Bangping

    2007-11-01

    An adaptive background model aiming at outdoor vehicle detection is presented in this paper. This model is an improved model of PICA (pixel intensity classification algorithm), it classifies pixels into K-distributions by color similarity, and then a hypothesis that the background pixel color appears in image sequence with a high frequency is used to evaluate all the distributions to determine which presents the current background color. As experiments show, the model presented in this paper is a robust, adaptive and flexible model, which can deal with situations like camera motions, lighting changes and so on.

  17. Energy Efficiency Programs in K-12 Schools: A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs. Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Saving energy through energy efficiency improvements can cost less than generating, transmitting, and distributing energy from power plants, and provides multiple economic and environmental benefits. Local governments can promote energy efficiency in their jurisdictions by developing and implementing strategies that improve the efficiency of…

  18. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J.F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  19. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J. F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Ritz, S.; Mizuno, T.

    2007-07-12

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  20. Social Norms vs. Risk Reduction Approaches to 21st Birthday Celebrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Dodd, Virginia; Kenzik, Kelly; Miller, E. Maureen; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye

    2010-01-01

    Background: Celebratory drinking among college students on their 21st birthday often involves dangerous levels of alcohol consumption. Purpose: This study utilized an experimental design to assess the efficacy of social norm and risk reduction strategies developed to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol related consequences among college students…

  1. A novel method to determine residual detergent in biological samples post endotoxin reduction treatment and evaluation of strategies for subsequent detergent removal.

    PubMed

    London, Anne Serdakowski; Japutra, Chietara; Planck, Kyle; Lihon, Michael; Nguyen, Andrew Anh

    2016-08-01

    Endotoxin removal using detergent washes and extractions are well-established, efficient, and cost-effective methods; however, removing residual detergent post treatment has been shown to be a challenge. In this communication, we show a simple and fast method for determining the detergent concentration in a protein solution post treatment and highlight strategies for detergent removal to achieve levels below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the minimum concentration at which detergent micelles form. PMID:26627559

  2. The far-UV diffuse background revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perault, M.; Lequeux, J.; Hanus, M.; Joubert, M.

    1991-06-01

    A new reduction is presented of the high-galactic latitude whole-sky survey obtained with the D2B-AURA satellite at 1690 A. This reduction differs in several ways from the previously published one (Joubert et al., 1983), especially by a correction for gain variations with time which had remained unnoticed in the first reduction. The existence of a correlation between the UV sky background and gas and dust is confirmed. There are no clear local excesses at large scale of UV radiation with respect to the mean relations UV versus gas or dust column densities.

  3. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  4. Stress and stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Straub, Heather; Qadir, Sameen; Miller, Greg; Borders, Ann

    2014-09-01

    Chronic stress contributes to preterm birth (PTB), through direct physiological mechanisms or behavioral pathways. This review identified interventions to prevent PTB through decreased maternal stress. Studies were grouped according to intervention: group prenatal care (11 studies), care coordination (8 studies), health insurance expansion (4 studies), expanded prenatal education/support in the clinic (8 studies), home visitation (9 studies), telephone contact (2 studies), or stress-reduction strategies (5 studies). Group prenatal care had the most evidence for PTB prevention. Comparative studies of PTB prevention through different models of prenatal care and maternal support, education, empowerment, stress-reduction, and coping strategies are needed. PMID:24979355

  5. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  6. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  7. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Norman, E. B.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  8. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  9. Foregrounding the Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

  10. Monitored background radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruel, C.; Larouche, M.; Donato, M.

    1986-01-01

    The infrared (IR) testing of the Olympus thermal model has provided a capability to perform cost effective thermal balance testing of satellites and satellite components. A high-accuracy monitored background radiometer was developed for the measurement of absorbed radiation heat flux encountered during IR thermal vacuum testing of spacecraft. The design, development, and calibration of this radiometer is described.

  11. Food-Wine Pairing Suggestions as a Risk Reduction Strategy: Reducing Risk and Increasing Wine by the Glass Sales in the Context of a Swiss Restaurant.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Lohyd; Jaquinet, Anne-Laure

    2016-08-01

    This study tests the effect of a pairing suggestion for food with wine by the glass directly placed on the menu. We made the assumption that these suggestions can, by reducing social and financial risk, increase wine by the glass sales. One hundred and fifty-nine customers of a Swiss restaurant participated in this experiment. For 82 customers, a food and wine by the glass suggestion was directly placed on the menu while the 77 others were given a normal menu (without a pairing suggestion). Results show that this type of suggestion significantly increases wine sold by the glass. Practical applications of this strategy are discussed. PMID:27431314

  12. Is it time to pull the plug on 12-hour shifts? Part 3. harm reduction strategies if keeping 12-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Trinkoff, Alison M

    2010-09-01

    This article is part 3 of the series "Pulling the Plug on 12-Hour Shifts." In part 1 (March 2010), the authors provided an update on recent evidence that challenges the current scheduling paradigm and supports the lack of safety of long work hours. Part 2 (April 2010) described the barriers to change and challenges for the nurse executive in moving away from the practice of 12-hour shifts. This article presents strategies for mitigating the effects of 12-hour shifts for nurses who continue to work 12-hour shifts despite the potential risks to their health and to patient safety. PMID:20798617

  13. Use of partial budgeting to determine the economic outcome of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection reduction strategies in three Ohio dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Hoblet, K H; Miller, G Y

    1991-09-15

    Efforts to reduce the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection were monitored in 3 Ohio dairy herds. Bacteriologic culturing of milk from all lactating cows in each herd was completed multiple times to identify infected cows and monitor reduction. Partial budgeting techniques were used to determine the economic outcome of the reduction program. Of particular emphasis was the economic impact of culling to maintain or achieve milk quality premium payments on the basis of bulk tank somatic cell counts. The prevalence of S aureusinfected cows was reduced in each herd. Culturing of milk from all lactating cows appeared to be an effective method to identify infected cows. Although numbers were limited, it also appeared that culturing of composite quarter samples was effective as a herd screening test to identify S aureus-infected cows. Bacteriologic culturing had a negative financial impact in all 3 herds. Using partial budgeting to assess the economic impact of the programs, it was determined that 2 herds experienced negative financial impacts as a result of an excess culling rate when compared with a 12-month baseline period prior to the initiation of the project. All herds had increased milk production per cow during the study as measured by the mature-equivalent method. However, when actual production was considered, increased milk production in each herd was not as great as that of other Ohio herds enrolled on Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1955362

  14. Reduction-responsive core-shell-corona micelles based on triblock copolymers: novel synthetic strategy, characterization, and application as a tumor microenvironment-responsive drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xubo; Liu, Peng

    2015-01-14

    A facile and effective approach was established for fabricating core-shell-corona micelles by self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(acrylic acid-co-tert-butyl acrylate)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG43-b-P(AA30-co-tBA18)-b-PCL53) triblock copolymer, synthesized via a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), click chemistry, and hydrolyzation. The prenanovehicles with three different hydrolysis degrees from PEG43-b-PtBA48-b-PCL53 were developed to evaluate the drug loading capacity (DLC) and drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE). After cross-linking with a disulfide bond to regulate the drug release kinetics, the spherical core-shell-corona micelles with average diameter of 52 ± 4 nm were obtained in aqueous solution. The reduction-responsive cross-linked micelles showed a slow sustained release in normal physiological conditions and a rapid release upon exposure to simulated tumor intracellular conditions. In addition, the cytotoxic analysis and HepG2 cell growth inhibition assays demonstrated their remarkable biocompatibility and similar excellent anticancer activity as the free doxorubicin (DOX), which has also been revealed by the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) analysis. So the reduction-sensitive core-shell-corona micelles are expected to be promising tumor microenvironment-responsive nanovehicles for hydrophobic drugs by glutathione (GSH) triggering. PMID:25394962

  15. Implementation of the risk and harm reduction strategy against unsafe abortion in Uruguay: From a university hospital to the entire country.

    PubMed

    Labandera, Ana; Gorgoroso, Monica; Briozzo, Leonel

    2016-08-01

    The history of the creation of the risk and harm reduction model applied to unsafe abortion is reviewed, from its initial implementation by a small group of gynecologists at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center in Uruguay to its spread to the rest of the country. Its ethical rationale, its successful application in the hospital, the decision to disseminate it with the cooperation of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), and the intervention procedures are explained. It was evaluated from the epidemiological and anthropological viewpoints, from the changes in professionals' and users' perception of the care offered and its impact on complications and maternal deaths. A very favorable change was seen in the number and quality of the services, the providers' attitude, and maternal morbidity and mortality were reduced. It also brought visibility to women with unplanned and unwanted pregnancies and an improved understanding of their problems, which contributed to the legislative changes that were made subsequently. PMID:27577026

  16. Guiding Surge Reduction Strategies via Characterization of Coastal Surge Propagation and Internal Surge Generation within a Complex Bay/Estuary System, Galveston Bay, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, B.; Torres, J.; Irza, N.; Bedient, P. B.; Dawson, C.; Proft, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, Hurricane Ike (2008) and a suite of synthetic storms are simulated in order to evaluate how different hurricane landfalls, wind intensities, and radius to maximum winds influence the surge response in complex semi-enclosed bays such as Galveston Bay, located along the Texas Gulf Coast. The Advanced CIRCulation and Simulating Waves Nearshore (ADCIRC+SWAN) models are employed to quantify surge in terms of its relative coastal contributions that propagate across barrier islands and tidal inlets and subsequently into Galveston Bay, the surge generated locally within the Bay itself, and the interaction between these coastal and local components of surge. Results from this research will further the current understanding of surge interactions in bay systems and guide coastal engineering surge reduction projects that need to consider multiple lines of defense to protect complex bay/estuary systems such as Galveston Bay, TX.

  17. Background illumination simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Towry, E.R.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes a testing apparatus for testing and evaluating the performance of laser seeking warheads for missiles, under simulated weather conditions. It comprises support means for supporting a warhead seeker; laser means for generating a laser beam and for directing a laser beam towards the seeker; a diffusion screen interposed between the seeker support means and the laser means for diffusing the laser beam; a collimating lens interposed between the diffusion screen and the seeker support means for collimating the diffused laser beam and for directing the collimated laser beam onto a warhead seeker, supported in the seeker support; background illuminator means for illuminating the seeker support and a seeker disposed therein, supported for movement into and out of an operating position between the diffusion means and the collimating lens for providing background lighting in simulation of weather lighting conditions; and control means for controlling the intensity of the light provided by the illuminator means to simulate various weather conditions.

  18. Some background about satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  19. Psychological Adaptation of Adolescents with Immigrant Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, David Lackland

    2000-01-01

    Examines three theoretical perspectives (family values, acculturation strategies, and social group identity) as predictors of the psychological well-being of adolescents from immigrant backgrounds. Reveals that the perspectives accounted for between 12% and 22% of variance of mental health, life satisfaction, and self-esteem, while social group…

  20. Cultural background shapes spatial reference frame proclivity

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar; Kornpetpanee, Suchada; Köster, Moritz; Fernández-Revelles, Andrés B.; Gramann, Klaus; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation is an essential human skill that is influenced by several factors. The present study investigates how gender, age, and cultural background account for differences in reference frame proclivity and performance in a virtual navigation task. Using an online navigation study, we recorded reaction times, error rates (confusion of turning axis), and reference frame proclivity (egocentric vs. allocentric reference frame) of 1823 participants. Reaction times significantly varied with gender and age, but were only marginally influenced by the cultural background of participants. Error rates were in line with these results and exhibited a significant influence of gender and culture, but not age. Participants’ cultural background significantly influenced reference frame selection; the majority of North-Americans preferred an allocentric strategy, while Latin-Americans preferred an egocentric navigation strategy. European and Asian groups were in between these two extremes. Neither the factor of age nor the factor of gender had a direct impact on participants’ navigation strategies. The strong effects of cultural background on navigation strategies without the influence of gender or age underlines the importance of socialized spatial cognitive processes and argues for socio-economic analysis in studies investigating human navigation. PMID:26073656

  1. Lamivudine or emtricitabine (XTC)/protease inhibitor dual therapy as a harm-reduction strategy in patients with tenofovir-related renal toxicity: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rossotti, Roberto; Moioli, Maria Cristina; Chianura, Leonardo; Errante, Isabella; Orcese, Carloandrea; Orso, Maurizio; Schiantarelli, Clara; Schlacht, Irene; Travi, Giovanna; Vigo, Beniamino; Villa, Maria Riccarda; Volonterio, Alberto; Puoti, Massimo

    2012-11-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is widely used in HIV-infected patients. It is associated with tubular toxicity, but its management is controversial. A possible strategy is to switch to a dual therapy based on lamivudine or emtricitabine (XTC) and protease inhibitors (PIs). A case-control study was designed to evaluate the switch to XTC + PI therapy in patients with TDF-related renal toxicity. A case was defined as a patient who was on TDF/XTC + PI and who switched to XTC + PI. A control was defined as a patient with the same clinical features who remained on TDF/XTC + PI. Twenty-one cases and 21 controls were included. After 48 weeks, no differences in efficacy were observed. No improvement in the glomerular filtration rate as estimated with the Cockroft-Gault formula (eGFR) was seen, but the number of times that patients had values below 60 ml/min was higher with standard TDF/XTC 1 PI treatment than with dual XTC + PI treatment. A switch to dual therapy could be an option for patients at risk of TDF-related renal damage with no relevant risk of virological or immunological failure. PMID:22804338

  2. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  3. Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William A.; Gursky, Herbert; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Lucke, Bob L.; Dorland, Bryan N.; Kessel, R. A.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.

    1994-09-01

    The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) is the designated archive for backgrounds data collected by Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) programs, some of which include ultraviolet sensors. Currently, the BDC holds ultraviolet data from the IBSS, UVPI, UVLIM, and FUVCAM sensors. The BDC will also be the prime archive for Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) data and is prepared to negotiate with program managers to handle other datasets. The purpose of the BDC is to make data accessible to users and to assist them in analyzing it. The BDC maintains the Science Catalog Information Exchange System (SCIES) allowing remote users to log in, read or post notices about current programs, search the catalogs for datasets of interest, and submit orders for data. On-site facilities are also available for the analysis of data, and consist of VMS and UNIX workstations with access to software analysis packages such as IDL, IRAF, and Khoros. Either on-site or remotely, users can employ the BDC-developed graphical user interface called the Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) to generate catalog queries and to display and analyze data. SCIES and VISTA permit nearly complete access to BDC services and capabilities without the need to be physically present at the data center.

  4. Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

    2009-05-01

    There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in

  5. Self-perceived HIV risk and the use of risk reduction strategies among men who engage in transactional sex with other men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Closson, Elizabeth F; Perry, Nicholas; Perkovich, Brandon; Nguyen, Thi; Trang, Nguyen N N; Lan, Hang X; Thien, Dinh Duc; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn

    2013-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam, with prevalence as high as 18%. Transactional sex represents a risk factor for HIV transmission/acquisition among MSM globally, particularly in urban contexts, but remains largely underinvestigated in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. In 2010, 23 MSM who reported exchanging sex for money in the last month completed a brief survey and semistructured qualitative interview at The Life Centre, a non-governmental organization in HCMC, to assess sociodemographics, individual- and structural-level HIV risk factors and explore acceptable future prevention interventions. Participants' mean age was 24 years. Equal proportions of respondents self-identified as heterosexual/straight, homosexual/gay, and bisexual. Participants had a mean of 158 male clients in the past year, with a median of 60 male clients in the past year (interquartile range [IQR]=70) and reported inconsistent condom use and inaccurate perceptions of HIV risk. Nearly half of the sample reported engaging in unprotected anal sex with a male partner in the past 12 months and one-third with a male client. Major themes that emerged for HIV prevention interventions with male sex workers were those that: (1) focused on individual factors (drug and alcohol use, barriers to condom use, knowledge of asymptomatic STIs, enhancement of behavioral risk-reduction skills, and addressing concomitant mental health issues); (2) incorporated interpersonal and relational contexts (led by peer educators, built interpersonal skills, attended to partner type and intimacy dynamics); and (3) considered the exogenous environments in which individual choices/relationships operate (stigma of being MSM in Vietnam, availability of alternative economic opportunities, and varied sexual venues). HIV prevention efforts are needed that address the specific needs of MSM who engage in transactional sex in HCMC. Universally, MSM endorsed HIV prevention

  6. Health economic impacts and cost-effectiveness of aflatoxin-reduction strategies in Africa: case studies in biocontrol and post-harvest interventions.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Khlangwiset, P

    2010-04-01

    Advances in health economics have proven useful in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of interventions, where the benefit usually takes the form of improved health outcomes rather than market outcomes. The paper performs health-based cost-effectiveness analyses of two potential aflatoxin control strategies in Africa: (1) pre-harvest biocontrol, using atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus competitively to exclude toxigenic strains from colonizing maize in Nigeria; and (2) post-harvest interventions in a package to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in groundnuts in Guinea. It is described how health benefits gained from each intervention, in terms of fewer aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cases, can be compared with the costs of implementing the interventions. It is found that both interventions would be extremely cost-effective if applied widely in African agriculture. That is, the monetized value of lives saved and quality of life gained by reducing aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma far exceeds the cost of either biocontrol or the post-harvest intervention package to achieve those health benefits. The estimated cost-effectiveness ratio (CER; gross domestic product multiplied by disability-adjusted life years saved per unit cost) for biocontrol in Nigerian maize ranged from 5.10 to 24.8; while the estimated CER for the post-harvest intervention package in Guinean groundnuts ranged from 0.21 to 2.08. Any intervention with a CER > 1 is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be 'very cost-effective', while an intervention with a CER > 0.33 is considered 'cost-effective'. Aside from cost-effectiveness, public health interventions must be readily accepted by the public, and must have financial and infrastructural support to be feasible in the parts of the world where they are most needed. PMID:20234965

  7. Expected background in the LZ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2015-08-17

    The LZ experiment, featuring a 7-tonne active liquid xenon target, is aimed at achieving unprecedented sensitivity to WIMPs with the background expected to be dominated by astrophysical neutrinos. To reach this goal, extensive simulations are carried out to accurately calculate the electron recoil and nuclear recoil rates in the detector. Both internal (from target material) and external (from detector components and surrounding environment) backgrounds are considered. A very efficient suppression of background rate is achieved with an outer liquid scintillator veto, liquid xenon skin and fiducialisation. Based on the current measurements of radioactivity of different materials, it is shown that LZ can achieve the reduction of a total background for a WIMP search down to about 2 events in 1000 live days for 5.6 tonne fiducial mass.

  8. Regional transportation network blocked by snowdrifts: assessment of risk reduction strategies by the example of the wind event of February 2015 in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2016-04-01

    where an accessibility is crucial to be maintained. We analyze then the road network to highlight the roads vulnerability from snowdrifts with topographic and meteorological indicators. We also assess the ratio cost/benefit of different measures limiting snowdrifts. We finally discuss strategies to reduce the risk of this winter meteorological event.

  9. Assessing climate change over the Marche Region (central Italy) from 1951 to 2050: toward an integrated strategy for climate impacts reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Russo, Aniello; Marincioni, Fausto; Appiotti, Federica

    2013-04-01

    both wet and dry extremes. Such changes could alter the Region's hydro-geologic processes leading to increased intensity and frequency of landslide and flood hazards. These trends, considering the geomorphologic, social and economic characteristics of the Marche Region, suggest severe physical impacts scenario over the mountains band with subsequent socio-economic effects on hilly and coastal areas. Greater dry conditions are expected all over the Region, causing soil degradation and reducing river solid transport. In turn, this will impact agriculture productivity and natural beach nourishment likely causing a decline in beach tourism. On the other hand increased flood frequency would impact the several urban and economic settlements located on floodplains. Once these scenarios will be better defined, the next step could be mapping the vulnerability conditions within the Marche Region, thus highlighting exposure and resilience of infrastructures and population. Better knowledge of climate hazards and risks would support decision makers and legislators to implement, in the short terms, policies for the long term reduction of climate impacts in the Marche Region.

  10. High-energy radiation background in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rester, A. C., Jr. (Editor); Trombka, J. I. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The radiation environment of near-earth space and its effects on biological and hardware systems are examined in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to particle interactions and propagation, data bases, instrument background and dosimetry, detectors and experimental progress, biological effects, and future needs and strategies. Particular attention is given to angular distributions and spectra of geomagnetically trapped protons in LEO, bremsstrahlung production by electrons, nucleon-interaction data bases for background estimates, instrumental and atmospheric background lines observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, the GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica, space protons and brain tumors, a new radioprotective antioxidative agent, LEO radiation measurements on the Space Station, and particle-background effects on the Hubble Space Telescope and the Lyman FUV Spectroscopic Explorer.

  11. High-energy radiation background in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rester, A. C., Jr.; Trombka, J. I.

    The radiation environment of near-earth space and its effects on biological and hardware systems are examined in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to particle interactions and propagation, data bases, instrument background and dosimetry, detectors and experimental progress, biological effects, and future needs and strategies. Particular attention is given to angular distributions and spectra of geomagnetically trapped protons in LEO, bremsstrahlung production by electrons, nucleon-interaction data bases for background estimates, instrumental and atmospheric background lines observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, the GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica, space protons and brain tumors, a new radioprotective antioxidative agent, LEO radiation measurements on the Space Station, and particle-background effects on the Hubble Space Telescope and the Lyman FUV Spectroscopic Explorer.

  12. Background and Rationale.

    PubMed

    Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Bouye, Karen; Liburd, Leandris

    2016-02-12

    In 2011, CDC published the first CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (CHDIR). This report examined health disparities in the United States associated with various characteristics, including race/ethnicity, sex, income, education, disability status, and geography. Health disparities were defined as "differences in health outcomes and their determinants between segments of the population, as defined by social, demographic, environmental, and geographic attributes". Among other recommendations, the 2011 CHDIR emphasized the need to address health disparities with a dual intervention strategy focused on populations at greatest need and on improving the health of the U.S. population by making interventions available to everyone. The 2013 CHDIR updated the 2011 CHDIR and included additional reports on social and environmental determinants of health; the supplement emphasized the importance of multisectoral collaboration, highlighting the need for a comprehensive, community-driven approach to reducing health disparities in the United States. A follow-up report described five interventions that were shown to be effective or demonstrated promise for reducing health disparities. These publications have focused attention on the need to address health disparities in the United States, as well as on programs and interventions that address them. This supplement describes additional interventions that address particular disparities observed by race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geographic location, disability, and/or sexual orientation across a range of conditions, including asthma, infection with HIV and hepatitis A, use of colorectal cancer screening, youth violence, food security, and health-related quality of life. PMID:26916567

  13. Background of the workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-09-01

    The long-term effects of the Challenger accident on solar-terrestrial science resulted in the need to examine the near-term missions under development for the next five years. The workshop was organized to seek ideas and opinions about the future of solar-terrestrial flight programs. Included are considerations of all types of space platforms, i.e., balloons, rockets, free flying satellites, and the variety of platforms supported by NASA astronauts. Specific issues include: the establishment of the level of understanding to be accomplished with the completion of the current worldwide program of research in solar-terrestrial sciences; the identification of major questions to be answered by the future solar-terrestrial sciences research program as it might be if initiated within the next ten years; the identification of space capabilities to be available to the future program and provision of input about the Space Physics Division's priorities for using these to accomplish its future scientific program; and mapping a program strategy to accomplish a future program of research in the solar-terrestrial sciences within the research community's perception of capabilities and constraints.

  14. Background of the workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The long-term effects of the Challenger accident on solar-terrestrial science resulted in the need to examine the near-term missions under development for the next five years. The workshop was organized to seek ideas and opinions about the future of solar-terrestrial flight programs. Included are considerations of all types of space platforms, i.e., balloons, rockets, free flying satellites, and the variety of platforms supported by NASA astronauts. Specific issues include: the establishment of the level of understanding to be accomplished with the completion of the current worldwide program of research in solar-terrestrial sciences; the identification of major questions to be answered by the future solar-terrestrial sciences research program as it might be if initiated within the next ten years; the identification of space capabilities to be available to the future program and provision of input about the Space Physics Division's priorities for using these to accomplish its future scientific program; and mapping a program strategy to accomplish a future program of research in the solar-terrestrial sciences within the research community's perception of capabilities and constraints.

  15. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  16. Genetical background of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  17. Maritime infrared background clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.

    1996-06-01

    The detection of small targets in maritime infrared surveillance is hampered by the presence of clutter. Sea surface structure, reflection and emission changes related to incident angle variations and surface effects are standard features governing the clutter behavior. Also special effects as sun glint and horizon effects play an important role for clutter. In order to optimize the detection process, quantitative clutter estimates are of use for filter settings. We have recorded a large amount of infrared backgrounds in the last few years, during common NATO trials. A large amount of different meteorological conditions took place during the various experiments. A first set of these data have been analyzed to obtain statistical data that represent the infrared scene. We have derived vertical temperature profiles, vertical fluctuation profiles, horizontal correlation coefficients and temporal correlation functions. In this paper we present the first analysis of these data. We are in the process of obtaining a condensed database of information to regenerate clutter images from bulk meteo parameters, and clutter parameters. The clutter and meteo parameters have been used to simulate various infrared scenes. Examples of this simulation process are shown in the presentation. The simulated images are statistically similar to the original images that were used to derive the parameters. A description of the image- generation is presented. Future expansions of the model are discussed.

  18. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  19. Improving Gender and Ethnic Relations. Strategies for Schools and Further Education. Cassell Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Basil R., Ed.

    The development of educational and social relationships among students of different ethnic groups and social backgrounds is examined in these explorations of the reduction of prejudice among school children. Qualitative methods are used, and emphasis is placed on the role of collaborative learning and on the strategies and techniques teachers can…

  20. Background sources in optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    The characterization and measurement of background radiation relevant to optical communications system performance is addressed. The necessary optical receiver parameters are described, and radiometric concepts required for the calculation of collected background power are developed. The most important components of optical background power are discussed, and their contribution to the total collected background power in various communications scenarios is examined.

  1. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  2. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, W. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. K.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  3. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example usingmore » powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.« less

  4. Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

  5. Consumer Confusion: Reduction Strategies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Graeme

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights the increasingly important topic of consumer confusion. Drawing parallels with experiences in the private sector, the concept of consumer confusion is explored within the higher education sector; what causes the phenomenon, how do consumers react to it and how can it be negated/minimised? The expansion and commercialisation…

  6. Cross Cultural Strategies: Background Information For Teachers of Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Yukon Indians, Whitehorse (Yukon). Curriculum Development Program.

    This booklet was designed as a source of information for teachers seeking a deeper understanding of Native American children and who want to take advantage of opportunities offered by a cross-cultural classroom. The first section is a collection of 13 articles from a wide variety of sources on various aspects of cross-cultural education. Each…

  7. Plant cell technologies in space: Background, strategies and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkorian, A. D.; Scheld, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt is made to summarize work in plant cell technologies in space. The evolution of concepts and the general principles of plant tissue culture are discussed. The potential for production of high value secondary products by plant cells and differentiated tissue in automated, precisely controlled bioreactors is discussed. The general course of the development of the literature on plant tissue culture is highlighted.

  8. Background issues for defensive interceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal motions and backgrounds give signal to clutter ratios too low to be useful. Clutter leakage due to line-of-sight drift can be reduced by stabilizing the line of sight around the background clutter itself. Current interceptors have detector arrays large enough for operation independent of nuclear backgrounds in their fields of view. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  10. Methods for clinical evaluation of noise reduction techniques in abdominopelvic CT.

    PubMed

    Ehman, Eric C; Yu, Lifeng; Manduca, Armando; Hara, Amy K; Shiung, Maria M; Jondal, Dayna; Lake, David S; Paden, Robert G; Blezek, Daniel J; Bruesewitz, Michael R; McCollough, Cynthia H; Hough, David M; Fletcher, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    Most noise reduction methods involve nonlinear processes, and objective evaluation of image quality can be challenging, since image noise cannot be fully characterized on the sole basis of the noise level at computed tomography (CT). Noise spatial correlation (or noise texture) is closely related to the detection and characterization of low-contrast objects and may be quantified by analyzing the noise power spectrum. High-contrast spatial resolution can be measured using the modulation transfer function and section sensitivity profile and is generally unaffected by noise reduction. Detectability of low-contrast lesions can be evaluated subjectively at varying dose levels using phantoms containing low-contrast objects. Clinical applications with inherent high-contrast abnormalities (eg, CT for renal calculi, CT enterography) permit larger dose reductions with denoising techniques. In low-contrast tasks such as detection of metastases in solid organs, dose reduction is substantially more limited by loss of lesion conspicuity due to loss of low-contrast spatial resolution and coarsening of noise texture. Existing noise reduction strategies for dose reduction have a substantial impact on lowering the radiation dose at CT. To preserve the diagnostic benefit of CT examination, thoughtful utilization of these strategies must be based on the inherent lesion-to-background contrast and the anatomy of interest. The authors provide an overview of existing noise reduction strategies for low-dose abdominopelvic CT, including analytic reconstruction, image and projection space denoising, and iterative reconstruction; review qualitative and quantitative tools for evaluating these strategies; and discuss the strengths and limitations of individual noise reduction methods. PMID:25019428

  11. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  12. Computerized Placement Tests: Background Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    This document is a compilation of background readings for the user of Computerized Placement Tests (CPTs) developed by the College Board for student placement purposes. CPTs are computerized adaptive tests that test the individual abilities and backgrounds of examinees. CPTs are part of the ACCUPLACER student information management system. The…

  13. FAMILY BACKGROUND OF RURAL YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COPP, JAMES H.

    FAMILY BACKGROUNDS OF RURAL YOUTH ARE DISCUSSED. THE BACKGROUND PROVIDED BY THE FAMILY HAS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADJUSTMENT OF RURAL YOUTH IN AN URBANIZED, HIGHLY TECHNICAL SOCIETY. THE BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF RURAL AREAS INFLUENCE THE RATE OF SOCIAL CHANGE, THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FAMILY AS A SOCIAL UNIT, AND THE ORIENTATION TOWARD LEGAL…

  14. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  15. Background Television and Reading Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, G. Blake; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Tests G. Armstrong's and B. Greenberg's model of the effect of background television on cognitive performance, applied to reading comprehension and memory. Finds significant deleterious effects of background television, stronger and more consistent effects when testing immediately after reading, and more consistently negative effects resulting…

  16. Background events in microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Wargelin, B.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements have been made to assess the characteristics and origins of background events in microchannel plates (MCPs). An overall background rate of about 0.4 events/sq cm persec has been achieved consistently for MCPs that have been baked and scrubbed. The temperature and gain of the MCPs are found to have no significant effect on the background rate. Detection of 1.46-MeV gamma rays from the MCP glass confirms the presence of K-40, with a concentration of 0.0007 percent, in MCP glass. It is shown that beta decay from K-40 is sufficient to cause the background rate and spectrum observed. Anticoincidence measurements indicate the the background rate caused by cosmic ray interactions is small (less than 0.016 events/sq cm per sec).

  17. Bacterial reduction of chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieman, E.A.; Yonge, D.R.; Johnstone, D.L.

    1997-12-31

    A mixed culture was enriched from surface soil obtained from an eastern United States site highly contaminated with chromate. Growth of the culture was inhibited by a chromium concentration of 12 mg/L. Another mixed culture was enriched from subsurface soil obtained from the Hanford reservation, at the fringe of a chromate plume. The enrichment medium was minimal salts solution augmented with acetate as the carbon source, nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, and various levels of chromate. This mixed culture exhibited chromate tolerance, but not chromate reduction capability, when growing anaerobically on this medium. However, this culture did exhibit chromate reduction capability when growing anaerobically on TSB. Growth of this culture was not inhibited by a chromium concentration of 12 mg/L. Mixed cultures exhibited decreasing diversity with increasing levels of chromate in the enrichment medium. An in situ bioremediation strategy is suggested for chromate contaminated soil and groundwater. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Developing Local Lifelong Guidance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Hawthorn, Ruth; Hoffbrand, Jill; Jackson, Heather; Spurling, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the background, rationale, methodology, and outcomes of developing local lifelong guidance strategies in four geographic areas. Analyzes the main components of the strategies developed and addresses a number of issues relating to the process of strategy development. Explores implications for parallel work in other localities. (RJM)

  19. MiniCLEAN surface backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Boqian; Schnee, Richard; Deap/Clean Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    MiniCLEAN is a dark matter experiment using 150kg fiducial mass of liquid cryogen (argon or neon) to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). MiniCLEAN seeks to detect scintillation photons from WIMP-induced argon recoils. A potentially dominant background is from alpha decays on the inner surfaces of the containment vessel. Such events can mimic the prompt signal characteristic of nuclear recoils. This talk will show the expected background rates, methods of background discrimination, and their expected effectiveness.

  20. Reducing 68Ge Background in Dark Matter Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-03-01

    Experimental searches for dark matter include experiments with sub-0.5 keV-energy threshold high purity germanium detectors. Experimental efforts, in partnership with the CoGeNT Collaboration operating at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, are focusing on energy threshold reduction via noise abatement, reduction of backgrounds from cosmic ray generated isotopes, and ubiquitous environmental radioactive sources. The most significant cosmic ray produced radionuclide is 68Ge. This paper evaluates reducing this background by freshly mining and processing germanium ore. The most probable outcome is a reduction of the background by a factor of two, and at most a factor of four. A very cost effective alternative is to obtain processed Ge as soon as possible and store it underground for 18 months.

  1. Salt reduction in Australia: from advocacy to action

    PubMed Central

    Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Nowson, Caryl; Jolly, Kellie-Ann; Greenland, Rohan; Reimers, Jenny; Bolam, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of its endorsement of the World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan to prevent non-communicable diseases, the Federal Government of Australia has committed to a 30% reduction in average population salt intake by 2025. Currently, mean daily salt intake levels are 8-9 g, varying by sex, region and population group. A number of salt reduction initiatives have been established over the last decade, but key elements for a co-ordinated population-level strategy are still missing. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing population-level salt reduction activities in Australia and identify opportunities for further action. Methods A review of the published literature and stakeholder activities was undertaken to identify and document current activities. The activities were then assessed against a pre-defined framework for salt reduction strategies. Results A range of initiatives were identified from the review. The Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health (AWASH) was established in 2005 and in 2007 launched its Drop the Salt! Campaign. This united non-governmental organisations (NGOs), health and medical and food industry organisations in a co-ordinated advocacy effort to encourage government to develop a national strategy to reduce salt. Subsequently, in 2010 the Federal Government launched its Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) with a remit to improve the health of the food supply in Australia through voluntary partnerships with food industry, government and non-government public health organisations. The focus of the FHD to date has been on voluntary reformulation of foods, primarily through salt reduction targets. More recently, in December 2014, the government’s Health Star Rating system was launched. This front of pack labelling scheme uses stars to highlight the nutritional profile of packaged foods. Both government initiatives have clear targets or criteria for industry to meet, however

  2. Bringing genetic background into focus.

    PubMed

    Chow, Clement Y

    2016-02-01

    Researchers should embrace differences in genetic background to build richer disease models that more accurately reflect the level of variation in the human population, posits Clement Chow. PMID:26659016

  3. Background suppression in MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jeffery L.; Beck, Larry W.; Ferguson, David B.; Haw, James F.

    Pulse sequences for suppressing background signals from spinning modules used in magic-angle spinning NMR are described. These pulse sequences are based on spatially selective composite 90° pulses originally reported by Bax, which provide for no net excitation of spins outside the homogeneous region of the coil. We have achieved essentially complete suppression of background signals originating from our Vespel spinning module (which uses a free-standing coil) in both 1H and 13C spectra without notable loss in signal intensity. Successful modification of both Bloch decay and cross-polarization pulse sequences to include spatially selective pulses was essential to acquire background-free spectra for weak samples. Background suppression was also found to be particularly valuable for both T1 and T1 ϱ, relaxation measurements.

  4. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  5. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  6. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  7. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a prototype system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0v BB) decay in 76Ge. In view of the requirement that the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0vBB-decay experiment be capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of theMajorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using Geant4 simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  8. Radon reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, M.A. )

    1990-11-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials.

  9. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuestra, Clara; Rielage, Keith Robert; Elliott, Steven Ray; Xu, Wenqin; Goett, John Jerome III

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νββ-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR's germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  10. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Detwiler, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-08-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40- kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νβ β-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR's germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  11. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Buuck, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P.; Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E.; and others

    2015-08-17

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40- kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νβ β-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR’s germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  12. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cattaneo, A. S.; Zambon, M.

    2009-02-02

    The main result extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result.

  13. Gravitino condensation in fivebrane backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Noriaki

    2002-04-01

    We calculate the tension of the D3-brane in the fivebrane background which is described by the exactly solvable SU(2)k×U(1) world-sheet conformal field theory with large Kač-Moody level k. The D3-brane tension is extracted from the amplitude of one closed string exchange between two parallel D3-branes, and the amplitude is calculated by utilizing the open-closed string duality. The tension of the D3-brane in the background does not coincide with the one in the flat space-time even in the flat space-time limit: k-->∞. The finite curvature effect should vanish in the flat space-time limit and only the topological effect can remain. Therefore, the deviation suggests the condensation of the gravitino and/or dilatino which has been expected in the fivebrane background as a gravitational instanton.

  14. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

  15. Background music and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance. PMID:20865993

  16. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  17. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  18. Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

    2010-06-25

    When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

  19. Cultural Backgrounds and Textual Appropriation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study examines interviews with 46 undergraduates to explore if participants with differing language and cultural backgrounds view plagiarism or textual appropriation primarily as a) a language problem because of a lack of words of one's own, or b) a cultural challenge as a result of either some first language (L1) cultural training to…

  20. Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.

    2008-01-01

    Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

  1. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  2. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  3. Ambient background particulate composition, outdoor natural background: interferents/clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno, Dorothea

    2012-06-01

    It has proven a very difficult task to discriminate an actual BW threat from the natural occurring ambient particulate aerosol, which includes a significant fraction of particles consisting of mixed mineral and biological material. The interferent particles [clutter] (bio and non bio) concentration varies widely both by location, weather and season and diurnally. Naturally occurring background particulates are composed of fungal and bacterial spores both fragments and components, plant fragments and debris, animal fragments and debris, all of which may be associated with inert dust or combustion material. Some or all of which could also be considered to be an interferent to a biological warfare detector and cause these biodector systems to cause False Alarms by non specific BW bio detectors. I will share analysis of current long term background data sets.

  4. Low background techniques applied in the BOREXINO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zuzel, G.

    2015-08-17

    The BOREXINO detector, located in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy, has been designed for real-time spectroscopy of low-energy solar neutrinos. Within the experiment several novel background reduction and assay techniques have been established. In many cases they are still the most sensitive world-wide. Developed methods and apparatus provided tools for a strict quality control program during the construction phase of the BOREXINO detector, which was the key to meet the background requirements. Achievement of extremely low background rate opened the possibility to probe in realtime almost entire spectrum of the solar neutrinos.

  5. Hot Universe Background Explorer (HUBE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.; Ford, H.; Peacock, K.; Burrows, D. N.; Smith, B. W.; Bloch, J. J.

    1998-05-01

    The study of diffuse backgrounds has played an important role in the recent history of astronomy. From the microwave discovery of the 2.7 K background to the soft X-ray detection of coronal gas to the diffuse H2 emission from warm interstellar gas in our galaxy to the infrared mapping of wisps of dust at high galactic latitudes, diffuse background astronomy has provided fundamental insights into the nature of the universe. As the various regions of the electromagnetic spectrum have been explored, their diffuse backgrounds have been found to arise from the widest possible range of sources: from the local interstellar medium to the farthest reaches of the observable universe; from the wrinkled echo of the Big Bang to the million degree plasma between the stars. Most astronomers are ``point-source" astronomers, and the history of astronomy space missions is that few have been dedicated to the elucidation of the nature of the truly diffuse radiation. And yet a large fraction of the total electromagnetic energy in the universe occurs in the form of diffuse radiation. In some spectral ranges, we do not yet know the fraction of radiation that is diffuse; we are dealing with genuinely unexplored frontiers. We will describe the extraordinary science that can be obtained through a MIDEX mission that is dedicated to the exploration of the diffuse emission in the far ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum, where the diffuse radiation is dominated by emission from the hottest components of the interstellar medium and, perhaps, from the intergalactic medium. HUBE currently enjoys the status of being NASA's MIDEX Alternate Astrophysics Mission. We are re-proposing HUBE in the current MIDEX competition with a much broader scientific set of goals, aiming at a definitive spectroscopic survey of the diffuse background over a greatly-expanded spectral range. Our HUBE proposal effort is being supported by Ball Aerospace Corporation.

  6. Retention and Progression of Engineering Students with Diverse Mathematical Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamforth, Sarah E.; Robinson, Carol L.; Croft, Tony; Crawford, Adam

    2007-01-01

    There are increasing concerns about the mathematics ability of students entering higher education. This situation appears to be as a result of the perceived lowering standards of A Levels, a reduction in entry requirements on some courses with a strong mathematical component and the wide-ranging educational backgrounds of many of the students.…

  7. Quantification of background enhancement in breast magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Klifa, C; Suzuki, S; Aliu, S; Singer, L; Wilmes, L; Newitt, D; Joe, B; Hylton, N

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To present a novel technique for measuring tissue enhancement in breast fibroglandular tissue regions on contrast-enhanced breast MR images aimed at quantifying the enhancement of breast parenchyma, also known as “background enhancement”. Materials and Methods Our quantitative method for measuring breast MRI background enhancement was evaluated in a population of 16 healthy volunteers. We also demonstrate the use of our new technique in the case study of one subject classified as high risk for developing breast cancer who underwent 3 months of tamoxifen therapy. Results We obtained quantitative measures of background enhancement in all cases. The high-risk patient exhibited a 37% mean reduction in background enhancement with treatment. Conclusion Our quantitative method is a robust and promising tool that may allow investigators to quantify and document the potential adverse effect of background enhancement on diagnostic accuracy in larger populations. PMID:21509883

  8. A population-based, multifaceted strategy to implement antenatal corticosteroid treatment versus standard care for the reduction of neonatal mortality due to preterm birth in low-income and middle-income countries: the ACT cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Althabe, Fernando; Belizán, José M; McClure, Elizabeth M; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Ciganda, Alvaro; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Kodkany, Bhalachandra S; Mahantshetti, Niranjana S; Dhaded, Sangappa M; Katageri, Geetanjali M; Metgud, Mrityunjay C; Joshi, Anjali M; Bellad, Mrutyunjaya B; Honnungar, Narayan V; Derman, Richard J; Saleem, Sarah; Pasha, Omrana; Ali, Sumera; Hasnain, Farid; Goldenberg, Robert L; Esamai, Fabian; Nyongesa, Paul; Ayunga, Silas; Liechty, Edward A; Garces, Ana L; Figueroa, Lester; Hambidge, K Michael; Krebs, Nancy F; Patel, Archana; Bhandarkar, Anjali; Waikar, Manjushri; Hibberd, Patricia L; Chomba, Elwyn; Carlo, Waldemar A; Mwiche, Angel; Chiwila, Melody; Manasyan, Albert; Pineda, Sayury; Meleth, Sreelatha; Thorsten, Vanessa; Stolka, Kristen; Wallace, Dennis D; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Jobe, Alan H; Buekens, Pierre M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Antenatal corticosteroids for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth are among the most effective hospital-based interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. We aimed to assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of a multifaceted intervention designed to increase the use of antenatal corticosteroids at all levels of health care in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods In this 18-month, cluster-randomised trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) rural and semi-urban clusters within six countries (Argentina, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia) to standard care or a multifaceted intervention including components to improve identification of women at risk of preterm birth and to facilitate appropriate use of antenatal corticosteroids. The primary outcome was 28-day neonatal mortality among infants less than the 5th percentile for birthweight (a proxy for preterm birth) across the clusters. Use of antenatal corticosteroids and suspected maternal infection were additional main outcomes. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01084096. Findings The ACT trial took place between October, 2011, and March, 2014 (start dates varied by site). 51 intervention clusters with 47 394 livebirths (2520 [5%] less than 5th percentile for birthweight) and 50 control clusters with 50 743 livebirths (2258 [4%] less than 5th percentile) completed follow-up. 1052 (45%) of 2327 women in intervention clusters who delivered less-than-5th-percentile infants received antenatal corticosteroids, compared with 215 (10%) of 2062 in control clusters (p<0·0001). Among the less-than-5th-percentile infants, 28-day neonatal mortality was 225 per 1000 livebirths for the intervention group and 232 per 1000 livebirths for the control group (relative risk [RR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·87–1·06, p=0·65) and suspected maternal infection was reported in 236 (10%) of 2361 women in the intervention group and 133 (6%) of 2094 in the control group (odds ratio

  9. Campus Sustainability: Climate Change, Transport and Paper Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, Alison; Giurco, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to detail the design of a campus climate change strategy, transport strategy and paper reduction strategy at the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia). Design/methodology/approach: The approach to strategy development used desktop research and staff/student consultation to inform the development of objectives,…

  10. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  11. Perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Anne Grete; Dietz, Russel N.; Koffı̀, Ernest N.'dri; Nodop, Katrin

    Five studies of the background level of several perfluorocarbon compounds in Europe are here presented together with measurements from the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX). The tracers used during the two ETEX tracer releases were the perfluorocarbons (PFCs); perfluoromethylcyclohexane (C 7F 14, PMCH) and perfluoromethylcyclopentane (C 6F 12, PMCP). Their background concentrations were detected by using both passive and active sampling techniques, to define the spatial and temporal variation of the PFCs over Europe. Also the background variations of four isomers of the PFC compound perfluorodimethylcyclohexane (C 8F 16, PDCH) were studied. The results were compared to other PFC tracer studies in the U.S.A. and Europe. The mean and median values of the measured PFCs were found to vary slightly and randomly in space and time. They were found to be higher and to have a larger standard deviation than the measurements from the American studies. The background concentrations were still found to be low and stable enough for PFCs to be highly suitable for use in tracer studies. The following concentrations were found: PMCP; 4.6±0.3 fl ℓ -1, PMCH: 4.6±0.8 fl ℓ -1, ocPDCH: 0.96±0.33 fl ℓ -1, mtPDCH: 9.3±0.8 fl ℓ -1, mcPDCH: 8.8±0.8 fl ℓ -1, ptPDCH: 6.1±0.8 fl ℓ -1. A study of the correlation between the measured PFC compounds showed a significant correlation between most of the compounds, which indicate that there are no major PFC sources in Europe.

  12. Background independence in a background dependent renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labus, Peter; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zöe H.

    2016-07-01

    Within the derivative expansion of conformally reduced gravity, the modified split Ward identities are shown to be compatible with the flow equations if and only if either the anomalous dimension vanishes or the cutoff profile is chosen to have a power-law form. No solutions exist if the Ward identities are incompatible. In the compatible case, a clear reason is found for why Ward identities can still forbid the existence of fixed points; however, for any cutoff profile, a background independent (and parametrization independent) flow equation is uncovered. Finally, expanding in vertices, the combined equations are shown generically to become either overconstrained or highly redundant beyond the six-point level.

  13. Removal of nonresonant background in MCARS spectra using Fourier filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberson, Stephen D.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2015-05-01

    Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (MCARS) has been used to create a complete Raman spectrum of a material of interest in milliseconds. However, these MCARS spectra often embedded in a nonresonant background that reduces the ability to use those spectra to positively identify the material of interest. There are a number of techniques that are used experimentally to reduce the nonresonant background when taking the MCARS spectrum. However, there are situations where these experimental nonresonant background reduction techniques may result in a loss of the desired MCARS signal. In an effort to maintain the signal strength of the MCARS spectrum, analytical methods of background removal are employed. There are a number of analytical techniques for nonresonant background removal from MCARS signals. However, many of them either make blanket assumptions about the nonresonant background that sacrifice accuracy of the technique or require knowledge of the material of interest before removing the nonresonant background. We will be reporting on an analytical method to remove the nonresonant background that utilizes a combination of the maximum entropy method to reproduce the spectrum as well as complex spectral filtering to remove the nonresonant background and accurately determine the CARS spectrum interest without prior knowledge of the material of interest.

  14. New operation strategy for driving the selectivity of NOx reduction to N2, NH3 or N2O during lean/rich cycling of a lean NOx trap catalyst

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mráček, David; Koci, Petr; Choi, Jae -Soon; Partridge, Jr., William P.

    2015-09-08

    Periodical regeneration of NOx storage catalyst (also known as lean NOx trap) by short rich pulses of CO, H2 and hydrocarbons is necessary for the reduction of nitrogen oxides adsorbed on the catalyst surface. Ideally, the stored NOx is converted into N2, but N2O and NH3 by-products can be formed as well, particularly at low-intermediate temperatures. The N2 and N2O products are formed concurrently in two peaks. The primary peaks appear immediately after the rich-phase inception, and tail off with the breakthrough of the reductant front accompanied by NH3 product. In addition, the secondary N2 and N2O peaks then appearmore » at the rich-to-lean transition as a result of reactions between surface-deposited reductants/intermediates (CO, HC, NH3, — NCO) and residual stored NOx under increasingly lean conditions.« less

  15. Poverty Reduction and the World Bank. Progress in Fiscal 1996 and 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report reviews progress in implementation of the World Bank's poverty reduction strategy during fiscal 1996-97. Chapter 1, "The World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy and Future Directions," outlines elements in the poverty reduction strategy: policies to promote broad-based labor-demanding growth and increase the productivity and economic…

  16. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, M. P.; Wang, Pi-Huan

    Nearly global SAGE I satellite observations in the nonvolcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980 are used to produce a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model. Zonally average profiles of the 1.0-micron aerosol extinction for the tropics, midlatitudes, and high latitudes for both hemispheres are given in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. A third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set is used to derive analytic expressions for the seasonal global means and the yearly global mean. The results have application to the simulation of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  17. High background photon counting lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    Photon counting with lidar returns is usually limited to low light levels, while wide dynamic range is achieved by counting for long times. The broad emission spectrum of inexpensive high-power semiconductor lasers makes receiver filters pass too much background light for traditional photon counting in daylight. Very high speed photon counting is possible, however, at more than 500 MHz which allows the construction of eyesafe lidar operating in the presence of bright clouds. Detector improvements are possible to count to 20 GHz producing a single shot dynamic range of ten decades.

  18. [Toothache with a neuropathic background].

    PubMed

    Khatchaturian, V; de Wijer, A; Kalaykova, S I; Steenks, M H

    2015-03-01

    A 48-year old woman in good general health was referred to the orofacial pain clinic in a centre for special dentistry with a toothache in the premolar region of the left maxillary quadrant. The complaints had existed for 15 years and various dental treatments, including endodontic treatments, apical surgery, extraction and splint therapy, had not helped to alleviate the complaints. As a result of the fact that anti-epileptic drugs were able to reduce the pain it was concluded that this 'toothache' satisfied the criteria of an atypical odontalgia: 'toothache' with a neuropathic background. PMID:26181392

  19. Teaching about natural background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-07-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

  20. TSD capacity model interface with waste reduction planning in the Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Grumski, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    This report provides a picture of how the integration of waste generation forecasting with treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) capacity modeling interfaces with waste reduction planning in the Environmental Restoration Program. Background information is given for the major activities at the seven Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., sites: (1) Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (2) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; (3) Oak Ridge K-25 Site; (4) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; (5) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; (6) Oak Ridge Associated Universities; and (7) the off-site contaminated areas near DOE facilities. A perspective is provided for strategies to achieve waste reduction, how waste generation forecasts rates were developed, and how those forecasted waste generation rates will be used in TSD capacity modeling. The generation forecasting in combination with TSD modeling allows development of quantifiable goals and subsequent waste reduction. 2 figs.

  1. Supporting document for the Canada-wide acid rain strategy for post-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-01-01

    This report presents background and other information on the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000, which puts in place a framework for addressing the remaining acid rain problem in eastern Canada, for ensuring that new acid rain problems do not occur elsewhere in Canada, and for ensuring that Canada meets its international commitments on acid rain. Background information is included on the first and second Sulphur Protocols of 1985 and 1994, the 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement, and progress to date in meeting emission targets. Key features of the strategy are then presented with respect to such matters as sulphur dioxide emission reductions, pollution prevention, and research. Finally, the positions of members of the multi-stakeholder task group who developed the supporting documentation for the strategy are outlined.

  2. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  3. Immunopathogenic Background of Pars Planitis.

    PubMed

    Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Pars planitis is defined as an intermediate uveitis of unknown background of systemic disease with characteristic formations such as vitreous snowballs, snowbanks and changes in peripheral retina. The incidence of pars planitis varies 2.4-15.4 % of the uveitis patients. The pathogenesis of the disease is to be determined in future. Clinical and histopathological findings suggest an autoimmune etiology, most likely as a reaction to endogenous antigen of unknown source, with T cells predominant in both vitreous and pars plana infiltrations. T cells subsets play an important role as a memory-effector peripheral cell. Snowbanks are formed as an effect of post inflammatory glial proliferation of fibrous astrocytes. There is also a genetic predisposition for pars planitis by human leukocyte antigen and several other genes. A coexistence of multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis has been described in numerous studies. Epiretinal membrane, cataract, cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment, retinal vasculitis, neovascularization, vitreous peripheral traction, peripheral hole formation, vitreous hemorrhage, disc edema are common complications observed in pars planitis. There is a need to expand the knowledge of the pathogenic and immunologic background of the pars planitis to create an accurate pharmacological treatment. PMID:26438050

  4. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  5. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10-7, where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  6. A patient-specific model of the biomechanics of hip reduction for neonatal Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: Investigation of strategies for low to severe grades of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Huayamave, Victor; Rose, Christopher; Serra, Sheila; Jones, Brendan; Divo, Eduardo; Moslehy, Faissal; Kassab, Alain J; Price, Charles T

    2015-07-16

    A physics-based computational model of neonatal Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) following treatment with the Pavlik Harness (PV) was developed to obtain muscle force contribution in order to elucidate biomechanical factors influencing the reduction of dislocated hips. Clinical observation suggests that reduction occurs in deep sleep involving passive muscle action. Consequently, a set of five (5) adductor muscles were identified as mediators of reduction using the PV. A Fung/Hill-type model was used to characterize muscle response. Four grades (1-4) of dislocation were considered, with one (1) being a low subluxation and four (4) a severe dislocation. A three-dimensional model of the pelvis-femur lower limb of a representative 10 week-old female was generated based on CT-scans with the aid of anthropomorphic scaling of anatomical landmarks. The model was calibrated to achieve equilibrium at 90° flexion and 80° abduction. The hip was computationally dislocated according to the grade under investigation, the femur was restrained to move in an envelope consistent with PV restraints, and the dynamic response under passive muscle action and the effect of gravity was resolved. Model results with an anteversion angle of 50° show successful reduction Grades 1-3, while Grade 4 failed to reduce with the PV. These results are consistent with a previous study based on a simplified anatomically-consistent synthetic model and clinical reports of very low success of the PV for Grade 4. However our model indicated that it is possible to achieve reduction of Grade 4 dislocation by hyperflexion and the resultant external rotation. PMID:25957995

  7. Auditory intensity processing: Effect of MRI background noise.

    PubMed

    Angenstein, Nicole; Stadler, Jörg; Brechmann, André

    2016-03-01

    Studies on active auditory intensity discrimination in humans showed equivocal results regarding the lateralization of processing. Whereas experiments with a moderate background found evidence for right lateralized processing of intensity, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies with background scanner noise suggest more left lateralized processing. With the present fMRI study, we compared the task dependent lateralization of intensity processing between a conventional continuous echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence with a loud background scanner noise and a fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence with a soft background scanner noise. To determine the lateralization of the processing, we employed the contralateral noise procedure. Linearly frequency modulated (FM) tones were presented monaurally with and without contralateral noise. During both the EPI and the FLASH measurement, the left auditory cortex was more strongly involved than the right auditory cortex while participants categorized the intensity of FM tones. This was shown by a strong effect of the additional contralateral noise on the activity in the left auditory cortex. This means a massive reduction in background scanner noise still leads to a significant left lateralized effect. This suggests that the reversed lateralization in fMRI studies with loud background noise in contrast to studies with softer background cannot be fully explained by the MRI background noise. PMID:26778471

  8. Strategies for Alleviating Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckner, John L.

    1990-01-01

    This article provides background information on stress and presents five strategies intended to help teachers of hearing-impaired students manage their stress levels. Strategies include increasing self-awareness, reducing isolation, restoring perspective and balance, redefining problem situations, and developing and implementing an action plan.…

  9. Decision-making using absolute cardiovascular risk reduction and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Ker, J A; Oosthuizen, H; Rheeder, P

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Many clinical guidelines have adopted a multifactorial cardiovascular risk assessment to identify high-risk individuals for treatment. The Framingham risk chart is a widely used risk engine to calculate the absolute cardiovascular risk of an individual. Cost-effective analyses are typically used to evaluate therapeutic strategies, but it is more problematic for a clinician when faced with alternative therapeutic strategies to calculate cost effectiveness. Aim We used a single simulated-patient model to explore the effect of different drug treatments on the calculated absolute cardiovascular risk. Methods The Framingham risk score was calculated on a hypothetical patient, and drug treatment was initiated. After every drug introduced, the score was recalculated. Single-exit pricing of the various drugs in South Africa was used to calculate the cost of reducing predicted cardiovascular risk. Results The cost-effective ratio of an antihypertensive treatment strategy was calculated to be R21.35 per percentage of risk reduction. That of a statin treatment strategy was R22.93 per percentage of risk reduction. Using a high-dose statin, the cost-effective ratio was R12.81 per percentage of risk reduction. Combining the antihypertensive and statin strategy demonstrated a cost-effective ratio of R23.84 per percentage of risk reduction. A combination of several drugs enabled the hypothetical patient to reduce the risk to 14% at a cost-effective ratio of R17.18 per percentage of risk reduction. Conclusion This model demonstrates a method to compare different therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk with their cost-effective ratios. PMID:18516355

  10. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  11. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  12. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  13. Confusion background from compact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regimbau, T.; Hughes, Scott A.

    2010-05-01

    Double neutron stars are one of the most promizing sources for terrestrial gravitational wave interferometers. For actual interferometers and their planned upgrades, the probability of having a signal present in the data is small, but as the sensitivity improves, the detection rate increases and the waveforms may start to overlap, creating a confusion background, ultimately limiting the capabilities of future detectors. The third generation Einstein Telescope, with an horizon of z > 1 and very low frequency "seismic wall" may be affected by such confusion noise. At a minimum, careful data analysis will be require to separate signals which will appear confused. This result should be borne in mind when designing highly advanced future instruments.

  14. Polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, A.; Cabella, P.; de Gasperis, G.; Vittorio, N.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we present an extension of the ROMA map-making code for data analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization, with particular attention given to the inflationary polarization B-modes. The new algorithm takes into account a possible cross- correlated noise component among the different detectors of a CMB experiment. We tested the code on the observational data of the BOOMERanG (2003) experiment and we show that we are provided with a better estimate of the power spectra, in particular the error bars of the BB spectrum are smaller up to 20% for low multipoles. We point out the general validity of the new method. A possible future application is the LSPE balloon experiment, devoted to the observation of polarization at large angular scales.

  15. Recognizing foreground-background interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    Can the background affect a foreground target in distant, low-quality imagery? If it does, it might occur in our mind, or perhaps it may represent a snapshot of our early vision. An affirmative answer, one way or another, may affect our current understanding of this phenomena and potentially for related applications. How can we be sure about this in the psycho-physical sense? We begin with the physiology of our brain's homeostasis, of which an isothermal equilibrium is characterized by the minimum of Helmholtz isothermal Free Energy: A = U - T0S >= 0, where T0 = 37°C, the Boltzmann Entropy S = KB1n(W), and U is the unknown internal energy to be computed.

  16. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  17. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  18. Deleterious background selection with recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.R.; Kaplan, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The microwave background anisotropies: observations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation-fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 microK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 degrees and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe--the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century. PMID:9419320

  20. Projected Impact of a Sodium Consumption Reduction Initiative in Argentina: An Analysis from the CVD Policy Model – Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Konfino, Jonatan; Mekonnen, Tekeshe A.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Ferrante, Daniel; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in adults in Argentina. Sodium reduction policies targeting processed foods were implemented in 2011 in Argentina, but the impact has not been evaluated. The aims of this study are to use Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion and project the impact of Argentina’s sodium reduction policies under two scenarios - the 2-year intervention currently being undertaken or a more persistent 10 year sodium reduction strategy. Methods We used Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion by sex and projected the impact of the current strategy on sodium consumption and blood pressure decrease. We assessed the projected impact of sodium reduction policies on CVD using the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Policy Model, adapted to Argentina, modeling two alternative policy scenarios over the next decade. Results Our study finds that the initiative to reduce sodium consumption currently in place in Argentina will have substantial impact on CVD over the next 10 years. Under the current proposed policy of 2-year sodium reduction, the mean sodium consumption is projected to decrease by 319–387 mg/day. This decrease is expected to translate into an absolute reduction of systolic blood pressure from 0.93 mmHg to 1.81 mmHg. This would avert about 19,000 all-cause mortality, 13,000 total myocardial infarctions, and 10,000 total strokes over the next decade. A more persistent sodium reduction strategy would yield even greater CVD benefits. Conclusion The impact of the Argentinean initiative would be effective in substantially reducing mortality and morbidity from CVD. This paper provides evidence-based support to continue implementing strategies to reduce sodium consumption at a population level. PMID:24040085

  1. A Reductive Cyclization Approach to Attenol A

    PubMed Central

    La Cruz, Thomas E.; Rychnovsky, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    A reductive cyclization strategy was applied to the synthesis of attenol A. This non-traditional approach to the spiroacetal structure illustrated several advantages of the reductive cyclization methodology. The attenol A core was formed in a carbon-carbon bond coupling that gave rise to a previously inaccessible spiroacetal epimer, a new method to synthesize thioketene acetals from a phenyl sulfone was realized, and the configurational stability of a non-anomeric spiroacetal was evaluated. A minor by-product in the reductive cyclization reaction was identified that for the first time allowed direct evaluation of the stereoselectivity in a reductive cyclization of a dialkyloxy alkyllithium reagent. PMID:17346087

  2. Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, Cora R; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective equipment that might not be as

  3. The Main Idea Strategy: A Strategy to Improve Reading Comprehension through Inferential Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudah, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the Main Idea Strategy, a strategy to improve the performance of students with disabilities and students who perform poorly on reading comprehension tasks. The rationale, research background, and detailed implementation information are presented.

  4. Reduction in CS: A (Mostly) Quantitative Analysis of Reductive Solutions to Algorithmic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Reduction is a problem-solving strategy, relevant to various areas of computer science, and strongly connected to abstraction: a reductive solution necessitates establishing a connection among problems that may seem totally disconnected at first sight, and abstracts the solution to the reduced-to problem by encapsulating it as a black box. The…

  5. Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda) - more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging.

    PubMed

    Wägele, Heike; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2005-02-16

    BACKGROUND: In general shell-less slugs are considered to be slimy animals with a rather dull appearance and a pest to garden plants. But marine slugs usually are beautifully coloured animals belonging to the less-known Opisthobranchia. They are characterized by a large array of interesting biological phenomena, usually related to foraging and/or defence. In this paper our knowledge of shell reduction, correlated with the evolution of different defensive and foraging strategies is reviewed, and new results on histology of different glandular systems are included. RESULTS: Based on a phylogeny obtained by morphological and histological data, the parallel reduction of the shell within the different groups is outlined. Major food sources are given and glandular structures are described as possible defensive structures in the external epithelia, and as internal glands. CONCLUSION: According to phylogenetic analyses, the reduction of the shell correlates with the evolution of defensive strategies. Many different kinds of defence structures, like cleptocnides, mantle dermal formations (MDFs), and acid glands, are only present in shell-less slugs. In several cases, it is not clear whether the defensive devices were a prerequisite for the reduction of the shell, or reduction occurred before. Reduction of the shell and acquisition of different defensive structures had an implication on exploration of new food sources and therefore likely enhanced adaptive radiation of several groups. PMID:15715915

  6. Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda) – more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging

    PubMed Central

    Wägele, Heike; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2005-01-01

    Background In general shell-less slugs are considered to be slimy animals with a rather dull appearance and a pest to garden plants. But marine slugs usually are beautifully coloured animals belonging to the less-known Opisthobranchia. They are characterized by a large array of interesting biological phenomena, usually related to foraging and/or defence. In this paper our knowledge of shell reduction, correlated with the evolution of different defensive and foraging strategies is reviewed, and new results on histology of different glandular systems are included. Results Based on a phylogeny obtained by morphological and histological data, the parallel reduction of the shell within the different groups is outlined. Major food sources are given and glandular structures are described as possible defensive structures in the external epithelia, and as internal glands. Conclusion According to phylogenetic analyses, the reduction of the shell correlates with the evolution of defensive strategies. Many different kinds of defence structures, like cleptocnides, mantle dermal formations (MDFs), and acid glands, are only present in shell-less slugs. In several cases, it is not clear whether the defensive devices were a prerequisite for the reduction of the shell, or reduction occurred before. Reduction of the shell and acquisition of different defensive structures had an implication on exploration of new food sources and therefore likely enhanced adaptive radiation of several groups. PMID:15715915

  7. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantarians, Narbe

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  8. Acid rain: a background report

    SciTech Connect

    Glustrom, L.; Stolzenberg, J.

    1982-07-08

    This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to describe the deposition of acidic components through both wet deposition (e.g., rain or snow) and dry deposition (e.g., direct contact between atmospheric constituents and the land, water or vegetation of the earth). Part II presents background information on state agency activities relating to acid rain in Wisconsin, describes what is known about the occurrence of, susceptibility to and effects of acid rain in Wisconsin, and provides information related to man-made sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in Wisconsin. Part III describes major policies and regulations relating to acid rain which have been or are being developed jointly by the United States and Canadian governments, by the United States government and by the State of Wisconsin. Part IV briefly discusses possible areas for Committee action.

  9. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:25797499

  10. Managing Conflict: 50 Strategies for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey; Combs, Julie; Harris, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This book offers 50 easy-to-read strategies for managing conflicts in your school involving students, parents, and teachers. Individually, these strategies provide specific insights into conflict resolution, reduction, and management. As a whole, the 50 strategies provide a comprehensive method to lead constructive change in your school. With…

  11. Reducing DRIFT backgrounds with a submicron aluminized-mylar cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Daw, E.; Dorofeev, A.; Ezeribe, A. C.; Fox, J. R.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Gold, M.; Harmon, L.; Harton, J.; Lafler, R.; Landers, J.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, E. R.; Loomba, D.; Lumnah, A.; Matthews, J.; Miller, E. H.; Mouton, F.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Paling, S. M.; Phan, N.; Sadler, S. W.; Scarff, A.; Schuckman, F. G.; Snowden-Ifft, D.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Walker, D.

    2015-09-01

    Background events in the DRIFT-IId dark matter detector, mimicking potential WIMP signals, are predominantly caused by alpha decays on the central cathode in which the alpha particle is completely or partially absorbed by the cathode material. We installed a 0.9 μm thick aluminized-mylar cathode as a way to reduce the probability of producing these backgrounds. We study three generations of cathode (wire, thin-film, and radiologically clean thin-film) with a focus on the ratio of background events to alpha decays. Two independent methods of measuring the absolute alpha decay rate are used to ensure an accurate result, and agree to within 10%. Using alpha range spectroscopy, we measure the radiologically cleanest cathode version to have a contamination of 3.3±0.1 ppt 234U and 73±2 ppb 238U. This cathode reduces the probability of producing an RPR from an alpha decay by a factor of 70±20 compared to the original stainless steel wire cathode. First results are presented from a texturized version of the cathode, intended to be even more transparent to alpha particles. These efforts, along with other background reduction measures, have resulted in a drop in the observed background rate from 500/day to 1/day. With the recent implementation of full-volume fiducialization, these remaining background events are identified, allowing for background-free operation.

  12. Information gains from cosmic microwave background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehars, Sebastian; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre; Paranjape, Aseem; Akeret, Joël

    2014-07-01

    To shed light on the fundamental problems posed by dark energy and dark matter, a large number of experiments have been performed and combined to constrain cosmological models. We propose a novel way of quantifying the information gained by updates on the parameter constraints from a series of experiments which can either complement earlier measurements or replace them. For this purpose, we use the Kullback-Leibler divergence or relative entropy from information theory to measure differences in the posterior distributions in model parameter space from a pair of experiments. We apply this formalism to a historical series of cosmic microwave background experiments ranging from Boomerang to WMAP, SPT, and Planck. Considering different combinations of these experiments, we thus estimate the information gain in units of bits and distinguish contributions from the reduction of statistical errors and the "surprise" corresponding to a significant shift of the parameters' central values. For this experiment series, we find individual relative entropy gains ranging from about 1 to 30 bits. In some cases, e.g. when comparing WMAP and Planck results, we find that the gains are dominated by the surprise rather than by improvements in statistical precision. We discuss how this technique provides a useful tool for both quantifying the constraining power of data from cosmological probes and detecting the tensions between experiments.

  13. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  14. Levodopa Reverses Cytokine-Induced Reductions in Striatal Dopamine Release

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Carla R.; Miller, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies using neuroimaging and in vivo microdialysis in humans and nonhuman primates indicate that inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-alpha reduce dopamine release in the ventral striatum in association with depressive symptoms including anhedonia and psychomotor slowing. Methods: Herein, we examined whether reduced striatal dopamine release in rhesus monkeys chronically treated with interferon-alpha can be restored by administration of the dopamine precursor levodopa via reverse in vivo microdialysis. Results: Levodopa completely reversed interferon-alpha–induced reductions in striatal dopamine release. No changes were found in the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid to dopamine ratio, which increases when unpackaged dopamine is metabolized via monoamine oxidase. Conclusions: These findings suggest that inflammatory cytokines reduce the availability of dopamine precursors without affecting end-product synthesis or vesicular packaging and/or release and provide the foundation for future studies investigating therapeutic strategies that facilitate availability of dopamine precursors to improve depressive symptoms in patient populations with increased inflammation. PMID:25638816

  15. Toxicity reduction in industrial effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, P.W.; Eckenfelder, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    The toxicity of manufacturing wastewaters to fish and other aquatic organisms is now being used by state and federal regulators to monitor and restrict industrial wastewater discharges. As a result, there is a great need for guidance on the subject of aquatic toxicity reduction in the field of industrial water pollution control. This book is a comprehensive reference source on the testing protocols, comparative data, and treatment techniques for effective toxicity reduction. Included in this book are detailed chapters covering various methods for toxicity reduction, such as the removal of metals, aerobic biological treatment, stripping of volatile organics, and management of sludges from toxic wastewater treatment. The book features: a complete overview of the subject, including background material for newcomers to the field; a basic summary and comparison of alternate treatment procedures; the latest methods for the identification of toxic components that readers can use for testing in their own laboratories; a description of applicable technologies for toxicity reduction; actual data from the use of processes that allow readers to compare technologies; solids management requirements including handling and disposal; useful economic comparisons of technologies; and illustrative case studies that demonstrate the application of the latest toxicity reduction technology and data to specific situations. Eleven chapters are processed separately in the appropriate data bases.

  16. Alcohol policy and harm reduction in Australia.

    PubMed

    Loxley, Wendy; Gray, Dennis; Wilkinson, Celia; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Midford, Richard; Moore, David

    2005-11-01

    With consultations having been held across Australia this year as part of the process of developing a new National Alcohol Strategy, it seemed timely to invite my colleagues from the National Drug Research Institute who are experts in the alcohol field to write this Harm Reduction Digest. The authors have canvassed a range of alcohol policy options and discussed their effectiveness in reducing harm for what is arguably Australia's number one drug problem. Australia's response to alcohol and other drug problems has, historically, been based on 'harm minimization--incorporating supply reduction, demand reduction and harm reduction'. At this time where the policy options for alcohol are being set for the next 5 years in a climate of 'small government', removing restrictions of 'fair competition' in business and a belief in the free market, what does the research have to say about recommended policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm? PMID:16361215

  17. Stress and Coping Strategies among Zimbabwean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magaya, Lindiwe; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Schreiber, James B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Stress and social support influence adolescents' coping strategies. Adolescents need to acquire a large repertoire of coping strategies in light of a rapidly changing socio-economic and political situation. Aim: This study reports on the coping strategies of Zimbabwean adolescents and highlights some major stressors they face. The…

  18. Do Executives' Backgrounds Matter to IPO Investors? Evidence from the Life Science Industry

    PubMed Central

    Chok, Jay; Qian, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we focus on the impact of senior executives' industry backgrounds on the amount of capital raised in the stock market. The primary contribution of the study entails applying the upper echelon theory to the initial public offering (IPO) phenomenon. Specifically, we hypothesize that the industry backgrounds of corporate executives affect the amount of capital that the firm raised in the primary stock market. We argue that the firm's future investment strategies are unobserved by the investors ex-ante and investors expect firms' investment strategies to be based on the executives' industry backgrounds. As a result, the executives' industry backgrounds influence the investors' expectations about what investment strategies the firm is likely to deploy. Furthermore, the above logic also suggests that executives of different industry backgrounds should prefer different investment strategies corresponding with demand for different amount of capital. As a result, we expect the industry backgrounds to covary with the capital raised from both the supply and demand perspectives. To test the hypotheses, we ran a reduced econometric model wherein the executives' background predicts the amount of capital raised. Regression analyses suggest that the capital raised is negatively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in the healthcare and genomic sectors but positively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in regulatory affairs. The results provide tentative support for the notion that investors infer corporate strategies from senior executives' industry backgrounds. PMID:23690920

  19. Do executives' backgrounds matter to IPO investors? Evidence from the life science industry.

    PubMed

    Chok, Jay; Qian, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we focus on the impact of senior executives' industry backgrounds on the amount of capital raised in the stock market. The primary contribution of the study entails applying the upper echelon theory to the initial public offering (IPO) phenomenon. Specifically, we hypothesize that the industry backgrounds of corporate executives affect the amount of capital that the firm raised in the primary stock market. We argue that the firm's future investment strategies are unobserved by the investors ex-ante and investors expect firms' investment strategies to be based on the executives' industry backgrounds. As a result, the executives' industry backgrounds influence the investors' expectations about what investment strategies the firm is likely to deploy. Furthermore, the above logic also suggests that executives of different industry backgrounds should prefer different investment strategies corresponding with demand for different amount of capital. As a result, we expect the industry backgrounds to covary with the capital raised from both the supply and demand perspectives. To test the hypotheses, we ran a reduced econometric model wherein the executives' background predicts the amount of capital raised. Regression analyses suggest that the capital raised is negatively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in the healthcare and genomic sectors but positively associated with the number of senior executives with prior career experience in regulatory affairs. The results provide tentative support for the notion that investors infer corporate strategies from senior executives' industry backgrounds. PMID:23690920

  20. Literacy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Instructional Services.

    The literacy strategies in this guide provide practical suggestions for teachers, regardless of discipline, to help middle school and high school students move to Levels III and IV on the North Carolina End-of-Grade Reading/Competency Tests. The strategies in the guide are designed for use with "inefficient" readers (not nonreaders). After an…

  1. Image segmentation by background extraction refinements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Mitchell, O. Robert

    1990-01-01

    An image segmentation method refining background extraction in two phases is presented. In the first phase, the method detects homogeneous-background blocks and estimates the local background to be extracted throughout the image. A block is classified homogeneous if its left and right standard deviations are small. The second phase of the method refines background extraction in nonhomogeneous blocks by recomputing the shoulder thresholds. Rules that predict the final background extraction are derived by observing the behavior of successive background statistical measurements in the regions under the presence of dark and/or bright object pixels. Good results are shown for a number of outdoor scenes.

  2. Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The Acoustics Branch is responsible for reducing noise levels for jet and fan components on aircraft engines. To do this, data must be measured and calibrated accurately to ensure validity of test results. This noise reduction is accomplished by modifications to hardware such as jet nozzles, and by the use of other experimental hardware such as fluidic chevrons, elliptic cores, and fluidic shields. To insure validity of data calibration, a variety of software is used. This software adjusts the sound amplitude and frequency to be consistent with data taken on another day. Both the software and the hardware help make noise reduction possible. work properly. These software programs were designed to make corrections for atmosphere, shear, attenuation, electronic, and background noise. All data can be converted to a one-foot lossless condition, using the proper software corrections, making a reading independent of weather and distance. Also, data can be transformed from model scale to full scale for noise predictions of a real flight. Other programs included calculations of Over All Sound Pressure Level (OASPL), Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL). OASPL is the integration of sound with respect to frequency, and EPNL is weighted for a human s response to different sound frequencies and integrated with respect to time. With the proper software correction, data taken in the NATR are useful in determining ways to reduce noise. display any difference between two or more data files. Using this program and graphs of the data, the actual and predicted data can be compared. This software was tested on data collected at the Aero Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) using a variety of window types and overlaps. Similarly, short scripts were written to test each individual program in the software suite for verification. Each graph displays both the original points and the adjusted points connected with lines. During this summer, data points were taken during a live experiment

  3. Nucleation reduction strategy of BaNH{4}MgHPO{4} (barium ammonium magnesium hydrogen phosphate, in vitro approach-1) crystals grown in silica gel medium and its characterization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, P.; Kanchana, G.; Sundaramoorthi, P.

    2009-02-01

    Kidney stones consist of various organic, inorganic and semi-organic compounds. Mineral oxalate monohydrate and di-hydrate is the main inorganic constituent of kidney stones. However, the mechanisms for the formation of crystal mineral oxalate are not clearly understood. In this field of study there are many hypothesis including nucleation, crystal growth and or aggregation of formation of AOMH (ammonium oxalate monohydrate) and AODH (ammonium oxalate di-hydrate) crystals. The effect of some urinary species such as ammonium oxalates, calcium, citrate, proteins and trace mineral elements have been previously reported by the author. The kidney stone constituents are grown in the kidney environments, the sodium meta silica gel medium (SMS) provides the necessary growth simulation (in vitro). In the artificial urinary stone growth process, growth parameters within the different chemical environments are identified. The author has reported the growth of urinary crystals such as CHP, SHP, BHP and AHP. In the present study, BaNH{4}MgHPO{4} (barium ammonium magnesium hydrogen phosphate) crystals have been grown in three different growth faces to attain the total nucleation reductions. As an extension of this research, many characterization studies have been carried out and the results are reported.

  4. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy*

    PubMed Central

    Grebenstein, Patricia E.; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A.; Pentel, Paul R.; LeSage, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. Methods The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self- administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Results Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. Conclusions These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. PMID:25891231

  5. Review of Monte Carlo simulations for backgrounds from radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Selvi, Marco

    2013-08-08

    For all experiments dealing with the rare event searches (neutrino, dark matter, neutrino-less double-beta decay), the reduction of the radioactive background is one of the most important and difficult tasks. There are basically two types of background, electron recoils and nuclear recoils. The electron recoil background is mostly from the gamma rays through the radioactive decay. The nuclear recoil background is from neutrons from spontaneous fission, (α, n) reactions and muoninduced interactions (spallations, photo-nuclear and hadronic interaction). The external gammas and neutrons from the muons and laboratory environment, can be reduced by operating the detector at deep underground laboratories and by placing active or passive shield materials around the detector. The radioactivity of the detector materials also contributes to the background; in order to reduce it a careful screening campaign is mandatory to select highly radio-pure materials. In this review I present the status of current Monte Carlo simulations aimed to estimate and reproduce the background induced by gamma and neutron radioactivity of the materials and the shield of rare event search experiment. For the electromagnetic background a good level of agreement between the data and the MC simulation has been reached by the XENON100 and EDELWEISS experiments, using the GEANT4 toolkit. For the neutron background, a comparison between the yield of neutrons from spontaneous fission and (α, n) obtained with two dedicated softwares, SOURCES-4A and the one developed by Mei-Zhang-Hime, show a good overall agreement, with total yields within a factor 2 difference. The energy spectra from SOURCES-4A are in general smoother, while those from MZH presents sharp peaks. The neutron propagation through various materials has been studied with two MC codes, GEANT4 and MCNPX, showing a reasonably good agreement, inside 50% discrepancy.

  6. Reductive dissolution of goethite by phenolic reductants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaKind, Judy S.; Stone, Alan T.

    1989-05-01

    The reductive dissolution of goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (α-Fe 2O 3) by phenolic reductants has been examined in order to improve the understanding of iron transformations in soils, sediments and aquifers. Rates of goethite reductive dissolution by hydroquinone increased as the pH was increased from pH 1.8 to 4.65, arid the following reaction stoichiometry was obeyed: 2 α- FeOOH + QH2 = 2 Fe2+ + Q + 4 OH-. As the pH was increased from pH 4.5 to 6.0, the reductive dissolution rate decreased to below the detection limit. At pH 3.4, the reductive dissolution of hematite was two orders of magnitude slower than goethite. The relationship between structure and reactivity was examined for a series of mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxybenzene reductants. Rates of reductive dissolution decreased in the following order: catechol ˜- hydroquinone > 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid > resorcinol-phenol-4-hydroxybenzoic acid.

  7. Project identification for methane reduction options

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses efforts directed at reduction in emission of methane to the atmosphere. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, which on a 20 year timeframe may present a similar problem to carbon dioxide. In addition, methane causes additional problems in the form of smog and its longer atmospheric lifetime. The author discusses strategies for reducing methane emission from several major sources. This includes landfill methane recovery, coalbed methane recovery, livestock methane reduction - in the form of ruminant methane reduction and manure methane recovery. The author presents examples of projects which have implemented these ideas, the economics of the projects, and additional gains which come from the projects.

  8. 1995 Fast Track: cost reduction and improvement.

    PubMed

    Panzer, R J; Tuttle, D N; Kolker, R M

    1997-01-01

    To respond to a cost reduction crisis, Strong Memorial Hospital implemented an aggressively managed program of accelerated improvement teams. "Fast-track" teams combined the application of many management tools (total quality management, breakthrough thinking, reengineering, etc.) into one problem-solving process. Teams and managers were charged to work on specific cost reduction strategies. Teams were given additional instruction on interpersonal skills such as communication, teamwork, and leadership. Paradoxically, quality improvement in our hospital was advanced more through this effort at cost reduction than had previously been done in the name of quality itself. PMID:10176411

  9. Methods and Strategies: Talk Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Lauren M.; Shanahan, Therese B.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how to promote oral language development through science. The authors describe how they incorporate academic "talk strategies" into science lessons in a nonintrusive and meaningful manner. These talk strategies are adapted from the "Avenues" (2007) curriculum for English learners (ELs), which gives examples of cooperative…

  10. The Background of PER People: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, Laura

    2006-12-01

    Data from a survey given to about 50 PER community members were analyzed to determine the backgrounds of the members. The type of college attended, the type of graduate school, when they chose physics, when they chose PER, and other interesting background information will be presented. Also presented will be gender analyses of background differences. Remarkably little difference in background was found between men and women in the sample.

  11. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.4 Background investigations. A tribe shall perform a background investigation for each primary management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation. (a) A...

  12. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.4 Background investigations. A tribe shall perform a background investigation for each primary management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation. (a) A...

  13. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.4 Background investigations. A tribe shall perform a background investigation for each primary management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation. (a) A...

  14. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.4 Background investigations. A tribe shall perform a background investigation for each primary management official and for each key employee of a gaming operation. (a) A...

  15. 25 CFR 556.4 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Background investigations. 556.4 Section 556.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GAMING LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES §...

  16. Cetacean Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Denise DelGrosso

    1991-01-01

    Suggested are activities about whales for children in schools not near the ocean. Activities designed to pique students' interest in whales and to investigate the size, breathing, buoyancy, and feeding strategies of whales are discussed. (CW)

  17. Constellation Program Flight Test Methodology and Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigil, Art; Rivas, Mauricio; Moses, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Main projects elements: a) Orion & Ares b) New & Modified heritage hardware. c) Shuttle retirement in 2010. Methodology: a) Flight test objectives. b) Risk reduction. Strategy a) Mapping Flight Test Objectives. b) Build incremental capability.

  18. How CEOs use management information systems for strategy implementation in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Hartmann, Frank

    2007-04-01

    Institutional and market changes seem to force hospitals across the Western world to revitalize their corporate strategies towards more cost efficiency on the one hand, and more flexibility towards customer demands on the other hand. Hospitals, however, apparently differ in the extent to which they are able to implement such strategies effectively. This paper explores whether these different levels of effectiveness depend on how hospitals' top managers' use of the available management information systems (MIS). Based on data obtained from the 218 CEOs of public hospitals in Spain, we analyze how CEOs' professional and educational backgrounds affect their use of MIS, and how the use of the MIS subsequently supports or inhibits the implementation of these strategic goals. The results indicate that CEOs with a predominant clinical background focus more on non-financial information for decision-making and prefer an interactive style of using MIS, which together support flexibility strategies. CEOs with a predominant administrative background seem more effective in establishing cost-reduction strategies, through their larger inclination to emphasize financial information in combination with a diagnostic use of the MIS. Implications for the strategic management of hospitals are outlined. PMID:16781001

  19. Data-driven estimations of Standard Model backgrounds to SUSY searches in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Legger, F.

    2008-11-23

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the strategy for the observation of supersymmetry in the early days is mainly based on inclusive searches. Major backgrounds are constituted by mismeasured multi-jet events and W, Z and t quark production in association with jets. We describe recent work performed in the ATLAS Collaboration to derive these backgrounds from the first ATLAS data.

  20. Acculturation and Religion in Schools: The Views of Young People from Minority Belief Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niens, Ulrike; Mawhinney, Alison; Richardson, Norman; Chiba, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the relationship between religious identity, acculturation strategies and perceptions of acculturation orientation in the school context amongst young people from minority belief backgrounds. Based on a qualitative study including interviews with 26 young people from religious minority belief backgrounds in Northern…

  1. A strategy for company improvement.

    PubMed

    Howley, L

    2000-03-01

    Strategies based on the kaizen methodology are designed to continuously improve company performance without the need for large capital investments. This article looks at how one company used simple kaizen principles to its advantage, achieving 67% increase in productivity and 10% reduction in the standard cost of product. PMID:10915491

  2. Replacement, reduction and refinement.

    PubMed

    Flecknell, Paul

    2002-01-01

    , especially when combined with the labyrinthine processes of the various regulatory authorities. The principle of Reduction would appear less contentious, but its application has highlighted the difficulties of providing appropriate expert statistical advice, especially in academic research facilities. In some instances, concern to implement Reduction strategies can result in the use of too few animals, which leads to inconclusive results, and wasteful experiments. It is in the area of Refinement, however, that major problems have arisen. Much of our judgement of what represents Refinement is based on little more than common sense. We make assumptions about animals and their feelings that often have little scientific basis. In many instances we may be correct, but these assumptions may become incorporated into institutional or national policies, without any attempt to verify them. To give an example - it is reasonable to assume that animals will experience pain after a surgical procedure, so pain-relieving drugs should be given to prevent this. We have some idea of the appropriate dose of analgesics for most animals, but effective pain relief requires that dose given is adjusted to meet the requirements of the individual animal. Requiring every animal to have the same dose of the same drug after any surgical procedure is not the best way of dealing with post-operative pain. Discussion of these problems should not detract from the very significant progress that has been made in the 40 or so years since Russell and Burch set out their guiding principles. What is needed now is greater academic focus on this area, not only to work on new methods of implementing the 3Rs, but also to disseminate current "Best Practice", and to revise this advice as further progress is made. PMID:12098013

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Chagas Disease Vector Control Strategies in Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Spillmann, Cynthia; Zaidenberg, Mario; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Control and prevention of Chagas disease rely mostly on residual spraying of insecticides. In Argentina, vector control shifted from a vertical to a fully horizontal strategy based on community participation between 1992 and 2004. The effects of such strategy on Triatoma infestans, the main domestic vector, and on disease transmission have not been assessed. Methods and Findings Based on retrospective (1993–2004) records from the Argentinean Ministry of Health for the Moreno Department, Northwestern Argentina, we performed a cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis and compared the observed CE of the fully horizontal vector control strategy with the expected CE for a vertical or a mixed (i.e., vertical attack phase followed by horizontal surveillance) strategy. Total direct costs (in 2004 US$) of the horizontal and mixed strategies were, respectively, 3.3 and 1.7 times lower than the costs of the vertical strategy, due to reductions in personnel costs. The estimated CE ratios for the vertical, mixed and horizontal strategies were US$132, US$82 and US$45 per averted human case, respectively. When per diems were excluded from the costs (i.e., simulating the decentralization of control activities), the CE of vertical, mixed and horizontal strategies was reduced to US$60, US$42 and US$32 per averted case, respectively. Conclusions and Significance The mixed strategy would have averted between 1.6 and 4.0 times more human cases than the fully horizontal strategy, and would have been the most cost-effective option to interrupt parasite transmission in the Department. In rural and dispersed areas where waning vertical vector programs cannot accomplish full insecticide coverage, alternative strategies need to be developed. If properly implemented, community participation represents not only the most appealing but also the most cost-effective alternative to accomplish such objectives. PMID:19156190

  4. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (Act), 42 U.S.C. 7701, et seq., as amended, directs the Federal government to establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to reduce the risks to life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699 implements certain provisions of...

  5. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (Act), 42 U.S.C. 7701, et seq., as amended, directs the Federal government to establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to reduce the risks to life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699 implements certain provisions of...

  6. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (Act), 42 U.S.C. 7701, et seq., as amended, directs the Federal government to establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to reduce the risks to life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699 implements certain provisions of...

  7. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (Act), 42 U.S.C. 7701, et seq., as amended, directs the Federal government to establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to reduce the risks to life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699 implements certain provisions of...

  8. 41 CFR 128-1.8001 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (Act), 42 U.S.C. 7701, et seq., as amended, directs the Federal government to establish and maintain an effective earthquake hazards reduction program to reduce the risks to life and property from future earthquakes. Executive Order 12699 implements certain provisions of...

  9. Perturbative double field theory on general backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Marques, Diego

    2016-01-01

    We develop the perturbation theory of double field theory around arbitrary solutions of its field equations. The exact gauge transformations are written in a manifestly background covariant way and contain at most quadratic terms in the field fluctuations. We expand the generalized curvature scalar to cubic order in fluctuations and thereby determine the cubic action in a manifestly background covariant form. As a first application we specialize this theory to group manifold backgrounds, such as S U (2 )≃S3 with H -flux. In the full string theory this corresponds to a Wess-Zumino-Witten background CFT. Starting from closed string field theory, the cubic action around such backgrounds has been computed before by Blumenhagen, Hassler, and Lüst. We establish precise agreement with the cubic action derived from double field theory. This result confirms that double field theory is applicable to arbitrary curved background solutions, disproving assertions in the literature to the contrary.

  10. IWRM and poverty reduction in Malawi: A socio-economic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Msosa, Hendrina K.

    Like most other countries in the SADC region, Malawi has swiftly endorsed the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. In the water sector, these principles are reflected in the National Water Policy (2004) and in the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) (2002) which emphasize three key aspects. First, the articulation of a vision and policy objectives that address development and management of water for productive purposes, conservation and poverty reduction. Second, the recognition of international and regional conventions and agreements on water resources to which Malawi is a signatory, thereby promoting global partnership for development. Third, the provision of mechanisms for monitoring, assessment and development related to watershed management, conservation and the mitigation of floods and droughts. Both the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and the National Water Policy seek to reduce poverty by increasing access to water for domestic and productive purposes. In particular, the MPRSP will focus on constructing and rehabilitating water facilities, extend water supply capacity, promote community-based management and improve water resources conservation and management. In this paper, we examine the challenges of implementing these goals against the background of various institutional reforms in the water sector. We argue that although Malawi has come up with very clear strategies and guidelines for promoting MDGs, a combination of human and financial resources, bedevil the successful implementation of these ideas. In addition, the strategies do not articulate water as a medium for poverty alleviation in a holistic manner. The paper further demonstrates ways in which the promotion of IWRM can facilitate in reducing poverty.

  11. The background for Skylab experiment T-002, manual navigation sightings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J.; Powers, S. W.

    1975-01-01

    The background of the NASA-DOD manual navigation experiment (T002) on Skylab A is reviewed with emphasis on NASA's development of an error model for sextant measurements in midcourse navigation and on USAF's development of a low earth orbit manual navigation scheme. Instruments briefly described are a space sextant and space stadimeter, both of which are used by USAF in orbit navigation, the sextant by NASA in midcourse sightings. The rationale, data requirements, and data reduction procedures are discussed in terms of the goals of the agencies.

  12. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

  13. Stray light analysis of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breault, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The straylight analysis of the diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) on the cosmic background explorer (COBE) mission is discussed. From the statement of work (SOW), the purpose of DIRBE is to measure, or set upper limits on, the spectral and spatial character of the diffuse extra galactic infrared radiation. Diffuse infrared sources within our own galaxy are measured. The required reduction of the unwanted radiation imposes severe design and operating restrictions on the DIRBE instrument. To accomplish its missions, it will operate at a multitude of wavelengths ranging from 1.25 um out to 200 to 300 microns. The operating bands and the required point source normalized irradiance transmittance (PSNIT) are shown. The important straylight concepts in the DIRBE design are reviewed. The model and assumptions used in APART analysis are explained. The limitations due to the scalar theory used in the analysis are outlined.

  14. Method and apparatus for background signal reduction in opto-acoustic absorption measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosengren, L. G. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The sensitivity of an opto-acoustic absorption detector is increased to make it possible to measure trace amounts of constituent gases. A second beam radiation path is created through the sample cell identical to a first path except as to length, alternating the beam through the two paths and minimizing the detected pressure difference for the two paths while the beam wavelength is tuned away from the absorption lines of the sample. Then with the beam wavelength tuned to the absorption line of any constituent of interest, the pressure difference is a measure of trace amounts of the constituent. The same improved detector may also be used for measuring the absorption coefficient of known concentrations of absorbing gases.

  15. Sharp Reduction in Black Child Poverty Due to Welfare Reform. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardue, Melissa G.

    This report asserts that welfare reform has been very successful in reducing child poverty. For a quarter-century prior to reform, black child poverty and poverty among single mothers remained virtually constant. Six years after reform, poverty among both groups dropped rapidly, reaching the lowest levels in U.S. history. Welfare rolls have…

  16. Polarization for Background Reduction in EDXRF - The Technique That Would Not Work

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, R W

    2002-07-24

    As with all electromagnet radiation, polarization of x-rays is a general phenomenon. Such polarization has been known since the classic experiments of Barkla in 1906. The general implementation of polarization to x-ray analysis had to await the fixed geometry of energy-dispersive systems. The means of optimizing these systems is shown in this review paper. Improved detection limits are the result.

  17. Cosmic ray neutron background reduction using localized coincidence veto neutron counting

    DOEpatents

    Menlove, Howard O.; Bourret, Steven C.; Krick, Merlyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to both the apparatus and method for increasing the sensitivity of measuring the amount of radioactive material in waste by reducing the interference caused by cosmic ray generated neutrons. The apparatus includes: (a) a plurality of neutron detectors, each of the detectors including means for generating a pulse in response to the detection of a neutron; and (b) means, coupled to each of the neutrons detectors, for counting only some of the pulses from each of the detectors, whether cosmic ray or fission generated. The means for counting includes a means that, after counting one of the pulses, vetos the counting of additional pulses for a prescribed period of time. The prescribed period of time is between 50 and 200 .mu.s. In the preferred embodiment the prescribed period of time is 128 .mu.s. The veto means can be an electronic circuit which includes a leading edge pulse generator which passes a pulse but blocks any subsequent pulse for a period of between 50 and 200 .mu.s. Alternately, the veto means is a software program which includes means for tagging each of the pulses from each of the detectors for both time and position, means for counting one of the pulses from a particular position, and means for rejecting those of the pulses which originate from the particular position and in a time interval on the order of the neutron die-away time in polyethylene or other shield material. The neutron detectors are grouped in pods, preferably at least 10. The apparatus also includes means for vetoing the counting of coincidence pulses from all of the detectors included in each of the pods which are adjacent to the pod which includes the detector which produced the pulse which was counted.

  18. Color gradient background-oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mier, Frank Austin; Hargather, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    Background-oriented schlieren is a method of visualizing refractive disturbances by comparing digital images with and without a refractive disturbance distorting a background pattern. Traditionally, backgrounds consist of random distributions of high-contrast color transitions or speckle patterns. To image a refractive disturbance, a digital image correlation algorithm is used to identify the location and magnitude of apparent pixel shifts in the background pattern between the two images. Here, a novel method of using color gradient backgrounds is explored as an alternative that eliminates the need to perform a complex image correlation between the digital images. A simple image subtraction can be used instead to identify the location, magnitude, and direction of the image distortions. Gradient backgrounds are demonstrated to provide quantitative data only limited by the camera's pixel resolution, whereas speckle backgrounds limit resolution to the size of the random pattern features and image correlation window size. Quantitative measurement of density in a thermal boundary layer is presented. Two-dimensional gradient backgrounds using multiple colors are demonstrated to allow measurement of two-dimensional refractions. A computer screen is used as the background, which allows for rapid modification of the gradient to tune sensitivity for a particular application.

  19. Color gradient background oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mier, Frank Austin; Hargather, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Background oriented schlieren (BOS) imaging is a method of visualizing refractive disturbances through the comparison of digital images. By comparing images with and without a refractive disturbance visualizations can be achieved via a range of image processing methods. Traditionally, backgrounds consist of random distributions of high contrast speckle patterns. To image a refractive disturbance, a digital image correlation algorithm is used to identify the location and magnitude of apparent pixel shifts in the background pattern. Here a novel method of using color gradient backgrounds is explored as an alternative. The gradient background eliminates the need to perform an image correlation between the two digital images, as simple image subtraction can be used to identify the location, magnitude, and direction of the image distortions. This allows for quicker processing. Two-dimensional gradient backgrounds using multiple colors are shown. The gradient backgrounds are demonstrated to provide quantitative data limited only by the camera's pixel resolution, whereas speckle backgrounds limit resolution to the size of the random pattern features and image correlation window size. Additional results include the use of a computer screen as a background.

  20. Why your practice must do background checks.

    PubMed

    Zupko, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Hiring qualified staff is critical for a medical practice. As many physicians have discovered, taking applicants' resumes on faith can be a mistake. Background company searches show that one in three applicants provide false, inaccurate, misleading, or incomplete information. Fake degrees, false licenses and certifications, and criminal histories are a few of the problems that a proper background check can reveal. This article describes further why background checks are essential, how to incorporate a background check into your hiring process, and some of the legalities involved in the process. PMID:17494489

  1. Measurement techniques for characterizing and using low background germanium detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, William H.; Wagner, Sanford E.

    1984-06-01

    An investigation has been undertaken to determine whether an order of magnitude background reduction from present typical cryostat-detector systems can be obtained through the use of low background components. In order to measure progress in this task, a standard, ten-centimeter lead shield was fitted with a five-centimeter, oxygen-free high-conductivity copper liner and a borated polyethylene neutron absorber. This reduced the contribution of uranium-238, thorium daughters, and radium daughters from the shield as seen by the detector by 1.3, 0.02, and 0.1 Bq respectively. The methodology of determining very low net photon peak areas in the presence of high continuum levels to assure maximum accuracy was verified and is presented. By these means the background activities of detectors are being measured at the -10 2 Bq per nuclide and detector component materials at the Bq per gram level, both with total uncertainties of less than 50% 1σ. The hardware and software developed is being used to measure the background activity of the detectors and for the analysis of low activity samples.

  2. Optically modulated fluorescence bioimaging: visualizing obscured fluorophores in high background.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Jablonski, Amy E; Dickson, Robert M

    2014-05-20

    improved slightly, SAFIRe yields up to 100-fold improved signal visibility by essentially removing obscuring, unmodulated background (Richards, C. I.; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 4619). While SAFIRe exhibits a wide, linear dynamic range, we have demonstrated single-molecule signal recovery buried within 200 nM obscuring dye. In addition to enabling signal recovery through background reduction, each dye exhibits a characteristic modulation frequency indicative of its photophysical dynamics. Thus, these characteristic time scales offer opportunities not only to expand the dimensionality of fluorescence imaging by using dark-state lifetimes but also to distinguish the dynamics of subpopulations on the basis of photophysical versus diffusional time scales, even within modulatable populations. The continued development of modulation for signal recovery and observation of biological dynamics holds great promise for studying a range of transient biological phenomena in natural environments. Through the development of a wide range of fluorescent proteins, organic dyes, and inorganic emitters that exhibit significant dark-state populations under steady-state illumination, we can drastically expand the applicability of fluorescence imaging to probe lower-abundance complexes and their dynamics. PMID:24725021

  3. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  4. [Potentiation strategies].

    PubMed

    Doumy, Olivier; Bennabi, Djamila; El-Hage, Wissam; Allaïli, Najib; Bation, Rémy; Bellivier, Frank; Holtzmann, Jérôme; Bubrovszky, Maxime; Camus, Vincent; Charpeaud, Thomas; Courvoisier, Pierre; d'Amato, Thierry; Garnier, Marion; Haesebaert, Frédéric; Bougerol, Thierry; Lançon, Christophe; Moliere, Fanny; Nieto, Isabel; Richieri, Raphaëlle; Saba, Ghassen; Courtet, Philippe; Vaiva, Guillaume; Leboyer, Marion; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Aouizerate, Bruno; Haffen, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    Lithium is among the most classically recommended add-on therapeutic strategy for the management of depressive patients showing unsuccessful response to standard antidepressant medications. The effectiveness of the add-on strategy with lithium requires achieving plasma levels above 0.5 mEq/L. Mood-stabilizing antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine, valproate derivatives or lamotrigine have not demonstrated conclusive therapeutic effects for the management of depressive patients showing unsuccessful response to standard antidepressant medications. Thyroid hormones are considered among the currently recommended add-on therapeutic strategy for the management of depressive patients showing unsuccessful response to standard antidepressant medications. The effectiveness of the add-on strategy with thyroid hormones requires achieving plasma concentration of TSH close to the lower limits at the normal range (0.4 μUI/L) or even below it. Second-generation antipsychotics such as aripiprazole or quetiapine have consistently demonstrated significant therapeutic effects for the management of depressive patients showing unsuccessful response to standard antidepressant medications. Second-generation antipsychotics however require the careful monitoring of both cardiovascular and metabolic adverse effects. PMID:26970936

  5. 10. View of cane mill with reduction gears and steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of cane mill with reduction gears and steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Concepcion, Sugar Mill Ruins, .3 Mi. W. of Junction of Rts. 418 & 111, Victoria, Agaudilla Municipio, PR

  6. Promoting Community Health Resources: Preferred Communication Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. Objective: A random-dialed telephone survey was conducted to assess health resource comm...

  7. OBIS: Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.; Richmond, Robert F.

    The Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) project began in 1972 to enable non-school youth groups (aged 10-15) to gain firsthand experiences in outdoor environments. This descriptive paper explains the program including its purpose and historical background. Specific objectives are to: (1) stimulate curiosity about local environments;…

  8. Successful Strategies for Teaching & Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges, Washington, DC. National Council of Instructional Administrators.

    Focusing on strategies for increasing student success in the community college, this monograph profiles winners of the National Council of Instructional Administrators (NCIA) exemplary program competition for 1994. First, background information on the competition is provided, indicating that it considers programs in three categories:…

  9. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  10. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  11. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  12. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  13. 47 CFR 215.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Background. 215.1 Section 215.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINT FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) INFORMATION § 215.1 Background. (a) The nuclear...

  14. 32 CFR 732.1 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Background. 732.1 Section 732.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE General § 732.1 Background. When a U.S. Navy or Marine Corps member or a Canadian Navy or Marine Corps...

  15. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Background investigations. 305.3 Section 305.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a...

  16. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Background investigations. 305.3 Section 305.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a...

  17. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Background investigations. 305.3 Section 305.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a...

  18. 22 CFR 305.3 - Background investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Background investigations. 305.3 Section 305.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS ELIGIBILITY AND STANDARDS FOR PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER SERVICE § 305.3 Background investigations. Section 22 of the Peace Corps Act states that to ensure enrollment of a...

  19. 32 CFR 770.54 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 770.54 Section 770.54 National... Hampshire § 770.54 Background. (a) Portsmouth Naval Shipyard maintains and operates facilities “to provide... assigned; to perform manufacturing, research, development, and test work, as assigned; and to...

  20. Child Care: State Requirements for Background Checks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnoni, Cynthia

    Background checks involve gathering information from state and federal databases to determine if child care providers have a history of child abuse or other criminal convictions that would make them unacceptable for working with children. Background checks include state criminal history checks, state child abuse registry checks, and Federal Bureau…